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Desempenho do gergelim em função da adubação NPK e do nível de fertilidade do solo / Sesame performance in function of NPK fertilizer and levels of soil fertility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do gergelim, em condições de safrinha, em doses crescentes de NPK e diferentes níveis de fertilidade do solo. Foram instalados dois experimentos: um em casa-de-vegetação e outro a campo. Em casa-devegetação, utilizou-se fatorial 6 x 2, distribuído em d [...] elineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O primeiro fator constou de seis doses do adubo 04:14:08; o segundo, de dois tipos de solo (baixa e alta fertilidade). O experimento a campo constou de seis tratamentos (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg ha-1 do adubo 04-20-10), distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A adubação com 04:14:08, quando em solo de baixa fertilidade, promoveu aumento na altura das plantas, desde o início até o final do ciclo, enquanto, em solo de alta fertilidade, as respostas foram evidenciadas apenas nos primeiros 43 dias de crescimento. A adubação ainda promoveu aumento no peso de matéria seca das hastes e das vagens, no número de vagens e na produção de grãos, em solo de baixa fertilidade, atingindo produção máxima de grãos na dose de 550 kg ha-1 do adubo 04:14:08. No campo, não houve resposta da adubação com relação à produção de matéria seca e rendimento de grãos cultivados na safrinha. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate sesame performance to NPK fertilizer and different levels of soil fertility. Two experiments were conducted: one in a greenhouse and another in field conditions. In the greenhouse, the study used a completely randomized design, in a 6 x 2 factorial scheme, [...] with four replications. The first factor was six fertilization levels of 04:14:08, and the second two soil types (low and high fertility). The experiment in field conditions used randomized blocks with 6 treatments (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1 of 04-20-10 fertilizer 04:20:10) and 4 replications. The fertilization with 04:14:08 in low fertility soil promoted greater height of the plants from the beginning until the end of the cycle, whereas in ground of high fertility responses were evident only in the first 43 days of growth. The fertilization resulted in an increase in sesame grain yield when cultivated in low fertility soil, reaching maximum values in the dose of 550 kg ha-1 of 04:14:08 fertilizer. In field conditions, there was no response from fertilization with respect to the dry matter and yield of sesame grains cultivated in second crop conditions.

Adriano, Perin; Danilo José, Cruvinel; José Waldemar da, Silva.

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Growth and Marketable Green Pod Yield Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum L. under Varying Levels of NPK Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available An Experiment to assess the effect of different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK on morphological traits of local pea variety was conducted at Vegetable Seed Farm ARI, Sariab, Quetta during the year 2000-2001. The fertilizer treatments comprised control, 25-0-0, 25-60-0, 25-0-60, 25-60-60, 50-0-0, 50-90-0, 50-0-90, 50-90-90, 75-0-0, 75-120-0, 75-0-120, and 75-120-120, Kg NPK/ 4m2 in a Randomized Complete Block Design. The maximum plant height (46.30 cm, number of branches per plant (5.60, number of pods per plant (33.10, pod length (8.49 cm, seed per pod (6.00, pod yield per plant (188.43 gms, total marketable green pod yield per plot (6.02 kg and per hectare yield (5.01 m.t, were recorded in treatment 75-120-120 or 75-120-0, Kg NPK ha -1, which displayed maximum green pod yield due to increase in pod per plant and pod length. It was further noted that an additional K did not increase the yield. Mean square attributable to treatment differed highly significant for all the quantitative traits showing the importance of fertilizer treatment in influencing morphological characteristics of pea plant.

A. A. Kakar

2002-01-01

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Effect of Different Levels of N.P.K Fertilizers on the Yield and Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L.  

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Full Text Available The data obtained revealed that maximum plant height (422 cm, number of flowers (532, number of fruits per tree (940, fruit length (19.11 cm and average fruit yield per tree (61.22 kg were recorded in 1.5-1.5-0.75 NPK kg/plant. Maximum plant girth (78 cm and maximum fruit weight (133.5 g was found in 1.5-0.75-00 NPK kg/plant. Whereas, maximum number of inflorescence/ shoot (23.7 was recorded in 00-00-00 NPK kg/plant.
Key words: Manqo, Manqifera indica, flowers, fruits, yield

Shakeel Ahmed

2001-01-01

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Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva e três níveis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10. Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacific apresentaram frutos com maior peso médio do que Flora-Dade, Max e Diva. O número de frutos por planta aumentou com a elevação do nível de adubação de 2,0 para 3,5 t/ha, enquanto que o peso médio de frutos diminuiu, sem alterar a produção. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciais aos níveis de adubação, em relação ao peso médio de frutos.The objective of this work was to study the effect of cultivar, NPK fertilization and the interaction on yield components of fresh market tomatoes. The experiment was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1995/96 season. Five cultivars (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific and Diva and three fertilization levels (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 t/ha of NPK (3.6-7.2-10 were used. The treatments were displayed under a factorial scheme, in a randomized complete block design, with three repetitions. Empire and Pacific cultivars showed higher average fruit weight than Flora-Dade, Max and Diva. The number of fruits per plant increased with the elevation of fertilization levels from 2.0 to 3.5 t/ha, while the average fruit weight diminished, without changing yield. The cultivars showed differential response to fertilization levels, in relation to average fruit weight.

Paulo Renato Z. Santos

2001-03-01

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Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada / Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS) no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva) e três nív [...] eis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha) de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10). Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacific apresentaram frutos com maior peso médio do que Flora-Dade, Max e Diva. O número de frutos por planta aumentou com a elevação do nível de adubação de 2,0 para 3,5 t/ha, enquanto que o peso médio de frutos diminuiu, sem alterar a produção. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciais aos níveis de adubação, em relação ao peso médio de frutos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the effect of cultivar, NPK fertilization and the interaction on yield components of fresh market tomatoes. The experiment was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1995/96 season. Five cultivars (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific and Diva) and three fertilization [...] levels (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 t/ha) of NPK (3.6-7.2-10) were used. The treatments were displayed under a factorial scheme, in a randomized complete block design, with three repetitions. Empire and Pacific cultivars showed higher average fruit weight than Flora-Dade, Max and Diva. The number of fruits per plant increased with the elevation of fertilization levels from 2.0 to 3.5 t/ha, while the average fruit weight diminished, without changing yield. The cultivars showed differential response to fertilization levels, in relation to average fruit weight.

Paulo Renato Z., Santos; Arione S., Pereira; Cláudio José S., Freire.

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Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. PMID:22868114

Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

2012-11-15

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Response of Rice Line PB-95 to Different NPK Levels  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the effect of applying N, P and K fertilizers at different rates and combinations on growth and yield of rice line PB-95. The fertilizer treatments comprised the T1 (control, T2 (0-75-75, T3 (60-75-75, T4(120-75-75, T5 (180-75-75, T6 (120-0-75, T7 (120-500-75, T8 (120-100-75, T9 (120-75-0, T10 ((120-75-50 and T11 (120-75-100 NPK kg ha-1. The results showed that application of NPK significantly increased the crop yield and maximum paddy and straw yield were obtained from plot fertilized @ 120-100-75 NPK kg ha-1. Harvest Index was highest at control, N physiological efficiency index and N fertilizer efficiency decreased with increasing N levels. Similarly, P physiological efficiency index decreased while P fertilizer efficiency increased with increasing P levels.

K.H. Awan

2003-01-01

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Use of polysulfone in controlled-release NPK fertilizer formulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Encapsulation of fertilizers in polymeric coatings is a method used to reduce fertilizer losses and to minimize environmental pollution. Polysulfone was used for a coating preparation for soluble NPK granular fertilizer in controlled-release fertilizer formulations. The coatings were formed by the phase inversion technique (wet method). The influence of the polymer concentration in the film-forming solution on the physical properties of the coatings was examined. The coating structure controls the diffusion of the elements from the interior of the fertilizer granule. It was experimentally confirmed that the use of polysulfone as a coating for a soluble fertilizer decreases the release rate of components. Moreover, the release rate of nutrients from coated granules decreases with the decrease of the coating porosity. In the case of coating with 38.5% porosity, prepared from 13.5% polymer solution after 5 h of test, 100% of NH(4)(+) was released, whereas only 19.0% of NH(4)(+) was released after 5 h for the coating with 11% porosity. In addition, coating of fertilizers leads to improvement of handling properties, and the crushing strength of all coated fertilizers was an average 40% higher than that for uncoated NPK fertilizer. PMID:12137488

Tomaszewska, Maria; Jarosiewicz, Anna

2002-07-31

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NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol Adubação NPK no crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em Neossolo Quartzarênico  

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Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x...

Patrícia Teixeira de Souza; Enilson de Barros Silva; Paulo Henrique Grazziotti; Luiz Arnaldo Fernandes

2011-01-01

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Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

2012-01-01

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Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate. A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³ was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per plot and double border rows. Treatments were composed of four rates of nitrogen (0 to 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, phosphorus (0 to 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and potassium (0 to 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1, applied in stripes and divided in five annual applications. The fertilizers used were: calcium nitrate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride. Plants were cultivated in a 2 × 1 m array, and periodically evaluated in relation to diameter of main stem, number of offshoots and percentage of plants with offshoots. In this sandy and low fertility soil, peach palm growth responses in relation to N and K amendments were linear and positive. Initial responses were observed three months after fertilizer application. No isolated effects of P fertilization, nor significant interactions among fertilizers were observed. Maximum growth responses were reached with 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1.

Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

2002-03-01

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Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK / Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93) em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP [...] (clima "Cfa"). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³), com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N), fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5) e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O), aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N) e potássio (K) e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P). As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare. Abstract in english Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27 [...] 'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate). A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³) was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per plot and double border rows. Treatments were composed of four rates of nitrogen (0 to 400 kg N ha-1 year-1), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1) and potassium (0 to 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1), applied in stripes and divided in five annual applications. The fertilizers used were: calcium nitrate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride. Plants were cultivated in a 2 × 1 m array, and periodically evaluated in relation to diameter of main stem, number of offshoots and percentage of plants with offshoots. In this sandy and low fertility soil, peach palm growth responses in relation to N and K amendments were linear and positive. Initial responses were observed three months after fertilizer application. No isolated effects of P fertilization, nor significant interactions among fertilizers were observed. Maximum growth responses were reached with 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1.

Marilene Leão Alves, Bovi; Gentil, Godoy Jr.; Sandra Heiden, Spiering.

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NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on the foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred.

Basso, C. (Empresa Catarinense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria S/A (Brazil)); Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia)

1983-01-01

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Controlled-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by polymeric membranes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The commercial granular fertilizer NPK6-20-30 was coated using polysulfone (PSF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and cellulose acetate (CA). The coatings were formed from the polymer solutions by the phase inversion technique. Measurements of the thickness and porosity of the prepared coatings and a microphotographic observation of the coatings were performed. The physical properties of the coatings influence the release rate of macronutrients which are present in the core of the coated fertilizer. In the case of PAN coating with 60.45% porosity, prepared from a 16% polymer solution, 100% of NH(4)(+) and P(2)O(5) was released after 4 h of test and 99.7% of K(+) after 5 h of test, whereas in the case of coating with 48.8% porosity, 31.8% of NH(4)(+), 16.7% of P(2)O(5), and 11.6% of K(+) was released after 5 h. In all experiments, different selectivities of the coatings in terms of the release of components were observed. The release of potassium through the coatings made of PSF and PAN was the slowest. The same tendency was observed for the release of nitrogen through a coating of CA. The release of fertilizer active components was the slowest in the case of PSF. The lowest porosity coating was prepared from the 18% PSF solution. PMID:12517104

Jarosiewicz, Anna; Tomaszewska, Maria

2003-01-15

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Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae  

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The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize ino...

Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Rogério Batista Santana; Cláudio Roberto Marciano

2012-01-01

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BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION  

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Full Text Available Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1 using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1 were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75% after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1% and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0% and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

G.R Tortella

2010-01-01

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BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinid [...] ol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity) in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1%) and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0%) and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

G.R, Tortella; O, Rubilar; M, Cea; C, Wulff; O, Martínez; M.C, Diez.

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Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.  

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Full Text Available Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient use efficiencies of newly formulated slow release NPK sources in turmeric during 2001-2002. These are recent introduction which are in the form of tablets, mixtures and coated ammonium phosphate, which contains all the three major nutrients in them, which were tested in comparison with conventional or standard fertilizer materials at three NPK levels viz., 75, 100 and 125% of recommended dose. The results indicated that nutrient use efficiencies viz., agronomic efficiency, apparent recovery and partial factor productivity were significantly enhanced by the application of tablet forms of NPK sources than other slow release forms as well as standard fertilizer materials.

R. Jagadeeswaran

2005-11-01

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Effects of Poultry Manure and NPK (23:10:5 Fertilizer on Tomato Variety Tanya Grown on Selected Soil of Morogoro Region, Tanzania  

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Full Text Available This study was convened because of low levels of tomato produced in soils of Tanzania with poor fertility status. It compared effects of poultry manure and NPK (23:10:5 fertilizer to the performance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Poultry manure was applied at 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1 and NPK fertilizer at 20, 40 and 80 kg ha-1. Results showed that the highest number of leaves (70 and shoot length (93 cm were recorded at 8 t ha-1 and lowest (46 and 57 cm, respectively at 2 t ha-1 of poultry manure. These variables were far small (18 and 55 cm, respectively for absolute control. In addition, 40 kg NPK ha-1 recorded the highest shoot length (91 cm and 20 kg NPK ha-1 lowest (60 cm. Many tomato fruits (31 were produced at 8 t ha-1 poultry manure compared with 22 in 40 kg NPK ha-1 and differed significantly (p-1 poultry manure, respectively, differed significantly (p-1, respectively, also differed significantly (p-1 and NPK (23:10:5 fertilizer at 40 kg ha-1 are sufficient for tomato plants but the former outweighs the latter.

Eliakira Kisetu

2014-01-01

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Flower Synchrony, Growth and Yield Enhancement of Small Type Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L. Through Plant Growth Regulators and NPK Fertilization  

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Full Text Available Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU. In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (?0.05 influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

Md. Yunus Miah

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The influence of Avadex BW on the yield and chemical composition of spring barley variety 'Aramir', with different NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available The combined influence of two doses of herbicide Avadex BW (3 and 6 l/ha and three levels of NPK fertilization on spring barley variety 'Aramir' was studied in a pot experiment. Only with the highest NPK dose, and only during the initial stage of vegetation the herbicide showed the phytotoxicity toward barley. Avadex BW manifested no significant effect on the yields of ,grain and straw. Increasing doses of N~P brought about significant yield increases of above-ground parts during shooting stage, and of the grain and straw in the final yield. Fertilization gave much more evident qualitative changes in barley than the herbicide. The latter increased Ca content in the straw and decreased that of potassium in the straw and grain.

Micha? P?oszy?ski

1980-06-01

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Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivat [...] ion and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

Oloyede, F.M.

23

Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil  

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Full Text Available he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to August 2009. Experimental design used was a factorial in a completely randomized design. The first factor was hucalci concentration, consisted of 10% (H1, 20% (H2, and 30% (H3. The second factor was zeolite concentration, consisted of 25% (Z1, 50% (Z2, 75% (Z3, and 100% (Z4. NPK fertilizer (without coating used as a control. The results showed that hucalci and zeolite had a capability to increase water adsorption and to retard the release of N, P, K. The coated NPK with hucalci 30% and zeolite 100% had the highest quality in water absorption, water retention and release of nutrients.

Sulakhudin

2011-05-01

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Growth and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. as Influenced by Combined Application of Cowdung and NPK Fertilizer in Ogoja, Southeastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 1990 and 1991 sowing seasons at the University of Cross River State Teaching and Research Farm, Ogoja campus, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of soybean under diverse soil fertility levels. The findings suggest that combined use of Cowdung and NPK appears a better option.

Ndaeyo, N.

2000-01-01

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Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK  

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There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the State of São Paulo (Agudos county). The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 16...

Ademar Spironello; José Antonio Quaggio; Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira; Pedro Roberto Furlani; José Maria Monteiro Sigrist

2004-01-01

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NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol / Adubação NPK no crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em Neossolo Quartzarênico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A adubação balanceada é importante para o crescimento das plantas. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) é uma espécie sobre a qual as informações são escassas, sendo muito recentes ensaios com adubação. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em respost [...] a às doses de NPK em casa de vegetação em um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, bem como estimar os níveis críticos de P e K no solo e de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea até 120 dias de avaliação. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema de fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4)½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições, totalizando 96 parcelas experimentais, sendo as doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 300 mg dm-3) na forma de ureia; as de P (0, 45, 90 e 180 mg dm-3), na forma de superfosfato triplo; e as de K (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg dm-3), na forma de cloreto de potássio. Após 120 dias, as plantas foram colhidas e as seguintes variáveis avaliadas: altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, teor de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e atributos químicos do solo. As mudas de pinhão-manso responderam à adubação NPK na fase de inicial de crescimento; a resposta para o N foi negativa, sem a necessidade de aplicação desse nutriente. A dose recomendada foi de 55 mg dm-3 de P e 67 mg dm-3 de K. Os níveis críticos, correspondentes às doses recomendadas, foram de 13 mg dm-3 para P e 74 mg dm-3 para K no solo (Mehlich-1). Os teores de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de pinhão-manso foram de 37,4, 2,1 e 35,3 g kg-1, respectivamente. Abstract in english Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a [...] greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x 4 x 4)½, totalizing 32 treatments with three replicates, 96 experimental plots and N rates (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg dm-3) as urea; P rates (0, 45, 90 and 180 mg dm-3) as triple superphosphate and K rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3) as potassium chloride. After 120 days, the plants were harvested and some variables evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, macro and micronutrient levels in plant shoots, and soil chemical properties. The physic nut seedlings responded to NPK fertilizer in the initial growth phase; the response to N was negative. The recommended P and K rates were 25 and 67 mg dm-3, respectively. The critical levels, corresponding to the recommended P rate were 13 and 74 mg dm-3 for K in soil (Mehlich-1). The N, P and K levels in the shoot dry matter of physic nut were 37.4, 2.1 and 35.7 g kg-1, respectively.

Souza, Patrícia Teixeira de; Silva, Enilson de Barros; Grazziotti, Paulo Henrique; Fernandes, Luiz Arnaldo.

27

NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol Adubação NPK no crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em Neossolo Quartzarênico  

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Full Text Available Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x 4 x 4½, totalizing 32 treatments with three replicates, 96 experimental plots and N rates (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg dm-3 as urea; P rates (0, 45, 90 and 180 mg dm-3 as triple superphosphate and K rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3 as potassium chloride. After 120 days, the plants were harvested and some variables evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, macro and micronutrient levels in plant shoots, and soil chemical properties. The physic nut seedlings responded to NPK fertilizer in the initial growth phase; the response to N was negative. The recommended P and K rates were 25 and 67 mg dm-3, respectively. The critical levels, corresponding to the recommended P rate were 13 and 74 mg dm-3 for K in soil (Mehlich-1. The N, P and K levels in the shoot dry matter of physic nut were 37.4, 2.1 and 35.7 g kg-1, respectively.A adubação balanceada é importante para o crescimento das plantas. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L. é uma espécie sobre a qual as informações são escassas, sendo muito recentes ensaios com adubação. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em resposta às doses de NPK em casa de vegetação em um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, bem como estimar os níveis críticos de P e K no solo e de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea até 120 dias de avaliação. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema de fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições, totalizando 96 parcelas experimentais, sendo as doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 300 mg dm-3 na forma de ureia; as de P (0, 45, 90 e 180 mg dm-3, na forma de superfosfato triplo; e as de K (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg dm-3, na forma de cloreto de potássio. Após 120 dias, as plantas foram colhidas e as seguintes variáveis avaliadas: altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, teor de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e atributos químicos do solo. As mudas de pinhão-manso responderam à adubação NPK na fase de inicial de crescimento; a resposta para o N foi negativa, sem a necessidade de aplicação desse nutriente. A dose recomendada foi de 55 mg dm-3 de P e 67 mg dm-3 de K. Os níveis críticos, correspondentes às doses recomendadas, foram de 13 mg dm-3 para P e 74 mg dm-3 para K no solo (Mehlich-1. Os teores de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de pinhão-manso foram de 37,4, 2,1 e 35,3 g kg-1, respectivamente.

Patrícia Teixeira de Souza

2011-04-01

28

Bioremediation in Mangrove Sediments Impacted by Oil Using Two Types of Fertilizers NPK and OSMOCOTE, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Bioremediation is a technique applied to several environmental impacts, among which the ones generated by petroleum derivatives, through the introduction of microorganisms into the environment, or creating optimal conditions for them to develop. The present study aimed to evaluate the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons through the biostimulation technique in the mangrove sediment impacted by petroliferous activities, testing the potentiality of two fertilizers (NPK and OSMOCOTE as accelerating agents of the biodegradation of petroleum components, under experimental conditions. In order to understand the bioremediation process it was used the quantification of nutrient contents, the percent of saturated, aromatic and NSO hydrocarbons, and the behavior of saturated compounds along the entire experiment, besides the monitoring of physical and chemical parameters. Chromatographic profiles characterized a major degradation of saturated hydrocarbons at the units with NPK, presenting a better efficiency of this fertilizer in the tested biostimulation process.

Danusia Ferreira Lima

2012-10-01

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Effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on total antioxidant capacity of soil and amaranth leaves (Amaranthus cruentus L.  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was set up in 2007 in a split-plot design to investigate the effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of fresh leaf tissue of the Polish amaranth varieties Rawa and Aztek, cultivated for seed, and of the soil they were cultivated on. The experiment was conducted with three replicates. The following combinations of macroelement doses were applied: I: N – 50 , P – 40, K – 40 kg ha-1; II: N – 90, P – 60, K – 60 kg ha-1; and III: N – 130, P – 70, K – 70 kg ha-1. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC of the soil and amaranth leaves was determined using the method described by Rice-Evans and Miller, as modified by Bartosz. Organic carbon content was determined as well. In most of the cases the fertilization (NPK caused an increase in total antioxidant capacity of the soil under amaranth cultivation. The highest total antioxidant capacity in the soil examined (compared with the control was found with combination III of NPK fertilizers for soil under Rawa cultivation, and with combination I for the Aztek soil. The total antioxidant capacity of amaranth per unit fresh leaf mass was dependent on the variety and on the doses of the macroelements applied. The highest total antioxidant capacity in Rawa per unit fresh leaf mass was observed with combination III, while for the Aztek variety the highest TAC was found with combination I. Statistical analysis showed significant dependencies between TAC of the soils and leaves and the level of fertilization, as well as between the TAC of the soil and of amaranth leaves.

2009-03-01

30

Bioremediation in Mangrove Sediments Impacted by Oil Using Two Types of Fertilizers NPK and OSMOCOTE, Brazil  

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Bioremediation is a technique applied to several environmental impacts, among which the ones generated by petroleum derivatives, through the introduction of microorganisms into the environment, or creating optimal conditions for them to develop. The present study aimed to evaluate the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons through the biostimulation technique in the mangrove sediment impacted by petroliferous activities, testing the potentiality of two fertilizers (NPK and OSMOCOTE) as acceler...

Danusia Ferreira Lima; Olívia Maria Cordeiro Oliveira; Manoel Jeronimo Moreira Cruz; Jorge Alberto Triguis; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando S.

2012-01-01

31

Effect of NPK fertilizer on yield of tea  

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An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various dosage of fertilizer on yield of mature tea and to determine the nutrient concentrations in tea soils and leaves under different dosage. The standard clone TV-1 was taken into consideration in three different agro-climatic zones of Assam. Total eight treatments were imposed in the trial along with normal fertilizer dose. Although T6 (50% excess of normal dose ie. 195 kg Nitrogen, 60 kg phosphate and 195 kg Potassium per hectare per ye...

2005-01-01

32

Effect of Different Npk Levels on the Growth and Yield of Three Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties  

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Three different Onion varieties i.e. Faisalabad Early, Phulkara and Shah Alam were compared at different NPK levels. Varieties, NPK levels and their interaction significantly affected plant height, leaf length, number of leaves per plant bulb diameter, marketable yield and total yield per hectare. Shah Alam variety at the fertilizer level of 150:100:50 NPK kg ha-1 gave the best results with regard to number of leaves per plant (17.57), bulb survival (93.53%), bulb diameter (7.40 cm...

Abdul Ghaffoor; Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Ghulam Khaliq; Kashif Waseem

2003-01-01

33

Acúmulo de NPK e sódio na mamoneira sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada / Accumulation of NPK and sodium in castor bean under saline stress and nitrogen fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com água de diferentes salinidades e doses de nitrogênio, sobre a acumulação de NPK e sódio na parte aérea da mamoneira, em experimento conduzido em lisímetros. Utilizou-se aleatorização em bloco em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com três rep [...] etições, estudando-se os cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água (CEa), variando de 0,4 a 4,4 dS m-1, associados a cinco doses de nitrogênio (50 a 150% da recomendada). Os teores de NPK e de sódio na cv. BRS Energia foram maiores nas folhas que no caule e entre as épocas de avaliação, aos 120 dias após a semeadura (DAS) em relação aos 46 DAS. Nas folhas os teores acumulados aos 46 DAS, variou na sequência K > Na > N > P e aos 120 DAS K > N > Na > P; enquanto no caule variaram em ambas as épocas, a ordem foi Na > K > P ? N e em função da CEa e K> Na> P ? N em função das doses de N aos 46 DAS níveis crescentes de CEa promoveram aumento no teor de Nfolha e Kfolha assim como o incremento da adubação com N inibiu o teor de Na folha; aos 120 DAS o maior teor de Nfolha foi obtido com a CEa de 4,4 dS m-1 e a dose de N de 150%, já o teor de Kfolha e Kcaule foi obtido na dose de 150% de N enquanto o teor de P não foi influenciado por nenhum fator estudado. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water of different salinities and doses of nitrogen fertilization on accumulation of NPK and sodium in the aerial parts of the castor bean, the experiment was conducted in lysimeters. A randomized block design in 5 x 5 factorial ar [...] rangement with three replications was used, and the effects of electrical conductivity of water (ECw) varying from 0.4 to 4.4 dS m-1 associated with nitrogen dose (50 to 150% of recommended dose) were studied. The NPK and sodium contents in the aerial parts of to plant in the leaves in comparison to stems and evaluation times 120 days after sowing (DAS) > 46 DAS. In leaves the content at 46 DAS varied according to following sequence K > Na > N > P and at 120 DAS K > N > Na > P while in the stem in both study periods it accumulated in the order Na > K > P ? N under water salinity and K > Na > P ? N depending on nitrogen fertilization. At 46 DAS, the increasing levels of ECw caused an increase in the Nleaf and Kleaf and nitrogen dose inhibited Na leaf content. At 120 DAS the highest content of Nleaf was obtained in treatment ECw 4.4 dS m-1 and in dose of 150% N while the contents of Kleaf and Kstem were obtained in the dose of 150% N. The P content was not affected by any of the studied factors.

Nobre, Reginaldo G.; Soares, Lauriane A. dos A.; Gheyi, Hans R.; Lima, Geovani S. de; Lourenço, Givanildo da S.; Soares, Saulo da S..

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Flower Synchrony, Growth and Yield Enhancement of Small Type Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Through Plant Growth Regulators and NPK Fertilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3

Baset Mia, M. A.; Md. Serajul Islam; Md. Yunus Miah; Das, M. R.; Khan, H. I.

2014-01-01

35

Effect of Different NPK Levels on the Growth and Yield of Kohlrabi (Brassica caulorapa L.) at Northern Areas of Pakistan  

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Effect of seven different NPK levels on the growth and yield of Kohlrabi was investigated. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied alone as well as in various combinations and had a significant effect on various plant growth and yield parameters. Maximum tuber weight (430.80 g) tuber diameter (10.23 cm), number of leaves per plant (14.38) and tuber yield (25850 kg ha-1) was recorded in plots fertilized with 160-120-160 kg NPK ha-1. It can be concluded that NPK @ ...

Sher Ahmed; Fayaz Ahmed; Faridullah; Munir Hussain

2003-01-01

36

A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles  

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Full Text Available The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release systems. However, there are no attempts to explore the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as controlled release for NPK fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of NPK fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and zeta-potential. The FTIR results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements N, P and K. The stability of the CS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of nitrogen and potassium than with the addition of phosphorus, due to the higher anion charge from the calcium phosphate than the anion charges from the potassium chloride and urea. The mean diameter increase of the CS-PMAA nanoparticles in suspension with the addition of different compounds indicated that the elements are being aggregated on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles.

2010-08-01

37

Impact of commercial garden growth substratum and NPK-fertilizer on copper fractionation in a copper-mine tailing  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic amendment and NPK-fertilizer could affect the distribution of copper (Cu) among Cu-mine tailing compounds and hence the availability or phytotoxicity of Cu to plants. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the forms of Cu in a Cu-mine tailing (pH 7.70) amended with a commercial garden growth substratum (GGS) containing peat moss and natural mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) in combination with a commercial NPK-fertilizer (20-20-20), by a sequential extraction method. There were eight treatments after the combination of four rates of GGS (0, 12.4, 50 and 100 g/kg tailing) and two rates of fertilizer (0 and 20 g/kg tailing). At the end of a 52-week incubation period, tailing Cu was sequentially extracted to fractionate Cu into five operationally defined geochemical forms, namely ‘water-soluble' (Cu-sol), ‘exchangeable' (Cu-exc), ‘specifically adsorbed on carbonates or carbonate-bound' (Cu-car), ‘organic-bound' (Cu-org) and ‘residual' (Cu-res) fractions. After treatments, the most labile Cu pool (Cu-sol + Cu-exc) represented about 0.94 % of the total Cu, the Cu-car and Cu-org accounted for 22.7 and 5.0% of total Cu, and the residual Cu accounted for nearly 71.3% of total Cu. Compared with the control, the application of GGS decreased Cu-car and increased CuORG whereas the addition of fertilizer increased Cu-sol + Cu-exc and decreased Cu-carb. Fertilizer-treated tailings had the highest amount of Cu-sol + Cu-exc. High rates of GGS resulted in Cu-org levels in GGS-treated tailings which were more than 2.0-2.8 times those obtained in the untreated tailing (control). The partition of Cu in GGS-treated tailings followed the order: Cu-sol + Cu-exc < Cu-car < Cu-org < Cu-res. This study suggests that NPK-fertilizer promotes the formation of labile Cu forms in the calcite-containing Cu-mine tailing. GGS in the tailing matrix acts as effective sorbent for Cu.

Charles, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

2009-04-01

38

Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m"2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

1994-01-01

39

Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m[sup 2] frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

1994-01-01

40

ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES  

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Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

Marcos Roberto Murbach

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
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INFLUENCE OF COMPOST, MICROORGANISMS AND NPK FERTILIZER UPON GROWTH, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L.  

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Full Text Available The performance of compost and microorganisms was compared with standard, commercial rates of NPK fertilizers with respect to the growth, chemical composition and essential oil production of Rosmarinus officinalis L. In two successive seasons, plants treated by a mixture of compost and microorganisms showed a significant increase in vegetative growth, total N, P and carbohydrate content and essential oil production. The findings clearly indicate that compost and microorganisms could replace conventional NPK fertilizers in the cultivation of rosemary, and consequently minimize environmental pollution by these compounds.

Robert POKLUDA

2007-08-01

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Unmarketable Tuber Yield and Other Agronomic Parameters of Four Varieties of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) as Influenced by NPK Fertilizer Rate and Type of Seed Tuber at Samaru, Nigeria  

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This research was initiated with the aim at finding varieties of Potato that can respond to graded levels of NPK fertilizer and form of seed tuber. The treatments tested consist of four rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 300, 600 and 900 kg ha-1), two forms of seed tuber (whole and cut-tubers) and four varieties of Irish potato (Greta, Nicola, RC 767-2 and WC 732-1). A split-plot design was used in which the factorial combinations of fertilizer rate and form of seed tuber were assi...

Babaji, B. A.; Amans, E. B.; Chiezey, U. F.; Falak, A. M.; Tanimu, B.; Mukhtar, A. A.

2009-01-01

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Comparative Effect of City Finished Compost and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Availability of Phosphorus to Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)  

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A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the comparative effect of city finished compost and NPK fertilizer on the growth and availability of phosphorus to radish (Raphanus sativus L.). An air dried sandy loam soil was mixed with five rates of city finished compost (CFC) equivalent to 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 ton ha–1 and three rates of NPK fertilizer equivalent to 50% (N-P-K = 69-16-35 kg ha–1), 100% (N-P-K = 137-32-70 kg ha–1<...

Ashoka Sarker; Md. Abul Kashem; Khan Towhid Osman

2012-01-01

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Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower as Affected by Various NPK Levels  

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Field experiment was conducted to determine N, P and K requirements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown under Bahawalpur irrigated conditions on medium heavy loam soil. Four levels of N (0,60,120,180 kg NPK ha-1) four levels of P2O5 (0,30,60,90 kg NPK ha-1) and four levels of K2O ( 0,60,120,180 kg NPK ha-1) in combinations were put to test. Data collected on seed yield and yield components were subjected to standar...

Nazakat Nawaz; Sarwar, G.; Yousaf, M.; Naseeb, T.; Amir Ahmad; Shah, M. J.

2003-01-01

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EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH OF SAPROPHYTIC FUNGI IN ALLUVIAL SOIL  

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Full Text Available The influence of different NPK fertilizer rates on the developement of the saprophytic fungi of the alluvial soil planted with plum culture has been studied over the three-year period (2003 – 2005. The trial was set up in the experimental plum orchard established by Fruit Research Institute ?a?ak (Serbia and at the laboratory of Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agronomy ?a?ak (Serbia. The soil was treated with 8:16:24 + 3% of MgO mineral fertilizer in the following treatment variants: variant N1 – 400 kgha-1; variant N2 – 600 kgha-1; variant N3 – 800 kgha-1 and variant N4 –1000 kgha-1, all treatment variants being applied in three replications. Unfertilized soil served as the control. The size of the trial plot was 68 m2. The effect of the studied mineral fertilizer rates was determined three times over the growing season. It was checked by identification of the number of saprophytic fungi by the indirect rarefaction method on Czapek nutritive medium. The results of the study suggested that the number of the saprophytic fungi varied by different fertilizer rates, periods of sampling and years of study. The application of fertilizers brought about increase in the number of the saprophytic fungi. Of all studied treatment variants, the one with highest nitrogen rate (variant N4 exhibited the strongest effect. The influence of the applied fertilizer was highest over the third sampling period. Furthermore, the effect thereof was highest in 2003. The application of 600 kgha-1 of mineral fertilizer resulted in the highest plum yield.

Marijana PEŠAKOVI?

2010-06-01

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NPK, protein content and yield of broccoli as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and phosphorus fertilizer rates  

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Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre sowing-seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and different phosphorus fertilizer application rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 k P2O5 /fed) on NPK content of leaves and spear, and protein content in spears at maturity, spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant and total spear yield. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by exposing broccoli seeds to 3 Gy. There were non-significant differences between 3 and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on the studied parameters, increasing phosphorus application rates up to 90 kg P2O5/fed increased the above mentioned parameters. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by applying 90 kg P2O5/fed. The interaction, gamma ray and P level showed phosphorus there were significant differences in main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear yield and spear diameter in first season. The highest value was obtained by 3 Gy and 90 kg P2O5/fed. Also there were significant effects on NPK content in broccoli leaves at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) except P in second season and nonsignificant values of broccoli spear at harvest except N, K in first season. The highest protein content of broccoli spears at harvest was obtained with 2 Gy and 30 kg P25/fed

2005-01-01

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Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications  

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Full Text Available Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1, respectively. Sucrose contents and commercial cane sugar were not affected significantly by fertilizer application. However, variety SPSG-26 gave significantly higher sucrose contents (18.82 % and commercial cane sugar (12.89 % than SPSG-394 and BL-4. The fertilizer application @ 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 was found to be optimum level for achieving maximum cane yield.

M. Ayub

1999-01-01

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Efeito da adubação NPK sobre o período de imaturidade da seringueira / Effect of NPK fertilization on the immature phase of rubber tree  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] à adubação NPK visando recomendá-la no período de formação dos seringais. Relata os resultados do experimento em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico no município de M [...] atão (SP). O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O. Até 104 meses de idade das plantas, avaliaram-se o perímetro do caule 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal, efetuando-se análises de solo e folhas em diversas épocas. Observou-se, a partir de 24 meses de idade, pouco mais de um ano depois do início das aplicações efeito linear da adubação potássica sobre o perímetro do caule e, a partir de de 48 meses, com freqüência, a interação NK linear. Usando como indicador de desenvolvimento a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para K e, em algumas poucas épocas, também paraN. O período de imaturidade, apesar de afetado significativamente apenas pela adubação potássica, mostrou-se dependente do equilíbrio dos nutrientes. Adubações desequilibradas podem retardar até em 15 meses o tempo de imaturidade, comparando-se os melhores e os piores tratamentos. Na ausência de adubação potássica, verificou-se um efeito antagônico dos nutrientes N e P. Adubações potássicas foram essenciais para garantir a antecipação do início da fase produtiva. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] to NPK fertilization in order, to improve fertilizer recommendation during the immature phase of this crop. It reports the results obtained from an experiment conducted on [...] a podzolic soil at Matão, State of São Paulo, Brazil. It was a randomized block design in a fractionated factorial experiment 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) using 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 of N, P2O5 e K2O. Fertilizers were applied every year starting eight months after planting. During the experimental period evaluations of trunk girth 1.20 m above the budgrafting union was measured at each four months. The percentage of plants able for tapping and the period of immaturity were calculated from girth measurements. Soil and plant analysis were performed at several ages. Plant responses to potassium fertilizations were observed starting at 24 months of plant age. Linear NK interaction was frequently observed after 48 months of plant age. Considering the percentage of plants able for tapping, responses were linearly and statistically significant for K fertilization, while N responses were observed in some ocasions. The immaturity period of the crop was significantly affected only by K fertilizers. Besides of this observation, the analysis of the response surface showed that the immaturity period was very dependent on equilibrated relations among nutrients. Unbalanced relations of NPK can delay up to 15 months the beginning of tapping, considering differences between the best and worst treatments. In the absence of K fertilization there was an antagonistic effect of N and P. Potassium fertilization was essential to reduce the immaturity period.

ONDINO CLEANTE, BATAGLIA; WAGNER RODRIGUES DOS, SANTOS; PAULO DE SOUZA, GONÇALVES; IVO, SEGNINI JUNIOR; MÁRIO, CARDOSO.

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Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Cowdung in Combination with Foliar Spray of Chemicals on Jute Fibre  

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Full Text Available The experiment was performed in the experimental land of the Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi during the period of April-May, 2007 and 2008. The physical and chemical characteristics of jute fibre under different foliar treatments were investigated at mature stage. The results showed significantly increase in most of the chemical composition under different foliar treatments. Moisture content, dry matter and ash contents of jute fibre obtained from experimental land compared to those of control jute fibre after application of NPK-fertilizers and cowdung in combination with foliar spray. The moister content of jute fibre decreased whereas ash content increased significantly under different treatments. The moisture and ash contents of jute fibre were varied between 12 to 14% and 0.5 to 0.7%, respectively. On the other hand the dry matter content of jute fibre increased slightly under different treatments. The aqueous extract, fatty and waxy matter, pectic matter, ?-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin contents and tensile strength of jute fibre as compared to those of control were as follows: The maximum increase of aqueous extract 20.65% (treatment T2, the maximum increase of fatty and waxy 22.54% (treatment T2, pectic matter 5.49% (treatment T6, ?-cellulose 61%, hemicellulose 29%, lignin contents 7.29% (treatment T6 and tensile strength 15.55%.

N. Absar

2010-01-01

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Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK / Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distri [...] buídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF), colmos (MSC) e total (MST), teor de proteína bruta (PB), N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan [...] Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic Red Yellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY) evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP) and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães, Teles; Maria Socorro de Souza, Carneiro; Ismail, Soares; Elzania Sales, Pereira; Pedro Zione de, Souza; João Avelar, Magalhães.

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Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels  

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Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

2013-02-01

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Yield Performance of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Barimung-4 as Influenced by Rhizobium Inoculation and NPK Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Regional Agricultural Research Station of Barisal, Bangladesh during the Kharif season of the year 2000 to find the optimum fertilizer rate for summer mungbean cv. Barimung-4 in an attempt to maximize the yield potential. In this regard, various combinations of NPK fertilizers and Rhizobium inoculation (N20P40K20 kg ha?1, P40K20 kg ha?1, N20K20 kg ha?1, N20P40 kg ha?1, N20 kg ha???1, Rhizobium + P40K20 kg ha?1, Rhizobium, and control were imposed to the experimental plots. Results revealed that Barimung-4 produced the maximum seed (1270.21 kg ha?1 and straw yields (2434.36 kg ha?1 when the crop was fertilized with N20P40K20 kg ha?1 followed by Rhizobium + P40K20 kg ha?1 (1220.30 and 2406.14 kg ha?1, respectively. The lowest seed and straw yields were obtained from the control (887.01 and 1864.68 kg ha?1, respectively. Different plant characteristics such as plant height, branches/plant, pods/plant, pod length, seeds/pod, 1000-seed weight and harvest index increased significantly due to the application of various combinations of NPK fertilizers and Rhizobium inoculation over the control.

M.A. Rahman

2002-01-01

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Unmarketable Tuber Yield and Other Agronomic Parameters of Four Varieties of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. as Influenced by NPK Fertilizer Rate and Type of Seed Tuber at Samaru, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This research was initiated with the aim at finding varieties of Potato that can respond to graded levels of NPK fertilizer and form of seed tuber. The treatments tested consist of four rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 300, 600 and 900 kg ha-1, two forms of seed tuber (whole and cut-tubers and four varieties of Irish potato (Greta, Nicola, RC 767-2 and WC 732-1. A split-plot design was used in which the factorial combinations of fertilizer rate and form of seed tuber were assigned to the main plots while the varieties occupied the sub-plots. The treatments were replicated three times. Varieties Nicola and RC 767-2 had the heaviest and least leaf and stem dry weights, respectively. Nicola, RC 767-2 and WC 732-1 produced more tubers and unmarketable tuber yield than Greta. Greta and RC 767-2 produced larger tubers than Nicola and WC 732-1. The highest NPK rate of 900 kg ha-1 resulted in the heaviest leaf and stem. Optimum tuber number and size was attained at the higher fertilizer rate of 600 kg ha-1. Further increase above 600 kg NPK ha-1 depressed tuber number and tuber weight in 1997/98 and tuber size in 1998/99. The same 600 kg NPK ha-1 recorded the least unmarketable tuber yield. None of the factor measured was affected by type of seed tuber. In conclusion RC 767-2 had the highest plant dry weights as well as more tubers and unmarketable tuber yield that were comparable to that of Nicola and WC 732-1. Greta and RC 767-2 had larger tubers than the other two varieties. The plant dry weights were optimized at 900 kg NPK ha-1 while more tubers of larger size were maximized at 600 kg NPK ha-1. The medium NPK rate of 600 kg ha-1 had least unmarketable tuber yield. Planting of either whole or cut tuber sett did not affect any of the parameter.

B.A. Babaji

2009-01-01

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Manejo da cultura do híbrido de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN : 01 para melhoria na qualidade do fruto com menor aplicação de adubação NPK Management of the papaya crop of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN : 01 of 'Formosa' group for fruit quality improvement and less NPK fertilizer application  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de alguns aspectos do manejo da cultura do mamoeiro como espaçamento e nível de adubação NPK, sobre alguns atributos de qualidade dos frutos do híbrido do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., em Linhares-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,70 m, cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão da empresa (PE; A2 = 100% PE; A3 = 120% PE; A4 = 140% PE, e A5 = 160% PE, e três períodos de avaliação (junho, agosto e outubro de 2007. O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa (PE consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N, superfosfato simples (18% de P2O5 e cloreto de potássio (60% de K2O, respectivamente. Foram analisados a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a concentração de sólidos solúveis (SS, o pH, a acidez titulável (AT e a razão SS/AT da polpa. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de médias. Os resultados mostram que, entre as condições de espaçamento e níveis de adubação NPK testados, o melhor desempenho foi obtido pelas combinações E1A1 ou E2A1, os quais devem ser adotadas para o manejo do híbrido UC01. Os tratamentos resultaram em frutos com atributos de qualidade superiores, além de proporcionar redução nos gastos com adubação NPK e menor impacto ambiental em função da aplicação excessiva de adubo no solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of some aspects of the management of the crop as spacing and level of NPK fertilizer application on some quality attributes of fruits of the papaya hybrid of 'Formosa' group UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01. The experiment was conducted in the farm Caliman Agrícola S.A., in Linhares -E. S. We used the randomized complete block design, with factorial arrangement, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m; E3 = 2,70 m, five levels of conventional NPK (A1 = 80% of the company's standard; A2 = 100% of the standard; A3 = 120% of the standard; A4 = 140% of the standard; and A5 = 160% of the standard and three evaluation periods (June, August and October 2007. The standard NPK fertilizer company consists of 350, 105 and 660 kg/ha/year of ammonium sulphate (20% of N, superphosphate (18% of P and potassium chloride (60% of K, respectively. We evaluated the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the concentration of soluble solids (SS, pH, acidity (TA and the ratio SS /TA of the pulp. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and mean test. The results show that among the conditions of spacing and NPK fertilizer levels tested, the best performance was obtained by combinations E1A1 or E2A1, which should be adopted to manage the hybrid UC01. These treatments resulted in fruits with superior quality attributes, in addition to these management practices provide a reduction in spending on NPK fertilizer and a smaller environmental impact according to excessive application of fertilizer in the soil.

Renata Venturim Fontes

2012-03-01

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Manejo da cultura do híbrido de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN : 01 para melhoria na qualidade do fruto com menor aplicação de adubação NPK / Management of the papaya crop of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN : 01 of 'Formosa' group for fruit quality improvement and less NPK fertilizer application  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de alguns aspectos do manejo da cultura do mamoeiro como espaçamento e nível de adubação NPK, sobre alguns atributos de qualidade dos frutos do híbrido do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agr [...] ícola S.A., em Linhares-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,70 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão da empresa (PE); A2 = 100% PE; A3 = 120% PE; A4 = 140% PE, e A5 = 160% PE), e três períodos de avaliação (junho, agosto e outubro de 2007). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa (PE) consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P2O5) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K2O), respectivamente. Foram analisados a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a concentração de sólidos solúveis (SS), o pH, a acidez titulável (AT) e a razão SS/AT da polpa. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de médias. Os resultados mostram que, entre as condições de espaçamento e níveis de adubação NPK testados, o melhor desempenho foi obtido pelas combinações E1A1 ou E2A1, os quais devem ser adotadas para o manejo do híbrido UC01. Os tratamentos resultaram em frutos com atributos de qualidade superiores, além de proporcionar redução nos gastos com adubação NPK e menor impacto ambiental em função da aplicação excessiva de adubo no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of some aspects of the management of the crop as spacing and level of NPK fertilizer application on some quality attributes of fruits of the papaya hybrid of 'Formosa' group UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). The experiment was conducted in the farm Caliman [...] Agrícola S.A., in Linhares -E. S. We used the randomized complete block design, with factorial arrangement, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m; E3 = 2,70 m), five levels of conventional NPK (A1 = 80% of the company's standard; A2 = 100% of the standard; A3 = 120% of the standard; A4 = 140% of the standard; and A5 = 160% of the standard) and three evaluation periods (June, August and October 2007). The standard NPK fertilizer company consists of 350, 105 and 660 kg/ha/year of ammonium sulphate (20% of N), superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. We evaluated the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the concentration of soluble solids (SS), pH, acidity (TA) and the ratio SS /TA of the pulp. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and mean test. The results show that among the conditions of spacing and NPK fertilizer levels tested, the best performance was obtained by combinations E1A1 or E2A1, which should be adopted to manage the hybrid UC01. These treatments resulted in fruits with superior quality attributes, in addition to these management practices provide a reduction in spending on NPK fertilizer and a smaller environmental impact according to excessive application of fertilizer in the soil.

Fontes, Renata Venturim; Viana, Alexandre Pio; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Vieira, Henrique Duarte.

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Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution / Adubação npk na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os níveis adequados de nutrientes na planta podem variar de acordo com a espécie ou clone, a idade e o manejo adotado. Com isso, muitas vezes, ajustes na solução nutritiva são necessários conforme o material que se deseja multiplicar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da adubação [...] NPK na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetação da UFVJM. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4)½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro doses dos nutrientes N (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1) na forma de ureia, P (7,5, 15, 30 e 60 mg L-1) na forma de ácido fosfórico e K (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1) na forma de cloreto de potássio em solução nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente para número e massa seca das miniestacas por minicepa, com efeito linear decrescente com o aumento das doses de N. O maior número de miniestacas foi obtido nas doses de 50, 7,5 e 50 mg L-1 de NPK, respectivamente. Abstract in english Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on productio [...] n and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized fractional factorial (4 x 4 x 4)½, with a total of 32 treatments with three replications. The treatments consisted of four doses of N (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1) as urea, P (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg L-1) in the form of phosphoric acid and K (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1) in the form of potassium chloride in the nutrient solution. Only the effect of N alone was significant for the number and dry weight of minicuttings per ministump, with a linear decreasing effect with increasing N levels. The highest number of cuttings was obtained at a dose of 50, 7.5 and 50 mg L-1 of N, P and K, respectively.

José Pereira, Carvalho Neto; Enilson de Barros, Silva; Reynaldo Campos, Santana; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti.

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The Influence of N-P-K Fertilizer Rates and Cropping Systems on Root Biomass and Some Root Morphological Variables of Sweet Corn and Vegetable Soybean  

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Full Text Available A field experiment using 1.2 x 0.5 x 0.5 m rhizoboxes with 280 kg soil was carried out to investigate the effect of three N-P-K fertilizer rates (50, 00 and 50% of the recommended fertilizer rate and cropping systems (mono-crop corn or soybean, intercrop corn and soybean without root separation, with plastic and with geotextile root separation on root biomass, volume surface area and total root length. Mono-crop corn and intercropped corn under plastic sheet root separation had significantly higher total root length than intercropped corn without root separation and with geotextile root separation, but soybean higher root volume was noticed in intercropped soybean without root separation and with geotextile root separation. Increasing fertility level from 50% of recommended rate (RFR to 100 and 50% RFR significantly increased root dry weight of corn and soybean, as well as root volume, surface area and total root length of corn. In soybean increasing fertility level from 50 to 100% RFR increased total root length and root surface area, but further increase to 150% of recommended rate decreased both variables.

Abdulkadir Iman

2006-01-01

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Studies on Sugarcane-Sunflower Intercropping System at Different Geometrical Patterns and NPK Levels During Autumn Planting  

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Full Text Available Studies on the feasibility of intercropping sunflower (SF in sugarcane (SC under different geometrical patterns and fertilizer doses were conducted. Experiment comprised of three fertilizer levels viz., 140:100:100, 160:120:150 and 180:140:200 and seven geometrical pattern viz., sole sugarcane (SC, one row of sugarcane + one row of sunflower (SC 1 row + SF 1 row, SC 2-row strip + SF 1 row, SC 2-row strip + SF 2-rows, SC 3-row strip + SF 2-rows, SC 3-row strip + SF 3-rows, and sole SF. The main effect for fertilizer doses were statistically significant for all the parameters examined. The best performance for all the parameters was shown by the fertilizer application at the rate of 180:140:200 (NPK kg ha-1. The planting geometries differed significantly in affecting the yield parameters of the component crops. The planting geometry of 1SC+1SF gave the second highest net return of Rs.51307 after the sole crop of sugarcane in 1995 and the highest net return of Rs.51084 in 1996 followed by sole crop of sugarcane with net return of Rs.50296. This geometry produced the highest net return and caused the highest reduction in weed biomass thus it helped in avoiding weed control through chemicals, which bring about environmental pollution and hence it is recommended in autumn planted sugarcane for higher income.

Abdul Aziz Khakwani

2001-01-01

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Adubação da cana-de-acúcar: XIV. Adubação NPK em latossolo roxo NPK fertilizer experiments of sugar cane on dusky red latosol soils  

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Full Text Available São apresentados e discutidos os resultados de dezenove ensaios de adubação de cana-de-açúcar, efetuados em latossolo roxo, em diferentes regiões paulistas. Adotou-se um delineamento fatorial 3³ para N, P e K, procurando-se avaliar a reação da cultura a esses nutrientes em áreas exploradas havia alguns anos com cana e em outras em início de exploração. A variedade utilizada foi a CB 41/76, plantando-se de janeiro a março de 1958. Foram aplicados 0,90 e 180kg/ha de N; 0,80 e 160kg/ha de P2O5 e 0,100 e 200kg/ha de K2O. Houve respostas significativas a nitrogênio em dez casos, a fósforo em nove e a potássio em dezesseis. A produção média sem adubo, em todos os ensaios, foi de 82,9t/ha. As doses máximas dos adubos proporcionaram aumentos médios de 15,2t/ha para nitrogênio, de 10,0t/ha para fósforo e de 21,3t/ha para potássio. O ajuste de funções de respostas aos resultados permitiu a verificação de que combinações mais econômicas dos nutrientes estão muito acima das recomendações correntes. As respostas da cultura à adubação estiveram diretamente relacionadas com a produtividade máxima econômica (r = 0,773**. Foi possível identificar relação direta entre respostas a N e produtividade (r = 0,695**, de respostas a N com o teor de matéria orgânica no solo (r = 0,677** e de fósforo com o teor de P no solo, determinado pelo método da resina trocadora de íons (r = 0,709**.Nineteen 3³ NPK factorial experiments with sugar cane were carried out in 1958/59 on dusky red latosol soils of various sugar plant owned lands, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The amounts of nutrients applied corresponded to: 0, 90 and 180 kg/ha of N; 0, 80 and 160kg/ha of P(20(5; and 0, 100 and 200kg/ha of K2O. The experiments were separated in two types of areas, based on former soil use: one group in areas where sugar cane was cultivated over ten years, and the other group in areas where which sugar cane had never been cultivated. The results were in accordance with former management, indicating residual effect of phosphorus applications and potassium depletion on the areas former cultivated with sugar cane. However, responses to nitrogen could not be related to former soil usage. Responses of sugar cane to nitrogen were related to soil organic matter (r = 0.695** and to phosphorus with resin extractable P (r = 0.709**, but the response to potassium fertilizer was not related to soil K (r = 0.284 n.s. With adjusted response functions, the optimal economical amount of nutrients were shown to be in general, higher than the current recommendations. Yield increases promoted by NPK were directly related to the maximum economic yield (r = 0.773**.

Raphael Alvarez

1991-01-01

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Adubação da cana-de-acúcar: XIV. Adubação NPK em latossolo roxo / NPK fertilizer experiments of sugar cane on dusky red latosol soils  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São apresentados e discutidos os resultados de dezenove ensaios de adubação de cana-de-açúcar, efetuados em latossolo roxo, em diferentes regiões paulistas. Adotou-se um delineamento fatorial 3³ para N, P e K, procurando-se avaliar a reação da cultura a esses nutrientes em áreas exploradas havia alg [...] uns anos com cana e em outras em início de exploração. A variedade utilizada foi a CB 41/76, plantando-se de janeiro a março de 1958. Foram aplicados 0,90 e 180kg/ha de N; 0,80 e 160kg/ha de P2O5 e 0,100 e 200kg/ha de K2O. Houve respostas significativas a nitrogênio em dez casos, a fósforo em nove e a potássio em dezesseis. A produção média sem adubo, em todos os ensaios, foi de 82,9t/ha. As doses máximas dos adubos proporcionaram aumentos médios de 15,2t/ha para nitrogênio, de 10,0t/ha para fósforo e de 21,3t/ha para potássio. O ajuste de funções de respostas aos resultados permitiu a verificação de que combinações mais econômicas dos nutrientes estão muito acima das recomendações correntes. As respostas da cultura à adubação estiveram diretamente relacionadas com a produtividade máxima econômica (r = 0,773**). Foi possível identificar relação direta entre respostas a N e produtividade (r = 0,695**), de respostas a N com o teor de matéria orgânica no solo (r = 0,677**) e de fósforo com o teor de P no solo, determinado pelo método da resina trocadora de íons (r = 0,709**). Abstract in english Nineteen 3³ NPK factorial experiments with sugar cane were carried out in 1958/59 on dusky red latosol soils of various sugar plant owned lands, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The amounts of nutrients applied corresponded to: 0, 90 and 180 kg/ha of N; 0, 80 and 160kg/ha of P(2)0(5); and 0, 100 a [...] nd 200kg/ha of K2O. The experiments were separated in two types of areas, based on former soil use: one group in areas where sugar cane was cultivated over ten years, and the other group in areas where which sugar cane had never been cultivated. The results were in accordance with former management, indicating residual effect of phosphorus applications and potassium depletion on the areas former cultivated with sugar cane. However, responses to nitrogen could not be related to former soil usage. Responses of sugar cane to nitrogen were related to soil organic matter (r = 0.695**) and to phosphorus with resin extractable P (r = 0.709**), but the response to potassium fertilizer was not related to soil K (r = 0.284 n.s). With adjusted response functions, the optimal economical amount of nutrients were shown to be in general, higher than the current recommendations. Yield increases promoted by NPK were directly related to the maximum economic yield (r = 0.773**).

Raphael, Alvarez; Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano Vaz de, Arruda; Bernardo, Van Raij; Antônio Carlos, Gomes; Frederico, Zink.

 
 
 
 
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Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil  

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characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat cro...

2008-01-01

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Efeito da densidade de plantas e da adubação NPK na produção inicial de palmito de pupunheira Effect of density and fertilization NPK on heart-of-palm production of peach palm  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da densidade de plantas e doses de adubação na produção de palmito de pupunheira, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Yuricam, Rio Preto da Eva (AM. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, sendo avaliados os fatores: densidade de plantas (10.000; 5.000 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e doses de adubação NPK (0-0-0; 112,5-12,5-90; 337,5-38-270; 225-90-180, 225-25-180 em kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente. Os resultados do primeiro ano de produção de palmito, em termos de estipes colhidas, para efeito das doses de adubação NPK, foram: 225-90-180 (66 %; 225-25-180 (57 %; 337,5-38-270 (50 %; 112,5-12,5-90 (26 %; 0-0-0 (1 % - os números entre parênteses indicam os percentuais de plantas coletadas em relação às plantadas - e para efeitos de densidade: 3.333 plantas ha-1 (58 %; 5.000 plantas ha-1 (28 %; 10.000 plantas ha-1 (40 %. O tempo médio para extração de palmito foi menor na densidade de 3.333 plantas ha-1 (18,4 meses e na dose de adubação NPK de 225-90-180 (18,1 meses. O efeito simples da adubação NPK dentro da densidade de 10.000 plantas ha-1 com a adubação 225-90-180 e 225-25-180 apresentou maior produção de palmito, com 841 e 779 kg ha-1, e de 1.154 e 1.223 kg ha-1 de estipe tenro, respectivamente, nas duas adubações.The effect of density and fertilization on heart-of-palm yield of peach palm under field conditions was determined at Yuricam farm, in Rio Preto da Eva counnty, state of Amazonia, Brazil. The experiment was installed in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of the planting density (10,000; 5,000 and 3,333 plants ha-1 and N, P2O5 and K2O doses (0-0-0; 112.5-12.5-90; 337.5-38-270; 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1. The results of the first year of production showed that regarding the NPK doses the stem harvest followed the order: 225-90-180 (66 %; 225-25-180 (57 %; 337.5-38-270 (50 %; 112.5-12.5-90 (26 %; 0-0-0 (1 % - number in parenthesis indicate the percentage of plants harvested in relation to those that were planted - and for the planting density: 3.333 plants ha-1 (58 %; 10.000 plants ha-1 (40 %; 5.000 plants ha-1 (28 %. The shortest average period for extracting the heart-of-palm was obtained with a density of 3.333 plants ha-1 (18.4 months and at NPK dose of 225-90-180 kg ha-1 (18.1 months. The main NPK effect within the 10.000 plants ha-1 density with a fertilization employing 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1 of NPK allowed to obtain the highest heart-of-palm yield, which reached 841 and 779 kg ha-1 and 1.154 and 1.223 kg ha-1 of soft stem, respectively, for the two fertilizations.

Kaoru Yuyama

2005-06-01

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Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Farmyard Manure on Nut Production of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.  

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Full Text Available During the present studies it was found that coconut (Cocos nucifera L. had a good response to fertilizers. The maximum yield of 658 nuts was obtained by the application of 700 g Urea+270 g DAP+1600 g MOP. The results also indicated that the application of fertilizers helped to increase nut yield in coconut.

P.A. Baloch

2004-01-01

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Respuesta del litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en el norte de Oaxaca, México / Response of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) to NPK fertilization in northern Oaxaca, México  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la respuesta de litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en árboles de la var. 'Brewster' de seis años plantados al norte de Oaxaca, en el periodo 2009 - 2011. Se usaron seis proporciones (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 y 125 %) de la dosis 50-130-50 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 y K2O como tra [...] tamientos; adicionalmente se probaron otros tres tratamientos: dosis 100 % + 3.6 t ha-1 de composta, dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores, y dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores + 720 kg ha-1 de Ca (OH)2. La primera fertilización se aplicó en noviembre de 2009 pero no se encontró respuesta a la fertilización en 2010. En 2010 y 2011 la fertilización se dividió en dos partes. La primera mitad se aplicó el 30 de agosto de 2010, y la otra mitad el 11 de febrero de 2011. Los resultados que aquí se reportan son del periodo 2010 - 2011. Las concentraciones foliares mayores de N, P y K se obtuvieron al inicio de la yema floral con las dosis mas altas de fertilización. La mayor floración y el mayor rendimiento de fruta se lograron con la dosis 100 % de N-P-K + elementos menores que superó (P ? 0.05) al testigo. El mayor contenido de clorofila foliar se obtuvo con el tratamiento 125 %, en comparación con el testigo. Los mayores valores de peso de materia seca de brotes vegetativos y de área foliar se lograron con el tratamiento 100 % + composta. El contenido de N foliar correlacionó con el rendimiento de brotes y con área foliar (r = 0.72 y r = 0.65, respectivamente). Se concluye que los árboles de litchi fertilizados con NPK, composta y elementos menores, aumentaron su concentración foliar de N, P y K, cantidad de flores, rendimiento de fruta, color verde de las hojas, biomasa de nuevos brotes y área foliar. No se encontró respuesta del litchi a la aplicación de hidróxido de calcio. Abstract in english Responses of six years old litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees cv. 'Brewster' to NPK fertilization at north of Oaxaca state were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Six dosage treatments (0, 25, 50 75, 100 and 125 %) of the 50-130-50 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O were used. Additional treatments were: 100 % [...] dosage + 3.6 t ha-1 of compost, 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients, and 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients + 720 kg ha-1 of Ca(OH)2. The first fertilization was applied on November 2009, but no response was obtained in 2010. In 2010 and 2011 the fertilization was divided in two parts. The first half was applied in August 30, 2010, and the other in February 11, 2011. The results reported here correspond to the 2010 - 2011 period. Highest concentrations of N, P and K in the leaves at the flower bud stage were obtained with the highest dosages. The highest amounts of flowers and fruit yield compared to the control were observed with 100 % of NPK + micronutrients. Highest chlorophyll contents were found with the 125 % dosage. The highest values of new shoots dry weight and leaf area were obtained with the 100 % dosage + compost. Positive correlations between foliar nitrogen with new shoots weight and leaf area (r = 0.72 and r = 0.65, respectively), were found. It is concluded that litchi trees fertilized with NPK , compost and micronutrients increased N, P and K concentration in the leaves, amount of flowers, fruit yield, green color of leaves, new shoots weight and leaf area. No response to calcium hydroxide application was observed in litchi trees.

Maldonado Peralta, Ramiro; Trinidad Santos, Antonio; Téliz Ortíz, Daniel; Velasco Velasco, Vicente A.; Volke Haller, Víctor H..

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Growth of Tea Seedlings Affected by Different Levels and Application Methods of NPK and Urea  

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Full Text Available In this very experiment to find out the effect of NPK & Urea with different levels (4 & 8 2.gm/sqm. and application methods i.e., broadcast & foliar spray on tea (Camellia sinensis L seedlings in the nursery of National Tea Research Inst. Shinkiari during March to December 1999. Seedling for their plant height (cm, number of leaves, root length & root weight (gms were observed. In the treatments of T4 & T5 Urea @ 8 & 4 gm/sq.m (foliar spray was found significant among each others in plant height, number of leaves, root length and root weight. However number of leaves and root weight were non-significant among each other`s. The seedlings treated in T2 and T3 by NPK as broadcast @ 8 .8 & 4 gm/sq.m for (plant height, root length & root weight were remained non-significant among each others except number of leaves and root weight respectively. Where as T1 (control remained non-significant among all the treatments in all parameters. Urea @ 8 & 4 gm/sq.m (foliar spray showed the best performance in all the parameters statistically.

A. Waheed

2001-01-01

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RESPOSTA DA SERINGUEIRA CLONE RRIM 600 À ADUBAÇÃO NPK EM SOLO PODZÓLICO VERMELHO-AMARELO / RESPONSES OF RUBBER TREE CLONE RRIM 600 TO NPK FERTILIZATION ON RED YELLOW PODZOLIC SOIL  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo, que teve por objetivo determinar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] à adubação NPK durante o período de formação do seringal, relata os resultados de experimento com o clone RRIM 600 em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo de textura ar [...] enosa, no município de Avaí (SP), Brasil. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicados no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das plantas. Avaliou-se o perímetro do caule a 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a cada quatro meses, e calculou-se a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal em cada parcela. Efetuaram-se análises de solo aos 27 e 51 meses de idade das plantas e análises de folhas, anualmente, no verão. A partir de 60 meses de idade das plantas, aproximadamente três anos após o início das adubações, observou-se efeito linear da adubação nitrogenada sobre o perímetro do caule. A adubação fosfatada teve efeito linear a partir da idade de 72 meses e a interação NP linear foi consistente depois de 75 meses. Usando como indicador a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para as adubações nitrogenada e potássica. O período de imaturidade foi abreviado até em oito meses, comparando-se o tratamento sem adubação com os de melhor desempenho. Adubações desequilibradas, como no tratamento 0-80-120, provocaram retardamento até de 12 meses no período de imaturidade em relação ao tratamento de melhor desempenho (120-120-120). Um ano depois da interrupção da aplicação de fertilizantes, no fim do experimento, não se observou efeito residual dos tratamentos sobre os indicadores de crescimento utilizados. Abstract in english The response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss.) Muell.Arg.], clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization during the immature stage was evaluated on a sand soil at Avaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Randomized block, closing with fractionated factorial experiment 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) was [...] used to test 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, applied from the second to the eighth years after planting. Trunk girth at 1.20 m above the budgrafting union was measured every four months. The percentage of plants able for tapping and the immaturity period were calculated from girth measurements. Soil analysis were performed at 27 and 51 months after planting and leaf analysis every year. Responses to nitrogen fertilization started to be observed from 60 months, aproximately three years after the beginning of fertilizer applications. Linear effect of phosphorus and NP interaction started at ages of 72 and 75 months respectively. Responses to K fertilization was not detected for trunk girth. Considering the percentage of plants able for tapping, responses were linearly and statistically significant for N and K fertilization. The immaturity period of the crop was reduced eigth months when non fertilized plots were compared to those with the best relations of NPK. Delay of immaturity period up to twelve months was observed considering the best treatments and those with unbalanced relations of NPK. Fertilizer responses disappeared one year after stopping fertilizer applications.

ONDINO CLEANTE, BATAGLIA; WAGNER RODRIGUES DOS, SANTOS; TOSHIO, IGUE; PAULO DE SOUZA, GONÇALVES.

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Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK  

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Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average height of residue of 30 cm. A complete randomized block design was used with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial with three field replications. The fertilization doses corresponded to the reduction of 30 % and the increase of 30 and 60% in relation to a standard dose of 145; 21.6; and 180 kg/ha of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively (assuming the contents of 1.2, 0.08, and 1.2% of N, P, and K in DM, to reach an estimated DM production of 12000 kg/ha. There was a linear effect of fertilization doses on green DM (GDM before and after grazing. The cv. Mombaça exhibited higher herbage mass before and after grazing (9183 and 5279 kg/ha of GDM, respectively than the cv. Tanzania (6275 and 3808 kg/ha of GDM, respectively. The proportion of leaf blade in the GDM available was lower in the cv. Tanzania (51% than in the cv. Mombaça (54 %. The tiller density was not affected by the fertilization doses. However, the increase in tiller weight due to fertilizer doses was responsible for the higher GDM production. The senesced DM did not vary between cultivars, with a mean value of 3108 kg/ha. In general, higher rates of fertilization resulted in greater GDM accumulation rate and higher losses of GDM by trampling. The cv. Mombaça showed a greater response potential to fertilization than the cv. Tanzania with stocking rates of 6.2 and 4.0 UA/ha, respectively.

Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

2002-06-01

68

The Influence of N-P-K Fertilizer Rates and Cropping Systems on Root Biomass and Some Root Morphological Variables of Sweet Corn and Vegetable Soybean  

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A field experiment using 1.2 x 0.5 x 0.5 m rhizoboxes with 280 kg soil was carried out to investigate the effect of three N-P-K fertilizer rates (50, 00 and 50% of the recommended fertilizer rate) and cropping systems (mono-crop corn or soybean, intercrop corn and soybean without root separation, with plastic and with geotextile root separation) on root biomass, volume surface area and total root length. Mono-crop corn and intercropped corn under plastic sheet root separation had significantl...

Abdulkadir Iman; Zakaria Wahab; Mohd. Ridzwan Abd. Halim; Syed Omar Syed Rastan

2006-01-01

69

Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

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Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in fou...

Abdul Rehman; Farrukh Saleem, M.; Muhammad Ehsan Safdar; Safdar Hussain; Naeem Akhtar

2011-01-01

70

Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

2009-03-01

71

Nutrição do cafeeiro arábica em função da densidade de plantas e da fertilização com NPK / Coffee nutrition as a function of plant density and NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Embora aumente a produtividade por área, o adensamento reduz a produção por planta, eleva sua eficiência de recuperação de nutrientes, o que contribui para a redução da quantidade de fertilizantes a ser aplicada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do cafeeiro arábica à aplic [...] ação de N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de N), P (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg.ha-1 de P2O5) e K (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de K2O), cultivados em diferentes densidades de plantio (3.333, 5.000, 10.000 e 20.000 plantas por hectare). Com base em informações obtidas em cinco produções, não foram observadas diferenças significativas de produtividade em função da densidade de plantas. A resposta em produtividade do café arábica às doses de N, P e K foi variável nos diversos espaçamentos, com maior freqüência de resultados positivos a N e P e menos expressivos para K. Os teores foliares de N e P foram pouco influenciados pelas doses de N e P2O5. Os teores foliares de K foram fortemente influenciados pelas doses de K2O. Cafeeiros submetidos ao sistema de cultivo adensado apresentaram maiores teores foliares de P e K, quando comparados àqueles cultivados em espaçamento mais largo. Os solos sob cultivo adensado, quando comparados a solos sob cultivos mais largos, apresentaram variações em suas características químicas, sendo mais evidente a redução do teor de H + Al. Abstract in english Although increasing in productivity, high-density tree planting provides reduction of the production per plant, increases the efficiency of recovery of nutrients by plants, and can contributes to the reduction of the amount of fertilizers to be applied per plant. Due to evaluate the answer of coffee [...] tree plants (Coffea arabica L.) to N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 of N); P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1 of P2O5) and K (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg.ha-1 of K2O) application, on work was carried out in a coffee cultivated at four densities (3,333; 5,000; 10,000 and 20,000 plants/ha). Database obtained at five harvests showed no significant differences of productivity as function of planting densities. Answers in productivity were obtained more strongly related to N and P doses. Answers to K application were less expressive. N and P foliar levels were little influenced by the doses of N and P2O5 applied by soil each year. K foliar levels were strongly influenced by the doses of K2O. Foliar levels of N and K were highest in coffee high-density tree when compared with those cultivated in wider spacing. The major variation on chemical soil characteristics was the highest levels of reduction on H+Al observed in coffee high-density tree coffee.

Luiz Carlos, Prezotti; Aledir Cassiano da, Rocha.

72

Adubação com NPK em coqueiro-anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.) rendimento e qualidade de frutos / NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) - yield and fruit quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A produção de coco para extração de água no Estado de São Paulo está em expansão. Entretanto, faltam informações básicas sobre o manejo desta cultura. Desse modo, instalou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W), visando ao estudo da resposta do coqueiro à adubação com NPK d [...] e set/2000 a fev/2004. Empregou-se o esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4³), sendo os tratamentos formados pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de N), P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha¹ de P2O5) e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de K2O). Como fontes de N, P e K, respectivamente, aplicaram-se NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, fracionadamente, durante a época das chuvas. A aplicação de N causou diminuição no volume de água e massa média dos frutos e na quantidade de frutos por cacho; inversamente, a adubação potássica teve efeito positivo nestas características. Os teores de P e K da água de coco aumentaram com a aplicação de P e K, entretanto não houve efeito dos tratamentos nos resultados da avaliação sensorial. A aplicação de P não teve efeito significativo na produção de frutos. Abstract in english Coconut production aiming water extraction is increasing in São Paulo State, Brazil. Coconut is a new crop in this region, so there is a lack of information about its management. A field experiment was conducted in Pereira Barreto, SP, Brazil (20º47'S; 51º01'W) to study the effects of NPK rates on y [...] ield and fruit quality, from September,2000 to February, 2004. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of N), P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha¹ of P2O5) and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of K2O), applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. The effect of N rates was negative on water volume production on fruits, weight and number of fruits per bunch, and in a different way, K application had a positive effect on them. P and K contents in the coconut water increased with P and K fertilization, otherwise the treatments had no effect on sensory evaluation results. P application had no effect on fruit production.

Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Ondino Cleante, Bataglia; Salatiér, Buzetti; Enes, Furlani Junior; Jacira dos Santos, Isepon.

73

Adubação com NPK em coqueiro-anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L. rendimento e qualidade de frutos NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L. - yield and fruit quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A produção de coco para extração de água no Estado de São Paulo está em expansão. Entretanto, faltam informações básicas sobre o manejo desta cultura. Desse modo, instalou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W, visando ao estudo da resposta do coqueiro à adubação com NPK de set/2000 a fev/2004. Empregou-se o esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4³, sendo os tratamentos formados pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de N, P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha¹ de P2O5 e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de K2O. Como fontes de N, P e K, respectivamente, aplicaram-se NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, fracionadamente, durante a época das chuvas. A aplicação de N causou diminuição no volume de água e massa média dos frutos e na quantidade de frutos por cacho; inversamente, a adubação potássica teve efeito positivo nestas características. Os teores de P e K da água de coco aumentaram com a aplicação de P e K, entretanto não houve efeito dos tratamentos nos resultados da avaliação sensorial. A aplicação de P não teve efeito significativo na produção de frutos.Coconut production aiming water extraction is increasing in São Paulo State, Brazil. Coconut is a new crop in this region, so there is a lack of information about its management. A field experiment was conducted in Pereira Barreto, SP, Brazil (20º47'S; 51º01'W to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality, from September,2000 to February, 2004. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³. The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of N, P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha¹ of P2O5 and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of K2O, applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. The effect of N rates was negative on water volume production on fruits, weight and number of fruits per bunch, and in a different way, K application had a positive effect on them. P and K contents in the coconut water increased with P and K fertilization, otherwise the treatments had no effect on sensory evaluation results. P application had no effect on fruit production.

Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

2005-04-01

74

Effect of tillage methods and fertilizer levels on maize production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted at National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to observe the emergence and grain yield of maize crop under different fertilizer applications viz. 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and cattle manure 6000, 8000 and 10,000 kg ha/sup -1/ applied in the plots ploughed through tillage practices with deep tillage, conventional tillage and zero-tillage. The non significant interaction between fertilizers and tillage methods as well as between cattle manure and tillage methods each with three levels were found. It indicated that fertilizers and manures should be studied independently using pair wise comparison. Pair wise comparisons indicated that the fertilizer at the rate of 150-75-75 kg ha/sup -1/ (NPK) was suitable for best germination rate and grain yield of maize. Similarly the deep tillage was preferred over conventional and zero tillage, on the other hand, the highest level of manure (10000 kg ha/sup -1/) was recommended for best germination rate and grain yield, where as 8000 kg ha/sup -1/ for grain weight and number of grains per cob. (author)

2011-01-01

75

Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O(3) concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O(3). PMID:19070410

Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

2009-03-01

76

Poaceae cespitosa e decumbente adubadas com NPK: efeitos na agregação do solo / Caespitosa and decumbens Poaceae fertilized with NPK: effects on soil aggregation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A desagregação de partículas do solo afeta a sua capacidade produtiva, resultando em processos de compactação, erosão e perdas de nutrientes. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a qualidade e estabilidade dos agregados de um Latossolo Amarelo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, representado por Urochloa dec [...] umbens e Urochloa brizantha, na presença e ausência de adubação mineral, e por duas formas de amostragem (fileiras e entre as fileiras), em três profundidades de amostragem. As amostras indeformadas de solo coletadas foram destorroadas, passadas em peneira de 9,52 mm e, após secagem, em peneiras de 2,00 mm; 1,00 mm; 0,50 mm e 0,25 mm, obedecendo às seguintes classes de diâmetro: 9,52-2,00 mm; 2,00-1,00 mm; 1,00-0,50 mm e 0,50-0,25 mm, por peneiragem seca. Estes agregados foram, também, separados por peneiragem úmida, sendo, ainda, determinada a argila dispersa e a massa seca de raízes. Os agregados maiores que 2,00 mm apresentaram estabilidade elevada, na camada de 0,00-0,05 m, em comparação aos agregados de menores classes, não havendo efeito do local de amostragem e de adubação sobre o tamanho e estabilidade dos agregados. Concluiu-se não haver diferença entre as duas espécies estudadas, forma de coleta das amostras e adubação, na formação e estabilidade de agregados. Abstract in english The disintegration of soil particles affects its productive capacity, resulting in compression, erosion and nutrient losses. This study aimed at evaluating the aggregates quality and stability of a Yellow Latosol, in a randomized blocks design represented by Urochloa decumbens and Urochloa brizantha [...] , with and without mineral fertilization, and two sampling forms (rows and between rows), in three sampling depths. The undeformed soil samples collected were shattered and passed through a 9.52 mm sieve and, after drying, through a 2.00 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.50 mm and 0.25 mm sieves, according to the following diameters classes: 9.52-2.00 mm, 2.00-1.00 mm, 1.00-0.50 mm and 0.50-0.25 mm, by using dry sieving. These aggregates were also separated by wet sieving and the dispersed clay and root dry matter were determined. Aggregates larger than 2.00 mm showed high stability, in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, when compared to the aggregates from smaller classes, with no effect of sampling and fertilization site on the aggregates size and stability. There was no difference for the two species analyzed, sampling method and fertilization on the aggregates formation and stability.

Almeida, Dácio Jerônimo de; Silva, Ivandro de França da; Silveira, Flávio Pereira da Mota; Santiago, Robeval Diniz; Costa, José Ronaldo Calado.

77

Produtividade e composição bromatológica do capim-Tobiatã com adubação NPK = Productivity and nutritional quality of Tobiatã grass as a function of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1, duas doses de P2O5 (96 e 30 kg ha-1 e duas doses de K2O (170 e 143 kg ha-1, na forrageira Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã irrigada. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Na implantação do experimento foram aplicados fósforo e potássio, com base em doses teóricas para se atingir valor de P de 40 mg dm-3 e K a 5% da CTC. Após três cortes, foi estimada a MS produzida pela forrageira, a fim de obter os valores dos nutrientes exportados pela planta. Somente após este procedimento, realizou-se a aplicação das doses de N. A produção de massa seca e os teores de PB, FDA e FDN foram influenciados pelos cortes; com a elevação da adubação nitrogenada houve aumento na produção de MS e nos teores de PB, além de menores teores de FDA e FDN, proporcionando melhor qualidade da forragem. A adubação fosfatada e potássica podem ser realizadas tanto com base na produção de massa seca produzida, quanto pelos teores dos elementos no solo.The present study had as objective to study five N rates (0, 50,100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1, two P2O5 rates (96 and 30 kg ha-1 as superphosphate triple, and two doses of K2O (170 and 143 kg ha-1 as potassium chloride, in the forage Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã, with irrigation. The experiment was conducted using a randomized blocks design with four replicates. In the implantation of the experiment, P and K were applied based on theoretical doses required to reach values of 40 mg dm-3 of P and K 5% of CTC. After three cuts, dry mass produced by the forage was estimated in order to obtain the values of the nutrients exported by the plant. Only after this procedure did theapplication of the doses of N take place. The production of dry mass - DM, crude protein - CP, neutral-detergent fiber – NDF, and acid-detergent fiber – ADF, were influenced by cuts; increasing N fertilization increased the production of DM, CP and decreased ADFand NDF, providing better forage quality. The fertilization with phosphorus and potassium can be done based on DM production or P and K content in soil.

Juliano Alarcon Fabricio

2010-04-01

78

Response of Two Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Varieties to Sowing Date and NPK Fertilizer Rate in a Semi-Arid Environment: Yield and Yield Attributes  

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In order to determine the optimum sowing date and NPK fertilizer rate for two groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties for best yield performance and to improve their production, field trials were conducted during the 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons at Samaru, Nigeria. The treatments were composed of factorial combinations of three sowing dates (mid-June, end-June and mid-July), three NPK fertilizer rates (10 kg N+13 kg P+13 kg K ha-1, 20 kg N+26 kg P+26 kg K ha-1...

Bala, H. M. B.; Ogunlela, V. B.; Kuchinda, N. C.; Tanimu, B.

2011-01-01

79

Adubação com NPK em coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.: atributos químicos do solo e nutrição da planta NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: soil chemical properties and plant nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Devido à falta de informações sobre adubação de coqueiro para o Estado de São Paulo, realizou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W, visando a estudar os efeitos da aplicação de NPK em alguns atributos do solo e nutrição da planta, de set/2000 a fev/2004. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³, com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de N, P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de K2O. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas fracionadamente durante a estação das chuvas, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. A aplicação de N em doses superiores a 240 kg ha-1 ano-1 causou excessiva acidificação do solo, sendo que 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 foi suficiente para manter o teor de N foliar na faixa de suficiência. A adubação com P e K nas doses mais elevadas resultou em perdas por lixiviação. A adubação com 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O foi suficiente para manter o teor de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial e as plantas com teores de K foliar acima da faixa de suficiência. O P foliar manteve-se sempre acima da faixa de suficiência, independentemente da adubação fosfatada.There are very few information about fertilization of coconut grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with 'Dwarf Green' coconut was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on some soil chemical properties and plant nutrition, from September, 2000 to February, 2004. The trial was located on an Oxisol in the west part of the State of São Paulo (20º47'S; 51º01'W. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³. The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of N, P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of K2O, applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. Rates of N higher than 240 kg ha-1year-1 caused excessive soil acidification, whereas 120 kg ha-1year-1 was enough to achieve sufficiency range on leaves. Application of higher rates of P and K caused losses by leaching. It was necessary 120 kg of K2O ha-1year-1 to maintain soil exchangeable K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment, the same rate kept leaf K concentration above sufficiency range. Foliar P contents were always higher than sufficiency range despite of P fertilization.

Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

2005-04-01

80

Adubação com NPK em coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.): atributos químicos do solo e nutrição da planta / NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): soil chemical properties and plant nutrition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Devido à falta de informações sobre adubação de coqueiro para o Estado de São Paulo, realizou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W), visando a estudar os efeitos da aplicação de NPK em alguns atributos do solo e nutrição da planta, de set/2000 a fev/2004. O delineamento ex [...] perimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³), com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de N), P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5) e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de K2O). As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas fracionadamente durante a estação das chuvas, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. A aplicação de N em doses superiores a 240 kg ha-1 ano-1 causou excessiva acidificação do solo, sendo que 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 foi suficiente para manter o teor de N foliar na faixa de suficiência. A adubação com P e K nas doses mais elevadas resultou em perdas por lixiviação. A adubação com 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O foi suficiente para manter o teor de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial e as plantas com teores de K foliar acima da faixa de suficiência. O P foliar manteve-se sempre acima da faixa de suficiência, independentemente da adubação fosfatada. Abstract in english There are very few information about fertilization of coconut grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with 'Dwarf Green' coconut was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on some soil chemical properties and plant nutrition, from September, 2000 to February, 2004. The [...] trial was located on an Oxisol in the west part of the State of São Paulo (20º47'S; 51º01'W). The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of N), P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 of P2O5) and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of K2O), applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. Rates of N higher than 240 kg ha-1year-1 caused excessive soil acidification, whereas 120 kg ha-1year-1 was enough to achieve sufficiency range on leaves. Application of higher rates of P and K caused losses by leaching. It was necessary 120 kg of K2O ha-1year-1 to maintain soil exchangeable K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment, the same rate kept leaf K concentration above sufficiency range. Foliar P contents were always higher than sufficiency range despite of P fertilization.

Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Ondino Cleante, Bataglia; Salatiér, Buzetti; Enes, Furlani Junior.

 
 
 
 
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Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels / Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cult [...] ivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm), siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm), y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja) y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1). La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE), así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE) fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150) que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK. Abstract in english Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical ar [...] rangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1). Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1) than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.

Rehman, Abdul; Farrukh Saleem, M; Ehsan Safdar, Muhammad; Hussain, Safdar; Akhtar, Naeem.

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Response of Thatta–10 Sugarcane variety to Soil and Foliar Application of Zinc Sulphate (Zn SO4. 7 H 2 O) Under Half and Full Doses of NPK Fertilizer  

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Field experiment was conducted to asses the effect of soil and foliar application of zinc under half and full doses of NPK fertilizers on the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane variety Thatta -10 on silty clay soil at NSCRI, farm Thatta during the year 2000-2001. Significant increase over control in respect of sugar recovery%, cane yield and yield contributing traits were observed in plants which were treated with soil and foliar application of zinc under full NPK doses. How ever, the pla...

Panhwar, R. N.; Keerio, H. K.; Memon, Y. M.; Junejo, S.; Arain, M. Y.; Chohan, M.; Keerio, A. R.; Abro, B. A.

2003-01-01

83

Response of Thatta–10 Sugarcane variety to Soil and Foliar Application of Zinc Sulphate (Zn SO4. 7 H 2 O Under Half and Full Doses of NPK Fertilizer  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to asses the effect of soil and foliar application of zinc under half and full doses of NPK fertilizers on the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane variety Thatta -10 on silty clay soil at NSCRI, farm Thatta during the year 2000-2001. Significant increase over control in respect of sugar recovery%, cane yield and yield contributing traits were observed in plants which were treated with soil and foliar application of zinc under full NPK doses. How ever, the plants treated with soil and foliar application of zinc under half NPK doses responded with lower cane yield and sugar recovery% as compared to control. It was also concluded that the foliar application of zinc had beneficial effect than soil application.

R.N. Panhwar

2003-01-01

84

Produtividade do milho em resposta a adubação com NPK e Zn em argissolo vermelho-amarelo eutrófico e latossolo vermelho eutroférrico Corn productivity as an answer to fertilization with NPK and Zn on eutrophic red-yellow argissol and red eutroferric latossol  

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Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar os componentes de produção e a produtividade da cultura do milho em função da adubação, com diferentes doses de Zn (Zinco, e NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, realizou-se este trabalho nos municípios de Palotina - PR, em Argissolo Vermelho - Amarelo eutrófico e Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 3x3 constituindo três doses de adubação NPK: sem adubação; uma vez (30-100-50 kg ha-1, e duas vezes a recomendação de adubação (60-200-100 kg ha-1, com base na análise do solo. Outro fator em estudo foi o Zn, em diferentes doses: 0,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg dm-3. As parcelas corresponderam a 3,6 m de largura por 6 m de comprimento. Foram semeadas 4 linhas espaçadas com 0,9 m, utilizando-se como parcela útil as 2 linhas centrais, descartando-se 1,5 m de bordadura. A população de plantas foi de 6,5 sementes, por metro linear. Com relação à adubação de NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, obteve-se aumento significativo para os componentes: número de grãos, massa de 1000 grãos e a produtividade, sendo a dose 60-200-100 kg ha-1 a que proporcionou os melhores resultados no Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico e no Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico, proporcionou aumento significativo na massa de 1000 grãos e na produtividade. Em relação à adubação com o Zn, não obteve-se aumento significativo, nos dois solos, entre os tratamentos para os componentes avaliados e a produtividade. Com este trabalho, pode-se concluir que a adubação com NPK aumentou a produtividade da cultura nos dois solos e na adubação com Zn não se obteve diferenças de produtividade, para a cultura do milho.It's with the purpose of evaluating the production components and the corn crop productivity due fertilization with different doses of Zn (Zinc an NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, this research has been done over the municipalities of Palotina-PR, on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol and Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, on Red Eutroferric Latossol. The treatments were arranged on a factorial scheme 3x3 constituting three doses of fertilization NPK: no fertilization, once (30-100-50 kg ha-1 and twice the fertilization recommended (60-200-100 kg ha-1, based on the soil analysis. Another factor under studying was the Zn in different doses: 0,0; 5,0 and 10,0 mg dm-3. Such parcels were corresponded to 3,6 m width by 6 m length. It were sowed 4 spaced lines with 0,9 m, using as a useful parcel the 2 central lines discarding 1,5 m of edging. The plant population was about 6,5 seeds by linear meter. Considering the NPK fertilization it was gotten a considerably increase for the components of seeds number, 1000 seeds mass and the productivity, being the dose 60 - 200 - 100 kg ha-1 the one that has given the best results on Red Eutroferric Latossol and on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol that has given a considerably increase on the 1000 seeds and productivity. According to the fertilization with Zn, it has not given a considerably increase on both soils among the treatments for the evaluated components and productivity. With this word it can be concluded that the fertilization with NPK increased the crop productivity on both soils while the fertilization with Zn differences were not gotten over corn crop productivity.

Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

2007-08-01

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Produtividade do milho em resposta a adubação com NPK e Zn em argissolo vermelho-amarelo eutrófico e latossolo vermelho eutroférrico / Corn productivity as an answer to fertilization with NPK and Zn on eutrophic red-yellow argissol and red eutroferric latossol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando-se avaliar os componentes de produção e a produtividade da cultura do milho em função da adubação, com diferentes doses de Zn (Zinco), e NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio), realizou-se este trabalho nos municípios de Palotina - PR, em Argissolo Vermelho - Amarelo eutrófico e Marechal C [...] ândido Rondon - PR, em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 3x3 constituindo três doses de adubação NPK: sem adubação; uma vez (30-100-50 kg ha-1), e duas vezes a recomendação de adubação (60-200-100 kg ha-1), com base na análise do solo. Outro fator em estudo foi o Zn, em diferentes doses: 0,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg dm-3. As parcelas corresponderam a 3,6 m de largura por 6 m de comprimento. Foram semeadas 4 linhas espaçadas com 0,9 m, utilizando-se como parcela útil as 2 linhas centrais, descartando-se 1,5 m de bordadura. A população de plantas foi de 6,5 sementes, por metro linear. Com relação à adubação de NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio), obteve-se aumento significativo para os componentes: número de grãos, massa de 1000 grãos e a produtividade, sendo a dose 60-200-100 kg ha-1 a que proporcionou os melhores resultados no Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico e no Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico, proporcionou aumento significativo na massa de 1000 grãos e na produtividade. Em relação à adubação com o Zn, não obteve-se aumento significativo, nos dois solos, entre os tratamentos para os componentes avaliados e a produtividade. Com este trabalho, pode-se concluir que a adubação com NPK aumentou a produtividade da cultura nos dois solos e na adubação com Zn não se obteve diferenças de produtividade, para a cultura do milho. Abstract in english It's with the purpose of evaluating the production components and the corn crop productivity due fertilization with different doses of Zn (Zinc) an NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), this research has been done over the municipalities of Palotina-PR, on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol and Marec [...] hal Cândido Rondon - PR, on Red Eutroferric Latossol. The treatments were arranged on a factorial scheme 3x3 constituting three doses of fertilization NPK: no fertilization, once (30-100-50 kg ha-1) and twice the fertilization recommended (60-200-100 kg ha-1), based on the soil analysis. Another factor under studying was the Zn in different doses: 0,0; 5,0 and 10,0 mg dm-3. Such parcels were corresponded to 3,6 m width by 6 m length. It were sowed 4 spaced lines with 0,9 m, using as a useful parcel the 2 central lines discarding 1,5 m of edging. The plant population was about 6,5 seeds by linear meter. Considering the NPK fertilization it was gotten a considerably increase for the components of seeds number, 1000 seeds mass and the productivity, being the dose 60 - 200 - 100 kg ha-1 the one that has given the best results on Red Eutroferric Latossol and on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol that has given a considerably increase on the 1000 seeds and productivity. According to the fertilization with Zn, it has not given a considerably increase on both soils among the treatments for the evaluated components and productivity. With this word it can be concluded that the fertilization with NPK increased the crop productivity on both soils while the fertilization with Zn differences were not gotten over corn crop productivity.

Affonso Celso, Gonçalves Júnior; Ricardo Robson, Trautmann; Nilton Garcia, Marengoni; Ossival Lolato, Ribeiro; Alexandre Leseur dos, Santos.

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Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo. Parte II - Efeito do calcário e de vários adubos / Effect of lime, manure, green manure, and NPK-fertilizers on the yields of sweet potatoes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Entre 1945 e 1950 foram conduzidas quatro experiências em solos ácidos, duas em Campinas (terra-roxa) e duas em Tupi Paulista (solo do Glacial), para estudar os efeitos, sôbre a batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam.), das aplicações de 3 t/ha de calcário, 50 t/ha de estêrco e duas adubações com 60-1 00- [...] 40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O, sendo uma exclusivamente mineral e outra organomineral. Além dêsses tratamentos, que constituiram um esquema fatorial 4X2, tôdas as experiências tiveram um tratamento extra, com adubação verde na ausência do calcário. Isolada, a calagem não trouxe aumentos de produção; no presença do estêrco, porém, ela provocou, em quatro experiências, aumentos correspondentes a 5, 12, 20 e 84%. Sòmente três das experiências permitiram estudar as respostas ao corretivo na presença das adubações NPK, mineral e organomineral: no primeiro caso elas foram -26, +26 e +34%; no segundo, -29, -20 e +21%. Os efeitos do estêrco foram sempre elevados, principalmente na presença do calcário, quando alcançaram +104, +148, +158 e +254%. Embora menores que as do estêrco, as respostas às adubações com NPK (em três experiências) também foram muito boas, mas nem sempre a presença do calcário lhes foi favorável: as da adubaçâo mineral, de +62, +62 e +88% na ausência do calcário, passaram, na sua presença, respectivamente para +94, +34 e +144%; as da adubação organomineral, de +148, +94 e +74 % na ausência, passaram para +67, +73 e + 104% na presença do corretivo. Quanto à adubação verde, no conjunto, das quatro experiências seu efeito foi quase igual ao do estêrco. Na dose empregada, o estêrco levou ao solo muito maiores quantidades de nutrientes que as adubações com NPK. O método de aplicação destas, que foi o usado naprática - ou seja, colocando-as, no momento do plantio, em contacto com as mudas - parece também ter concorrido para reduzir-lhes o efeito. As depressões causadas pela colagem são atribuídos à conhecido influência nociva da "overliming". Em duas experiências cujos solos foram analisados opas a colheita, verificou-se que a calagem elevou o pH de 5,6 o 6,7, em média, mas reduziu opreciàvelmente as disponibilidades de fósforo assimilável, sobretudo nos tratamentos adubados com NPK. Abstract in english This paper reports the results of four experiments with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) to study the effects of liming, two different NPK-fertilizers, manure and green-manuring on different areas of two localities of the State of São Paulo. Liming alone did not increase the yields. In the pres [...] ence of manure, its effects corresponded to +5, +12, +20, and +48%, but in the presence of the NPK-fertilizers they varied from satisfactory to negative. The responses to manure were always very high, principally in the presence of lime. Although not sa large, the effects the NPK-fertilizers were also very good, bul the presence of lime, which enhanced them in some cases, in other coses depressed them considerably. The results of green-manuring were almost equal to those of manure. In the dosage used, manure supplied the soil with much larger quantities of nutrients than the NPK-fertilizers. The method of application of the latter - at planting time and in contact with the cuttings - contributed also to reduce their effectiveness. Regarding the yield reduction caused by liming, they are attributed to the so-called overliming injury. The study of the soils of two trials showed that in the limed the pH averaged only 6.7, ut the quantities of available phosphorus were appreciably reduced, especially in the treatments with the NPK-fertilizers.

A. Paes de, Camargo; E. S., Freire; W. R., Venturini.

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Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Cowdung in Combination with Foliar Spray of Chemicals on the Growth and Quality of Jute Plant  

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Full Text Available The experiment was performed in the experimental land of the Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi during the period of April-May, 2000 and 2001. The physicochemical compositions of jute leaves under different foliar treatments were investigated at the mature stage. The results obtained showed significantly increase in most of the chemical composition under different treatments. The soil of the cultivated land as well as jute leaves obtained from experimental land became less acidic as compared to those of control field after application of NPK-fertilizers and cowdung in combination with foliar spray. The highest percentage of increase of jute plant and physico-chemical composition of leaves as compared to those of control were as follows: length of jute plant 38.35%, area of jute leaf 160.00%, specific gravity 6.48%, dry matter 27.78%, ash content 18.55%, total chlorophyll 42.17%, total sugar 69.47%, reducing sugar 48.15%, non-reducing sugar 72.90%. Only the moisture content of jute leaves from control jute plant was about to higher as compared to that from experimental jute leaves.

Anwarul Islam

2003-01-01

88

Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

2013-01-01

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Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications  

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Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 ...

Ayub, M.; Ahmad, R.; Tanveer, A.; Ahmad, Hafiz Z.; Sharar, M. S.

1999-01-01

90

Adubação NPK e tamanho da batata-semente no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade de plantas de batata / NPK fertilization and potato tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato plants  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cultura da batata demanda alto investimento para a sua implantação. Dentre os insumos responsáveis pelo alto custo da lavoura, destacam-se os fertilizantes e a semente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-sementes no crescimento, produt [...] ividade e rentabilidade da cultura da batata. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura comercial de batata em Guarapuava-PR, a partir de dezembro de 2010. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de 0, 2, 4 e 6 t ha-1 do fertilizante mineral 4-14-08 (parcela) e batatas-semente do tipo I e III (subparcela), arranjados em esquema de parcela subdividida, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Foram avaliados o comprimento da haste principal, número de hastes, índice de área foliar, massa fresca e número de tubérculos, aos 24, 41 e 57 dias após a emergência, além de quantificar a produtividade comercial e o número de tubérculos no período da colheita. Calculou-se também a máxima eficiência técnica e econômica das doses de fertilizantes. Não houve interação significativa entre doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-semente em nenhuma característica analisada. As doses de fertilizantes influenciaram todas as características analisadas, sendo que, de modo geral, as maiores doses resultaram em maiores valores das características. Entretanto, as doses de fertilizantes influenciaram com menor intensidade o número de hastes, que foi a característica mais influenciada pelo tamanho da batata-semente, sendo maior em plantas oriundas de sementes do tipo I. O tamanho da batata-semente não influenciou a produtividade de tubérculos. Observou-se aumento da produtividade de tubérculos com o aumento da dose de fertilizante até 4,2 t ha-1, porém a máxima eficiência econômica foi atingida com 3,5 t ha-1 de fertilizante. Conclui-se, portanto, que a utilização da dose de 3,5 t ha-1 e batatas-semente do tipo III resultaram na melhor opção econômica para o produtor. Abstract in english Potato crops need high investment for its establishment. Among the inputs responsible for the high crop cost, fertilizers and seeds stand out. We identified the effect of fertilizer doses and tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato crop. The experiment was carried out in a comme [...] rcial potato field at Guarapuava, Paraná state, Brazil, beginning on December 2010. The treatments were 0, 2, 4 and 6 t ha-1 of mineral fertilizer (main plot) and potato seeds of type I and III (sub plot), arranged in a split-plot with three blocks. The analyzed characteristics were main stem length, number of stems, leaf area index, fresh weight and number of tubers at 24, 41 and 57 days after emergence, and marketable yield, number of tubers and maximum technical and economical doses of fertilizers at harvest. There was no significant interaction between fertilizer doses and potato seed tuber size for any analyzed characteristic. The doses of fertilizer influenced all the analyzed plant characteristics, where, in general, the higher dose resulted in higher values of the characteristics. However, the dose of fertilizers had low effect on the number of stems, which was the most influenced characteristic by the seed size; it was higher in plants from seed type I. The size of tuber seeds did not influence tuber yield. Tuber yield increased with increasing doses of fertilizer up to the dose of 4.2 t ha-1, but the maximum economic efficiency was achieved with 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizer. It is concluded, therefore, that the use of 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizers and potato-seed type III resulted in the best economic option for the growers.

Queiroz, Luiz Raphael de M; Kawakami, Jackson; Muller, Marcelo ML; Oliari, Ires Cristina R; Umburanas, Renan C; Eschemback, Vlandiney.

91

Adubação NPK e tamanho da batata-semente no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade de plantas de batata NPK fertilization and potato tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato plants  

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Full Text Available A cultura da batata demanda alto investimento para a sua implantação. Dentre os insumos responsáveis pelo alto custo da lavoura, destacam-se os fertilizantes e a semente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-sementes no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade da cultura da batata. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura comercial de batata em Guarapuava-PR, a partir de dezembro de 2010. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de 0, 2, 4 e 6 t ha-1 do fertilizante mineral 4-14-08 (parcela e batatas-semente do tipo I e III (subparcela, arranjados em esquema de parcela subdividida, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Foram avaliados o comprimento da haste principal, número de hastes, índice de área foliar, massa fresca e número de tubérculos, aos 24, 41 e 57 dias após a emergência, além de quantificar a produtividade comercial e o número de tubérculos no período da colheita. Calculou-se também a máxima eficiência técnica e econômica das doses de fertilizantes. Não houve interação significativa entre doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-semente em nenhuma característica analisada. As doses de fertilizantes influenciaram todas as características analisadas, sendo que, de modo geral, as maiores doses resultaram em maiores valores das características. Entretanto, as doses de fertilizantes influenciaram com menor intensidade o número de hastes, que foi a característica mais influenciada pelo tamanho da batata-semente, sendo maior em plantas oriundas de sementes do tipo I. O tamanho da batata-semente não influenciou a produtividade de tubérculos. Observou-se aumento da produtividade de tubérculos com o aumento da dose de fertilizante até 4,2 t ha-1, porém a máxima eficiência econômica foi atingida com 3,5 t ha-1 de fertilizante. Conclui-se, portanto, que a utilização da dose de 3,5 t ha-1 e batatas-semente do tipo III resultaram na melhor opção econômica para o produtor.Potato crops need high investment for its establishment. Among the inputs responsible for the high crop cost, fertilizers and seeds stand out. We identified the effect of fertilizer doses and tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato crop. The experiment was carried out in a commercial potato field at Guarapuava, Paraná state, Brazil, beginning on December 2010. The treatments were 0, 2, 4 and 6 t ha-1 of mineral fertilizer (main plot and potato seeds of type I and III (sub plot, arranged in a split-plot with three blocks. The analyzed characteristics were main stem length, number of stems, leaf area index, fresh weight and number of tubers at 24, 41 and 57 days after emergence, and marketable yield, number of tubers and maximum technical and economical doses of fertilizers at harvest. There was no significant interaction between fertilizer doses and potato seed tuber size for any analyzed characteristic. The doses of fertilizer influenced all the analyzed plant characteristics, where, in general, the higher dose resulted in higher values of the characteristics. However, the dose of fertilizers had low effect on the number of stems, which was the most influenced characteristic by the seed size; it was higher in plants from seed type I. The size of tuber seeds did not influence tuber yield. Tuber yield increased with increasing doses of fertilizer up to the dose of 4.2 t ha-1, but the maximum economic efficiency was achieved with 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizer. It is concluded, therefore, that the use of 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizers and potato-seed type III resulted in the best economic option for the growers.

Luiz Raphael de M Queiroz

2013-03-01

92

Effects of Pruning Levels and Fertilizer Rates on Yield of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.  

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Full Text Available Appropriate canopy management and proper application of fertilizer under different growing conditions and agronomic practices can obtain reliable yield of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pruning level in first year and fertilizer rate of combined NPK in the first and second years on growth and yield of three-year old physic. A split plot design with four replications was used. Three pruning levels of 50, 75 and 90 cm from the ground were assigned in main plots and combinations of NPK fertilizers at the rates of 0, 312.5 and 625 kg ha-1 were arranged randomly in subplots. All pruning levels from the ground did not have significant effects on branch number and branch length (cm, whereas application of fertilizer did increase branch number and branch length especially at the rate of 312.5 kg ha-1. Harvest in the second year gave higher yield (1,559 kg ha-1 than did in the first year (1,180 kg ha-1 for all treatments, suggesting that it is not necessary to prune physic nut every year in commercial plantations. It is recommended to prune the three-year old physic nut at 70 cm from the ground. Pruning at 90 cm from the ground is possible but not at 50 cm. it is also recommended to apply fertilizer to the three-year old physic nut under rainfed conditions at the rate not exceeding 312.5 kg ha-1 and this should be based on soil analysis. Application of higher rates depressed yield.

T. Kesmala

2011-01-01

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Alterações em atributos químicos de um solo submetido à adubação e cultivado com videira 'Niagara Rosada' / Changes on some soil chemical properties due to npk fertilization for 'Nigara Rosada' grapevine  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar alterações em atributos químicos do solo, causadas pela adubação com NPK em videira 'Niagara Rosada', coletaram-se amostras de solo provenientes de um experimento de campo executado em Louveira (SP), durante quatro ciclos de produção. O delineamento experimental foi em bloc [...] os ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³), com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses de N (0; 65; 130 e 195 kg/ha de N), P (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg/ha de P2O5) e K (0; 45; 90 e 135 kg/ha de K2O) aplicados em cada ciclo de produção. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas em forma fracionada, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. Na implantação do experimento, em agosto de 2005, e após quatro safras, em novembro de 2008, foram coletadas amostras de solo de 0 a 20 cm e de 20 a 40 cm de profundidade, determinando-se valores de pH (CaCl2), o teor de matéria orgânica, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al e calculada a soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases. Avaliaram-se, também, a produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos e das bagas. A adubação nitrogenada em videira determinou incrementos significativos na acidez do solo. Doses baixas de P e K foram suficientes para manter o teor de P e de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial, após quatro ciclos de produção. A produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos não foram influenciadas pela adubação com N, P e K. A adubação com N, P e K em vinhedos com alta disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo, condição comum na região de Louveira e Jundiaí, implica prejuízo econômico ao produtor, eleva os teores de nutrientes no solo acima das necessidades da cultura, podendo, ainda, aumentar o risco de contaminação ambiental. Abstract in english Soil samples were analyzed with the objective of investigating changes on some soil chemical properties due to NPK fertilization of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine. The samples were collected in a field experiment carried out in Louveira, Brazil, during four crop seasons. The experimental design was an i [...] ncomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were rates of N (0, 65, 130, and 195 kg/ha of N as NH4NO3), P (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha of P2O5 as triple superphosphate) and K (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg/ha of K2O as KCl) applied at each crop season. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) availability some chemical properties (organic matter, pH CaCl2, H+Al and base saturation) were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation (August, 2005) and after four production cycles (November, 2008). Soil samples were collected from layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Fruit yield and some physical characteristics of bunches and berries were evaluated. Soil pH decreased with increasing in N rates. Low rates of P and K were sufficient to maintain soil P and K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment. Grapevine production was not affected by NPK fertilization. The application of NPK fertilizers in vineyards with soils with high nutrient availability implies economic losses and environmental contamination risk.

Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Marco Antonio, Tecchio; Mara Fernandes, Moura; Maurilo Monteiro, Terra; Erasmo José Paioli, Pires; José Luiz, Hernandes.

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NPK Trial on Onion (Allium cepa L.  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum doze of NPK fertilizers for the onion (Allium cepa L., variety Phulkara on a loamy soil. The bed size was 4.5 x 4.0 m. Six fertilizer treatments were tested in RCBD for the height of plant (cm, number of leaves plant-1, single plant weight, bulb diameter (horizontal and vertical, bulb size (Volume and yield ha-1. Compared to other fertilizer treatments, the application of 80 N + 60 P2O5 + 40 K2O (kg ha-1 produced more leaves and largest bulb size and gave the highest onion yield (kg ha-1.

N.A. Deho

2002-01-01

95

PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PRODUKSI BEBERAPA AKSESI TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available [ENGLISH] The experiment was conducted in the Field Research, in Kumendung village, Muncar, Banyuwangi from November 2012 until February 2013. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect of NPK fertilizer in some accession of maize on it’s growth and production. It’s also evaluate the protein content of the accession under different fertilizer treatment. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replications. Main plot were NPK aplication rates (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 and the sub-plots were accesion number ( V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah ; V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning ; V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma ; and V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. An split plot statistical analysis of varience (ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5 % level of probability according to Hanafiah, (2005 was realized using the excel program. Growth and yield parameters recorded at different stages of crop growth and development. There were plant height, leaves number above the ear, leaves number under the ear, tassel emergence, silk emergence, physiologically ripe age, ear lenghth, ear weight, ear circumference, ear weight per plot, kernel weight, kernel weight per plot, 100-grain weight, and protein content. The result showed that no significant different affected by the defferent NPK application rates on these accession. Base on the character selection, the yielding of all accession were higher than Bisma variety. Content of the accession were 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; and 10,10 mg g-1 for V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively. Keywords: NPK Fertilizer; Maize accession; Production [INDONESIAN] Penelitian dilakukan di lahan Desa Kumendung Kecamatan Muncar Kabupaten Banyuwangi pada bulan November 2012 hingga Febuari 2013. Tujuan dari percobaan ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pupuk NPK terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi beberapa Aksesi jagung, dan mengevaluasi kadar protein yang terkandung didalamnya. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Split Plot dengan tiga ulangan. Petak utama adalah Pupuk NPK (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 dan sub-plot adalah aksesi jagung (V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah, V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning, V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma, dan V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. Hasil percobaan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis varian (ANOVA dan Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT pada taraf ? 5% (Hanafiah, 2005 dengan menggunakan program excel. Parameter pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun atas dan dibawah tongkol jagung, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbungan betina, umur masak fisiologis, berat tongkol per petak (kg, berat pipilan per petak (kg, berat tongkol per tanaman (g, panjang tongkol isi (cm, lingkar tongkol (cm, berat 100 biji per tanaman (g, dan kandungan protein biji jagung (mg g-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang nyata antar perlakuan yang dicobakan pada parameter yang diamati. Perlakuan penambahan pupuk NPK tidak menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata pada semua parameter. Berdasarkan pemilihan karakter, semua aksesi terpilih lebih tinggi dibanding varietas Bisma. Kandungan protein rata-rata aksesi yang diuji yaitu 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; dan 10,10 mg g-1 masing-masing untuk V1, V2, V3, dan V4. Kata Kunci: Pupuk NPK; Aksesi Jagung; Produksi How to citate: Pratikta D, S Hartatik, KA Wijaya. 2013. Pengaruh penambahan pupuk NPK terhadap produksi beberapa aksesi tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian 1(2: 19-21.

Danny Pratikta

2013-11-01

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Adubação do trigo: II - Experiências com N,P,K e S em Latossolo Vermelho escuro orto, na região sul do Estado de São Paulo Fertilizer experiments with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.: II.  

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Full Text Available Em Latossolo Vermelho Escuro orto, de baixa fertilidade e até então não adubado, foram realizados dois ensaios de adubação N, P, K e S em cultura de trigo (Triticum aestlvum L., em áreas diferentes do município de Itapeva, SP, nos anos de 1969 e 1970. Empregou-se delineamento Central Composto. Os dados obtidos mostraram grandes efeitos do nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio e enxofre. Foram calculadas as quantidades de nitrogênio e de fósforo para a obtenção de maior lucro por área, para as relações de preços entre N e P - 1,5:1, 1,33:1 e 1:1 - considerando-se fixa a dose de 30 kg/ha de K(20, e calculadas as quantidades de K(20 necessárias para a obtenção de maior lucro por área, para diferentes relações de preços do potássio, com um suprimento constante de 60 kg/ha de N e 60 kg/ha de P(20(3.This work presents the results of two N, P, K, S mineral fertilizer trials with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. carried out at Itapeva, SP, in 1969 and 1971 on Dark Red Latosol soil. The average results observed in these trials show high effects associated to nitrogen (30 kg/ha N increased 118 kg/ha in the production, to phosphorus (30 kg/ha P(20(5 incr. 189 kg/ha, and to potassium (15 kg/ha K(20 incr. 82 kg/ha. Sulphur increased the production in 11% in relation to the treatment without fertilizer and in 5% in relation to the complete mineral fertilizer. An economic study of NPK wheat fertilizing was drawn with the data of the experiments.

Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

1972-01-01

97

Características fisicas e químicas do látex e crescimento da seringueira em função da calagem e da adubação NPK em dois sistemas de explotação Latex physical and chemistry characteristics and growth of rubber tree as a function of lime and NPK fertilization in two tapping systems  

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Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de diferentes combinações de NPK, com e sem calagem, sobre as características físicas e químicas do látex e as condições de explotação da seringueira (Hevea sp., clone RRIM 600, foi conduzido um experimento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas contendo oito tratamentos: sem adubação e sem calagem (T1, sem adubação e com calagem (T2, N1P1K0 + calagem (T3, N2P2K0 + calagem (T4, N1P1K1 + calagem (T5, N2P2K1 + calagem (T6, N1P1K2 + calagem (T7 e N2P2K2 + calagem (T8. Nas duas subparcelas, foram utilizados os seguintes sistemas de explotação: (S1 ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2 ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y com quatro repetições. As doses utilizadas corresponderam a 0, 40 e 80 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, 0, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o incremento no perímetro do tronco não foi influenciado pelo efeito da interação entre 'adubação+calagem' vs. 'sistemas de explotação'. O aumento da espessura da casca foi afetado pelos tratamentos 'N0P0K0+calagem' e 'calagem+adubação', quando comparado com o tratamento 'N0P0K0 sem calagem'. Plantas submetidas ao tratamento N1P1K0 + calagem e ao sistema ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y apresentam maiores concentrações de sacarose no látex.The objective of this study was to evaluated physiological latex characteristics and the tapping systems of the clone RRIM 600 of rubber tree (Hevea sp. an experiment was conducted with continuous supply NPK fertilizers with or without lime. The experiment was conducted in a randomized split-plot design with eight treatments: without fertilizer and without lime (T1, without fertilizer and with lime (T2, N1P1K0 + lime (T3, N2P2K0 + lime (T4, N1P1K1 + lime (T5, N2P2K1 + lime (T6, N1P1K2 + lime (T7 e N2P2K2 + lime (T8. In the two sub-treatments the following tapping systems were used: (S1 ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2 ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y with four replicates. The rates used were 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 y-1; 0, 17.5 e 35.0 kg ha-1 y-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33.2 e 66.4 kg ha-1 y-1 de K2O. The interaction of fertilizer with or without lime versus tapping system did not affect trunk girth increment. The bark thickness was significantly increased with liming, and N1P1K0 and tapping system ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y increased latex saccharose concentration.

Adonias De Castro Virgens Filho

2003-12-01

98

Características fisicas e químicas do látex e crescimento da seringueira em função da calagem e da adubação NPK em dois sistemas de explotação / Latex physical and chemistry characteristics and growth of rubber tree as a function of lime and NPK fertilization in two tapping systems  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de diferentes combinações de NPK, com e sem calagem, sobre as características físicas e químicas do látex e as condições de explotação da seringueira (Hevea sp.), clone RRIM 600, foi conduzido um experimento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas contendo oit [...] o tratamentos: sem adubação e sem calagem (T1), sem adubação e com calagem (T2), N1P1K0 + calagem (T3), N2P2K0 + calagem (T4), N1P1K1 + calagem (T5), N2P2K1 + calagem (T6), N1P1K2 + calagem (T7) e N2P2K2 + calagem (T8). Nas duas subparcelas, foram utilizados os seguintes sistemas de explotação: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y com quatro repetições. As doses utilizadas corresponderam a 0, 40 e 80 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, 0, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o incremento no perímetro do tronco não foi influenciado pelo efeito da interação entre 'adubação+calagem' vs. 'sistemas de explotação'. O aumento da espessura da casca foi afetado pelos tratamentos 'N0P0K0+calagem' e 'calagem+adubação', quando comparado com o tratamento 'N0P0K0 sem calagem'. Plantas submetidas ao tratamento N1P1K0 + calagem e ao sistema ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y apresentam maiores concentrações de sacarose no látex. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluated physiological latex characteristics and the tapping systems of the clone RRIM 600 of rubber tree (Hevea sp.) an experiment was conducted with continuous supply NPK fertilizers with or without lime. The experiment was conducted in a randomized split-plot d [...] esign with eight treatments: without fertilizer and without lime (T1), without fertilizer and with lime (T2), N1P1K0 + lime (T3), N2P2K0 + lime (T4), N1P1K1 + lime (T5), N2P2K1 + lime (T6), N1P1K2 + lime (T7) e N2P2K2 + lime (T8). In the two sub-treatments the following tapping systems were used: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y with four replicates. The rates used were 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 y-1; 0, 17.5 e 35.0 kg ha-1 y-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33.2 e 66.4 kg ha-1 y-1 de K2O. The interaction of fertilizer with or without lime versus tapping system did not affect trunk girth increment. The bark thickness was significantly increased with liming, and N1P1K0 and tapping system ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y increased latex saccharose concentration.

Adonias De Castro, Virgens Filho; Adônis, Moreira; Paulo Roberto de Camargo e, Castro.

99

Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental / Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol), no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualm [...] ente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N) na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5) na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O) na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente. Abstract in english The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic) in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually eve [...] ry year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N) in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5) in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O) in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three replicates, being the treatments disposed as an incomplete factorial. The spacing was of 3.0 m between lines and 2.5 m between plants with six useful plants per plot. The results evidenced positive response of nitrogen in relation to black pepper grain yield with the application of 72 and 78 kg ha-1 of N, for cultivars Cingapura and Bragantina, respectively. Only cultivar Guajarina responded to the phosphorus application. Growing levels of K2O, reduced the present potassium content in the foliar tissue of the peppers. The potassium addition favored the increase of the production of grains with the application of 42, 13 and 22 kg ha-1 of K2O, for the Cingapura, Bragantina and Guajarina cultivars, respectively.

Carlos Alberto Costa, Veloso; Eduardo Jorge Maklouf, Carvalho; Eurípedes, Malavolta; Takashi, Muraoka.

100

Crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis em diferentes tamanhos de tubetes e fertilização N-P-K Growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in different sized tubes and N-P-K'fertilization  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado com o objetivo de estudar o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis produzidas em diferentes tamanhos de tubetes e fertilização N-P-K. O substrato utilizado foi uma mistura de 80% de composto orgânico (CO e de 20% de moinha de carvão (MC, adubados com a presença e ausência dos elementos N, P e K. Como embalagens foram utilizados quatro tamanhos de tubetes de plástico rígido, com volumes de 50, 110, 200 e 280 cm³. Os volumes dos tubetes devem ser considerados para produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. Apesar de os melhores crescimentos terem sido obtidos nos maiores tubetes, estes não devem ser utilizados, uma vez que as alturas das mudas estão acima das tecnicamente ótimas para o plantio, além de o custo de produção ser onerado. Aos 60 dias de idade as mudas ainda estão pequenas e bastante tenras, sem o endurecimento adequado para o plantio no campo. Aos 120 dias após a semeadura a restrição ao crescimento das raízes e da altura das mudas é afetada, mesmo nos tubetes de maiores volumes, não sendo essa a idade indicada. O tubete de 110 cm³ de volume deve ser considerado para mudas com 90 dias de idade.An experiment was carried out to study the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in different sized tubes and N-P-K fertilization. A mixture of 80% organic compound (CO and 20% charcoal powder fertilized with and without N, P and K was used as substrate. Four sizes of hard plastic tubes at the volumes of 50, 110, 200 and 280 cm³ were used as containers. The tube volumes must be considered for producing Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Although the highest growths occurred in the larger tubes, these tubes should not be used because the seedling heights far surpass the ones considered as technically optimum for planting, and have a higher production cost. At 60 days of age, the seedlings are still small and quite tender, and do not present the hardness appropriate to field planting. At 120 days after sowing, the restriction to root growth and seedling height is affected even in the larger tubes, thus this is not the indicated age. The 110 cm³ volume tube must be considered for 90-day old seedlings.

José Mauro Gomes

2003-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Efeito de doses de NPK sobre os teores de nutrientes nas folhas e no solo, e na produtividade do maracujazeiro amarelo / Effect of NPK on nutrient levels in leaves and soil, and on yield of yellow passion fruit  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a influência das adubações com nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio nos teores de nutrientes das folhas do maracujazeiro amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) e em propriedades químicas do solo, tendo em vista maximizar a produtividade e otimizar a prática da adubação. O expe [...] rimento foi conduzido no período de maio/96 a abril/98, em Latossolo Amarelo do Município de Cruz das Almas (BA). Empregou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial fracionado ½ de 4³, com dois blocos incompletos, avaliando-se quatro doses de N (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg ha-1 ano-1), de P2O5 (0, 80, 160 e 240 kg ha-1 ano-1) e de K2O (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg ha-1 ano-1). Amostragens de solo e folhas foram realizadas aos 12 e 24 meses após o plantio, bem como foi avaliada a produtividade no primeiro e no segundo ano. A adubação nitrogenada não influenciou os teores de N na folha, mas diminuiu os de boro e reduziu o pH do solo no segundo ano de cultivo. A adubação fosfatada aumentou, em média, apenas 12% os teores de P nas folhas e 35 vezes no solo. A adubação potássica elevou os teores do nutriente nas folhas do maracujazeiro, e no solo a valores acima do nível ótimo. A produtividade máxima de 22,1 t ha-1, em dois anos de cultivo, foi obtida com a aplicação de 244 kg de N, 72 kg de P2O5 e 285 kg ha-1 de K2O. Abstract in english This work evaluated the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization on nutrient levels in the leaves of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) and on the chemical properties of the soil, in order to maximize yield and optimize fertilizer applications. The experime [...] nt was carried out from May/96 to April/98, on a Yellow Latosol, in Cruz das Almas city, State of Bahia, Brazil. It was used a randomized block design, in a fractionated factorial arrangement ½ of 4³, with two incompleted blocks. It was evaluated four doses of N (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1), of P2O5 (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1 year-1) and K2O (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg ha-1 year-1). Soil samples and leaves were collected at 12 and 24 months after planting. Yield was evaluated in the first and second production years. Nitrogen fertilization did not affect the N level in the leaves but decreased boron and reduced the soil pH during the second production year. Phosphorus fertilization increased, in average, only 12% of the P levels in the leaves, and 35 times in soil. Potassium fertilization increased nutrient contents in leaves and in soil over the optimum level. Maximum yield of 22 t ha-1, during two years, was obtained with application of 244 kg of N, 72 kg of P2O5 and 285 kg of K2O ha-1.

ANA LÚCIA, BORGES; RANULFO CORREA, CALDAS; ADELISE DE ALMEIDA, LIMA; ISRAEL ELY DE, ALMEIDA.

102

Eficiencia de uso de n-p-k en una asociación de maíz (zea mays l. Y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan l. Millspaugh con o sin fertilización Use efficiency of N-P-K intercropping system of corn Zea mays L. and pigeonpea Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh with or without fertilization  

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Full Text Available RESUMEN La práctica del monocultivo representa una de las principales causas de los desequilibrios en el ambiente y en el suelo en la depresión de Quíbor, en el estado Lara, Venezuela. Con el objeto de ofrecer alternativas de producción se estudió la eficiencia de uso de N, P y K en plantas de maíz y quinchoncho, conducidas como monocultivo o en asociación, sin fertilización o con aplicación de 120 kg·ha-1 N y 30 kg·ha-1 P, en un ensayo tipo aditivo en bloques al azar con cinco repeticiones. Se determinó la acumulación de estos elementos en las etapas de desarrollo vegetativo, floración y maduración de frutos así como la eficiencia de absorción y conversión en términos absolutos para la etapa de maduración. Se encontró una mayor absorción de N y K en el maíz asociado en comparación con el monocultivo. El quinchoncho mostró una mayor acumulación de N y P en el monocultivo, y el asociado resultó desfavorecido independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizante. La eficiencia de conversión absoluta presentó tendencias opuestas a la absorción, siendo superior para el maíz monocultivo respecto al asociado, mientras que en el quinchoncho ocurrió lo contrario, el asociado tuvo una mejor eficiencia de conversión absoluta para la elaboración de granos. Los valores de la relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET por elemento, calculados con base en las eficiencias de absorción y conversión de N, P y K, indicaron ventajas de las asociaciones sobre los monocultivos, independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizanteABSTRACT An experiment was conducted in Quíbor Valley, Lara State, Venezuela, to evaluate the use efficiency of the elements N, P and K in plants of maize and pigeonpea sewed as monocrops or intercrops. Plants were grown without fertilizer application, or under 120 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen and 30 kg·ha-1 of phosphorus. It was measured the absorption of nutrients during plant vegetative growth, flowering and fruit maturation, along with the efficiency of absorption and conversion in absolute terms during the maturation stage, using a randomized block design with five replications. The results showed a higher absorption of N and K in intercropping corn in comparison with sole crop. In pigeonpea, there was a higher accumulation of N and P in the sole crop plot, and the intercropping was more affected independently of the fertilizer application. Efficiency of absolute conversion had opposed tendencies when it was compared to the absorption, therefore corn in monocrop was superior to the intercrop. In pigeonpea opposite result was observed. The land equivalent ratio (LER for N-PK, based on their absorption and conversion efficiencies, indicated advantages of intercropping over the sole crop regardless of the fertilizer application

Ana Isabel Quiroz

2007-08-01

103

LIMING AND FERTILIZING FOR MAHOGANI (Switenia macrophylla King. SEEDLING FORMATION  

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Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important phases of the cultivation of forest species. Seedlings ofappropriate quality are fundamental in the growth and development of the species. In the production of seedlings, the substratum isfundamental for the good development of the plants. However, the subsoil in general, is acid and it contains low levels of nutritious.The acidity of the soil and the deficiency of nutrients can be corrected through liming and mineral fertilization. The objective of thepresent work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of the fertilization of the soil for the production of mahogany seedlings. Theexperiment was carried out in the period of 120 days, in the Federal University of Amazonas, UFAM. The experimental design wasrandomized complete blocks with statistical analysis in split plot. The plots were composed with eight treatments and four repetitionsand the subplots were eight sampling times of the plants. The treatments were control (natural soil, liming, corrective phosphate,fertilizing with NPK, liming + corrective phosphate, corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK, liming + fertilizing with NPK andliming + corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK. It was concluded that the associated liming and corrective phosphate and withthe fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium promoted the smallest levels of exchangeable aluminum and the largestlevels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in the soil. These levels of nutrients in the soil caused larger levels ofnutrients in the plants, providing larger growth rate. The liming, corrective phosphate and fertilizing are a fundamental practices inthe formation of mahogany seedlings.

Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

2007-09-01

104

THE EFFECT OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON GRAIN YIELD OF MAIZE IN VARIOUS EARLINESS CLASS  

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Full Text Available The research aimed to determine the effect of mineral fertilization (NPK on grain yield of maize in various earliness classes. The field experiment was conducted on very good wheat soil complex (degraded chernozem formed from loess in the years 2006-2009. The analysed factors were NPK fertilization with 150; 300; 450 kgha-1 and non-fertilized treatment. The second order factor was three maize cultivars: early Fido c.v., medium early Grom c.v. and medium late PR38F70. Increase in mineral fertilization (NPK level influenced a growth of maize grain yield from 8.39 tha-1 on the non-fertilized treatment to 10.69 tha-1after the application of the highest fertilizer dose.

Aleksander SZMIGIEL

2013-03-01

105

Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor  

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Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron, Aretit (dinoseb acetate, Gesatop 50 (simazine was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v. An increase of ß-carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (ß-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

Wies?aw Wójcik

1983-12-01

106

Eficiencia de uso de n-p-k en una asociación de maíz (zea mays l.) Y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan l. Millspaugh) con o sin fertilización / Use efficiency of N-P-K intercropping system of corn Zea mays L. and pigeonpea Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh with or without fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN La práctica del monocultivo representa una de las principales causas de los desequilibrios en el ambiente y en el suelo en la depresión de Quíbor, en el estado Lara, Venezuela. Con el objeto de ofrecer alternativas de producción se estudió la eficiencia de uso de N, P y K en plantas de maíz [...] y quinchoncho, conducidas como monocultivo o en asociación, sin fertilización o con aplicación de 120 kg·ha-1 N y 30 kg·ha-1 P, en un ensayo tipo aditivo en bloques al azar con cinco repeticiones. Se determinó la acumulación de estos elementos en las etapas de desarrollo vegetativo, floración y maduración de frutos así como la eficiencia de absorción y conversión en términos absolutos para la etapa de maduración. Se encontró una mayor absorción de N y K en el maíz asociado en comparación con el monocultivo. El quinchoncho mostró una mayor acumulación de N y P en el monocultivo, y el asociado resultó desfavorecido independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizante. La eficiencia de conversión absoluta presentó tendencias opuestas a la absorción, siendo superior para el maíz monocultivo respecto al asociado, mientras que en el quinchoncho ocurrió lo contrario, el asociado tuvo una mejor eficiencia de conversión absoluta para la elaboración de granos. Los valores de la relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET) por elemento, calculados con base en las eficiencias de absorción y conversión de N, P y K, indicaron ventajas de las asociaciones sobre los monocultivos, independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizante Abstract in english ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted in Quíbor Valley, Lara State, Venezuela, to evaluate the use efficiency of the elements N, P and K in plants of maize and pigeonpea sewed as monocrops or intercrops. Plants were grown without fertilizer application, or under 120 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen and 30 kg·ha-1 [...] of phosphorus. It was measured the absorption of nutrients during plant vegetative growth, flowering and fruit maturation, along with the efficiency of absorption and conversion in absolute terms during the maturation stage, using a randomized block design with five replications. The results showed a higher absorption of N and K in intercropping corn in comparison with sole crop. In pigeonpea, there was a higher accumulation of N and P in the sole crop plot, and the intercropping was more affected independently of the fertilizer application. Efficiency of absolute conversion had opposed tendencies when it was compared to the absorption, therefore corn in monocrop was superior to the intercrop. In pigeonpea opposite result was observed. The land equivalent ratio (LER) for N-PK, based on their absorption and conversion efficiencies, indicated advantages of intercropping over the sole crop regardless of the fertilizer application

Ana Isabel, Quiroz; Douglas, Marín.

107

Use of Gypsum to Increase Fertilizer Efficiency on Normal Soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field experiments were conducted on maize and wheat under normal soil conditions at Qalla, Charsadda and Tarnab, Peshawar irrigated with canal water to evaluate the effect of gypsum application on the efficiency of NPK fertilizers. Gypsum was applied @ 0, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 with two levels of fertilizers i.e. recommended dose of NPK (120,90, 60 kg ha-1) and half dose (60, 45 and 30 kg ha-1) respectively. Maximum grain (3605 kg ha-1) and stalk (992...

Niazi, Banaras H.; Izhar-ul-Haq; Salim, M.; Manzoor Ahmad

2003-01-01

108

Soil Fertility Problems in Cetnral Rechna Doab  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the fertility status of soil in the central Rechna Doab area. Fertility of the whole Central Rechna Doab area was low, Phosphorus in particular was low in all soils, and some soil samples were Potassium deficient while few were low in nitrogen. The situation can be brought to medium fertility level by using proper amount of NPK on the basis of soil test evaluation. However, a high fertility level can only be achieved by all round efforts on scientific basis.

Muhammad Arshad

1999-01-01

109

Soil Fertility Problems in Cetnral Rechna Doab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was conducted to evaluate the fertility status of soil in the central Rechna Doab area. Fertility of the whole Central Rechna Doab area was low, Phosphorus in particular was low in all soils, and some soil samples were Potassium deficient while few were low in nitrogen. The situation can be brought to medium fertility level by using proper amount of NPK on the basis of soil test evaluation. However, a high fertility level can only be achieved by all round efforts on scientific basis.

Muhammad Arshad; Abida Akram

1999-01-01

110

[Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].  

Science.gov (United States)

Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2. PMID:24558863

Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

2013-11-01

111

Effect of Application of Biofertilizer on the Yield and NPK Uptake of Some Wheat Genotypes as Affected by the Biological Properties of Soil  

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The effect of some wheat genotype grains inoculated with Azosperillum brasilense and Azorhizobium caulinodanse on wheat yield and NPK uptake was evaluated under different levels of liquid N-fertilization (0, 50 and 100% from the recommended N Kg/fed). Inoculation with any biofertilizer leads to considerable improvement in wheat grain and straw yield as compared with their respective control. However response differed according to the type of boifertilizers. The superiority relat...

El-hawary, M. I.; El-hawary Fatma, I.; El-ghamry, A. M.; El-naggar, E.

2002-01-01

112

Multiple Equilibria between Fertility Rates and Pension Levels Based on the Target Level of Government Debt  

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Full Text Available We show that when the government has a target debt level, multiple equilibria exist in the relationship between fertility rates and pension levels. One is associated with a high fertility rate and a high pension level. The other is associated with a low fertility rate and a low pension level. If the government fails to provide adequate security for individuals during their retirement years, it would result in a failure of coordination between the government and individuals.

Hideki Nakamura

2011-11-01

113

Gross alpha and beta activities and trace heavy elemental concentration levels in chemical fertilizers and agricultural farm soils in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The gross alpha (? and beta (? activities and trace heavy elemental concentrations have been determined in Single Super Phosphate (SSP and Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium (NPK fertilizers samples used for agricultural purposes in Nigeria. Cultivated farm soil samples from two regions (north and south in the country and samples of phosphate rocks were also analyzed for gross ? and ? radioactivity and elemental concentrations. The beta activity concentration in the NPK (15-15-15 fertilizers was found to vary from 2410.0 ± 80.0 Bq·kg–1 to 4560 ± 140.0 Bq·kg–1, between 1340.0 ± 70.0 Bq·kg–1 and 1440.0 ± 70.0 Bq·kg–1 in the Single Super phosphate fertilizers while in the farm soil it ranged between 360.0 ± 40.0 Bq·kg–1 to 570.0 ± 50.0 for the north samples and 200.0 ± 50.0 to 230.0 ± 20 Bq·kg–1 for the south samples. The alpha activities in the NPK fertilizers was found to vary from 20.0 ± 10.0 to 90.0 ± 20.0 Bq·kg–1, in the SSP it varied from 60.0 ± 20.0 to 100.0 ± 20.0 Bq·kg–1 while in the soil samples it varied from 8.0 ± 6.0 to 40.0 ± 10.0 Bq

N. N. Jibiri

2013-01-01

114

Impact of long-term fertilization practice on soil structure evolution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agricultural soil structure plays a central role for plant growth and development by controlling root penetration and the availability of water, air and essential nutrients. The factors contributing to soil structure development and evolution are so complex that it is not yet possible to precisely predict the impact of a particular management practice. In this study, we characterized the soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizers over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm height) were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil physical properties including texture, water retention, and air permeability and diffusion were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Soil textural analysis revealed that AM and NPK applications had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 1.53% (unfertilized plot) to 2.37% (well fertilized plot, NPK and 30 T ha-1 2y-1 AM). Total porosity closely followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.37 to 0.43 m3 m-3. The water-holding capacity of the soils was also greatly improved with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Air permeability and diffusion measurements clearly indicated that all soils were sufficiently aerated for plant growth. However, the level of aeration was higher for well-fertilized soils. The X-ray CT 3D visualizations revealed higher biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized soils when compared to plots without or small amount of fertilizer application. A combined evaluation of the water retention, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggests that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved for soils fertilized with AM and NPK as compared to soils with AM only.

Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per

2014-01-01

115

Use of Gypsum to Increase Fertilizer Efficiency on Normal Soils  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on maize and wheat under normal soil conditions at Qalla, Charsadda and Tarnab, Peshawar irrigated with canal water to evaluate the effect of gypsum application on the efficiency of NPK fertilizers. Gypsum was applied @ 0, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 with two levels of fertilizers i.e. recommended dose of NPK (120,90, 60 kg ha-1 and half dose (60, 45 and 30 kg ha-1 respectively. Maximum grain (3605 kg ha-1 and stalk (9922 kg ha-1 yield of maize was recorded at Qalla by the application of recommended dose of NPK with 1000 kg gypsum ha-1. The NPK with 500 kg gypsum ha-1 ranked second in this respect. Half dose of the NPK without any gypsum gave minimum grain (2248 kg ha-1 and stalk (3435 kg ha-1 yield. The yields were non- significantly different at Tarnab under the same treatment compared with that of Qalla. During the second year, the soil conditions improved and yield of grain (2883 kg ha-1 as well as stalk (15833 kg ha-1 was better at both sites. Wheat yield was non-significantly different at Tarnab. Uptake of different ions was variable. Uptake of P, K, Zn and Cu decreased while that of Mn and Fe increased during the second year. Maximum yield of maize grain (2883 kg ha-1 and stalk (15833 kg ha-1 with half dose and wheat grain (3605 kg ha-1 and stalk (12910 kg ha-1 was obtained by application of 1000 kg ha-1 gypsum with full dose of NPK.

Banaras H. Niazi

2003-01-01

116

Bio-economics of autumn planted sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under different NPK applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were undertaken to evaluate the response of autumn planted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to different levels of N, P and K fertilizers at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during, 2004 and 2005. Treatments comprised five N levels (0, 60. 90, 120 and 150 kg ha/sup -1/), five P levels (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/), four K levels (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/) in different combinations and two hybrids viz. FH-314 (standard height) and FH-245 (semi dwarf). Hybrid FH-314 produced significantly higher achene yield (2725.41 kg ha/sup -1/) than that of FH-245. There was a progressive increase in achene yield and yield components With increasing levels of N, P and K. The highest achene yield (3023 kg ha/sup -1/) and highest net benefit (Rs.19743) was obtained when the crop was fertilized at the rate 120:90:60 kg NPK ha/sub -1/. (author)

2008-01-01

117

Effects of Organic-Chemical Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Rice (Chai Nat 1)  

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A field experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of organic-chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer (NPK 16:16:8) on the growth and yield of rice Chai Nat 1 in Roi-Et province, Northeast Thailand. Organic-chemical fertilizer was developed from organic fertilizer 82+9.0 kg of NPK 46:0:0 + 4.5 kg of NPK 18:46:0 and 4.5 kg of NPK 0:0:60. Five treatments were compared consisting of : T1 (control without fertilizer); T2 (312.5 kg ha-1 organic-ch...

Sopit Vetayasuporn

2012-01-01

118

Efecto de la presión de pastoreo y fertilización NPK sobre la composición botánica de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero en la zona alta del estado Mérida / Grazing pressure and NPK fertilization effects on botanical composition of kikuyu grass - perennial peanut association in highlands of Mérida state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de determinar la mejor presión de pastoreo y fertilización con nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio que permita mantener un balance en la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero, se condujo un experimento en Jají, estado Mérida, Venezuela. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repetici [...] ones, en un arreglo factorial de los tratamientos en parcelas divididas, donde en la parcela principal se aplicaron dos presiones de pastoreo (PPA: 800 y PPB: 1.600 kg MS residual/ha) y en la secundaria las combinaciones de dos niveles de nitrógeno (0 y 200 kg/ha/año), tres de fósforo (0, 150 y 300 kg P2O5/ha/año) y dos de potasio (0 y 200 kg K2O/ha/año), evaluándose la composición botánica al inicio y al final del experimento. El porcentaje de kikuyo en la mezcla disminuyó un 11%, mientras que el maní forrajero incrementó un 9%. Los componentes de biomasa muerta y del pasto Cynodon sp disminuyeron en 3 y 0,79%, respectivamente. La presión de pastoreo y sus interacciones no influyeron significativamente en los diferentes componentes de la mezcla; sin embargo, la tendencia del kikuyo en la asociación fue a declinar más en la presión de pastoreo baja (13,1%) que en la alta (8,1%), mientras que el porcentaje de maní incrementó en la asociación en ambos sistemas con 12,8 y 6,1%, respectivamente. El porcentaje del kikuyo en la mezcla fue afectado por el nitrógeno (P Abstract in english To obtain the best combination of the grazing pressure and fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium that allow a good balance in the species kikuyu grass-perennial peanut association, a field grazing experiment was conducted in Jají, Mérida state, Venezuela. A complete randomized block [...] design was used, with three replications. The treatments were a factorial in a split plot arrangement. Two grazing pressures were applied to main plots (HGP: 800 and LGP: 1600 kg residual DM/ha) and two levels of nitrogen (0 and 200 kg N/ha), three of phosphorus (0, 150, and 300 kg P2O5), and two of potassium (0 and 200 kg K2O/ha) were applied to sub-plots. Botanical composition was estimated at the beginning and the end of the trial. Percent of kikuyu grass in the mixture decreased 11%, while perennial peanut increased in 9%. Also, dead material and the grass Cynodon sp decreased 3 and 0.79%, respectively. The grazing pressure factor and its interactions were not significant, but the tendency for the components of the association was that kikuyu grass decreased 13.1% in the LGP and 8.1% in HGP, but perennial peanut increased in both systems 12.8% and 6.1%, respectively. Nitrogen application and N x K interaction were significant (P

Diannelis, Urbano; Fernando, Castro; Ciro, Dávila.

119

NPK Trial on Onion (Allium cepa L.)  

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A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum doze of NPK fertilizers for the onion (Allium cepa L.), variety Phulkara on a loamy soil. The bed size was 4.5 x 4.0 m. Six fertilizer treatments were tested in RCBD for the height of plant (cm), number of leaves plant-1, single plant weight, bulb diameter (horizontal and vertical), bulb size (Volume) and yield ha-1. Compared to other fertilizer treatments, the application of 80 N + 60 P2O5<...

Deho, N. A.; Wagan, M. R.; Baloach, M. K.; Rajpar, I.; Keerio, M. I.

2002-01-01

120

Mineral fertilizers as a source of radioactive contamination of the soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agrotechnical measures necessary to enhance crop yields markedly contribute to the radioactivity level of the environment. Mineral fertilizers contain various radionuclides, depending on the source of the raw material used for their production. Among them, uranium ( 235U and 238U) and descendants of its radioactive decay are considered to be the most dangerous for human health. The content of some natural radionuclides was determined in seven kinds of mineral fertilizers: ammonium-nitrate (AN), urea, calcareous ammonium-nitrate (KAN), monoammonium-phosphate (MAP), NPK, potassium-chloride (KCl) and superphosphate (SP). Activities of 40K and 137Cs were also determined. Samples were analysed on gamma spectrometers with NaI (8192 and 4096 channels) and semiconductor (germanium) detectors. Considerable activity levels of 40K were found especially in NPK and KCl, while SP contained the highest level of uranium. Activity levels of 137Cs were well below the prescribed limits. (author)

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Nutrição mineral de plantas ornamentais: VII. estudos de adubação NPK na cultura de gladíolo (Gladiolus grandiflorus, cv. 'Perusi') / Mineral nutrition of ornamental plants: VII. studies on N, P, K fertilization of gladiolus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Três doses de N, P e K foram testadas em culturas de gladíolos (Gladiolus grandiflorus cv. 'Perusi') provenientes de três tamanhos diferentes de bulbos (Nº 3, Nº 1 e Jumbo). Todos os tratos culturais necessários foram dispensados aos experimentos cuja instalação se deu em um solo podzolizado da Coop [...] erativa Agrícola de Holambra, em Jaguariúna - SP. Estudaram-se os efeitos de adubação sobre produção de flores, produção de bulbos e de bulbilhos. A resposta do gladíolo aos níveis de fertilização variou bastante com o tamanho de bulbo plantado. São discutidos os efeitos de cada nutriente sobre as características estudadas. Abstract in english Studies on N, P. K fertilization of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus, cv. 'Perusi'). At the Agricultural Cooperative of Holambra, Jaguariúna SP, experiments with gladiolus were conducted with the objective of studying the effects of increasing dosis of N, R and K on the floral stems and corms produ [...] ction. The response of gladiolus to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium varied with the size of the corm that was planted. The effects of each nutrient on several characteristics of plants are discussed.

Fernandes, Pedro Dantas; Haag, Henrique Paulo; Simão, Salim; Mattos, Jairo Ribeiro de.

122

Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pirolygneous extract on vegetative development palm phoenix (Phoenix roebeleniiAdubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas de palmeiras fênix (Phoenix roebelenii  

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Full Text Available The effect of the use of chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pirolygneous extract (EPL was evaluated in the width and number of leaves of seedlings of phoenix palms. The plants were fertilizer with organic castor bean, chemical fertilizer NPK 20-05-20 formula and EPL concentrations of 0,1 and 0,2%. The length of the longest leaf and leaf number were evaluated monyhly for one from the start of the experiment. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test at 5% significance level. Treatment organic fertilizer and EPL 0,1% + organic fertilization increased the number of leaves of palm phoenix plants. Mineral fertilizer NPK combined or not with EPL provided no increases in length and number of leaves. The EPL itself did not change the parameters. O efeito da utilização da adubação química, da adubação orgânica e do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL foi avaliado no comprimento e número de folhas de mudas de palmeiras fênix. As plantas receberam adubação orgânica com torta de mamona, química com o fertilizante mineral NPK na fórmula 20-05- 20 e EPL nas concentrações de 0,1 e 0,2%. O comprimento da maior folha e o número de folhas foram avaliados mensalmente durante um ano desde o início do experimento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste Tukey, a 5% de significância. O tratamento adubação orgânica isolada e adubação orgânica +EPL promoveu aumento no comprimento e no número de folhas das plantas de palmeiras fênix. O fertilizante mineral NPK, combinado ou não com o EPL, não proporcionou incrementos no comprimento e número de folhas das plantas. O EPL isoladamente não alterou os parâmetros avaliados.

Maurício Ursi Ventura

2012-12-01

123

[Effects of long-term fertilization on evolution of S forms in a red soil and a black soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur (S) forms in two contrasting soils (a red soil and a black soil) under different long-term fertilization treatments (from 1990 to 2011) from the National Long-term Monitoring Network of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Effects of China were investigated using a fractionation scheme in order to explore the distribution and transportation of S with different forms in the soils. The soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) horizons that were treated with no fertilizers (CK), nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers (NPK), or NPK plus organic manures (MNPK) since 1990. The results indicated that when compared with the CK, total S contents in the topsoil layers treated with NPK and MNPK were increased by 42% and 33% for the red soil, and by 6% and 76% for the black soil, respectively, while the total S in the subsoil layer was less affected by the fertilization treatments and obviously lower than in the topsoil layer except for the red soil treated with NPK. The main forms of inorganic S in the red soil and black soil were found to be available S and HCl-extracted S, respectively. The application of NPK and MNPK increased the available S by 447% and 102% in the topsoil layer of the red soil compared with CK, and facilitated the transportation of available S into the lower depth. In contrast, NPK and MNPK only increased the available S by 54% and 93% in the topsoil layer of the black soil, and showed a slight influence on available S in the subsoil. The organic S forms were predominantly composed of ester S and residual S in the two soils. Under long-term fertilization, the residual S significantly increased over 32% and 55% in the topsoil and subsoil layers, respectively, compared with CK. The ester S and carbon-bonded S, which were relatively active, were less affected by the fertilization treatments, but positively related to the level of organic carbon in each soil (P < 0.05). In addition, the results from the long-term experiments indicated that the contribution of S input from atmospheric deposition was significant and should not be neglected. PMID:25011301

Xu, Chuang; Wang, Song-Shan; Li, Ju-Mei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Sun, Wen-Tao; Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shu-Zhen

2014-04-01

124

Efeito do NPK, via foliar, no conteúdo de nutrientes das folhas do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.) / NPK effect, in foliar spraying, on the nutrients composition of cotton leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido em vasos, nas condições de casa de vegetação da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1975/76. O objetivo foi verificar a influência de pulverizações foliares com NPK na composição de N, P, K nas folhas velhas e folha [...] s novas do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv. IAC-13-1. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 3³, em três repetições; sendo dois números de pulverizações (4 e 8), três macronutrientes (N, P, K) em três dosagens (0, 1,2). Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso com duas plantas. Os tratamentos utilizados constam da Tabela 1 . Os níveis com seus valores médios de N, P2O5 e K2O utilizados em 4 pulverizações: N0=0,N1=0,44,N2=0,84; P0=0, P1= 0,05, P2=0,09; K0=0,K1=0,33,K2=0,66, em 8 pulverizações, N0=0,N1=0,91,N2=1,87; P0=0,P1=0,10, P2=0,20; K0=0,K1=0,70, K2=1,40 em kg/ha, sendo fontes de nutrientes o NH4N0(3), NaH2P0(4)H(2)0 e KCl para N, P(2)0(5) e K(2)0 respectivamente. Os parâmetros empregados na avaliação dos tratamentos foram: teores de N, P, K em folhas velhas e novas do algodoeiro. Nas condições dos experimentos pode-se tirar as seguintes conclusões: A aplicação do efeito quadrático nos seus teores encontrados nas folhas novas apenas em 8 pulverizações, provocando aumento dos teores de P nas folhas velhas. Os algodoeiros não tratados com N revelaram maior teor de K na matéria seca das folhas velhas. O P causou diminuição dos teores de N nas folhas velhas e novas; aumentou os teores de P nas folhas velhas, quando em presença de N. O K aumentou o P nas folhas velhas e novas, diminuiu, porém, o seu teor nas folhas velhas. Abstract in english This research was carried out in greenhouse situated in the Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975/76, to study the influence of NPK spraying on leaves, on the NPK com position in leaves to cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv. IAC-13-1. The experimental [...] design was a Randomized Complete Blocks with the treatments combined in a 2 x 3³ factorial with 3 replications. The treatments were: spraying-two (4 and 8), fertilizers three (N,P,K) in three levels (0,1,2). This three levels had the following averages according to the number of spraying, such as: four spraying - N0 = 0, N1 = 0,44, N2 = 0,84; P0 = 0, P1= 0,05, P2 = 0,09; K0 = 0, K1 = 0,33, K2 = 0,66; eight spraying - N0 = 0; N1 = 0,91, N2 = 1,87; P0 = 0, P1 = 0,10, P2 = 0,20; K0 = 0, K1 = 0,70, K2 = 1,40. The levels are expressed in Kg/ha and the source of fertilizers used were; NH4NO3; NaH2PO5H2O and KC1 for N, P(2)0(5) and K(2)0 respectively. The evaluation of the treatments were done based upon: percentage of N, P, K dry matter of young leaves and old leaves. The following conclusions could be drawn from this research: the N caused increase in P level in old leaves. The cotton plants no treated with N increased the percentage of K in old leaves. The P caused reduction in N levels in old and young leaves; increased the P levels in old leaves in N presence. The K increased the P leavel in old and young leaves, descreased the K levels in old leaves.

Augusto Ferreira de, Souza; Moacyr de O.C., Brasil Sobrinho.

125

Effect of Mineral Fertilization and Sowing Rate on Chemical Composition of Two Linseed Cultivars  

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The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of two levels of mineral fertilization (90 and 180 kg NPK/ha) and three sowing rates (300, 600 and 900 germinating seeds per 1 m2) on chemical composition of two linseed cultivars (Opal and Hungarian Gold) differing in seed colour. Basic chemical composition, fatty acid profile, amino acid composition and yields of the seeds were determined. The yields of protein and fat were also estimated. Seeds of t...

2012-01-01

126

Híbridos de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Cultivados sob Níveis Crescentes de Adubação: Rendimento, Proteína Bruta e Digestibilidade in Vitro Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Hybrids Cultivated under Increasing Fertilization Levels: Yield, Crude Protein and in Vitro Digestibility  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, os teores de proteína bruta (PB e a digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (DIVMS de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215, cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial 5 x 4 com quatro repetições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram altas produções médias de MS/ ha e resposta linear positiva, em função da adubação, ressalvando a alta produtividade (15,47 t/ha nas parcelas sem adubação, em função da fertilidade do solo e das condições climáticas. Os híbridos apresentaram respostas diferenciadas quanto aos teores de PB, em função da adubação, predominando respostas quadráticas, determinando o comportamento quadrático da produção de proteína bruta. A DIVMS e a produção de matéria seca digestiva apresentaram respostas lineares positivas em função da adubação, sendo a produção de matéria seca digestível fortemente correlacionada (0,91** com o aumento da produção de MS/ha.The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage yield, crude protein (CP contents and dry matter (DM in vitro digestibility of five forage sorghum hybrids (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215, cultivated under four NPK fertilization levels. A randomized blocks design, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The evaluated hybrids showed high average DM/ha yield and positive linear answer in function of fertilization, except for the high productivity (15.47 t/ha in the plots without fertilization, in function of soil fertilization and climatic conditions. The hybrids showed different answers for the CP contents, according to the fertilization, in a quadratic way, determining the quadratic behavior for the crude protein yield. IVDMD and digestive dry matter yield showed positive linear answers in function of fertilization, and the digestible dry matter yield was highly correlated (0.91** with the increase of DM/ha yield.

Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto

2002-07-01

127

Híbridos de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cultivados sob Níveis Crescentes de Adubação: Rendimento, Proteína Bruta e Digestibilidade in Vitro / Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Hybrids Cultivated under Increasing Fertilization Levels: Yield, Crude Protein and in Vitro Digestibility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, os teores de proteína bruta (PB) e a digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (DIVMS) de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215), cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o del [...] ineamento em blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial 5 x 4 com quatro repetições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram altas produções médias de MS/ ha e resposta linear positiva, em função da adubação, ressalvando a alta produtividade (15,47 t/ha) nas parcelas sem adubação, em função da fertilidade do solo e das condições climáticas. Os híbridos apresentaram respostas diferenciadas quanto aos teores de PB, em função da adubação, predominando respostas quadráticas, determinando o comportamento quadrático da produção de proteína bruta. A DIVMS e a produção de matéria seca digestiva apresentaram respostas lineares positivas em função da adubação, sendo a produção de matéria seca digestível fortemente correlacionada (0,91**) com o aumento da produção de MS/ha. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage yield, crude protein (CP) contents and dry matter (DM) in vitro digestibility of five forage sorghum hybrids (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215), cultivated under four NPK fertilization levels. A randomized blocks design, in a 5 x [...] 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The evaluated hybrids showed high average DM/ha yield and positive linear answer in function of fertilization, except for the high productivity (15.47 t/ha) in the plots without fertilization, in function of soil fertilization and climatic conditions. The hybrids showed different answers for the CP contents, according to the fertilization, in a quadratic way, determining the quadratic behavior for the crude protein yield. IVDMD and digestive dry matter yield showed positive linear answers in function of fertilization, and the digestible dry matter yield was highly correlated (0.91**) with the increase of DM/ha yield.

Gontijo Neto, Miguel Marques; Obeid, José Antônio; Pereira, Odilon Gomes; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Cândido, Magno José Duarte; Miranda, Lídia Ferreira.

128

Low-level nuclear waste tested for fertilizer value  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear power industry keeps coming up with proposals for getting rid of radioactive waste - burying it deep in the ground, sinking it at sea and even sending it into space reports Common Cause magazine under a headline, The Latest in Recycling. At its Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, Kerr-McGee manufactures fuel for nuclear power plants, generating a low-level radioactive liquid waste product called raphinate. After processing to remove radioactive substances, Kerr-McGee has gotten approval from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to use the nitrogen-rich residue as a fertilizer - but not to market it. As a result, Kerr-McGee is reported to be buying up thousands of acres of land on which to spread raphinate. The acreage is used to grow hay, which the company has gotten an okay to sell. The recycling effort hasn't exactly won neighborhood friends for the company, noted Common Cause. According to Kerr-McGee's corporate communications direct, When you say to somebody, Sequoyah Fuels is putting nuclear waste (on farmland), people jump up a wall

1987-01-01

129

Calagem e adubação mineral e orgânica do cafeeiro na região de Campinas / Liming and mineral and organic fertilization of coffee tree at Campinas Region, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Instalou-se um experimento com cafeeiro cultivar Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 em um latossolo roxo transição para latossolo vermelho-amarelo orto, cuja vegetação original era típica de cerrado, na região de Campinas, comparando-se os tratamentos com esterco de curral e adubação mineral NPK, complementados [...] ou não com calcário dolomítico e com os micronutrientes zinco e boro. Aplicaram-se, por ano e por cova, 40 litros de esterco quando na ausência de NPK e 20 litros quando com NPK. A adubação mineral constou da utilização de 120 g de N, 40 g de P2O5 e 120 g de K2O por ano e por cova; quando em presença de esterco, usou-se metade dessas doses. O calcário foi aplicado na quantidade de 1 kg por ano e por cova, e zinco e boro, na quantidade de 20 g de sulfato de zinco e 20 g de bórax, também por cova e por ano. A análise das produções de café beneficiado no período de 1965 a 1970 permitiu constatar que a testemunha e o tratamento com NPK foram significativamente inferiores aos demais. Destacaram-se com as melhores produções os tratamentos que receberam esterco mais NPK, com ou sem calcário. Nas análises de solos, constatou-se aumento nas bases quando foi aplicado o esterco e, em contrapartida, aumento de acidez com o tratamento de NPK. As análises das folhas mostraram efeitos sobre teores de alumínio e manganês coerentes com os dados obtidos nas produções e análises do solo. Abstract in english Experiments with mineral and organic manure were carried out in a Red Latosolic Soil Transition to Orto Red Yellow Latosolic Soil at Campinas region with Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 coffee tree cultivar. The treatments with manure was compared with the treatments with mineral fertilizers of NPK with or wi [...] thout lime or micronutrients zinc and boron. The analyses of coffee production data showed that the treatments with mineral fertilizers and the test treatment with no fertilizer, had the lowest productions. The treatments with manure and NPK with or without lime had better production than other treatments. The soil analyses showed high levels of bases on the manure treatments and high acidity on the NPK treatments. The leaf analyses confirmed the results of the effects of the treatments on the aluminium and manganese contents.

Genésio da Silva, Cervellini; Toshio, Igue; Sérgio Vasco de, Toledo.

130

Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine seedlings in Uganda  

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Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack ofgood quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out; to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts(experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25?5?5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18?4?14 +TE (C mixed in 1 m3 of soil.Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experimentswere laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorialtreatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara.Results of experiment two showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1½ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (Pvalue = 0.021, Pvalue = 0.001 at 1½ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 171717 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m3 of soil.

Samuel Lumu

2013-11-01

131

The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P_2O_5/da, and 2.22 kg K_2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

1999-10-01

132

Education and Fertility : Dynamic Interrelations between Women’s Educational Level, Educational Field and Fertility in Sweden  

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This thesis analyses three aspects of the link between a woman’s educational trajectory and her childbearing behaviour. Special attention is paid to educational field as a further dimension of education next to educational enrolment and educational level. It is argued that this dimension has to be taken into account to fully understand the complex interplay between women’s educational careers and fertility. The empirical investigations are based on Swedish register data for the period 199...

2012-01-01

133

ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS  

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Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T. Singh et al. (1974, Singh (1964, Bhattacharya (1986,Pathak (1999 and Khan and Raeside (1998 have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980 considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

S.B.Bhardwaj

2009-01-01

134

Efecto de la fertilización con N-P-K sobre el rendimiento y las concentraciones foliares en Aloysia polystachia (Griseb) Moldenke  

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The aim of this work was to determine the effect of fertilization using different dose of N-P-K on biomass production and foliage concentrations of these elements in Aloysia polystachia (Griseb) Moldenke. The experiment was done at Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (Agronomy Faculty) Research Farm (UNNE), Corrientes city (Argentina) during cycle 2003-2004. Three fertilizer supplies were made every 45 days, making mowing and taking samples 40 days after each supply. Eight treatments with three rep...

2007-01-01

135

Impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels and heritability on spineless performance in safflower genotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to study the impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels on spineless percentages, meanwhile, heritability and genetic gain were determind for further selection for eight safflower genotype, during 1998/1999-1999/2000 seasons, at nuclear research center-inshas. Concerning irrigation intervals, results showed that spineless percentages of safflower genotypes were markedly increased with the increasing of irrigation intervals, this eans that increase of drought conditions leds to increase the spineless percentages in all the genotypes. Regarding nitrogen fertilizer levels, results exhibited that spineless percentages were increased with the increasing of nitrogen fertilizer levels for all the studied genotypes. Combined analysis of variance chowed highly significant effect for irrigation intervals, fertilizer levels, years and genotypes for spineles trait. The first order interaction, second order interaction and third order interaction were highly significant suggesting that spineless trait was affected the environmental factors

2003-01-01

136

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo / Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de am [...] ônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo. Abstract in english The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated wi [...] th this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control); 2. NPK (control); 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

Raphael, Alvarez; Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano Vaz de, Arruda; Gentil, Godoy Júnior.

137

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application  

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Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo.The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated with this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control; 2. NPK (control; 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

Raphael Alvarez

1979-01-01

138

Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado / Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de [...] oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK) e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes. Abstract in english Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a [...] greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK) and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.

Márcia Bacelar, Fonseca; Marcel Giovanni Costa, França; Everaldo, Zonta; Victor, Giorni.

139

Effects of Soil and Foliar Application of Different Concentrations of NPK and Foliar Application of (NH42 SO4 on Different Yield Parameters in Wheat  

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Full Text Available An experiment was designed and conducted in order to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK i.e., NH4NO3, K2HPO4 and KH2PO4 on the yield parameters of Wheat when applied both through foliage and soil. The effect of (NH42SO4 through foliar application on the same plant was also studied. The grain yield increased in treatments where NPK was applied both through foliar sprays and soil. Soil application of fertilizer yield better results than foliar sprays of NPK in Wheat. Application of (NH42SO4 failed to show any significant increase in yield although its application enhanced the growth of wheat plant.

Zafar Jamal

2006-01-01

140

Some Aspects of NPK Nutrition for Improved Yield and Oil Contents of Canola  

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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of NPK on canola (cv. Dunkeld). Sole dose of N proved superior to split dose and produced significantly taller plants. Nitrogen application methods had no influence on grain yield and oil contents. Grain yield increased with increase in P level. Oil contents significantly increased by P up to 50 kg ha -1, but further increase in P decreased the oil contents. Potassium showed no influence on any observation other than oi...

Muhammad Zahir Afridi; Muhammad Tariq Jan; Anwar Ali Shad

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Onion Response to Applied N,P and K Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted to study the onion response to various doses of N, P and K fertilizers. Plant height, bulb diameter, single bulb weight and total marketable bulb yield increased significantly by the NPk fertilizer treatments. Plots treated with 90:60:80 kg NPK/ha, displayed significantly maximum marketable bulb yield over other treatments. Onion planted on ridges gave significantly better yield over flat planting. It was suggested that for obtaining maximum marketable bulb yield of onion variety, phulkara, the crop may be planted on ridges and fertilized with N, P and K fertilizers.

Nasir R. Khan

2001-01-01

142

Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

2010-01-01

143

Determinants of fertility decisions at a household level in the Alaje District of Southern Tigray-Ethiopia.  

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High fertility has the potential to affect the health and well being of mothers and the survival of their children. Even though fertility in Ethiopia shows a declining trend at the national level, the onset of fertility decline is yet to come in rural areas. The main objective of this research is to identify major factors affecting the observed high fertility in rural Ethiopia. The study area was selected based on the Ethiopian demographic and health survey made by the Central Statistical Age...

Woldesenbet, Abeba K.

2011-01-01

144

Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

2010-04-01

145

Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica  

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Full Text Available Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral. The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial. Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral. Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante.

Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

2010-10-01

146

Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia  

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The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida). The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose) recorded the highest plant height, number o...

Moghadam, Mina Zarghami; Shoor, Mahmud

2013-01-01

147

Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two years field experiment 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0,5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0,60, 100, 140 and kg P2 O5/ha. Irradiation doses and P. Fertilizer levels arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the subplots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting. Soil test for P revealed that enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. 8 tabs

1995-10-01

148

Contamination of winter wheat grain with fungi and mycotoxins as affected by fertilization level  

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Contamination of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain with microscopic fungi and mycotoxins as affected by fertilization level was investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period 2002-2004. Winter wheat varieties 'Ada' and 'Zentos' were exposed to three fertilization levels: unfertilised (N0P0K0 ), moderate (N90P80K120S6) and maximal (N180P80K140S13). Grain microbiological analyses for mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin were carried...

2006-01-01

149

The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Levels on the Straw Nutritive Quality of Malaysian Rice Varieties  

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Samples of straw from two varieties of rice, namely MR 211 and MR 219 which were grown at five levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 120, 160, 200 and 240 kg N ha-1) were collected at harvesting time (MR 211 at 105 DAS; MR 219 at 115 DAS). The straws were separated into leaf (including blade and sheath) and stem fractions and were analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Increases in the level of nitrogen fertilization were found to increase the Crude Pro...

Hollena Nori; Ridzwan Abdul Halim; Mohd Fauzi Ramlan

2006-01-01

150

Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers  

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Full Text Available In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598-2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

Raad Obid Hussain

2011-08-01

151

Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl) detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598- [...] 2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h) after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

Raad Obid, Hussain; Hayder Hamza, Hussain.

152

External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fertilizers containing phosphate have been used worldwide in increasing quantities in order to replenish natural nutrients, which are being continuously depleted from the soil by virtue of farming activities. Phosphate rocks together with potassium ores and nitrogenous compounds are the main raw materials used for industrial fertilizer production. Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphogypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in soil samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were estimated. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and external dose rate due to natural gamma background at various locations around the plant were also measured. (author)

2014-04-01

153

[Effects of fertilization level on diurnal variation of gas exchange of young Eucalyptus grandis leaf].  

Science.gov (United States)

Different levels (0, 90, 180, and 270 g per tree) of compound fertilizer containing 15% N, 15% P2O5, and 15% K2O were applied to young Eucalyptus grandis to study the diurnal variations of its leaf stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), and vapor pressure deficit on leaf surface (Vpdl) as well as the variation of leaf chlorophyll content, aimed to approach the relationships of E. grandis photosynthesis with fertilization and environmental factors. In all treatments, the diurnal variation of Pn presented a single-peak curve, with the peak at 14:00 and not showing midday depression. The Gs, Tr, and Vpdl showed the similar trend with Pn, while the Ci had a minimum value at 14:00. The WUE demonstrated a double-peak curve, with the first and second peak occurred at 10:00 and 14:00, respectively. Comparing with the control, the mean values of Gs, Pn, Tr, WUE, and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents under fertilization increased by 4.6%-15.9%, 7.8%-21.8%, 4.8%-11.6%, 3.2%-8.8%, 15.5%-62.0%, 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the increment increased with fertilization level. By contrast, the mean values of Ci and VPdl decreased by 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the decrement increased with fertilization level. The Gs, Pn, and Tr were significantly correlated with air temperature, relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and also, the Gs was significantly correlated with Pn and Tr. It was suggested that fertilization could promote E. grandis growth and enhance its WUE and biological carbon sequestration, and air temperature, RH, PAR, and Gs were the main factors causing the diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration of E. grandis. PMID:21360993

Li, Xiao-ping; Wang, Jing-yan; Wang, Dong; Hu, Ting-xing; Chen, Hong-zhi; Gong, Wei

2010-11-01

154

Penetapan Kadar Nitrogen Yang Terkandung Dalam Pupuk Nitrogen, Fosfor, Kalium (NPK) Di PT. Rispa Medan  

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It has been done the analysis of Nitrogen contain in NPK. Where Nitrogen is importance for the growth of plant. Analysis Nitrogen contain in NPK is used by Kjeldahl method. From the result of analysis the Nitrogen contain in NPK is 17,05% to 16,44%. From analysis it good to used as base material to make manure NPK according with SNI 2-2803-2000.

2011-01-01

155

[Effects of applying controlled release fertilizers on N2O emission from a lateritic red soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Static closed chamber technique and contrast method were adopted to study the effects of three coated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 19:8.6:10.5, high N; 14.4:14.4:14.4, balanced NPK; and 12.5:9.6:20.2, high K) on the NO2O emission from a lateritic red soil under the condition of no crop planting, taking uncoated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 20:9:11, high N; 15:15:15, balanced NPK; and 13:10:21, high K) as the contrasts. Different formula of fertilizer NPK induced significant difference in the N2O emission. Under the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, the cumulative N2O emission was in the order of balanced NPK > or = high N > high K. Applying coated compound fertilizers decreased the N2O emission significantly, and the emission amount under the application of high N, balanced NPK, and high K was 34.4%, 30.5%, and 89.3% of the corresponding uncoated compound fertilizers, respectively. Comparing with the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, applying coated compound fertilizers also decreased the daily N2O flux significantly, and delayed and shortened the N2O peak, suggesting that coated fertilizers could reduce soil nitrogen loss and the global warming potential induced by N2O emission. PMID:22126050

Du, Ya-qin; Zheng, Li-xing; Fan, Xiao-lin

2011-09-01

156

Income, Mortality and Fertility in Latin America: Country Level Performance, 1960-1990 Income, Mortality and Fertility in Latin America: Country Level Performance, 1960-1990  

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Full Text Available That higher levels of national income per capita are associated with better health conditions and lower fertility is more than evident; recent analyses provide quantification of the magnitude of the effects and adduce strong evidence for its causal nature (at least for health. This paper extends prel'ious analyses by assessing regional and temporal differences in the income - health/fertility relationship (differences are pronounced and by using deviations from this estimated relationship it constructs measures of performance at five year intervals from 1960 to 1990 for 19 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Performance for each country on under-5 mortality and total fertility rates. relative to other Latill American countries and controlling for income levels. Changes in performance, from one five-year period to the next, are highlighted in order to pose questions about the response of performance to changes in policy. Some results are expected (e.g. the relatively good performance of Colombia and Costa Rica for much of the period; other results are surprising (e.g. the sharp deterioration in performance of Argentina and Chile in the late 1980s. Health expenditures are then used to predict performance levels in 1990; for under-5 mortality rates, public sector expenditures on health are found to have a significant beneficial effect. The magnitude of the estimated effect is substantial: Over 10,000 child deaths in 1990 would have been averted in Latin America if public sector expenditures on health increased from 3.5% to 4.0% of CDP while holding total expenditures constant. That higher levels of national income per capita are associated with better health conditions and lower fertility is more than evident; recent analyses provide quantification of the magnitude of the effects and adduce strong evidence for its causal nature (at least for health. This paper extends prel'ious analyses by assessing regional and temporal differences in the income - health/fertility relationship (differences are pronounced and by using deviations from this estimated relationship it constructs measures of performance at five year intervals from 1960 to 1990 for 19 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Performance for each country on under-5 mortality and total fertility rates. relative to other Latill American countries and controlling for income levels. Changes in performance, from one five-year period to the next, are highlighted in order to pose questions about the response of performance to changes in policy. Some results are expected (e.g. the relatively good performance of Colombia and Costa Rica for much of the period; other results are surprising (e.g. the sharp deterioration in performance of Argentina and Chile in the late 1980s. Health expenditures are then used to predict performance levels in 1990; for under-5 mortality rates, public sector expenditures on health are found to have a significant beneficial effect. The magnitude of the estimated effect is substantial: Over 10,000 child deaths in 1990 would have been averted in Latin America if public sector expenditures on health increased from 3.5% to 4.0% of CDP while holding total expenditures constant.

Juan Luis Londoño

1996-03-01

157

EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS  

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Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

Asaad DERBALA

2013-01-01

158

Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*  

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Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC conte...

Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

2012-01-01

159

ONION YIELD AS AFFECTED BY FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH AMINO AND HUMIC ACIDS UNDER NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS  

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Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nutrient foliar spraying such as amino and humic acids under nitrogen fertilizer levels on growth, yield and keeping quality of onion bulbs cv. Giza 20. Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The obtained results showed that foliar spraying with humic acid resulted in highest growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as TSS %, dry matter and total weight loss percentages at storage period  compared with the control treatment. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels up to 214.2 kg N/ha significantly increased growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as total weight loss percentages at storage period. In addition, fertilization with 71.4 kg N/ha significantly increased TSS and dry matter percentages. It could be recommended that spraying with humic acid and adding 214.2 kg N/ha maximize onion bulb yield under the environmental conditions of Gharbeia Governorate. The interaction between nutrients spraying and nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly affected foliage fresh weight, total weight loss % after 1, 2, 3 and 5 months.

Ahamed A. Kandil

2013-08-01

160

Fertilization optimization in the case of the Productiv potato variety through the refinement of the romanian chemical fertilizers in the Targu Secuiesc depression  

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Full Text Available Profitable potato cultures cannot be developed without chemical and/or organic fertilization. The fertilization must assure the best possible valorization of the intensive varieties’ production potential under the ecological conditions existing in the cultivation region. The experiments took place at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Targu Secuiesc in the period 2005-2007. Our research proposed this approach to the aspects of potato fertilization in the case of the Productiv variety, created at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Targu Secuiesc. To achieve a higher production level, 7 levels of fertilization and 3 types of fertilizers were studied, representing N:P:K rates of 1:0:0 (ammonium nitrate, 1:1:0 (Complex 20:20:0, respectively 1:1:1 (Complex 15:15:15. The highest and most stable productions are achieved by adding nitrogen in doses of 150-200 kg active substance / ha, and the presence of phosphorus and potassium up to these levels provides a maximum production at the application of the binary fertilizer, Complex 20:20:0, as well as at the application of the fertilizer Complex 15:15:15.

Zsuzsanna NEMES

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Fertilization optimization in the case of the Luiza potato variety through the refinement of the romanian chemical fertilizers in the Tg. Secuiesc Depression (Romania  

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Full Text Available Profitable potato cultures cannot be developed without chemical and/or organic fertilization. The fertilization must assure the best possible valorization of the intensive varieties’ production potential under the ecological conditions existing in the cultivation region.The experiments took place at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Tg. Secuiesc in the period 2005-2007.Our research proposed this approach to the aspects of potato fertilization in the case of the Luiza variety, created at the PotatoResearch and Cultivation Station Tg. Secuiesc.To achieve a higher production level, 7 levels of fertilization and 3 types of fertilizers were studied, representing NPK rates of 1:0:0 (ammonium nitrate, 1:1:0 (Complex 20:20:0, respectively 1:1:1 (Complex 15:15:15.The highest and most stable productions are achieved by adding nitrogen in doses of 150-200 kg active substance / ha, and the presence of phosphorus and potassium up to these levels provides a maximum production at the application of the binary fertilizer, Complex 20:20:0, as well as at the application of the fertilizer Complex 15:15:15.

Anca BACIU

2009-05-01

162

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, 226Ra and 232Th series, their decay products and 40K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2–106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6–9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21–607.3±14 Bq kg?1, respectively. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Raeq in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43 Bq kg?1 and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19 Bq kg?1, which are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg?1 adopted from . The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. - Highlights: ? Mmeasured activity levels of natural radionuclides in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Saudi Arabia. ? Determined heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents. ? Activity of natural radionuclides in chemical fertilizer higher than in organic fertilizer. ? RAeq in chemical and organic fertilizers ranged between 34.07 and 161.43 Bq kg?1.

2012-01-01

163

State-level variations in wanted and unwanted fertility provide a guide for India's family planning programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses trends in total marital fertility and wanted and unwanted fertility from eight states in India. Data were obtained from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey for the large states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan and for the more socially advanced states of Kerala, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, and Punjab. The calculation of total marital fertility rates (TMFR) is based on the period parity progression ratio for 3 years before the survey. Wanted TMFR (WTMFR) indicates fertility preferences are met. Unwanted TMFR (UTMFR) indicates excess fertility. Desired fertility was 3-4 children in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, about 3 children in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, and about 2 children in the other states. Uttar Pradesh had the highest unwanted marital fertility of about 1.4 children more than desired. Other states had an unwanted fertility of about 1 child more than wanted fertility. Total fertility was 2-3 children higher in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than in Kerala. Total marital fertility would be reduced by 20-28% if women had only the number of children wanted in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan. Total marital fertility would be reduced by 31-34% in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and Maharashtra if women had only wanted children. Unwanted childbearing was highest in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and Maharashtra, states that lagged behind in contraceptive use. The TMFR was highest among illiterates and declined with higher education. UTMFR varied irregularly by educational level. Populous states had high WTMFR among illiterate women. UTMFR was highest among illiterate women only in Uttar Pradesh. Findings suggest that when fertility began to decline, education was strongly related to fertility preferences. Family planning should be directed to promoting the small family and meeting the needs of women desiring small families. PMID:12292679

Kulkarni, S; Choe, M K

1997-06-01

164

Gas exchange in massai grass under five nitrogen fertilization levels during establishment and regrowth  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gas exchange in the massai grass during establishment and regrowth cycles in a greenhouse, using five nitrogen (N fertilization levels. A completely randomized split-plot design of five nitrogen levels (0; 150; 300; 450 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil was employed with the N levels as plots, and the cycles (establishment, regrowth 1 and 2 as subplots, evaluated with five replicates. We evaluated leaf transpiration (E, leaf temperature (TFOL, leaf photosynthesis rate (A, leaf carbon dioxide concentration (Ci, stomatal conductance (gs, photosynthesis/transpiration ratio (A/E, photosynthesis/conductance ratio (A/gs, chlorophyll relative index (CRI, and nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI. Growth cycles influenced all physiological characteristics, except for NSI. N fertilization levels affected TFOL, A, CRI and NSI variables, whereas for gs, E, Ci, A/E and A/gs it did not occur. A increased from 6.38 to 10.33 µmol•m-2.s-1, at levels 0 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil, respectively. Gas exchange in the massai grass was favored by nitrogen fertilization, since the cycles amended these characteristics of the grass.

Marcos Neves Lopes

2011-09-01

165

Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of 137Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears to be an effective countermeasure (at least in the type of forest used in this study). The reduction of the 137Cs levels in plants and fungi persisted for quite a long period of time

1998-08-01

166

Investigation of high level of AsAb, EmAb in fertility female serum infected by chlamydia trachomatis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of chlamydia trachomatis. AsAb, EmAb in female fertility. Methods: LPS antigen of chlamydia in reproduction tract of fertility female was detected by monoclonal antibody and immunology chromatography; the content of AsAb, EmAb in serum of fertility female was detected by ELISA. Results: Infections rate of chlamydia trachomatis in fertility female was higher than that in the control AsAb, EmAb in serum of the fertility patients who were infected with chlamydia trachomatis showed a significant difference from that in the control group. Conclusion: The level of AsAb, EmAb increases in patients who have been infected with chlamydia trachomatis and these cytokines is involved in the course of female fertility

2001-07-01

167

Impact of Row Spacing and Fertilizer Levels (Diammonium Phosphate on Yield and Yield Components of Canola  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the impact of row spacing (15, 30, 45 and 60 cm and fertilizer levels (0, 50, 75 and 100 kg ha-1 on canola. The number of pods plant-1, number of grains pod-1, thousand grain weight and grain yield ha-1 was recorded during the study. The highest number of pods (177 Plant-1, number of grains (30, thousand grain weight 0.86 g and grain yield kg ha-1 (1692 was observed from plots where row spacing was kept at 45 cm. Similarly the highest number of pods (211 Plant-1, number of grains (36, thousand grain weight (1.02 and grain yield kg ha-1 (2270 was observed from plots where fertilizer level was 100 kg ha-1. The maximum yield and yield components were observed at the interaction of 45 cm row spacing and 100 kg DAP ha-1.

Mujtaba Masood

2003-01-01

168

EFFECTS OF MIXED ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND THE GROWTH OF KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L. CULTIVATED ON BRIS SOILS  

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Full Text Available The demand for kenaf in the world increases rapidly by the years. Cultivation of the crop in Malaysia is a challenging task, especially when kenaf is grown on sandy soils with low fertility, such as the BRIS Soils (Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales. A pot study was conducted in a glasshouse at Universiti Putra Malaysia to evaluate the potential of inorganic and organic fertilizers or their combination for growing kenaf on very sandy BRIS Soils, using variety V36. There were altogether sixteen treatments: (T1-control (100% BRIS soil, (T2-NPK (chemical fertilizer, (T3-CM (chicken manure, (T4-B (biochar, (T5-Z (zeolite, (T6-NPK+CM, (T7-NPK+B, (T8-NPK+Z, (T9-CM+B, (T10-CM+Z, (T11-B+Z, (T12-NPK+CM+B, (T13-NPK+CM+Z, (T14-CM+B+Z, (T15-NPK+B+Z and (T16- NPK+CM+B+Z. Results showed that application of inorganic material or organic fertilizer in combination with chemical fertilizer (T2 and T16 improved soil fertility, which are reflected by the increase inexchangeable K, Ca and Mg, CEC, total N, total C and available P. The highest kenaf growth was observed in T15 treatment.Application of biochar, zeolite or chicken manure alone on the soils did not result in better kenaf growth compared to the control. Zeolite and biochar should be applied with other fertilizers or organic substrate to obtain a positive yield of crop and increase the soil properties. In addition, more studies on the application of chicken manure at different ratios should be conducted to obtain the best yield. Combination treatment, T15 (NPK + biochar + zeolite can be suggested to the farmers especially cultivation of kenaf on sandy BRIS soil in order to obtain the best kenaf growth performance and indirectly reduce excessive use of chemical fertilizers.

Mohd Hadi Akbar Basri

2013-01-01

169

NPK1, a tobacco gene that encodes a protein with a domain homologous to yeast BCK1, STE11, and Byr2 protein kinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have isolated a cDNA (cNPK1) that encodes a predicted protein kinase of 690 amino acids from suspension cultures of tobacco cells. The deduced sequence is closely related to those of the protein kinases encoded by the STE11 and BCK1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the byr2 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. STE11 and Byr2 function in the yeast mating pheromone response pathways, and BCK1 acts downstream of the yeast protein kinase C homolog encoded by the PKC1 gene, which is essential for normal growth and division of yeast cells. Overexpression in yeast cells of a truncated form of cNPK1, which encodes only the putative catalytic domain, replaced the growth control functions of BCK1 and PKC1 but not the mating pheromone response function of STE11. Thus, the catalytic domain of NPK1 specifically activates the signal transduction pathway mediated by BCK1 in yeast. In tobacco cells in suspension culture, the NPK1 gene is transcribed during logarithmic phase and early stationary phase but not during late stationary phase. In a tobacco plant, it is also transcribed in stems and roots but not in mature leaves, which rarely contain growing cells. The present results suggest that a signal transduction pathway mediated by this BCK1- and STE11-related protein kinase is also conserved in plants and that a function of NPK1 is controlled at least in part at a transcriptional level. Images

Banno, H; Hirano, K; Nakamura, T; Irie, K; Nomoto, S; Matsumoto, K; Machida, Y

1993-01-01

170

Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome  

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Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T) levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protoco...

2011-01-01

171

RESPONSE OF SPRING WHEAT TO REDUCED TILLAGE SYSTEMS AND TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION  

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Cost reduction in plant production, as well as ecological aspects, force farmers to apply numerous modifications in tillage. Usually, they consist in shallowing ploughing and replacing it with cultivating measures not overturning the soil. The aim of the study was determination of the effect of conventional and reduced tillage systems as well as of two levels of mineral fertilization on the yield of spring wheat in the second cycle of crop rotation: potato – spring wheat – field pea (edib...

Ma?gorzata Haliniarz; Karol Bujak; Dorota Gaw?da,; Cezary Kwiatkowski

2013-01-01

172

Gold nanoparticles elevate plasma testosterone levels in male mice without affecting fertility.  

Science.gov (United States)

?-Methoxy and ?-aminoethyl poly(ethylene glycol)-modified 14-nm gold nanoparticles can accumulate in mouse testes, pass through the blood-testis barrier, and enter germ cells. Furthermore, PEG-NH2 @AuNP accumulate more easier in the testes and increase plasma T levels. However, these two gold nanoparticle types have no effect on male fertility, fetal survival, or fetal development. PMID:22911975

Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Min; Wang, Yu-Cai; Wang, Jun; Sun, Fei

2013-05-27

173

ONION YIELD AS AFFECTED BY FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH AMINO AND HUMIC ACIDS UNDER NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS  

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In order to investigate the effect of nutrient foliar spraying such as amino and humic acids under nitrogen fertilizer levels on growth, yield and keeping quality of onion bulbs cv. Giza 20. Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The obtained results showed that foliar spraying with humic acid resulted in highest growth characters, total and marketable yie...

Kandil, Ahamed A.; Sharief, Ali E.; Fathalla, Fathalla H.

2013-01-01

174

The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Levels on the Straw Nutritive Quality of Malaysian Rice Varieties  

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Full Text Available Samples of straw from two varieties of rice, namely MR 211 and MR 219 which were grown at five levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 120, 160, 200 and 240 kg N ha-1 were collected at harvesting time (MR 211 at 105 DAS; MR 219 at 115 DAS. The straws were separated into leaf (including blade and sheath and stem fractions and were analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Increases in the level of nitrogen fertilization were found to increase the Crude Protein (CP in whole straw (p<0.01 from 45.6 g kg-1 to a maximum level of 84.5 g kg-1 dry matter. It also decreased (p<0.05 the in vitro true organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD from 0.59 to 0.55, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF. The straw hemicellulose, cellulose, Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL, silica, ash and in vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the nitrogen fertilization level. There were varietal differences in the straw chemical composition, where variety MR 219 had higher NDF, hemicellulose and cellulose (p<0.05 concentration where as variety MR 211 had higher amount of ADL (p<0.01 and silica (p<0.05 in the straw. There were no differences between the varieties in the straw CP, ADF, ash and digestibility. Between the two varieties, MR 219 variety is superior to MR 211 in view of the higher grain production and grain: straw ratio. The result from correlation between agronomic characteristics and straw nutritive quality implies that rice varieties with good agronomic characteristics have potential in yielding straws with better nutritive quality. The result showed that increasing nitrogen fertilization rate could overcome the problem of low protein in rice straw for animal feed.

Hollena Nori

2006-01-01

175

Effect of Different NP Fertilizer Levels on the Yield of Cotton Cultivars  

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Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 03 replications. Treatments comprised of 03 cotton cultivars (TH- 41/83, 35/83 and Rehmani and 10 fertilizer levels. It has been observed that cotton cultivar TH- 35/83 gave highest seed cotton yield per plant i.e., 95.13 g, fallowed by TH - 41/83 i.e., 84. 19 g plant-1. While the maximum yield per plant was recorded under fertilizer level 200 -50 kg ha-1 (100.52. Cultivar TH – 41/83 gave highest yield per plot 4.89 kg and 3773.12 kg ha-1. Cultivar Rehmani gave lowest yield i.e. 3.97 kg plot-1 and 3063.25 kg ha-1. It is also investigated that NP, fertilizer level 200-75 kg ha-1, produced maximum cotton yield 4.88 kg plot-1 and 37.65. 40-kg ha-1

Z.A. Abbasi

2001-01-01

176

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND RATES OF NITROGEN AND SUPRA OPTIMAL LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY SUGARCANE GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS  

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Full Text Available The results of our pervious studies indicated that application of potassium @150 kg K2O ha-1 is effective in achieving economical sugarcane yield and optimum nutrient uptake under saline conditions. Keeping in view these findings, experiments were conducted on salt-affected soils at three sites of Punjab, Pakistan to select a suitable source and rate of N for obtaining optimum sugarcane yield and nutrient uptake from salt-affected soils. The experiments were conducted with two sugarcane varieties, salt tolerant (SPSG-26 and sensitive (CP-77400 using supra optimal level of K (150 kg K2O ha-1 as sulphate of potash SOP, P @ 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 as DAP (diammonium phosphate and N @100 and 200 kg N ha-1 as urea or calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN. The results showed that cane length and diameter, number of tillers per plant, cane yield and sugar recovery increased with the application of N in both the sugarcane varieties under normal or saline conditions. Sugarcane growth and yield increased with increasing N rate from 100 to 200 kg N ha-1 in case of both urea and CAN. However, CAN as N source was more effective in enhancing sugarcane growth and yield than urea. The concentration of Na+ increased in both the sugarcane varieties due to salinity, however, application of K and N decreased its concentration. The combined application of NPK also significantly reduced Na+ uptake in leaves, however, the best combination observed was DAP+SOP+CAN. It was also observed that salt tolerant variety (SPSG-26 had lesser accumulation of Na+ than that of sensitive one (CP-77400. Application of N fertilizers significantly enhanced the nutrient (K, P, and N uptake in both the varieties at both N rates (100 and 200 kg N ha-1 under normal as well as saline conditions. However, maximum uptake of nutrients was recorded at the highest dose (200 kg N ha-1 but CAN treated plants performed better than that of urea. On the basis of above results, the application of K as SOP and N as CAN was recommended for salt-affected soils to enhance the sugarcane yield. The salt tolerant variety for higher yield in salt-affected soil is also necessary for improving the cost benefit ratio. The results revealed that if salinity level of soil would exceed 10 dS m-1, considerable reduction in sugarcane yield could occur.

MARCUSS ROSS

2008-08-01

177

Evaluation of some lupin mutants under different irrigation intervals and nitrogen fertilizer levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation was carried out during the two seasons of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 at the experimental farm belonging to the plant research department, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority in Inshas to evaluate four lupin mutant lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4) along with their original mother varieties giza 1 and giza 2 under different levels and nitrogen fertilizer levels. The results indicated that seed yield/ plant and its effective components number and weight of pods/plant were significantly higher in all the mutant lines as compared to their parents either in the first or second seasons. Concerning the effect of irrigation intervals on yield and its components for developed mutants and their mother varieties as well as the results gave an evidence that the wider interval showed the lesser values for yield and most of yield components. Obtained data also revealed that yield attributes of lupin mutants and their parents were affected by applying nitrogen fertilizer. However, the application of 20 or 40 kg N/fad. Mostly increased yield and yield components of the different genotypes for both growing seasons. The third interaction of genotypes x irrigation x N fertilizer was significant for all studied characters in the two growing seasons

2002-04-01

178

Effect of levels P and K fertilizer on growth and yield of oil palm  

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Full Text Available The effects of P and K levels on growth and yield of oil palm were studied at the Agricultural and Technology College Plantation in Trang province in October, 1993 using eight-year-old palms planted on the Natham soil series (fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults at the spacing of 8.5 x 8.5 x 8.5 m. A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The four treatments consisted of the combinations of two fertilizers: P (2 levels; 0.4, 0.8 kg P2O5/palm/year and K (2 levels; 1.2, 2.4 kg K2O/palm/year. All treatments were applied the same rate of N (0.8 kg N/palm/year. The growth and oil palm yield were recorded for 4 years. The results showed clear effects of high P and K levels on growth of oil palm. Although the number of fronds did not differ, leaf area, leaf dry matter weight and leaflets of 17th frond tended to increase. The high K level tended also to give an increased FFB yield in years 2, 3 and 4. However, the effect of P levels on FFB yield of oil palm varied over the years. Considering a suitable rate of fertilizer application in terms of economic return, the low fertilizer rate (P 0.4 kg P2O5/palm/ year, K 1.2 kg K2O/palm/year and N 0.8 kg N/palm/year gave the highest profit, although it resulted in the lowest FFB yield.

Tongkum, P.

2001-11-01

179

Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on the Chemical Composition and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Macrotyloma geocarpa (Harms Marechal and Baudet  

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Full Text Available Kersting`s groundbean (Macrotyloma geocarpa (Harms Marechal and Baudet, a grain legume was subjected to different nitrogen levels and spurge weed (Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. competition to study the combined effects of these factors on its growth. Weed competition was achieved by growing Kersting`s groundbean with spurge weed, while fertilizer stress was imposed by planting Kersting`s groundbean without fertilizer treatments. There was another treatment, which was a combination of the two stresses. Fertilizer application of the crops was achieved by broadcasting NPK fertilizers at 0, 15 and 30 kg N ha-1 in the Kersting`s groundbean seedlings plots. The biochemical composition of the plants such as photosynthetic pigment accumulation, nitrogen, ash, crude fibre, fats, carbohydrates and lignin contents did not show a regular pattern at successive harvest times.

A.A. Adelusi

2006-01-01

180

Effect of Municipal Wastewater with Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Grain Yield and Yield Components in Corn KoSc 704  

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Full Text Available In order to study effects of wastewater with two kind of fertilizers (manure and chemical fertilizer on grain yield and yield components in corn (KoSc 704 a field experimental was conducted at the university of Zabol in Iran during 2007 growing season. The experiment was conducted as split block design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of two levels of irrigation water (W1 = well water and W2 = wasetewater in main plot and five levels of fertilizer (F1 = control, F2 = manure: 30 ton ha–1, F3 = manure: 15 ton ha–1, F4 = NPK: 350, 200 and 100 kg ha–1 and F5 = NPK: 175, 100 and 50 kg ha–1 in sub plot. Results showed irrigation with wastewater significantly increased grain yield of corn than usual water. Also, wastewater had positive significantly influence on grain yield and all yield components, but the most effective of wastewater on yield components was on the 1000-seed weight. Among the fertilizer, F4 in all situations had the most effective on the grain yield and yield components and increased them.

Yaser Esmailiyan

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol  

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The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture) and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1) in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results ...

Law-ogbomo, Kolawole E.; Ekunwe, Peter A.

2011-01-01

182

Effect of Different Levels of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Protein Content of Wheat  

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An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on the growth, yield and protein content of two wheat varieties. Two varieties of wheat were tested. Aghrani and Kanchan with five levels of chemical and organic fertilizer viz. F1 (control), F2, F3, F4 and F5. Urea was applied in 2 splits in F1 and in 3 splits in F2 to F4 as per recommendation. In F5, it was applied in 4 equal splits. In F1, inorganic fertilizers were applied @ 100 kg ...

Rafiqul Islam, M.

2002-01-01

183

MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE  

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Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM + NPK amendments showed lower accumulation of heavy metals and higher yield. Plants grown in NPK and N amended soil showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and lower yield compared to the control. Higher uptake of heavy metals in plants under NPK and N amendments, led to increase in the antioxidants enzymes, but reductions in photosynthesis rate, growth and yield. The results suggest that the application of FYM alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers may be recommended as cost effective technique for reducing the availability of heavy metals in waste water irrigated soil.

Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

2011-01-01

184

Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996  

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Full Text Available EnglishThis study focuses on the fertility levels and trends of Iranian women aged10-49 years during three decades, 1967-1996. Information was collected by interviewing a systematiccluster sample of 13,253 households. The basic date of concern was the date of each live born childfor a sample of women in reproductive age and whether the live born was alive at the time of thestudy. The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to becalculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates werefound for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels areprobably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately afterthe 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 haddropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96. This declinewas probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularlysince 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a babyboom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the comingdecades.FrenchCette étude porte sur les niveaux et les tendances de fertilité chez les Iraniennes âgées de 10 à 49 ans sur une période de trente ans, soit de 1967-1996. L'information a été recueillie en interviewant un échantillon en grappes systématique de 13 253 ménages. La principale date qui nous intéresse est la date de naissance de chaque enfant vivant pour un échantillon de femmes en âge de procréer et le fait que l'enfant soit toujours en vie au moment de l'étude. La nature détaillée des données recueillies pour chaque naissance a permis d'établir les taux de fertilité pour les périodes précises avant le sondage pour les années civiles précises. Les taux de fertilité étaient supérieurs pour les périodes de 10 à 15 ans et de 15 à 20 ans avant le sondage. Ces taux élevés sont sans doute attribuables à des changements socio-économiques favorisant une plus grande fertilité immédiatement après la révolution de 1979. Cependant, les résultats de ce sondage indiquent qu'entre 1967 et 1996, l'ISF est passé de 6,38 à 2.88 (ISF avait été établi à partir du comportement procréateur des années 1992-96. Cette chute avait probablement été causée par le fait que les femmes se mariaient plus tard et à des changements dans la politique favorisant la régulation des populations, surtout depuis 1987. Malgré ce déclin éventuel de la fertilité des dernières années, l'Iran s'attend, au cours des prochaines décennies, à une explosion démographique une fois que les enfants nés entre 1976 et 86 auront atteints l'âge de procréer.

Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi

2002-01-01

185

Crop Coefficient (kc and Water Use Efficiency (WUE of Soybean as Affected by Soil Moisture Stress and Fertility Levels  

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Full Text Available Experiment were conducted to study the crop coefficient (Kc and water use Efficiency (WUE of soybean as affected by soil moisture stress and fertility levels at Malir Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University. Tnadojam, Pakistan on silt loam soil. The results revealed that crop efficient (Kc increased with an increase in the crop age. The Kc was higher proportionate to higher moisture availability. The peak Kc was at 105-125 days after sowing, corresponding with early stage to complete fill stage of soybean crop. Water use efficiency at 5 bar tensions signified the plants under stress and were more efficient in utilizing water for the production of grain. The higher fertility was exhibited through appropriate fertilizer levels which in-turn increased the water use efficiency and compensated water deficiency. Thus, it is recommended that crop coefficient and fertility levels should be identified for obtaining maximum water use efficiency and yield targets.

U.A. Burriro

2002-01-01

186

Agrotecnólogical characteristics of cane sugar at different times of suppression of irrigation and fertilizer levels  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Agrotechnological two varieties of cane sugar influenced by different times of deletions irrigation and fertilization levels. The characteristics evaluated were: plant height (m, stem diameter (mm, number of tillers m- 1, Brix broth, sugar cane Pol, Pol broth, Sugar reducer, and overall productivity. The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm area Unimontes in Janaúba in northern Minas Gerais. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications in a split plot (2 x 3 x 6 , two varieties of cane sugar, RB85 and 5453 SP80 1816, three different times suppression of irrigation (DIAP and six different levels of NK fertilization. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when significant differences were the F test was performed to compare the means by Scott Knott (p<0.05 for all variables, using the software program SISVAR. The varieties showed different behavior at maturity, having variety RB85 5453 higher values in technological quality and productivity at lower rates. The varieties obtained overall average of 24.3 ° Brix, Pol 17.6 % of sugarcane, 21 % Pol broth, 0.6 % AR, 3:08 meters in height, 29.2 mm in diameter, 18.9 tillers m-1, 11.1 stems m-1, t ha-1 159.8 productivity. The varieties responded to different eras of suppression irrigation (DIAP. 6 The level of fertilization provided better performance in terms of this work. The RB85 - 5453 and SP80 -1816 varieties are promising for Nortemineira region.

Franklin Meireles de Oliveira

2014-06-01

187

Adubação mineral e orgânica e a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae em cebola Mineral and organic fertilization and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae population density  

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Full Text Available O efeito da adubação mineral e orgânica sobre a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola, Allium cepa L., foi avaliado na Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina, entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram níveis de adubação mineral com N, P2O5 e K2O em dose recomendada e três vezes a recomendada, adubação orgânica e a testemunha foi a ausência de adubação. Os tratamentos foram as seguintes doses de nutrientes: 1 30 + 120 + 60kg ha-1 de NPK; 2 90 + 360 + 180kg ha-1 de NPK; 3 75kg ha-1 de N; 4 225kg ha-1 de N; 5 80kg ha-1 de P2O5; 6 240kg ha-1 de P2O5; 7 60kg ha-1 de K2O; 8 180kg ha-1 de K2O; 9 75kg ha-1 de N + 80kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 10 225kg ha-1 de N + 240kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 11 37,5kg ha-1 de N + 40kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; testemunha sem adubação. Nenhuma das fontes e níveis de adubação apresentaram nível populacional de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo.The effect of the mineral and organic fertilization on onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind., population density was evaluated at Ituporanga Experiment Station, EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between August and December 1998. The treatments were different levels of mineral fertilization with N, P2O5 and K2O at recommended rate and three times recommended rate, the organic fertilization and without fertilization was check. The treatments in nutrient rate were: 30 + 120 + 60kg NPK ha-1; 90 + 360 + 180kg NPK ha-1; 75kg N ha-1; 225kg N ha-1; 80kg P2O5 ha-1; 240kg P2O5 ha-1; 60kg K2O ha-1; 180kg K2O ha-1; 75kg N ha-1 + 80kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 225kg N + 240kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 37,5kg N + 40kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; check without fertilizer. The onion thrips population density was similar among treatments with fertilizer and the check without fertilization. The mineral fertilization didn’t increase significantly onion thrips incidence.

Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

2004-08-01

188

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th series, their decay products and {sup 40}K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring {gamma}-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5{+-}5.2-106.3{+-}7.5, 5.1{+-}1.6-9.9{+-}3.2. and 462.6{+-}21-607.3{+-}14 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra{sub eq} in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43 Bq kg{sup -1} and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19 Bq kg{sup -1}, which are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1} adopted from . The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmeasured activity levels of natural radionuclides in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Saudi Arabia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activity of natural radionuclides in chemical fertilizer higher than in organic fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA{sub eq} in chemical and organic fertilizers ranged between 34.07 and 161.43 Bq kg{sup -1}.

El-Taher, A., E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit 71452 (Egypt); Althoyaib, S.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia)

2012-01-15

189

Effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on sweet corn (Zea maYs L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on emergence m/sup -2/ growth and grain yield of sweet corn. The fertilizer and interaction of fertilizer x seed density had significant negative effect with increasing level while seed density had a positive effect with increased density on emergence per m/sup 2/. Increased seed density significantly reduced plant growth which increased with application of higher fertilizer dose. The grain yield was improves by ridge planting methods, increased seed density and increased fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (3,553.50 kg ha/sup-1/) of sweet corn plants was recorded in ridge planting method with highest NP fertilizer level of 300:150 kg ha/sup 1/ and 4 seeds hill/sup -1/. The lowest grain yield (3,493.75 kg ha/sup -1/) of sweet corn was observed in flat sowing planting method with 120:75 NP level and 2 seeds hill/sup -1/ seed density. The ridge planting rank first then furrow and flat planting methods on basis of grain yield per hectare. The sweet corn plant yield was high with 4 seeds hill/sup -1/ compared with 2 seeds hill/sup -1/. (author)

2006-04-01

190

Nutritional quality of grains of sorghum cultivar grown under different levels of micronutrients fertilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different levels of micronutrients (0, 2, 4, and 8 g/5 kg soil) and a fixed amount (6 g/5 kg soil) of macronutrients fertilizer on the antinutrients content, protein content and digestibility, total and extractable macro- and micro-elements, amino acid content and score of grains of sorghum cultivar (Gadambalia) grown for two consecutive season. Protein content and essential amino acids composition of sorghum grains significantly (P?0.05) increased with micronutrients level for both seasons. Tannins and phytate contents dropped significantly (P?0.05) with a concomitant increase in protein digestibility, macro- and micro-elements extractability for both seasons and treatments. The content of macro- and micro-elements of the grains increased with micronutrients level during both seasons. The essential amino acids scores of the grains were significantly (P?0.05) increased for both seasons and treatments. PMID:24767069

Ahmed, Suha O; Abdalla, Adel Wahab H; Inoue, Tomoe; Ping, Ann; Babiker, Elfadil E

2014-09-15

191

[Change characteristics of rice yield and soil organic matter and nitrogen contents under various long-term fertilization regimes].  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-term (1982-2010) field experiment was conducted in the Red Soil Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Qiyang County of Hunan Province, South-central China to investigate the dynamic changes of rice yield and soil organic matter (OM) and nitrogen contents under different fertilization treatments. The treatments included NPK, NPKM (M: manure), NPM, NKM, PKM, M, and CK. Fertilization increased the soil OM, total N, and alkaline-hydrolysable N contents and the rice yield. In treatment NPKM, the rice yield across the 28 years maintained at the highest level; while in treatment NPK, the yield showed a decreasing trend, being lower than that in other fertilization treatments. In the treatments applied with manure only or in combining with chemical fertilizers, the soil OM content increased rapidly in the first 16 years, and then fluctuated around a constant level (29.42-39.32 g x kg(-1)). In the treatments of chemical fertilization, the soil OM content only had a quicker increase in the first 8 years, and then fluctuated within a relatively stable range. Fertilization with manure increased the soil OM significantly, as compared to fertilization with chemical fertilizers only. The soil total N content in all fertilization treatments showed a rapid increase in the first 8 years, and the increment was the highest in treatment NPKM. The soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in all fertilization treatments had a slower increase in the first 12 years, with an average annual increment of 0.66-2.25 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1). In 1994-1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in fertilization treatments had a quicker increase, with an average annual increment of 6.45-32.45 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1); but after 1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content had a slight decrease. It was concluded that organic fertilization was the key measure to stably improve the physical and chemical properties and the productivity of red paddy soils by increasing their OM and nitrogen contents, and to sustain the rice production in red soil region in subtropical China. PMID:24175518

Huang, Jing; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Yang-Zhu; Qin, Dao-Zhu; Xu, Ming-Gang

2013-07-01

192

Effect of Cultivars, Harvesting Time and Level of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Nitrate and Nitrite Content, Yield in Romaine Lettuce  

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In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 60, 120, 180), cultivars (Pich Ahwazi, Pich Varamini) and harvesting time (morning, evening) on yield, nitrate and nitrite accumulation in edible parts of lettuce, a research was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran. This study was arranged in spilt plot experiment on randomized complete block design base, in three replications. Results indicated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer amount on yield were signific...

2007-01-01

193

Testing the Fertilizer Effect of Compost Produced by Anaerobic Fermentation of Sewage Sludge  

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Full Text Available The compost tested in this study resulted from the anaerobic fermentation process of sewage sludge with cereal straw. Processing and post-treatment were made by Biotechnological Research Centre within INCD ECOIND from Bucharest. Experimental program included testing the effect of fertilizer in quantities of 25 t, 50 t and 100 t compost / ha on the production of soya beans. It was also investigated the influence of the combination of fertilization with compost and inorganic fertilization with levels of 200 kg, respectively, 400 kg NPK / ha. Was analyzed the following productivity indicators: plant density, number of floors of pods, number and weight of pods and total beans production, in full ripening stage. In the case of fertilization only with composted sludge, production of peas and beans was higher in variants with 50 t / ha and 100 t / ha (2095 kg and 1990 kg grain / ha. Therefore, doubling the amount of compost does not provide corresponding increase yields of soybeans. Combining organic and inorganic fertilization determine a proportional production increase only for the total biomass production. The tested compost is a good organic fertilizer and the amount that provides the greatest soybeans production is 50 t / ha.

Benoni Lixandru

2010-10-01

194

Impact of Nitrogen Fertilizer, Their Levels, Application Time and Weeding Methods on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of nitrogen fertilizer (80, 100 and 120 kg N ha -1 to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. applied at sowing, early and boot stage and weed control methods (no weeding, hand weeding, chemical applied once and twice. A basal dose of 40 kg N ha -1 was given to all treatments at sowing. Grain weight showed no response to fertilizer, Spike population and number of grains per spike had a positive linear relationship with fertilizer levels. Weed control methods significantly influenced grain weight and number of grains spike -1. Highest grain yield was achieved from single application of Isoproturon and fertilizer applied at the rate of 120 kg N ha -1 in three equal split doses.

Mujtaba Masood

2002-01-01

195

Adubação mineral de Pinus oocarpa schiede / Mineral fertilization of Pinus oocarpa schiede  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente ensaio refere-se à adubação de Pinus oocarpa Schiede. Foi instalado em solo Latossolo Vermelho Escuro Distrófico originalmente sob vegetação de cerrado, no município de Assis, São Paulo. Através de medições periódicos de altura e DAP (diâmetro à altura do peito) das árvores, foram verific [...] ados os efeitos da adubação NPK, calagem, S, B e Zn sob delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Pela análise estatística dos últimos dados de altura e diâmetro, quando as plantas estavam com 3 anos, conclui-se que: a adubação NPK proporcionou um aumento significativo no desenvolvimento das plantas em altura e diâmetro; a adubação NPK + calagem aumentou significativamente a altura; a adubação NPK + calagem + S aumentou significativamente o diâmetro e a aplicação de B e Zn não apresentou efeitos significativos. Abstract in english The present work deals with the mineral fertilization of Pinus oocarpa Schiede. The experiment took place in a Distrophic Dark-Red Latosol, formerly under "cerrado" vegetation in Assis, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The height and D.B.C. (diameter breast height) of the trees were periodically measured [...] in order to check the effects of NPK, liming, S, B and Zn fertilization under experimental delineation of randomized blocks with four repetitions . By means of statistical analysis of the last height and diameter data on three year-old plants, we can conclude that: NPK fertilization significantly increased the height and diameter of the plants; NPK + liming treatment significantly increased the plants height; NPK + liming + S treatment significantly increased the plants diameter and the application of B and Zn did not exert any effect.

M.I.M.S., Lopes; M.A. de O., Gurgel; L.M. do A.G., Garrido; F. de A.F. de, Mello.

196

Influence of education levels on dissemination of soil fertility management information in the central highlands of Kenya  

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Full Text Available Inadequate links between researchers and farmers has resulted in low uptake of research advances recommended to improve food security in the central highlands of Kenya. Access to timely and accurate information by extension agents and farmers is paramount in dissemination of soil fertility management practices. Hence, the study sought to investigate the effect of education levels on communication channels used to disseminate soil fertility technologies in the Central highlands of Kenya. Questionnaires were used to elicit information from 105 extension agents and 240 farmers. About 50.5% of the extension officers were certificate holders while 29.5% were diploma holders from agricultural institutes. Majority of the farmers had attained primary education (59.6% while 25.8% and 9.2% had attained secondary and post secondary education, respectively. Research institutions were the most accessible sources of information on soil fertility management practices by extension agents while internet and scientific conferences were the least scored as accessible sources of soil fertility management information by extension agents. Education levels significantly influenced preference of individual approach methods by farmers. There was a significant positive relationship between education and accessibility of internet as a source of information on green manure. The implication of the study was that education levels influenced the mode of communication used in the transfer of soil fertility research outputs to the end users. Consequently, it is extremely important to consider education levels in selection of dissemination pathways used in agriculture.

Daniel Njiru

2012-01-01

197

Fertilizante mineral e resíduo orgânico sobre características agronômicas da soja e nutrientes no solo Mineral fertilizer and organic waste on soybean crop and soil nutrients  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do fertilizante mineral NPK associado ao resíduo orgânico "cama de frango", sobre as características agronômicas da soja bem como os teores de nutrientes em um Cambissolo. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Itutinga, sul de Minas Gerais, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições em esquema de parcela subdividida. A cultivar utilizada no experimento foi a BRS Favorita RR. Os tratamentos aplicados às parcelas foram constituídos por quatro doses de "cama de frango" (0; 3; 6 e 9 Mg ha-1, aplicados em área total. As subparcelas constituíram as cinco doses do fertilizante mineral formulado NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 kg ha-1, aplicados ao sulco de semeadura. A adubação com o fertilizante mineral proporciona aumento na altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, número de legumes por planta e na produtividade de grãos da cultura da soja. A adubação com o resíduo orgânico "cama de frango" eleva a altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, massa de 100 grãos, número de legumes por planta e o rendimento de grãos de soja, porém em doses mais elevadas favorece o acamamento das plantas. A utilização da cama de frango é viável em termos agronômicos e econômicos na cultura da soja. A adição de cama de frango eleva os teores de potássio e enxofre no solo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral fertilizer NPK associated with the organic waste "poultry litter" on the agronomic characteristics of soybean as well as nutrient levels in the Cambisol. The experiment was carried out in Itutinga, southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in a randomized blocks experimental design with three replications in split-plot. The cultivar used was BRS Favorita RR. The treatments applied to plots consisted on four doses of "poultry litter" (0; 3; 6 and 9 Mg ha-1, applied in the total area. The subplots were the five doses of mineral fertilizer NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 kg ha-1, applied to the groove seeding. Fertilization with mineral fertilizers provides an increase in plant and first pod height, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean. Fertilization with organic waste "poultry litter" increases the plant and first pod height, weight of 100 grains, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean, however at higher doses favors the lodging of plants. The use of poultry litter is viable in agronomic and economic terms in the soybean crop. The addition of poultry litter increases the contents of potassium and sulfur in the soil.

Everson Reis Carvalho

2011-12-01

198

Influence of Both Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Productivity of Barley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influences of gamma irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) as well as nitrogen fertilizer levels (zero, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/fad) on growth, yield and yield components of barley cultivar Giza 123 were studied during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. The study was conducted in an extension field at Belbees District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Irradiation with the lowest gamma does gave the highest value for each of emergence/m2, plant height at heading (cm), flag leaf area at heading (cm2), spike length (cm), number of grains/spike and weight of grains/spike. Nitrogen application significantly increased emergence/m2, plant height, flag leaf area (cm2), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2 as well as grain, straw and biological yields (kg/fad). Accepted September 2013.

2013-01-01

199

Effects of decaying leaf litter and inorganic fertilizer on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available The effects of decaying leaf litter of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina as organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a screen house. Twenty-four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which included: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1, 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2, 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic fertilizer (T3, a mixture of 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T4, a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T5 and control (T6. The significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize seedlings, and this was closely followed by T4 treated seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as an organic fertilizer in maize production in a screen house conditions did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.

Chukwuka Kanayo S.

2014-01-01

200

Study on the effect of temperature and the level of nitrogenase fertilizer on formation dynamics of nitrate in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of temperature and application level of nitrogenase fertilizer on the formation dynamics of nitrate in soil were studied with the isotope tracer CO(15NH2)2 by planting spinages in pot culture. the dynamics model of nitrate in soil after applying urea was established as: C = A(e-ket-e-kat). With temperature of 10 degree C, the model was as follows: C = 1-e-kat. The results showed that temperature had an obvious effect on the formation and degradation velocity of nitrate in soil but the application level of nitrogenase fertilizer had no significant effect on them

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Vermicomposting Leachate (Worm Tea as Liquid Fertilizer for Maize (Zea mays L. Forage Production  

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Full Text Available We investigated how dilution of vermicompost Leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected maize plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m-1, contained 834 mg K+ L-1, 247 mg NO3-1 L-1 and 168 mg PO43– L-1, was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65% germination index. Vermicompost Leachate diluted to 50% and mixed with 170 g L-1 NPK resulted in the best maize plant development while the dispersant and adherent had no significant effect. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development when diluted, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth.

Garcia-Gomez Roberto Carlos

2008-01-01

202

The influence of tillage systems, fertilization and plant protection levels on weed infestation in winter rye cultivated on light soil  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional and ploughless tillage systems upon infestation in two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on light soil. Before harvest winter rye there was determined weed infestation of square-frame method. There were estimated weed species composition and air dry matter of weeds in two randomly selected place. Number of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds and dry matter of weeds was higher on the objects with ploughless tillage system compared with conventional tillage. Intensive fertilization and plant protection decreased number of dicotyledonous weeds in canopy of winter rye. Conventional tillage system decreased Apera spica-venti occurrence in a canopy of winter rye and increased number of Plantago major plants. Intensive level of fertilization and plant protection decreased weed infestation first of all through Matricaria maritima.

Piotr Kraska

2002-12-01

203

The Effect of Crop Rotation, Mineral Fertilizer Application and Herbicide on Weed Control in Winter Rye  

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Full Text Available The recent years' problems of herbicide use have led a growing number of researchers to seek alternative methods that are less reliant on herbicides. This research was conducted to determine the effect of long-term crop rotation, mineral fertilizer and herbicide on the weed infestation and grain yield of winter rye during 2004 and 2005 at the long-term experimental site of the University of Timiriazev, Moscow. Treatments were control (no weed control, herbicide, combined fertilizer (NPK and NPK plus herbicide in field winter rye cultivated in continuous and crop rotation with other crops since 1912. Crop rotation significantly decreased weed density and dry mass. Long-term NPK application significantly decreased weed density, but had not any effect on weed dry mass. Crop rotation, NPK application and herbicide increased ground crop cover and decreased ground weed cover. In continuous crop, weed ground cover was 10 % in control plot and 3.33 % in plots where NPK was applied. Data showed that long-term crop rotation and NPK application can reduce weed infestation and increase grain yield of winter rye.

H Mohamad Dost CHamanabad

2009-04-01

204

Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g?1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg?1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g?1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

2013-09-01

205

Elevated CO2 levels affect development, motility, and fertility and extend life span in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypercapnia (high CO2 levels) occurs in a number of lung diseases and it is associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). However, it is largely unknown how hypercapnia is sensed and responds in nonneuronal cells. Here, we used C. elegans to study the response to nonanesthetic CO2 levels and show that levels exceeding 9% induce aberrant motility that is accompanied by age-dependent deterioration of body muscle organization, slowed development, reduced fertility and increased life span. These effects occur independently of the IGF-R, dietary restriction, egg laying or mitochondrial-induced aging pathways. Transcriptional profiling analysis shows specific and dynamic changes in gene expression after 1, 6, or 72 h of exposure to 19% CO2 including increased transcription of several 7-transmembrane domain and innate immunity genes and a reduction in transcription of many of the MSP genes. Together, these results suggest specific physiological and molecular responses to hypercapnia, which appear to be independent of early heat shock and HIF mediated pathways.

Sharabi, Kfir; Hurwitz, Anat; Simon, Amos J.; Beitel, Greg J.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Rechavi, Gideon; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Gruenbaum, Yosef

2009-01-01

206

Evaluation Of Compost Fertilizer "Zarkhez" In Conjunction With Chemical Fertilizers For Rice And Wheat Production  

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Full Text Available Experiments conducted to evaluate a compost fertilizer "Zarkhez" showed that effect of compost alone (2000 kg/ha and 4000 kg/ha on number of tillers, 1000-grain weight, yield and NPK uptake by rice and wheat was almost similar to control, whereas, significant improvements were observed when combination of compost and chemical fertilizers were applied. Maximum yield of paddy (4.25 t ha-1 and wheat (2.61 t ha-1 were obtained with 4000 kg ha-1 compost + chemical fertilizers (150-75-0 kg ha-1, which were 170.70 and 272.86 per cent increased over control, respectively.

Aslam John

1998-01-01

207

Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

Sun Mei

2011-01-01

208

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Levels of Some Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances in Hibiscus sabdariffa  

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Full Text Available The presence of antinutrients and toxic substances in vegetables limits the derivable benefits from vegetables. The levels of these substances in vegetables are influenced by the nature of soil in which the vegetables are grown. The effect of applied nitrogen fertilizer on the levels of some antinutrients and toxic substances is investigated with a view to determine the appropriateness or otherwise of the application of nitrogen fertilizer in growing vegetables. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of soil nitrogen levels on soluble and total oxalates, cyanide, nitrate and some micronutrients namely, vitamin C, -carotene (precursor of vitamin A and mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ca, Na and K in Hibiscus sabdariffa. The leaves of the vegetable were harvested and analysed at market maturity (vegetative phase and fruiting (reproductive phase of the plant development. Results obtained showed that the applied nitrogen fertilizer significantly elevated nitrate and -carotene contents, while it decreases the levels of vitamin C, soluble and total oxalates in the vegetable. The levels of cyanide and mineral elements were not significantly affected by the applied nitrogen fertilizer.

Emmanuel O. Ogbadoyi

2012-01-01

209

Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol  

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Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

Peter A. EKUNWE

2011-11-01

210

Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica  

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Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrien...

Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Víctor Hugo Alvarez V.; José Maria Moreira Dias; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque Villani

2010-01-01

211

Fertility of Turkish and Moroccan women in the Netherlands: Adjustment to native level within one generation  

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Full Text Available The annual figures on the fertility of Turkish and Moroccan women show that the sharp decline that took place up to the mid nineties was reduced or stagnated. In this paper we use cohort data by generation for the main population groups of non-western origin to show that the first generation only adjusted their fertility slowly to that of the native Dutch women. The first generation of Turkish and Moroccan women even has higher fertility rates than the women in their countries of origin. The realised fertility rate of the second generation, on the other hand, is virtually the same as that of the native Dutch women. Turkish and Moroccan women in their early thirties even have fewer children than native Dutch women that age. Their position is no longer in between the first generation and the native Dutch women, but fertility-wise they are more like the native Dutch than like their mothers.

Han Nicolaas

2008-07-01

212

Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

1995-03-01

213

Wheat Response to Application Methods and Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer: I. Phenology, Growth Indices and Protein Content  

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Full Text Available Fertilizer use efficiency of nitrogen is very low due to various types of losses. This two year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of various levels of nitrogen and its application methods on phenology, growth indices and quality of wheat. Fertilizer application methods (broadcast and side-dressing were placed in the main plots, while nitrogen levels (60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg/ha applied in sub plots. Crop data showed that nitrogen methods had non-significant effect on phenology, physiology and quality parameters. Fertilizer application rates rendered significant effect on various parameters except days to emergence. Nitrogen at 210 kg/ha gave significant increase in the phenological and growth parameters. Leaf area index and leaf area duration were significantly affected by the rate of nitrogen fertilizers. Protein contents were also increased by the application of higher amount of nitrogen. Interaction among application methods and nitrogen levels showed significant variations in net assimilation rate, while crop growth rate remained significant in the second year and protein content had shown significant variation during the first year of study.

Muhammad Saleem Jilani

2013-01-01

214

Long-term effects of cropping systems and fertilization on crop production, soil characteristics and nitrogen cycling in the Guinean and Sudanian savannah zones of Burkina Faso (West Africa)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term effects of annual fallow and two grain legumes, namely groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on soil N, fertilizer N recovery and yield of subsequent non-fixing crops were investigated in two ecological savannah zones of West Africa. The effects of fallow and groundnut on sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and cotton (Gossypium sp) were studied using a 10-year (1993-2003) field experiment at the agronomic research station of Farako-Ba (4 deg. 20' West, 11 deg. 6' North and 405 m altitude) in Guinean savannah zone Burkina Faso. A factorial 3x8 design in a split plot arrangement was used. Three crop rotations (cotton-groundnut-Sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) were used as first factor and 8 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+crop residues, NPK+dolomite, PK+crop residues, PK+manure, PK+compost, PK and control) were applied as second factor. In the Sudanian savannah zone, a 5-year (1995-1999) field experiment was laid down at the research station of Kouare (11 deg 59' North, 0 deg. 19' West and 850 m altitude). A factorial of three cropping systems (cowpea-sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) as a first factor and 4 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+dolomite, PK+manure and a control) as a second factor in a split plot design was used. In the Guinean savannah zone, grain yields of succeeding sorghum increased from 547 kg ha-1 in continuous sorghum to 912 and 1021 kg ha-1 in fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations respectively. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N at sowing. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 19% for the continuous sorghum to 32 and 51% for the fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum respectively. Soil organic carbon increased from 0.36% in continuous sorghum to 0.39 and 0.54% in cotton-groundnut-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, continuous sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations decreased soil organic carbon. Only fallow-sorghum rotation maintained soil organic carbon, exchange acidity and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Manure applications increased soil organic carbon, total N and available P. Except for the fallow-sorghum rotation, other rotations increased aluminum saturation and decreased soil pH compared to original soil. Manure or dolomite applications decreased exchange acidity and maintained soil pH and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotation was the most efficient for the Guinea savannah zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer plus one t ha-1 of dolomite can be recommended for cotton and sorghum. Alternatively mineral PK fertilizer combined with 3 t ha-1 cattle manure can be applied to sorghum. Only mineral NPK fertilizer can be used on groundnut. In the Sudanian savannah zone, sorghum grain yields increased by 75 and 100% when sorghum was rotated with fallow or cowpea respectively, compared to mono cropping of sorghum. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cowpea-sorghum rotations supplied 17 and 90% more N to succeeding sorghum compared to the mono cropping system of sorghum. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 17% for the continuous sorghum to 22 and 26% for the cowpea-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, all cropping systems decreased soil organic carbon and increased aluminum saturation. All cropping systems decreased soil pH and increased aluminum saturation compared to original soil. Cowpea-sorghum rotation was the most efficient cropping system in the Sudanian zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer associated with one t ha-1 of dolomite or 3 t ha-1 of manure must be applied to sorghum. But only recommended mineral NPK fertilizer can be applied for cowpea. (author)

2006-12-01

215

Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans  

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Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force ca...

1999-01-01

216

Anti-Mullerian hormone levels decline under hormonal suppression: a prospective analysis in fertile women after delivery  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background AMH's reported stability during periods of hormonal change makes it a practical tool in assessing ovarian reserve. However, AMH declines with age and age-specific cut-offs remain to be established in women with proven fertility. This study aims to determine age-specific ranges of AMH in women with proven fertility. Methods Two hundred-ten fertile women, aged 18-40 years, were prospectively recruited for AMH measurements within 14 days after delivery and age stratified into 3 groups (18-30, 31-36 and 37-40 years. Eligibility required spontaneous conception within a maximal period of six months. Autoimmune diseases, chemotherapy, radiation, ovarian surgery and polycystic ovary syndrome precluded inclusion. Results 95% confidence intervals of AMH declined with advancing female age from 0.9-1.1 to 0.6-0.9 and 0.2-0.4 ng/mL (P Conclusions Like infertile populations, fertile women demonstrate declining AMH with advancing age. Uniformly lower levels than in infertile women suggest that AMH levels do not appear as stable under all hormonal influences as previously reported.

Ortner Iris

2011-07-01

217

PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS  

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Full Text Available A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da correção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus, cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and 128 for the 50, 100 and 150% recommended fertilizer rates. The NPK fertilizer levels, keeping c

Enio Marchezan

2002-04-01

218

Response of Sweet Potato to Integrated Effect of Chemical and Natural Phosphorus Fertilizer and Their Levels in Combination with Mycorrhizal Inoculation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural practices based on combinations of biofertilizer and inorganic or natural sources of fertilizer would produce vigor growth and more sustainable yield than either using biofertilizer or inorganic fertilizer alone. In this respect, two field trials were performed in 2007 and 2008 summer seasons to determine the growth, root quantity and quality response of sweet potato to chemical and natural Phosphorus (P) fertilizer (superphosphate and rock phosphate) under four levels of P...

Abdel-razzak, H. S.; Moussa, A. G.; Abd El-fattah, M. A.; El-morabet, G. A.

2013-01-01

219

Liming and fertilization to restore degraded Brachiaria decumbens pastures grown on an entisol  

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Full Text Available The reconstitution of soil fertility is essential in the process of pasture restoring, liming being the first action to be taken in this direction. The liming recommendation for pastures needs more technical information as the application method and rate. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the liming and fertilization practices to restore a degraded Brachiaria decumbens pasture. The following factors were studied: liming method (incorporated in soil by disking or not; level of base saturation (40, 50 or 80% and lime type (55, 70 or 90 of ECC. Liming and fertilization (NPK and micronutrients increased both the forage yield and its root system, these being more evident in the second year, even using the same rates of lime and fertilizer used during the first year. After two years the levels of base saturation aimed for the 0 to 0.20 m soil layer were not achieved, neither was the neutralization of the Al. The disking impaired the development of the root system of B. decumbens and promoted the decrease of soil organic matter. The lime with the lowest ECC increased root growth and led to higher concentrations of Ca and Mg in the soil. Studies in other conditions are necessary to define liming requirements in established and degraded pastures.

Oliveira Patrícia Perondi Anchão

2003-01-01

220

Nutrient Composition of Selected Sweet Potato [Ipomea batatas (L Lam] Varieties as Influenced by Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application  

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Full Text Available Total ß-carotene content of four varieties of Sweet potatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L Lam] as influenced by different levels of nitrogen fertilizer were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC The proximate composition and mineral contents were also determined. The nitrogen fertilizer treatments were combinations of four levels of 0kgN/ha(control, 40 kgN/ha, 80 kg/Nha, 120 kgN/ha on the four varieties of Sweet potato; white-fleshed TIS87/0087 and TIS8164, orange-fleshed Ex-Igbariam and CIP Tanzania. Nitrogen fertilizer significantly (p<0.05 increased the total ß-carotene and crude protein with increase in nitrogen fertilizer application up to 120 kgN/ha. Generally there was a trend in the total ß-carotene increase from 0-80 kgN/ha for all the varieties except CIP Tanzania which showed no such trend. On the average, TIS87/0087 and Ex-Igbariam varieties gave the highest total ß-carotene content at 40-80 kgN/ha when compared with the control. The highest yield for the crude fiber was observed at the control (0 kgN/ha for all the varieties except TIS8164 which highest value was observed at 40 kgN/ha. Application of nitrogen above 80 kgN/ha did not increase the yield of most nutrient (namely, ß-carotene and protein. Generally, application of nitrogen fertilizer increased the mineral contents of most Sweet potato varieties significantly (p<0.05 from 0-120 kgN/ha with the exception of phosphorus which showed significant decrease. The overall results indicate increased bioavailability of ß-carotene (Provitamin A and crude protein for good nutrition and health particularly at 40-80 kgN/ha.

A.N. Ukom

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Growth index in massai grass under different levels of nitrogen fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the growth index of massai grass during two regrowth cycles in a greenhouse under five levels of nitrogen (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg N/dm³ of soil) and eight growth ages (5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26 days) in a split-plot design with five replications. The following [...] variables were evaluated: net assimilation rate, herbage growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio and specific leaf area. The effect of nitrogen was detected on the variables net assimilation rate (regrowths 1 and 2), leaf area ratio (regrowth 1), leaf weight ratio (regrowths 1 and 2), specific leaf area (regrowths 1 and 2) and herbage growth rate (regrowths 1 and 2). The growth ages influenced the relative growth rate (regrowth 2) and the net assimilation rate (regrowth 2). The net assimilation rate presented linear effect, estimated in 0.70 and 2.86 g/m² leaf.day-1 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively (regrowth 1). For each milligram of N/dm³ added, the leaf area ratio was reduced in 0.0000258 m² leaf/g plant (regrowth 1). The herbage growth rate was estimated in 1.38 and 37.02 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 1), and 4.37 and 32.20 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 2) for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively. The massai grass' growth is favored by nitrogen fertilization, and little do the growth ages affect the growth index of the plants.

Marcos Neves, Lopes; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco, Pompeu; Magno José Duarte, Cândido; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Rodrigo Gregório da, Silva; Francisco Ronaldo Belem, Fernandes.

222

Agronomic Traits of Mungbean and Subsequent Rice Crop as Affected by Seed Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Level  

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Full Text Available Effect of seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels on the yield and yield components of mungbean and subsequent rice crop was studied. Results showed that seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels significantly affected yield and yield components of mungbean and rice crops. Treatment (T6 exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential of mungbean crop (954.8 kg ha-1 grains, which was 50% more than that of control. Whereas T7 gave maximum residual effect (4075 kg ha-1 paddy yield, however statistically it was at par with T3, T4, T5 and T6. In conclusion, T6 proved better for getting maximum mungbean yield while T7 produced highest paddy yield.

Aasrar Mahboob

2003-01-01

223

Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans  

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Full Text Available Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force causing bean damage and bean deformation up to crack.

Gorzelany J.

1999-06-01

224

Influence of estrogen levels on thermal perception, pain thresholds and pain tolerance : Studies on women undergoing in vitro fertilization  

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We examined the relationship between estrogen and pain in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Quantitative sensory tests (QST) were performed twice during the IVF-regimen: once during hormonal down-regulation and once during hormonal upregulation. A group of healthy men and a group of women using monophasic contraceptives were also examined, to control for session-to-session effects. Among the women undergoing IVF, serum 17?-estradiol levels differed strongly between treatments as...

Stening, Kent; Berg, Go?ran; Hammar, Mats; Voster, Helene; Eriksson, Olle; Amandusson, A?sa; Blomqvist, Anders

2012-01-01

225

Crop Coefficient (kc) and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of Soybean as Affected by Soil Moisture Stress and Fertility Levels  

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Experiment were conducted to study the crop coefficient (Kc) and water use Efficiency (WUE) of soybean as affected by soil moisture stress and fertility levels at Malir Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University. Tnadojam, Pakistan on silt loam soil. The results revealed that crop efficient (Kc) increased with an increase in the crop age. The Kc was higher proportionate to higher moisture availability. The peak Kc was at 105-125 days after sowing, corresponding with early stage to comple...

2002-01-01

226

Effect of fertilization on the weediness of maize in a long-term field experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We carried our examination in a long-term fertilization field experiment in 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM1 treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and maize. The bi-factorial trial was arranged in split plot design with three replications. The weed survey was made 25 days after seeding in the 27th of may. For the weed survey the Balázs-Ujvárosi method was applied. After the weed survey we collected all the weed species from the plots per 1-1 m2. We counted, mesured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial shoots. We collected maize too, five pieces per plots. In the experiment were found 12 weed species, 9 annual: Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus chlorostachys, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium hybridum, Echinochloa crus-galli, Polygonum lapathifolium, Xantium strumarium, Veronica hederi-folia, and 3 perennial: Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Lathyrus tuberosus. On the NPK plots the Ch. album, on NPK + FYM treatments the A. theophrasti was the first in order of the dominance. The biomass production of weeds in the NPK + FYM treatments were 3 times higher than in the only NPK treatments. PMID:17390821

Kismányoky, A; Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, T

2006-01-01

227

Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

Piotr Kraska

2006-12-01

228

Effect of Seed Inoculation and Different Nitrogen Levels on the Grain Yield of Mungbean  

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Full Text Available Effect of seed inoculation and different nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of mungbean was studied at Agronomic Research Station, Farooqabad during the year 2000 and 2001. Results showed that various yield components like No. of pods plant -1, No. of grain pods -1, 1000 grain weight, biological and grain yield were affected significantly by seed inoculation and fertilizer application. Seed inoculation + 50-50-0 NPK kg ha -1, exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential (955 kg ha -1 of mungbean grains.

Asrar Mahboob

2002-01-01

229

Effects of fertilizer and plant density on yield and quality of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.  

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Full Text Available In order to understand the effect of organic fertilizer on yield of anise, an experiment was conducted in the form of split-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad, Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center. Four treatments of fertilization: the control, vermicompost - 5 t/ha, cow manure - 25 t/ha, and mineral fertilizer (NPK - 60 kg/ha (the same rate of each nutrient were applied as the main factor. The second factor was plant density, applied at three levels: 17, 25, and 50 plants/m2. The results showed a significant effect of fertilizer on the number of umbels per plant, number of umbellets per umbel and canopy cover. Plant density had a significant effect on grain yield, biological yield, the number of lateral branches, essential oil percentage and yield of essential oil. Seed and essential oil yield were the highest in the case of the application of vermicompost and plant densities of 50 and 25 plants/m2 respectively.

Faravani Mahdi

2013-01-01

230

Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascolonicum) Production  

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A block experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of biological and chemical (NPK 15:15:15) fertilizers on the growth and yield of shallot cultivation in Mahasakham University, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand. Six biological fertilizers were developed from BBF (basically biological fertilizer: 45 g cattle manure + 45 g rice bran + 20 mL of molasses + 10 mL of EM + 10 L of dechlorinated water) and used in this experiment. Chemical and biological fertilizers showed insignific...

2006-01-01

231

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes / Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetrabor [...] ato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana. Abstract in english In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replication [...] s, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1) NPK (control), 2) NPK + Fe, 3) NPK + B, 4) NPK + Cu, 5) NPK + Mn, 6) NPK + Zn, 7) NPK + Mo, 8) NPK + Mg and 9) NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo). The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

R., Alvarez; A. C. P., Wutke.

232

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana.In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replications, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1 NPK (control, 2 NPK + Fe, 3 NPK + B, 4 NPK + Cu, 5 NPK + Mn, 6 NPK + Zn, 7 NPK + Mo, 8 NPK + Mg and 9 NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

R. Alvarez

1963-01-01

233

Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P?O?:10% K?O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P?O?, 15% K?O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2013-01-01

234

Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

Ehsan Karimi

2013-09-01

235

Nitrogen Fertilizer and Weed (Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. Effects on the growth Parameters of Macrotyloma geocarpa (Harms Marechal and Beudet  

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Full Text Available Macrotyloma geocarpa (Harms Marechal and Baudet (Kersting`s groundbean, a grain legume was subjected to different nitrogen levels and spurge weed (Euphorbia heterophylla Linn competition to study the combined effects of these factors on its growth. Weed competition was achieved by growing Kersting`s groundbean with spurge weed, while fertilizer stress was imposed by planting Kersting`s groundbean without fertilizer treatments. There was another treatment, which was a combination of the two stresses. Fertilizer application of the crops was achieved by broadcasting NPK fertilizers at 0, 15 and 30 kg N ha-1 in the Kersting`s groundbean seedlings plots. Plants grown under nitrogen fertilizer did better in terms of above ground biomass, root length, shoot height, Leaf Weight Ratio (LWR and seed yield. These increased at successive intervals. Leaf Area (LA, Leaf Area Ratio (LAR, Specific Leaf Area (SLA, Leaf Area Duration (LAD, Relative Growth Rate (RGR, Leaf Area Index (LAI, Net Assimilation Rate (NAR did not show a regular pattern at successive harvest times during the investigation.

A.A. Adelusi

2006-01-01

236

Effect of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Moisture Stress During Milky and Dough Stages on Grain Yield, Yield Components and water Use Efficiency of Corn (Zea mays L.)  

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In order to investigate the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer levels and water stress during milky and dough stages on grain yield, yield components and water use efficiency of corn hybrid SC 704 (late maturing, non prolific and dent type), a field study was conducted. The factorial design of the study comprised of a randomized complete block with four replications. Four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 92, 184 and 276 kg/ha nitrogen) along with three levels of irrigation (water stres...

2003-01-01

237

EFFECT OF CROP ROTATION AND LONG TERM FERTILIZATION ON THE CARBON AND GLOMALIN CONTENT IN THE SOIL  

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The research was performed on the basis of soil samples taken from a multi-year long fertilization experiment carried out in Skierniewice. The source of samples was soil under potato and rye cultivated in monoculture and in the 5-fields rotation system. The following combinations of fertilization were concerned: Ca, NPK and CaNPK (doses since 1976: 1.6 t·ha-1 CaO every 4 years in monoculture and 2 t·ha-1 CaO every 5 years in crop rotation, 90 kg·ha-1 N, 26 kg·ha-1 P, 91 kg·ha-1 K). Labor...

2012-01-01

238

Successful controlled ovarian stimulation despite elevated hCG levels after first-trimester abortion in the context of fertility preservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertility preservation prior to gonadotoxic chemotherapy by cryopreservation of the ovarian tissue and controlled ovarian stimulation can be effective immediately after induced abortion in the first trimenon. In a reproductive endocrinology and infertility unit of a tertiary care university-based medical centre (University Hospital of Heidelberg) a 37-year-old women with breast cancer was counseled for fertility preservation. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, followed by ovarian stimulation for planned intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI), transvaginal oocyte aspiration and cryopreservation of fertilized eggs was performed in spite of persistently elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-levels after induced abortion. Twenty-four fertilized oocytes with a fertilization rate of 92% were cryopreserved. Ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation can be successfully performed with good results immediately after miscarriage, despite persistent high hCG-levels. PMID:23952105

Goeckenjan, M; Rösner, S; Toth, B; Strowitzki, T; Germeyer, A

2013-11-01

239

Nitric oxide level in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile males and its correlation with sperm parameters  

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Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a free radical molecule, produced by most cells and tissues in the body. The effect of NO on cells is concentration dependent. Low concentration of NO is essential in biology and physiology of most of cells, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has detrimental effects on cells. The role of NO in biology of male and female genital systems is under investigation. In the present study, the nitric oxide concentration was measured in the seminal plasma of both fertile and infertile males and compared with spermatogram parameters. For this purpose, semen samples were collected from 45 patients and 70 healthy donors. After analysis of samples, the stable metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate were measured by Griess assay. The results indicated that the nitric oxide concentration in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly higher than controls. There was a significant negative correlation between the nitric oxide concentration and sperm motility and viability in infertile males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the level of nitric oxide in seminal plasma of infertile men was higher than that of fertile men. The increasing level of nitric oxide concentration in seminal plasma leads to the decrease in sperm motility and viability and affects fertility.

Amiri I.

2006-07-01

240

Effect of mowing and fertilization on biomass and carbohydrate reserves of Molinia caerulea at two organizational levels  

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Individual plant responses to traditional management on European meadows are reported to be context-specific due to various biotic and abiotic factors. However, the effect of organizational level on which the response is measured is rarely considered. We asked whether plant investment into current and future growth in the clonal grass Molinia caerulea, dominant in a species-rich meadow, expressed per shoot or per growth unit (physically independent part of a clone containing all shoots produced by one overwintering tuber) differs between a mown (biomass harvested at June-July) and an abandoned (left without any management) or fertilized meadow (mown and fertilized). As a measure of investments into current growth we used aboveground biomass and as a measure of investments into future growth we used storage of carbohydrates. Biomass production was higher in managed plots (both mown-fertilized and mown plots) when expressed per growth unit and lower when expressed per shoot. Storage of carbohydrates was not different at the end of the season in plants from differently treated plots when expressed per growth unit, but was significantly reduced for individual shoots from managed plots. This implies that the interpretation of the results from our study depends on organization level and method of plant response assessment (storage vs. growth) and this paradox indicates that considering these factors in a particular study could bring deeper insight into individual responses of plants to changing disturbance regime.

Bartoš, Michael; Jane?ek, Št?pán; Klimešová, Jitka

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

A Quantitative Study of Enzyme Levels in the Fluids of Sterile and Fertile Echinococcus Granulosuscysts in Sheep  

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Full Text Available Hydatodosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases that has a global distribution and seems more prevalent in some Asian and European countries. Until now, our knowledge of the parasites biology and metabolism and host-parasite relationships has remained scanty. The main purpose of this study was a comparison between levels of lactate de-hydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate amino transferase (AST and alanine amino transferase (ALT in fertile and sterile hydatid fluids.Liver and lung tissues of infected sheep were gathered and enzyme concentrations in each cyst plus its fertility status and location (liver or lung were determined by an auto-analyzing method.Results showed a significant difference between enzyme levels in fertile and sterile hydatid cysts. There seems to be an equilibrium between hydatid fluid and serum concentrations of hepatic transaminases, while for LDH and ALP the relationship takes the form of an active interchange.ALP is one of the most important enzymes in parasite metabolism and it is considered as an immunogenic protein in host serum.

S Rohani

2003-07-01

242

Effect of Potassium and Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Biomass of Some Halophytes Grown under High Levels of Salinity  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Nahshala Farm, about 50 km from Al-Ain, UAE during the 2001/2002 growing seasons, using five halophyte species; Spartina sp., Distichlis palmeri., Paspalum vaginatum, Juncus roemerianus and Batis maritima, under six levels of N and K fertilizer combinations irrigated with salinity water of 20 g L-1. The objectives of the experiment were twofold; 1 to find out the optimum rate of potassium and nitrogen under such high salinity stress and 2 to study the response (growth and biomass production of such halophytes to different levels of K and N as an anti-salinity nutrients. The experiment was conducted in triplicate with a split-plot design arranged in randomized complete block. Results indicate that controlling soil fertility especially N and K under saline soils condition is considered one of the most important factors in order to conduct reliable study on the evaluation of tolerance of plants to salinity stress. Nitrogen and potassium proved to increase plant salt tolerance to produce high biomass. This study also supports the idea of using high saline water of about 20 g L-1 salt concentration in agriculture along with N and K fertilizers accompanied with increasing leaching fraction to maintain satisfactory yield production of such halophytes

Maher N. Noaman

2004-01-01

243

Influence of cimetidine and bromocriptine on prolactin levels in rat fertility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to see the effects of parenterally administered drugs cimetidine and bromocriptine affecting serum prolactin upon the fertility of adult male albino rats. Ninety adult young male albino rats between the ages of 60 to 120 days were selected. The animals were divided into three groups. Cimetidine was administered in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight to group B intramuscularly and in addition to cimetidine, bromocriptine in a dose of 2.5 mg/day intramuscularly was given to group C. Normal saline was administered intramuscularly to control group A. Plasma prolactin was measured by Enzyme Immunoassays. Spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were studied under oil immersion. The final plasma prolactin level instead of being elevated was found slightly depressed though insignificant in case of group B while remained slightly elevated instead of being suppressed/depressed though insignificant in group C. In group B spermatogenesis was normal in almost all of the tubules but a few of them were seen lined with only Sertoli cells and all the other germ cells like spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, spermatids early and late, and spermatozoa were absent indicating total atrophy with both Sertoli cells and Leydig cells hyperplasia. While in the moderately affected tubules different types of spermatogonia A/B or intermediate were seen near the basement membrane. In group C both normal and abnormal germinal epithelium was seen in same/different tubules but a few of them were seen lined with only Sertoli cells and all the other germ cells like spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, spermatids early and late, and spermatozoa were absent. The process of spermatogenesis was variable and appeared to be normal in most but in some it was found to be suppressed. This study revealed that the toxic effect of the drugs contributes to the infertility. It has not shown to be mediated through hormones in present study for which further research work is needed using low dose and longer duration to see the role of prolactin in causing infertility. PMID:21383876

Hamid, Qamar; Hamid, Sadaf; Minhas, Liaqat Ali; Gul, Anjuman

2009-01-01

244

Comparative study of organic and inorganic fertilizers on forage corn (Zea mays l.) Grown on two soil types  

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Two pot experiments were conducted in 1995/96 and 1996/97 to investigate the interactive effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers applied to two soil types on the performance of corn (Zea mays L.). The soil types were Vertisols from Gezira scheme and Aridisols from West of Omdurman. The organic fertilizers were green manure and chicken manure; the inorganic fertilizers were: urea (N), superphosphate (P), potassium sulphate (K) and combination of NPK. The treatments were replicated thrice ...

El Amin, A. E.

2001-01-01

245

Composição química dos grãos de milho em resposta à adubação mineral e inoculação com rizobactérias / Chemical composition of corn grains in response to mineral fertilization and inoculation with rhizobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para o aumento da produtividade agrícola no País, são necessários estudos para melhor aproveitamento da adubação mineral, a fim de uma produção de grãos com melhor qualidade nutricional. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor e o acúmulo de proteína, de cinzas e de nutrientes em grãos de mi [...] lho provenientes de plantas submetidas à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens e cultivadas em diferentes níveis de adubação NPK no solo. Foram testados seis tratamentos, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0,125 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições, sendo instalado em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, utilizando o cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35. Determinaram-se os teores e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, proteína e cinzas dos grãos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english To increase agricultural productivity in the country, studies are needed to improve the utilization of mineral fertilizers in order to produce grains with improved nutritional quality. The study aimed to evaluate the content and accumulation of protein, ash and nutrients in corn grains from plants i [...] noculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens and grown under different levels of NPK fertilizer in the soil. We tested six treatments in a randomized complete block design in a factorial 3 x 2, three levels of chemical fertilizer NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculation using P. fluorecens (with and without), with four replicates, in a Oxisol, using the maize hybrid 30F35. The content and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, protein and ash content of the grains were evaluated. The data were submitted to Anova and means compared by the Tukey test p

Mariana Alves de, Oliveira; Claudemir, Zucareli; Leandro Teodoski, Spolaor; Allan Ricardo, Domingues; André Sampaio, Ferreira.

246

Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in soil-plant system under irrigating condition. Pt.1: Effect of nitrogen level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three nitrogen fertilization levels including optimum rate of nitrogen applied (N1.0, 150 kg N·ha-1), 150% of optimum rate (N1.5, 225 kg N·ha-1) and 50% of optimum rate (N0.5, 75 kg N·ha-1) were selected to determine the fate of nitrogen in soil plant system by 15N technique in 1994?1995 field experiment which was conducted in Shijiazhuang. The results showed that under irrigated condition the nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE) of ammonium bicarbonate by winter wheat in fertilized treatments were 38.5%, 32.3% and 22.4% respectively, while the highest NUE of winter wheat was found in N0.5 treatment due to a relatively high fertility. The highest yield (6.8 x 103 kg grain·ha-1, 14.7 x 103 kg top·ha-1) was obtained in N1.0 treatment, but nitrogen uptake and grain yield in N1.5 treatment were lower than those of other fertilizer treatments and there was no significant difference between N0.0 and N1.5 in grain yield. the highest residue of fertilizer N was determined in N1.5 treatment, of which 46% existed in the top layer of the soil (0?50 cm). There was no significant difference in residual fertilizer N in soil between the other two treatments (31.28% in N0.5, 31.12% in N1.0). In 15N balance calculation, the unaccounted part of applied N which was leaching down 50 cm in the soil profile as nitrate or gaseous loss through volatilization, denitrification were 30.20%, the soil profile as nitrate or gaseous loss through volatilization, denitrification were 30.20%, 36.56%, 31.25% in N0.5, N1.5 treatments, respectively. It is very important to control residual N in order to prevent N pollution and promote the growth of next crop

1997-06-01

247

Effect of Seed Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Levels on the Growth and Yield of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.  

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Full Text Available Response of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cultivar NM-98 to seed inoculation and different levels of fertilizer (0-0, 15-30, 30-60 and 45-90 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was studied under field conditions. Number of pod bearing branches plant-1, number of seed pod-1, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and protein contents were affected significantly by seed inoculation. The application of fertilizer significantly increased the seed yield and maximum seed yield was obtained when 30-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. This increase in seed yield was mainly due to more number of pod bearing branches plant-1, number of seed pod-1 and 1000-seed weight. Seed protein contents were also increased significantly by seed inoculation and fertilizer application. Based on the present findings it can be concluded that mungbean cultivar NM-98 should sown after seed inoculation and given 30-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 for obtaining higher seed yield

Muhammad Ather Nadeem

2004-01-01

248

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Levels of Some Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances in Hibiscus sabdariffa  

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The presence of antinutrients and toxic substances in vegetables limits the derivable benefits from vegetables. The levels of these substances in vegetables are influenced by the nature of soil in which the vegetables are grown. The effect of applied nitrogen fertilizer on the levels of some antinutrients and toxic substances is investigated with a view to determine the appropriateness or otherwise of the application of nitrogen fertilizer in growing vegetables. Pot experiments were conducted...

Amanabo Musa; Ogbadoyi, Emmanuel O.

2012-01-01

249

Dynamics of the level and ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus in carp ponds water: the effect of mineral fertilizers upon its quality  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation is to establish the dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus level variation and of their ratio after mineral fertilizers application in water. After mineral fertilizers application into the ponds, the real biogenic quantities in water have increased by 2.8-10 times for nitrogen, and by 2-28 times for phosphates, at scheduled nitrogen levels of 5-7 mg L-1 and nitrogen/phosphorus ratio of 10:1, 16:1 and 20:1, respectively. During the period 1st – 3rd day after fertilizer application, optimum nitrogen levels have been preserved of 2.60 – 5.79 mg L-1. A tendency of residual biogenic quantities decrease in the water has been observed from the 10th to the 30th day after fertilizer application.

Liliana Hadjinikolova

2009-04-01

250

Growth of chamaecyparis lawsoniana nursery trees with different levels of covering and substrate mineral fertilization / Crescimento de mudas de chamaecyparis lawsoniana em diferentes níveis de adubação mineral do substrato e em cobertura  

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Full Text Available Two simultaneous experiments were accomplished in the Nursery of Ornamental Plants of the Federal University of Paraná State with the objective of evaluating the effect of mineral fertilization on the growth of nursery trees of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana planted directly in the field and in individual packings. The experimental design was the completely randomized with five combinations of NPK 4-30-10 + urea, in grams (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 and 120 + 40 for the field and 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 and 40 + 16 for the packings and four replications. The growth of the plants was observed during one year and the height of plants and the diameter of the trunks were evaluated each two months. The fertilization in covering in the field did not stimulate the growth of the plants. The substrate fertilization promoted significantly higher growth of plants in height and diameter of trunks in the period from September to May. The trunk diameter was more influenced, demonstrating that the secondary growth of the plant is more stimulated by the fertilization. The plant growth in the field was greater than the plant growth in individual packings.Foram realizados dois experimentos simultâneos no Viveiro de Plantas Ornamentais da Universidade Federal do Paraná com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral sobre o crescimento de mudas de Chamaecyparis lawsoniana plantadas diretamente no campo e em recipientes individuais. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado com cinco combinações de NPK (4-30-10 mais uréia, em gramas, (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 e 120 + 40, respectivamente para o campo e 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 e 40 + 16, respectivamente para os recipientes e quatro repetições. O crescimento das plantas foi observado durante um ano, realizando-se avaliações de altura da muda e diâmetro do tronco a cada dois meses. A adubação em cobertura a campo não estimulou o crescimento das mudas. A adubação de substrato promoveu maior crescimento de mudas em recipiente em altura e em diâmetro de tronco mais significativamente no período de setembro a maio. O crescimento em diâmetro do tronco da muda foi mais influenciado, demonstrando que o crescimento secundário da planta foi mais estimulado pela adubação. O crescimento das mudas a campo foi maior que o ocorrido em recipientes.

Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

2009-03-01

251

Influence of cimetidine and bromocriptine on prolactin levels in rat fertility  

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The present study was designed to see the effects of parenterally administered drugs cimetidine and bromocriptine affecting serum prolactin upon the fertility of adult male albino rats. Ninety adult young male albino rats between the ages of 60 to 120 days were selected. The animals were divided into three groups. Cimetidine was administered in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight to group B intramuscularly and in addition to cimetidine, bromocriptine in a dose of 2.5 mg/day intramuscularly was gi...

2009-01-01

252

Effect of various levels of nitrogen fertilizer on some vegetative growth attributes of pea ( pisum sativum L.) cultivars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive growing years on few growth characteristics of four pea cultivars viz., Arkel, Climax, Green Feast and Olympia in response to different levels of N fertilizer under the climatic conditions of district Mastung, Balochistan. Six N fertilizer levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha/sup -1/) plus a constant dose of 60+40 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/ O ha/sub -1/ were prepared, and designated as T/sub 1/ to T/sub 7/, respectively. These N levels were applied to each sub-plot (except T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) in two split doses first at the time of flowering and second at the time of pod formation to quantify how much N fertiliser's required by different pea cultivars to realize the highest growth and yield. Results exhibited that in response to various levels of added N fertilizer, all mentioned growth attributes were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). However, cultivars response was found significant only for secondary branches plant/sub -1/, plant height and shoot moisture contents. A maximum number of primary branches plant/sup -1/ (6.94), secondary branches plant/sub -1/ (10.72), plant height (69.77 cm), number of leaves plant/sup -1/ (19.75), leaf length (11.81 cm) and shoot moisture contents (571.0 g kg/sup -1/) was recorded with application of 100 kg N ha/sup -1/. The interaction between fertilizer and pea cultivars was found non-significant for all mentioned attributes in the trial. Results further revealed that all growth parameters were slightly to highly significant and positively correlated among themselves as well as with their fresh pod yields. These attributes could be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the fresh pod yield and also for breeding purposes in peas. (author)

2012-04-01

253

Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.  

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The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

2003-10-01

254

A Rapid Technique for Prediction of Nutrient Release from Polymer Coated Controlled Release Fertilizers  

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Controlled release fertilizers (CRF) are produced with different rates and durations of nutrient release to cater to different crops with wide ranges of nutrient requirements. A rapid technique is needed to verify the label specifications of nutrient release rate and duration. Polymer-coated urea (PCU) (43% nitrogen [N]) and polymer-coated N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K) (PC_NPK; 14-14-14) fertilizer products were used in this study. Soil incubation of the above CRF products at 25? showed ...

Shengsen Wang; Alva, Ashok K.; Yuncong Li; Min Zhang

2011-01-01

255

Short-term effects of fertilizer application on soil respiration in red pine stands  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the dynamics of soil respiration (total soil and heterotrophic respiration) followingfertilizer application in red pine forests. Fertilizer (N:P:K = 113:150:37 kg/ha), which reflects current practices in Koreanforest, was applied in April 2011, and total soil and heterotrophic respiration rates were monitored from April 2011 toMarch 2012. Monthly variation of total soil and heterotrophic respiration rates were similar between the fertilizer andcontrol trea...

2012-01-01

256

Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado  

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The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar made from Eucalyptus on soil fertility, and on the yield and development of upland rice. The experiment was performed during two years in a randomized block design with four replicates, in a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. Four doses of NPK 05-25-15, annually distributed in stripes (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha(-1)), and four doses of biochar (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha(-1)), applied once in the first year alone or with NPK were evaluate...

Petter, F. A.; Madari, B. E.; Silva, M. A. S.; Carneiro, M. A. C.; Melo Carvalho, M. T.; Marimon, B.; Pacheco, L. P.

2012-01-01

257

Effect of Seedling Raising Method and Fertilizer Combination on the Yield of Late Boro Rice  

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Full Text Available The seedlings raised in polythene covering of seed bed were reported to produce the highest plant attributes in boro rice. Recommended NPK fertilizer+Ash+Cowdung produced the highest grain yield (5.98 t ha-1 and also showed better performance in plant height, bearing tillers hill-1, panicle length, sterile spikelets panicle-1 and straw yield than other treatments. The treatment combination of seedlings raised in polythene cover of seed bed and recommended NPK+Ash+Cowdung produced the highest grain yield.

M.K. Begum

2002-01-01

258

Radionuclide, Metal and Non-metal Levels in Percolated Water from Soils Fertilized with Phosphogypsum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, which is produced by precipitation during the wet process of phosphate rocks. While commercial uses, in agriculture and in manufacturing gypsum board and Portland cement, consume less than a few percent of this by-product, the vast majority is disposed of on land in gypsum. In Brazil, three main industries are responsible for the production and storage of about 5.5 x 106 tons per year. PG may contain trace metals, non-metals, fluorides and natural radionuclides. Since, in Brazil, PG has been used for many years as soil amendment, it is important to know its availability, mainly in aquatic environments used for human consumption. In this case, more restrictive limits must be adopted. This work aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals in sand and clayey soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements and radionuclides from soils fertilized with PG to crops. In general, it was observed that elemental concentrations were below the actual detection limit of the equipment for all conditions of interest, indicating a low mobility of the analyzed elements in the soil. (author)

2014-01-01

259

Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae) y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis [...] de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años), en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna), la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas). Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (?²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002), probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos. Abstract in english Natural regeneration of woody species in a Costa Rican plantation of Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae) and the effect of P and NPK fertilization. Forest plantation management strategies, including the selection of species, may have positive or negative effects over plant regeneration in the trop [...] ics. in this case, understory woody plants density and richness were studied in Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica, in a monoculture of Vochysia guatemalensis (ten year old plantation). Nineteen 80 m²plots, with several fertilization treatments (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/plant of P, and NPK, during the first years, P placed once at the hole) in a completely randomized factorial design, were analyzed. Afterwards, the NPK fertilizer was increased from 150 to 200 g/ plant/year until the plantation was six year old. The plots, established after the coffee plantation was eliminated, had a minimum management schedule, basically the elimination of herbaceous vegetation once or twice a year during the first three years, and a tree thinning when the plantation was four year old, to increase spacing from 2x2 to 4x4 m. All woody vegetation taller than 0.5 m was tallied. A total of circa 10 000 ind/ha, distributed in 90 species, were found, mostly native of the region, some identified for forestry use, others important for the fauna. The majority of the species had low relative densities and frequencies. Sixteen percent of the plants reached heights greater than 2.5 m. Several factors seem to explain this regeneration pattern: a canopy with an intermediate openness, a low intensity forestry management, the nearness of the plantation to a mature forest fragment, and that the Vochysia plantation substituted a coffee plantation where soil conservation strategies and an annual fertilization management plan were applied. Finally, plots with only P had significantly higher species richness and abundance (?2=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002) probably because the trees in this treatment were less developed (when compared with the others). Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1): 111-118. Epub 2009 November 30.

Di Stefano, José Fco; Fournier, Luis A.

260

Effects of Sulphur, Zinc and Boron Supplied from Chemical Fertilizers and Poultry Manure to Wetland Rice (Cv. BRRI Dhan 30  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of S, Zn and B supplied from chemical fertilizers and poultry manure on yield and nutrient uptake by rice (cv. BRRI Dhan-30. There were ten treatments:- T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8 and T9. The rate of different nutrients were 100 kg N ha?1 from urea, 30 kg P ha?1 from TSP, 60 kg K ha?1 from MP, 20 kg S ha?1 from gypsum, 2 kg Zn ha?1 from zinc oxide, 1 kg B ha?1 from borax and 4 t poultry manure ha?1. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The different nutrients significantly increased plant height, effective tillers hill?1, filled grains panicle?1, 1000-grain weight, grain and straw yields of rice. The highest grain yield of 4850 kg ha?1 was obtained when S, Zn and B were applied together with NPK fertilizers (T8 which was comparable to the yields obtained when S, Zn or B were applied singly or in combination of two with NPK fertilizers (T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 and also with the application of poultry manure with reduced NPK application (T9. The concentrations and uptake of N, P, K and S by grain and straw were higher when poultry manure was used as a source of S, Zn and B with reduced amount of NPK(T9. It appears that application of S, Zn and B along with NPK is essential in this soil to get maximum yield of BRRI Dhan-30. If poultry manure can be applied @ 4 t ha?1 the use of NPK can be reduced and S, Zn and B fertilizers may not be needed.

M. K. Uddin

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The effect of different levels of fertilizer on nitrogen nutrient of pasture using 15N-isotope dilution method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of different levels of fertilizer on N% of ryegrass in monoculture or mixed culture with white clover and symbiotic dinitrogen fixation of white clover by using 15N-isotope dilution method. It showed that (1) N% of ryegrass in monoculture or mixed culture was the highest at 67 days after fertilizing (DAF) and decreased with time; (2) N% of white clover was the greatest at 67 DAF, slightly decreased at 92 DAF, and then increased at 137 DAF, related to the increasing of nitrogen fixation by white clover; (3) At 164 kg 15NH4SO4/hm2, N% of ryegrass in mixed culture at different cutting time was greater than that in monoculture. It obviously occurred that fixed nitrogen was transferred from white clover to ryegrass in mixed; (4) During the whole growth period, the main nitrogen resource of white clover was symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and that of ryegrass was soil nitrogen; (5) Effect of different levels of applied N on N% of ryegrass and white clover was significant

2000-04-01

262

Productivity and quality of sugar beet as affecting by sowing methods, weed control treatments and nitrogen fertilizer levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two field experiments were carried out at Kafr El-Hamam Research Station, Zagazig district, Sharkia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons to study the effect of sowing methods (manual and mechanical), weed control treatments (one hoeing, Goltix 70 WG (metamitron), Goltix+one hoeing and two hoeing) and nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 80 and 100 kg N/fed) on yield, its components and quality of sugar beet cv. Hanrike. The obtained results could be summarized as follows; Mechanical sowing method of sugar beet significantly surpassed the traditional sowing method in root and foliage fresh weights/plant, root/top ratio, root length and diameter, root, top and sugar yields/fed in both seasons. Sowing methods showed significant effect on TSS, sucrose and purity percentages in both seasons, except purity% in the second season. Controlling weeds by two hand hoeings significantly recorded the highest values of root, top and sugar yields/fed and its components and purity percentage in both seasons. However, the highest percentages of TSS and sucrose were achieved from controlling weed by one hand hoeing in both seasons. Fertilizing sugar beet plants with 100 kg N/fed significantly increased yields and its components and markedly recorded the highest values in both seasons. From the obtained, it can be concluded that sowing sugar beet using mechanical sowing method (planter machine), controlling weeds by hand hoeing and mineral fertilizing with 100 kg N/fed could be recommended in order to maximize its productivity and quality under the environmental conditions of Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. PMID:24505998

Seadh, S E; Attia, A N; Said, E M; El-Maghraby, Samia S; Ibrahim, M E M

2013-08-01

263

Productivity and Quality of Sugar Beet as Affecting by Sowing Methods, Weed Control Treatments and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels  

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Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out at Kafr El-Hamam Research Station, Zagazig district, Sharkia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons to study the effect of sowing methods (manual and mechanical, weed control treatments (one hoeing, Goltix 70 WG (metamitron, Goltix+one hoeing and two hoeing and nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 80 and 100 kg N/fed on yield, its components and quality of sugar beet cv. Hanrike. The obtained results could be summarized as follows; Mechanical sowing method of sugar beet significantly surpassed the traditional sowing method in root and foliage fresh weights/plant, root/top ratio, root length and diameter, root, top and sugar yields/fed in both seasons. Sowing methods showed significant effect on TSS, sucrose and purity percentages in both seasons, except purity% in the second season. Controlling weeds by two hand hoeings significantly recorded the highest values of root, top and sugar yields/fed and its components and purity percentage in both seasons. However, the highest percentages of TSS and sucrose were achieved from controlling weed by one hand hoeing in both seasons. Fertilizing sugar beet plants with 100 kg N/fed significantly increased yields and its components and markedly recorded the highest values in both seasons. From the obtained, it can be concluded that sowing sugar beet using mechanical sowing method (planter machine, controlling weeds by hand hoeing and mineral fertilizing with 100 kg N/fed could be recommended in order to maximize its productivity and quality under the environmental conditions of Sharkia Governorate, Egypt.

Samia S. El-Maghraby

2013-01-01

264

Relative Efficiency of Controlled Release and Water Soluble Fertilizers on the Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)  

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A study was conducted at eastern block of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (11°N and 77° E) during (Aug-December) 1999 in Periyanayakkan palayam series, clay loam soil (Vertic ustropept) to study the effect of Controlled Release Fertilizers (CRF) and Water Soluble fertilizers (WSF) as against the conventional Straight fertilizers on tomato yield and quality. The results revealed that the soil application of 50% NPK+WSF (PS at 1 or 2 g L-1) foliar spray found to be t...

2006-01-01

265

Produtividade e qualidade nutricional de cultivares de feijão em diferentes adubações Nutritional quality and yield of bean cultivars under different fertilization levels  

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Full Text Available O fornecimento adequado e equilibrado de nutrientes para o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. por meio da calagem e adubação pode contribuir para o aumento da produtividade e o valor nutricional dos grãos. Portanto, avaliou-se o efeito da adubação na produtividade, componentes da produção, nos teores de macro e micronutrientes, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de três cultivares de feijão (Aporé, Pérola e Rudá. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela subdividida, sendo locados nas parcelas as diferentes adubações (N1 - não adubado; N2 - adubação para produtividade esperada de até 1.200 kg ha-1, N3 - adubação para produtividade esperada acima de 2.500 kg ha-1. As subparcelas constaram das três cultivares. As adubações utilizadas foram suficientes para alcançar os níveis de produtividade esperados. A cultivar Rudá destacou-se das demais, com os maiores teores de Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn e B. A cultivar Aporé apresentou os maiores teores de K, N, proteína e triptofano. A cultivar Pérola obteve os maiores teores de Ca e P. A recomendação de adubação para atingir produtividade superior a 2.500 kg ha-1 de grãos proporcionou as maiores produtividades, os maiores teores de K, N, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de feijão.The appropriate and balanced supply of nutrients of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. achieved by liming and fertilization can contribute towards increasing the grain yield and nutritional value. It was evaluated the effect of the levels of fertilization on the productivity, components of the production, composition of macro and micronutrients, protein and tryptophan in the grains of three bean cultivars (Aporé, Pérola and Rudá. The experimental design was composed of random blocks, with four replicates, in split-plot design, considering the different levels of fertilization (N1 - no fertilized; N2 - fertilization level for an expected grain yield of 1,200 kg ha-1, N3 - fertilization for expected grain yield above 2,500 kg ha-1. The split-plot random blocks design consisted of the three cultivars. The fertilizers used were adequate to reach the expected levels of productivity. The higher productivity was obtained when all cultivars were fertilized N3. Rudá cultivar showed the largest levels of Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and B. Aporé cultivar presented the largest levels of K, N, protein and tryptophan, while the cultivar Pérola showed the largest levels of Ca and P. The fertilizing recommendation to obtain productivity superior to 2,500 kg ha-1, produced the largest levels of K, N, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, protein and tryptophan in the bean grains.

Carlos Alberto de Bastos Andrade

2004-10-01

266

Resposta do arroz irrigado à adubação residual e aos níveis de adubação em solo de várzea / Response of irrigated rice to residual fertilization and to applied levels of fertilizers in lowland soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Informações sobre o efeito residual da adubação na produção de arroz irrigado em solos de várzeas no Brasil, são escassas. Conduziu-se um experimento de campo, durante três anos consecutivos, para se avaliar o efeito residual da adubação e de níveis de adubação aplicados no sulco de plantio sobre a [...] produção de arroz irrigado em um solo Glei Pouco Húmico (Inseptissolo) de várzea, período em que a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e de grãos foi significativamente afetada pela adubação no sulco e não pela adubação residual. As produções máximas de matéria seca e de grãos foram obtidas com o tratamento T7 (efeito residual da adubação média + adubo verde + 75 kg N ha-1, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 e 60 kg K2O ha-1). O tratamento T4 (efeito residual da adubação média + 50 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 e 40 kg K2O ha-1) não foi diferente significativamente em comparação com o tratamento T7; enquanto entre os componentes da produção o número de panículas por m² e o peso de 1.000 grãos foram significativamente afetados pelos tratamentos, por outro lado, a acumulação da maioria dos nutrientes na parte aérea e nos grãos foi significativamente afetada pelos tratamentos. Abstract in english Information on the residual effect of fertilization is scarce for irrigated rice produced in lowland soils in Brazil. A field experiment was conducted during three consecutive years to evaluate the effects of residual and band applied fertilizers on irrigated rice yield in a Low Humic Gley Soil (Inc [...] eptisol). Mean dry matter and grain yield were significantly affected with applied fertilizer treatments, which did not happen for residual fertilizer treatments. Maximum dry matter and grain yield were produced under treatment which consisted of residual effect of medium soil fertility level plus green manure + 75 kg N ha-1, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 60 kg K2O ha-1 (T7). The treatment of residual effect of medium soil fertility level plus 50 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 40 kg K2O ha-1 (T4) did not show significant differences in comparison to T7 treatment. Number of panicles m-2 and 1000 grains weight were the yield components which were significantly affected with fertilizer treatments. Accumulation of almost all the nutrients in the dry matter and grain were significantly affected with fertilizer treatments.

Nand Kumar, Fageria; Alberto Baêta dos, Santos; Francisco José P., Zimmermann.

267

Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 304,001 artificial insemination outcomes in up to 7 lactations from 142,389 Holstein cows, daughters of 5,349 sires and 101,433 dams, calving between January 1995 and December 2007 in 1,347 herds were studied by a reaction norm model. The (co)variance components for days to first service (DFS), days open, nonreturn rate in the first service (NRFS), and number of services per conception were estimated by 6 models: 3 Legendre polynomial degrees for the genetic effects and adjustment or not for the level of fat plus protein (FP) production recorded at day closest to DFS. For all traits and type of FP adjustment, a second degree polynomial showed the best fit. The use of the adjusted FP model did not increase the level of genetic (co)variance components except for DFS. The heritability for each of the traits was low in general (0.03-0.10) and increased from the first to fourth calving; nevertheless, very important variability was found for the estimated breeding value (EBV) of the sires. The genetic correlations (rg) were close to unity between adjacent calvings, but decreased for most distant parities, ranging from rg=0.36 (for DFS) to rg=0.63 (for NRFS), confirming the existence of heterogeneous genetic (co)variance components and EBV across lactations. The results of the eigen decomposition of rg shows that the first eigenvalue explained between 82 to 92% and the second between 8 to 14% of the genetic variance for all traits; therefore, a deformation of the overall mean trajectory for reproductive performance across the trajectory of the different calving could be expected if selection favored these eigenfunctions. The results of EBV for the 50 best sires showed a substantial reranking and variation in the shape of response across lactations. The more important aspect to highlight, however, is the difference between the EBV of the same sires in different calvings, a characteristic known as plasticity, which is particularly important for DFS and NRFS. This component of fertility adds another dimension to selection for fertility that can be used to change the negative genetic progress of reproductive performance presented in this population of Holstein cows. The use of a reaction norm model should allow producers to obtain more robust cows for maintenance of fertility levels along the whole productive life of the cows. PMID:23664344

Menendez-Buxadera, A; Carabaño, M J; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Cue, R I; Ugarte, E; Alenda, R

2013-07-01

268

Biodegradation of 2,6-Dichlorophenol Wastewater in Soil Column Reactor in the Presence of Pineapple Peels-Derived Activated Carbon, Palm Kernel Oil and Inorganic Fertilizer  

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Full Text Available In this study, the potential effects of palm kernel oil (PKO, pineapple peels derived-activated carbon (PPAC and NPK fertilizer (20:10:10 as amendment agents on the natural bioattenuation of 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP in tropical agricultural soil were investigated. The effect of PPAC dosage on 2,6-DCP biodegradation was also studied. Column reactors containing soil were spiked with 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP wastewater (300 mg/l and amended with PKO, NPK fertilizer and PPAC alone or in combinations. The rates of 2,6-DCP biodegradation were studied for a remediation period of 42 days under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a positive relationship between the rate of 2,6-DCP biodegradation, bacterial growth rate and presence of NPK fertilizer and PPAC (alone or in combination in soil column microcosms contaminated with 2,6-DCP. The 2,6-DCP biodegradation data fitted well to the first-order kinetic model. The model revealed that 2,6-DCP contaminated-soil microcosms amended with NPK fertilizer and PPAC (alone or in combination had higher biodegradation rate constants (k as well as lower half-life times (t1/2 than soil column microcosms amended with PKO and unamended soil (natural attenuation remediation system. Thus, the use of combined NPK fertilizer and activated carbon (NPK + PPAC to enhance 2,6-DCP degradation in the soil could be one of the severally sought bioremediation strategies of remediating natural ecosystem (environment contaminated with organic chemicals.

Samuel E. Agarry

2013-06-01

269

Effect of Fertilizer and Inoculation on Lipase and Urease Activity of Mature Soybean cv. Williams-82 Seeds  

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Full Text Available A field experiment on soybean cv. Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil with six different level (T2 to T7 of added N fertilizer @ 23, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 plus a constant dose of P2O5 + K2O fertilizer @ 60 + 30 kg ha-1 respectively, Whereas T1 with zero level of added NPK was kept control. These six fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated field grown soybean crop. After harvest the mature dry seed of each treatment were analyzed for their lipase and urease activity. Results showed that fertilizer treatments significantly and positively affected the lipase activity in general and urease activity in particular. Statistically maximum activity of both enzymes was recorded in T3 dose of fertilizer. Results further revealed that by comparing the inoculated with non-inoculated treatments in particular doses of fertilizer, inoculation significantly increased the urease activity, but reverse was true for lipase activity. Statistically maximum activities of both enzymes were also noted in T3 dose of inoculated treatment. It was also concluded that lipase activity exhibited significant positive association with starch and soluble sugars, but negative with seed protein and moisture content. On the other hand urease activity showed significant positive correlation with oil and moisture content, but negative with starch content. However, they both were insignificantly correlated with grain yield and remaining biochemical components. Therefore, seed lipase activity in particular and urease activity in general could not be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the quantity as well as quality of grain yield in soybean cv.Williams-82.

Abdul Kabir Khan Achakzai

2003-01-01

270

The effect of mineral fertilization on fungi colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers after harvest and after storage  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact experiment conducted in Ba?cyny, in which a late potato cultivar, Jasia, was grown. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization: A (N 80 kg × ha-1 P 80 kg × ha-1 K120 kg × ha-1 and B (N 120 kg × ha-1 P 144 kg × ha-1 K156 kg × ha-1, and foliar fertilization (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn and Solubor DF on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungal populations colonizing potato tubers. Fungi were isolated immediately after harvest and after a five-month storage period. After seven days of incubation, fungal colonies were transferred onto agar slants for microscopic identification. Over the entire experimental period, more pathogenic fungi were obtained from potato tubers analyzed after storage (62.9% of the total fungal population after storage than from those analyzed immediately after harvest (39.1%, and the greatest number of fungi was reported in 2004. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated most frequently, followed by Colletotrichum coccodes and Alternaria alternata. Pathogens of the genus Fusarium and the species Helminthosporium solani were not numerous. In the treatment A with soil mineral fertilization with lower NPK rates, larger numbers of pathogenic fungi were noted in 2004 after harvest and after five-month storage, and in 2005 after harvest. At the remaining dates of analysis, pathogens were more frequently isolated from potato tubers in experimental variant B with higher NPK rates. Immediately after harvest, the highest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated in the treatment with foliar application of ADOB Mn and Basfoliar 12-4-6. After five-month storage, pathogens most often colonized potato tubers in experimental variant B with foliar application of Solubor DF, Solubor DF and ADOB Mn, and in experimental variant A with a combination of fertilizers. In the other fertilization variants, including in the control treatment, the population size of pathogenic agents remained at a similar level.

Bo?ena Cwalina-Ambroziak

2009-12-01

271

Elevated CO2 levels affect development, motility, and fertility and extend life span in Caenorhabditis elegans  

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Hypercapnia (high CO2 levels) occurs in a number of lung diseases and it is associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). However, it is largely unknown how hypercapnia is sensed and responds in nonneuronal cells. Here, we used C. elegans to study the response to nonanesthetic CO2 levels and show that levels exceeding 9% induce aberrant motility that is accompanied by age-dependent deterioration of body muscle organization, slowed development, reduce...

2009-01-01

272

Short Communication: Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphatefertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan,Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphatefertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture andBiology (NIAB (about 80 hectares, 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF farmand Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI (about 100 hectares. These all soils were situated inthe urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimationwas gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farmsresult the presence of Potassium (40K, Cesium (137Cs, and Uranium (238U. The average amount ofradioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6 and 659.50 Bqkg-1, respectively. For 232Th contamination, the averaged values found were 57.52, 55.80 and 63.0 Bqkg-1 for AARI, NIAB and UAF farms, respectively. For 238U, the average values were 36.51, 30.60 and39.8 Bq kg-1 for all the above farms, respectively. For 137Cs (nuclear fall the averaged value in all theinvestigated farms was 2.50, 2.43 and 2.60 Bq kg-1, respectively. The existence of 137Cs in the soilsamples of the investigated farms shows that these farms might have received the nuclear fall from manmade sources. Its absorbed dose in air for NIAB, AARI and UAF farms amounted to 49.52, 47.55 and52.99 nGy kg-1, respectively. The values of Radium equivalent activity were 159.74, 145.01 and 163.67Bqkg-1, respectively. The calculated annual effective doses for the selected agricultural farms were0.96, 0.95 and 0.98 mSvy-1, respectively. External and Internal radioactive radiation hazard index forall the investigated farms were also calculated, which were less than one. This result leads to theinformation that the existing radiation contamination in the soils of the investigated farms is not animmediate hazard to the labourers/general public who are in contact with these farms. However, if thecultivation of these farms with the use of artificial fertilizers goes on then with time, in future the soilsof these farms may pose a risk for the general public.

Nasim-Akhtar*, M. Tufail, Muhammad Yousuf Hussain and Muhammad Akram

2011-04-01

273

Correlation between the level of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in follicular fluid with fertilization rates in IVF/ ICSI cycles  

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Full Text Available Background: Follicular fluid (FF plays an important role in oocytes and embryo development, which may contribute to IVF/ICSI success rate. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP level in FF and the success rate of IVF/ICSI.Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, FF samples, FF samples were obtained from 100 patients referred to Tabriz Alzahra Hospital. Seventy-nine subjects underwent IVF and the remaining 21 underwent ICSI. The levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I and CETP were measured using enzymatic, turbidometric and ELISA methods respectively.Results: Analysis of the subgroups with different levels of CETP showed a significant lower level of CETP in the subgroup with the lowest number of mature oocytes (p70% of this ratio.Conclusion: While no association was found for pregnancy, the amount of CETP in FF was associated positively to the maturity and the percentage of oocyte fertilization.

Amir Mehdizadeh

2011-01-01

274

Elevated serum alpha-linolenic acid levels are associated with decreased chance of pregnancy after in vitro fertilization  

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Study Objective To analyze relationships between serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations and pregnancy. Design Prospective cohort Setting University hospital Patients 91 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) Interventions Serum was analyzed for total and specific serum FFAs including myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids. Main outcome measures Univariate analyses were used to identify specific FFAs and other factors associated with pregnancy after IVF. Logistic regression was performed modeling relationships between identified factors and chance of pregnancy. Results In unadjusted analyses, women with elevated serum ?-linolenic (ALA) levels (highest quartile) demonstrated a decreased chance of pregnancy compared to women with the lowest levels (OR:0.24, 95% CI:0.052–0.792, p=0.022). No associations between other FFAs and pregnancy were identified. In a multivariable regression model, associations between elevated serum ALA levels and decreased chance of pregnancy remained after adjusting for patient age, body mass index, and history of endometriosis or previous live birth (adjusted OR:0.139, 95% CI:0.028–0.686, p=0.015). Conclusions Elevated serum ALA levels are associated with decreased chance of pregnancy in women undergoing IVF. Further work is needed to determine if ALA is involved in early reproductive processes and if the relationship between ALA and pregnancy is associated with excess ALA intake, impaired ALA metabolism or both.

Jungheim, Emily S.; Macones, George A.; Odem, Randall R.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Moley, Kelle H.

2011-01-01

275

Dynamics of the level and ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus in carp ponds water: the effect of mineral fertilizers upon its quality  

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The purpose of this investigation is to establish the dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus level variation and of their ratio after mineral fertilizers application in water. After mineral fertilizers application into the ponds, the real biogenic quantities in water have increased by 2.8-10 times for nitrogen, and by 2-28 times for phosphates, at scheduled nitrogen levels of 5-7 mg L-1 and nitrogen/phosphorus ratio of 10:1, 16:1 and 20:1, respectively. During the period 1st

Liliana Hadjinikolova; Angelina Ivanova

2009-01-01

276

Autoregulation of Nodulation Interferes with Impacts of Nitrogen Fertilization Levels on the Leaf-Associated Bacterial Community in Soybeans ? †  

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The diversities leaf-associated bacteria on nonnodulated (Nod?), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans were evaluated by clone library analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. To analyze the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the bacterial leaf community, soybeans were treated with standard nitrogen (SN) (15 kg N ha?1) or heavy nitrogen (HN) (615 kg N ha?1) fertilization. Under SN fertilization, the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was significantly higher in N...

2011-01-01

277

The Effects of Weed-Crop Competition on Nutrient Uptake as Affected by Crop Rotation and Fertilizers  

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A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation ...

Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad; Ali Asghari; Aleksander Mikhailovic Tulikov

2007-01-01

278

Adubação mineral e orgânica e a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) em cebola / Mineral and organic fertilization and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population density  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O efeito da adubação mineral e orgânica sobre a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola, Allium cepa L., foi avaliado na Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina), entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram [...] níveis de adubação mineral com N, P2O5 e K2O em dose recomendada e três vezes a recomendada, adubação orgânica e a testemunha foi a ausência de adubação. Os tratamentos foram as seguintes doses de nutrientes: 1) 30 + 120 + 60kg ha-1 de NPK; 2) 90 + 360 + 180kg ha-1 de NPK; 3) 75kg ha-1 de N; 4) 225kg ha-1 de N; 5) 80kg ha-1 de P2O5; 6) 240kg ha-1 de P2O5; 7) 60kg ha-1 de K2O; 8) 180kg ha-1 de K2O; 9) 75kg ha-1 de N + 80kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural); 10) 225kg ha-1 de N + 240kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural); 11) 37,5kg ha-1 de N + 40kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural); testemunha sem adubação. Nenhuma das fontes e níveis de adubação apresentaram nível populacional de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo. Abstract in english The effect of the mineral and organic fertilization on onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind., population density was evaluated at Ituporanga Experiment Station, EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between August and December 1998. The treatments were different levels of mineral fertilization with N, P [...] 2O5 and K2O at recommended rate and three times recommended rate, the organic fertilization and without fertilization was check. The treatments in nutrient rate were: 30 + 120 + 60kg NPK ha-1; 90 + 360 + 180kg NPK ha-1; 75kg N ha-1; 225kg N ha-1; 80kg P2O5 ha-1; 240kg P2O5 ha-1; 60kg K2O ha-1; 180kg K2O ha-1; 75kg N ha-1 + 80kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock); 225kg N + 240kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock); 37,5kg N + 40kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock); check without fertilizer. The onion thrips population density was similar among treatments with fertilizer and the check without fertilization. The mineral fertilization didn?t increase significantly onion thrips incidence.

Gonçalves, Paulo Antonio de Souza; Sousa e Silva, Carlos Roberto.

279

Adubação e o período anterior à interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim / Effect of fertilization on weeds and on the period before weed interference in the peanut culture  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação sobre a comunidade infestante e sobre o período anterior à interferência (PAI) das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim, cv. IAC Runner 886, em sistema convencional. Os períodos de convivência estudados foram: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30 [...] , 45, 55 e 126 dias após a emergência (DAE), totalizando oito tratamentos, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em dois níveis de adubação: 0 e 150 kg ha-1 da formulação 00-20-20 (N-P-K). A adubação não alterou a composição da comunidade infestante, destacando-se Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleraceae e Sida rhombifolia como as espécies de maior importância relativa. Contudo, a densidade de plantas daninhas foi maior na área não adubada, mas sem afetar de modo diferenciado a massa seca acumulada por elas. O cultivar de amendoim IAC Runner 886 pode conviver com essa comunidade com e sem adubação por até 15 e 17 DAE (PAI), respectivamente, sem sofrer perdas significativas na produção. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu entre 31 e 34% a produtividade do amendoim para as áreas sem adubação e com adubação, respectivamente. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out to study the effect of fertilization on weed community and on the period before weed interference (PBI) in peanut culture, IAC Runner 886, under a conventional till system. The weed control periods studied were: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55, and 126 days after emergence ( [...] DAE), totaling eight treatments, arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications and two levels of fertilization (0 and 150 kg ha-1 of formulation 00-20-20 (N-P-K)). Fertilization did not affect the weed community, with the species Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleracea and Sida rhombifolia being the most prominent at all levels of fertilization. However, weed density was higher in the non- fertilized area, but without particularly affecting the dry mass accumulated by these species. Peanut can grow along with the weed community, with and without fertilization, up to 15 and 17 DAE, without significant yield losses. Weed interference reduced peanut productivity between 31 and 34% for both the fertilized area and the area without fertilization, respectively.

Yamauti, M.S.; Alves, P.L.C.A.; Nepomuceno, M.; Martins, J.V.F..

280

Adubação e o período anterior à interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim Effect of fertilization on weeds and on the period before weed interference in the peanut culture  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação sobre a comunidade infestante e sobre o período anterior à interferência (PAI das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim, cv. IAC Runner 886, em sistema convencional. Os períodos de convivência estudados foram: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55 e 126 dias após a emergência (DAE, totalizando oito tratamentos, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em dois níveis de adubação: 0 e 150 kg ha-1 da formulação 00-20-20 (N-P-K. A adubação não alterou a composição da comunidade infestante, destacando-se Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleraceae e Sida rhombifolia como as espécies de maior importância relativa. Contudo, a densidade de plantas daninhas foi maior na área não adubada, mas sem afetar de modo diferenciado a massa seca acumulada por elas. O cultivar de amendoim IAC Runner 886 pode conviver com essa comunidade com e sem adubação por até 15 e 17 DAE (PAI, respectivamente, sem sofrer perdas significativas na produção. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu entre 31 e 34% a produtividade do amendoim para as áreas sem adubação e com adubação, respectivamente.This experiment was carried out to study the effect of fertilization on weed community and on the period before weed interference (PBI in peanut culture, IAC Runner 886, under a conventional till system. The weed control periods studied were: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55, and 126 days after emergence (DAE, totaling eight treatments, arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications and two levels of fertilization (0 and 150 kg ha-1 of formulation 00-20-20 (N-P-K. Fertilization did not affect the weed community, with the species Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleracea and Sida rhombifolia being the most prominent at all levels of fertilization. However, weed density was higher in the non- fertilized area, but without particularly affecting the dry mass accumulated by these species. Peanut can grow along with the weed community, with and without fertilization, up to 15 and 17 DAE, without significant yield losses. Weed interference reduced peanut productivity between 31 and 34% for both the fertilized area and the area without fertilization, respectively.

M.S. Yamauti

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

F Ghalmbor

2009-01-01

282

Effects of Increasing Levels of N Fertilization on Yields and Nutrient Content of Different Barley Varieties Grown under Arid Condition  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of N levels on chemical composition and energy content of different barley varieties grown under north Anatolian arid condition. Experiment was established as a split-plot design in a randomized complete block, with three replications. Five different winter type barley varieties (Blbl 89, Tarm 92, Tokak 157/37, Yesevi 93 and Aday 1 were utilized. Five nitrogen levels (0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg ha 1 were also applied to each variety. Barley were harvested by hand using a clipper and air-dried. Then, grains were separated from straw and yields were determined. Grains were analyzed for DM, OM, CP, CF, EE, and IVOMD. NFE, ME, NEL values were also calculated. N fertilization had significant effect on concentrations of CP, CF, EE, total and grain yields (p<0.01. The concentrations of DM, CP, CF, NFE and IVODM and total yields were significantly different among barley varieties (p<0.05. In conclusion, approximately 90 kg N/ha seemed to be most proper N levels in general Tokak 157/37, Tarm 92, and Blbl 89 varieties seemed to be most consistent varieties for the region.

M. Ulker

2006-01-01

283

Impact of high basal FSH/LH ratio in women with normal FSH levels on in vitro fertilization outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basal luteinizing hormone (LH) levels have also been suggested to impact on ovarian responsiveness as well as basal follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes according to cycle day 3 FSH/LH ratio and to assess the proper stimulation protocol between gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols. The retrospective cohort study recruited a total of 1211 women having the laboratory values of FSH (IU/L) and LH within 3 months before IVF. Patients were treated with GnRH agonist long or GnRH antagonist protocols and stimulated with recombinant FSH (rFSH). The number of total retrieved oocytes and mature oocytes, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy rate were analyzed between groups: Group I: FSH/LH FSH/LH ? 2. The Group II had the small number of retrieved oocytes and mature oocytes compared to the Group I (p = 0.000). Clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate were lower in Group II (p = 0.006, 0.006, respectively). In comparison of each protocol within groups, Group II showed significantly low pregnancy rate when GnRH antagonist was administered. In women with normal FSH level, high day 3 FSH/LH ratio can present subclinically low ovarian reserve and be predictive of lower pregnancy outcomes in fresh IVF cycles, and the choice of GnRH agonist can be related to favorable IVF outcomes. PMID:23544714

Lyu, Sang Woo; Kim, Ji Won; Choi, Chang Hwan; Seok, Hyun Ha; Yoon, Tae Ki; Kim, Ari

2013-05-01

284

Produção de morangos a partir de fertilizantes alternativos em pré-plantio / Pre-planting fertilization effects on strawberry fruit yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar doses de fertilizantes alternativos na adubação de pré-plantio quanto à produção de frutos de morangueiro. Os tratamentos foram baseados em doses de adubação NPK (kg ha-1) recomendada para a cultura do morangueiro em que as doses de torta de mamona (TM), fosfori [...] ta alvorada (FA) e cloreto de potássio (KCl) variaram de acordo com a recomendação da análise de solo. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento em blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as cultivares dispostas na parcela e as adubações na subparcela. Foi utilizado um esquema fatorial 2x4, em que o fator cultivar apresentou dois níveis: 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real', e o fator adubação de pré-plantio, quatro níveis. As avaliações realizadas foram produção de frutos por planta, massa seca da parte aérea e índice de clorofila. A cultivar 'Camarosa' apresentou maior número e massa de frutos por planta e maior massa seca da parte aérea. A cultivar 'Camino Real' apresentou maior massa média por fruto e maior índice de clorofila. Com relação às doses de adubação de pré-plantio que propiciaram maior número e massa de frutos por planta, foram 1.937kg ha-1 e 1.713kg ha-1 de adubo, respectivamente. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the doses of alternative fertilizer pre-planting fertilization on strawberries yield. The treatments were based on doses of NPK (kg ha-1) recommended for strawberry culture in which the doses of castor bean (TM), phosphorite dawn (FA) and potassium chloride (KCl) varied a [...] ccording to the recommendation of the soil analysis. The treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design at split plots with cultivars in the plot and fertilization in the sub-plot. It was used a factorial 2x4 arrangement, in which the cultivar factor had two levels: 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real', and the pre-planting fertilizer factor with four levels. The evaluations were fruit yield per plant, shoot dry mass and chlorophyll content. 'Camarosa' cultivar showed a greater number and weight of fruits per plant and higher dry mass shoots. Cultivar 'Camino Real' had the largest average per fruit and increased chlorophyll content. Regarding the fertilization rates of pre-planting, which fostered a greater number and weight of fruits per plant, it was 1937kg ha-1 and 1713kg ha-1 of fertilizer, respectively.

Gerson Kleinick, Vignolo; Vanessa Fernandes, Araújo; Roberta Jeske, Kunde; Carlos Augusto Posser, Silveira; Luis Eduardo Corrêa, Antunes.

285

Produção de morangos a partir de fertilizantes alternativos em pré-plantio Pre-planting fertilization effects on strawberry fruit yield  

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Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar doses de fertilizantes alternativos na adubação de pré-plantio quanto à produção de frutos de morangueiro. Os tratamentos foram baseados em doses de adubação NPK (kg ha-1 recomendada para a cultura do morangueiro em que as doses de torta de mamona (TM, fosforita alvorada (FA e cloreto de potássio (KCl variaram de acordo com a recomendação da análise de solo. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento em blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as cultivares dispostas na parcela e as adubações na subparcela. Foi utilizado um esquema fatorial 2x4, em que o fator cultivar apresentou dois níveis: 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real', e o fator adubação de pré-plantio, quatro níveis. As avaliações realizadas foram produção de frutos por planta, massa seca da parte aérea e índice de clorofila. A cultivar 'Camarosa' apresentou maior número e massa de frutos por planta e maior massa seca da parte aérea. A cultivar 'Camino Real' apresentou maior massa média por fruto e maior índice de clorofila. Com relação às doses de adubação de pré-plantio que propiciaram maior número e massa de frutos por planta, foram 1.937kg ha-1 e 1.713kg ha-1 de adubo, respectivamente.The study aimed to evaluate the doses of alternative fertilizer pre-planting fertilization on strawberries yield. The treatments were based on doses of NPK (kg ha-1 recommended for strawberry culture in which the doses of castor bean (TM, phosphorite dawn (FA and potassium chloride (KCl varied according to the recommendation of the soil analysis. The treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design at split plots with cultivars in the plot and fertilization in the sub-plot. It was used a factorial 2x4 arrangement, in which the cultivar factor had two levels: 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real', and the pre-planting fertilizer factor with four levels. The evaluations were fruit yield per plant, shoot dry mass and chlorophyll content. 'Camarosa' cultivar showed a greater number and weight of fruits per plant and higher dry mass shoots. Cultivar 'Camino Real' had the largest average per fruit and increased chlorophyll content. Regarding the fertilization rates of pre-planting, which fostered a greater number and weight of fruits per plant, it was 1937kg ha-1 and 1713kg ha-1 of fertilizer, respectively.

Gerson Kleinick Vignolo

2011-10-01

286

Ectopic pituitary grafts in mice: hormone levels, effects on fertility, and the development of adenomyosis uteri, prolactinomas, and mammary carcinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some endocrinological consequences of grafting hypophyses of mice to sites distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary portal vessels were investigated. Serum PRL levels in recipients rose within 3 weeks to levels seen during pregnancy, resulting in a premature increase in serum progesterone (P) levels. After 7 weeks, luteolytic effects were evident in BALB/c females, and P values had plateaued in the range of those seen in normal adult animals, while in BALB/c X C3H F1 hybrids, this effect was delayed, and P values rose, reaching, in some animals, levels reported during pregnancy. Despite continuing hyperprolactinemia, the fertility of graft-bearing females was reduced only slightly. By the 6th month, lesions of adenomyosis were frequent in uteri of C3H and F1 hybrids, but essentially absent from BALB/c animals. The number of corpora lutea was reduced in all experimental groups, yet serum P values were somewhat elevated in hybrid females and BALB/c animals bearing three grafts. Evidence is presented indicating that PRL enhances the action of P on both the estrogen-stimulating vagina and uterus. Small groups of grafted BALB/c and hybrid females not infected with exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus were allowed to survive until mammary cancers developed or until they reached 18 months of age. The grafts in the hybrids routinely became adenomatous, producing serm PRL levels of 1-21 X 10(3) ng/ml; only one secreted excessive GH. Adenomyosis wained in the aged hybrids, apparently due to declining ovarian function. The majority of the animals developed adenoid cystic mammary cancers that seemed to arise from areas of hyperplasia within dilated ducts rather than from alveolar hyperplasias, as is most frequently the case in mice carrying exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus. PMID:3971922

Huseby, R A; Soares, M J; Talamantes, F

1985-04-01

287

Potential Impact of Spacing and Fertilizer Levels on the Flowering, Productivity and Economic Viability of Hybrid Bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench under Drip Fertigation System  

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Full Text Available Drip irrigation provides an efficient method of fertilizer delivery and allows precise timing and uniform distribution of applied nutrients. Fertilizer application through drip irrigation (fertigation can reduce fertilizer usage and minimize groundwater pollution due to fertilizer leaching from excessive irrigation. For this purpose, field experiments were carried out in the farmers’ field at Thoppur, Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, during 2010-2012 to study the effect of spacing and fertilizer levels on the flowering, pod yield and economic viability of Bhendi Hybrid (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench under drip fertigation system. The treatments consisted of two spacings (M1—60 × 45 cm and M2— 60 × 30 cm and eight drip fertigation levels (S1—Drip fertigation with WSF at 125 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S2—Drip fertigation with WSF at 100 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S3—Drip fertigation with WSF at 75 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S4—Drip fertigation with WSF at 100 per cent RDF, S5—Drip fertigation with SF at 125 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S6—Drip fertigation with SF at 100 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S7—Drip fertigation with SF at 75 per cent RDF + Azophosmet + Humic acid, S8—Drip fertigation with SF at 100 per cent RDF, and were replicated thrice in a split plot design. Results showed that the earliest flowering (26.21 days, 50% flowering (51.31, number of flowers per plant (25.33 and highest pod yield of 596.70 g/plant, 24.91 t/ha was registered in drip fertigation at 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers as water soluble fertilizer combination with Azophosmet and humic acid under wider spacing. The economics of the study clearly showed that drip fertigation at 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers as water soluble fertilizer along with Azophosmet and humic acid under wider spacing was found to record higher BCR of 2.99.

Govindarasu Rajaraman

2013-08-01

288

Effect of Fertilizer Rate on the Growth, Yield and Fruit Characteristics of Dried Apricot (cv. Hacihaliloglu  

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Full Text Available Various Nitrogen (N, Phosphor (P and Potassium (K fertilization were investigated in apricot trees (cv. Hacihaliloglu grown in Malatya, Turkey. High N application increased vegetative growth, yield and average fruit weight, but reduced total soluble solid content. K fertilization did not affect vegetative growth but resulted increase in total soluble solids and yield. High phosphor treatments showed yield increase while slowed vegetative growth. Based on yield, vegetative growth and fruit characteristics, the most effective fertilization rate for apricot (cv. Hacihaliloglu was found to be 96-64-256 kg ha-1 NPK.

Bayram Murat Asma

2007-01-01

289

Fertilizante mineral e resíduo orgânico sobre características agronômicas da soja e nutrientes no solo / Mineral fertilizer and organic waste on soybean crop and soil nutrients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do fertilizante mineral NPK associado ao resíduo orgânico "cama de frango", sobre as características agronômicas da soja bem como os teores de nutrientes em um Cambissolo. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Itutinga, sul de Minas Gerais, no delineamento em bloc [...] os casualizados, com três repetições em esquema de parcela subdividida. A cultivar utilizada no experimento foi a BRS Favorita RR. Os tratamentos aplicados às parcelas foram constituídos por quatro doses de "cama de frango" (0; 3; 6 e 9 Mg ha-1), aplicados em área total. As subparcelas constituíram as cinco doses do fertilizante mineral formulado NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 kg ha-1), aplicados ao sulco de semeadura. A adubação com o fertilizante mineral proporciona aumento na altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, número de legumes por planta e na produtividade de grãos da cultura da soja. A adubação com o resíduo orgânico "cama de frango" eleva a altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, massa de 100 grãos, número de legumes por planta e o rendimento de grãos de soja, porém em doses mais elevadas favorece o acamamento das plantas. A utilização da cama de frango é viável em termos agronômicos e econômicos na cultura da soja. A adição de cama de frango eleva os teores de potássio e enxofre no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral fertilizer NPK associated with the organic waste "poultry litter" on the agronomic characteristics of soybean as well as nutrient levels in the Cambisol. The experiment was carried out in Itutinga, southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, [...] in a randomized blocks experimental design with three replications in split-plot. The cultivar used was BRS Favorita RR. The treatments applied to plots consisted on four doses of "poultry litter" (0; 3; 6 and 9 Mg ha-1), applied in the total area. The subplots were the five doses of mineral fertilizer NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 kg ha-1), applied to the groove seeding. Fertilization with mineral fertilizers provides an increase in plant and first pod height, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean. Fertilization with organic waste "poultry litter" increases the plant and first pod height, weight of 100 grains, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean, however at higher doses favors the lodging of plants. The use of poultry litter is viable in agronomic and economic terms in the soybean crop. The addition of poultry litter increases the contents of potassium and sulfur in the soil.

Everson Reis, Carvalho; Pedro Milanez de, Rezende; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Alexandre Martins Abdão dos, Passos; João Almir, Oliveira.

290

Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

2009-10-02

291

Híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivados sob níveis crescentes de adubação: características agronômicas, carboidratos solúveis e estruturais da planta / Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) hybrids cultivated under increasing fertilization levels: agronomic characteristics, soluble and structural carbohydrates of the plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliadas características agronômicas, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA) e carboidratos solúveis e estruturais de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AGX-202, AGX-213 e AGX-215), cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o deli [...] neamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, com quatro repetições. As médias dos fatores qualitativos foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5 e 1% de probabilidade. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diferentes proporções de colmos (29,01 a 53,38%), de folhas (16,70 a 22,64%) e de panículas (29,91 a 52,43%), sendo colmos e panículas fortemente correlacionadas com altura, 0,79** e -0,82**, respectivamente. O teor de matéria seca (MS) da planta inteira foi fortemente influenciado pelas proporções de colmos e panículas, tendo as panículas apresentado os maiores teores de MS (48,79 a 56,80%) e colmos as menores (18,86 a 22,54%). O aumento nos níveis de adubação proporcionou acréscimo na produção de panículas, que refletiu na diminuição da relação colmo + folha/panícula, no acréscimo da proporção de panículas e no teor de MS da planta inteira. Os teores de carboidratos solúveis totais, com base na matéria seca, variaram entre os híbridos avaliados (12,24 a 19,80%) e apresentaram aumento com a elevação dos níveis de adubação. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (57,38 a 62,30%), fibra em detergente ácido (25,29 a 31,56%), hemicelulose (28,56 a 33,87%), celulose (19,20 a 24,34%) e lignina (6,04 a 6,51%). O avanço nos níveis de adubação resultou em queda nos teores de FDN e hemicelulose. Abstract in english The agronomic characteristics, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and total soluble and structural carbohydrates contents of five hybrid sorghum (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AGX-212, AGX-213 e AGX-215), cultivated under different fertilization levels, were evaluated. A randomized block [...] s design, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The qualitative factors means were analyzed by means of Tukey test at 5 and 1% of probability. The evaluated hybrids showed different proportions of stem (29.01 to 53.38%), leaves (16.70 to 22.64%) and panicle (29.91 to 52.43%), where stem and panicle were highly correlated with height, 0.79** and -0,82**, respectively. Dry matter content of whole plant was strongly affected by stem and panicle proportion, where the panicle showed higher DM contents (48.79 to 56,80%) and stem, the smaller (18.86 to 22.54%). The increase in the fertilization levels provided increment in the panicle production, that decreased stem+leaves/panicle proportions and increased panicle proportion and DM content of whole plant. The total soluble carbohydrates contents, in dry matter basis, varied among evaluated hybrids (12.24 to 19.80%) and increased as the fertilization levels increased. The evaluated hybrids showed significant differences among the NDF (57.38 to 62.30), ADF (25.29 to 31.56%), hemicellulose (28.56 to 33.87%), cellulose (19.20 to 24.34%) and lignin (6.04 a 6.51%) contents. The NDF and hemicellulose contents decreased as the fertilization levels increased.

Gontijo Neto, Miguel Marques; Obeid, José Antônio; Pereira, Odilon Gomes; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Queiroz, Augusto César de; Zago, Cláudio Prates; Cândido, Magno José Duarte; Miranda, Lídia Ferreira.

292

Híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cultivados sob níveis crescentes de adubação: características agronômicas, carboidratos solúveis e estruturais da planta Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench hybrids cultivated under increasing fertilization levels: agronomic characteristics, soluble and structural carbohydrates of the plant  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliadas características agronômicas, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e carboidratos solúveis e estruturais de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AGX-202, AGX-213 e AGX-215, cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, com quatro repetições. As médias dos fatores qualitativos foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5 e 1% de probabilidade. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diferentes proporções de colmos (29,01 a 53,38%, de folhas (16,70 a 22,64% e de panículas (29,91 a 52,43%, sendo colmos e panículas fortemente correlacionadas com altura, 0,79** e -0,82**, respectivamente. O teor de matéria seca (MS da planta inteira foi fortemente influenciado pelas proporções de colmos e panículas, tendo as panículas apresentado os maiores teores de MS (48,79 a 56,80% e colmos as menores (18,86 a 22,54%. O aumento nos níveis de adubação proporcionou acréscimo na produção de panículas, que refletiu na diminuição da relação colmo + folha/panícula, no acréscimo da proporção de panículas e no teor de MS da planta inteira. Os teores de carboidratos solúveis totais, com base na matéria seca, variaram entre os híbridos avaliados (12,24 a 19,80% e apresentaram aumento com a elevação dos níveis de adubação. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (57,38 a 62,30%, fibra em detergente ácido (25,29 a 31,56%, hemicelulose (28,56 a 33,87%, celulose (19,20 a 24,34% e lignina (6,04 a 6,51%. O avanço nos níveis de adubação resultou em queda nos teores de FDN e hemicelulose.The agronomic characteristics, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and total soluble and structural carbohydrates contents of five hybrid sorghum (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AGX-212, AGX-213 e AGX-215, cultivated under different fertilization levels, were evaluated. A randomized blocks design, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The qualitative factors means were analyzed by means of Tukey test at 5 and 1% of probability. The evaluated hybrids showed different proportions of stem (29.01 to 53.38%, leaves (16.70 to 22.64% and panicle (29.91 to 52.43%, where stem and panicle were highly correlated with height, 0.79** and -0,82**, respectively. Dry matter content of whole plant was strongly affected by stem and panicle proportion, where the panicle showed higher DM contents (48.79 to 56,80% and stem, the smaller (18.86 to 22.54%. The increase in the fertilization levels provided increment in the panicle production, that decreased stem+leaves/panicle proportions and increased panicle proportion and DM content of whole plant. The total soluble carbohydrates contents, in dry matter basis, varied among evaluated hybrids (12.24 to 19.80% and increased as the fertilization levels increased. The evaluated hybrids showed significant differences among the NDF (57.38 to 62.30, ADF (25.29 to 31.56%, hemicellulose (28.56 to 33.87%, cellulose (19.20 to 24.34% and lignin (6.04 a 6.51% contents. The NDF and hemicellulose contents decreased as the fertilization levels increased.

Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto

2004-12-01

293

The influence of fertilizer level and spore density on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of transgenic Bt 11 maize (Zea mays) in experimental microcosms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crop plants genetically modified for the expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins have broad appeal for reducing insect damage in agricultural systems, yet questions remain about the impact of Bt plants on symbiotic soil organisms. Here, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization of transgenic maize isoline Bt 11 (expressing Cry1Ab) and its non-Bt parental line (Providence) was evaluated under different fertilizer level and spore density scenarios. In a three-way factorial design, Bt 11 and non-Bt maize were inoculated with 0, 40, or 80 spores of Glomus mosseae and treated weekly with 'No' (0 g L(-1) ), 'Low' (0.23 g L(-1) ), or 'High' (1.87 g L(-1) ) levels of a complete fertilizer and grown for 60 days in a greenhouse. While no difference in AMF colonization was detected between the Bt 11 and Providence maize cultivars in the lower spore/higher fertilizer treatments, microcosm experiments demonstrated a significant reduction in AMF colonization in Bt 11 maize roots in the 80 spore treatments when fertilizer was limited. These results confirm previous work indicating an altered relationship between this Bt 11 maize isoline and AMF and demonstrate that the magnitude of this response is strongly dependent on both nutrient supply and AMF spore inoculation level. PMID:21198682

Cheeke, Tanya E; Pace, Brian A; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Cruzan, Mitchell B

2011-02-01

294

Effect of Mineral Fertilization and Sowing Rate on Chemical Composition of Two Linseed Cultivars  

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Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of two levels of mineral fertilization (90 and 180 kg NPK/ha and three sowing rates (300, 600 and 900 germinating seeds per 1 m2 on chemical composition of two linseed cultivars (Opal and Hungarian Gold differing in seed colour. Basic chemical composition, fatty acid profile, amino acid composition and yields of the seeds were determined. The yields of protein and fat were also estimated. Seeds of these two studied cultivars did not show any significant differences in chemical composition after the application of different agro-technologies. Regardless of the cultivation factors, cv. Opal had higher NDF and ADF contents and over twice higher content of ADL (40.3 vs. 19.9 g/kg DM; P<0.05. Increased mineral fertilization caused an increase in the content of amino acids, especially glutamine, arginine and asparagine, in seeds. Fatty acid profile in seed oil did not show significant changes as a result of the cultivation factors applied.

Klimek-Kopyra A.

2012-12-01

295

Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm- 2 (750 ?m spot size), 2.0 ?s delay time and 5.0 ?s integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg- 1 Cd, 2 mg kg- 1 Cr and 15 mg kg- 1 Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers.

Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco José

2014-07-01

296

Serological estimation of the level of cross-fertilization in the monoecious liverwort Pellia epiphylla n = 9  

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Full Text Available Using protein antigens as markers, antigenic differentiation of progenies obtained from individual sporangia was examined. The experiments were expected to permit estimation of cross-fertilization frequency in the monoecious liverwort species, Pellia epiphylla, n = 9. The results obtained indicated segregation into two serological types, i.e. pointed to cross-fertilization, in approximately, 80% progenies. In correlation with electrophoretic studies, employing two peroxidase alleles and two shikimic acid dehydrogenase alleles as markers, the result made possible the establishment of cross-fertilization frequency at approximately 93% The data may indicate an absence of self-fertilization in this liverwort species and, thus, self-incompatibility. This may be included among the facors responsible for maintenance of genetic variability in populations of this species, in which haplophase is the prevalent phase of its life-cycle.

Wies?aw Prus-G?owacki

1987-09-01

297

[Nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice under different levels of the controlled-release N fertilizers (CRF) in the Nansi Lake basin].  

Science.gov (United States)

The nitrogen (N) fertilizers overused or misused are the main contributors for water eutrophication of the Nansi Lake in eastern China. A field experiment with different application levels of controlled-release N fertilizer (CRF) was carried out at a rice field in the Nansi lake basin to provide information on the nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice with CRF application at different growth stages of rice. The fertilization levels for the controlled fertilizer in this study were 0, 300, 337.5 and 375 kg/hm2, respectively, and 375 kg/hm2 for conventional urea (CU). We estimated the N uptake rate in different growing season and apparent recovery of fertilizer in root, stover and grain of rice. The result showed that grain yield increased by higher N rate. However, the N uptake rate did not increase linearly with the nitrogen application amount. The highest N uptake rate was 22.48 mg/(plant x d) under the fertilization amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 during the young panicle differentiation stage. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CU with traditional application amount of 375 kg/hm2 was 21.86%. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CRF with application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 was highest with 37.17%. Based on the statistical data, with CU of traditional urea application amount of 375 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil N residue at one growing season are 130.07 x 10(3) t for Jining city and 11.4 x 10(3) t for Yutai county of the Nansi Lake basin. If using CRF with the optimized application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil residual at one growing season is 10.46 x 10(4) t for Jining city. It could reduce losses of 2.55 x 10(4) t N for Jining city and 2 235.26 t N for Yutai county per year. Because of releasing patterns more closely matched to crop N uptake patterns, controlled release N fertilizer could be a good way to prevent water eutrophication due to nitrogen fertilizer overused or misused in the Nansi Lake. PMID:21922808

Zhang, Qing-Wen; Du, Chun-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Gui-Chun; Wang, Ming

2011-07-01

298

Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) to Different Levels of N, P and K Fertilizers  

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The fertilizers were applied @ 50, 75, 100, or 125 kg ha-1 N, 60, 80 or 100 kg ha -1 P2O5 and 60 or 80 kg ha-1 K2O in different combinations to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. Results divulged that seed germination was not affected statistically by the fertilizer application while plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and green pod yield were affected significantly and were highest at the highest ...

1999-01-01

299

Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120). The most active development of denitrifiers was in the fallow soil. It is known that cultivated forms comprise only about 1 to 10% of the total number of soil microorganisms. Quantitative analysis by the methods of molecular biology makes it possible to consider the full range of microorganisms. The concentration of extracted DNA can serve as an indicator of the total "biogenity" of the soil, as we isolated the genetic material of all organisms living in the soil. The highest concentration of DNA found in the samples from the fallow soil. Much lower values were found in the soils treated with mineral fertilizers: 38.9% in trial NPK-60 and 53.3% in trials NPK-120 and NPK-0. Thus, to sustain biota in cultivated chernozems and to improve the ecological state of the fields, the rates of mineral fertilizers have to be properly controlled. Moderate rates can be recommended. Features of the soil microbiome can serve as universal and sensitive indicators of the state of the soils under different farming systems. The quantitative analysis of isolated total DNA is an efficient tool to control the ecological state of the soils, especially those involved in agriculture.

Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly

2014-05-01

300

Efeito da calagem e adubação da seringueira no estado nutricional e produção de borracha seca Effect of liming and fertilization on nutritional state and dry rubber production of rubber-tree  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da calagem e da adubação NPK no estado nutricional e na produção de borracha seca do clone RRIM 600. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram testados duas testemunhas (sem adubação e sem calagem; sem adubação e com calagem, e seis tratamentos com calagem e adubação (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 e N2P2K2. Os níveis anuais de NPK utilizados corresponderam a 40 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 de K2O. Nas subparcelas foram utilizados os sistemas de explotação ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre os teores de N, P, S, Cu e Zn nas folhas. A aplicação de N, nas duas doses, não elevou o seu teor nas folhas. O aumento nas doses de K2O na presença de N2P2 promoveu decréscimo no teor de zinco. A maior produção de borracha seca (1.778,9 kg ha-1, na média dos três anos, foi obtida no tratamento N2P2K1 + calagem nos dois sistemas de explotação.The effects of lime and NPK application on nutritional state and dry rubber production of clone RRIM 600 were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized split-plot with four replicates. In the plots were tested two controls (without fertilizer and without lime; without fertilizer and with lime and six treatments with lime and NPK fertilization (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 and N2P2K2. The two sub-treatments were the following tapping systems: ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S1 and ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S2. The NPK levels used, in kg ha-1 y-1, were represented by 40 and 80 of N; 17.5 and 35.0 of P2O5 and 0, 33.2 and 66.4 of K2O. There was a significant effect of treatments on the N, P, S, Cu and Zn content in leaves. The N applied to soil up to the second dosage was not enough to increase the N level in leaves. Increasing the application of K2O, in the presence of N2P2, promoted a linear decreasing effect on the Zn level. The highest rubber yield (1,778.9 kg ha-1, as an average of the three years, was obtained with the treatment N2P2K1 plus liming, under both tapping systems.

Adonias de Castro Virgens Filho

2001-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Efeito da calagem e adubação da seringueira no estado nutricional e produção de borracha seca / Effect of liming and fertilization on nutritional state and dry rubber production of rubber-tree  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos da calagem e da adubação NPK no estado nutricional e na produção de borracha seca do clone RRIM 600. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram testados duas testemunhas (sem adubação e sem calagem [...] ; sem adubação e com calagem), e seis tratamentos com calagem e adubação (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 e N2P2K2). Os níveis anuais de NPK utilizados corresponderam a 40 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 de K2O. Nas subparcelas foram utilizados os sistemas de explotação ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre os teores de N, P, S, Cu e Zn nas folhas. A aplicação de N, nas duas doses, não elevou o seu teor nas folhas. O aumento nas doses de K2O na presença de N2P2 promoveu decréscimo no teor de zinco. A maior produção de borracha seca (1.778,9 kg ha-1), na média dos três anos, foi obtida no tratamento N2P2K1 + calagem nos dois sistemas de explotação. Abstract in english The effects of lime and NPK application on nutritional state and dry rubber production of clone RRIM 600 were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized split-plot with four replicates. In the plots were tested two controls (without fertilizer and without lime; without fertilizer and with l [...] ime) and six treatments with lime and NPK fertilization (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 and N2P2K2). The two sub-treatments were the following tapping systems: ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S1) and ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S2). The NPK levels used, in kg ha-1 y-1, were represented by 40 and 80 of N; 17.5 and 35.0 of P2O5 and 0, 33.2 and 66.4 of K2O. There was a significant effect of treatments on the N, P, S, Cu and Zn content in leaves. The N applied to soil up to the second dosage was not enough to increase the N level in leaves. Increasing the application of K2O, in the presence of N2P2, promoted a linear decreasing effect on the Zn level. The highest rubber yield (1,778.9 kg ha-1), as an average of the three years, was obtained with the treatment N2P2K1 plus liming, under both tapping systems.

Adonias de Castro, Virgens Filho; Adônis, Moreira; Paulo Roberto de, Camargo e Castro.

302

The Effects of Weed-Crop Competition on Nutrient Uptake as Affected by Crop Rotation and Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation has greater dry mass than spring barley grown in continuous. While dry weed mass markedly decreased in crop rotation. Decrease dry weeds mass was greater when NPK had applied. The statistical analyses show that when spring barley grew in competition with weeds in the no fertilizer plots, crop rotation significantly increased nutrient content in spring barley, but when fertilizer applied the content of N, P2O5 and K2O in barley did not change. Lowest weeds nutrient content observed where soil fertility was increased by crop rotation and NPK application. Crop rotation significantly increased total nutrient uptake of soils by spring barley, but decreased total nutrient uptake by weeds.

Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad

2007-01-01

303

Effect of low doses of gamma radiation and different levels of phosphorus fertilizer on P content of leaves and lent properties of cotton crop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted during seasons 1984-1985 and 1985-1986 at the research station of ASCAD in Deir-Ezzor district using 15N technique on irrigated variety of wheat (ACSAD-65) to study the effect of nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, 200 kg N/ha as urea) and placement methods (Broadcast and band) on yield, Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (NDFF) and Nitrogen fertilizer use Efficiency (NFUE). The experiment performed (Laid out) in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 6 treatment combinations in addition to the control and four replications. The results revealed that a combination of 200 Gk N/ha and broadcast application method proved to be the best for obtaining higher yield in the seasons. The rate of nitrogen were more effective on yeld, NDFF and NFUE than of placement method. In general, the higher levels of nitrogen application, the better response of yield and NDFF could be achieved, whereas for nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (NFUE) the best response was at N2 rate (100 kg N/ha) regardless the method of application used. The final results illustrate that placement method of urea fertilizer has no significant differences on yield, NDFF and NFUE in the most cases. (Author)

1996-05-12

304

Produtividade e qualidade nutricional de cultivares de feijão em diferentes adubações / Nutritional quality and yield of bean cultivars under different fertilization levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O fornecimento adequado e equilibrado de nutrientes para o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) por meio da calagem e adubação pode contribuir para o aumento da produtividade e o valor nutricional dos grãos. Portanto, avaliou-se o efeito da adubação na produtividade, componentes da produção, nos teores [...] de macro e micronutrientes, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de três cultivares de feijão (Aporé, Pérola e Rudá). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela subdividida, sendo locados nas parcelas as diferentes adubações (N1 - não adubado; N2 - adubação para produtividade esperada de até 1.200 kg ha-1, N3 - adubação para produtividade esperada acima de 2.500 kg ha-1). As subparcelas constaram das três cultivares. As adubações utilizadas foram suficientes para alcançar os níveis de produtividade esperados. A cultivar Rudá destacou-se das demais, com os maiores teores de Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn e B. A cultivar Aporé apresentou os maiores teores de K, N, proteína e triptofano. A cultivar Pérola obteve os maiores teores de Ca e P. A recomendação de adubação para atingir produtividade superior a 2.500 kg ha-1 de grãos proporcionou as maiores produtividades, os maiores teores de K, N, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de feijão. Abstract in english The appropriate and balanced supply of nutrients of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) achieved by liming and fertilization can contribute towards increasing the grain yield and nutritional value. It was evaluated the effect of the levels of fertilization on the productivity, components of the p [...] roduction, composition of macro and micronutrients, protein and tryptophan in the grains of three bean cultivars (Aporé, Pérola and Rudá). The experimental design was composed of random blocks, with four replicates, in split-plot design, considering the different levels of fertilization (N1 - no fertilized; N2 - fertilization level for an expected grain yield of 1,200 kg ha-1, N3 - fertilization for expected grain yield above 2,500 kg ha-1). The split-plot random blocks design consisted of the three cultivars. The fertilizers used were adequate to reach the expected levels of productivity. The higher productivity was obtained when all cultivars were fertilized N3. Rudá cultivar showed the largest levels of Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and B. Aporé cultivar presented the largest levels of K, N, protein and tryptophan, while the cultivar Pérola showed the largest levels of Ca and P. The fertilizing recommendation to obtain productivity superior to 2,500 kg ha-1, produced the largest levels of K, N, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, protein and tryptophan in the bean grains.

Carlos Alberto de Bastos, Andrade; Sandra Magda Sanches, Patroni; Edmar, Clemente; Carlos Alberto, Scapim.

305

Productivity and efficiency of nitrogen fertilization in maize under different levels of urea and NBPT-treated urea Produtividade e eficiência da adubação nitrogenada em milho sob doses de uréia comum e com NBPT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The management of nitrogen fertilization is complex due to the various transformations of the nitrogen that occur in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, reducing the efficiency of the fertilization, productivity and the profit margin of the maize production areas. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of common urea and urea treat with NBPT [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide] on the productivity and efficiency of the nitrogen fertilization in maize, correlated with simpl...

Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva; André Ferreira Pereira; Ronaldo Liberato Dourado; Frederico Pinto da Silva; Fabrício William de Ávila; Valdemar Faquin

2011-01-01

306

El riego y fertilización en la calidad postcosecha del zapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn]. / The irrigation and fertilization on postharvest quality of sapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn].  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto del riego y fertilización sobre la calidad en postcosecha del zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota). Árboles de 20 años de edad provenientes de semilla fueron sometidos a dos frecuencias de riego por gravedad: tradicional (cada 10 días) y controlado a 20 milibares (cada 3 días); además, [...] se evaluaron cuatro mezclas de nitrógeno (N), fósforo (P) y potasio (K): 0, 1, 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK al año, divididas en seis aplicaciones bimestrales. Las variables evaluadas en pulpa de frutos en madurez fisiológica (MF) y madurez comercial (MC) fueron: acidez, sólidos solubles totales (SST), firmeza, color (L,a,b), fenoles y carotenoides totales, pérdida de peso (PP) y concentración de NPK. El riego controlado a 20 mb mejoró la apariencia física de la pulpa (aumento del brillo) en MC e incrementó la concentración de carotenoides. La fertilización, también aumentó la concentración de carotenoides en frutos, mejorando su calidad y además, la pérdida de peso por transpiración fue menor respecto a los frutos de árboles no fertilizados. 2 kg de NPK causó mayor luminosidad en MC y 1.5 kg de NPK produjeron frutos con pulpa más roja. La disminución de la firmeza en frutos con MF causado por la fertilización con 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK, condiciona a un manejo cuidadoso del producto durante su cosecha y evitar heridas y golpes que afecten el proceso normal de maduración. Abstract in english The effect of irrigation and fertilization on post harvest quality of zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota) was evaluated. Twenty year-old trees developed from seed were irrigated at two frequencies: traditional (every 10 days) and 20-millibares controlled (every 3 days). Irrigation was combined with four [...] fertilization rates 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg of NPK per tree. Evaluated variables on fruits at physiological (MF) and commercial maturity (MC) were the followings: acidity, total soluble solids (SST), firmness, color (L, a, b), phenols and total carotenoids, weight loss (WL) and NPK concentration. The 20 mb-controlled irrigation improved pulp appearance (brightness) during MC and increased carotenoid concentration. Fertilization improved fruit quality, increasing carotenoid concentration and reducing weight loss by transpiration. In addition, 2 kg NPK treatment resulted in higher brightness of fruits at MC and 1.5 kg NPK produced fruits with dark red pulp. The fact that firmness of fruits on MF was reduced by applying 1.5 and 2.0 kg NPK requires careful handling of sapote fruit during harvest season avoiding lesions and buises that may affect the normal ripening process.

M. R., Vallejo-Pérez; D., Nieto-Ángel; M. T., Martínez-Damián; J. A., Mora-Aguilera; D., Téliz-Ortiz; C., Nava-Díaz.

307

Converging strategies by farmers and scientists to improve soil fertility and enhance crop production in Benin  

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Keywords: Farmer perception, indigenous knowledge, extensive cassava, earthworm casts, arbuscular mycorrhiza, crop rotation, nutrient uptake, soil fertility, co-research, land tenure.Farmers in the transitional zone of Benin claim that extensive cassava cropping and prior cotton fertiliser enhance yield of subsequent maize. To cope with labour shortage, farmers have adapted fertiliser practices by mixing NPK-SB and urea. We agreed with farmers through a Stakeholder Learning Group to study the...

2006-01-01

308

CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus globulus EM RESPOSTA À FERTILIZAÇÃO NPK  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii em resposta a diferentes doses de NPK, originadas da combinação de fertilizantes de liberação rápida e lenta. O estudo foi realizado em casa de vegetação climatizada, localizada no Centro Tecnológico de Silvicultura, pertencente ao Departamento de Ciências Floretais da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria-RS, no perído de setembro a dezembro de 1997. As plantas foram cultivadas em substrato à base de uma composto orgânico de casca de Pinus spp.. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constando de 4 tratamentos, constituídos de doses de fósforo (superfostato simples (0-18-0 e de um fertilizante de liberação lenta N-P-K (14-14-14 denominado Osmocote, sendo derivado de nitrato de amônio, fosfato de amônio, fosfato de cálcio e sulfato de potássio. Os tratamentos, resultantes da combinação de 60% de superfostato simples e 40% de osmocote foram 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5 Kg m-3 de substrato. Para cada tratamento foram usadas 4 repetições, sendo cada uma composta de 11 plantas. Ao final de 100 dias, foram avaliados a altura, o diâmetro do colo, a massa seca da parte aérea, a massa seca do sistema radicular e o número de folhas. Pelos resultados obtidos verificou-se que o crescimento das plantas de Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii, respondeu positivamente à fertilização NPK [60% Super Simples (0-18-0 + 40% fertilizante de liberação lenta (14-14-14]. Quando não foi aplicado fertilizante as mudas apresentaram um menor crescimento enquanto que os máximos crescimentos em altura, diâmetro do colo, massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca radicular e número de folhas foram obtidos no intervalo de doses de 6,7 a 7,5 Kg m-3 de substrato.

Juarez Martins Hoppe

1999-12-01

309

Amelioration of Indian urban air pollution phytotoxicity in Beta vulgaris L. by modifying NPK nutrients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Air pollution levels are increasing at an alarming rate in many developing countries, including India and causing a potential threat to crop production. Field experiments were conducted to examine the impact of urban air pollutants on biomass (yield) and some physiological and biochemical parameters of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var. All Green) that grew from germination to maturity at seven periurban sites of Allahabad city having different concentrations of air pollutants under different levels of nutrients. The 6 h daily mean NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations varied from 2.5 to 42.5, 10.6 to 65 and 3.5 to 30.8 μg mâ??3, respectively at different locations. Levels of air pollution showed significant negative correlations with photosynthetic pigments, protein, ascorbic acid and starch contents and catalase activity of palak leaves. A significant negative correlation was found for total biomass with SO2 (r = â??0.92), NO2 (r = â??0.85) and O3 (r = â??0.91) concentrations. The increased fertilizer application (N, P and K) over the recommended dose resulted in a positive response by reducing losses in photosynthetic pigments and total biomass. This study proved that ambient air pollution of Allahabad city is influencing negatively to the growth and yield of palak plants. Air pollution caused adverse impact on growth and biomass accumulation of Beta vulgaris L. plants while higher fertility levels showed reduced yield losses. Keyword: Air pollution,Yield,Beta vulgaris,Nutrients,Biomass

Singh, Anoop; Agrawal, SB

2005-01-01

310

Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado Fertilidade do solo e produtividade do arroz de terras altas no Cerrado após aplicação de "biochar"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar made from Eucalyptus on soil fertility, and on the yield and development of upland rice. The experiment was performed during two years in a randomized block design with four replicates, in a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. Four doses of NPK 05-25-15, annually distributed in stripes (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1), and four doses of biochar (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha-1), applied once in the first year - alone or with NPK - were evaluate...

Fabiano André Petter; Beáta Emöke Madari; Mellissa Ananias Soler da Silva; Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro; Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho; Ben Hur Marimon Júnior; Leandro Pereira Pacheco

2012-01-01

311

The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha, four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P, NPK (20 : 10 : 10, and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS. Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm, density (plants/m2 and spread (cm were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Sampling for yield estimation in each plot was done at 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Mean plant height with respect to seed rate, fertilizer type and growth stage significantly (P 2000 kg DM/ha. Application of SSP, NPK and CAN gave more total DM yields than the unfertilized control plot respectively by about 69, 75 and 75 %. Total DM yield varied from 1024 kg DM/ha when T. procumbens was harvested at an earlier stage (6 WPS to 2130 kg DM/ha at a later harvest (12 WPS. The main CP of leaf was significantly (P <0.05 affected by ail the treatments imposed.

Onifade, OS.

2001-01-01

312

PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO / ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da corre [...] ção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum), trevo branco (Trifolium repens) e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus), cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS) ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare. Abstract in english The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction [...] associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), white clover (Trifolium repens) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 12

Enio, Marchezan; Vandro Rogério, Vizzotto; Marta Gomes da, Rocha; Eduardo Londero, Moojen; José Henrique Souza da, Silva.

313

Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia  

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Full Text Available Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 (agricultural urea, 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®,3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N® and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®. Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola, 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®,3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N® e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®, e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas, matéria seca de folhas e os teores de nitrogênio foliar. As doses de diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta mostraram regressões polinomiais significativas para a produção de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula e teores de nitrogênio foliar, sendo que neste ultimo parâmetro avaliado, o Entec 26® não obteve regressão polinomial significativa. A produção de matéria seca de folhas de rúcula mostrou regressões lineares não significativas. As máximas produções de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula foram obtidas com as doses de 600 kg ha-1; 490 kg ha-1; 765 kg ha-1 e 462 kg ha-1 de N com o uso de uréia, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® e Super N®, respectivamente.

Rafael Felippe Ratke

2011-06-01

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Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea / Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lent [...] a e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola), 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®)),3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N®)) e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®)), e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas, matéria seca de folhas e os teores de nitrogênio foliar. As doses de diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta mostraram regressões polinomiais significativas para a produção de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula e teores de nitrogênio foliar, sendo que neste ultimo parâmetro avaliado, o Entec 26® não obteve regressão polinomial significativa. A produção de matéria seca de folhas de rúcula mostrou regressões lineares não significativas. As máximas produções de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula foram obtidas com as doses de 600 kg ha-1; 490 kg ha-1; 765 kg ha-1 e 462 kg ha-1 de N com o uso de uréia, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® e Super N®, respectivamente. Abstract in english Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 ( [...] agricultural urea), 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®)),3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N®)) and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®)). Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.

Rafael Felippe, Ratke; Adriana, Verginassi; Débora de C, Basto; Hélber S, Morgado; Milena RF de, Souza; Eliana Paula, Fernandes.

315

Comportamento dos milhos H. 6999, asteca e catêto em três níveis de adubação e três espaçamentos, em São Paulo / Behavior of three corn varieties planted at three fertilizer levels and three spacings  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São discutidos neste trabalho os resultados de 32 ensaios de variedades x espaçamento x adubação realizados no ano agrícola 1959-60, em São Paolo, instalados com o propósito de estudar o comportamento do H. 6999, Asteca e Catêto, plantados nos espaçamentos de 20, 30 e 40 cm entre plantas, nos níveis [...] 0, 1 e 2 de adubação. A dose 1 correspondeu a 25-68-22,5 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O. Feita a análise estatística de cada ensaio, foram reunidos de acôrdo com os grandes tipos de solos do Estado de São Paulo, efetuando-se a seguir a análise por grupos e de todo o conjunto. A produção média dos 12 ensaios localizados em solos do arenito Bauru foi de 3557 kg/ha. O H. 6999 deu 452 kg/ha mais do que o Asteca e êstes, em média, 1091 kg/ha mais do que Catêto, a mais alta diferença assinalada nos quatro grupos estabelecidos. Entre espaçamentos, a diferença foi de 746 kg/ha, linear e altamente significativa. Houve efeito linear significativo da adubação correspondente a 1271 kg/ha. A produção média nos 8 ensaios realizados em solos massapê e salmourão foi de 3154 kg/ha. O H. 6999 superou o Asteca de 683 kg/ha; a média dêstes ultrapassou a do Catêto em 676 kg/ha. O efeito linear para espaçamento foi de 400 kg/ha. A diferença entre dose 0 e 2 de adubos foi de 1 240 kg/ha. A média de produção dos 8 ensaios efetuados em terra-roxa e roxa-misturada foi de 4 275 kg/ha, superando a de todos os outros grupos. O H. 6999 produziu 600 kg/ha mais que Asteca, e êstes em média, 824 kg/ha mais do que Catêto. O efeito linear para espaçamento foi de 726 kg/ha, significativo no nível de 0,1% de probabilidade. O efeito linear da adubação foi de 1448 kg/ha, também altamente significativo. A média de produção para os 4 ensaios conduzidos em solos do Terciário e do Glacial foi de 3 086 kg/ha. O H. 6999 superou o Asteca em 534 kg/ha e, a média dêstes, a do Catêto em 468 kg/ha. O efeito do espaçamento foi de 370 kg/ha, linear e altamente significativo. Os tratamentos com a dose 2 de adubos superaram significativamente os sem adubo em 1 214 kg/ha. A produção média geral dos 32 ensaios foi de 3577 kg/ha. No total, o H. 6999, com uma dose de adubos, produziu quase o dôbro da variedade Catêto não adubada. Abstract in english This paper reports the results of 32 yield trials carried out in different localities, covering - Massapê, Terra Roxa, Arenito Bauru, Glacial and Terciário - great types of soils in the State of São Panlo. The experimental design was a 3³ with the following treatments: three varieties - Cateto, Aste [...] ca and H. 6999; three populations 50, 33 and 25 thousand plants per hectare; and three fertilizer levels - 0, 1 and 2. Dosis 1 corresponds to 25-68-22.5 kg/ha of NPK. Each plot was 30 m². Statistical analyses of each trial and also of the groups of experiments were made to test main effectB and interactions. According to the adopted model, Y = m + v + a + e + va + ve + ae + l+ lv-f-la + le + lev + lva + lea + b (1) + E. m was the general average, v, a, e, and l, i, e, variety, fertilization, spacing, location and their interactions; b(1), replication effect within localities and E the residual error including some high order interactions. Linear and quadratic components for a and e were orthogonally decomposed; V1 being Cateto against H. 6999 + Asteca and v2 being H. 6999 against Asteca. The average variation coefficient was 15 per cent; only in 4 of the 32 trials was the variation coefficient larger than 20 per cent. On the average the double cross hybrid H. 6999 outyielded significantly the variety Asteea by 572 kg/ha. Asteca + H. 6999 were 834 kg/ha better than Cateto. An increase of 843 kg/ha was obtained with a population of 50,000 plants over the treatment which corresponds to 25,000 plants per hectare. The average response to fertilisation did not differ for the great types of soils. A significant linear effect of 1,300 kg/ha measured from level 0 to level 2 was recorded; also a quadrat

G. P., Viégas; J. de, Andrade Sobrinho; W. R., Venturini.

316

DETERMINACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES NIVELES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN PAPA (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO EN UN SUELO CON PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO IN A SOIL WITH PROPERTIES ANDICAS OF SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA  

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Full Text Available La fertilización es una labor que cumple con la necesidad de suplementar a la planta, los nutrientes no satisfechos por el suelo en su condición de fertilidad natural. Por muchas décadas se han utilizado dosis deficientes que conducen a bajas producciones, y en ocasiones dosis excesivas de fertilizantes químicos que pueden generar problemas ambientales. La fertilización con nutrientes secundarios (Ca, Mg, S y el micronutriente B, han sido poco estudiadas en el cultivo de papa, razón por la cual se evaluó, en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín, el efecto de diferentes dosis de estos nutrientes en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena de la variedad DIACOL Capiro en un suelo con propiedades ándicas de Santa Rosa de Osos. Se utilizaron dosis bajas, moderadas y altas de NPK, Ca, Mg, B y S, y se encontró una respuesta positiva en rendimiento a las aplicaciones crecientes de NPK (500, 1.500 y 3000 kg ha-1, también se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso de los tubérculos de primera y segunda categoría, mientras que los tubérculos de tercera y cuarta categoría no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las interacciones entre Ca, Mg, B y S no tuvieron efecto apreciable sobre el rendimiento de los tubérculos, ya que en la mayoría de los casos solo se observaron los efectos simples de dichos elementos.The fertilization is a work that fulfills the supplementary to the plant nutritional necessities that are not satisfied by the soil, in its condition of natural fertility. For many decades faulty doses has been used that take to low productions, and in occasions excessive doses of chemical fertilizers that lead to environmental problems. The fertilization with nutritious secondary (Ca, Mg, S and the micronutrient B, has been little studied in potato crop in Colombia; for this reason, we evaluated, in the Centro de Investigacion e Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal Paysandú of the La Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín, the effect of different doses of these nutrients, in a cultivation of potato of the variety DIACOL Capiro in a soil with andics properties of Santa Rosa de Osos. Low, moderate and high doses of NPK, Ca, Mg, B and S, was used, and it was a positive result in yield to the growing applications of NPK (500, 1.500 and 3000 kg ha-1, significant differences were also presented in weight in the tubers of first and second category, while the tubers of third and quarter category did not present significant differences. The interactions among Ca, Mg, B and S didn’t have appreciable effect on the yield of the tubers, since in most of the alone cases one observes the simple effects of this elements.

Jairo Yovani Rios Quinchoa

2010-06-01

317

DETERMINACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES NIVELES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN PAPA (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA) DIACOL CAPIRO EN UN SUELO CON PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA / DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA) DIACOL CAPIRO IN A SOIL WITH PROPERTIES ANDICAS OF SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La fertilización es una labor que cumple con la necesidad de suplementar a la planta, los nutrientes no satisfechos por el suelo en su condición de fertilidad natural. Por muchas décadas se han utilizado dosis deficientes que conducen a bajas producciones, y en ocasiones dosis excesivas de fertiliza [...] ntes químicos que pueden generar problemas ambientales. La fertilización con nutrientes secundarios (Ca, Mg, S) y el micronutriente B, han sido poco estudiadas en el cultivo de papa, razón por la cual se evaluó, en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín), el efecto de diferentes dosis de estos nutrientes en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena) de la variedad DIACOL Capiro en un suelo con propiedades ándicas de Santa Rosa de Osos. Se utilizaron dosis bajas, moderadas y altas de NPK, Ca, Mg, B y S, y se encontró una respuesta positiva en rendimiento a las aplicaciones crecientes de NPK (500, 1.500 y 3000 kg ha-1), también se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso de los tubérculos de primera y segunda categoría, mientras que los tubérculos de tercera y cuarta categoría no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las interacciones entre Ca, Mg, B y S no tuvieron efecto apreciable sobre el rendimiento de los tubérculos, ya que en la mayoría de los casos solo se observaron los efectos simples de dichos elementos. Abstract in english The fertilization is a work that fulfills the supplementary to the plant nutritional necessities that are not satisfied by the soil, in its condition of natural fertility. For many decades faulty doses has been used that take to low productions, and in occasions excessive doses of chemical fertilize [...] rs that lead to environmental problems. The fertilization with nutritious secondary (Ca, Mg, S) and the micronutrient B, has been little studied in potato crop in Colombia; for this reason, we evaluated, in the Centro de Investigacion e Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal Paysandú of the La Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín), the effect of different doses of these nutrients, in a cultivation of potato of the variety DIACOL Capiro in a soil with andics properties of Santa Rosa de Osos. Low, moderate and high doses of NPK, Ca, Mg, B and S, was used, and it was a positive result in yield to the growing applications of NPK (500, 1.500 and 3000 kg ha-1), significant differences were also presented in weight in the tubers of first and second category, while the tubers of third and quarter category did not present significant differences. The interactions among Ca, Mg, B and S didn?t have appreciable effect on the yield of the tubers, since in most of the alone cases one observes the simple effects of this elements.

Rios Quinchoa, Jairo Yovani; Jaramillo Villegas, Sonia del Carmen; González Santamaría, Luis Hernán; Cotes Torres, José Miguel.

318

Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens) / Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da utilização do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL) aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com adubação orgânica e química foi avaliado no desenvolvimento de mudas de areca bambu. Os tratamentos foram T1= sem adubação (testemunha); T2= T2= EPL 0,1%; T3= EPL 0,2%; T4= NPK-20-5-20; T5= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0 [...] ,1%; T6= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,2%; T7= torta de mamona; T8= torta de mamona + EPL 0,1% e T9= torta de mamona + EPL 0,2%. As soluções de EPL foram 0,1% e 0,2%, aplicados 100 mL por vaso, quinzenalmente. O adubo químico NPK 20-5-20 foi aplicado trimestralmente e a torta de mamona, adubo orgânico utilizado, foi aplicado mensalmente (ambos 40 g por vaso). A altura da planta, o número de folhas e o número de brotações foram avaliados após um ano do início do experimento. A adubação orgânica isolada e com adição de EPL (T7, T8 e T9) proporcionou maiores alturas de planta e maior número de folhas. A adubação orgânica com a adição de EPL 0,1 e 0,2% produziu mais brotos. Para todas as variáveis, a adubação química com e sem o EPL foram menos efetivas que a adubação orgânica com EPL e os tratamentos com EPL isoladamente foram menos efetivos que os tratamentos com adubação orgânica. Abstract in english The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL) on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control), T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, [...] T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fertilizer was applied at three month intervals and castor bean cake organic fertilizer was applied once a month (40 g per pot for both). Plant height and the number of leaves and shoots were evaluated one year after the beginning of the trial. The organic fertilizer on its own and with EPL (T7, T8 and T9) produced the tallest plants and highest number of leaves. Organic fertilizer with 0.1 and 0.2% EPL produced the most shoots. For all variables, chemical fertilizer, both with and without EPL, was less effective than organic fertilizer with EPL and treatment with only EPL was less effective than treatment with organic fertilizer.

Christina da Silva, Wanderley; Ricardo Tadeu de, Faria; Maurício Ursi, Ventura.

319

Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed. Results: Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001 and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01, respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS. In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032 and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05. Conclusion: Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients.

Arabzadeh Somayeh

2010-01-01

320

Grazing intensities and poultry litter fertilization levels on corn and black oat yield Intensidades de pastejo e níveis de adubação com cama de aviário sobre a produtividade de milho e aveia-preta  

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The objective of this work was to assess the effect of poultry litter fertilization levels on corn and black oat yield using different grazing intensities, poultry litter levels (mixture of manure and bedding material) and a chemical fertilization level. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Black oat + ryegrass grazing intensities, characterized by different pasture sward management, with animal entrance at 25, 30 and 35-cm ...

Paulo Fernando Adami; Adelino Pelissari; Anibal de Moraes; Alcir José Modolo; Tangriani Simioni Assmann; Marcia Fernanda Franchin; Luís César Cassol

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Their Application Time on Yield and Some Agronomic Traits of Rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401 in Winter Cultivation in Guilan  

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Full Text Available To determine the proper nitrogen fertilizer rates and its application times for achieving high grain and oil yields of rapeseed cultivar, Hyola 401, a research was carried out in paddy fields of Rice Research Institute of Iran in Rasht during two cropping seasons. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The experimental factors were pure nitrogen fertilizer rate at five levels of 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 Kg ha-1 and fertilizer application times at five levels of all fertilizer at planting; 1/3 at planting + 2/3 in stem elongation; 1/3 at planting + 1/3 in stem elongation + 1/3 before flowering; 1/3 in 3-4 leaf stages + 1/3 in stem elongation +1/3 before flowering; 1/4 at planting + 1/4 in 3-4 leaf stages + 1/4 in stem elongation + 1/4 before flowering. The results of statistical analyses showed that from amony nitrogen rates, application of 240 Kg N ha-1 and 180 Kg N ha-1 with average production of 2505 Kg ha-1 and 2596 Kg ha-1 respectively showed the highest grain yield and were in the same group. of Nitrogen application times, application of 1/3 at planting + 1/3 in stem elongation + 1/3 before flowering had the highest grain and oil yields with average of 2155.3 Kg ha-1 and 9865 Kg ha-1, respectively. Maximum oil percentage was observed in control treatment (without N-fertilizer application and the highest oil yield was obtained for nitrogen rates of 180 and 240 Kg ha-1. Also, the highest growth period was observed for the treatment of 240 Kg nitrogen with 206.3 days. The results showed that nonsignificant difference exists between the nitrogen rates of 180 and 240 Kg ha-1 in grain and oil yields. Therefore, the rate of 180 Kg ha-1 is recomended due to less fertilizer consumption and prevention of destructive effect on the environment

M. Rabiee

2012-03-01