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Sample records for npk fertility levels

  1. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization

    CORRYANTI; J SOEDARSONO; B RADJAGUKGUK; S M WIDYASTUTI

    2007-01-01

    To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tissera...

  2. Management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosae) and NPK fertilizer levels.

    Isah, K M; Kumar, Niranjan; Lagoke, S T O; Atayese, M O

    2013-11-15

    Trials were conducted in the screen house of Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa (09 degrees 18'N; 05 degrees 04'E) in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during October-December, 2008 and January-March, 2009. The objective was to evaluate the effect of management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and NPK fertilizer levels. The trials were laid out in split-split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. The main-plot treatments consisted of three sorghum varieties; SAMSORG 3, ICSVIII and SAMSORG 14 while the sub-plot treatments consisted of inoculations; Striga mixed with Glomus, Striga only and Glomus only as well as no inoculation control. The sub-sub-plot treatments were made up of NPK fertilizer levels; (100 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)), (50 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)) and (0 kg N, 0 kg P2O5, 0 kg K2O ha(-1)). The result obtained showed that sorghum variety SAMSORG 3 were taller, having more vigour and lower reaction to Striga parasitism which resulted in the crop producing higher dry matter compared to the other two varieties. The plots inoculated with Striga only supported shorter plants of sorghum varieties, higher vigour and lower reaction score to Striga compared to Striga mixed with Glomus. It is obvious in this study that the crop performance increases with increase in the rates of NPK fertilizer applied. PMID:24511701

  3. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization

    CORRYANTI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tisserant. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased on inoculated seedlings compare to with uninoculated. NPK fertilization of 0.0625 g per seedling and inoculation on teak seedlings showed alkaline phosphatase activity in range 90-201 EU, and in roots indicated in range 14-72%. Gigaspora sp inoculation on teak seedlings was showing the highest of alkaline phosphatase activity. Increasing phosphatase alkaline activity relevant to hyphae growth, and increasing of root infection decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased seedling dry weight.

  4. Response of Early Maturity Mutant Lines of Low Land Rice on Several Levels of NPK Fertilizers and Irrigation

    A problem which will occur in the IP400 program is the exploitation of nutrient and water. This problem could be overcome by using early maturating having high fertilizer and water use efficiency. For this purpose several mutant lines were tested for their efficiency on using fertilizers and water. The testing of the mutant lines were done in the field at the experimental station of the Agricultural Department Pusakanagara, West Java. Treatments employed were six mutant lines and two rice varieties which four rates of NPK fertilizers (0, 25, 50, and 100%) and three irrigation regimes (continuously sub merging, 10 and 15 days of alternate sub merging). The soil water content was determined by neutron probe at the start of each water regimes. The N total mutant of the plants were carried out at the Plant Nutrition Laboratory, PATIR-BATAN. Results showed that the average yield, in sequence from the highest to the lowest (t/ha) is OBS 1705 (9,3597), Cimelati (8,9631), OBS 1700 (8,9192), Diah Suci (8,7706), OBS 1713 (8,2797), OBS 1703 (8,2733), OBS 1718 (8,2489) and OBS 1704 (8,0019). Statistically highest yield/ha was obtained at all the water regimes and NPK fertilizer rates was shown by OBS 1705 and did not differ significantly from Cimelati variety, but it significantly differ from Diah Suci variety, OBS 1713, OBS 1703, OBS 1718 and OBS 1718. The OBS 1704 was highly responsive to the NPK fertilization, producing and increase any weight at the lowest rate of NPK fertilization (25%). The uptake of total nitrogen (kg N/ha) in the grain of the mutant lines were all higher than that of the parent lines (Cimelati and Diah Suci). (author)

  5. Concentrations of heavy metals in NPK fertilizers imported in Serbia

    Jelena Milinović; Vesna Lukić; Snežana Nikolić-Mandić; Dimitrije Stojanović

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest c...

  6. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia

    Jelena Milinović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20 exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

  7. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.

    Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. PMID:22868114

  8. GROWTH OF Eucalyptus globulus SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO NPK FERTILIZATION

    Raul Vicente Pezzutti; Mauro Valdir Scnumacher; Juarez Martins Hoppe

    2009-01-01

    The present study has had as its objectives to evaluate the seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus subspecies maidenii, in response to different NPK originated from the combination of slow release and quick release fertilizers. The study was conducted in a climatized green house ata the Technological Center of Forestry, in the Forest Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria-RS, from September to December of 1997. The plants were cultivated in a compost of pine bark substrate, in a comple...

  9. GROWTH OF Eucalyptus globulus SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO NPK FERTILIZATION

    Raul Vicente Pezzutti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study has had as its objectives to evaluate the seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus subspecies maidenii, in response to different NPK originated from the combination of slow release and quick release fertilizers. The study was conducted in a climatized green house ata the Technological Center of Forestry, in the Forest Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria-RS, from September to December of 1997. The plants were cultivated in a compost of pine bark substrate, in a completely randomized design, consisting of 4 treatments which consisted of Phosphorus dosages (60% of Super Simple (0-18-0 and a slow release NPK fertilizer (14-14-14, known as Osmocote, which derived from ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, calcium phosphate and potassium sulfate. The treatments, resulting from the combination of 60% super simple and 40% osmocote were 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 and 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate. There were  4 repetitions of 11 plants for each treatment. After 100 days the height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were evaluated. The results indicate that the E. globulus subsp. maidenii seedlings growth responded positively to NPK fertilization  [60% of Super Simple (0-18-0+40% of slow release fertilizer (14-14-14]; when the fertilizer was not applied the seedlings did not grow as much while the maximum increment in height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were obtained in the  dosage range of 6,7 Kg m-3 to 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate.

  10. Physiology, phenology and yield of sunflower (autumn) as affected by NPK fertilizer and hybrids

    The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn, 2000 and 2001. The response of sunflower hybrids (SF-187 and Parsun-1) were studied using low medium and high rate of NPK (0, 50, 100,150 kg ha/sup -1/) in factorial design with split plot arrangements. Days to R1 (button stage), R4 (inflorescence begins to open), R5.8 (80% anthesis) and R9 (physiological maturity) stages significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Among the hybrids, Parsun-1 matured 4-5 days later than SF-187. Similarly, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), and dry matter accumulation (DMA) also significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Maximum LAI, CGR, DMA and seed yield was produced by fertilizer treatments of 150:100:100 kg ha/sup -1/ during both the seasons. Oil content also varied with different combinations of NPK fertilizers which ranged from 37 to 39% during both the seasons. (author)

  11. Structural and impedance characterization of ceramics prepared from NPK fertilizer

    Diouma Kobor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of this work was to study the possibilities of valorising the phosphates through the development of a conductive ceramics using NPK fertilizer as a precursor. Phosphorus based powders were synthesized using solid state technique from NPK fertilizer, lithium chloride and iron chloride at different temperatures up to 900 °C and ceramic samples were prepared by the powder pressing and sintering at 1100 °C. XRD spectra of the calcined powders show various sharp peaks indicating a relatively high degree of crystallinity and presence of different crystalline phases, such as: phosphorus based crystalline compounds (AlPO4 and LiFePO4, ferrite (Fe3O4 and DyFeO3, CaSO4 and K3DyCl6. The prepared phosphorus based ceramics showed very interesting electrical and dielectric properties. Thus, in the future the obtained ceramics could find application in electronic or energy storage devices. However, further investigations are necessary to understand the exact chemical composition and structural characteristics of this material, to better understand the origin of the obtained electrical and dielectric behaviour.

  12. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn. Seeds

    F. M. Oloyede

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November, and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P=0.05 depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  13. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  14. Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7% and leaf area (9% when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%, P (30% and K (17% of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.

  15. Controlled-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by polymeric membranes.

    Jarosiewicz, Anna; Tomaszewska, Maria

    2003-01-15

    The commercial granular fertilizer NPK6-20-30 was coated using polysulfone (PSF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and cellulose acetate (CA). The coatings were formed from the polymer solutions by the phase inversion technique. Measurements of the thickness and porosity of the prepared coatings and a microphotographic observation of the coatings were performed. The physical properties of the coatings influence the release rate of macronutrients which are present in the core of the coated fertilizer. In the case of PAN coating with 60.45% porosity, prepared from a 16% polymer solution, 100% of NH(4)(+) and P(2)O(5) was released after 4 h of test and 99.7% of K(+) after 5 h of test, whereas in the case of coating with 48.8% porosity, 31.8% of NH(4)(+), 16.7% of P(2)O(5), and 11.6% of K(+) was released after 5 h. In all experiments, different selectivities of the coatings in terms of the release of components were observed. The release of potassium through the coatings made of PSF and PAN was the slowest. The same tendency was observed for the release of nitrogen through a coating of CA. The release of fertilizer active components was the slowest in the case of PSF. The lowest porosity coating was prepared from the 18% PSF solution. PMID:12517104

  16. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds

    Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, a...

  17. 氮、磷、钾不同施肥水平对烤烟光合特性的影响%Effects of Different Levels of N,P,K Fertilizer Application on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Tobaoco

    吴昊; 官宇; 侯宗琼; 毛万敏; 潘兴兵; 董华芳; 杨朋; 康莉; 蔡恒彬

    2014-01-01

    采用14种不同氮、磷、钾施肥配方,在自然光下测定烤烟叶片净光合速率、气孔导度等指标,研究不同氮、磷、钾施肥水平对烤烟叶片光合特性的影响。结果表明,14种施肥配方对烤烟植株的净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率、叶温有明显影响。 N2P1K1(N 90 kg/hm2、P 45 kg/hm2、K 112.5 kg/hm2)施肥水平烤烟叶片的净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率均最大,分别为14.145μmol/(m2·s)、0.817 mol/(m2·s)、12.573 mmol/(m2·s)。%Fourteen different application levels of N,P,K fertilizer were used to study effects of N,P,K on photosynthetic char-acteristics of tobaoco under natural light. The results showed that effects of different application levels N,P,K fertilizer on the photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, intercellular CO2 concn, transpiration rate, and leaf temperature of tobaoco leaves were significantly different. The photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate of tobaoco with N2P1K1 (N 90 kg/hm2,P 45 kg/hm2,K 112.5 kg/hm2﹚were maximal which were 14.145μmol/(m2•s﹚, 0.817 mol/(m2•s﹚ and 12.573 mmol/(m2•s﹚, respectively.

  18. Mistura de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha com fertilizante NPK Mixture of Brachiaria brizantha seeds with NPK fertilizer

    Eduardo do Valle Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As informações são contraditórias quanto ao tempo em que as sementes de Brachiaria brizantha podem ficar misturadas ao fertilizante NPK sem diminuir o poder germinativo das sementes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de tempos de contato do adubo granulado NPK 04-14-08, com sementes dessa forrageira, na qualidade fisiológica (germinação e vigor. Empregou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas análise de variância e comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Também foram realizadas análises de regressão polinomial. Observou-se efeito significativo em todas as variáveis. Além disso, com o transcorrer do tempo de contato com o fertilizante, o teor de água e a condutividade elétrica das sementes aumentaram, enquanto observou-se diminuição da percentagem de germinação, da primeira contagem, da emergência e do índice de velocidade de emergência. Destaca-se que, para essas variáveis, o comportamento foi linear. Assim, é permitida a mistura das sementes com o fertilizante NPK, desde que a semeadura seja imediata, reduzindo-se os danos à qualidade fisiológica das sementes da forrageira (germinação e vigor. Na prática, recomenda-se fazer a mistura de sementes de B. brizantha com NPK somente da quantidade que poderá ser semeada até 12h após a mistura.Information is contradictory as to the time Brachiaria brizantha seeds can remain mixed with the NPK fertilizer without causing poorly formed stands. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the effect of contact times of NPK granular fertilizer (04-14-08 rate with seeds of this forage on physiological quality (germination and vigor. A completely randomized design with four replicates was employed. An analysis of variance was conducted and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. Polynomial regression analyses were also performed, and equations were fitted. A significant effect was observed in all

  19. Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.

    R. Jagadeeswaran

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient use efficiencies of newly formulated slow release NPK sources in turmeric during 2001-2002. These are recent introduction which are in the form of tablets, mixtures and coated ammonium phosphate, which contains all the three major nutrients in them, which were tested in comparison with conventional or standard fertilizer materials at three NPK levels viz., 75, 100 and 125% of recommended dose. The results indicated that nutrient use efficiencies viz., agronomic efficiency, apparent recovery and partial factor productivity were significantly enhanced by the application of tablet forms of NPK sources than other slow release forms as well as standard fertilizer materials.

  20. Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations

    PAULO BOLLER GALLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ‘Catuaí’, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP, em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ‘Mundo Novo’, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ‘Catuaí’ tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação.The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the

  1. Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil

    Sulakhudin; Abdul Syukur; Bambang Hendro Sunarminto

    2011-01-01

    he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to A...

  2. Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization

    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate. A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³ was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per

  3. Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil

    Sulakhudin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to August 2009. Experimental design used was a factorial in a completely randomized design. The first factor was hucalci concentration, consisted of 10% (H1, 20% (H2, and 30% (H3. The second factor was zeolite concentration, consisted of 25% (Z1, 50% (Z2, 75% (Z3, and 100% (Z4. NPK fertilizer (without coating used as a control. The results showed that hucalci and zeolite had a capability to increase water adsorption and to retard the release of N, P, K. The coated NPK with hucalci 30% and zeolite 100% had the highest quality in water absorption, water retention and release of nutrients.

  4. In situ polymerization coating and characteristics of coated NPK compound fertilizer

    WANG Zhenghui; ZHU Homing

    2007-01-01

    Controlled release NPK compound fertilizers were prepared by means of in situ polymerization of monomers on the surface of fertilizer granules at room temperature. Methacrylate, α-methyl acrylic acid, and ethylene dimethylacrylate were used as monomers, Dibenzoyl peroxide as initiator, and cobalt naphthenate, and triethyl amine as promoters. The structures of coating materials were characterized by IR spectra. The thermogravimetric analysis result indicated that the coating materials were of good thermal stability. The mean thickness of single coating measured with screw gauge was ca. 140 μm. The morphologies of uncoated and coated fertilizer granules analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy were changed from porosities and gullies to hills and plain. The release rate of coated compound fertilizers in water could be controlled by the hydrophicity and thickness of coating. The increase in coating hydrophicity caused the increase in release rate of fertilizer. The increase in thickness of coating slowed the release rate.

  5. Parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro Split application of NPK fertilizers on pineapple

    LUIZ ANTONIO JUNQUEIRA TEIXEIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi desenvolvido em Agudos (SP, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne'. Foram estudados os seguintes esquemas de fracionamento da adubação NPK: T1 (testemunha -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 120, em nov/95; 250, em jan/96 e 120, em mar/96; T2 -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 120, em nov/95; 160, em jan/96 e 210, em mar/96; T3 -- N e K parcelados em três aplicações (90 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 180, em nov/95 e 280, em jan/96; T4 -- N e K parcelados em cinco aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 110, em nov/95; 160, em jan/96; 110, em mar/96 e 110, em maio/96; T5 -- diferiu do T1 pelo número maior de aplicações de K (cinco e, do T4 pelo menor número de aplicações de N (quatro; nesses cinco tratamentos (T1 a T5, todo o P foi aplicado no plantio (maio/95; T6 -- N e K parcelados como no T1 e P em duas aplicações (50% no plantio e 50% em jan/96. Os frutos, colhidos 21 meses após o plantio, tiveram sua massa média e qualidade influenciadas pela forma de parcelamento da adubação com N e K; de outro modo, o fracionamento da adubação fosfatada não influenciou a produção. O parcelamento com aplicação mais tardia de N (cinco aplicações, até 12 meses após o plantio-T4 aumentou a produção, contudo, teve efeito negativo sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos.A field experiment was carried out on an Alfisol in São Paulo State, Brazil, with the objective of investigating the effects of split application of NPK fertilizer on pineapple ('Smooth Cayenne' yield and fruit quality. Six patterns of split application of fertilizers were tested as follows: T1 (control -- N and K rates split in four applications (60 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jun/95; 120 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Nov/95; 250 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jan

  6. Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L) on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria

    MAKINDE, E.A.; AYENI, L.S.; OJENIYI, S.O.

    2011-01-01

    The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol) and Lagos state university LASU) Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol) were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1) control (no fertilizer), (2) pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB) 100%, (3) PGB + NPK (75:25), (4) PGB + NPK (50:50), (5) Kola Pod Husk (KPH) 100%, (6) KPH + NPK(75:25), (7) KPH + NPK(50:50) and (8) NPK(100%) were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were a...

  7. A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release systems. However, there are no attempts to explore the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as controlled release for NPK fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of NPK fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and zeta-potential. The FTIR results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements N, P and K. The stability of the CS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of nitrogen and potassium than with the addition of phosphorus, due to the higher anion charge from the calcium phosphate than the anion charges from the potassium chloride and urea. The mean diameter increase of the CS-PMAA nanoparticles in suspension with the addition of different compounds indicated that the elements are being aggregated on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles.

  8. ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES

    Marcos Roberto Murbach

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

  9. Influence of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot

    Sylvestre Habimana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L. in a volcanic soil of Musanze District in the Northern Province of Rwanda. This was geared upon by many unattended biotic and agronomic factors pertaining to low yields of carrot crop in this area. The treatments were: the control (T0, 10 t ha-1 of chicken manure (T1, 300 kg ha-1 of NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer (T2, and 5 t ha-1 chicken manure + 150 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer (T3 and each treatment was in three repetitions. The soil was tested for some of its physical and chemical properties and the soil reaction was moderately acid (pH 5.97 and the quantities of N, P, K were moderate. The growth and yield parameters were studied along with the effect of treatments and the economic contribution of the intervention was determined by Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BGR approach. Results revealed that the significantly (p < 0.05 highest plant height (45.59 cm and leaf length (45.29 cm were obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer and the lowest were 34.12 and 34.69 cm, respectively, in the absolute control. The sole application of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer recorded plant heights of 43.70 and 39.89 cm and leaf lengths of 43.46 and 39.61 cm, respectively. Results also indicated that marketable root yield was statistically similar between control (5.6 t ha-1 and chicken manure alone (5.7 t ha-1 and between NPK fertilizer alone (8.55 t ha-1 and combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (10.55 t ha-1. The best BCR was obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (2.09 compared with the absolute control (1.12, chicken manure alone (1.75 and NPK fertilizer alone (1.62.

  10. Use of textile waste water along with liquid NPK fertilizer for production of wheat on saline sodic soils.

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Jafar, Abdul Aleem; Naveed, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    A field experiment in collaboration with a private textile industry (Noor Fatima Fabrics Private (Ltd.), Faisalabad) was conducted to evaluate the effect of disposed water from bleaching unit, printing unit and end drain for improving growth and yield of wheat under saline sodic soil. Textile waste water along with canal water (control) was applied with and without liquid NPK fertilizer. The application of liquid NPK fertilizer with end drain waste water increased plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, root length, number of tillers (m(-2)), number of fertile tillers (m(-2)), 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield up to 21, 20, 20, 44, 17, 20, 14, 44, 40 and 41%, respectively compared to canal water (control). Similarly, the NPK uptake in grain was increased up to 15, 30 and 28%, respectively by liquid fertilizer treated end drain water as compare to canal water with liquid fertilizer. Moreover, concentration of different heavy metals particularly Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was decreased in grains by application of waste water along with liquid NPK. The result may imply that waste water application along with liquid-NPK could be a novel approach for improving growth and yield of wheat in saline sodic soils. PMID:26515426

  11. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  12. Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    Jagadeeswaran, R; V. Murugappan; M. Govindaswamy

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient use efficiencies of newly formulated slow release NPK sources in turm...

  13. Effect of N and NPK fertilizers on early field performance of narrow-leaved ash, Fraxinus angustifolia.

    Cicek, Emrah; Yilmaz, Faruk; Yilmaz, Murat

    2010-01-01

    The effect of fertilization in the first growing season on early survival and growth of narrow-leaved ash (NLA) (Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. oxycarpa) was evaluated throughout the first 3 years of growth in Adapazari, Turkey. A randomized complete block design with four replications was established to investigate fertilization effects. Granular N urea [46%, (NH2)2CO, NH2-N] and NPK (15/15/15%; NH3-N, P2O5, K2O) fertilizers were applied in mid-May of the first growing season. Fertilization treatments per tree were control, 67 g NPK (equal to 10/10/10 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 133 g NPK (20/20/20 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 33 g urea N (15 g N tree(-1)) and 54 g urea N (25 g N tree(-1)). After three growing seasons under these fertilizer treatments, 98% of trees were still viable. Compared to the control treatment, fertilization had a large and positive effect on diameter and height growth during the first 3 years of growth. However, since there were no significant differences among the fertilized plots in terms of tree diameter and height growth, addition of P and K to the fertilizer regime was not beneficial. The results show that N fertilization in the first growing season has the potential to improve early field growth of narrow-leaved ash. PMID:20648820

  14. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures. PMID:24494518

  15. Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil

    Mohammed N. A. Hasaneen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing. Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials.

  16. NPK, protein content and yield of broccoli as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and phosphorus fertilizer rates

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre sowing-seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and different phosphorus fertilizer application rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 k P2O5 /fed) on NPK content of leaves and spear, and protein content in spears at maturity, spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant and total spear yield. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by exposing broccoli seeds to 3 Gy. There were non-significant differences between 3 and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on the studied parameters, increasing phosphorus application rates up to 90 kg P2O5/fed increased the above mentioned parameters. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by applying 90 kg P2O5/fed. The interaction, gamma ray and P level showed phosphorus there were significant differences in main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear yield and spear diameter in first season. The highest value was obtained by 3 Gy and 90 kg P2O5/fed. Also there were significant effects on NPK content in broccoli leaves at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) except P in second season and nonsignificant values of broccoli spear at harvest except N, K in first season. The highest protein content of broccoli spears at harvest was obtained with 2 Gy and 30 kg P25/fed

  17. Impact of commercial garden growth substratum and NPK-fertilizer on copper fractionation in a copper-mine tailing

    Charles, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

    2009-04-01

    Organic amendment and NPK-fertilizer could affect the distribution of copper (Cu) among Cu-mine tailing compounds and hence the availability or phytotoxicity of Cu to plants. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the forms of Cu in a Cu-mine tailing (pH 7.70) amended with a commercial garden growth substratum (GGS) containing peat moss and natural mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) in combination with a commercial NPK-fertilizer (20-20-20), by a sequential extraction method. There were eight treatments after the combination of four rates of GGS (0, 12.4, 50 and 100 g/kg tailing) and two rates of fertilizer (0 and 20 g/kg tailing). At the end of a 52-week incubation period, tailing Cu was sequentially extracted to fractionate Cu into five operationally defined geochemical forms, namely ‘water-soluble' (Cu-sol), ‘exchangeable' (Cu-exc), ‘specifically adsorbed on carbonates or carbonate-bound' (Cu-car), ‘organic-bound' (Cu-org) and ‘residual' (Cu-res) fractions. After treatments, the most labile Cu pool (Cu-sol + Cu-exc) represented about 0.94 % of the total Cu, the Cu-car and Cu-org accounted for 22.7 and 5.0% of total Cu, and the residual Cu accounted for nearly 71.3% of total Cu. Compared with the control, the application of GGS decreased Cu-car and increased CuORG whereas the addition of fertilizer increased Cu-sol + Cu-exc and decreased Cu-carb. Fertilizer-treated tailings had the highest amount of Cu-sol + Cu-exc. High rates of GGS resulted in Cu-org levels in GGS-treated tailings which were more than 2.0-2.8 times those obtained in the untreated tailing (control). The partition of Cu in GGS-treated tailings followed the order: Cu-sol + Cu-exc mine tailing. GGS in the tailing matrix acts as effective sorbent for Cu.

  18. Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7% and leaf area (9% when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%, P (30% and K (17% of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria diazotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a

  19. Comparative economics, monetary and yield advantages from NPK fertilization to onion

    An onion variety Swat-l was raised with different combinations of N (50 to 125 kg/ha) and K/sub 2/O (25 to 75 kg/ha) with constant rate of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (75 kg/ha). The bulb yield increased to the maximum of 20.0 and 34.3 t/ha during 2000-01 and 2001-02, respectively with NPK at the rate 100-75-50 kg/ha giving 87 and 94% increase over control. Further increase in nitrogen and potash levels did not significantly increase bulb yield. Maximum cost benefit ratio (1: 7.07 and 1: 7.98) was observed with NPK application at the rate100-75-50 kg/ha during2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. The corresponding per hectare yield and net return were also maximum of 20.0 and 34.3 tonnes and Rs. 42609 and Rs. 48112, respectively. (author)

  20. Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria

    E.A. MAKINDE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol and Lagos state university LASU Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1 control (no fertilizer, (2 pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB 100%, (3 PGB + NPK (75:25, (4 PGB + NPK (50:50, (5 Kola Pod Husk (KPH 100%, (6 KPH + NPK(75:25, (7 KPH + NPK(50:50 and (8 NPK(100% were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were assessed in the second and third planting periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in four replications. Data were analyzed using ANOVA Test. Due to the high N status of the soil in Ikorodu (sandy clay loam its uptake was significantly (p<0.05 higher (87.1% than that of LASU. The KPH and PGB had the highest potential in A. cruentus production. At Ikorodu site, KPH + NPK (75:25 had the nutrient uptake while at LASU, PGB + NPK (75:25 was optimum. KPH + NPK (75:25 gave highest N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake in A. cruentus

  1. Slow-released NPK fertilizer encapsulated by NaAlg-g-poly(AA-co-AAm)/MMT superabsorbent nanocomposite.

    Rashidzadeh, Azam; Olad, Ali

    2014-12-19

    A novel slow released NPK fertilizer encapsulated by superabsorbent nanocomposite was prepared via in-situ free radical polymerization of sodium alginate, acrylic acid, acrylamide, and montmorillonite in the presence of fertilizer compounds. Evidence of grafting and component interactions, superabsorbent nanocomposite structure and morphology was obtained by a FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. The water absorbency behavior of superabsorbent nanocomposite was investigated. After those characterizations, the potential application was verified through the study of fertilizer release from prepared formulations. Results indicated that the presence of the montmorillonite caused the system to liberate the nutrient in a more controlled manner than that with the neat superabsorbent. The good slow release fertilizer property as well as good water retention capacity showed that this formulation is potentially viable for application in agriculture as a fertilizer carrier vehicle. PMID:25263891

  2. Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels

    Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

  3. Macronutrientes em mudas de citros cultivadas em vasos em resposta à adubação NPK Macronutrients in citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita com o objetivo de avaliar-se os efeitos do fornecimento de N, P e K sobre os teores de macronutrientes do porta-enxerto e das mudas. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/55³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Determinaram-se os teores totais de N, P e K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas novas e velhas, raízes e caule e a extração de N, P e K. Os teores de N relacionaram-se diretamente e os de P e K inversamente com a adubação nitrogenada. Os teores de Ca, Mg e S relacionaram-se positivamente até as doses intermediárias de N utilizadas. Houve efeito inibitório do fertilizante potássico sobre a absorção de Ca e Mg. A acumulação de NPK pelos porta-enxertos foi em torno de 30% pelas raízes e 70% pela parte aérea.'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees (Citrus sinensis budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia were grown in containers using pine bark, vermiculite and perlite as substracts with the objective of evaluating the NPK fertilization effect on macronutrient levels. The experiment was a complete (1/5 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Young and old leaves, root and stem total nutrient

  4. Effect of liming, manure, and NPK fertilizer application on growth and yield performance of soybean in swamp land

    A . Wijanarko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity and the expansion of planting area to potential land are two strategies to increase soybean production. Swamp land is one of potential land. Acidic soil, poor fertility, and toxicity become limiting factors for soybean development in this area. Objective of this research was to determine effect of liming, organic and NPK fertilizer application on soybean yields in swamp land. On-farm trial had been conducted on swamp land of C type in South Kalimantan. Treatments consisted of two factors, laid out in randomized complete block design, replicated three times. The fist factor was three doses of manure (0, 2.5, and 5.0 t/ha. The second factor was four combinations of NPK fertilization dosage, (1 0-0-0, (2 22,5-36-30, (3 22,5-54-60, and (4 45-72-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O per hectare. Combinations of these two factors were tested on two environments, without and with liming. Results revealed that soil acidity, poor P, K, Ca, and Mg, and high aluminum saturation became limiting factors for soybean growth and yield in swamp land of type C in South Kalimantan. Amelioration using 2.5 t/ha manure, liming with dolomite equivalent to 20% of Al saturation, and NPK fertilizer at dose of 45 kg N - 72 kg K2O – 60 kg P2O5 /ha improved soil properties and soybean growth, and increase productivity to 2.4 t/ha.

  5. A comparative study of distillery spent wash with NPK (standard chemical fertilizers at seedling stage of sorghum (sorghum bicolor l.

    Aijaz Ahmed Soomro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The price of commercial chemical fertilizers is beyond the purchasing power of farming community of world’s developing countries. Therefore, to find out the substitute of these commercial chemical fertilizers a comparative study was conducted at seedling stage of sorghum variety named Sarokartuho in seed testing laboratory. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design (CRD with three replications and three treatments, i.e. only drinking water (as check, recommended dose of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK commercial fertilizer, 30%+70% of distillery spent wash + water, 50%+50% distillery spent wash + water respectively. The results for spent wash (T2 were at seed germination% (95.33%, shoot length (6.62 cm, root length (5.49 cm, shoot fresh weight (0.18 mg, root fresh weight (0.019 mg, shoot dry weight (0.017 mg and root-dry weight (0.005 mg of sorghum. However, the maximum values for these all traits of observations except seed germination were recorded at recommended dose of NPK (chemical fertilizers.

  6. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  7. Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil

    Muhammad Jamil Khan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat crop in both experiments. The soil under investigation was calcareous in nature, having a high pH (8.2, low in organic matter (8200 mg kg-1, and deficient in N (300 mg kg-1, P (7.5 mg kg-1 and Zn (6.2 mg kg-1. Boiler ash was rich inmicronutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and also contained sufficient amount of Ca, Mg, Na, S, K and P. Consequently, total porosity of soil, available P, S and K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu content in soil, increased with the levels of boiler ash application.On the other hand, dry bulk density declined which is a positive effect. ECe and pH of the soil was minutely increased. Yields and most of the yield components of wheat crop in pots, as well as in the field experiment, also increased due to boiler ashapplication. It is recommended that application of boiler ash @ 50 t ha-1 will result in enhanced yield of wheat in calcareous soil.

  8. Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention.

    Wu, Lan; Liu, Mingzhu; Rui Liang

    2008-02-01

    A double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention was prepared by crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/diatomite - containing urea (the outer coating), chitosan (the inner coating), and water-soluble granular fertilizer NPK (the core). The effects of the amount of crosslinker, initiator, degree of neutralization of acrylic acid, initial monomer and diatomite concentration on water absorbency were investigated and optimized. The water absorbency of the product was 75 times its own weight if it was allowed to swell in tap water at room temperature for 2 h. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and element analysis results showed that the product contained 8.47% potassium (shown by K(2)O), 8.51% phosphorus (shown by P(2)O(5)), and 15.77% nitrogen. We also investigated the water-retention property of the product and the slow release behavior of N, P and K in the product. This product with excellent slow release and water-retention capacity, being nontoxic in soil and environment-friendly, could be especially useful in agricultural and horticultural applications. PMID:17320380

  9. Efeito da adubação NPK na cultura da crotalária Influence of NPK fertilization in sunnhemp crop

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em oito experimentos em que se procurou determinar os efeitos de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, na produção de massa verde e sementes de Crotalaria juncea L. No estudo dos três principais elementos, empregou-se um delineamento fatorial 3ª com duas repetições. Foram estudadas as dosagens de 0, 30 e 60 de N; 0, 60 e 120 de P2O5 e 0, 30 e 60 de K2O, em quilograma/hectare, empregados sob a forma de salitre-do-chile, superfosfato simples e cloreto de potássio respectivamente. Os experimentos foram realizados nos anos agrícolas 1967/68 e 1968/69, nas Estações Experimentais de Campinas, Tietê, Tatuí e Ribeirão Preto e, segundo a Comissão de Solos do Ministério da Agricultura, respectivamente, em solo: Latassolo roxo, série Chapadão; Podzólico vermelho-amarelo variação Piracicaba; Latossolo roxo e Latossolo roxo. Os resultados mostram que, na maioria dos experimentos, o emprego do fósforo aumentou significativamente a produção de massa verde e sementes. O nitrogênio apresentou efeito significativo em alguns deles, ao passo que o efeito do potássio foi praticamente nulo, só apresentando significância quando em presença do fósforo ou do fósforo e nitrogênio juntos.In this paper the influence of NPK fertilization in the production of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. regarding fibers and seeds was studied. The experiments were conducted dining two years in four different regions of São Paulo State. The data showed that the best results were obtained with the application of phosphorus.

  10. Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil

    Muhammad Jamil Khan; Muhammad Qasim

    2008-01-01

    characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat cro...

  11. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER LEVELS FOR GRAIN AND STRAW YIELD IN LATE SOWN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM

    SUVARNA T. KALE1 * AND ANANT R. MALI2

    2014-10-01

    Response of different fertilizer levels and varieties on grain and straw yield of wheat was studied under late sown condition. The experimental design consists of split plot design with three replications comprising four levels of fertilizer and three varieties, thereby involving twelve treatment combinations. The fertilizer level 120:60:60 kg NPK/ha was found beneficial in improving growth characters, yield attributes and yield as compared to 80:40:40kg NPK/ha, 100:50:50 kg NPK/ha and 150:75:75 kg NPK/ha under late sown condition. The net monetary returns considering prevailing market prices were maximum with application of 120:60:60 kg NPK/ ha.

  12. Interaction of NPK Fertilizers During Their Transformation in Soils:I.Dynamic Changes of Soil pH

    WANG HUOYAN; ZHOU JIANMIN; CHEN XIAOQIN; LI SHOUTIAN; DU CHANGWEN; DONG CAIXIA

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic changes of soil pH as influenced by ammonium sulfate (AS), monocalcium phosphate (MCP),potassium chloride (KCl) and their interaction in soils were evaluated in incubation experiments. Applyingthese fertilizers significantly reduced soil pH values in all cases and followed sequences of AS > MCP >KCl, MCP > KCl > AS and KCl > AS > MCP for the paddy, calcareous and red soils, respectively. TheAS-induced reduction of pH in the three soils followed the sequence of red soil > paddy soil > calcareous soil,while in MCP and KCl systems the reduction of pH followed the sequences of calcareous soil > paddy soil >red soil and red soil > calcareous soil > paddy soil, respectively. The interactions of the NPK fertilizers on pHwere significant. MCP plus KCl or MCP plus AS reduced pH values more than the fertilizers applied solelyin the paddy soil, but AS partly counteracted the effect of MCP on pH in the 1 d sample of the calcareoussoil. The effect of MCP on pH was trivial when MCP was applied in combination with KCl or AS in the redsoil. When applied in combination with AS, KCl did not affect soil pH initially, but suppressed the reductionof pH at the later incubation stage, which was related to inhibition of nitrification by KCl in the soils.

  13. Interaction of NPK Fertilizers During Their Transformation in Soils:III.Transformations of Monocalcium Phosphate

    WANG Huo-Yan; ZHOU Jian-Min; CHEN Xiao-Qin; DU Chang-Wen

    2004-01-01

    Interactions of N, P and K fertilizers in soil-plant systems are widely recognized. This study focused on the transformations of monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) (MCP) with co-application of ammonium and potassium fertilizers in three different soils. The results showed that after i d incubation a large portion of the MCP applied in the paddy,calcareous and red soils became the water-insoluble form and the recoveries of P applied as Olsen P varied greatly in these three soils. Application of ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) (AS) or potassium chloride (KC1) reduced WSP significantly in the soils with AS more effective than KC1 in the calcareous soil, while the reverse occurred in the red soil. Meanwhile, in the paddy soil, co-application of the two fertilizers reduced WSP more than when the fertilizers were applied individually. The co-application of AS with MCP in the paddy and calcareous soils significantly reduced Olsen P, but the opposite occurred in the red soil. The experiment on the effect of different accompanying anions showed that the ammonium fertilizers (PNC1 and PNS) reduced WSP more effectively than the corresponding potassium fertilizers (PKC1 and PKS) in the calcareous soil due to the difference of the cations, whereas in the red soil, the chlorides reduced WSP more effectively than the sulfates. Overall, co-application of ammonium or potassium fertilizers with MCP significantly decreased availability of P from MCP during its transformation in soils, especially when MCP was applied in combination with ammonium in the calcareous soil.

  14. Continuous water determination in NPK fertilizer liquor by controlling neutron moisture gage

    The principle is described of the neutron method for measuring fertilizer liquor moisture. The method is based on the slowing-down of fast neutrons in their transport through matter. The experimental neutron moisture gage system consists of a measuring sensor and an electronic evaluation unit. The sensor consists of an 241Am-Be fast neutron source having an activity of 11.1x109 Bq and of a proportional thermal neutron detector containing boron fluoride. The detector current signal is amplified by a preamplifier and is supplied by means of a coaxial cable to the input of the electronic evaluation unit. The variation is graphically shown of pulse rate with changes in fertilizer liquor moisture. (J.B.)

  15. Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization

    Marilene L. A. Bovi

    1999-11-01

    crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente. Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK, exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N.The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in perennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth was studied under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N, phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5 and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993, when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE, with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively. The interaction GE x PO (sample position was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively, while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³ in the within row, and 6.84 g

  16. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  17. 籽瓜氮、磷、钾肥料效应的研究%Study of Effects of NPK Fertilizer on Seed Watermelon

    李承业; 林明; 潘竟海; 白晓山; 刘华君

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To nail down the optimal fertilization schemes for planting seed watermelon,which could ensure the normalization and standardization of fertilization and reduce consumption in order to use resource reasonably.[Method] The optimal scheme 3414'was adopted in the field plot experiment,including the three factors (N,P,K) and four levels and fourteen treatments.[Results] The critical periods of fertilization for seed watermelon were vine stretch and young melon inflation.The main effects of yield were showed on the level of nitrogen 1 (N1),which increased the yield by 18.4 kg/667 m2.And the yield of seed watermelon was obviously decreased on the level of N3.No significant effects of increasing yield for seed watermelon in phosphorus (P) level.The yield of seed watermelon reached maximum in the level of potassium 1 (Kt) then decreased obviously with the fertilization.[Conclusion] The fertilizers of N,P and K were respectively used in the stages of vine stretch and young melon inflation.The optimal fertilization amount was:N-P-K=12.19-7.08-5.19andthesuitableratioofN:p:K was about 1.72∶ 1∶ 0.73.%[目的]明确种植籽瓜的最佳施肥方案,使籽瓜施肥规范化、标准化,低耗高效、合理利用资源.[方法]试验采用“3414”最优设计方案,即3因素(氮、磷、钾),4个水平,14个处理,进行田间小区试验.[结果]甩蔓期和幼瓜膨大期是籽瓜的需肥临界期.氮肥增产效应主要表现在N1水平上,产量增幅明显,增产幅度为18.4 kg/667 m2.在N,水平时对应的籽瓜产量增产幅度呈明显递减趋势.磷肥在田间对籽瓜产量的增产效应不是非常明显.钾肥在田间对籽瓜的增产效应表现在K1水平中籽瓜产量增产达到最大,而后随着钾肥施肥量的增加籽瓜产量的增幅呈递减趋势.[结论]在甩蔓期主施N、P肥,而在幼瓜膨大期主施K肥.最佳施肥量为N-P2O5-K20 =12.19-7.08-5.19,适宜施用比例为1.72∶1∶0.73.

  18. Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?

    Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, José A; Colinas, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses. PMID:20033737

  19. Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK

    Ademar Spironello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the State of São Paulo (Agudos county. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5, as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg, were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribu

  20. Effete of Gamma Radiation and N.P.K on Lettuce yield

    Two field experiment were carried out during 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experiment at farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt – The experiments were conducted to study the effect of irradiated sowing seeds with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation and / or the effect of different levels of NPK fertilizer 0, (NPK)1, (NPK)2, (NPK)3, (NPK)4 and (NPK)5 on the morphological and chemical parameters of the lettuce yield. The fresh weight of the plant in the line, length of the plant in the line, the number of leaves in the line, the number of plants in the line and the fresh weight in Fadden per ton were studied. There were significant effects of NPK contents on the lettuce leaves at (NPK) 4 in the dose level 6 Gy and on Calcium and Vitamins. We found that the most effective doses on leaf lettuce is 6 Gy dose of gamma radiation which gives strong and early seedlings in maturity upwards in the production of seedlings dose of 4 Gy. While the dose 8 Gray did not occur any increase at dose level 6 Gy. The Level (NPK) 4 increase the production of fresh per acre more upwards for all levels with 6 Gray and fourth level was the best in the natural qualities and characteristics of chemical terms of delay growth harvest lettuce, as well as influence on the plant content of calcium, nitrogen, protein and all the natural qualities among the first season and the second season.

  1. Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops

    Ademar Espironelo

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%.Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

  2. Estado nutricional e características de crescimento do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi' cultivado em latossolo amarelo distrófico em função da adubação com NPK Nutritional status and growth caracteristics of pineapple in dystrophic yellow latosol 'Jupi' cultivated in fucntion of NPK fertilization

    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação da fórmula 20:05:20 de NPK no crescimento das folhas e frutos e no estado nutricional do abacaxizeiro. Foram utilizadas mudas do tipo filhote do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi', com peso médio de 250 g, plantadas em vasos contendo 13 dm³ de Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico. Os tratamentos consistiram de 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g de NPK, na proporção de 20:05:20, aplicados em três parcelamentos de 20%, 40% e 40% da dose aos 45, 120 e 240 dias, após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O peso médio do fruto foi influenciado pela dose de adubo, com valor significativamente maior para peso do fruto sem coroa, na dosagem de 93 g de adubo. Com a elevação das doses de adubo os teores de brix e acidez titulável aumentaram, enquanto a relação brix/acidez titulável apresentou redução.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of NPK on the growth of leaves and fruits and nutritional status of pineapple. Slips of pineapple'Jupi', with weight of 250 g were planted in vessel with13 dm³ of dystrophic Yellow Latosol. The treatment consisted of 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g of NPK (20:05:20 divided in three applications (20%, 40% and 40% of the dose after 45, 120 and 240 days. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block outline, with four replications. The mean weight of the fruit was influenced by NPK doses. The highest fruit weight was obtained in the fruit without crown and fertilization of NPK with 93 g. With the increase of doses of NPK, the brix tenors and total titled acidity increased while the relation brix/titled acidity decreased.

  3. Organic Fertilization Changes the Response of Mycelium of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Sporulation to Mineral NPK Supply

    Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Vosátka, M.; Votruba, Jaroslav; Klír, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 46 (2001), s. 540-542. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/1276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : organic * fertilization * changes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  4. INFLUENCE OF GROWTH AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS WITH RESIDUAL EFFECT UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILITY LEVELS

    V.S. MEENA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript focuses on the effect of concentrate organic manure (wellgrow grain and wellgrow soil anddifferent levels of nutrients on growth and yield component of wheat under different levels of fertility. Significantimprovement in terms of growth parameters like plant height, number of tillers, dry matter production andnumber of productive tillers with application of 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow grain/ha and at par withapplication of 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha, 100% NPK + 200 kg wellgrow grain/ha. Treatmentreceiving 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow grain/ha resulted maximum effective tillers/hill (350 m-2, grain yield(41.2 q/ha. Treatment 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha maintained higher straw yield (53.53 q/ha andtest weight (42.20 g due to application of 100 % NPK along with 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha whereas it was at parwith application of 75% and 100% NPK with both levels of wellgrow formulation.

  5. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most demanded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S. Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE, i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation, while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 40 and 48 % of K, and 35 and 45 % of Mg absorbed during the cycle was exported with grains, whereas less than 15

  6. Influence of balanced N,P,K fertilization on millet yield and soil fertility%氮磷钾平衡施肥对谷子产量及土壤肥力的影响

    王晓军; 王勇; 张晓娟; 孙玉琴; 程炳文

    2015-01-01

    采用“3414”设计,研究氮磷钾肥对谷子产量、株高及土壤肥力的影响.结果表明:当N2P1K1施肥处理时,试验条件下谷子产量最高,为431.23 kg/667 m2,产量回归方程拟合产量为422.3 kg/667 m2.氮肥为N2(21.53 kg/667 m2)水平时,不同生育时期土壤全氮质量比大小依次为灌浆期、抽穗期、拔节期、成熟期、苗期,不同处理的谷子平均株高大小依次为N2P2K2、N3P2K2、N1P2K2、N0P0K0;磷肥为P2(18.6 kg/667 m2)水平时,不同生育时期土壤全磷质量比大小依次为灌浆期、成熟期、苗期、拔节期、抽穗期,不同处理的谷子平均株高大小依次为N2P2K3、N2P3K2、N2P1K2、N0P0K0;钾肥为K2(4.47 kg/667 m2)水平时,不同生育时期土壤全钾质量比大小依次为抽穗期、拔节期、灌浆期、苗期、成熟期,不同处理的谷子平均株高大小依次为N2P2K2、N2P2K1、N2P2K3、N0P0K0.%Through“3414”designed to study the effect of N,P,K fertilizer on millet yield, high variability and soil fertility, the results showed that: when N2P1K1 fertilization treatments, the highest yield of millet under the test conditions, the yield of 431.23 kg/667 m2, fitted regression equation yields production of 422.3 kg/667 m2. When nitrogen N2 (21.53 kg/667 m2) level, the content changes of different soil nitrogen fertility during the period for: Filling stage > Heading stage> Jointing stage> Maturity stage> Seedling stage, millet average height changes N2P2K2> N3P2K2> N1P2K2 > N0P0K0; when phosphate P2 (18.6 kg/667 m2) level, different soil fertility period, total phosphorus absorption content variation is: Filling stage> Mature stage> Seedling stage >Jointing stage> Heading stage, millet average height variation for : N2P2K3> N2P3 K2>N2P1K2>N0P0K0; when potash K2 (4.47 kg/667 m2) level, a different variation of the content of the soil to absorb the whole growth period for potassium: Heading stage>Jointing stage> Filling

  7. Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan

    Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

  8. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    Abdul Rehman; M Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad Ehsan Safdar; Safdar Hussain; Naeem Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in fou...

  9. Exigências nutricionais da grápia em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico: efeito da adubação NPK no teor de nutrientes nos tecidos Nutritional demand of grápia in Paleaudalf soil: effect of NPK fertilization on content of nutrients in the tissues

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride é uma espécie florestal nativa de ampla utilidade na indústria madeireira, motivo pelo qual, atualmente, encontra-se em processo de extinção. Em trabalho prévio, utilizando-se um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, foi demonstrado que o crescimento de plantas jovens de grápia respondeu à adubação de N, P e K com dose de máxima eficiência técnica estimada em, respectivamente, 70, 80 e 80mg kg-1. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar o efeito da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes e micronutrientes dos tecidos de plantas de grápia. Em condições de casa de vegetação, foram realizados 27 tratamentos de adubação em esquema trifatorial completo (3x3x3, representados por três níveis (0, 40 e 80mg kg-1 de N, de P e de K. A parcela experimental foi constituída de um vaso com 3,5kg de Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico e duas plantas. Aos 140 dias após a emergência das plantas, avaliou-se o crescimento e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes da grápia. Os resultados sugerem que os teores adequados de nutrientes nas folhas de plantas jovens de grápia, para se obter de 80 a 100% da produção de biomassa, sejam: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride is a Brazilian forest species with great interest for timber-trade, and nowadays due to deforestation, it has been considered in extinction process. In the previous paper, it was shown that the NPK fertilization, respectively at 70, 80 and 80mg kg-1 of a Paleudalf soil, significantly increased the growth of young plants of grápia. The present work is aimed at characterizing the effects of the NPK fertilization on macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the tissues of grápia. At glasshouse conditions, 27

  10. Evaluation of radioactivity levels in fertilizers commonly used in the Southern USA

    A study was performed to evaluate radioactive concentrations in three categories of fertilizers, phosphate (0-46-0); potash (0-0-60); and NPK (13-13-13) using gamma spectroscopic techniques. The experimental analyses indicated mean concentrations of 697 ± 15, 8.9 ± 1.0 and 47 ± 12 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively, in phosphate fertilizers. Potash fertilizers had the average levels of 1.1 ± 0.10, 0.40 ± 0.05, and 15,162 ± 1017 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The NPK fertilizers contained 7.45 ± 2.76, 2.63 ± 0.29, 3581 ± 601 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological health hazard parameters are assessed and compared with the U.S. acceptable dose limits. (author)

  11. INSTALAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIE FORRAGEIRA EM RAZÃO DA PROFUNDIDADE NO SOLO E CONTATO COM FERTILIZANTE FORMULADO NPK INSTALLATION OF FORAGE SPECIES AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL DEPTH AND CONTACT WITH NPK FERTILIZER FORMULATION

    Fabrício Percinoto Pompei

    2009-01-01

    ="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 150%" align="justify">

    The objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate plant populations and fertilizer-liming levels for the conventional crop system, with the Iapar 81 cultivar, a type II common bean, on a heavy clay soil in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil. An experiment was carried out in the 2003/2004 summer rainy growing season. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, and treatments in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, with four populations (100 thousand, 200 thousand, 300 thousand, and 400 thousand plants ha-1 and four NPK-liming levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the recommended doses of NPK and lime. Plant height and grain yield, with their primary components (pod number per plant, grain number per pod and one hundred grains weight, were evaluated. Results allowed concluding that the increase of NPK-lime levels improved the plant height by 48%, the pod number per plant by 66%, and the grain yield by 88%, while the increase of plant population resulted in a decrease of 18% for plant height and 65% for pod number per plant, with no effect on the grain yield.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; plant population; fertilization; soil liming.

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar populações de plantas e níveis de adubação e calagem mais adequados para o plantio convencional da cultivar de

  12. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average

  13. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    Abdul Rehman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm, ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm, and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip; NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1. Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE and N use efficiency (NUE were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cultivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm, siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm, y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm

  14. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PRODUKSI BEBERAPA AKSESI TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L.

    Danny Pratikta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH] The experiment was conducted in the Field Research, in Kumendung village, Muncar, Banyuwangi from November 2012 until February 2013. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect of NPK fertilizer in some accession of maize on it’s growth and production. It’s also evaluate the protein content of the accession under different fertilizer treatment. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replications. Main plot were NPK aplication rates (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 and the sub-plots were accesion number ( V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah ; V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning ; V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma ; and V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. An split plot statistical analysis of varience (ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5 % level of probability according to Hanafiah, (2005 was realized using the excel program. Growth and yield parameters recorded at different stages of crop growth and development. There were plant height, leaves number above the ear, leaves number under the ear, tassel emergence, silk emergence, physiologically ripe age, ear lenghth, ear weight, ear circumference, ear weight per plot, kernel weight, kernel weight per plot, 100-grain weight, and protein content. The result showed that no significant different affected by the defferent NPK application rates on these accession. Base on the character selection, the yielding of all accession were higher than Bisma variety. Content of the accession were 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; and 10,10 mg g-1 for V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively. Keywords: NPK Fertilizer; Maize accession; Production [INDONESIAN] Penelitian dilakukan di lahan Desa Kumendung Kecamatan Muncar Kabupaten Banyuwangi pada bulan November 2012 hingga Febuari 2013. Tujuan dari percobaan ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pupuk NPK terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi beberapa Aksesi jagung, dan mengevaluasi kadar protein yang terkandung didalamnya. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan

  15. Adubação com NPK em coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.: atributos químicos do solo e nutrição da planta NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de informações sobre adubação de coqueiro para o Estado de São Paulo, realizou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W, visando a estudar os efeitos da aplicação de NPK em alguns atributos do solo e nutrição da planta, de set/2000 a fev/2004. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³, com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de N, P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de K2O. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas fracionadamente durante a estação das chuvas, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. A aplicação de N em doses superiores a 240 kg ha-1 ano-1 causou excessiva acidificação do solo, sendo que 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 foi suficiente para manter o teor de N foliar na faixa de suficiência. A adubação com P e K nas doses mais elevadas resultou em perdas por lixiviação. A adubação com 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O foi suficiente para manter o teor de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial e as plantas com teores de K foliar acima da faixa de suficiência. O P foliar manteve-se sempre acima da faixa de suficiência, independentemente da adubação fosfatada.There are very few information about fertilization of coconut grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with 'Dwarf Green' coconut was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on some soil chemical properties and plant nutrition, from September, 2000 to February, 2004. The trial was located on an Oxisol in the west part of the State of São Paulo (20º47'S; 51º01'W. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³. The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of N, P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of K2O, applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl

  16. Pengaruh Kitosan Sebagai Bahan Penyalut Pada Pupuk Npk Untuk Memperlambat Larut Dalam Air

    Sinaga, Aulia Rahman

    2012-01-01

    NPK compound fertilizers given by plants Not all could be absorbed, while others are being degradated or leached by ground water so they will cause inefficient fertilizing and environmental pollution. Because of that problem, slow release fertilizer was needed. Slow-release NPK fertilizer nutrition was released gradually and continuously so that it could reduce nutrition losses by leaching. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer compound and have abilty for coating. Therefore, on this research c...

  17. Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol, no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualmente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente.The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually every year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three

  18. Effects of different regimes of fertilization on soil organic matter under conventional tillage

    Zhibin Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the effects of different fertilization regimes on soil organic matter (SOM sequestration in a winter-soybean/corn rotation, a long-term field experiment was conducted in Anhui, China, from 1982 to 2011. There were six treatments, as follows: (1 no fertilizer input (CK; (2 mineral fertilizers input (NPK; (3 mineral fertilizers + 3,750 kg ha-1 wheat straw (WS/2-NPK; (4 mineral fertilizers + 7,500 kg ha-1 wheat straw (WS-NPK; (5 mineral fertilizers + 15,000 kg ha-1 composted farmyard manure (CNPK; and (6 mineral fertilizers + 30,000 kg ha-1 composted farmyard manure (DNPK. Mineral fertilizer applications combined with organic amendments improved soil physical properties. For the WS/2-NPK, WS-NPK, CNPK and DNPK treatments, the soil bulk density decreased more than 10%, while the air porosity and field water content increased more than 90% and 15%, compared with the values at the start of the experiment in 1982. Our results indicate that about two decades are needed for SOM to reach its saturation point in all treatments. The SOM sequestration rate was related to the fertilization regime. The average SOM sequestration rate in 1982-2005 was 0.27 g kg-1 yr-1 with NPK, 0.45 g kg-1 yr-1 with WS/2-NPK, 0.56 g kg-1 yr-1 with WS-NPK, 0.60 g kg-1 yr-1 with CNPK and 1.02 g kg-1 yr-1 with DNPK. Therefore, both the quantity and the quality of the organic amendment determine the SOM sequestration rate and SOM saturation level.

  1. Effects of 42-year long-term fertilizer management on soil phosphorus availability, fractionation, adsorption-desorption isotherm and plant uptake in flooded tropical rice

    Pratap Bhattacharyya; Priyanka Gautam; Chinmaya Kumar Swain; Koushik Singha Roy; Pradeep Kumar Dash; Amaresh Kumar Nayak; Mohammad Shahid; Rahul Tripathi; Sangita Mohanty; Anjani Kumar; Rajagounder Raja; Bipin Bihari Panda; Banwari Lal

    2015-01-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) fractionation, adsorption, and desorption isotherm, and rice yield and P uptake were investigated in flooded tropical rice (Oryza sativa L.) following 42-year fertilizer and manure application. The treatments included low-input [unfertilized control without N, P, or K (C0N0)], farmyard manure (FYM) (C1N0), NP (C0NP), NPK (C0NPK), FYM+NP (C1NP), and high-input treatment, FYM+NPK (C1NPK). Grain yield was increased significantly by 74%over the control under the combined application of FYM+NPK. However, under low- and high-input treatments, yield as well as P uptake was maintained at constant levels for 35 years. During the same period, high yield levels and P uptake were maintained under the C0NP, C0NPK, and C1NPK treatments. These are unique characteristics of a tropical flooded ecosystem, which is a self-sustaining system for rice production. The Fe–P fraction was highest compared to the Ca–P and Al–P fractions after 42 years of fertilizer application and was significantly higher under FYM+NPK treatment. The P adsorption capacity of soil was highest under the low-input treatment and lowest under long-term balanced fertilization (FYM+NPK). In contrast, P desorption capacity was highest under NPK and lowest in the control treatment. Long-term balanced fertilization in the form of FYM+NPK for 42 years lowered the bonding energy and adsorption capacity for P in soil but increased its desorption potential, increasing P availability to the plant and leading to higher P uptake and yield maintenance.

  2. LIMING AND FERTILIZING FOR MAHOGANI (Switenia macrophylla King. SEEDLING FORMATION

    Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important phases of the cultivation of forest species. Seedlings ofappropriate quality are fundamental in the growth and development of the species. In the production of seedlings, the substratum isfundamental for the good development of the plants. However, the subsoil in general, is acid and it contains low levels of nutritious.The acidity of the soil and the deficiency of nutrients can be corrected through liming and mineral fertilization. The objective of thepresent work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of the fertilization of the soil for the production of mahogany seedlings. Theexperiment was carried out in the period of 120 days, in the Federal University of Amazonas, UFAM. The experimental design wasrandomized complete blocks with statistical analysis in split plot. The plots were composed with eight treatments and four repetitionsand the subplots were eight sampling times of the plants. The treatments were control (natural soil, liming, corrective phosphate,fertilizing with NPK, liming + corrective phosphate, corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK, liming + fertilizing with NPK andliming + corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK. It was concluded that the associated liming and corrective phosphate and withthe fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium promoted the smallest levels of exchangeable aluminum and the largestlevels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in the soil. These levels of nutrients in the soil caused larger levels ofnutrients in the plants, providing larger growth rate. The liming, corrective phosphate and fertilizing are a fundamental practices inthe formation of mahogany seedlings.

  3. Precision Timing and Spatial Allocation of Economic Fertilizer Application

    Dillon, Carl R.; Gandonou, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Recent increases in fertilizer, particularly nitrogen, and fuel price have resulted in increased production cost for farmers. In this paper a farm level production model that compare uniform and variable rate fertilizer (NPK) application is developed that permits an analysis of the economic performance of fertilizer management regarding profitability. Results show that farmer's exposure to fertilizer and fuel prices risk have substantial impact both on the expected net returns and production ...

  4. Levels of natural radioactivity in some commonly used fertilizers

    Fertilizers are used in increasing quantities to replenish natural nutrients depleted from the soil in agricultural practices. The phosphorous component of the fertilizer is responsible for most of the uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides. To determine the natural radioactivity levels three different commercial fertilizer blends and seven basic fertilizers were studied. Eppawela Apatite was found to contain the lowest concentrations of radioactivity, amongst the phosphate group of fertilizers studied. Levels of U and 40K were negligible. The phosphate fertilizer saphose contained the highest activity concentration. Urea had negligible levels of radioactivity. Selection of proper fertilizers will facilitate to reduce the pollution of the environment by radioelements

  5. Evaluation of NPK 8-30-20 with gypsum addition compared to fertilization employed in the region for the production of potato (Solanumtuberosum L. Evaluación de NPK 8-30-20 con yeso en comparación a la fertilización convencional para la producción de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Avaliação da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola em comparação à adubação convencional para produção de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Douglas Jobim Vieira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Different forms of fertilizer management are employed by potato farmers, and from time to time, it appears a receipt to fertilize the crop. However, one should pay special attention to nutrition and fertilization of the potato as the relative demand of fertilizer per unit area in culture is high. The objective was to evaluate the use of NPK 8-30-20 with the addition of gypsum compared to NPK 4-14-8 (regional standard treatment in the production of potato. The study was conducted at the Research Unit in Potato Production and Microclimate on Agriculture, Campus CEDETEG at UNICENTRO in Guarapuava - PR. The treatments were: T1 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8, T2 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum; T3 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20, T4 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum, T5 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of plaster to make up the difference between fertilizer. The cultivation of potato was held on December 23, 2008 and the cultivar used was Agatha. The seed used was Generation 01 and tubers of class II. The density used was 50.000 tubers per hectare. The experimental design was completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated the productivity and classification of tubers of the size and incidence and severity of common scab (Streptomyces spp. and silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani Dur. And Mont. in the tubers. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and mean comparison by Tukey test (5%. Classification of the tubers was performed according to the diameter classes of the Ordinance No. 69 MAP of February 21, 2005. The use of manure at 5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum and 1.75 t ha-1 of 8-30-20 NPK plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum causes the

  6. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros; Luís Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues; Vanildo Favoretto; Euclides Braga Malheiros; Valdo Rodrigues Herling; Allan Kardec Braga Ramos

    2002-01-01

    O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS) em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares) x 4 (doses de NPK), em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetiçõ...

  7. Plant density and levels of NPK on the production components of vegetable soybean in the Savannah of the state of Roraima=Densidade de plantas e doses de NPK nos componentes de produção de soja-hortaliça na Savana de Roraima

    Alynny Neftaly Lopes Monteiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sowing densities and levels of NPK (02-24- 12 on the production components of the JLM 08 strain of vegetable soybean, in the Savannah of Boa Vista, in the state of Roraima, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in the experimental area of the Centre for Agrarian Sciences at the Cauamé Campus of the Federal University of Roraima in Boa Vista. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 5 with three replications. The two densities (40,000 and 80,000 plants per hectare comprised the first factor, while five levels of NPK (02-24-12 made up the second (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 kg ha-1. The following were evaluated: height of insertion of the first and last pod; stem diameter; number of pods per plant having 1, 2, and 3 grains; total number of pods per plant; 100 grain weight and estimated grain yield. The height of insertion of the first and last pod in the JLM 08 genotype of the vegetable soybean is not influenced by the planting densities or levels of formulated fertiliser. At a density of 80,000 plants per hectare, the number of pods per plant is influenced by the levels of fertiliser, demonstrating a positive quadratic response. The level of fertiliser with the maximum technical efficiency (492.86 kg ha-1 gives an 18% increase in grain yield at the highest planting density. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de duas densidades de semeadura e doses de NPK (02-24-12 nos componentes de produção da soja hortaliça linhagem JLM 08, na Savana de Boa Vista, Roraima. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2013 a março de 2014, na área experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrária da Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus Cauamé, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (2 x 5, com três repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu a duas

  8. Radionuclides uptake and mineral fertilization in a grassland of Carnic Alps (NE Italy)

    The uptake of radionuclides in a mountain mown grassland (elevation 800 m) of NE Italy has been carried out by considering different levels of NPK chemical fertilization. The grassland, belonging to the order Arrhenatheretalia, was subjected to factorial experimental design of fertilizers application with three levels of each fertilizer supplied. Two mowings were made every year; at the end of June and the beginning of September. This paper shows the effect of fertilizers on Cs-137 vegetation uptake after the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  9. Npk mediated improvement in biomass production, photosynthesis and na+ regulation in panicum antidotale under saline conditions

    Panicum antidotale is a promising grass species for use as fodder and forage using non-conventional agricultural practices. It was therefore grown using brackish water irrigation to determine the optimal spacing and fertilizer treatment required for sustainable growth, ion relations and photosynthesis. Planting distance of 1.5 ft2 resulted in higher biomass yield. Composite NPK fertilizer (NPK120) at the rate 120 kg ha-1 supported better plant growth rather than N, P, K individually or their various combinations (NP, NK, PK, NPK). Addition of fermented farmyard manure (NPK120+FM) improved ion regulation (lower Na+ uptake, higher K+/Na+ ratio), photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency but did not improve biomass production compared to NPK120. However, higher Na+ uptake with NPK120 would result in lower ion accumulation in the root zone and delayed soil degradation. We conclude that NPK120 could support sustainable growth of Panicum antidotale in our cropping system by keeping leaf Na+ within safe limits for CO/sub 2/ assimilation and reducing the need for frequent re-planting of salinized root stock. (author)

  10. [Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2. PMID:24558863

  11. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Stephen Oyedeji; David Adedayo Animasaun; Abdullahi Ajibola Bello; Oludare Oladipo Agboola

    2014-01-01

    The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot) into unfertilized soil (control) and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM) at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four repli...

  12. Assessment Of NPK In Human Male And Female Urine For Its Fertilising Potential In Agriculture

    Alfred L.K. Kuwornu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study evaluated concentrations of Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium in male and female urine stored over six months and its potential as a fertilizing agent in agriculture. Urinals were constructed to allow for easy collection of male and female urine and then stored in transparent bottles for six months in a greenhouse. Monthly triplicate analysis of male and female urine was done for nitrogen phosphorus potassium temperature pH and colour change. Bray P1 and Flame photometry methods were used in the determination of phosphorus and potassium contents and Kjedahl digestion and non-digestion direct methods for nitrogen content. Temperature pH and colour were determined using mercury thermometer temperaturepH meter and a colour chart. Results showed that nitrogen in female urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in male urine after 2 to 5 months of storage. However there were no significant differences p0.05 with respect to the direct method. Contrastingly phosphorus in male urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in female urine after 2 to 3 months of storage but there were no significant differences in potassium content for all male and female urine samples. Generally NPK yields in both urine sources peaked four months after storage. There was a moderate positive correlation between the direct female urine Nitrogen and storage time. The phosphorus levels also correlated positively with storage time and temperature but weakly negative with pH. Generally urine nitrogen strongly correlated positively with potassium but moderately with temperature and pH. Colour of matured urine after six months storage was yellow for females and brown for males. NPK contents in both male 30.43.4-1-43.7 and female 34.46.5-1-62.8 urine were comparable to those of chemical fertilizers such as 21 N ammonia. However the nitrogen content of digested female urine was significantly higher than that of male urine. Phosphorus concentration was

  13. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo. Parte II - Efeito do calcário e de vários adubos Effect of lime, manure, green manure, and NPK-fertilizers on the yields of sweet potatoes

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    ão atribuídos à conhecido influência nociva da "overliming". Em duas experiências cujos solos foram analisados opas a colheita, verificou-se que a calagem elevou o pH de 5,6 o 6,7, em média, mas reduziu opreciàvelmente as disponibilidades de fósforo assimilável, sobretudo nos tratamentos adubados com NPK.This paper reports the results of four experiments with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam. to study the effects of liming, two different NPK-fertilizers, manure and green-manuring on different areas of two localities of the State of São Paulo. Liming alone did not increase the yields. In the presence of manure, its effects corresponded to +5, +12, +20, and +48%, but in the presence of the NPK-fertilizers they varied from satisfactory to negative. The responses to manure were always very high, principally in the presence of lime. Although not sa large, the effects the NPK-fertilizers were also very good, bul the presence of lime, which enhanced them in some cases, in other coses depressed them considerably. The results of green-manuring were almost equal to those of manure. In the dosage used, manure supplied the soil with much larger quantities of nutrients than the NPK-fertilizers. The method of application of the latter - at planting time and in contact with the cuttings - contributed also to reduce their effectiveness. Regarding the yield reduction caused by liming, they are attributed to the so-called overliming injury. The study of the soils of two trials showed that in the limed the pH averaged only 6.7, ut the quantities of available phosphorus were appreciably reduced, especially in the treatments with the NPK-fertilizers.

  14. Measurement of NPK, Temperature, Moisture, Humidity using WSN

    Mr. Gaikwad S.V,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In India, where the economy is mainly base on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic and are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. The main reason is the lack of rains and scarifies of land reservoir water and overused of fertilizers so we need to control these parameters. This system made wireless sensor network for monitoringagricultural environments for various factors such as NPK, temperature and humidity along with other factors can be of significance.By using pH sensors we get the information about the soil and analyze the acid level of the soil. By which we can apply fertilizer to the place where it needs, also we can avoid over fertilization of the crops. We used humidity sensor to sense the weather. By this the farmer can get idea about the climate. If there is any chance for rainfall; the farmer need not irrigate the crop field. This Seminar reports the design and development of a smart wireless sensor network (WSN for an agricultural environment. Monitoring agricultural environments for various factors such as Nitrates, Zink, Potassium, Phosphorus, Humidity and Temperature along with other factors can be of significance. The ability to document and detail changes in parameters of interest has become increasingly valuable. Investigations were performed for a remote monitoring system using WiFi, where the wireless sensor nodes are based on WSN802G modules. These nodes send data wirelessly to a central server, which collects the data, stores it and allows it to be analyzed and displayed as needed.

  15. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  16. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo parte: III - Métodos de aplicação de NPK e estêrco Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes: III - Trials on the placement of npk and manure

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatadas nove experiências sôbre a localização de adubos na cultura de batata-doce, realizadas entre 1943-44 e 1946-47, sendo quatro com NPK (60-100-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O e cinco com estêrco. Em dois dos ensaios com NPK, conduzidos em Tupi Paulista (um dêles repetido por três anos no mesmo local, a adubação foi mais eficiente quando misturada com a terra dos camalhões do que aplicada sob eles ou em sulcos feitos em seus cumes. Nos outros dois, realizados em Campinas, a aplicação sob os camalhões se mostrou melhor, em média, mas os resultados variaram muito. Tratando-se de assunto que depende de muitos fatôres, inclusive das condições meteorológicas, os autores encarecem a necessidade de se continuarem as experiências, e, tendo discutido as vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos estudados, sugerem a inclusão, em futuros planos, do aplicação de P e K em sulcos laterais às mudas e de N em cobertura. Nas cinco experiências com estêrco, tôdas anuais e executadas em três localidades, seu espalhamento entre os camalhões se mostrou, em regra, inferior à aplicação sob os camalhões ou de mistura com o solo dêstes. Dos dois últimos métodos, o primeiro foi superior em três ensaios, igual em um e inferior no outro. As observações feitas indicam que, em geral, o estêrco deve ser colocado sob os camalhões.This paper reports the results of nine experiments conducted in the State of Sao Paulo on methods of application of NPK and manure for sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.. In two of the four trails with NPK, better results were obtained where it was broadcast before ridging than where it was placed in o furrow either under or on the top of the ridges. In the other two, the placement under the ridges showed better in the average, but the yearly results varied considerably. As the suitability of different methods of application depends on many factors, especially on the weather, the authors point to

  17. Effect of long-term different fertilization on bacterial community structures and diversity in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash.

    Joa, Jae Ho; Weon, Hang Yeon; Hyun, Hae Nam; Jeun, Young Chull; Koh, Sang Wook

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess bacterial species richness, diversity and community distribution according to different fertilization regimes for 16 years in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash. Soil samples were collected and analyzed from Compost (cattle manure, 2,000 kg/10a), 1/2 NPK+compost (14-20-14+2,000 kg/10a), NPK+compost (28-40-28+2,000 kg/10a), NPK (28-40-28 kg/10a), 3 NPK (84-120-84 kg/10a), and Control (no fertilization) plot which have been managed in the same manners with compost and different amount of chemical fertilization. The range of pyrosequencing reads and OTUs were 4,687-7,330 and 1,790-3,695, respectively. Species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1, and Shannon index were higher in 1/2 NPK+compost than other treatments, which were 15,202, 9,112, 7.7, respectively. Dominant bacterial groups at level of phylum were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Those were occupied at 70.9% in 1/2 NPK+compost. Dominant bacterial groups at level of genus were Pseudolabrys, Bradyrhizobium, and Acidobacteria. Those were distributed at 14.4% of a total of bacteria in Compost. Soil pH displayed significantly closely related to bacterial species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1 (pfertilization management, soil pH changes and characteristics of volcanic ash. PMID:25467117

  18. Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília, para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòmente o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral.Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL. Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minutiflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

  19. Effect of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on the growth performance and quality of cucumber fruits

    OKOLI PSO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of poultry manure and organic fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10 on the growth and quality of cucumber fruits was studied at the experimental site of the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam campus. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four levels of treatments consisting of 4tha-1 poultry manure (PM, 900 kgha-1 NPK in a ratio of 20:10:10 (NPK, 2 tha-1 poultry manure + 450 kgha-1 NPK fertilizer (PM + NPK and 0 tha-1 control (CO, where no treatment was applied. Data collected were tested using analysis of variance and significant differences among treatment means were separated using LSD at 0.05 probability level. The results obtained from the study indicated that the numbers of leaves of cucumber increased as weeks after planting (WAP increased. The highest leaves numbers was observed in the plots treated by PM. The order of leaves increases from 2 to 6 weeks were PM > PM+NPK > NPK > CO. The length of fruits, number of fruits, the quality of marketable fruits and weight of fruits increased proportionately in PM treated plots and were significantly (P=0.05 different among the other treatments except for quality of marketable fruits. The highest value of 171.25cm (length of fruits, 10.75 (number of fruits and 2.38kgha- 1 (weight of fruits were obtained in PM treated plots. Based on the results obtained it is evident that poultry manure as organic manure and its mixture (PM + NPK is a good source of soil amendment, since it influenced the growth and yield components of cucumber.

  20. Nutrição do cafeeiro arábica em função da densidade de plantas e da fertilização com NPK Coffee nutrition as a function of plant density and NPK fertilization

    Luiz Carlos Prezotti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora aumente a produtividade por área, o adensamento reduz a produção por planta, eleva sua eficiência de recuperação de nutrientes, o que contribui para a redução da quantidade de fertilizantes a ser aplicada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do cafeeiro arábica à aplicação de N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de N, P (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg.ha-1 de P2O5 e K (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de K2O, cultivados em diferentes densidades de plantio (3.333, 5.000, 10.000 e 20.000 plantas por hectare. Com base em informações obtidas em cinco produções, não foram observadas diferenças significativas de produtividade em função da densidade de plantas. A resposta em produtividade do café arábica às doses de N, P e K foi variável nos diversos espaçamentos, com maior freqüência de resultados positivos a N e P e menos expressivos para K. Os teores foliares de N e P foram pouco influenciados pelas doses de N e P2O5. Os teores foliares de K foram fortemente influenciados pelas doses de K2O. Cafeeiros submetidos ao sistema de cultivo adensado apresentaram maiores teores foliares de P e K, quando comparados àqueles cultivados em espaçamento mais largo. Os solos sob cultivo adensado, quando comparados a solos sob cultivos mais largos, apresentaram variações em suas características químicas, sendo mais evidente a redução do teor de H + Al.Although increasing in productivity, high-density tree planting provides reduction of the production per plant, increases the efficiency of recovery of nutrients by plants, and can contributes to the reduction of the amount of fertilizers to be applied per plant. Due to evaluate the answer of coffee tree plants (Coffea arabica L. to N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 of N; P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1 of P2O5 and K (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg.ha-1 of K2O application, on work was carried out in a coffee cultivated at four densities (3,333; 5,000; 10,000 and 20,000 plants

  1. Tanggap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Jagung (Zea mays L.) Varietas Pioneer-23 Terhadap Berbagai Komposisi Vermikompos dengan Pupuk Anorganik (N,P,K)

    Nasution, Efrida Sari

    2013-01-01

    EFRIDA SARI NASUTION: The Response of Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) Pioneer 23 Variety on Some Compotition of Vermicompost and Anorganic Fertilizer (N,P,K), supervised by MARIATI SINURAYA and ASIL BARUS. The research has been conducted to investigate the response of growth and yield of maize on some compotition of organic (vermicompost) and anorganic (N,P,K) fertilizer at Bunga Terompet street, Sempakata village chief, Medan Selayang subdistrict head, with a height...

  2. Bio-economics of autumn planted sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under different NPK applications

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the response of autumn planted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to different levels of N, P and K fertilizers at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during, 2004 and 2005. Treatments comprised five N levels (0, 60. 90, 120 and 150 kg ha/sup -1/), five P levels (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/), four K levels (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/) in different combinations and two hybrids viz. FH-314 (standard height) and FH-245 (semi dwarf). Hybrid FH-314 produced significantly higher achene yield (2725.41 kg ha/sup -1/) than that of FH-245. There was a progressive increase in achene yield and yield components With increasing levels of N, P and K. The highest achene yield (3023 kg ha/sup -1/) and highest net benefit (Rs.19743) was obtained when the crop was fertilized at the rate 120:90:60 kg NPK ha/sub -1/. (author)

  3. Working levels in the phosphate fertilizer plant in Croatia

    Phosphate rocks used for production of phosphate fertilizers contain various concentrations of radioactive elements. The principal radionuclides are from the 238U and 3Th decay series and 40K. In classic phosphoric acid process, concentrations of uranium and radium were disrupted, with uranium appearing primarily in the finished product (fertilizer) and radium favoring the gypsum. Since the activity mass concentrations of uranium and radium in phosphate fertilizers are several times higher than in average soil, they constitute an additional source of radiation exposure for workers and members of public. One of the source of exposure to the population in the vicinity of phosphate fertilizer plant (PFP) results from inhalation of radon daughters. For the reason the investigations of the hazards were undertaken in the fertilizer plant in Croatia, and the radon daughter concentrations in different atmospheres are discussed in this paper. Working levels were measured as 'grab samples' at several stations on-site and off-site of the PFP. The average mean values of working levels are presented. (author)

  4. Trends of Yield and Soil Fertility in a Long-Term Wheat-Maize System

    YANG Xue-yun; SUN Ben-hua; ZHANG Shu-lan

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of the wheat-maize rotation is important to China’s food security. Intensive cropping without recycling crop residues or other organic inputs results in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients, and is assumed to be non-sustainable. We evaluated the effects of nine different treatments on yields, nitrogen use efifciency, P and K balances, and soil fertility in a wheat-maize rotation system (1991-2010) on silt clay loam in Shaanxi, China. The treatments involved the application ofrecommended dose of nitrogen (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), nitrogen and potassium (NK), phosphorus and potassium (PK), combined NPK, wheat or maize straw (S) with NPK (SNPK), or dairy manure (M) with NPK (M1NPK and M2NPK), along with an un-treated control treatment (CK). The mean yields of wheat and maize ranged from 992 and 2 235 kg ha-1 under CK to 5962 and 6894 kg ha-1 under M2NPK treatment, respectively. Treatments in which either N or P was omitted (N, NK and PK) gave signiifcantly lower crop yields than those in which both were applied. The crop yields obtained under NP, NPK and SNPK treatments were statistically identical, as were those obtained under SNPK and MNPK. However, M2NPK gave a signiifcant higher wheat yield than NP, and MNPK gave signiifcant higher maize yield than both NP and NPK. Wheat yields increased signiifcantly (by 86 to 155 kg ha-1 yr-1) in treatments where NP was applied, but maize yields did not. In general, the nitrogen use efifciency of wheat was the highest under the NP and NPK treatments; for maize, it was the highest under MNPK treatment. The P balance was highly positive under MNPK treatment, increasing by 136 to 213 kg ha-1 annually. While the K balance was negative in most treatments, ranging from 31 to 217 kg ha-1 yr-1, levels of soil available K remained unchanged or increased over the 20 yr. SOM levels increased signiifcantly in all treatments. Overall, the results indicated that combinations of organic manure and

  5. A Study on the Effect of Applying the Compound Fertilizer of Organic NPK from the Concretions of Papermaking Black-Liguid on Cotton%造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥 对棉花的效应研究

    周跃龙; 汪怀建; 李琳; 罗运阔; 黄完基

    2001-01-01

    通过对棉花施用造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥的效果研究表明:棉田施用造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥确有较好的肥效,其籽棉和皮棉产量达4749.15kg/hm2和2063.55kg/hm2。相当于施大壮1(仅减产5.78%~3.97%),且较施大壮2增幅达17.43%~18.61%。施用于棉花上的效应主要表现在前期植株生长较旺盛,第一果枝着生节位较低,果枝数、总果节数也有增加。因此,有利于多结伏前桃,棉花早发,其“三桃”比例更为合理,从而实现了棉花中期稳长多结,后期不早衰。造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥对棉花品质无明显影响。%This paper systematically studies the effect of the compound fertilizer of organic NPK from the concretions of papermaking black-liquid on cotton yield and quality. Applying the compound fertilizer can bring about relatively favorable result with the yields of unginned and ginned cotton respectively reaching 4749.15kg/hm2 and 2063.55kg/hm2. So it has almost the same effect as Shidazhuangl (with only 5.78%~3.97% yield loss), and it increases the yield by 17.43%~18.61% compared with Shidazhuang 2. The effect mainly lies in comparatively vigorous early growth of cotton plant, lower attachment position of fruit branch as well as more fruit branches and fruit nodes, which contributes to more bolls before hot summer days, earlier ripening of cotton and more reasonable ratio of “the three kind of boll”. Therefore, the cotton plant maintains steady growth and better fruitage in the middle stage with no premature senescence. Besides, the compound fertilizer has little effect on cotton quality.

  6. Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

    2006-04-01

    Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

  7. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation

    SUPRIYADI; MUJIYATI

    2009-01-01

    Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i) whithout fertilize...

  8. Mineral fertilizers as a source of radioactive contamination of the soil

    Agrotechnical measures necessary to enhance crop yields markedly contribute to the radioactivity level of the environment. Mineral fertilizers contain various radionuclides, depending on the source of the raw material used for their production. Among them, uranium ( 235U and 238U) and descendants of its radioactive decay are considered to be the most dangerous for human health. The content of some natural radionuclides was determined in seven kinds of mineral fertilizers: ammonium-nitrate (AN), urea, calcareous ammonium-nitrate (KAN), monoammonium-phosphate (MAP), NPK, potassium-chloride (KCl) and superphosphate (SP). Activities of 40K and 137Cs were also determined. Samples were analysed on gamma spectrometers with NaI (8192 and 4096 channels) and semiconductor (germanium) detectors. Considerable activity levels of 40K were found especially in NPK and KCl, while SP contained the highest level of uranium. Activity levels of 137Cs were well below the prescribed limits. (author)

  9. Comparison between organic and mineral fertilization for soil fertility levels, crop macronutrient concentrations and yield

    Herencia, Juan F.; Ruiz Porras, J. C.; Melero Sánchez, Sebastiana; Morillo González, Esmeralda; Maqueda Porras, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Interest in soil organic fertilization has grown appreciably in recent years; however, few studies have been performed in greenhouses. A comparative study of organic vs. mineral fertilization in a greenhouse has been conducted for 9 yr in a calcareous loamy soil classified as Xerofluvent in the Guadalquivir River Valley, Seville, Spain. The nutrient availability in the soil, macronutrient concentration in the edible part of the plants, and yield were examined. The organic fertilizer used was ...

  10. A Miniaturized On-Chip Colorimeter for Detecting NPK Elements.

    Liu, Rui-Tao; Tao, Lu-Qi; Liu, Bo; Tian, Xiang-Guang; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Recently, precision agriculture has become a globally attractive topic. As one of the most important factors, the soil nutrients play an important role in estimating the development of precision agriculture. Detecting the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) elements more efficiently is one of the key issues. In this paper, a novel chip-level colorimeter was fabricated to detect the NPK elements for the first time. A light source-microchannel photodetector in a sandwich structure was designed to realize on-chip detection. Compared with a commercial colorimeter, all key parts are based on MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology so that the volume of this on-chip colorimeter can be minimized. Besides, less error and high precision are achieved. The cost of this colorimeter is two orders of magnitude less than that of a commercial one. All these advantages enable a low-cost and high-precision sensing operation in a monitoring network. The colorimeter developed herein has bright prospects for environmental and biological applications. PMID:27527177

  11. Chromium accumulation potential of Zea mays grown under four different fertilizers.

    Dheeba, B; Sampathkumar, P; Kannan, K

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. We performed pot experiment with chromium (30 mg/soil) to assess the accumulation potential of Zea mays and study the influence of four fertilizers, viz. Farm Yard Manure (FYM), NPK, Panchakavya (PK) and Vermicompost (VC) with respect to Cr accumulation. The oxidative stress and pigment (chlorophyll) levels were also examined. The results showed increased accumulation of chromium in both shoots and roots of Zea mays under FYM and NPK supply, and reduced with PK and VC. While the protein and pigment contents decreased in Cr treated plants, the fertilizers substantiated the loss to overcome the stress. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) indicating the enhanced damage control activity. However, these levels were relatively low in plants supplemented with fertilizers. Our results confirm that the maize can play an effective role in bioremediation of soils polluted with chromium, particularly in supplementation with fertilizers such as farm yard manure and NPK. PMID:25651615

  12. Investigation of NPK in fertilized and unfertilized vegetables

    Contents of selected minerals and moisture in Ridge Gourd, Gourd and Brinjal vegetables, collected from house and market of different localities, were determined. In house vegetables from kitchen garden of PCSIR colony the moisture contents were high (90%) as compared to market vegetables of Taj Bagh, Railway workshop Mandy and Singpura Lahore Mandy was 87%, 86.5% and 87.5% respectively. Regarding nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sodium and potassium was high in market vegetables as compared to house samples due to the accumulation of nutrients in soil and crop. (author)

  13. To evaluate the efficacy of zinc sulphate mixed with phosphate and potash fertilizer on the grain yield of wheat (tritium aestivum L.)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate yield response of wheat cv, BK-2002 at various fertilizer levels, at farmer, fields of District Mianwali during consecutive years 2006-07 and 2007-08. Six levels of ZnSo/sub 4/ mixed with NPK were evaluated in farmer's fields in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. All doses of znSo/sub 4/ along with Departmental recommended dose of NPK (114-84- 62 kg ha/sup-l/) revealed a linear increase in, plant height, number of tillers/m/sup 2/, number of spikelets /spike. number of grains/spike, 1000 grains weight (g) and yield (kg ha/sup-1/) of wheat variety BK-2002 were recorded. Maximum yield of wheat was recorded when it was subjected to 22.5 kg ho/sub -1/ 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ Departmental recommended dose of NPK fertilizer. The study indicated the potential role of ZnSo/sub 4/ in enhancing the growth and yield of wheat in arid climate and that 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ (22.5 kg ha/sub -1/) + Departmental recommended dose of NPK, (fertilizer might be the optimum level (T5) for the production of wheat in arid climate. (author)

  14. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density

    Shao-xian WANG; Xiao-jun LI; Xin-qiang LIANG; Qi-xiang LUO; Fang FAN; Ying-xu CHEN; Zu-zhang LI; Huo-xi SUN; Tian-fang DAI; Jun-nan WAN

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC)sequestration.We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China.The experiment included eight treatments:(1) check,(2) PK,(3) NP,(4) NK,(5) NPK,(6) 7F:3M (N,P,K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N),(7) 5F:5M (N,P,K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N),(8) 3F:7M (N,P,K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N).Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment.The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha.The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check.Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers.The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues.Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization.Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  15. Radiological impact of use of phosphatic fertilizers

    Samples of rock phosphate from various sources used for producing phosphate fertilizers of different types of N, P, NPK and by product gypsum were procured from twenty one fertilizer plants. Radio active counts were recorded. Strategies have been suggested to use fertilizers in a more eco-friendly way. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation

    SUPRIYADI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i whithout fertilizer as the control, (ii with manure fertilizer, and (iii with NPK fertilizer. Data was experimentally collected by planting chili in several plots treated by manure, with three replications. The field experiment was conducted in Gathak Village, Karangnongko Sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java. The data collected consist of the total population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, nitrogen content in soil and the chili yield. The primary data of research were analyzed using ANOVA test and followed by LSD test, with the degree of significance by 95% .The results showed that the manure fertilizer can increase the population of bacteria as many as 0.02% (Azotobacter and 0.46% (Azospirillum when they were compared to the control one. So that it can increase the soil fertility when they were used in long time. Therefore increasing the nutrient availability in the soil was occurred. Application of manure fertilizer could increase the total nitrogen content in the soil and it is very useful for the fertilizing of plants.

  17. Effect of fertilizers on Cd uptake of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential Cd hyperaccumulator.

    Li, Ning Yu; Fu, Qing Lin; Zhuang, Ping; Guo, Bing; Zou, Bi; Li, Zhi An

    2012-02-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of three amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cvs. K112, R104, and K472) and the effect of application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizer on Cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) Cd. All three amaranth cultivars had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(-1) in roots, resulting in average bioaccumulation factors ranging from 17.7 to 29.7. Application of N, NP, or NPK fertilizers usually increased Cd content in leaves but decreased Cd content in stem and root. Fertilizers of N or NP combined did not substantially increase dry biomass of the 3 cultivars, leading to a limited increment of Cd accumulation. NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 2.7-3.8, resulting in a large increment of Cd accumulation. Amaranth cultivars (K112, R104, and K472) have great potential in phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation and little effect on Cd uptake by fertilization. PMID:22567702

  18. Low-level nuclear waste tested for fertilizer value

    The nuclear power industry keeps coming up with proposals for getting rid of radioactive waste - burying it deep in the ground, sinking it at sea and even sending it into space reports Common Cause magazine under a headline, The Latest in Recycling. At its Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, Kerr-McGee manufactures fuel for nuclear power plants, generating a low-level radioactive liquid waste product called raphinate. After processing to remove radioactive substances, Kerr-McGee has gotten approval from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to use the nitrogen-rich residue as a fertilizer - but not to market it. As a result, Kerr-McGee is reported to be buying up thousands of acres of land on which to spread raphinate. The acreage is used to grow hay, which the company has gotten an okay to sell. The recycling effort hasn't exactly won neighborhood friends for the company, noted Common Cause. According to Kerr-McGee's corporate communications direct, When you say to somebody, Sequoyah Fuels is putting nuclear waste (on farmland), people jump up a wall

  19. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management) and farm (organizational management). Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P

  20. In Vitro Fertilization, Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Factors and Lipid Peroxidation

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a problem concerning 10-15% of the individuals in the fertile period. This study investigated effects of proinflammatory factors as well as lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) levels upon in vitro fertilization (IVF) success. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, non-randomized, controlled clinical study, sera obtained from 26 fertile (group-1), 26 infertile women before (group-2) and after (group-3) IVF treatment were analyzed. Leptin, leptin receptor, ...

  1. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  2. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  3. The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

  4. Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine seedlings in Uganda

    Samuel Lumu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack ofgood quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out; to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts(experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25−5−5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18−4−14 +TE (C mixed in 1 m3 of soil.Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experimentswere laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorialtreatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara.Results of experiment two showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1½ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (Pvalue = 0.021, Pvalue = 0.001 at 1½ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 171717 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m3 of soil.

  5. ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS

    S.B.Bhardwaj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T. Singh et al. (1974, Singh (1964, Bhattacharya (1986,Pathak (1999 and Khan and Raeside (1998 have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980 considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

  6. Impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels and heritability on spineless performance in safflower genotypes

    The present study was conducted to study the impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels on spineless percentages, meanwhile, heritability and genetic gain were determind for further selection for eight safflower genotype, during 1998/1999-1999/2000 seasons, at nuclear research center-inshas. Concerning irrigation intervals, results showed that spineless percentages of safflower genotypes were markedly increased with the increasing of irrigation intervals, this eans that increase of drought conditions leds to increase the spineless percentages in all the genotypes. Regarding nitrogen fertilizer levels, results exhibited that spineless percentages were increased with the increasing of nitrogen fertilizer levels for all the studied genotypes. Combined analysis of variance chowed highly significant effect for irrigation intervals, fertilizer levels, years and genotypes for spineles trait. The first order interaction, second order interaction and third order interaction were highly significant suggesting that spineless trait was affected the environmental factors

  7. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  8. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940‒1950

    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  9. Respostas da mandioca à adubação NPK e calagem em solos arenosos do noroeste do Paraná Cassava response to npk and liming in sandy soils of northwest Paraná, Brazil

    Jonez FidalskI

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos de campo, em áreas de pastagens degradadas, no período de 1991-92, nos municípios de Paranavaí e Altônia, região noroeste do Paraná, em Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro de baixa fertilidade, originários da formação geológica do arenito Caiuá, com o objetivo de avaliar as respostas da mandioca (Manihot esculenta L. na produção de raízes e as características químicas do solo à adubação mineral NPK e à calagem. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com 19 tratamentos e quatro repetições, aplicando-se nitrogênio (0, 20, 40 e 60 kg ha-1 de N, fósforo (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 de P2O5, potássio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de K2O e calcário (0, 850, 1.700 e 2.550 kg ha-1. A produção de raízes de mandioca não apresentou respostas à calagem, adubação nitrogenada e potássica. A adubação potássica não contribuiu para elevar os teores de K no solo. A adubação fosfatada aumentou a produção de raízes de mandioca e os teores de P no solo após o seu cultivo, sendo considerada essencial na produção de mandioca nos dois solos arenosos estudados do noroeste do Paraná.Two field experiments were carried out during 1991-92 in Paranavaí and Altônia cities, Northwest of the State of Paraná, Brazil, in order to evaluate the yield response of cassava and soil chemical characteristics to NPK fertilizers and liming. On sandy Dark Red Podzol, soils have low fertility originated from geological formation of "Caiuá" sandstone. The experimental design was a randomized block with nineteen treatments and four replications. Treatments comprised nutrient rates of nitrogen (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1; phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1; potassium (0, 40 ,80 and 120 kg ha-1; and lime (0, 850, 1,700 and 2,550 kg ha-1. Yield of cassava roots was not influenced by liming and nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Potassium fertilizer did not contribute to increase the soil K levels

  10. Evaluation of the melatonin and oxidative stress markers level in serum of fertile and infertile women

    Sara Soleimani Rad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a complex issue and different factors such as stress oxidative can be involved in this problem. So, any attempt to neutralize oxidative stress would be helpful in the treatment of infertility. Melatonin is a known scavenger of free radicals. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of melatonin and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: The participants including fertile and infertile women were divided into two groups of 30 people. Blood sampling was performed and sera were collected. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and melatonin were detected. Data were analyzed using T-test and their correlation was assessed using Spearman test. Results: Serum melatonin from fertile women was higher than infertile women but the difference was not significant (p= 0.46. MDA level in fertile women was significantly lower than infertile women (p<0.001 and the level of TAC in fertile women was significantly higher than infertile women (p<0.001. Spearman test revealed a significant and direct correlation between melatonin and TAC in fertile and infertile women and a significant but reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA in infertile and fertile women. Conclusion: Differences in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in fertile and infertile individuals have been reported. This study revealed a significant correlation between melatonin and oxidative stress biomarkers, concluding that melatonin level could be involved in infertility.

  11. Estimation of gamma radiation levels in the environs of fertilizer stockyards of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India using thermoluminescence dosimetry

    Phosphate and potash fertilizers are known for having higher concentrations of radionuclides and thus fertilizer stockyard environment might have higher radiation levels than that of outside natural background radiation. An attempt has been made to estimate the gamma radiation levels using thermoluminescence dosimeters and μR-survey meter in different fertilizer stockyards in Hyderabad, India. (author)

  12. The Influence of Varieties and Planting Systems on the Peach Tree Growth, Productivity and NPK Uptake

    Traian G. MATEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the effect of two organo-mineral fertilizers: root fertilizer C011 and foliar fertilizer 411 bio-ionic liquids, on some vegetative and productive features of five new peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] varieties introduced in Romania: ‘Earlirich’, ‘Royal Estate’, ‘Rubirich’, ‘October Star’ and ‘Late Luka’, grafted on GF 677 rootstock. The experimental plot located on a reddish preluvosol, have been established in 2008 with four planting systems: Tatura trellis, V planting system, Sibari Y and Vertical axe with different nutrition area/tree. Fertilization was applied on the beggining of June and August, 2010 and 2011 on the soil, locally on the tree rows (C011 and by foliar spraying (411. Trees vegetative growth was compared at the end of the vegetation period by number of fruit buds per unit trunk surface section (CM/TSS with significant differences between types of crowns and the biggest values for ‘Rubirich’; the total shoots length with significant differences between varieties. The influence of fertilization on trees productivity was apreciated by analyzing the yield and some typical productivy indexes. The studied parameters including the NPK uptake, have been significantly influenced by the variety 3.39% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2010 and 2.75% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2011 in Tatura trellis planting system.

  13. Follicular development and steroid concentrations in cows with different levels of fertility raised under nutritional stress.

    Oliveira, J F C; Neves, J P; Moraes, J C F; Gonçalves, P B D; Bahr, J M; Hernandez, A G; Costa, L F S

    2002-09-16

    The aim of the present study was to characterize ovarian follicular development and steroid concentrations during postpartum and the estrous cycle of Brangus Ibagé cows (3/8 Nelore + 5/8 Aberdeen Angus) with different levels of fertility. Cows were classified as having high or low fertility according to the calving interval (CI). The average CI of the herd from which cows used in this study were selected was 404.6+/-5.44 and 711.2+/-20.89 days for the high and low fertility groups, respectively. Four cows of high fertility and five cows of low fertility had calves removed between 70 and 100 days after parturition. Ovarian activity was monitored daily by ultrasound for 16 days after calf removal. Days to emergency of the first follicular wave after calf removal, number of follicles with diameter >9 mm, growth rate of largest follicle, maximum diameter of largest follicle, length (days) and number of follicular waves were recorded. During this period, blood was collected daily for measurements of serum progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol (E(2)) concentrations. In another experiment, ovarian activity and P(4) and E(2) concentrations were examined during estrous cycle in five cows of high fertility and four cows of low fertility. Ovarian activity and steroid concentrations were assessed from the day prior to estrus to the 15th day of the estrous cycle (estrus = day 0). In postpartum cows of high fertility, the total number of follicles >5mm and the maximum diameter of the largest follicle were higher than in cows of low fertility (P 5mm, but the day effect was significant (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of P(4) and E(2) were similar in both groups. These data suggest that cows, from a population raised in the same environment have different fertility as a consequence of individual physiological characteristics. PMID:12220814

  14. MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE

    Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK) amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM ...

  15. Influence Organic Fertilizer and Gamma Ray on the Quality and Yield of Carrot

    In this study, Two field experiment were carried out in the experimental farm belonging at Inshas, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, during the two growing season 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 to study the effect of pre sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays and/or organic and NPK fertilizers on carrot yield and quality. The doses 20 and 30 Gy of gamma rays increased significantly one carrot weight per gm., number of carrot/line, weight of carrot ton/feddan in comparison with the control. The same trend was seen in weight of carbohydrate and nitrogen (mg/100 gm) in the two seasons. As for organic and NPK fertilizer at was found that both fertilizers increased significantly yield characters in comparison with control but the increase of NPK was more than organic fertilizer. The interaction (30 Gy × NPK fertilizer) produced the highest mean values of most characters.

  16. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  17. Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine (Pinus nigra seedlings in Uganda

    S. Lumu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack of good quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out, to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts (experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25-5-5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18-4-14 +TE (C mixed in 1m3 of soil. Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experiments were laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorial treatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara. Experiment two results showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1˝ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (P-value = 0.021, P-value = 0.001 at 1˝ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 17-17-17 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m?3 of soil. (Pinus nigra

  18. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  19. Impact of water-fertilizer interaction on yields of crops

    Water-fertilizer interaction was studied on wheat and cotton during crop seasons of 1995 to 1998 in the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia (south), Irrigation and Drainage Project. Irrigation levels applied included 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 times the evapotranspiration (ET), while fertilizer doses were 75, 100 and 125 percent of recommendations of NPK for district Bahawalnagar. The experiment was conducted at four different locations of the project, where soil was medium textured, free from salinity/alkalinity and sufficiently drained, with water table in the range of 2-3m from the soil surface. Wheat variety Inqalab-91 and cotton variety CLM-109 were sown at their recommended time of sowing, seed rate and management practices. Irrigation was applied in consideration of open-pan evaporation and crop co-efficient for the respective crop, when sum total of the products of pan-evaporation and KC values reached 7.5 cm. Irrigation was applied to all the plots according to treatment allowance, i.e. , with 25 percent cut and addition to .75 and 1.25 Et levels, respectively. The results indicated that irrigation levels had non-significant effect on wheat and cotton yields. The results clearly negate the concept of heavy irrigation, generally exercised by our farming community. Light irrigation as a results of 0.75 Et indication were equally effective: rather, these were economical and efficient under the scarce water availability. Fertilizer had somewhat significant response. Irrigation and fertilizer did not exhibit much significant interaction. In case of wheat, the two inputs were independent, while cotton had significant inter-dependence of the two variables. The experiment gave the conclusion that both wheat and cotton crops should be applied lighter irrigation and NPK fertilizer must be applied in compliance to recommendations, for efficient and economical use of the available crop-production resources. (author)

  20. Response of maize to poultry manure and mineral fertilizer

    The effect of mineral fertilizer, poultry manure, and their combination on maize was evaluated in a pot experiment. Six treatments viz 0, 4, 8, 12 tons of poultry manure (PM) ha-1, 60-40-40 kg NPK ha-1 (NPK) and 2 t PM ha-1+30-20-20 Kg NPK ha-1 (2 t + 1/2 NPK) were used in a completely randomized design. Root dry matter of the 2 t+1/2 NPK was greater than that of the 4 t ha-1 and control, and similarly to that of the NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Shoot biomass showed a similar trend as the root dry matter. The NPK treatments and 12 t PM ha-1, rate had high shoot-root ratios. Although the NPK outyielded the other treatments in grain weight, it did differ significantly from that of the 2 t + 1/2 NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Thousand grain weight values did not differ statistically among treatments. The harvest index indicated a higher efficiency of dry matter partitioning into the sink in the combined treatment than in the 4 and 8 t PM ha-1, rates. For practical purposes and from economic point of view, 4 t PM ha1 may be recommended while the combined treatment is promising. Poultry manure appeared more advantageous in supplying C and N to the subsequent crop as more C and N remain in the soil after the maize harvest than mineral fertilizer. The 12 t PM ha-1 rate retained over 40% more C than the mineral fertilizer rate. Further studies, especially in field situations, are recommended (au)

  1. De Veterinaire Hoofdinspectie en het NPK ; ontwikkeling van een meetstrategie

    Lembrechts JFMM; Pruppers MJM

    1993-01-01

    This report elaborates the position of the Veterinary Public Health Service (VHI), which is part of the Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs, within the National Organisation for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (NPK). This organisation is activated in case of nuclear accidents i

  2. External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai

    Fertilizers containing phosphate have been used worldwide in increasing quantities in order to replenish natural nutrients, which are being continuously depleted from the soil by virtue of farming activities. Phosphate rocks together with potassium ores and nitrogenous compounds are the main raw materials used for industrial fertilizer production. Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphogypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in soil samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were estimated. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and external dose rate due to natural gamma background at various locations around the plant were also measured. (author)

  3. External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai

    Fertilizers containing phosphate have been used worldwide in increasing quantities in order to replenish natural nutrients, which are being continuously taken off from the soil for farming activities. Phosphate rocks together with potassium ores and nitrogenous compounds are the main raw materials used for industrial fertilizer production. Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphor-gypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in soil samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were estimated. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and external dose rate due to natural gamma background at various locations around the plant were also measured. (author)

  4. Grazing intensities and poultry litter fertilization levels on corn and black oat yield

    Paulo Fernando Adami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of poultry litter fertilization levels on corn and black oat yield using different grazing intensities, poultry litter levels (mixture of manure and bedding material and a chemical fertilization level. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Black oat + ryegrass grazing intensities, characterized by different pasture sward management, with animal entrance at 25, 30 and 35-cm heights and exit at 5.0, 10 and 15-cm heights, were established at the main plots. After the grazing period, corn was grown at the subplots with four levels of poultry litter (0, 4,953, 9,907 and 14,860 kg ha-1, aiming to supply 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, and a treatment with chemical fertilizer, according to soil analysis. Grazing intensities had no effect on corn yield. Corn yield was 7,493, 8,458, 9,188, 10,247 and 11,028 kg ha-1, respectively, for the treatments without and with 4,953, 9,907 and 14,860 kg ha-1 of poultry litter, and the treatment with chemical fertilization. Poultry litter levels have a residual effect on the production of black oat grown in succession to corn.

  5. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Lodging and Yield of Rice

    Hechuan YANG; Liquan WU; Xinfeng HAN; Hui SHAO; Jian KE; Rongfu WANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effects of different fertilizer levels on lodging and yield of rice. [Method] A total of four treatments were de- signed and applied with 6, 9, 12 and 15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. After seedling transplanting, the biological characteristics of rice at different growth stages in each treatment and the biological and economic characteristics of rice after lodg- ing were determined for statistical analysis. [Result] Application with 15 kg of nitro- gen fertilizer had significant promotion effect on the increase of rice yield; compared with the control (6 kg of nitrogen fertilizer), rice yield in three experimental treat- ments (9, 12 and 15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer, respectively) increased by 50.74%, 89.11% and 94.48%, respectively; lodging-resistance mechanical strengths of the three experimental treatments were 103.97%, 132.01% and 89.83% of the control, respectively; rice lodging resistance of treatment C (12 kg of nitrogen fertilizer) was the strongest, with the highest yield. [Conclusion] This study provides reference data and technical support for the rational fertilization of rice production.

  6. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in winter wheat under different water and nitrogen levels

    N uptake and the fate of fertilizer N were studied in the field under different water and nitrogen levels with 15N technique. Results showed that (1) the total N uptake of economical N treatment under saving irrigation was higher than that under conventional irrigation. Under saving irrigation the total N uptake of conventional N was higher than that of economical N treatment, yet the NHI decreased; (2) compared with saving irrigation, the N loss of conventional irrigation increased and NUE and soil residue decreased. On the same water condition the NUE and soil residue of conventional N treatment was lower than that of economical treatment, and N loss increased; (3) for the same fertilizer amount, the loss of N applied all as basal fertilizer is lower than that of part as basal and part as top-dressing treatment

  7. Tomato response to starter fertilizer, polyethylene mulch, and level of soil phosphorus

    Grubinger, V.P.; Minotti, P.L.; Wien, H.C.; Turner, A.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-03-01

    Unmulched and polyethylene-mulched tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown with and without starter fertilizer (SF) in four field experiments. The field varied as to residual P level and the amount of P incorporated before planting. No benefits from SF were obtained on a soil with high residual P that was moderately fertilized with P before transplanting or on a soil with low residual P that was heavily fertilized with P. A positive effect from SF was observed only when residual P was low and no P was broadcast, and this was true in mulched and unmulched plots. No significant SF by mulch interaction was obtained in these experiments even though mulching consistently increased shoot P concentrations and fruit yield. The mulch was beneficial even under conditions where unmulched tomato leaves contained 0.4% P 3 weeks after transplanting, indicating that factors in addition to improved P nutrition are also involved in the mulch effect.

  8. Nitrogen and Crude Proteins in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva under Different Fertilization Treatments

    Marko PETEK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the influence of different organic and mineral fertilization treatments and post-harvest treatments on the content of nitrogen and crude proteins in the edible part of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva. A field trial (2003-2005 was set up in a hilly part of Croatia according to the Latin square method with four types of fertilization (control, 50 t ha-1 stable manure, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30, while treatments involved harvested fresh beetroot and stored fresh beetroot. The highest dry weight (DW content was determined in climatologically favourable 2004 (average 14.8% DW and in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (15.6% DW in harvested beetroot. In 2004 and 2005, the highest levels of nitrogen and crude proteins in harvested beetroot were determined in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (2.41 and 2.43 g N kg-1 in fresh weight and 15.07 and 15.21 g crude proteins kg-1 in fresh weight, respectively. Regardless of fertilization treatment or studied year, nitrogen and crude protein contents were higher in stored than in harvested beetroot, by 12% on average. The lowest crude protein content was determined in treatment with stable manure what confirmed that protein content decreased by organic fertilization. It can be concluded that beetroot lost some water during the storage period, which increased its content of nitrogen and crude proteins in fresh weight and thus increased the nutritional quality of beetroot as a functional food.

  9. Melamine Impairs Female Fertility via Suppressing Protein Level of Juno in Mouse Eggs.

    Xiaoxin Dai

    Full Text Available Melamine is an organic nitrogenous compound widely used as an industrial chemical, and it has been recently reported by us that melamine has a toxic effect on the female reproductive system in mice, and renders females subfertile; the molecular basis, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we explore the underlying mechanism regarding how melamine compromises fertility in the mouse. The data showed that melamine exposure significantly impaired the fertilization capability of the egg during in vitro fertilization. To further figure out the cause, we analyzed ovastacin localization and protein level, the sperm binding ability of zona pellucida, and ZP2 cleavage status in unfertilized eggs from melamine fed mice, and no obvious differences were found between control and treatment groups. However, the protein level of Juno on the egg plasma membrane in the high-dose feeding group indeed significantly decreased compared to the control group. Thus, these data suggest that melamine compromises female fertility via suppressing Juno protein level on the egg membrane.

  10. The historical fertility transition at the micro level: Southern Sweden 1815-1939

    Tommy Bengtsson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We know a great deal about the historical fertility transition at the macro level. The dominating focus on the macro level in previous research on the fertility transition means, however, that to a large extent we lack knowledge about details of the decline and empirical tests of the leading explanatory frameworks. Objective: Our aim is to explore socioeconomic fertility differentials in an industrializing community, to gain insight about the details and discuss possible mechanisms. The study starts well before industrialization and finishes at the end of the transition. Methods: We use longitudinal individual-level data from the Scanian Economic-Demographic Database, which contains demographic as well as socioeconomic information, including occupation, landholding, and income. In the analysis we use hazard regressions with shared frailty at the family level. Results: The transition involved not only parity-specific stopping but also spacing. While the upper social strata had higher fertility prior to the transition, they started to control their fertility earlier, by the 1880s, and also more consistently. Farmers, the middle class, and skilled workers followed in the decades after, and unskilled workers with some additional delay. Conclusions: These findings are partly inconsistent with several of the major explanations in the literature, such as mortality decline, increased female labor force participation, and a quantity-quality trade-off, but consistent with an innovation process where new ideas and attitudes about family limitation spread from the elite to other social groups. Comments: Further studies are required to empirically test the innovation-diffusion theory.

  11. Bacterial diversity in Greenlandic soils as affected by potato cropping and inorganic versus organic fertilization

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund; Pedas, Pai Rosager; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    limited research has been performed on the effects of these treatments on bacterial communities in Arctic and Subarctic agricultural soils. The major objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of conventional (NPK) and organic (sheep manure supplemented with nitrogen) fertilizer...... treatments on bacterial diversity, nutrient composition and crop yield in two Greenlandic agricultural soils. An effect of fertilizer was found on soil and plant nutrient levels and on crop yields. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences did not reveal any major changes in the overall bacterial community...... composition as a result of different fertilizer treatments, indicating a robust microbial community in these soils. In addition, differences in nutrient levels, crop yields and bacterial abundances were found between the two field sites and the two experimental growth seasons, which likely reflect differences...

  12. Role of PACAP in Female Fertility and Reproduction at Gonadal Level – Recent Advances

    DoraReglodi; LauraWelke; MiklosKoppan

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. T...

  13. [Effects of applying controlled release fertilizers on N2O emission from a lateritic red soil].

    Du, Ya-qin; Zheng, Li-xing; Fan, Xiao-lin

    2011-09-01

    Static closed chamber technique and contrast method were adopted to study the effects of three coated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 19:8.6:10.5, high N; 14.4:14.4:14.4, balanced NPK; and 12.5:9.6:20.2, high K) on the NO2O emission from a lateritic red soil under the condition of no crop planting, taking uncoated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 20:9:11, high N; 15:15:15, balanced NPK; and 13:10:21, high K) as the contrasts. Different formula of fertilizer NPK induced significant difference in the N2O emission. Under the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, the cumulative N2O emission was in the order of balanced NPK > or = high N > high K. Applying coated compound fertilizers decreased the N2O emission significantly, and the emission amount under the application of high N, balanced NPK, and high K was 34.4%, 30.5%, and 89.3% of the corresponding uncoated compound fertilizers, respectively. Comparing with the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, applying coated compound fertilizers also decreased the daily N2O flux significantly, and delayed and shortened the N2O peak, suggesting that coated fertilizers could reduce soil nitrogen loss and the global warming potential induced by N2O emission. PMID:22126050

  14. Determining optimum fertilizer rates for cotton in Northern Ghana

    The soils of the major cotton growing zones in Northern Ghana are characterised by low levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sometimes potassium (K). The response of cotton to NPK fertilizer was studied at Nyankpala and Wa in 1991, 1993 and 1994 to determine economic rates for cultivation of the crop. Cotton responded to N, P and K except for K at both locations in 1991 where K was applied alone. The 1993 and 1994 response data at Nyanpkala and Wa were fitted with second order regression functions to generate response curves for the various nutrient elements. The economic optimum for each element was determined from a combination of the first differential of the quadratic functions and the price ratios of cotton and fertilizer materials. At Nyanpkala, the economic optimum across years for N, P and K were 53, 30 and 30 kg ha-1, respectively. The respective values at Wa were 73, 38 and 37 kg ha-1 NPK. Further multilocational on-farm testing is required to establish reliable response curves and economic optimum for each element (au)

  15. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    Wang, Shao-Xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC conte...

  16. Irrigation timing and fertilizer rate in peppers

    Excessive rain fall might leach nutrients from the soil or cause producers to not supply irrigation to pepper (Capsicum sp.). Fertilizer at 150 or 300 lb/acre of triple 17 NPK, the lower rate is the recommended rate, was supplied to either bell, cv. Jupiter, or non-pungent jalapeno, cv. Pace 105, pe...

  17. Fertilization optimization in the case of the Luiza potato variety through the refinement of the romanian chemical fertilizers in the Tg. Secuiesc Depression (Romania

    Anca BACIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Profitable potato cultures cannot be developed without chemical and/or organic fertilization. The fertilization must assure the best possible valorization of the intensive varieties’ production potential under the ecological conditions existing in the cultivation region.The experiments took place at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Tg. Secuiesc in the period 2005-2007.Our research proposed this approach to the aspects of potato fertilization in the case of the Luiza variety, created at the PotatoResearch and Cultivation Station Tg. Secuiesc.To achieve a higher production level, 7 levels of fertilization and 3 types of fertilizers were studied, representing NPK rates of 1:0:0 (ammonium nitrate, 1:1:0 (Complex 20:20:0, respectively 1:1:1 (Complex 15:15:15.The highest and most stable productions are achieved by adding nitrogen in doses of 150-200 kg active substance / ha, and the presence of phosphorus and potassium up to these levels provides a maximum production at the application of the binary fertilizer, Complex 20:20:0, as well as at the application of the fertilizer Complex 15:15:15.

  18. Fertilization optimization in the case of the Productiv potato variety through the refinement of the romanian chemical fertilizers in the Targu Secuiesc depression

    Zsuzsanna NEMES

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Profitable potato cultures cannot be developed without chemical and/or organic fertilization. The fertilization must assure the best possible valorization of the intensive varieties’ production potential under the ecological conditions existing in the cultivation region. The experiments took place at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Targu Secuiesc in the period 2005-2007. Our research proposed this approach to the aspects of potato fertilization in the case of the Productiv variety, created at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Targu Secuiesc. To achieve a higher production level, 7 levels of fertilization and 3 types of fertilizers were studied, representing N:P:K rates of 1:0:0 (ammonium nitrate, 1:1:0 (Complex 20:20:0, respectively 1:1:1 (Complex 15:15:15. The highest and most stable productions are achieved by adding nitrogen in doses of 150-200 kg active substance / ha, and the presence of phosphorus and potassium up to these levels provides a maximum production at the application of the binary fertilizer, Complex 20:20:0, as well as at the application of the fertilizer Complex 15:15:15.

  19. Analysis of some factors affecting fertility levels in a high-producing dairy herd in south-western Japan

    Yusuf, Muhammad; Nakao, Toshihiko; Long, Su Thanh; Gautam, Gokarna

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to know whether all cows have been showing declining fertility or only a proportion of cows are attributed to the declining fertility, and to describe factors affecting the level of fertility. A total of 131 cows calved from February 2005 to December 2007 in a dairy herd were examined. Fourteen cows were excluded from the study because of early culling. Of the remaining 117 cows, 47 (40%) conceived within 115 days postpartum after 1???3 artificial inseminat...

  20. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral. The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK

  1. 12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland

    Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

  2. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  3. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m2) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM.

  4. Soil pollution state as affected by different soil fertility regulation measures

    The content of 14 chemical elements was measured in the soil of ten long-term field trials located in different climatic zones of Lithuania. Soil samples were taken from the control (untreated) and anthropogenic (fertilized with mineral NPK and/or organic fertilizers, limed) treatment plots. The samples were analyzed by the AAS method and directly analyzed with X-rays upon fine grinding (for Sr). In the western zone of Lithuania the anthropogenic impact (liming with fertilizing) resulted in statistically significant increase in the content of 4 elements (B, Ni, Sr, Zn). In the eastern zone 3 elements (Cu, Co, Sr) showed significant differences. Soil contamination index was exceeded significantly (up to 2 versus the background levels) only for Sr (2.14 times) in the western zone

  5. Investigation of high level of AsAb, EmAb in fertility female serum infected by chlamydia trachomatis

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of chlamydia trachomatis. AsAb, EmAb in female fertility. Methods: LPS antigen of chlamydia in reproduction tract of fertility female was detected by monoclonal antibody and immunology chromatography; the content of AsAb, EmAb in serum of fertility female was detected by ELISA. Results: Infections rate of chlamydia trachomatis in fertility female was higher than that in the control AsAb, EmAb in serum of the fertility patients who were infected with chlamydia trachomatis showed a significant difference from that in the control group. Conclusion: The level of AsAb, EmAb increases in patients who have been infected with chlamydia trachomatis and these cytokines is involved in the course of female fertility

  6. Response Of Sesame To Gamma Irradiation And Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels On Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils

    The present study was conducted in an Extension field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate during 2009 and 2010 seasons to investigate the influence of four gamma-irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) and five N fertilizer levels (zero, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Kg N/fad.), on yield and it's attributes of sesame cultivar Giza 32. Gamma irradiation doses were arranged randomly in the main plots, while the five N fertilizer levels were assigned to the sub-plots. Decreasing gamma irradiation doses from 30 to 20 and 10 Gy, consistently and significantly increased plant height (cm), height to the first fruiting branch (cm), fruiting zone length (cm), number of branches and capsules/plant, 1000-seeds weight (g), seed weight(g /capsule), seed weight(g /plant), seed yield (kg/fad.) seed oil content (%) as well as oil yield (kg/fad.). Increasing N fertilizer level up 100 Kg/fad., significantly increased plant height (cm), height to the first fruiting branch (cm) fruiting zone length (cm), number of branches and capsules/plant. 1000-seeds weight (g), seed weight (g/capsule), seed weight/ plant (g), seed yield (kg/fad.) and oil yield (kg/fad.)

  7. An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey

    In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

  8. Effects of Long Term Application of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Soil Organic Carbon and Physical Properties in Maize–Wheat Rotation

    Babbu Singh Brar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Balanced and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers may enhance the accumulation of soil organic matter and improves soil physical properties. A field experiment having randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted for 36 years at Punjab Agricultural University (PAU, Ludhiana, India to assess the effects of inorganic fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM on soil organic carbon (SOC, soil physical properties and crop yields in a maize (Zea mays–wheat (Triticum aestivum rotation. Soil fertility management treatments included were non-treated control, 100% N, 50% NPK, 100% NP, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + Zn, 100% NPK + W, 100% NPK (-S and 100% NPK + FYM. Soil pH, bulk density (BD, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity, aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD and infiltration were measured 36 years after the initiation of experiment. Cumulative infiltration, infiltration rate and aggregate MWD were greater with integrated use of FYM along with 100% NPK compared to non-treated control. No significant differences were obtained among fertilizer treatments for BD and EC. The SOC pool was the lowest in control at 7.3 Mg ha−1 and increased to 11.6 Mg ha−1 with 100%NPK+FYM. Improved soil physical conditions and increase in SOC resulted in higher maize and wheat yields. Infiltration rate, aggregate MWD and crop yields were positively correlated with SOC. Continuous cropping and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased soil C sequestration and crop yields. Balanced application of NPK fertilizers with FYM was best option for higher crop yields in maize–wheat rotation.

  9. Paddy Soil Stability and Mechanical Properties as Affected by Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Manure in Subtropical China

    2007-01-01

    Wet stability, penetration resistance (PR), and tensile strength (TS) of paddy soils under a fertilization experiment for 22 years were determined to elucidate the function of soil organic matter in paddy soil stabilization. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), normal chemical fertilization (NPK), double the NPK application rates (2NPK), and NPK mixed with organic manure (NPK+OM). Compared with CK, fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil porosity. The results of soil aggregate fragmentation degree (SAFD) showed that fast wetting by water was the key fragmentation mechanism. Among the treatments, the NPK+OM treatment had the largest size of water-stable aggregates and greatest normal mean weight diameter (NMWD) (P ≤ 0.05), but the lowest PR and TS in both cultivated horizon (Ap) and plow pan. The CK and 2NPK treatments were measured with PR > 2.0 MPa and friability index < 0.20,respectively, in the Ap horizon, suggesting that the soils was mechanically unfavourable to root growth and tillage. In the plow pan, the fertilization treatments had greater TS and PR than in CK. TS and PR of the tested soil aggregates were negatively correlated to SOC content and soil porosity. This study suggested that chemical fertilization could cause deterioration of mechanical properties while application of organic manure could improve soil stability and mechanical properties.

  10. Analysis Of Soil NPK Ph And Electrical Conductivity At Adham Area- Renk Upper Nile State

    Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to investigate soil type potentiality and reaction in relation to the scattered remaining vegetation species and to quantify soil suitability for growing field crops. Adham area witnessed serious land degradation due to the rapid expansion of Rain-fed Mechanized Farming and overgrazing. Consequently the low crop yield enforced the local communities to shift to the alternative sources of income generating activities particularly those related to forest products like charcoal making firewood production logging and tree lobbing. By using Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD with emphasizes on Macro nutrients particularly the Nitrogen Phosphorous and potassium NPK in addition to soil pH and Electrical Conductivity EC. random soil samples each with three levels of depths 0 - 15 15 - 30 30 - 45 cm. were collected. All collected data were analyzed in the laboratory. The result of revealed several types of soils including the cracking and non -cracking clay sandy and red soils. The result of statistical analysis depicted variability in NPK pH and EC between the different locations and soil depths. Furthermore the result showed an association between some studied soil attributes and the spatial distribution of the vegetation species. Rational use through participatory approach is recommended for natural resources management conservation and sustainability. Moreover further study using space technology also recommended.

  11. Evaluation of some lupin mutants under different irrigation intervals and nitrogen fertilizer levels

    This investigation was carried out during the two seasons of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 at the experimental farm belonging to the plant research department, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority in Inshas to evaluate four lupin mutant lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4) along with their original mother varieties giza 1 and giza 2 under different levels and nitrogen fertilizer levels. The results indicated that seed yield/ plant and its effective components number and weight of pods/plant were significantly higher in all the mutant lines as compared to their parents either in the first or second seasons. Concerning the effect of irrigation intervals on yield and its components for developed mutants and their mother varieties as well as the results gave an evidence that the wider interval showed the lesser values for yield and most of yield components. Obtained data also revealed that yield attributes of lupin mutants and their parents were affected by applying nitrogen fertilizer. However, the application of 20 or 40 kg N/fad. Mostly increased yield and yield components of the different genotypes for both growing seasons. The third interaction of genotypes x irrigation x N fertilizer was significant for all studied characters in the two growing seasons

  12. Natural radioactivity in phosphate rock, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers in Brazil

    Phosphate deposits are generally characterized by enhanced radionuclide concentrations compared to natural levels. The mining and processing of this phosphate ore redistribute radionuclides throughout the environment and introduce them into phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), NPK fertilizers and di-calcium phosphate (DCP). Contents of natural radionuclides from thorium and uranium series, 226Ra, 210Pb and 228Ra, were measured in Brazilian igneous phosphate rock, phosphoric acid, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizer samples, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of U and Th in the same samples. The fertilizers samples which are derived directly from phosphoric acid, MAP and DAP, presented activity concentrations around the detection limits of the counting system for 226Ra (-1), for 228Ra (-1) and for 210Pb (-1). As for U and Th, the concentrations found in MAP and DAP are more significant, up to 374 and 250 Bq x kg-1, respectively. SSP, TSP and NPK, which are obtained by mixing phosphoric acid with different amounts of phosphate rock and NH3, presented higher concentrations of radionuclides, up to 871 Bq x kg-1 for 226Ra, 283 Bq x kg-1 for 228Ra, 1255 Bq x kg-1 for 210Pb, 413 Bq x kg-1 for U and 538 Bq x kg-1 for Th. (author)

  13. BIOMASS AND WOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Sclerolobium paniculatum IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Iuri da Rocha Marmo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work studied the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics ofSclerolobium paniculatum Vogel var. subvelutinum wood of a plantation of 18 years old, under different levels of soil fertilization. Theinfluences of fertilization in the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics showed no significantresults. The results showed an average production of biomass per hectare of 92.55t. The results disclose that the cultivated carvoeiro,with 18 years old, have fibers with 14.03mm of diameter; 3.41mm of thickness and 708mm length; basic specific gravity of 0.52g/cm3;83.84% of volatile material; 15.65% of fixed carbon; calorific power of 4,671kcal/kg.

  14. Effects of Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Jatropha curcas L. in an Aeric Tropaquept of Eastern India

    Sagar MOHAPATRA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Jatropha curcas L. has emerged as a biofuel crop attracting considerable interest of the researchers. The seeds of the plant yield non-edible oil with properties that are well suited for production of biodiesel. However it is still considered a semi-wild plant and systematic crop improvement programmes need to be undertaken to exploit its full yield potential. The present study deals with agronomic trials pertaining to optimum requirements of N:P:K fertilizers for better economic returns. Field experiments were conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the research farm of IMMT, Bhubaneswar, India (20�40� North and 85�50� East to evaluate the effect of N:P:K fertilizers on the yield attributing characters of Jatropha. Five-year-old standing crop plantation was treated with two levels of N (60 and 50 g/plant, P (80 and 100 g/plant and K (75 and 60 g/plant, either alone or in combination. Analysis of the results revealed significant differences in growth as well as yield characteristics due to application of inorganic fertilizers. While maximum seed yield (427.21 kg/ha was recorded in N60 treatment, the seed oil content varied significantly from 32.00% to 35.69% under various regimes of N:P:K applications. Treatment with N50P100K60 and N60 resulted in consistent higher yield of seed oil. Based on the results of growth and yield attributes, application of N fertilizer proved to be beneficial for Jatropha under tropical agroclimatic conditions in an Aeric Tropaquept of eastern India.

  15. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  16. Effect of levels P and K fertilizer on growth and yield of oil palm

    Tongkum, P.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Nilnond, C.; Eksomtramage, T.; Sangkaew, S.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of P and K levels on growth and yield of oil palm were studied at the Agricultural and Technology College Plantation in Trang province in October, 1993 using eight-year-old palms planted on the Natham soil series (fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults) at the spacing of 8.5 x 8.5 x 8.5 m. A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The four treatments consisted of the combinations of two fertilizers: P (2 levels; 0.4,...

  17. Fertilization Management for Improving Quality Properties of Spring Wheat in Northeast China

    LIU Xiao-bing; ZHANG Qiu-ying; JIN Jian; WANG Guang-hua; S J Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Fertilization management to improve quality properties of spring wheat cultivars has received little research attention in Northeast China. In this study, the effects of different fertilization management regimes on the quality properties of spring wheat cultivar New Kehan 9 (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated for two years. The results showed that fertilization consistently increased wheat yield, and the highest yield was obtained with addition of N, P and NPK fertilizers. The NPK treatment resulted in 50% more yield than the unfertilized plot. The average increases in protein content from NPK and NP at seeding + N at anthesis over no fertilization and NP fertilizers at seeding were 2.7% and 0.90% respectively. The highest protein yields were achieved in NPK and NPK + N treatments, and the lowest protein yield was observed in the no fertilizer treatment due to both low protein content and grain yield. Fertilization increased gliadins content, but decreased glutenins content, thus the gliadins/glutenins ratios were higher in the fertilization treatments. The most obvious effect of fertilization on kernel quality was the significant increase of hardness percentage. Although the dough rheological properties were not strongly changed by fertilization, dry gluten and wet gluten were significantly increased, and the highest bread volume and bread score were found in the NPK treatment in both years. The application of 3% urea at anthesis, or applying 45 kg ha-1 of potassium sulphate at seeding, with urea and diammonium phosphate as basal applications, significantly increased protein yield and improved quality properties of this wheat cultivar.

  18. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K and magnesium (Mg sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1: two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis, applied based on its nitrogen (N content and the N requirement for the crop and an additional treatment with NPK. The castor bean grain yield fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from conventional fertilization, with the maximum value achieved at a dose of 7.5 t ha-1 of sewage sludge. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased zinc and copper levels in the soil to values close to or higher than those in conventional fertilization, without any influence on the concentrations in the leaf. Fertilization with K and Mg sulphate increased the levels of these cations in the soil without affecting the concentrations in the leaves. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased the contents of organic matter, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and boron in the soil, and manganese and boron in castor bean leaves.

  19. County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Commercial Fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987-2006

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer, for both farm and nonfarm uses, for the conterminous United States, for...

  20. MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE

    Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM + NPK amendments showed lower accumulation of heavy metals and higher yield. Plants grown in NPK and N amended soil showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and lower yield compared to the control. Higher uptake of heavy metals in plants under NPK and N amendments, led to increase in the antioxidants enzymes, but reductions in photosynthesis rate, growth and yield. The results suggest that the application of FYM alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers may be recommended as cost effective technique for reducing the availability of heavy metals in waste water irrigated soil.

  1. Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia

    Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida. The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose recorded the highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes such as number of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plot, flower yield/plant, flower yield/plot. The early flower bud initiation, 50 percent flowering and more flowering duration was achieved in the treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose. Application of Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose registered significantly higher quality parameters such as flower diameter.

  2. Effect of Fertilization on Soil Fertility and Nutrient Use Efficiency at Potatoes

    Neshev, Nesho; Manolov, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The effect of fertilization on soil fertility, yields and nutrient use efficiency of potatoes grown under field experimental conditions was studied. The trail was conducted on shallow brown forest soil (Cambisols-coarse) during the vegetation periods of 2013 to 2015. The variants of the experiment were: control, N140; P80; K100; N140P80; N140K100; P80K100; N140P80K100; N140P80K100Mg33. The applied fertilization slightly decreased soil's pH after the harvest of potatoes compared to the soil pH their planting. Decreasing of pH was more severe at variant N (from 5,80 to 4,19 in 2014). The mineral nitrogen content in the soil after the harvest of potatoes was lower for the variants P, K and PK. The positive effect of fertilization on soil fertility after the end of the trails was more pronounced at variants NPK and NPKMg. The content of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium forms for these variants was the highest for each year. The highest content of mineral nitrogen was observed in 2013 (252,5 and 351,1 mg/1000g, respectively for variants NPK and NPKMg). It was due to extremely dry weather conditions during the vegetation in this year. Soil content of mineral N for the next two years was lower. The same tendency was observed for phosphorus and potassium was observed. In 2013 the P2O5 and K2O content in soil was the highest for the variants with full mineral fertilization - NPK (64,4 and 97,6 mg 100g-1 respectively for P2O5 and K2O) and NPKMg (65,2 and 88,0 mg 100g-1 respectively for P2O5 and K2O). The highest yields were recorded at variants NPK and NPKMg - 24,21 and 22,01 t ha-1, average for the studied period. The yield of variant NPK was 25 % higher than the yield from variant NP and 68 % higher than control. The partial factor productivity (PFPN, PFPP and PFPK) of the applied fertilizers was the highest at variant NPK. The PFPN (80,10 kg kg-1) for the yields of variant N was 57 % lower than the PFPN at variant NPK (180,36 kg kg-1). The PFPP and PFPK at

  3. Effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on sweet corn (Zea maYs L.)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on emergence m/sup -2/ growth and grain yield of sweet corn. The fertilizer and interaction of fertilizer x seed density had significant negative effect with increasing level while seed density had a positive effect with increased density on emergence per m/sup 2/. Increased seed density significantly reduced plant growth which increased with application of higher fertilizer dose. The grain yield was improves by ridge planting methods, increased seed density and increased fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (3,553.50 kg ha/sup-1/) of sweet corn plants was recorded in ridge planting method with highest NP fertilizer level of 300:150 kg ha/sup 1/ and 4 seeds hill/sup -1/. The lowest grain yield (3,493.75 kg ha/sup -1/) of sweet corn was observed in flat sowing planting method with 120:75 NP level and 2 seeds hill/sup -1/ seed density. The ridge planting rank first then furrow and flat planting methods on basis of grain yield per hectare. The sweet corn plant yield was high with 4 seeds hill/sup -1/ compared with 2 seeds hill/sup -1/. (author)

  4. Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times.

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in a rice-wheat cropping system subjected to different fertilizer regimes were investigated in two seasons (June and October. All fertilizer regimes increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Both fertilizer regime and time had a significant effect on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure. The combined application of inorganic fertilizer and manure organic-inorganic fertilizer significantly enhanced the bacterial diversity in both seasons. The bacterial communities across all samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi at the phylum level. Permutational multivariate analysis confirmed that both fertilizer treatment and season were significant factors in the variation of the composition of the bacterial community. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances further revealed that bacterial communities were separated primarily by season. The effect of fertilizer treatment is significant (P = 0.005 and accounts for 7.43% of the total variation in bacterial community. Soil nutrients (e.g., available K, total N, total P and organic matter rather than pH showed significant correlation with the majority of abundant taxa. In conclusion, both fertilizer treatment and seasonal changes affect soil properties, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. The application of NPK plus manure organic-inorganic fertilizer may be a sound fertilizer practice for sustainable food production.

  5. Quantitative and compositional responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term field fertilization

    Xue, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia-oxidizer responses to long-term field fertilization in a Mollisol soil were assessed through pyrosequencing of amoA genes. Long-term fertilization treatments including chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), and no fertilization over 23 years altered soil properties resulting in significant shifts in AOA and AOB community composition and abundance. NPK exhibited a strong influence on AOA and AOB composition while the addition of manure neutralized the community change induced by NPK. NPK also led to significant soil acidification and enrichment of Nitrosotalea. Nitrosospira cluster 9 and 3c were the most abundant AOB populations with opposing responses to fertilization treatments. NPKM had the largest abundance of ammonia-oxidizers and highest potential nitrification activity (PNA), suggesting high N loss potential due to a doubling of nutrient input compared to NPK. PNA was strongly correlated to AOA and AOB community composition indicating that both were important in ammonium oxidization in this Mollisol soil. Total N and organic C were the most important factors driving shifts in AOA and AOB community composition. The AOA community was strongly correlated to the activities of all sugar hydrolysis associated soil enzymes and was more responsive to C and N input than AOB.

  6. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not

  7. Fertility and Mortality in North Africa: Levels, Trends and Future Prospects

    H.M. Yousif

    1995-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on substantive aspects of fertility and mortality, and their implications for future population trends in North Africa. There is convincing evidence that high fertility has been maintained for a considerable time and that a decline has begun in these countries. This decline is not uniformly the same in each country. Most of it is in urban areas, while fertility in rural areas is still high. Also, because of differences in desired fertility, use of contraceptive meth...

  8. Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

  9. EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON PLANT HEIGHT, SPREAD AND FLOWER DIAMETER OF GAILLARDIA (GAILLARDIA PULCHELLA

    B. V. Sowmyamala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on plant height, plant spread and flower diameter of Gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella. In Gaillardia the plant maximum height was recorded in the plot treated with 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 tones ha-1 followed by 75 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 at 45 days and 75 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 5 tones ha-1 at 15, 30 and 60 days. Highest plant spread was obtained at 30 and 45 days after planting in the treatments which involved 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 and at 60 days no significant differences were recorded. The combination of recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 produced maximum diameter of flower.

  10. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    M. J. Fernández-Sanjurjo; E. Alvarez-Rodríguez; Núñez-Delgado, A.; M. L. Fernández-Marcos; A. Romar-Gasalla

    2014-01-01

    We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the ...

  11. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  12. Effect of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities within aggregates.

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoke; Mahamood, Md; Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0-20 cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25-1 mm) and microaggregates (fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions. PMID:27502433

  13. Effects of Different Water and Nitrogen Levels on the Yield and Periodicity of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

    ÜNLÜ, Mustafa; KANBER, Rıza

    2005-01-01

    The effects of 2 irrigation intervals (If1: 7 days and If2: 14 days), 4 nitrogen doses (Ng, N0, N1, N2 and N3) and 2 crop coefficients (Kpc1: 0.60 and Kpc2: 0.90) on pistachio nut fertigation were studied to establish suitable irrigation and fertigation scheduling. The nitrogen levels were 0, 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1. In the traditional treatment, Ng, each tree received 500/600/400 g of NPK fertilizer at the beginning of February. Other fertilizer doses were applied in the irrigation water throug...

  14. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987–2006

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintained—the periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also

  15. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence.

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-09-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro-macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings--which remains to be proven by future research--is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  16. Testing the Fertilizer Effect of Compost Produced by Anaerobic Fermentation of Sewage Sludge

    Benoni Lixandru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The compost tested in this study resulted from the anaerobic fermentation process of sewage sludge with cereal straw. Processing and post-treatment were made by Biotechnological Research Centre within INCD ECOIND from Bucharest. Experimental program included testing the effect of fertilizer in quantities of 25 t, 50 t and 100 t compost / ha on the production of soya beans. It was also investigated the influence of the combination of fertilization with compost and inorganic fertilization with levels of 200 kg, respectively, 400 kg NPK / ha. Was analyzed the following productivity indicators: plant density, number of floors of pods, number and weight of pods and total beans production, in full ripening stage. In the case of fertilization only with composted sludge, production of peas and beans was higher in variants with 50 t / ha and 100 t / ha (2095 kg and 1990 kg grain / ha. Therefore, doubling the amount of compost does not provide corresponding increase yields of soybeans. Combining organic and inorganic fertilization determine a proportional production increase only for the total biomass production. The tested compost is a good organic fertilizer and the amount that provides the greatest soybeans production is 50 t / ha.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhances P acquisition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a sandy loam soil with long-term inorganic fertilization regime.

    Hu, Junli; Lin, Xiangui; Wang, Junhua; Cui, Xiangchao; Dai, Jue; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2010-10-01

    The P efficiency, crop yield, and response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledonium were tested in an experimental field with long-term (19 years) fertilizer management. The experiment included five fertilizer treatments: organic amendment (OA), half organic amendment plus half mineral fertilizer (1/2 OM), mineral fertilizer NPK, mineral fertilizer NK, and the control (without fertilization). AMF inoculation responsiveness (MIR) of wheat plants at acquiring P were estimated by comparing plants grown in unsterilized soil inoculated with G. caledonium and in untreated soil containing indigenous AMF. Without AMF inoculation, higher crop yields but lower colonization rates were observed in the NPK and two OA-inputted treatments, and NPK had significantly (P amendments by improving P-acquisition efficiency in arable soils. PMID:20683717

  18. Dynamics of clay mineralogy with profile depth in relation to long term potassium fertilizer application to sugar cane crop

    The experiment consisted of treatment of sugar cane crop with N, NP, NPK and farmyard manure and determination of its effect on soil mica, vermiculite and montmorillonite over a period of 18 years. The NPK treatment had greater mica in coarse clay, but less in fine clay than NP and control treatments. Vermiculite in coarse clay fraction, in NPK treatment, increased with the depth as compared to other treatments. The fertilizer treatment effect on smectite content was obvious only in AP horizon in fine clay fraction. (author)

  19. Effects of decaying leaf litter and inorganic fertilizer on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.

    Chukwuka Kanayo S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of decaying leaf litter of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina as organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a screen house. Twenty-four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which included: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1, 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2, 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic fertilizer (T3, a mixture of 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T4, a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T5 and control (T6. The significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize seedlings, and this was closely followed by T4 treated seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as an organic fertilizer in maize production in a screen house conditions did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.

  20. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P decomposition rate of SOC. The aromaticity, hydrophobicity and, hence, chemical recalcitrance of silt- and clay-associated SOC in the NPK fertilizer treatments were lower than those of the organically amended plots and unfertilized treatments, indicating decreased recalcitrance of SOC against decomposition. We concluded that long-term application of organic manure combined with chemical fertilizers, either through increased accumulation of both recalcitrant compounds and carbohydrates or reduced decomposition of organic matter, was a sustainable strategy for facilitating carbon accumulation of the paddy soil investigated in this study. PMID:26314136

  1. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g−1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg−1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g−1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

  2. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  3. Alternate Nitrogen Amendments for Organic Fertilizers

    M. K. C. Sridhar; Adeoye, G. O.; O.O. AdeOluwa

    2001-01-01

    The use of compost or manure in agriculture as an organic source of nutrients is common in many tropical, developing countries like Nigeria. One of the drawbacks of such materials is their low nitrogen (N) content (=1% N). Farmers commonly use chemical N fertilizers such as urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and NPK formulations to obtain better crop growth and yield. These chemical supplements may have a negative impact on the environment through nitrate leaching into water, leading to eu...

  4. Production of annual winter forage sown before and after soybean harvest under different nitrogen fertilization levels

    Francisco Migliorini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect on forage yield of sowing winter forage species before and after soybean harvest, at different nitrogen application levels. The experiment was set out in a randomized block design with a strip-split plot arrangement, and three replicates. Sowing methods (18 days before soybean harvest and six days after soybean harvest were allocated in the main plots, and the combination among forage species (Avena strigosa cv. IAPAR 61 + Lolium multiflorum; A. strigosa cv. Comum + L. multiflorum; A. strigosa cv. Comum + L. multiflorum + Vicia villosa; A. strigosa cv. Comum + L. multiflorum + Raphanus sativus; and L. multiflorum and nitrogen levels (0, 140, 280 and 420 kg ha-1 in the plots and subplots, respectively. Forage sowing before the soybean harvest made it possible to anticipate first grazing by 14 days, with satisfactory establishment of forage species without affecting forage production. This method permitted a longer grazing period, preventing the need for soil disking, besides allowing the use of no-tillage system. The mixture of forage species enables higher forage yield for pasture in relation to single species pastures, with response to nitrogen fertilization up to 360 kg ha-1.

  5. Distinguishing nitrogen fertilization levels in field corn (Zea mays L.) with actively induced fluorescence and passive reflectance measurements

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is an active sensing technique capable of capturing immediate and specific indications of changes in plant physiology and metabolism as they relate to the concentration and photosynthetic activity of the plant pigments. Reflectance is a passive sensing technique that can capture differences in the concentration of the primary plant pigments. Fluorescence and reflectance were compared for their ability to measure levels of plant stress that are of agronomic importance in corn (Zea mays L.) crops. Laboratory LIF and reflectance spectra were made on excised leaves from field grown corn. Changes in the visible region of the spectrum were compared between groups of plants fertilized with seven different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. A pulsed nitrogen laser emitting photons at a wavelength of 337 nm was used as a fluorescence excitation source. Differences in maximum intensity of fluorescence occurred at 440 nm, 525 nm, 685 nm, and 740 nm. Significant separations were found between levels of N fertilization at several LIF wavelength ratios. Several reflectance algorithms also produced significant separations between certain levels of N fertilization

  6. Effect of Chemical Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Green Asparagus%化肥施用对绿芦笋产量和品质的影响

    翟海翔; 杨斌; 焦彩菊

    2011-01-01

    A field experience was conducted to study the effect of NPK fertilization on yield and quality of green asparagus. The result showed that the branches of green asparagus, weight of per branch and yield of green asparagus in NPK treatment had the maximum values among those five treatments. The branches of green asparagus and weight of per branches in treatment of PK, NK and NP were much lower than NPK at different level. The content of crude protein, soluble protein, soluble sugar and content of mineral element in NPK treatment were much higher than in the other treatments. We concluded that balanced nutrient applications could not only increased yield, but also improved quality of green asparagus.%在大田条件下,研究了不同氮磷钾肥对绿芦笋产量及品质的影响.结果表明,绿芦笋支数、单支质量以及总产量均以NPK处理最高;PK,NK以及NP处理的芦笋支数、单支质量均不同程度降低,最终导致减产.芦笋粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纤维、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖以及不同矿质元素含量均以NPK处理最高.可见,平衡的养分供给不仅可以提高绿芦笋产量,而且还可以有效改善芦笋的品质.

  7. New strategies for submicron characterization the carbon binding of reactive minerals in long-term contrasting fertilized soils: implications for soil carbon storage

    Xiao, Jian; He, Xinhua; Hao, Jialong; Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Lirong; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yu, Guanghui

    2016-06-01

    Mineral binding is a major mechanism for soil carbon (C) stabilization. However, the submicron information about the in situ mechanisms of different fertilization practices affecting organo-mineral complexes and associated C preservation remains unclear. Here, we applied nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) to examine differentiating effects of inorganic versus organic fertilization on interactions between highly reactive minerals and soil C preservation. To examine such interactions, soils and their extracted colloids were collected during a 24-year long-term fertilization period (1990-2014) (no fertilization, control; chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization, NPK; and NPK plus swine manure fertilization, NPKM). The results for different fertilization conditions showed a ranked soil organic matter concentration with NPKM > NPK > control. Meanwhile, oxalate-extracted Al (Alo), Fe (Feo), short-range ordered Al (Alxps), Fe (Fexps), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranked with NPKM > control > NPK, but the ratios of DOC / Alxps and DOC / Fexps ranked with NPKM > NPK > control. Compared with the NPK treatment, the NPKM treatment enhanced the C-binding loadings of Al and Fe minerals in soil colloids at the submicron scale. Furthermore, a greater concentration of highly reactive Al and Fe minerals was presented under NPKM than under NPK. Together, these submicron-scale findings suggest that both the reactive mineral species and their associations with C are differentially affected by 24-year long-term inorganic and organic fertilization.

  8. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 � 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  9. Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  10. Increasing Soil Organic Matter Enhances Inherent Soil Productivity while Offsetting Fertilization Effect under a Rice Cropping System

    Ya-Nan Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of soil organic matter (SOM in soil quality and subsequent crop yield and input requirements is useful for agricultural sustainability. SOM is widely considered to affect a wide range of soil properties, however, great uncertainty still remains in identifying the relationships between SOM and crop yield due to the difficulty in separating the effect of SOM from other yield-limiting factors. Based on 543 on-farm experiments, where paired treatments with and without NPK fertilizer were conducted during 2005–2009, we quantified the inherent soil productivity, fertilization effect, and their contribution to rice yield and further evaluated their relationships with SOM contents under a rice cropping system in the Sichuan Basin of China. The inherent soil productivity assessed by rice grain yield under no fertilization (Y-CK was 5.8 t/ha, on average, and contributed 70% to the 8.3 t/ha of rice yield under NPK fertilization (Y-NPK while the other 30% was from the fertilization effect (FE. No significant correlation between SOM content and Y-NPK was observed, however, SOM content positively related to Y-CK and its contribution to Y-NPK but negatively to FE and its contribution to Y-NPK, indicating an increased soil contribution but a decreased fertilizer contribution to rice yield with increasing SOM. There were significantly positive relationships between SOM and soil available N, P, and K, indicating the potential contribution of SOM to inherent soil productivity by supplying nutrients from mineralization. As a result, approaches for SOM accumulation are practical to improve the inherent soil productivity and thereafter maintain a high crop productivity with less dependence on chemical fertilizers, while fertilization recommendations need to be adjusted with the temporal and spatial SOM variation.

  11. Effect of Fertilizer Types on the Growth and Yield of Amaranthus caudatus in Ilorin, Southern Guinea, Savanna Zone of Nigeria

    Olowoake Adebayo Abayomi; Ojo James Adebayo

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin, to evaluate the effect of compost, organomineral, and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of Amaranthus caudatus as well as its residual effects. Amaranthus was grown with compost Grade B (unamended compost), organomineral fertilizer Grade A (compost amended with mineral fertilizer), and NPK 15-15-15 and no fertilizer (control). All the treatments except control were applied...

  12. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N2-fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  13. Melamine Impairs Female Fertility via Suppressing Protein Level of Juno in Mouse Eggs

    Dai, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Mianqun; Lu, Yajuan; Miao, Yilong; Zhou, Changyin; Sun, Shaochen; Xiong, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is an organic nitrogenous compound widely used as an industrial chemical, and it has been recently reported by us that melamine has a toxic effect on the female reproductive system in mice, and renders females subfertile; the molecular basis, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we explore the underlying mechanism regarding how melamine compromises fertility in the mouse. The data showed that melamine exposure significantly impaired the fertilization capab...

  14. The impact of technical change in agriculture on human fertility: district-level evidence from India

    Vosti, Stephen A.; Witcover, Julie; Lipton, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Green Revolution technologies were developed and promoted to boost food supplies and foster development, both of which were expected to create "breathing space" for achieving demographic transitions in developing countries through lowered human fertility. Little comprehensive research, however, has been done on the effects of those technologies themselves on human fertility leaving unanswered the question of whether particular types of agricultural technologies were actually increasing, or de...

  15. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in

  16. New complex fertilizer 'Suprodit' to obtain safe agricultural productions on contaminated lands.

    Nikolaevich Ratnikov, Alexander; Sergeevich Anisimov, Vyacheslav; Nikoaevna Anisimova, Lidiya; Georgievich Sviridenko, Dmitry; Jurievna Balanova, Olesya

    2015-04-01

    ). The Cd accumulation by barley grain in sod-podzolic soil, contaminated with Cd6, Zn600, Cu390 mg/kg, when applying "SUPRODIT" was 2.5 times less than after industrial fertilizers (NPK and nitrophoska) application; the accumulation of Zn - 1.5 and 1.9 times less; the accumulation of Cu - 1.6 and 1.5 times less in comparison with NPK and nitrophoska, respectively. Applying of "SUPRODIT" constrain the accumulation of 137Cs in barley grain 1.2-1.3 times more efficiently than NPK and nitrophoska. Use "SUPRODIT" in technologies of cultivation of fodder crops on contaminated land in the districts of the Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation allow us to get a feed corresponding to acceptable levels on the content of 137Cs at a density of contamination 500-920 kBq/m2, which ensures that the milk will fit to corresponding maximum permissible concentration.

  17. Role of phosphogypsum and NPK amendments on the retention or leaching of metals in different soils.

    Ammar, Rawaa; Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Kazpard, Véronique; Wazne, Mahmoud; El Samrani, Antoine G; Amacha, Nabil; Saad, Zeinab; Chou, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the effects of soil physicochemical characteristics on metal mobility in the subsurface. The metals investigated originated from disposed industrial waste byproducts and from agrochemicals spread over the farmlands. Soil column tests can provide insights into leaching of metals to underlying water compartments. The findings of this study can be used for prevention strategies and for setting risk assessment approaches to land-use and management, and soil and water quality and sustainability. Soils collected from an industrial (IS) watershed and an agricultural (AQ) hydrographic basin were used in soil column leaching experiments. The soil samples were characterized for mineralogy, functional groups, grain size, surface charge, soil type, porosity, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) along with elemental composition. Varying concentrations of phosphogypsum industrial waste or agrochemical (NPK fertilizer) was then added to the surface of the packed columns (n = 28). The columns were subjected to artificial rain over a period of 65 days. Leachates were collected and analyzed for dissolved Na(+), K(+), and Cd(2+) throughout the experimental period, whereas residual Cd content in the subsurface soil was measured at the end of the experiment. Physicochemical characterization indicated that the AQ soil has a higher potential for metal retention due to its fine clay texture, calcareous pH, high organic matter content and CEC. Metal release was more prominent in the IS soil indicating potential contamination of the surrounding soil and water compartments. The higher metal release is attributed to soil physicochemical characteristics. High calcium concentrations of phosphogypsum origin is expected to compete for adsorbed bivalent elements, such as Cd, resulting in their release. The physicochemical characteristics of the receiving media should be taken into consideration when planning land-use in order to achieve

  18. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels decline under hormonal suppression: a prospective analysis in fertile women after delivery

    Ortner Iris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AMH's reported stability during periods of hormonal change makes it a practical tool in assessing ovarian reserve. However, AMH declines with age and age-specific cut-offs remain to be established in women with proven fertility. This study aims to determine age-specific ranges of AMH in women with proven fertility. Methods Two hundred-ten fertile women, aged 18-40 years, were prospectively recruited for AMH measurements within 14 days after delivery and age stratified into 3 groups (18-30, 31-36 and 37-40 years. Eligibility required spontaneous conception within a maximal period of six months. Autoimmune diseases, chemotherapy, radiation, ovarian surgery and polycystic ovary syndrome precluded inclusion. Results 95% confidence intervals of AMH declined with advancing female age from 0.9-1.1 to 0.6-0.9 and 0.2-0.4 ng/mL (P Conclusions Like infertile populations, fertile women demonstrate declining AMH with advancing age. Uniformly lower levels than in infertile women suggest that AMH levels do not appear as stable under all hormonal influences as previously reported.

  19. Long-term effects of cropping systems and fertilization on crop production, soil characteristics and nitrogen cycling in the Guinean and Sudanian savannah zones of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    , continuous sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations decreased soil organic carbon. Only fallow-sorghum rotation maintained soil organic carbon, exchange acidity and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Manure applications increased soil organic carbon, total N and available P. Except for the fallow-sorghum rotation, other rotations increased aluminum saturation and decreased soil pH compared to original soil. Manure or dolomite applications decreased exchange acidity and maintained soil pH and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotation was the most efficient for the Guinea savannah zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer plus one t ha-1 of dolomite can be recommended for cotton and sorghum. Alternatively mineral PK fertilizer combined with 3 t ha-1 cattle manure can be applied to sorghum. Only mineral NPK fertilizer can be used on groundnut. In the Sudanian savannah zone, sorghum grain yields increased by 75 and 100% when sorghum was rotated with fallow or cowpea respectively, compared to mono cropping of sorghum. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cowpea-sorghum rotations supplied 17 and 90% more N to succeeding sorghum compared to the mono cropping system of sorghum. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 17% for the continuous sorghum to 22 and 26% for the cowpea-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, all cropping systems decreased soil organic carbon and increased aluminum saturation. All cropping systems decreased soil pH and increased aluminum saturation compared to original soil. Cowpea-sorghum rotation was the most efficient cropping system in the Sudanian zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer associated with one t ha-1 of dolomite or 3 t ha-1 of manure must be applied to sorghum. But only recommended mineral NPK fertilizer can be applied for cowpea. (author)

  20. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  1. Influence of chemical and organic fertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L. plant

    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out to study the response of Dracocephalum moldavica L. to NPK fertilizer and different application techniques of MOG organic fertilizer in two regions of Iran (Piranshahr with cold Mediterranean climate and clay loam soil,  Maragheh with cool sub-humid temperate climate and sandy loam  soil. MOG is bio-organic fertilizer with plant origin and contains different natural enzymes and amino acids. In current study following treatments have been applied: NPK (a complete NPK 20-20-20, 90 kg fertilizer ha-1; MOG1 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing stage; MOG2 (foliar application of MOG organic fertilizer at early stage of flowering; MOG3 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage; MOG4 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage with foliar application at early stage of flowering. Results indicated that all MOG treatments overcome the chemical fertilizers in both locations. However, plants grown in Piranshahr were more responsive to MOG fertilizer treatments than those grown in Mragheh. Overall, it could be concluded that utilization of MOG fertilizer as both soil and foliar application (MOG4 may increase content and yield of essential oil, which could be suggested as a suitable alternative for chemical fertilizers.

  2. Impact of fertilization and granular insecticides on the incidence of tobacco aphid, myzus persicae (sulz)

    Field studies were conducted on the control of tobacco aphid, Myzus persicase (Sulz) with four granular insecticides, viz, Furadan 3% G, Diazinon 5% g, Thiodan 5% g and Larsban 5% g, with and without NPK fertilization. The aphid population was significantly higher in the fertilized plots compared to the non-fertilized ones. All the four insecticides significantly reduced the aphids density compared to the check. Furada 3% gave best results for the control of this pest. (author)

  3. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    Helena Gorecka; Henryk Gorecki; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Marzanna Barańska; Izabela Michalak; Agnieszka Zielińska

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with s...

  4. Nutrients Release from a Novel Gel-Based Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    Ding, H.; Y. S. Zhang(GuangXi University, Nanning, P.R.China); Li, W H; Zheng, X. Z.; Wang, M. K.; Tang, L. N.; D.L. Chen

    2016-01-01

    A novel gel-based slow/controlled release fertilizer (G-CRF) was developed, which was produced by combining various natural, seminatural, and/or synthetic organic macromolecule materials and natural inorganic mineral with conventional NPK fertilizers. Its nutrient release characteristics were studied to compare with conventional fertilizers through the soil column leaching method. The influences of soil factors, including temperature, pH, water, and nutrient contents in the G-CRF on nutrient ...

  5. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

    Rebecca Albright

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C and pCO2 (+400 µatm projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2 and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential.

  6. High levels of inorganic nutrients affect fertilization kinetics, early development and settlement of the scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta

    Lam, E. K. Y.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Kwok, C. K.; Ip, A. H. P.; Chan, S. W.; Leung, H. N.; Yeung, L. C.; Ang, P. O.

    2015-09-01

    Dose-response experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ammonia nitrogen (NH3/NH4 +) and orthophosphate (PO4 3-) on four stages of larval development in Platygyra acuta, including fertilization, embryonic development and the survival, motility, and settlement of planula larvae. Fertilization success was reduced significantly under 200 μM NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. These high doses of NH3/NH4 + and PO4 - affected egg viability (or sperm viability and polyspermic block simultaneously) and polyspermic block, respectively. These results provide the first evidence to indicate the mechanisms of how inorganic nutrients might affect coral fertilization processes. For embryonic development, NH3/NH4 + at 25-200 μM caused delay in cell division after 2-h exposure and NH3/NH4 + at 100-200 μM resulted in larval death after 72 h. However, no significant differences were observed in the mobility and survivorship of either planula or competent larvae under different levels of NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. There was a significant (~30 %) drop in the settlement of competent larvae under the combined effect of 100 μM NH3/NH4 + and PO4 3-. The effects of elevated nutrients appeared to become more significant only on gametes or larvae undergoing active cellular activities at fertilization, early development, and settlement.

  7. Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans

    Gorzelany J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force causing bean damage and bean deformation up to crack.

  8. TEORES DE METAIS TÓXICOS NAS FOLHAS DE PLANTAS DE MILHO FERTILIZADAS COM LODO DE CURTUME LEVELS OF TOXIC METALS IN THE LEAVES OF MAIZE FERTILIZED WITH TANNING RESIDUE

    Rosana Gonçalves Barros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Nesta pesquisa foram avaliados os teores dos metais tóxicos Cr, Cd, Ni e Pb, nos tecidos foliares, e a produção de fitomassa verde da parte aérea em milho. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de solo (Latossolo Vermelho, fertilizadas com lodo de curtume nas doses: zero (testemunha, 113,1 mL (36 m3.ha-1, 226,2 mL (72 m3.ha-1, 452,4 mL (144 m3.ha-1 e 904,8 mL (288 m3.ha-1 por vaso, apenas com adubo químico, e com o adubo associado ao lodo de curtume. Os sete tratamentos foram aplicados em quatro repetições, sob condições de estufa, no período de agosto a novembro de 2003, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. O lodo de curtume foi incorporado ao solo vinte dias antes da semeadura e o adubo químico NPK 4-30-16 + Zn (1,256 g por vaso, ou 400 kg.ha-1 foi adicionado na operação de semeadura do milho híbrido BR 205. Os teores médios dos metais tóxicos Cr, Cd, Ni e Pb, obtidos nas folhas das plantas, aos cinqüenta dias após a emergência, estiveram dentro dos limites toleráveis nestes tecidos. Os maiores teores de Cr (0,147 mg.dm-3 foram observados nos tratamentos com as maiores doses do lodo de curtume. Houve incremento da fitomassa verde da parte aérea das plantas com o aumento das doses do lodo. A adição do lodo de curtume no substrato, em diferentes doses, como fonte de nutrientes para plantas de milho, apresentou resultados agronômicos promissores.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Nutrição de plantas; metais tóxicos; resíduo industrial; fitomassa.

    In this study, were measured levels of the toxic metals Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in leaf tissues, as well as the green matter yield of the aerial part of maize plants. The plants were grown in pots with a soil substrate (Oxisol, fertilized with tanning

  9. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira; Ailton T. Vale; José Teodoro de Melo

    2010-01-01

    The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or...

  10. Social class and net fertility before, during, and after the demographic transition: A micro-level analysis of Sweden 1880-1970

    Martin Dribe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although demographers have long been interested in studying the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns. Identifying these patterns could help us to better understand the mechanisms behind the transition. Objective: The aim of this paper is to explore social class differentials in fertility before, during, and after the fertility decline, in order to test hypotheses regarding a reversal of class differences during the transition. Methods: We use micro-level census data for Sweden 1880, 1890, 1900, 1960, and 1970 with individual-level information on occupation, which is used to measure class. Poisson regressions with parish-level fixed effects enable us to carefully control spatial heterogeneity in measuring class differences in net fertility (child-woman ratios. Results: The relative differences were about as large in the early phases of the transition as they were in the 1960s. The fertility levels of the high-fertility classes were about 40Š higher than those of the low-fertility classes. In the early phases of the decline, the upper and middle classes had much lower net fertility than lower skilled workers, who had the highest fertility levels. However, there was no clear gradient from the highest to the lowest socioeconomic status. Instead, it appears that the upper and middle classes had low fertility levels, while the fertility levels of the remaining groups were unchanged, and therefore remained relatively high. In the 1960s, members of the middle class had the lowest fertility levels, while farmers and rural laborers had the highest fertility levels. Conclusions: The results only partly confirm the assumption that there was a reversal in class differences in the demographic transition. Class was found to be important, but the pattern was not characterized by a simple gradient. Moreover, spatial heterogeneity was shown to explain about half of the observed differences

  11. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  12. Activity and Composition of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in an Aquic Brown Soil as Influenced by Land Use and Fertilization

    YU Wan-Tai; XU Yong-Gang; BI Ming-Li; MA Qiang; ZHOU Hua

    2010-01-01

    The effects of long-term(19 years)different land use and fertilization on activity and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria(AOB)in an aquic brown soil were investigated in a field experiment in Liaoning Province,China.The 19-year experiment conducted from 1990 to 2008 involved seven treatments designed: cropping rotation of soybean-corn-corn with no fertilizer(control,CK),recycled manure(RM),fertilizer nitrogen(N),phosphorous(P)and potassium(K)(NPK),NPK+RM,and no-crop bare land,mowed fallow,and non-mowed fallow.The results showed that the potential nitrification rates of the RM,NPK+RM,mowed fallow,and non-mowed fallow treatments were significantly higher(P < 0.05)than those of the CK and NPK treatments,indicating that the long-term applications of recycled manure and return of plant residues both significantly increased the activity of AOB.Although the application of NPK did not enhance soil potential nitrification because of decreased pH,available K had an important effect on potential nitrification.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE)fingerprint profiles showed that no-crop treatments had an increase in the diversity of the AOB community compared to the CK,RM,and NPK treatments,implying that agricultural practices,especially tillage,had an adverse effect on the soil AOB community.The NPK+RM treatment had the most diverse DGGE patterns possibly because of the increased available P in this treatment.A phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the DGGE bands derived belonged to Nitrosoxpira cluster 3,not Nitrosospira cluster 2.These demonstrated that different land use and fertilization significantly influenced the activity and composition of the AOB community by altering the soil properties,mainly including pH,total C,available K,and available P.

  13. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens)=Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Christina da Silva Wanderley; Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL) on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control), T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fert...

  14. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Level on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics in Flag Leaf of Super Hybrid Rice at Late Growth Stage

    LONG Ji-rui; MA Guo-hui; WAN Yi-zheng; SONG Chun-fang; SUN Jian; QIN Rui-jun

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of slow-release nitrogen fertilizer at six different levels on the flag leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice,a field fertilization experiment was conducted with super hybrid rice Y Liangyou 1 as a test material.The photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR),effective quantum yield (EQY),photochemical quenching coefficient (qp),and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) of flag leaves were measured at the initial heading,full heading,10 d after full heading and 20 d after full heading stages.Results showed that the values of ETR,EQY and qp increased with rice development from initial heading to 20 d after full heading,whereas the NPQ decreased.During the measured stages,ETR,EQY and qp increased initially and then decreased as nitrogen application amount increased,but they peaked at different nitrogen fertilizer levels.The maximum ETR and EQY values appeared at the treatment of 135 kg/hm2 N.In conclusion,the optimum nitrogen amount for chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice was 135-180 kg/hm2.

  15. Effect of Various Nitrogen Fertilizers and Their Levels on Big-Arch Shelter Cucumber Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    Zhaopeng Ou Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are mainly cultivated through facility in early spring and late autumn in Northern of China. In the case of a serious shortage of water resources, water use efficiency of greenhouse vegetable is of an important scientific significance in both water and fertilizer management. On the basis of pan Evaporation (Ep and real-time monitoring of soil moisture content, the amount of water irrigation adequate to big-arch shelter cucumber growth, water dissipation, yield and water use efficiency were determined through the combination of three nitrogen fertilizers including urea, urea containing nitrification inhibitors (5:1 with urea and nitrification inhibitor and coated urea (slow fertilizer and their various levels with 0 kg/ha, 350 kg/ha, 550 kg/ha, 750 kg/ha. The results showed that the most 10,9000 kg/ha production was gained by the treatment of 550 kg/ha urea containing inhibitors, which could increase 41.5% of a yield, 15.2% of a cumulative water consumption that was at 462.0mm and 44.7% of a water use efficiency that is at 14.11kg (dry matter/(mm• ha, compared with that of control, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the application of moderate levels of urea containing nitrification inhibitor in greenhouse cucumber can gain higher yields and water use efficiency.

  16. Nitric oxide level in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile males and its correlation with sperm parameters

    Amiri I.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a free radical molecule, produced by most cells and tissues in the body. The effect of NO on cells is concentration dependent. Low concentration of NO is essential in biology and physiology of most of cells, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has detrimental effects on cells. The role of NO in biology of male and female genital systems is under investigation. In the present study, the nitric oxide concentration was measured in the seminal plasma of both fertile and infertile males and compared with spermatogram parameters. For this purpose, semen samples were collected from 45 patients and 70 healthy donors. After analysis of samples, the stable metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate were measured by Griess assay. The results indicated that the nitric oxide concentration in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly higher than controls. There was a significant negative correlation between the nitric oxide concentration and sperm motility and viability in infertile males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the level of nitric oxide in seminal plasma of infertile men was higher than that of fertile men. The increasing level of nitric oxide concentration in seminal plasma leads to the decrease in sperm motility and viability and affects fertility.

  17. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicum annum)

    MUJIYATI; SUPRIYADI

    2009-01-01

    Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasibakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicumannum). Bioteknologi 6: 63-69. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui peningkatan populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum akibat pemberian pupuk kandang. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan perlakuan: (i) tanpa pupuk sebagai kontrol, (ii) dengan pupuk kandang, (iii) dengan pupuk NPK. Data dikumpulkan se...

  18. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Víctor Hugo Alvarez V.; José Maria Moreira Dias; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque Villani

    2010-01-01

    Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrien...

  19. Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphate fertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan, Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphate fertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) (about 80 hectares), 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF) farm and Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI) (about 100 hectares). These all soils were situated in the urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimation was gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farms result the presence of Potassium (40K), Cesium (137Cs), and Uranium (238U). The average amount of radioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6

  20. Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Tropical Forests: Ecosystem-Level Patterns and Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization

    Cusack, Daniela F.; Silver, Whendee; McDowell, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Humid tropical forests are often characterized by large nitrogen (N) pools, and are known to have large potential N losses. Although rarely measured, tropical forests likely maintain considerable biological N fixation (BNF) to balance N losses. We estimated inputs of N via BNF by free-living microbes for two tropical forests in Puerto Rico, and assessed the response to increased N availability using an on-going N fertilization experiment. Nitrogenase activity was measured across forest strata...

  1. Preferential fertilization in Plumbago: Ultrastructural evidence for gamete-level recognition in an angiosperm

    Russell, Scott D.

    1985-01-01

    Gametic fusion patterns in the angiosperm Plumbago zeylanica were determined by using cytoplasmically dimorphic sperm cells differing in mitochondrion and plastid content and then identifying paternal organelles through their ultrastructural characteristics within the maternal cytoplasm at the time of fertilization. The virtual absence of plastids within the sperm cell that is physically associated with the vegetative nucleus allows paternal plastids to be used to trace the fate of the two ma...

  2. [Nutrient spatial variability of tobacco soil restoration area and fertility suitability level evaluation].

    Xu, Da-Bing; Deng, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Bi; Si, Guo-Han; Peng, Cheng-Lin; Yuan, Jia-Fu; Zhao, Shu-Jun; Wang, Rui

    2014-03-01

    By using geographic information system technology (GIS) and geostatistics methods, this paper studied the spatial variability of soil properties and available nutrients in the new regulation area units located in Qingjiangyuan modern tobacco agriculture science and technology park (Enshi, Hubei), suburb of Enshi City and the Baiyang base of Lichuan City, and further evaluation of the soil fertility suitability index (SFI) was carried out by use fuzzy mathematics. The results indicated that the effects of land restoration on the soil available phosphorus content variability and spatial distribution were very obvious, possibly due to the landform characteristics and restoration extent. The effect of land restoration on soil pH was small, however, serious soil acidification was detected in the soil sampled from Baiyang (pH < 5.5). Low SFI was found in 77.6%, 17.1% and 31.4% of the soils taken from the suburb, Baiyang and Qingjiangyuan, respectively. In conclusion, attentions should be paid on soil acidification in Baiyang, soil fertility and equalization in the suburb, and soil fertility in the region of Qingjiangyuan with low SFI. PMID:24984498

  3. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  4. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

  5. Effect of inorganic fertilizers and municipal solid waste manure on some soil physical properties in cotton-wheat cropping system

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil for three consecutive years (2002-2005) to study the effects of combined use of chemical fertilizers (NPK) and organic manure (municipal solid waste manure-MSWM) on soil organic matter, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, and yields of crops in cotton (Desi)-wheat cropping system. After three years, organic matter content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil increased (42-68%)to 7.1-8.4 g kg from an initial level of 5.0 g kg with out any significant interaction between two fertilizer doses, three management techniques and six seasons except for dose x season interaction where higher organic matter contents were found after each cotton harvest by site-specific fertilizer application. In general, the bulk density of the surface soil increased un-impressively with the time by unique use of fertilizers and decreased gradually by application of integrated plant nutrients management (IPNM) technique using MSWM with or without pesticides/herbicides use. Porosity of soil increased (2.5 %) by applying IPNM technique compared to unique use of chemical fertilizers. Penetration resistance was increased with unique use of fertilizers to a level of 0.80 M Pa from initial value of 0.74 MPa. Presumably due to higher intrinsic bulk density of the soil. Over the three years, on an average, the MSW manured and fertilized plots (IPNM with pesticides/herbicides use ) produced higher i.e. 2% and 11% increase in seed cotton and wheat grain yields respectively than did the plots receiving chemical fertilizers. Neglecting herbicides/pesticides application decreased (4-5%) seed cotton yield. (author)

  6. Phytometric Assessment of Fertility of Roadside Soils and Its Relationship with Major Nutrients

    Akbar, K. F.; Hale, W.H.G.; Šerá, Božena; Ashraf, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2012), s. 1141-1145. ISSN 1230-1485 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11040 Keywords : roadside verges * soil fertility * phytometric assessment * NPK analyses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2012

  7. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer Reduction on Soil Microbiological and Microbial Biomass in Wheat Field%化肥减量对麦田土壤微生物量及微生物区系的影响

    王庆; 海江波; 岳忠娜; 门倩

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of chemical fertilizer reduction with organic fertilizer application on soil microbes,winter wheat was planted under diffierent fertilizer treatments.4 chemical fertilizer(NPK) levels of 100%,70%,50% and 30%,and three organic fertilizer(M) level of 18 000,25 500 and 34 500 kg·km-2(representing with LM,MM and HM,respectively) were selected in the experiment with single NPK application as CK.In the treatments with 100% NPK,the explicating amount of urea,diammonium phosphate and potassium sulfate per hectare were 251.8,255.7 and 375.2 kg·km-2,respectively).The serial dilution plate culture method and chloroform evaporated method were used to determine the difference of soil microbial carbon,nitrogen contents and the distribution of microbial flora with different treatment.The results indicated that the together application of organic and inorganic fertilizers significantly increased the content of soil microbial carbon and nitrogen,the number of microbes such as bacteria,nitrogen-fixing bacteria,actinomyces,but did not affect the number of soil fungus.The effect of fertilizers rose with the increasing of organic fertilizer under no reducing of chemical fertilizer.the best treatment was 50%NPK + MM when reducing chemical fertilizer.It illustrated that moderate fertilizer reduction with matching application of organic fertilizer could improve soil microbial biomass in favor of soil fertility.%为了解化肥减量和有机培肥配施对冬小麦田土壤微生物的影响,以单施常量化肥(表示为NPK,分别施尿素、磷酸二铵和硫酸钾251.8、255.7和375.2kg.km-2)为对照,设置不同化肥(不减量、减量30%、减量50%和减量70%)和有机肥(18 000、25 500和34 500kg.km-2,分别用LM、MM和HM表示)配施处理,采用系列稀释平板法和氯仿熏蒸培养法分别测定了不同处理下土壤微生物量碳、氮以及微生物区系分布的差异。结果表明,有机无机

  8. Negative biomarker based male fertility evaluation: Sperm phenotypes associated with molecular-level anomalies

    Peter Sutovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker-based sperm analysis elevates the treatment of human infertility and ameliorates reproductive performance in livestock. The negative biomarker-based approach focuses on proteins and ligands unique to defective spermatozoa, regardless of their morphological phenotype, lending itself to analysis by flow cytometry (FC. A prime example is the spermatid specific thioredoxin SPTRX3/TXNDC8, retained in the nuclear vacuoles and superfluous cytoplasm of defective human spermatozoa. Infertile couples with high semen SPTRX3 are less likely to conceive by assisted reproductive therapies (ART and more prone to recurrent miscarriage while low SPTRX3 has been associated with multiple ART births. Ubiquitin, a small, proteolysis-promoting covalent posttranslational protein modifier is found on the surface of defective posttesticular spermatozoa and in the damaged protein aggregates, the aggresomes of spermiogenic origin. Semen ubiquitin content correlates negatively with fertility and conventional semen parameters, and with sperm binding of lectins LCA (Lens culinaris agglutinin; reveals altered sperm surface and PNA (Arachis hypogaea/peanut agglutinin; reveals acrosomal malformation or damage. The Postacrosomal Sheath WWI Domain Binding Protein (PAWP, implicated in oocyte activation during fertilization, is ectopic or absent from defective human and animal spermatozoa. Consequently, FC-parameters of PAWP correlate with ART outcomes in infertile couples and with fertility in bulls. Assays based on the above biomarkers have been combined into multiplex FC semen screening protocols, and the surface expression of lectins and ubiquitin has been utilized to develop nanoparticle-based bull semen purification method validated by field artificial insemination trials. These advances go hand-in-hand with the innovation of FC-technology and genomics/proteomics-based biomarker discovery.

  9. FARM-LEVEL INCENTIVES FOR FERTILIZER USE IN RWANDA'S KIGALI RURAL PROVINCE: A FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

    Mugabo, Josaphat R.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of the main food crops in the context of the current government policy of promoting the use by farmers of improved inputs. This study tried to estimate the magnitudes of costs associated with the use of chemical fertilizer on climbing beans, maize, sorghum and soybeans grown in the province of Kigali rural and the benefits farmers would get by investing their labor and money in these crops. In less detail, this study analyzed some ...

  10. Formulation of a liquid fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using vermicompost leachate.

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; García-Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Rincón Rosales, Reiner; Abud-Archila, Miguel; María Angela, Oliva Llaven; Cruz, Marcos Joaquín Guillen; Dendooven, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Leachate from vermicomposting contains large amounts of plant nutrients and can be used as liquid fertilizer, but normally diluted to avoid plant damage. The amount of nutrients applied is thus reduced so that an additional fertilizer is required. We investigated how dilution of vermicompost leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected sorghum plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m(-1), contained 834 mg K(+) l(-1), 247 mg NO(3)(-)l(-1) and 168 mg PO(4)(3-) l(-1), was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65 % germination index. Vermicompost leachate can be used as liquid fertilizer for the cultivation of sorghum without dilution and mixed with 140-170 g l(-1) of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and 2-3 ml(-1) of dispersant and 0-1 ml l(-1) adherent. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth. PMID:18304806