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Desempenho do gergelim em função da adubação NPK e do nível de fertilidade do solo / Sesame performance in function of NPK fertilizer and levels of soil fertility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do gergelim, em condições de safrinha, em doses crescentes de NPK e diferentes níveis de fertilidade do solo. Foram instalados dois experimentos: um em casa-de-vegetação e outro a campo. Em casa-devegetação, utilizou-se fatorial 6 x 2, distribuído em d [...] elineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O primeiro fator constou de seis doses do adubo 04:14:08; o segundo, de dois tipos de solo (baixa e alta fertilidade). O experimento a campo constou de seis tratamentos (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg ha-1 do adubo 04-20-10), distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A adubação com 04:14:08, quando em solo de baixa fertilidade, promoveu aumento na altura das plantas, desde o início até o final do ciclo, enquanto, em solo de alta fertilidade, as respostas foram evidenciadas apenas nos primeiros 43 dias de crescimento. A adubação ainda promoveu aumento no peso de matéria seca das hastes e das vagens, no número de vagens e na produção de grãos, em solo de baixa fertilidade, atingindo produção máxima de grãos na dose de 550 kg ha-1 do adubo 04:14:08. No campo, não houve resposta da adubação com relação à produção de matéria seca e rendimento de grãos cultivados na safrinha. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate sesame performance to NPK fertilizer and different levels of soil fertility. Two experiments were conducted: one in a greenhouse and another in field conditions. In the greenhouse, the study used a completely randomized design, in a 6 x 2 factorial scheme, [...] with four replications. The first factor was six fertilization levels of 04:14:08, and the second two soil types (low and high fertility). The experiment in field conditions used randomized blocks with 6 treatments (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1 of 04-20-10 fertilizer 04:20:10) and 4 replications. The fertilization with 04:14:08 in low fertility soil promoted greater height of the plants from the beginning until the end of the cycle, whereas in ground of high fertility responses were evident only in the first 43 days of growth. The fertilization resulted in an increase in sesame grain yield when cultivated in low fertility soil, reaching maximum values in the dose of 550 kg ha-1 of 04:14:08 fertilizer. In field conditions, there was no response from fertilization with respect to the dry matter and yield of sesame grains cultivated in second crop conditions.

Adriano, Perin; Danilo José, Cruvinel; José Waldemar da, Silva.

2010-03-01

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Management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosae) and NPK fertilizer levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trials were conducted in the screen house of Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa (09 degrees 18'N; 05 degrees 04'E) in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during October-December, 2008 and January-March, 2009. The objective was to evaluate the effect of management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and NPK fertilizer levels. The trials were laid out in split-split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. The main-plot treatments consisted of three sorghum varieties; SAMSORG 3, ICSVIII and SAMSORG 14 while the sub-plot treatments consisted of inoculations; Striga mixed with Glomus, Striga only and Glomus only as well as no inoculation control. The sub-sub-plot treatments were made up of NPK fertilizer levels; (100 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)), (50 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)) and (0 kg N, 0 kg P2O5, 0 kg K2O ha(-1)). The result obtained showed that sorghum variety SAMSORG 3 were taller, having more vigour and lower reaction to Striga parasitism which resulted in the crop producing higher dry matter compared to the other two varieties. The plots inoculated with Striga only supported shorter plants of sorghum varieties, higher vigour and lower reaction score to Striga compared to Striga mixed with Glomus. It is obvious in this study that the crop performance increases with increase in the rates of NPK fertilizer applied. PMID:24511701

Isah, K M; Kumar, Niranjan; Lagoke, S T O; Atayese, M O

2013-11-15

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Response of Early Maturity Mutant Lines of Low Land Rice on Several Levels of NPK Fertilizers and Irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A problem which will occur in the IP400 program is the exploitation of nutrient and water. This problem could be overcome by using early maturating having high fertilizer and water use efficiency. For this purpose several mutant lines were tested for their efficiency on using fertilizers and water. The testing of the mutant lines were done in the field at the experimental station of the Agricultural Department Pusakanagara, West Java. Treatments employed were six mutant lines and two rice varieties which four rates of NPK fertilizers (0, 25, 50, and 100%) and three irrigation regimes (continuously sub merging, 10 and 15 days of alternate sub merging). The soil water content was determined by neutron probe at the start of each water regimes. The N total mutant of the plants were carried out at the Plant Nutrition Laboratory, PATIR-BATAN. Results showed that the average yield, in sequence from the highest to the lowest (t/ha) is OBS 1705 (9,3597), Cimelati (8,9631), OBS 1700 (8,9192), Diah Suci (8,7706), OBS 1713 (8,2797), OBS 1703 (8,2733), OBS 1718 (8,2489) and OBS 1704 (8,0019). Statistically highest yield/ha was obtained at all the water regimes and NPK fertilizer rates was shown by OBS 1705 and did not differ significantly from Cimelati variety, but it significantly differ from Diah Suci variety, OBS 1713, OBS 1703, OBS 1718 and OBS 1718. The OBS 1704 was highly responsive to the NPK fertilization, producing and increase any weight at the lowest rate of NPK fertilization (25%). The uptake of total nitrogen (kg N/ha) in the grain of the mutant lines were all higher than that of the parent lines (Cimelati and Diah Suci). (author)

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Diferentes combinações de NPK na produção do feijão-vagem em solo orgânico álico do Vale do Ribeira (SP) / Influence of different levels of NPK fertilizers on the yield of pole snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando-se verificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 e 354-576-558 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O respectivamente) na produção do feijão-vagem, cv. Teresópolis, desenvolveu-se um experimento na Estação Experimental de Pariquera-Açu em solo orgânico álico de alta acidez. [...] Nas condições do experimento, verificou-se apenas resposta linear e positiva altamente significativa para os seguintes caracteres estudados: produtividade total de vagens, produtividade de vagens comerciáveis e número total de vagens. Desse modo, as maiores produtividades em peso e número de vagens, em magnitude, foram obtidas quando se utilizou a dose máxima de NPK. Abstract in english A trial was carried out at the Experimental Station of 'Pariquera-Açu', State of São Paulo, Brazil, on an organic soil, of high acidity (pH = 4.9), to determine the influence of four levels of fertilizers (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 and 354-576-558 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O respectively) on the yield [...] of pole snap beans, cultivar Teresópolis. The results showed that the pod yield increased with the increasing levels of fertilizers applied (linear effect). The highest yield of snap bean pods was obtained at the levels of 354-576-588kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, respectively. The results also showed that the average weight of pods remained constant and the number of pods increased linearly with the fertilizer levels.

Issao, Ishimura; Celi Teixeira, Feitosa; Rogério Salles, Lisbão; Francisco Antonio, Passos; João Baptista, Fornasier; Massaharu, Noda.

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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions. PMID:20527916

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2010-07-14

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Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva e três níveis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10. Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacific apresentaram frutos com maior peso médio do que Flora-Dade, Max e Diva. O número de frutos por planta aumentou com a elevação do nível de adubação de 2,0 para 3,5 t/ha, enquanto que o peso médio de frutos diminuiu, sem alterar a produção. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciais aos níveis de adubação, em relação ao peso médio de frutos.The objective of this work was to study the effect of cultivar, NPK fertilization and the interaction on yield components of fresh market tomatoes. The experiment was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1995/96 season. Five cultivars (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific and Diva and three fertilization levels (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 t/ha of NPK (3.6-7.2-10 were used. The treatments were displayed under a factorial scheme, in a randomized complete block design, with three repetitions. Empire and Pacific cultivars showed higher average fruit weight than Flora-Dade, Max and Diva. The number of fruits per plant increased with the elevation of fertilization levels from 2.0 to 3.5 t/ha, while the average fruit weight diminished, without changing yield. The cultivars showed differential response to fertilization levels, in relation to average fruit weight.

Paulo Renato Z. Santos

2001-03-01

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Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada / Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS) no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva) e três nív [...] eis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha) de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10). Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacific apresentaram frutos com maior peso médio do que Flora-Dade, Max e Diva. O número de frutos por planta aumentou com a elevação do nível de adubação de 2,0 para 3,5 t/ha, enquanto que o peso médio de frutos diminuiu, sem alterar a produção. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciais aos níveis de adubação, em relação ao peso médio de frutos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the effect of cultivar, NPK fertilization and the interaction on yield components of fresh market tomatoes. The experiment was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1995/96 season. Five cultivars (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific and Diva) and three fertilization [...] levels (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 t/ha) of NPK (3.6-7.2-10) were used. The treatments were displayed under a factorial scheme, in a randomized complete block design, with three repetitions. Empire and Pacific cultivars showed higher average fruit weight than Flora-Dade, Max and Diva. The number of fruits per plant increased with the elevation of fertilization levels from 2.0 to 3.5 t/ha, while the average fruit weight diminished, without changing yield. The cultivars showed differential response to fertilization levels, in relation to average fruit weight.

Paulo Renato Z., Santos; Arione S., Pereira; Cláudio José S., Freire.

2001-03-01

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Effect of Seed Rate and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Wheat Variety Punjnad-1  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted for two consecutive crop seasons at Agronomic Research Station, Bahawalpur during Rabi 2000-2001 to 2001-2002 to evaluate maximum yield potential of wheat variety punjnad-1 as affected by various seeding rates 75, 100, 125 and 150 kg ha-1 and NPK levels 0-0-0, 100-50-0, 150-100-50 and 200-100-50 kg ha-1. Maximum wheat grain yield of 4293 kg ha-1 was recorded with fertilizer, level of 150-100-50 NPK kg ha-1 with seeding rate of 125 kg ha-1. It was closely followed by same fertilizer level with seeding rate of 100 kg ha-1 by giving 4287 kg grain yield ha-1 which showed that equally good results were obtained with fertilizer dose of 150-100-50 kg ha-1. It showed that higher dose of NPK fertilizer induce more tillering and grain weight in wheat plants under low seed rate which compansate reduction in grin yield. In both seasons increasing fertilizer levels NPK upto 150-100-50 kg ha-1 with seeding rate of 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 significantly and linearly enhance wheat grain yield while reduction in yield was obtained beyond this fertilizer dose and seeding rate.

M.S. Cheema

2003-01-01

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Response of Potato Crop to Various Levels of NPK  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different doses of NPK on growth and yield of potato crop. Five different combinations of NPK with control were studied. Results revealed that the fertilizer application increased the potato yield significantly (29-110% over control (21 t ha-1. The highest % of marketable tubers (87.33 and yield (44.1 t ha-1 was obtained when 200:150:75 NPK kg ha-1 was applied.

Nizamuddin

2003-01-01

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Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK / NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ? [...] Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP), em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação. Abstract in english The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee p [...] lantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

PAULO BOLLER, GALLO; BERNARDO VAN, RAIJ; JOSÉ ANTONIO, QUAGGIO; LUIS CARLOS ESTEVES, PEREIRA.

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Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ?Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP, em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação.The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee plantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4 factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

PAULO BOLLER GALLO

1999-01-01

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Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower as Affected by Various NPK Levels  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine N, P and K requirements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grown under Bahawalpur irrigated conditions on medium heavy loam soil. Four levels of N (0,60,120,180 kg NPK ha-1 four levels of P2O5 (0,30,60,90 kg NPK ha-1 and four levels of K2O ( 0,60,120,180 kg NPK ha-1 in combinations were put to test. Data collected on seed yield and yield components were subjected to standard statistical analysis. The crop indicated positive/significant response to N, P and K application. Significant positive correlation was observed between seed yield and head size. Optimum fertilizer requirement computed was 120-90-60 kg NPK ha-1 for sunflower crop under experimental condition.

Nazakat Nawaz

2003-01-01

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NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on he foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred. (M.A.C.)

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Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate. A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³ was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per plot and double border rows. Treatments were composed of four rates of nitrogen (0 to 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, phosphorus (0 to 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and potassium (0 to 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1, applied in stripes and divided in five annual applications. The fertilizers used were: calcium nitrate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride. Plants were cultivated in a 2 × 1 m array, and periodically evaluated in relation to diameter of main stem, number of offshoots and percentage of plants with offshoots. In this sandy and low fertility soil, peach palm growth responses in relation to N and K amendments were linear and positive. Initial responses were observed three months after fertilizer application. No isolated effects of P fertilization, nor significant interactions among fertilizers were observed. Maximum growth responses were reached with 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1.

Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

2002-03-01

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Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK / Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93) em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP [...] (clima "Cfa"). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³), com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N), fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5) e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O), aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N) e potássio (K) e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P). As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare. Abstract in english Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27 [...] 'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate). A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³) was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per plot and double border rows. Treatments were composed of four rates of nitrogen (0 to 400 kg N ha-1 year-1), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1) and potassium (0 to 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1), applied in stripes and divided in five annual applications. The fertilizers used were: calcium nitrate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride. Plants were cultivated in a 2 × 1 m array, and periodically evaluated in relation to diameter of main stem, number of offshoots and percentage of plants with offshoots. In this sandy and low fertility soil, peach palm growth responses in relation to N and K amendments were linear and positive. Initial responses were observed three months after fertilizer application. No isolated effects of P fertilization, nor significant interactions among fertilizers were observed. Maximum growth responses were reached with 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1.

Marilene Leão Alves, Bovi; Gentil, Godoy Jr.; Sandra Heiden, Spiering.

2002-03-01

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Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

2014-10-01

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Mistura de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha com fertilizante NPK Mixture of Brachiaria brizantha seeds with NPK fertilizer  

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Full Text Available As informações são contraditórias quanto ao tempo em que as sementes de Brachiaria brizantha podem ficar misturadas ao fertilizante NPK sem diminuir o poder germinativo das sementes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de tempos de contato do adubo granulado NPK 04-14-08, com sementes dessa forrageira, na qualidade fisiológica (germinação e vigor. Empregou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas análise de variância e comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Também foram realizadas análises de regressão polinomial. Observou-se efeito significativo em todas as variáveis. Além disso, com o transcorrer do tempo de contato com o fertilizante, o teor de água e a condutividade elétrica das sementes aumentaram, enquanto observou-se diminuição da percentagem de germinação, da primeira contagem, da emergência e do índice de velocidade de emergência. Destaca-se que, para essas variáveis, o comportamento foi linear. Assim, é permitida a mistura das sementes com o fertilizante NPK, desde que a semeadura seja imediata, reduzindo-se os danos à qualidade fisiológica das sementes da forrageira (germinação e vigor. Na prática, recomenda-se fazer a mistura de sementes de B. brizantha com NPK somente da quantidade que poderá ser semeada até 12h após a mistura.Information is contradictory as to the time Brachiaria brizantha seeds can remain mixed with the NPK fertilizer without causing poorly formed stands. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the effect of contact times of NPK granular fertilizer (04-14-08 rate with seeds of this forage on physiological quality (germination and vigor. A completely randomized design with four replicates was employed. An analysis of variance was conducted and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. Polynomial regression analyses were also performed, and equations were fitted. A significant effect was observed in all variables. The water content and electric conductivity of seeds increased as contact time with the fertilizer increased, while decreases were observed in germination percentage, first count, emergence, and emergence velocity index. A linear behavior was observed for the variables. Consequently, seeds can be mixed with NPK fertilizer as long as seeding is performed immediately afterwards, thus reducing damages to the physiological quality of the forage seeds (germination and vigor. In practice, it is recommended that B. brizantha seeds should be mixed with NPK at quantities that can be seeded within 12 hours from mixing, at most.

Eduardo do Valle Lima

2010-02-01

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Mistura de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha com fertilizante NPK / Mixture of Brachiaria brizantha seeds with NPK fertilizer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As informações são contraditórias quanto ao tempo em que as sementes de Brachiaria brizantha podem ficar misturadas ao fertilizante NPK sem diminuir o poder germinativo das sementes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de tempos de contato do adubo granulado NPK 04-14-08, com sementes dessa forrage [...] ira, na qualidade fisiológica (germinação e vigor). Empregou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas análise de variância e comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Também foram realizadas análises de regressão polinomial. Observou-se efeito significativo em todas as variáveis. Além disso, com o transcorrer do tempo de contato com o fertilizante, o teor de água e a condutividade elétrica das sementes aumentaram, enquanto observou-se diminuição da percentagem de germinação, da primeira contagem, da emergência e do índice de velocidade de emergência. Destaca-se que, para essas variáveis, o comportamento foi linear. Assim, é permitida a mistura das sementes com o fertilizante NPK, desde que a semeadura seja imediata, reduzindo-se os danos à qualidade fisiológica das sementes da forrageira (germinação e vigor). Na prática, recomenda-se fazer a mistura de sementes de B. brizantha com NPK somente da quantidade que poderá ser semeada até 12h após a mistura. Abstract in english Information is contradictory as to the time Brachiaria brizantha seeds can remain mixed with the NPK fertilizer without causing poorly formed stands. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the effect of contact times of NPK granular fertilizer (04-14-08 rate) with seeds of this forag [...] e on physiological quality (germination and vigor). A completely randomized design with four replicates was employed. An analysis of variance was conducted and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. Polynomial regression analyses were also performed, and equations were fitted. A significant effect was observed in all variables. The water content and electric conductivity of seeds increased as contact time with the fertilizer increased, while decreases were observed in germination percentage, first count, emergence, and emergence velocity index. A linear behavior was observed for the variables. Consequently, seeds can be mixed with NPK fertilizer as long as seeding is performed immediately afterwards, thus reducing damages to the physiological quality of the forage seeds (germination and vigor). In practice, it is recommended that B. brizantha seeds should be mixed with NPK at quantities that can be seeded within 12 hours from mixing, at most.

Eduardo do Valle, Lima; José Cláudio de Sousa, Tavares; Valéria Rodrigues, Azevedo; Patrícia da Silva, Leitão-Lima.

2010-02-01

19

Effect of Different NPK Levels on the Growth and Yield of Kohlrabi (Brassica caulorapa L. at Northern Areas of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Effect of seven different NPK levels on the growth and yield of Kohlrabi was investigated. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied alone as well as in various combinations and had a significant effect on various plant growth and yield parameters. Maximum tuber weight (430.80 g tuber diameter (10.23 cm, number of leaves per plant (14.38 and tuber yield (25850 kg ha-1 was recorded in plots fertilized with 160-120-160 kg NPK ha-1. It can be concluded that NPK @ 160-120-60 kg ha-1 was found to be the best fertilizer dose for the higher yield of Kohlrabi.

Sher Ahmed

2003-01-01

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Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Fruit Development of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.)  

OpenAIRE

The effect of NPK fertilizer on pumpkin fruit development was studied for two cropping seasons in 2010 at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife, Nigeria in 2010. The experiment was a randomized complete block design. The plants were treated with six NPK rates (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha). Data on fruit weight, circumference, length and dry matter were obtained at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after fruit formation. Increasing NPK fertilizer enhanced the param...

Oloyede, F. M.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obisesan, I. O.

2013-01-01

21

BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION  

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Full Text Available Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1 using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1 were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75% after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1% and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0% and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

G.R Tortella

2010-01-01

22

BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinid [...] ol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity) in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1%) and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0%) and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

G.R, Tortella; O, Rubilar; M, Cea; C, Wulff; O, Martínez; M.C, Diez.

23

The influence of Avadex BW on the yield and chemical composition of spring barley variety 'Aramir', with different NPK fertilization  

OpenAIRE

The combined influence of two doses of herbicide Avadex BW (3 and 6 l/ha) and three levels of NPK fertilization on spring barley variety 'Aramir' was studied in a pot experiment. Only with the highest NPK dose, and only during the initial stage of vegetation the herbicide showed the phytotoxicity toward barley. Avadex BW manifested no significant effect on the yields of ,grain and straw. Increasing doses of N~P brought about significant yield increases of above-ground parts during shooting s...

Micha? P?oszy?ski; Bogdana Runowska-Hry?czuk

1980-01-01

24

Response of Rice Line PB-95 to Different NPK Levels  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out to observe the effect of applying N, P and K fertilizers at different rates and combinations on growth and yield of rice line PB-95. The fertilizer treatments comprised the T1 (control), T2 (0-75-75), T3 (60-75-75), T4(120-75-75), T5 (180-75-75), T6 (120-0-75), T7 (120-500-75), T8 (120-100-75), T9 (120-75-0), T10 ((120-75-50) and T11 (120-75-100) NPK kg ha-1. The results showed that application of NPK significantly increased the crop yield and maxi...

Awan, K. H.; Ranjha, A. M.; Mehdi, S. M.; Sarfraz, M.; Hassan, G.

2003-01-01

25

Effect of Various NPK Fertilizer Doses on the Growth, Seed Yield and Oil Content of Brassica  

OpenAIRE

The field experiment was conducted to observe the effect of different fertilizer doses (0-0-0, 30-20-10, 60-40-20, 90-60-30, and 120-80-40 NPK Kg-ha on growth, yield and oil content of Toria Selection (Brassica compastrist L.) brassica variety at Z.A. Bhutto Agricultural College, Dokri, Pakistan. Application of 120-80-40 and 90-60-30 NPK Kg-ha fertilizer doses equally showed efficiency of producing taller plants, more branches, increased number of siliqua, leng...

Oad, F. C.; Qayyum, S. M.; Oad, N. L.; Gandahi, A. W.; Sohu, G. N.; Chandio, G. Q.

2001-01-01

26

The influence of Avadex BW on the yield and chemical composition of spring barley variety 'Aramir', with different NPK fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The combined influence of two doses of herbicide Avadex BW (3 and 6 l/ha and three levels of NPK fertilization on spring barley variety 'Aramir' was studied in a pot experiment. Only with the highest NPK dose, and only during the initial stage of vegetation the herbicide showed the phytotoxicity toward barley. Avadex BW manifested no significant effect on the yields of ,grain and straw. Increasing doses of N~P brought about significant yield increases of above-ground parts during shooting stage, and of the grain and straw in the final yield. Fertilization gave much more evident qualitative changes in barley than the herbicide. The latter increased Ca content in the straw and decreased that of potassium in the straw and grain.

Micha? P?oszy?ski

1980-06-01

27

Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer  

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Full Text Available Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

F.M Oloyede

2012-09-01

28

Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivat [...] ion and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

F.M, Oloyede.

2012-09-01

29

BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION  

OpenAIRE

Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing conc...

Tortella, G. R.; Rubilar, O.; Cea, M.; Wulff, C.; Marti?nez, O.; Diez, M. C.

2010-01-01

30

Inoculação de Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK na composição química e contaminação fungo-fumonisina de milho / Inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization on chemical composition and fungal-fumonisin contamination of maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Propôs,neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da inoculação de sementes com Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio) na composição química e contaminação por fungo-fumonisina de grãos de milho. O delineamento experimental foi bloco casualizado em fatorial 2 x 3, corresponden [...] te à inoculação com P. fluorecens (não inoculada ou inoculada) e níveis de adubação NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1, formulados 08-28-16) com 4 repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram composição química (proteína e cinzas), contaminação fúngica (bolores e leveduras) e fumonisinas B1 (FB1) e B2 (FB2). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey e correlação de Pearson, pelo teste-t (p 0,05). A interação entre fatores, com incremento no nível de adubação NPK e uso de P. Fluorescens, resultou em aumento no teor de cinzas e proteína (p Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the effect of inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) on chemical composition and contamination by fungal-fumonisin of maize grains. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in factorial 2 [...] x 3, corresponding to inoculation with P. fluorescens (non-inoculated or inoculated) and levels of NPK fertilization (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1, formulation 8-28-16), with 4 replications. The parameters evaluated were chemical composition (protein and ash), contamination by fungal (mold and yeast) and fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2). The data were subjected to analysis of variance, comparisons of means by Tukey test and Pearson correlation by test-t (p 0.05). The interaction between factors, increase in NPK level and use of P. fluorescens, resulted in increase in protein content and ash (p

Luciana P., Bernd; Thiago M., Souza; Mariana A. de, Oliveira; Elisabete Y. S., Ono; Claudemir, Zucareli; Elisa Y., Hirooka.

1274-12-01

31

Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat  

Science.gov (United States)

Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increased (P ? 0.05) the dry weight of nematode-infected wheat plants. Fenamiphos and urea resulted in the best control, followed by the NPK fertilizers. The combined application of urea and fenamiphos resulted in the most significant effect in decreasing (P ? 0.05) the number of cysts/root system and increasing (P ? 0.05) the growth of nematode-infected wheat plants. PMID:24600314

Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S.; Dawabah, Ahmed A.M.

2013-01-01

32

Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increased (P ? 0.05) the dry weight of nematode-infected wheat plants. Fenamiphos and urea resulted in the best control, followed by the NPK fertilizers. The combined application of urea and fenamiphos resulted in the most significant effect in decreasing (P ? 0.05) the number of cysts/root system and increasing (P ? 0.05) the growth of nematode-infected wheat plants. PMID:24600314

Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S; Dawabah, Ahmed A M

2014-04-01

33

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC MATERIALS AND NPK FERTILIZER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE  

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Full Text Available The interest in organic materials as soil fertility restorer is increasing due to the high cost and unavailability at the right time of inorganic fertilizer and the problem associated with residue disposal by burning which can further aggravate global warming. The effects of different organic materials and NPK fertilizer on the performance of maize were examined in field experiments carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma in a forest savanna transition zone of Edo State, Nigeria. The investigations were carried out during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons and involved the use of organic materials (wood shavings, rice hulls, kola husks and their combinations and NPK fertilizer. The layout of the experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results indicated that most of the organic materials, especially kola husk and mixtures with kola husk and NPK increased yield and its components. The treatments significantly increased the concentrations of N, P, K and Na in ear leaves and grains.

Samson Uduzei Remison

2014-06-01

34

Effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on total antioxidant capacity of soil and amaranth leaves (Amaranthus cruentus L.  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was set up in 2007 in a split-plot design to investigate the effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of fresh leaf tissue of the Polish amaranth varieties Rawa and Aztek, cultivated for seed, and of the soil they were cultivated on. The experiment was conducted with three replicates. The following combinations of macroelement doses were applied: I: N – 50 , P – 40, K – 40 kg ha-1; II: N – 90, P – 60, K – 60 kg ha-1; and III: N – 130, P – 70, K – 70 kg ha-1. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC of the soil and amaranth leaves was determined using the method described by Rice-Evans and Miller, as modified by Bartosz. Organic carbon content was determined as well. In most of the cases the fertilization (NPK caused an increase in total antioxidant capacity of the soil under amaranth cultivation. The highest total antioxidant capacity in the soil examined (compared with the control was found with combination III of NPK fertilizers for soil under Rawa cultivation, and with combination I for the Aztek soil. The total antioxidant capacity of amaranth per unit fresh leaf mass was dependent on the variety and on the doses of the macroelements applied. The highest total antioxidant capacity in Rawa per unit fresh leaf mass was observed with combination III, while for the Aztek variety the highest TAC was found with combination I. Statistical analysis showed significant dependencies between TAC of the soils and leaves and the level of fertilization, as well as between the TAC of the soil and of amaranth leaves.

2009-03-01

35

NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol / Adubação NPK no crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em Neossolo Quartzarênico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A adubação balanceada é importante para o crescimento das plantas. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) é uma espécie sobre a qual as informações são escassas, sendo muito recentes ensaios com adubação. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em respost [...] a às doses de NPK em casa de vegetação em um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, bem como estimar os níveis críticos de P e K no solo e de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea até 120 dias de avaliação. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema de fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4)½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições, totalizando 96 parcelas experimentais, sendo as doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 300 mg dm-3) na forma de ureia; as de P (0, 45, 90 e 180 mg dm-3), na forma de superfosfato triplo; e as de K (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg dm-3), na forma de cloreto de potássio. Após 120 dias, as plantas foram colhidas e as seguintes variáveis avaliadas: altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, teor de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e atributos químicos do solo. As mudas de pinhão-manso responderam à adubação NPK na fase de inicial de crescimento; a resposta para o N foi negativa, sem a necessidade de aplicação desse nutriente. A dose recomendada foi de 55 mg dm-3 de P e 67 mg dm-3 de K. Os níveis críticos, correspondentes às doses recomendadas, foram de 13 mg dm-3 para P e 74 mg dm-3 para K no solo (Mehlich-1). Os teores de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de pinhão-manso foram de 37,4, 2,1 e 35,3 g kg-1, respectivamente. Abstract in english Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a [...] greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x 4 x 4)½, totalizing 32 treatments with three replicates, 96 experimental plots and N rates (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg dm-3) as urea; P rates (0, 45, 90 and 180 mg dm-3) as triple superphosphate and K rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3) as potassium chloride. After 120 days, the plants were harvested and some variables evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, macro and micronutrient levels in plant shoots, and soil chemical properties. The physic nut seedlings responded to NPK fertilizer in the initial growth phase; the response to N was negative. The recommended P and K rates were 25 and 67 mg dm-3, respectively. The critical levels, corresponding to the recommended P rate were 13 and 74 mg dm-3 for K in soil (Mehlich-1). The N, P and K levels in the shoot dry matter of physic nut were 37.4, 2.1 and 35.7 g kg-1, respectively.

Patrícia Teixeira de, Souza; Enilson de Barros, Silva; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Luiz Arnaldo, Fernandes.

2011-04-01

36

Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK  

OpenAIRE

There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the State of São Paulo (Agudos county). The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 16...

Ademar Spironello; José Antonio Quaggio; Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira; Pedro Roberto Furlani; José Maria Monteiro Sigrist

2004-01-01

37

Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Spacing on the Yield of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceratia M  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field trail was conducted to assess the effect of different plant spacing (S1=50 cm, S2=75 cm and S3=100 cm and NPK doses (T1= control, T2=104-54-104, T3=124-74-124, T4=144-94-144 and T5=164-114-164 kg per hectare on the growth and yield of bottle gourd. The NPK fertilizer doses has significant effect on days to germination, fruit weight (gm, fruit volume (ml, number of fruits per vine, vine length (cm and yield per hectare (tones. Increasing NPK fertilizer doses also increased the above mentioned parameters. Maximum yield (20.403 t ha-1 was obtained from T5 (164-114-164. Plant spacing had significant influence on days to germination, fruit weight (gm, fruit volume (ml, number of fruits per vine, vine length (cm and yield per hectare. Increasing plant spacing increased all the above mentioned parameters, except yield per hectare. Maximum yield (19.709 t ha-1 was obtained from S1 (50 cm.

Nek Dara Jan

2000-01-01

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Efeito da combinação de três níveis de espaçamento, três de adubação com NPK e três de tratamento com inseticida, sôbre a produção de amendoim Combined effects of spacings, NPK fertilizers and insecticide treatments in peanut production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiências fatoriais de amendoim com três níveis de espaçamento, três de adubação com NPK e três de pulverização com inseticida foram conduzidas em 1960-61 no Estado de São Paulo. Em média de seis experiências, a adubação proporcionou o maior aumento de produção. A redução do espaçamento também teve efeito satisfatório, ao passo que a pulverização com inseticida pouco aumentou a produção média, pois só apareceram insetos nocivos em duas das experiências. Observações em três experiências mostraram a inconveniência de aplicar o fósforo e o potássio segundo o método tradicional - nos sulcos de plantio.A series of factorial experiments was performed in 1960-61 in State of São Paulo to compare the effects of three levels of spacing, three of NPK fertilizer and three of insecticide treatment in the production of peanuts (Arachis hypogaeaL. As an average of six experiments, the best yield increase was obtained with NPK fertilizers. Increasing plant population also induced satisfactory increase, whereas the average response to the insecticide treatment was small. A reduction in the stand of three experiments was observed and was associated to application of fertilizers in contact with the peanut seed.

Romeu de Tella

1971-01-01

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Flower Synchrony, Growth and Yield Enhancement of Small Type Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Through Plant Growth Regulators and NPK Fertilization  

OpenAIRE

Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3

Md. Yunus Miah; Md Serajul Islam; Baset Mia, M. A.; Das, M. R.; Khan, H. I.

2014-01-01

40

Acúmulo de NPK e sódio na mamoneira sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada / Accumulation of NPK and sodium in castor bean under saline stress and nitrogen fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com água de diferentes salinidades e doses de nitrogênio, sobre a acumulação de NPK e sódio na parte aérea da mamoneira, em experimento conduzido em lisímetros. Utilizou-se aleatorização em bloco em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com três rep [...] etições, estudando-se os cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água (CEa), variando de 0,4 a 4,4 dS m-1, associados a cinco doses de nitrogênio (50 a 150% da recomendada). Os teores de NPK e de sódio na cv. BRS Energia foram maiores nas folhas que no caule e entre as épocas de avaliação, aos 120 dias após a semeadura (DAS) em relação aos 46 DAS. Nas folhas os teores acumulados aos 46 DAS, variou na sequência K > Na > N > P e aos 120 DAS K > N > Na > P; enquanto no caule variaram em ambas as épocas, a ordem foi Na > K > P ? N e em função da CEa e K> Na> P ? N em função das doses de N aos 46 DAS níveis crescentes de CEa promoveram aumento no teor de Nfolha e Kfolha assim como o incremento da adubação com N inibiu o teor de Na folha; aos 120 DAS o maior teor de Nfolha foi obtido com a CEa de 4,4 dS m-1 e a dose de N de 150%, já o teor de Kfolha e Kcaule foi obtido na dose de 150% de N enquanto o teor de P não foi influenciado por nenhum fator estudado. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water of different salinities and doses of nitrogen fertilization on accumulation of NPK and sodium in the aerial parts of the castor bean, the experiment was conducted in lysimeters. A randomized block design in 5 x 5 factorial ar [...] rangement with three replications was used, and the effects of electrical conductivity of water (ECw) varying from 0.4 to 4.4 dS m-1 associated with nitrogen dose (50 to 150% of recommended dose) were studied. The NPK and sodium contents in the aerial parts of to plant in the leaves in comparison to stems and evaluation times 120 days after sowing (DAS) > 46 DAS. In leaves the content at 46 DAS varied according to following sequence K > Na > N > P and at 120 DAS K > N > Na > P while in the stem in both study periods it accumulated in the order Na > K > P ? N under water salinity and K > Na > P ? N depending on nitrogen fertilization. At 46 DAS, the increasing levels of ECw caused an increase in the Nleaf and Kleaf and nitrogen dose inhibited Na leaf content. At 120 DAS the highest content of Nleaf was obtained in treatment ECw 4.4 dS m-1 and in dose of 150% N while the contents of Kleaf and Kstem were obtained in the dose of 150% N. The P content was not affected by any of the studied factors.

Reginaldo G., Nobre; Lauriane A. dos A., Soares; Hans R., Gheyi; Geovani S. de, Lima; Givanildo da S., Lourenço; Saulo da S., Soares.

1066-10-01

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A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release systems. However, there are no attempts to explore the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as controlled release for NPK fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of NPK fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and zeta-potential. The FTIR results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements N, P and K. The stability of the CS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of nitrogen and potassium than with the addition of phosphorus, due to the higher anion charge from the calcium phosphate than the anion charges from the potassium chloride and urea. The mean diameter increase of the CS-PMAA nanoparticles in suspension with the addition of different compounds indicated that the elements are being aggregated on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles.

2010-08-01

42

Impact of commercial garden growth substratum and NPK-fertilizer on copper fractionation in a copper-mine tailing  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic amendment and NPK-fertilizer could affect the distribution of copper (Cu) among Cu-mine tailing compounds and hence the availability or phytotoxicity of Cu to plants. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the forms of Cu in a Cu-mine tailing (pH 7.70) amended with a commercial garden growth substratum (GGS) containing peat moss and natural mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) in combination with a commercial NPK-fertilizer (20-20-20), by a sequential extraction method. There were eight treatments after the combination of four rates of GGS (0, 12.4, 50 and 100 g/kg tailing) and two rates of fertilizer (0 and 20 g/kg tailing). At the end of a 52-week incubation period, tailing Cu was sequentially extracted to fractionate Cu into five operationally defined geochemical forms, namely ‘water-soluble' (Cu-sol), ‘exchangeable' (Cu-exc), ‘specifically adsorbed on carbonates or carbonate-bound' (Cu-car), ‘organic-bound' (Cu-org) and ‘residual' (Cu-res) fractions. After treatments, the most labile Cu pool (Cu-sol + Cu-exc) represented about 0.94 % of the total Cu, the Cu-car and Cu-org accounted for 22.7 and 5.0% of total Cu, and the residual Cu accounted for nearly 71.3% of total Cu. Compared with the control, the application of GGS decreased Cu-car and increased CuORG whereas the addition of fertilizer increased Cu-sol + Cu-exc and decreased Cu-carb. Fertilizer-treated tailings had the highest amount of Cu-sol + Cu-exc. High rates of GGS resulted in Cu-org levels in GGS-treated tailings which were more than 2.0-2.8 times those obtained in the untreated tailing (control). The partition of Cu in GGS-treated tailings followed the order: Cu-sol + Cu-exc < Cu-car < Cu-org < Cu-res. This study suggests that NPK-fertilizer promotes the formation of labile Cu forms in the calcite-containing Cu-mine tailing. GGS in the tailing matrix acts as effective sorbent for Cu.

Charles, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

2009-04-01

43

Efecto de fertilización con n-p-k y la distancia de siembra sobre el rendimiento de la cebolla (allium cepa l. Effect of N-P-K fertilization and planting distance on onion (Allium cepa L. yield  

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Full Text Available Se establecieron cuatro dosis de fertilización con N-P-K y cuatro distancias de siembra en un diseño de parcelas divididas con subunidades en cuadrado latino, para estudiar su efecto sobre el tamaño y el rendimiento del bulbo de cebolla Texas Grano 438. El diámetro del bulbo se comportó como una característica dependiente de la fertilización y la distancia de siembra. Con las dosis menor (150-44-166 kg/ha de N-P-K, respectivamente el máximo diámetro se logró en la distancia 12 x 20 cm mientras que con las dosis mayores lo fue en la distancia 10 x 20 cm. Al variar la distancia desde 6 x 20 cm hasta 12 x 20 cm se modificó significativamente la altura y el peso fresco del bulbo, lográndose los valores máximos en la distancia 10 x 20 cm. No se detectaron diferencias entre las dosis del fertilizante. El rendimiento por unidad de área presentó respuestas inversamente proporcionales a las distancias de siembra.The effect of four doses of N-P-K and four plant spacing on size and yield of Texas Grano 438 onion bulb was studied in a latin square design. Bulb diameter was dependent on fertilization and plant spacing. At the 12 x 20 cm spacing, maximum diameters were obtained with the lowest level of fertilization (150-44-166 kg/ha N-P-K, respectively while with higher dose the maximum diameter was found at the 10 x 20 cm plant spacing. When spacing was changed from 6 x 20 cm to 12 x 20 cm, the bulb's height and fresh weight were significantly modified, obtaining maximum values at the 10 x 20 cm. No differences were found for fertilizer dose. Yield per area unit showed results in indirect proportion to plant spacing.

Ana Viloria

2003-05-01

44

Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m[sup 2] frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

1994-01-01

45

Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere elsined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

46

ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES  

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Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

Marcos Roberto Murbach

1999-01-01

47

Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato  

OpenAIRE

O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS) no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva) e três níveis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha) de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10). Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares ...

Santos, Paulo Renato Z.; Pereira, Arione S.; Freire, Cla?udio Jose? S.

2001-01-01

48

Influence of Npk Inorganic Fertilizer Treatment on the Proximate Composition of the Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth  

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Full Text Available The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h-1 treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p<0.05 increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p<0.05 decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant’s leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

G.G.E. Osuagwu

2013-01-01

49

Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)  

OpenAIRE

Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient use efficiencies of newly formulated slow release NPK sources in turm...

Jagadeeswaran, R.; Murugappan, V.; Govindaswamy, M.

2005-01-01

50

Comparative Effect of City Finished Compost and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Availability of Phosphorus to Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)  

OpenAIRE

A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the comparative effect of city finished compost and NPK fertilizer on the growth and availability of phosphorus to radish (Raphanus sativus L.). An air dried sandy loam soil was mixed with five rates of city finished compost (CFC) equivalent to 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 ton ha–1 and three rates of NPK fertilizer equivalent to 50% (N-P-K = 69-16-35 kg ha–1), 100% (N-P-K = 137-32-70 kg ha–1<...

Khan Towhid Osman; Md. Abul Kashem; Ashoka Sarker

2012-01-01

51

Efficiency of a NPK fertilizer with adhered zinc lignosulfonate as a zinc source for maize (Zea mays L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a NPK fertilizer (8:15:15) with a Zn lignosulfonate (ZnLS) adhered as Zn source for maize plants. This product was compared in three experimental designs with the same NPK fertilizer with ZnSO(4) adhered and with no Zn adhered. The first and the second assays were carried out in a growth chamber by using perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate and the third experiment was raised in two calcareous fields. In general, growth chamber experiments showed that plants treated with NPK + ZnLS presented the highest dry weight and Zn concentrations in shoots. Also at field experiments, the Zn concentration in shoots was significantly high in plants treated with NPK + ZnLS. The grain harvested showed that this treatment gave the highest values in one location, but in the other no significant differences were observed. Although further research is required, we can conclude that NPK + ZnLS product could be a suitable source of Zn for maize crops. PMID:19761209

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2009-10-14

52

Differences in responses of summer and winter spinach to elevated UV-B at varying soil NPK levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal variations in response of spinach to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) during summer and winter were assessed with respect to growth, biomass, yield, NPK uptake and NPK use efficiencies at varying NPK levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended NPK (RNPK) and 1.5 times recommended NPK (1.5 RNPK). Season significantly affected the measured parameters except the number of leaves. Under ambient UV-B, the growth performance of summer spinach was better in both the NPK levels, higher being at 1.5 RNPK leading to higher nutrient uptake. However, more reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B in 1.5 RNPK was recorded during summer, while during winter in RNPK. Reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B was accompanied by the modification in its partitioning with more biomass allocation to root during summer compared to winter at both the NPK levels. NPK uptake was higher in summer, while NPK use efficiencies were higher during winter. At higher than recommended NPK level, better NPK use efficiencies were displayed during both the seasons. Increased NPK supply during winter enabled spinach to capitalize light more efficiently and hence increased biomass accumulation. Strategies for surviving elevated UV-B in winter differ from those that provided protection from the same stress when it occurs in summer. PMID:24474564

Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

2014-05-01

53

NPK, protein content and yield of broccoli as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and phosphorus fertilizer rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre sowing-seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and different phosphorus fertilizer application rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 k P2O5 /fed) on NPK content of leaves and spear, and protein content in spears at maturity, spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant and total spear yield. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by exposing broccoli seeds to 3 Gy. There were non-significant differences between 3 and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on the studied parameters, increasing phosphorus application rates up to 90 kg P2O5/fed increased the above mentioned parameters. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by applying 90 kg P2O5/fed. The interaction, gamma ray and P level showed phosphorus there were significant differences in main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear yih and dry weight per plant, total spear yield and spear diameter in first season. The highest value was obtained by 3 Gy and 90 kg P2O5/fed. Also there were significant effects on NPK content in broccoli leaves at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) except P in second season and nonsignificant values of broccoli spear at harvest except N, K in first season. The highest protein content of broccoli spears at harvest was obtained with 2 Gy and 30 kg P25/fed

54

Determination of water content in the combined type of NPK fertilizer using neutron moderation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of neutron moderation method for the determination of water content of the combined NPK type of fertilizers is discussed. Experimental measurements were carried out using an 11.1 GBq Am-241-Be laboratory source of fast neutrons, a measuring unit consistinq of a measuring cell, a proportional detector filled with BF3 and an evaluation electronic unit. The measured values are compared with those obtained by analytical determinations using the Karl Fi--scher method. An advantage of the suggested method is that the measured value represents the value of a far larger volume of the measured material as compared with the amounts taken at random for laboratory determinations. (T.I.)

55

Effecte of NPK Fertigation Rate and Starter Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber Grown in Greenhouse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two greenhouse experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Hada-Alsham, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. To study the effects of the four NPK fertigation rates (50%, 75%, 100% and 125% of recommended; 220, 150, 150kg N, P2O5, K2O /ha, respectively and three starter fertilizers (SF; SF0 (control, SF2: 7-14-7 and SF3: 7-28-7 kg N- P2O5, K2O /ha, on the growth, yield, and minerals contents of cucumber plants, cv. Alrased 92 F1. The results indicated that application of NPK fertigation up rate 125% of recommended, achieved significant increases in the plant height and number of leaves at (30, 50 and 70 DAS, number of branches at 30 DAS only, as well as leaf minerals (N, P and K contents, fruit setting percentage, fruit weight, number of fruits and fruits yield. Cucumber plants receiving starter fertilizers achieved an increase in the plant height, number of leaves and branches, especially at early growth stages (30 and 50 DAS. Likewise, SF2 (7-28-7 kg N-P2O5-K2O/ha recorded significant maximum increment in the all tested fruit yield characters. Moreover, soil application of SF2 was accompanied by significantly reduction in fruit setting percentage. The interaction effect between NPK fertigation rate and starter fertilizer showed that NPK fertigation rate of 125% + SF had the highest mean values of plant height at all growth stages and number of leaf and branches at 30 DAS. Application of SF1 or SF2 combined with 125% of recommended NPK resulted in the highest significant mean values for the fruit setting % and number fruits per plant, fruit yield and leaf's P and K contents.

Mostafa Nabawy Fleafel

2014-08-01

56

Effect of Spacing and NPK Fertilizer on the Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons with the aim of assessing the effect of spacing and NPK fertilizer on the yield and yield components of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. Treatments consisted of four spacing (60x30 cm, 90x30 cm, 60x60 cm and 75x45 cm and four NPK rates (0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 in a split plot design with plant spacing allocated to main plots and fertilizer in sub plots. The treatments were replicated three times to give a total of forty eight sub plots. Parameter such as number of fruits per plant, length of fruit, fresh weight of fruits per hectare and dry weight of fruits per hectare were measured. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA as described by Gomez and Gomez and treatment means were separated using Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Results showed that yield and yield components such as number of fruits per plant and length of fruit were not significantly affected by spacing in 2007. However, significant difference was obtained at 52 DAS in 2008. Number of fruits per plant and length of fruits were significantly affected by fertilizer levels. In 2008, there was significant interaction in respect to fresh weight of fruits per hectare. Also, there was significant interaction between spacing and fertilizer in respect to dry weight of fruits per hectare in 2007 and 2008. The results indicated that spacing of 90x30 cm and application of 150 kg ha-1 (22.5 kgN, 22.5 kg P2O5 and 22.5 kg K2O5 of NPK gave the highest yield of okra in Mubi.

K.N. Futuless

2010-01-01

57

Efeitos do estêrco, dos resíduos de desfibragem e da adubação mineral com NPK, sôbre a produção de rami / Responses of ramte to NPK fertilizer, manure and residues from ramie decortication  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em solo do arenito Bauru recém-desbravado foram estudados, em oito sucessivas colheitas, os efeitos de várias adubações sôbre a produção de rami. Somente a partir da sexta colheita foram obtidas respostas satisfatórias a alguns dos tratamentos. No conjunto das três últimas, os aumentos determinados, [...] na produção de fibras brutas sêcas ao ar, pelas adubações com resíduos de desfibragem (de rami), estêrco de curral e NPK mineral + resíduos não alcançaram signi-ficância estatística; os proporcionados por NPK e NPK + estêrco, porém, foram significativos e se elevaram a, respectivamente, 45 e 51 por cento da produção sem adubo. Abstract in english The effects of some fertilizing materials on the yield of ramie (Boehmeria niveaGaud.) grown on a recently broken fertile soil were studied through eight consecutive cuts. Satisfactory responses to some treatments were obtained only after the fifth cut. In the three last cuts, the increases in the y [...] ield of air-dried, crude fibers due to the applications of residues from mechanically descorticated ramie stalks, manure or mineral NPK + residues were not significant, whereas those due to NPK alone and NPK + manure corresponded to 45 and 51%, respectively, and were significant.

G. A. de Paiva, Castro; Toshio, Igue; E. S., Freire.

1968-01-01

58

Efeitos do estêrco, dos resíduos de desfibragem e da adubação mineral com NPK, sôbre a produção de rami Responses of ramte to NPK fertilizer, manure and residues from ramie decortication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em solo do arenito Bauru recém-desbravado foram estudados, em oito sucessivas colheitas, os efeitos de várias adubações sôbre a produção de rami. Somente a partir da sexta colheita foram obtidas respostas satisfatórias a alguns dos tratamentos. No conjunto das três últimas, os aumentos determinados, na produção de fibras brutas sêcas ao ar, pelas adubações com resíduos de desfibragem (de rami, estêrco de curral e NPK mineral + resíduos não alcançaram signi-ficância estatística; os proporcionados por NPK e NPK + estêrco, porém, foram significativos e se elevaram a, respectivamente, 45 e 51 por cento da produção sem adubo.The effects of some fertilizing materials on the yield of ramie (Boehmeria niveaGaud. grown on a recently broken fertile soil were studied through eight consecutive cuts. Satisfactory responses to some treatments were obtained only after the fifth cut. In the three last cuts, the increases in the yield of air-dried, crude fibers due to the applications of residues from mechanically descorticated ramie stalks, manure or mineral NPK + residues were not significant, whereas those due to NPK alone and NPK + manure corresponded to 45 and 51%, respectively, and were significant.

G. A. de Paiva Castro

1968-01-01

59

Effecte of NPK Fertigation Rate and Starter Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber Grown in Greenhouse  

OpenAIRE

Two greenhouse experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Hada-Alsham, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. To study the effects of the four NPK fertigation rates (50%, 75%, 100% and 125% of recommended; 220, 150, 150kg N, P2O5, K2O /ha, respectively) and three starter fertilizers (SF); SF0 (control), SF2: 7-14-7 and SF3: 7-28-7 kg N- P2O5, K2O /ha, on the growth, yield,...

Mostafa Nabawy Fleafel; Zohair Mahmoud Mirdad; Abdishakur Sheikh Hassan

2014-01-01

60

Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK / Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distri [...] buídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF), colmos (MSC) e total (MST), teor de proteína bruta (PB), N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan [...] Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic Red Yellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY) evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP) and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães, Teles; Maria Socorro de Souza, Carneiro; Ismail, Soares; Elzania Sales, Pereira; Pedro Zione de, Souza; João Avelar, Magalhães.

2011-06-01

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Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Cowdung in Combination with Foliar Spray of Chemicals on Jute Fibre  

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Full Text Available The experiment was performed in the experimental land of the Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi during the period of April-May, 2007 and 2008. The physical and chemical characteristics of jute fibre under different foliar treatments were investigated at mature stage. The results showed significantly increase in most of the chemical composition under different foliar treatments. Moisture content, dry matter and ash contents of jute fibre obtained from experimental land compared to those of control jute fibre after application of NPK-fertilizers and cowdung in combination with foliar spray. The moister content of jute fibre decreased whereas ash content increased significantly under different treatments. The moisture and ash contents of jute fibre were varied between 12 to 14% and 0.5 to 0.7%, respectively. On the other hand the dry matter content of jute fibre increased slightly under different treatments. The aqueous extract, fatty and waxy matter, pectic matter, ?-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin contents and tensile strength of jute fibre as compared to those of control were as follows: The maximum increase of aqueous extract 20.65% (treatment T2, the maximum increase of fatty and waxy 22.54% (treatment T2, pectic matter 5.49% (treatment T6, ?-cellulose 61%, hemicellulose 29%, lignin contents 7.29% (treatment T6 and tensile strength 15.55%.

N. Absar

2010-01-01

62

Slow-released NPK fertilizer encapsulated by NaAlg-g-poly(AA-co-AAm)/MMT superabsorbent nanocomposite.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel slow released NPK fertilizer encapsulated by superabsorbent nanocomposite was prepared via in-situ free radical polymerization of sodium alginate, acrylic acid, acrylamide, and montmorillonite in the presence of fertilizer compounds. Evidence of grafting and component interactions, superabsorbent nanocomposite structure and morphology was obtained by a FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. The water absorbency behavior of superabsorbent nanocomposite was investigated. After those characterizations, the potential application was verified through the study of fertilizer release from prepared formulations. Results indicated that the presence of the montmorillonite caused the system to liberate the nutrient in a more controlled manner than that with the neat superabsorbent. The good slow release fertilizer property as well as good water retention capacity showed that this formulation is potentially viable for application in agriculture as a fertilizer carrier vehicle. PMID:25263891

Rashidzadeh, Azam; Olad, Ali

2014-12-19

63

Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

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Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK / Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente [...] em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth), cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa"), durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N), fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 ) e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O), em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação). As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993), quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m) tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE), com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente). A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra) foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente), enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha). Doses crescentes de potássio (K) apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97) na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente). Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK), exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N. Abstract in english The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in per [...] ennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was studied under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5) and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O) doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993), when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing) were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE), with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively). The interaction GE x PO (sample position) was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively), while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³

Marilene L. A., Bovi; Sandra H., Spiering; Antonia Marlene M., Barbosa.

1999-11-01

65

Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

66

Estado nutricional e características de crescimento do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi' cultivado em latossolo amarelo distrófico em função da adubação com NPK Nutritional status and growth caracteristics of pineapple in dystrophic yellow latosol 'Jupi' cultivated in fucntion of NPK fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação da fórmula 20:05:20 de NPK no crescimento das folhas e frutos e no estado nutricional do abacaxizeiro. Foram utilizadas mudas do tipo filhote do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi', com peso médio de 250 g, plantadas em vasos contendo 13 dm³ de Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico. Os tratamentos consistiram de 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g de NPK, na proporção de 20:05:20, aplicados em três parcelamentos de 20%, 40% e 40% da dose aos 45, 120 e 240 dias, após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O peso médio do fruto foi influenciado pela dose de adubo, com valor significativamente maior para peso do fruto sem coroa, na dosagem de 93 g de adubo. Com a elevação das doses de adubo os teores de brix e acidez titulável aumentaram, enquanto a relação brix/acidez titulável apresentou redução.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of NPK on the growth of leaves and fruits and nutritional status of pineapple. Slips of pineapple'Jupi', with weight of 250 g were planted in vessel with13 dm³ of dystrophic Yellow Latosol. The treatment consisted of 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g of NPK (20:05:20 divided in three applications (20%, 40% and 40% of the dose after 45, 120 and 240 days. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block outline, with four replications. The mean weight of the fruit was influenced by NPK doses. The highest fruit weight was obtained in the fruit without crown and fertilization of NPK with 93 g. With the increase of doses of NPK, the brix tenors and total titled acidity increased while the relation brix/titled acidity decreased.

Ruimário Inácio Coelho

2007-12-01

67

Adubação com NPK e irrigação do girassol em Luvissolo: Comportamento vegetativo / NPK fertilization and irrigation of sunflowers in Luvisol: Vegetative behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Entre as culturas utilizadas para a produção de biocombustíveis, o girassol é um das mais importantes. Apesar de existir informações na literatura, as necessidades hídricas e de nutrientes do girassol ainda não estão perfeitamente definidas. Com o objetiv [...] o de verificar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada, fosfatada, potássica e o conteúdo de água disponível no solo (AD) sobre o comportamento vegetativo do girassol Embrapa 122 V2000, na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande-PB, foi conduzido um experimento com quarenta e quatro tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de doses (kg ha-1) de N, P e K de acordo com uma matriz baconiana, sendo 1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 e quatro conteúdos de água disponível (55, 70, 85 e 100% da AD). O tratamento nove é o de referência, correspondendo às doses adotadas pelos produtores de girassol do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em triplicata. Avaliou-se a altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas e área foliar, aos 40 e 60 dias após a semeadura. Os resultados indicaram que os efeitos da água disponível e adubação com NPK sobre a cultura do girassol ocorreram de forma independente, excetuando-se o número de folhas. Todas as variáveis apresentaram comportamento linear crescente em função da água disponível do solo, exceto a área foliar. Para as condições estudadas, as doses 100, 80 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, proporcionaram os maiores índices de crescimento. Abstract in english The sunflower is one of the most important crops used for the production of biofuels. While the literature does contain some information, the hydric and nutritional requirements of sunflowers are still not completely defined. In order to correct this defi [...] ciency, an experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil, with the aim of evaluating the effect of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium fertilization and available soil water (AW) on the behavior of Sunflower cv. Embrapa 122 V2000. The experiment consisted of 44 treatments with compound fertilizers using a Baconian Matrix (1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 kg ha-1 of N, P and K, respectively, and four difference quantities of available soil water (55, 70, 85 and 100%). The 9th compound fertilizer treatment was considered the reference since its doses are those used by the region's sunflower growers in Rio Grande do Norte State. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area of the plants were evaluated at 40 and 60 days after sowing. The results showed that the effects of available soil water and NPK fertilization on sunflower crop occurred independently for all variables except for the number of leaves. All variables increased linearly as a function of available soil water, except for leaf area. For the conditions studied, the doses 100, 80 and 80 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O resulted in the highest growth rates, respectively.

Vinícius Batista, Campos; Lúcia Helena Garófalo, Chaves; Hugo Orlando Carvallo, Guerra.

2015-03-01

68

Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil / Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Am [...] arelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribuídos em dois blocos. O P foi aplicado somente no plantio nas doses de 0; 80; 160 e 320 kg/ha de P(2)0(5), como superfosfato. As doses de N e K2O foram 0; 175; 350 e 700 kg/ha, aplicadas como uréia e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente, parceladas em quatro aplicações, durante o período de crescimento da cultura. Ajustaram-se funções de resposta para a produção e características de qualidade dos frutos com o objetivo de estimar as doses de N, P e K para atingir valores máximos. Observou-se resposta quadrática na produção, com um máximo de 72 t/ha de frutos frescos estimado para as doses de 498 e 394 kg/ha de N e K2O, respectivamente. Para a maximização do tamanho do fruto e da porcentagem de frutos de primeira classe (massa maior que 2,6 kg), as doses de N e K foram, respectivamente, 11 e 43% maiores daquelas necessárias para atingir a produção máxima. Não foi observado efeito das doses de P no crescimento ou produção, mesmo com a baixa disponibilidade do nutriente no solo da área experimental. O aumento nas doses de N diminuiu o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, enquanto o oposto ocorreu com as doses de K, que aumentaram também os teores de vitamina C. Produção e tamanho de fruto apresentaram relação positiva com os teores de N e de K nas folhas. Abstract in english There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the [...] State of São Paulo (Agudos county). The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5), as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg), were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.

Ademar, Spironello; José Antonio, Quaggio; Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Pedro Roberto, Furlani; José Maria Monteiro, Sigrist.

2004-04-01

69

Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution / Adubação npk na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os níveis adequados de nutrientes na planta podem variar de acordo com a espécie ou clone, a idade e o manejo adotado. Com isso, muitas vezes, ajustes na solução nutritiva são necessários conforme o material que se deseja multiplicar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da adubação [...] NPK na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetação da UFVJM. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4)½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro doses dos nutrientes N (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1) na forma de ureia, P (7,5, 15, 30 e 60 mg L-1) na forma de ácido fosfórico e K (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1) na forma de cloreto de potássio em solução nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente para número e massa seca das miniestacas por minicepa, com efeito linear decrescente com o aumento das doses de N. O maior número de miniestacas foi obtido nas doses de 50, 7,5 e 50 mg L-1 de NPK, respectivamente. Abstract in english Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on productio [...] n and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized fractional factorial (4 x 4 x 4)½, with a total of 32 treatments with three replications. The treatments consisted of four doses of N (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1) as urea, P (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg L-1) in the form of phosphoric acid and K (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1) in the form of potassium chloride in the nutrient solution. Only the effect of N alone was significant for the number and dry weight of minicuttings per ministump, with a linear decreasing effect with increasing N levels. The highest number of cuttings was obtained at a dose of 50, 7.5 and 50 mg L-1 of N, P and K, respectively.

José Pereira, Carvalho Neto; Enilson de Barros, Silva; Reynaldo Campos, Santana; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti.

2011-02-01

70

Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention.  

Science.gov (United States)

A double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention was prepared by crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/diatomite - containing urea (the outer coating), chitosan (the inner coating), and water-soluble granular fertilizer NPK (the core). The effects of the amount of crosslinker, initiator, degree of neutralization of acrylic acid, initial monomer and diatomite concentration on water absorbency were investigated and optimized. The water absorbency of the product was 75 times its own weight if it was allowed to swell in tap water at room temperature for 2 h. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and element analysis results showed that the product contained 8.47% potassium (shown by K(2)O), 8.51% phosphorus (shown by P(2)O(5)), and 15.77% nitrogen. We also investigated the water-retention property of the product and the slow release behavior of N, P and K in the product. This product with excellent slow release and water-retention capacity, being nontoxic in soil and environment-friendly, could be especially useful in agricultural and horticultural applications. PMID:17320380

Wu, Lan; Liu, Mingzhu; Rui Liang

2008-02-01

71

Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat crop in both experiments. The soil under investigation was calcareous in nature, having a high pH (8.2, low in organic matter (8200 mg kg-1, and deficient in N (300 mg kg-1, P (7.5 mg kg-1 and Zn (6.2 mg kg-1. Boiler ash was rich inmicronutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and also contained sufficient amount of Ca, Mg, Na, S, K and P. Consequently, total porosity of soil, available P, S and K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu content in soil, increased with the levels of boiler ash application.On the other hand, dry bulk density declined which is a positive effect. ECe and pH of the soil was minutely increased. Yields and most of the yield components of wheat crop in pots, as well as in the field experiment, also increased due to boiler ashapplication. It is recommended that application of boiler ash @ 50 t ha-1 will result in enhanced yield of wheat in calcareous soil.

Muhammad Jamil Khan

2008-05-01

72

Exigências nutricionais da grápia em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico: efeito da adubação NPK no teor de nutrientes nos tecidos Nutritional demand of grápia in Paleaudalf soil: effect of NPK fertilization on content of nutrients in the tissues  

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Full Text Available A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride é uma espécie florestal nativa de ampla utilidade na indústria madeireira, motivo pelo qual, atualmente, encontra-se em processo de extinção. Em trabalho prévio, utilizando-se um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, foi demonstrado que o crescimento de plantas jovens de grápia respondeu à adubação de N, P e K com dose de máxima eficiência técnica estimada em, respectivamente, 70, 80 e 80mg kg-1. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar o efeito da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes e micronutrientes dos tecidos de plantas de grápia. Em condições de casa de vegetação, foram realizados 27 tratamentos de adubação em esquema trifatorial completo (3x3x3, representados por três níveis (0, 40 e 80mg kg-1 de N, de P e de K. A parcela experimental foi constituída de um vaso com 3,5kg de Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico e duas plantas. Aos 140 dias após a emergência das plantas, avaliou-se o crescimento e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes da grápia. Os resultados sugerem que os teores adequados de nutrientes nas folhas de plantas jovens de grápia, para se obter de 80 a 100% da produção de biomassa, sejam: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride is a Brazilian forest species with great interest for timber-trade, and nowadays due to deforestation, it has been considered in extinction process. In the previous paper, it was shown that the NPK fertilization, respectively at 70, 80 and 80mg kg-1 of a Paleudalf soil, significantly increased the growth of young plants of grápia. The present work is aimed at characterizing the effects of the NPK fertilization on macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the tissues of grápia. At glasshouse conditions, 27 fertilization treatments were used in a complete trifactorial scheme (3x3x3, represented by the combination of three levels (0, 40 and 80mg kg-1 of N, of P and of K. As experimental unit, pots with 3.5kg of a Paleudalf soil and two plants were used. At 140 days after plant emergence, plant growth and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in leaves, stem and roots were evaluated. The data suggest that the adequate nutrient contents in leaves of young plants of grápia, envision to obtain 80 to 100% of biomass production, were: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.

Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

2007-04-01

73

Exigências nutricionais da grápia em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico: efeito da adubação NPK no teor de nutrientes nos tecidos / Nutritional demand of grápia in Paleaudalf soil: effect of NPK fertilization on content of nutrients in the tissues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride) é uma espécie florestal nativa de ampla utilidade na indústria madeireira, motivo pelo qual, atualmente, encontra-se em processo de extinção. Em trabalho prévio, utilizando-se um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, foi demonstrado que o crescimento de [...] plantas jovens de grápia respondeu à adubação de N, P e K com dose de máxima eficiência técnica estimada em, respectivamente, 70, 80 e 80mg kg-1. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar o efeito da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes e micronutrientes dos tecidos de plantas de grápia. Em condições de casa de vegetação, foram realizados 27 tratamentos de adubação em esquema trifatorial completo (3x3x3), representados por três níveis (0, 40 e 80mg kg-1) de N, de P e de K. A parcela experimental foi constituída de um vaso com 3,5kg de Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico e duas plantas. Aos 140 dias após a emergência das plantas, avaliou-se o crescimento e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes da grápia. Os resultados sugerem que os teores adequados de nutrientes nas folhas de plantas jovens de grápia, para se obter de 80 a 100% da produção de biomassa, sejam: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1. Abstract in english Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride) is a Brazilian forest species with great interest for timber-trade, and nowadays due to deforestation, it has been considered in extinction process. In the previous paper, it was shown that the NPK fertilization, respectively at 70, 80 and 80mg kg-1 of a Pa [...] leudalf soil, significantly increased the growth of young plants of grápia. The present work is aimed at characterizing the effects of the NPK fertilization on macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the tissues of grápia. At glasshouse conditions, 27 fertilization treatments were used in a complete trifactorial scheme (3x3x3), represented by the combination of three levels (0, 40 and 80mg kg-1) of N, of P and of K. As experimental unit, pots with 3.5kg of a Paleudalf soil and two plants were used. At 140 days after plant emergence, plant growth and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in leaves, stem and roots were evaluated. The data suggest that the adequate nutrient contents in leaves of young plants of grápia, envision to obtain 80 to 100% of biomass production, were: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.

Fernando Teixeira, Nicoloso; Marco Aurélio de Freitas, Fogaça; Flávio, Zancheti; Roni Paulo, Fortunato; Evandro Luiz, Missio.

2007-04-01

74

Efeito da densidade de plantas e da adubação NPK na produção inicial de palmito de pupunheira / Effect of density and fertilization NPK on heart-of-palm production of peach palm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos da densidade de plantas e doses de adubação na produção de palmito de pupunheira, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Yuricam, Rio Preto da Eva (AM). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, sendo [...] avaliados os fatores: densidade de plantas (10.000; 5.000 e 3.333 plantas ha-1) e doses de adubação NPK (0-0-0; 112,5-12,5-90; 337,5-38-270; 225-90-180, 225-25-180 em kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente). Os resultados do primeiro ano de produção de palmito, em termos de estipes colhidas, para efeito das doses de adubação NPK, foram: 225-90-180 (66 %); 225-25-180 (57 %); 337,5-38-270 (50 %); 112,5-12,5-90 (26 %); 0-0-0 (1 %) - os números entre parênteses indicam os percentuais de plantas coletadas em relação às plantadas - e para efeitos de densidade: 3.333 plantas ha-1 (58 %); 5.000 plantas ha-1 (28 %); 10.000 plantas ha-1 (40 %). O tempo médio para extração de palmito foi menor na densidade de 3.333 plantas ha-1 (18,4 meses) e na dose de adubação NPK de 225-90-180 (18,1 meses). O efeito simples da adubação NPK dentro da densidade de 10.000 plantas ha-1 com a adubação 225-90-180 e 225-25-180 apresentou maior produção de palmito, com 841 e 779 kg ha-1, e de 1.154 e 1.223 kg ha-1 de estipe tenro, respectivamente, nas duas adubações. Abstract in english The effect of density and fertilization on heart-of-palm yield of peach palm under field conditions was determined at Yuricam farm, in Rio Preto da Eva counnty, state of Amazonia, Brazil. The experiment was installed in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 5 factoria [...] l scheme with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of the planting density (10,000; 5,000 and 3,333 plants ha-1) and N, P2O5 and K2O doses (0-0-0; 112.5-12.5-90; 337.5-38-270; 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1). The results of the first year of production showed that regarding the NPK doses the stem harvest followed the order: 225-90-180 (66 %); 225-25-180 (57 %); 337.5-38-270 (50 %); 112.5-12.5-90 (26 %); 0-0-0 (1 %) - number in parenthesis indicate the percentage of plants harvested in relation to those that were planted - and for the planting density: 3.333 plants ha-1 (58 %); 10.000 plants ha-1 (40 %); 5.000 plants ha-1 (28 %). The shortest average period for extracting the heart-of-palm was obtained with a density of 3.333 plants ha-1 (18.4 months) and at NPK dose of 225-90-180 kg ha-1 (18.1 months). The main NPK effect within the 10.000 plants ha-1 density with a fertilization employing 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1 of NPK allowed to obtain the highest heart-of-palm yield, which reached 841 and 779 kg ha-1 and 1.154 and 1.223 kg ha-1 of soft stem, respectively, for the two fertilizations.

Kaoru, Yuyama; Wanders B., Chávez F.; Bianca G., Pereira; Ildelfonso A., Silva.

2005-06-01

75

Efeito da densidade de plantas e da adubação NPK na produção inicial de palmito de pupunheira Effect of density and fertilization NPK on heart-of-palm production of peach palm  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da densidade de plantas e doses de adubação na produção de palmito de pupunheira, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Yuricam, Rio Preto da Eva (AM. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, sendo avaliados os fatores: densidade de plantas (10.000; 5.000 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e doses de adubação NPK (0-0-0; 112,5-12,5-90; 337,5-38-270; 225-90-180, 225-25-180 em kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente. Os resultados do primeiro ano de produção de palmito, em termos de estipes colhidas, para efeito das doses de adubação NPK, foram: 225-90-180 (66 %; 225-25-180 (57 %; 337,5-38-270 (50 %; 112,5-12,5-90 (26 %; 0-0-0 (1 % - os números entre parênteses indicam os percentuais de plantas coletadas em relação às plantadas - e para efeitos de densidade: 3.333 plantas ha-1 (58 %; 5.000 plantas ha-1 (28 %; 10.000 plantas ha-1 (40 %. O tempo médio para extração de palmito foi menor na densidade de 3.333 plantas ha-1 (18,4 meses e na dose de adubação NPK de 225-90-180 (18,1 meses. O efeito simples da adubação NPK dentro da densidade de 10.000 plantas ha-1 com a adubação 225-90-180 e 225-25-180 apresentou maior produção de palmito, com 841 e 779 kg ha-1, e de 1.154 e 1.223 kg ha-1 de estipe tenro, respectivamente, nas duas adubações.The effect of density and fertilization on heart-of-palm yield of peach palm under field conditions was determined at Yuricam farm, in Rio Preto da Eva counnty, state of Amazonia, Brazil. The experiment was installed in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of the planting density (10,000; 5,000 and 3,333 plants ha-1 and N, P2O5 and K2O doses (0-0-0; 112.5-12.5-90; 337.5-38-270; 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1. The results of the first year of production showed that regarding the NPK doses the stem harvest followed the order: 225-90-180 (66 %; 225-25-180 (57 %; 337.5-38-270 (50 %; 112.5-12.5-90 (26 %; 0-0-0 (1 % - number in parenthesis indicate the percentage of plants harvested in relation to those that were planted - and for the planting density: 3.333 plants ha-1 (58 %; 10.000 plants ha-1 (40 %; 5.000 plants ha-1 (28 %. The shortest average period for extracting the heart-of-palm was obtained with a density of 3.333 plants ha-1 (18.4 months and at NPK dose of 225-90-180 kg ha-1 (18.1 months. The main NPK effect within the 10.000 plants ha-1 density with a fertilization employing 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1 of NPK allowed to obtain the highest heart-of-palm yield, which reached 841 and 779 kg ha-1 and 1.154 and 1.223 kg ha-1 of soft stem, respectively, for the two fertilizations.

Kaoru Yuyama

2005-06-01

76

Respuesta del litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en el norte de Oaxaca, México / Response of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) to NPK fertilization in northern Oaxaca, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la respuesta de litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en árboles de la var. 'Brewster' de seis años plantados al norte de Oaxaca, en el periodo 2009 - 2011. Se usaron seis proporciones (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 y 125 %) de la dosis 50-130-50 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 y K2O como tra [...] tamientos; adicionalmente se probaron otros tres tratamientos: dosis 100 % + 3.6 t ha-1 de composta, dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores, y dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores + 720 kg ha-1 de Ca (OH)2. La primera fertilización se aplicó en noviembre de 2009 pero no se encontró respuesta a la fertilización en 2010. En 2010 y 2011 la fertilización se dividió en dos partes. La primera mitad se aplicó el 30 de agosto de 2010, y la otra mitad el 11 de febrero de 2011. Los resultados que aquí se reportan son del periodo 2010 - 2011. Las concentraciones foliares mayores de N, P y K se obtuvieron al inicio de la yema floral con las dosis mas altas de fertilización. La mayor floración y el mayor rendimiento de fruta se lograron con la dosis 100 % de N-P-K + elementos menores que superó (P ? 0.05) al testigo. El mayor contenido de clorofila foliar se obtuvo con el tratamiento 125 %, en comparación con el testigo. Los mayores valores de peso de materia seca de brotes vegetativos y de área foliar se lograron con el tratamiento 100 % + composta. El contenido de N foliar correlacionó con el rendimiento de brotes y con área foliar (r = 0.72 y r = 0.65, respectivamente). Se concluye que los árboles de litchi fertilizados con NPK, composta y elementos menores, aumentaron su concentración foliar de N, P y K, cantidad de flores, rendimiento de fruta, color verde de las hojas, biomasa de nuevos brotes y área foliar. No se encontró respuesta del litchi a la aplicación de hidróxido de calcio. Abstract in english Responses of six years old litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees cv. 'Brewster' to NPK fertilization at north of Oaxaca state were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Six dosage treatments (0, 25, 50 75, 100 and 125 %) of the 50-130-50 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O were used. Additional treatments were: 100 % [...] dosage + 3.6 t ha-1 of compost, 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients, and 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients + 720 kg ha-1 of Ca(OH)2. The first fertilization was applied on November 2009, but no response was obtained in 2010. In 2010 and 2011 the fertilization was divided in two parts. The first half was applied in August 30, 2010, and the other in February 11, 2011. The results reported here correspond to the 2010 - 2011 period. Highest concentrations of N, P and K in the leaves at the flower bud stage were obtained with the highest dosages. The highest amounts of flowers and fruit yield compared to the control were observed with 100 % of NPK + micronutrients. Highest chlorophyll contents were found with the 125 % dosage. The highest values of new shoots dry weight and leaf area were obtained with the 100 % dosage + compost. Positive correlations between foliar nitrogen with new shoots weight and leaf area (r = 0.72 and r = 0.65, respectively), were found. It is concluded that litchi trees fertilized with NPK , compost and micronutrients increased N, P and K concentration in the leaves, amount of flowers, fruit yield, green color of leaves, new shoots weight and leaf area. No response to calcium hydroxide application was observed in litchi trees.

Ramiro, Maldonado Peralta; Antonio, Trinidad Santos; Daniel, Téliz Ortíz; Vicente A., Velasco Velasco; Víctor H., Volke Haller.

2012-09-01

77

Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings  

OpenAIRE

Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition. The study was aimed to analyze the effects of different types of media, fertilizer concentration, and frequency of fertilizer application on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings. The expe...

Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R. H. M.

2006-01-01

78

Growth of Tea Seedlings Affected by Different Levels and Application Methods of NPK and Urea  

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Full Text Available In this very experiment to find out the effect of NPK & Urea with different levels (4 & 8 2.gm/sqm. and application methods i.e., broadcast & foliar spray on tea (Camellia sinensis L seedlings in the nursery of National Tea Research Inst. Shinkiari during March to December 1999. Seedling for their plant height (cm, number of leaves, root length & root weight (gms were observed. In the treatments of T4 & T5 Urea @ 8 & 4 gm/sq.m (foliar spray was found significant among each others in plant height, number of leaves, root length and root weight. However number of leaves and root weight were non-significant among each other`s. The seedlings treated in T2 and T3 by NPK as broadcast @ 8 .8 & 4 gm/sq.m for (plant height, root length & root weight were remained non-significant among each others except number of leaves and root weight respectively. Where as T1 (control remained non-significant among all the treatments in all parameters. Urea @ 8 & 4 gm/sq.m (foliar spray showed the best performance in all the parameters statistically.

A. Waheed

2001-01-01

79

Análise de formulações NPK fiscalizadas pelo mapa, de 2008 a 2010 / Analysis of NPK fertilizers inspected by mapa from 2008 to 2010  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Brasil ocupa o quarto lugar mundial em consumo de fertilizantes; dentre esses, destaca-se o fertilizante mineral misto como o mais consumido no País. Depois da atualização da legislação brasileira de fertilizantes em 2004, muitos produtores desses insumos afirmam que houve aumento excessivo no rig [...] or da legislação em relação à fiscalização dos teores de nutrientes neles contidos. Dentro desse contexto, os objetivos deste trabalho foram aplicar técnicas de análise estatística exploratória e descritiva e de regressão logística aos dados de análises fiscais de fertilizantes realizadas pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA), nos anos de 2008 a 2010, buscando indicadores da contribuição das fontes de variação referentes aos fatores estabelecimento, formulação e laboratório para a variação total dos resultados; e verificar se os níveis de tolerância estabelecidos pelo MAPA estão sendo praticados. Para tanto, esses dados, separados por estabelecimento, formulação, laboratório, especificação granulométrica e período foram submetidos à análise descritiva, seguida de regressão logística. A regressão logística demonstrou que, para N e P analisados pelo laboratório com maior número de observações, as variáveis "estabelecimento" e "formulação" influem no resultado final da análise, dentro ou fora da garantia, enquanto para K, analisado pelo mesmo laboratório, apenas a variável "formulação" influi nesses resultados. Abstract in english Brazil is the fourth largest consumer of fertilizers in the world. Among these, bulk blends fertilizers are the most consumed in the country. After updating of Brazilian legislation in regard to fertilizers in 2004, many producers claim that there was an excessive increase in the strictness of legis [...] lation concerning inspection of nutrient levels in those products. Within this context, the objective of this study was to provide an exploratory and descriptive statistical analysis to the data gathered by MAPA (Ministry of Agriculture) from the inspection of the fertilizer industry from the years 2008 to 2010, looking for the most important source of variation, including producer, formula, and laboratory, and verifying if the minimum requirements established by law are being practiced. These data, separated by producer, formula, laboratory, particle size, and period, were subjected to descriptive analysis, followed by logistic regression. Logistic regression showed that for nitrogen and phosphorus analyzed by the laboratory with the greatest number of observations, the "producer" and "formula" variables affect the final results (not-in-conformity or in-conformity), whereas for potassium analyzed by the same laboratory, only the "formula" variable affected the results.

Mariana Coelho de, Sena; Tairone Paiva, Leão; George Freitas, von Borries; Osiris, Turnes.

1207-12-01

80

RESPOSTA DA SERINGUEIRA CLONE RRIM 600 À ADUBAÇÃO NPK EM SOLO PODZÓLICO VERMELHO-AMARELO RESPONSES OF RUBBER TREE CLONE RRIM 600 TO NPK FERTILIZATION ON RED YELLOW PODZOLIC SOIL  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo, que teve por objetivo determinar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] à adubação NPK durante o período de formação do seringal, relata os resultados de experimento com o clone RRIM 600 em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo de textura arenosa, no município de Avaí (SP, Brasil. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicados no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das plantas. Avaliou-se o perímetro do caule a 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a cada quatro meses, e calculou-se a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal em cada parcela. Efetuaram-se análises de solo aos 27 e 51 meses de idade das plantas e análises de folhas, anualmente, no verão. A partir de 60 meses de idade das plantas, aproximadamente três anos após o início das adubações, observou-se efeito linear da adubação nitrogenada sobre o perímetro do caule. A adubação fosfatada teve efeito linear a partir da idade de 72 meses e a interação NP linear foi consistente depois de 75 meses. Usando como indicador a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para as adubações nitrogenada e potássica. O período de imaturidade foi abreviado até em oito meses, comparando-se o tratamento sem adubação com os de melhor desempenho. Adubações desequilibradas, como no tratamento 0-80-120, provocaram retardamento até de 12 meses no período de imaturidade em relação ao tratamento de melhor desempenho (120-120-120. Um ano depois da interrupção da aplicação de fertilizantes, no fim do experimento, não se observou efeito residual dos tratamentos sobre os indicadores de crescimento utilizados.The response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell.Arg.], clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization during the immature stage was evaluated on a sand soil at Avaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Randomized block, closing with fractionated factorial experiment 1/2(4 x 4 x 4 was used to test 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, applied from the second to the eighth years after planting. Trunk girth at 1.20 m above the budgrafting union was measured every four months. The percentage of plants able for tapping and the immaturity period were calculated from girth measurements. Soil analysis were performed at 27 and 51 months after planting and leaf analysis every year. Responses to nitrogen fertilization started to be observed from 60 months, aproximately three years after the beginning of fertilizer applications. Linear effect of phosphorus and NP interaction started at ages of 72 and 75 months respectively. Responses to K fertilization was not detected for trunk girth. Considering the percentage of plants able for tapping, responses were linearly and statistically significant for N and K fertilization. The immaturity period of the crop was reduced eigth months when non fertilized plots were compared to those with the best relations of NPK. Delay of immaturity period up to twelve months was observed considering the best treatments and those with unbalanced relations of NPK. Fertilizer responses disappeared one year after stopping fertilizer applications.

ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA

1998-01-01

81

Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK  

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Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average height of residue of 30 cm. A complete randomized block design was used with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial with three field replications. The fertilization doses corresponded to the reduction of 30 % and the increase of 30 and 60% in relation to a standard dose of 145; 21.6; and 180 kg/ha of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively (assuming the contents of 1.2, 0.08, and 1.2% of N, P, and K in DM, to reach an estimated DM production of 12000 kg/ha. There was a linear effect of fertilization doses on green DM (GDM before and after grazing. The cv. Mombaça exhibited higher herbage mass before and after grazing (9183 and 5279 kg/ha of GDM, respectively than the cv. Tanzania (6275 and 3808 kg/ha of GDM, respectively. The proportion of leaf blade in the GDM available was lower in the cv. Tanzania (51% than in the cv. Mombaça (54 %. The tiller density was not affected by the fertilization doses. However, the increase in tiller weight due to fertilizer doses was responsible for the higher GDM production. The senesced DM did not vary between cultivars, with a mean value of 3108 kg/ha. In general, higher rates of fertilization resulted in greater GDM accumulation rate and higher losses of GDM by trampling. The cv. Mombaça showed a greater response potential to fertilization than the cv. Tanzania with stocking rates of 6.2 and 4.0 UA/ha, respectively.

Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

2002-06-01

82

The Influence of N-P-K Fertilizer Rates and Cropping Systems on Root Biomass and Some Root Morphological Variables of Sweet Corn and Vegetable Soybean  

OpenAIRE

A field experiment using 1.2 x 0.5 x 0.5 m rhizoboxes with 280 kg soil was carried out to investigate the effect of three N-P-K fertilizer rates (50, 00 and 50% of the recommended fertilizer rate) and cropping systems (mono-crop corn or soybean, intercrop corn and soybean without root separation, with plastic and with geotextile root separation) on root biomass, volume surface area and total root length. Mono-crop corn and intercropped corn under plastic sheet root separation had significantl...

Abdulkadir Iman; Zakaria Wahab; Mohd. Ridzwan Abd. Halim; Syed Omar Syed Rastan

2006-01-01

83

Effect of tillage methods and fertilizer levels on maize production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted at National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to observe the emergence and grain yield of maize crop under different fertilizer applications viz. 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and cattle manure 6000, 8000 and 10,000 kg ha/sup -1/ applied in the plots ploughed through tillage practices with deep tillage, conventional tillage and zero-tillage. The non significant interaction between fertilizers and tillage methods as well as between cattle manure and tillage methods each with three levels were found. It indicated that fertilizers and manures should be studied independently using pair wise comparison. Pair wise comparisons indicated that the fertilizer at the rate of 150-75-75 kg ha/sup -1/ (NPK) was suitable for best germination rate and grain yield of maize. Similarly the deep tillage was preferred over conventional and zero tillage, on the other hand, the highest level of manure (10000 kg ha/sup -1/) was recommended for best germination rate and grain yield, where as 8000 kg ha/sup -1/ for grain weight and number of grains per cob. (author)

84

Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

85

Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

OpenAIRE

Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in fou...

Abdul Rehman; Farrukh Saleem, M.; Muhammad Ehsan Safdar; Safdar Hussain; Naeem Akhtar

2011-01-01

86

Effects of Decaying Leaf Litter of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray, Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Inorganic Fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 on Growth and Development of Maize (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available The effects of decaying leaf litter of T. diversifolia, V. amygdalina as organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a Screen House. Twenty four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which include: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1, 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2, 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic fertilizer (T3, a mixture of 250 g decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK (15-15-15 fertilizer (T4, a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g NPK (15-15-15 fertilizer (T5 and control (T6. Significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize groups and this was closely followed by T4 seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as organic fertilizer in maize production in a Screen House condition did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.

K.S. Chukwuka

2014-01-01

87

Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses. PMID:20033737

Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, José A; Colinas, Carlos

2010-06-01

88

Poaceae cespitosa e decumbente adubadas com NPK: efeitos na agregação do solo / Caespitosa and decumbens Poaceae fertilized with NPK: effects on soil aggregation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A desagregação de partículas do solo afeta a sua capacidade produtiva, resultando em processos de compactação, erosão e perdas de nutrientes. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a qualidade e estabilidade dos agregados de um Latossolo Amarelo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, representado por Urochloa dec [...] umbens e Urochloa brizantha, na presença e ausência de adubação mineral, e por duas formas de amostragem (fileiras e entre as fileiras), em três profundidades de amostragem. As amostras indeformadas de solo coletadas foram destorroadas, passadas em peneira de 9,52 mm e, após secagem, em peneiras de 2,00 mm; 1,00 mm; 0,50 mm e 0,25 mm, obedecendo às seguintes classes de diâmetro: 9,52-2,00 mm; 2,00-1,00 mm; 1,00-0,50 mm e 0,50-0,25 mm, por peneiragem seca. Estes agregados foram, também, separados por peneiragem úmida, sendo, ainda, determinada a argila dispersa e a massa seca de raízes. Os agregados maiores que 2,00 mm apresentaram estabilidade elevada, na camada de 0,00-0,05 m, em comparação aos agregados de menores classes, não havendo efeito do local de amostragem e de adubação sobre o tamanho e estabilidade dos agregados. Concluiu-se não haver diferença entre as duas espécies estudadas, forma de coleta das amostras e adubação, na formação e estabilidade de agregados. Abstract in english The disintegration of soil particles affects its productive capacity, resulting in compression, erosion and nutrient losses. This study aimed at evaluating the aggregates quality and stability of a Yellow Latosol, in a randomized blocks design represented by Urochloa decumbens and Urochloa brizantha [...] , with and without mineral fertilization, and two sampling forms (rows and between rows), in three sampling depths. The undeformed soil samples collected were shattered and passed through a 9.52 mm sieve and, after drying, through a 2.00 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.50 mm and 0.25 mm sieves, according to the following diameters classes: 9.52-2.00 mm, 2.00-1.00 mm, 1.00-0.50 mm and 0.50-0.25 mm, by using dry sieving. These aggregates were also separated by wet sieving and the dispersed clay and root dry matter were determined. Aggregates larger than 2.00 mm showed high stability, in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, when compared to the aggregates from smaller classes, with no effect of sampling and fertilization site on the aggregates size and stability. There was no difference for the two species analyzed, sampling method and fertilization on the aggregates formation and stability.

Dácio Jerônimo de, Almeida; Ivandro de França da, Silva; Flávio Pereira da Mota, Silveira; Robeval Diniz, Santiago; José Ronaldo Calado, Costa.

2014-03-01

89

Produtividade e composição bromatológica do capim-Tobiatã com adubação NPK / Productivity and nutritional quality of Tobiatã grass as a function of NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1), duas doses de P2O5 (96 e 30 kg ha-1) e duas doses de K2O (170 e 143 kg ha-1), na forrageira Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã irrigada. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento em blocos casualizados com qu [...] atro repetições. Na implantação do experimento foram aplicados fósforo e potássio, com base em doses teóricas para se atingir valor de P de 40 mg dm-3 e K a 5% da CTC. Após três cortes, foi estimada a MS produzida pela forrageira, a fim de obter os valores dos nutrientes exportados pela planta. Somente após este procedimento, realizou-se a aplicação das doses de N. A produção de massa seca e os teores de PB, FDA e FDN foram influenciados pelos cortes; com a elevação da adubação nitrogenada houve aumento na produção de MS e nos teores de PB, além de menores teores de FDA e FDN, proporcionando melhor qualidade da forragem. A adubação fosfatada e potássica podem ser realizadas tanto com base na produção de massa seca produzida, quanto pelos teores dos elementos no solo. Abstract in english The present study had as objective to study five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two P2O5 rates (96 and 30 kg ha-1) as superphosphate triple, and two doses of K2O (170 and 143 kg ha-1) as potassium chloride, in the forage Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã, with irrigation. The experiment was co [...] nducted using a randomized blocks design with four replicates. In the implantation of the experiment, P and K were applied based on theoretical doses required to reach values of 40 mg dm-3 of P and K 5% of CTC. After three cuts, dry mass produced by the forage was estimated in order to obtain the values of the nutrients exported by the plant. Only after this procedure did the application of the doses of N take place. The production of dry mass - DM, crude protein - CP, neutral-detergent fiber - NDF, and acid-detergent fiber - ADF, were influenced by cuts; increasing N fertilization increased the production of DM, CP and decreased ADF and NDF, providing better forage quality. The fertilization with phosphorus and potassium can be done based on DM production or P and K content in soil.

Juliano Alarcon, Fabricio; Salatiér, Buzetti; Antônio Fernando, Bergamaschine; Cleiton Gredson Sabin, Benett.

2010-06-01

90

Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn  

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Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, pois os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn, um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas.Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tissues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn, a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application. Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

Ivair André Nava

2011-10-01

91

Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn / Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, poi [...] s os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1)x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn), um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro). Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas. Abstract in english Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tiss [...] ues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1)x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn), a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application). Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

Ivair André, Nava; Affonso Celso, Gonçalves Junior; Herbert, Nacke; Valdir Luiz, Guerini; Daniel, Schwantes.

2011-10-01

92

Evaluation of NPK 8-30-20 with gypsum addition compared to fertilization employed in the region for the production of potato (Solanumtuberosum L.) Evaluación de NPK 8-30-20 con yeso en comparación a la fertilización convencional para la producción de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) Avaliação da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola em comparação à adubação convencional para produção de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.)  

OpenAIRE

Different forms of fertilizer management are employed by potato farmers, and from time to time, it appears a receipt to fertilize the crop. However, one should pay special attention to nutrition and fertilization of the potato as the relative demand of fertilizer per unit area in culture is high. The objective was to evaluate the use of NPK 8-30-20 with the addition of gypsum compared to NPK 4-14-8 (regional standard treatment) in the production of potato. The study w...

Douglas Jobim Vieira; Adenilsom dos Santos Lima; Marcio Furlan Maggi; Sidnei Osmar Jadoski; Rafael Wazne

2010-01-01

93

Mobility and retention of micronutrients in soil : Part III. Investigation on the influence of various external factors, NPK-fertilizers and soil amending agents on the mobility and retention of manganese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the mobility and retention of manganese through Sindri red sandy clay loam of pH 7.4 and Ranchi clay loam of pH 5.6 have been carried out using the radiotracer 54Mn. The vertical distribution of manganese in these soils showed almost sharp fall upto a depth of 12 to 14 cm and thereafter it tended to attain the saturation. Variations have been marked in the degrees of manganese retention at the top surface layers of the concerned soils. Influence of various NPK fertilizers and soil amending agents, at various application levels, have been studied on the mobility, retention and leaching loss of manganese in the prementioned soils. Marked variations have been recorded and discussed. (author)

94

Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels / Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cult [...] ivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm), siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm), y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja) y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1). La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE), así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE) fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150) que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK. Abstract in english Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical ar [...] rangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1). Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1) than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.

Abdul, Rehman; M, Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad, Ehsan Safdar; Safdar, Hussain; Naeem, Akhtar.

2011-12-01

95

Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

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Full Text Available Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm, ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm, and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip; NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1. Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE and N use efficiency (NUE were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cultivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm, siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm, y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1. La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE, así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150 que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK.

Abdul Rehman

2011-12-01

96

INFLUENCE OF GROWTH AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS WITH RESIDUAL EFFECT UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILITY LEVELS  

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Full Text Available This manuscript focuses on the effect of concentrate organic manure (wellgrow grain and wellgrow soil anddifferent levels of nutrients on growth and yield component of wheat under different levels of fertility. Significantimprovement in terms of growth parameters like plant height, number of tillers, dry matter production andnumber of productive tillers with application of 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow grain/ha and at par withapplication of 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha, 100% NPK + 200 kg wellgrow grain/ha. Treatmentreceiving 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow grain/ha resulted maximum effective tillers/hill (350 m-2, grain yield(41.2 q/ha. Treatment 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha maintained higher straw yield (53.53 q/ha andtest weight (42.20 g due to application of 100 % NPK along with 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha whereas it was at parwith application of 75% and 100% NPK with both levels of wellgrow formulation.

V.S. MEENA

2013-01-01

97

Response of four cultivars of pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) to different levels of N. P. K. fertilizer in rainforest agroecological zone  

OpenAIRE

The response of four cultivars (Red hot pepper, 52 Zugande, 40 FNHVIA and 41 FNHVIG) of pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) to different rates (0, 260, 310 and 360 kg/ha) of N.P.K fertilizer was investigated in rainforest agroecological zone. The parameters collected were, number of fruits, size of fruits, number of seeds, total yield (g), fresh (g) and dry weight (g). The results of showed that the plants treated with 360kg/ha level of N.P.K. fertilizer performed better than other levels both i...

Obidiebube et al.

2012-01-01

98

Response of Two Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. Varieties to Sowing Date and NPK Fertilizer Rate in a Semi-Arid Environment : Growth and Growth Attributes  

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Full Text Available The main objective of the present investigation was to determine the growth attributes of two groundnut varieties as influenced by sowing date and NPK compound fertilizer rate. Treatments were factorial combinations of three sowing dates (mid-June, end-June and mid-July, three fertilizer rates (10 kg N+13 kg P+13 kg K ha-1, 20 kg N+26 kg P+26 kg K ha-1and 30 kg N+39 kg P+39 kg K ha-1 and two varieties (SAMNUT-22 and SAMNUT-23. Fertilizer rate x sowing date constituted the main plot, while varieties were assigned to the sub-plot as the experiment was laid out in split-plot design with four replications. Canopy spread at 9 Weeks After Sowing (WAS declined with delay in sowing in 2005. Application of 20 kg N+26 kg P+26 kg K ha-1 increased canopy spread significantly. The widest canopy spread in 2005 resulted from the application of 30 kg N+39 kg P+39 kg K ha-1 to mid-June sown crop. Dry matter at 9 WAS in 2004 declined 21.2% when sown in mid-July while at 12 WAS it declined 25.1% and by 23.3% in 2005. Variety SAMNUT-23 accumulated 18.6% greater dry matter than var. SAMNUT-22. During the period 9-12 WAS crop growth rates were highest for the mid-June sown crop and 20 kg N+26 kg P+26 kg K ha-1 fertilizer rate, with a value that was 59.4 and 50.1% higher than those for the lowest and highest fertilizer rates, respectively. Delayed sowing delayed 50% flowering. Variety SAMNUT-22 flowered 8 days later than var. SAMNUT-23 and when sown early (in mid-June and treated with 20 kg N+26 kg P+26 kg K ha-1 out-performed SAMNUT-23 in growth attributes.

N.C. Kuchinda

2011-01-01

99

Pengaruh Media Tanam dan Pupuk Organik NPK Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Cabai Rawit (Capsicum frutescens L.)  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the research was to find the exactly plant media and NPK organic fertilizer on growth and production of chili. Factorial Randomized Block Design was used with two factors. The first factor was Plant Media (M), which consisted of three kinds, namely Mo = Top soil, M, - Top soil : sand (2:1), M2 = Top soil : sand : compost (1:1:1). The second factor was NPK organic fertilizer, consisting of four levels, namely Go = 0 g/polibag/ 2 plants, Gi = 50 g/polibag/ 2 plants, G2 = 100...

Silvianti, Dina

2012-01-01

100

Crecimiento y extracción de N-P-K por plantas de pimentón (Capsicum annuum L.) abonadas con estiércol de pollo en Quíbor, estado Lara / Growth and N-P-K removal in chicken manure fertilized bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El crecimiento de los cultivos depende en gran medida de una adecuada nutrición mineral, por lo que la extracción de nutrientes que ellos hacen es la base para establecer los programas de fertilización. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, estado nutricional y los niveles de extra [...] cción de N, P y K en plantas de pimentón abonadas con dosis altas de estiércol de pollo. El ensayo se realizó en el campo experimental del INIA en Quibor, estado Lara, utilizando el híbrido Enterprise, el cual se trasplantó a una distancia de 0,35 m entre plantas y 1,20 m entre hileras. Cada parcela estuvo constituida por 4 hileras de 11 plantas cada una. Las parcelas fueron repetidas seis veces. El crecimiento inicial, expresado como altura y peso seco de las plantas, fue lento y el mismo aumentó rápidamente a partir de los 45 días después de la siembra (dds) mostrando un comportamiento normal en este cultivo. Se detectó una tendencia general al incremento de la concentración de N y K en el tejido vegetal durante el ciclo de crecimiento. A los 90 dds la mayor concentración de N y K existió en las hojas (41,7 y 39,3 mg.g-1), mientras que la mayor concentración de P se encontró en los frutos (3,7 mg.g-1). Cada planta extrajo, en promedio, 1,749 g N, 0,137 g P y 1,725 g K, reflejando similares niveles de extracción para el nitrógeno y el potasio, pero mucho menores para el fósforo. La proporción de extracción fue de 12:1:12 para el N:P:K, respectivamente. Abstract in english Crops growth depends strongly on appropriate mineral nutrition, so plant nutrient removal creates the basis for many fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status, and N-P-K removal of bell pepper plants fertilized with high dose of chicken manure. Th [...] e essay was carried out at the Experimental Station of INIA in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela, by using the Enterprise hybrid, which was transplanted at 0.35 m within and 1.20 m between rows. Six plots were conformed by four rows with 11 plants each. The initial growth, expressed as plant height and dry weight, was low but it increased rapidly since the mid cycle (45 DAS) following a normal trend for this crop. Overall trend of N and K tissue levels increased during the plant cycle. In 90-day old plants the highest N and K levels were found in leaves (41.7 and 39.3 mg.g-1) while the highest P level was found in fruits (3.7 mg.g-1). As an average, each plant removed from the soil 1.749 g N, 0.137 g P and 1.725 g K, showing similar values for nitrogen and potassium, but much lower for phosphorus. The nutrient removal ratio was 12:1:12 for N:P:K, respectively.

A, Escalona; R, Pire.

2008-06-01

101

Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca) / Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e [...] Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%. Abstract in english Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety) were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in [...] the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

Ademar, Espironelo; José Romano, Gallo; Arquimedes, Lavorenti; Toshio, Igue; Ruter, Hiroce.

102

Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops  

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Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%.Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

Ademar Espironelo

1986-01-01

103

Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo. Parte II - Efeito do calcário e de vários adubos / Effect of lime, manure, green manure, and NPK-fertilizers on the yields of sweet potatoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Entre 1945 e 1950 foram conduzidas quatro experiências em solos ácidos, duas em Campinas (terra-roxa) e duas em Tupi Paulista (solo do Glacial), para estudar os efeitos, sôbre a batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam.), das aplicações de 3 t/ha de calcário, 50 t/ha de estêrco e duas adubações com 60-1 00- [...] 40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O, sendo uma exclusivamente mineral e outra organomineral. Além dêsses tratamentos, que constituiram um esquema fatorial 4X2, tôdas as experiências tiveram um tratamento extra, com adubação verde na ausência do calcário. Isolada, a calagem não trouxe aumentos de produção; no presença do estêrco, porém, ela provocou, em quatro experiências, aumentos correspondentes a 5, 12, 20 e 84%. Sòmente três das experiências permitiram estudar as respostas ao corretivo na presença das adubações NPK, mineral e organomineral: no primeiro caso elas foram -26, +26 e +34%; no segundo, -29, -20 e +21%. Os efeitos do estêrco foram sempre elevados, principalmente na presença do calcário, quando alcançaram +104, +148, +158 e +254%. Embora menores que as do estêrco, as respostas às adubações com NPK (em três experiências) também foram muito boas, mas nem sempre a presença do calcário lhes foi favorável: as da adubaçâo mineral, de +62, +62 e +88% na ausência do calcário, passaram, na sua presença, respectivamente para +94, +34 e +144%; as da adubação organomineral, de +148, +94 e +74 % na ausência, passaram para +67, +73 e + 104% na presença do corretivo. Quanto à adubação verde, no conjunto, das quatro experiências seu efeito foi quase igual ao do estêrco. Na dose empregada, o estêrco levou ao solo muito maiores quantidades de nutrientes que as adubações com NPK. O método de aplicação destas, que foi o usado naprática - ou seja, colocando-as, no momento do plantio, em contacto com as mudas - parece também ter concorrido para reduzir-lhes o efeito. As depressões causadas pela colagem são atribuídos à conhecido influência nociva da "overliming". Em duas experiências cujos solos foram analisados opas a colheita, verificou-se que a calagem elevou o pH de 5,6 o 6,7, em média, mas reduziu opreciàvelmente as disponibilidades de fósforo assimilável, sobretudo nos tratamentos adubados com NPK. Abstract in english This paper reports the results of four experiments with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) to study the effects of liming, two different NPK-fertilizers, manure and green-manuring on different areas of two localities of the State of São Paulo. Liming alone did not increase the yields. In the pres [...] ence of manure, its effects corresponded to +5, +12, +20, and +48%, but in the presence of the NPK-fertilizers they varied from satisfactory to negative. The responses to manure were always very high, principally in the presence of lime. Although not sa large, the effects the NPK-fertilizers were also very good, bul the presence of lime, which enhanced them in some cases, in other coses depressed them considerably. The results of green-manuring were almost equal to those of manure. In the dosage used, manure supplied the soil with much larger quantities of nutrients than the NPK-fertilizers. The method of application of the latter - at planting time and in contact with the cuttings - contributed also to reduce their effectiveness. Regarding the yield reduction caused by liming, they are attributed to the so-called overliming injury. The study of the soils of two trials showed that in the limed the pH averaged only 6.7, ut the quantities of available phosphorus were appreciably reduced, especially in the treatments with the NPK-fertilizers.

A. Paes de, Camargo; E. S., Freire; W. R., Venturini.

104

Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK = Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization  

OpenAIRE

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato...

Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães Teles; Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro; Ismail Soares; Elzania Sales Pereira; Pedro Zione de Souza; João Avelar Magalhães

2011-01-01

105

SOWING DENSITIES AND NPK AND LIMING LEVELS ON COMMON BEAN YIELD, IN CONVENTIONAL CROPPING SYSTEM, IN PONTA GROSSA, PARANÁ STATE, BRAZIL DENSIDADES DE SEMEADURA E NÍVEIS DE NPK E CALAGEM NA PRODUÇÃO DO FEIJOEIRO SOB PLANTIO CONVENCIONAL, EM PONTA GROSSA, PARANÁ  

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Full Text Available

The objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate plant populations and fertilizer-liming levels for the conventional crop system, with the Iapar 81 cultivar, a type II common bean, on a heavy clay soil in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil. An experiment was carried out in the 2003/2004 summer rainy growing season. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, and treatments in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, with four populations (100 thousand, 200 thousand, 300 thousand, and 400 thousand plants ha-1 and four NPK-liming levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the recommended doses of NPK and lime. Plant height and grain yield, with their primary components (pod number per plant, grain number per pod and one hundred grains weight, were evaluated. Results allowed concluding that the increase of NPK-lime levels improved the plant height by 48%, the pod number per plant by 66%, and the grain yield by 88%, while the increase of plant population resulted in a decrease of 18% for plant height and 65% for pod number per plant, with no effect on the grain yield.

KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; plant population; fertilization; soil liming.

O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar populações de plantas e níveis de adubação e calagem mais adequados para o plantio convencional da cultivar de feijoeiro Iapar 81, de hábito tipo II, em solo de textura pesada do Distrito de Itaiacoca, Ponta Grossa-PR. Foi conduzido um experimento na safra das águas de 2003/2004. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e esquema fatorial 4 x 4, envolvendo quatro populações (100 mil, 200 mil, 300 mil e 400 mil plantas ha-1 e quatro níveis de adubação e calagem (0; 0,5; 1; e 1,5 vez as doses recomendadas de NPK e calcário. Foram avaliados as variáveis altura de plantas e o rendimento de grãos, com seus componentes primários, número de vagens por planta, número de grãos por vagem e peso médio de cem grãos. Os resultados permitiram concluir que, no solo estudado, o incremento da adubação e calagem elevou a altura de plantas em 48%, o número de vagens por planta em 66% e o rendimento de grãos em 88%, enquanto o aumento da população resultou em altura de plantas 18% menor e número de vagens por planta 65% menor, não alterando a produção de grãos.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: População de plantas; fertilização; correção do solo.

Armando de Albuquerque

2008-03-01

106

Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

107

Efeito da densidade de plantas e da adubação NPK na produção inicial de palmito de pupunheira Effect of density and fertilization NPK on heart-of-palm production of peach palm  

OpenAIRE

Avaliaram-se os efeitos da densidade de plantas e doses de adubação na produção de palmito de pupunheira, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Yuricam, Rio Preto da Eva (AM). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, sendo avaliados os fatores: densidade de plantas (10.000; 5.000 e 3.333 plantas ha-1) e doses de adubação NPK (0-0-0; 112,5-12,5-90; 337,5-38-270; 225-90-180, 225-25-180 em kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 ...

Kaoru Yuyama; Wanders B. Chávez F.; Pereira, Bianca G.; Silva, Ildelfonso A.

2005-01-01

108

YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF EXTRA-EARLY MAIZE (Zea mays L. AS AFFECTED BY RATES OF NPK FERTILIZER SUCCEEDING CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens SUPPLIED WITH DIFFERENT RATES SHEEP MANURE  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to study response of extra-early maize variety (95TZEE-Y1 to rates of NPK (0, 40:20:20, 80:40:40 and 120:60:60 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 and residual FYM (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 applied to chilli pepper the previous season in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Higher values for soil physical and chemical properties were obtained in plots supplied with manure the previous season with soil from 2006 experiment more fertile than for the first year, hence produced 21% more grain yield. All the applied NPK rates in 2005 and except 40:20:20 ha1 in 2006 had resulted in early maize crop as compared to control. Husked and de-husked cob and 100-grain weights and grain yield/ha were higher at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1. Maize grown in plot supplied with 15 t FYM ha1 the previous year matured earlier. Cobs and 100-grain weights and grain yield were highest in plot supplied with 10 t FYM ha1. The 10t FYM ha-1 had 69% and 68% more grain yield than the control in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Highest maize yield was obtained at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 or 10t FYM ha-1. All the parameters measured significantly and positively related to each other when the two years data were combined.

Bashir Ahmad Babaji

2014-02-01

109

INSTALLATION OF FORAGE SPECIES AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL DEPTH AND CONTACT WITH NPK FERTILIZER FORMULATION INSTALAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIE FORRAGEIRA EM RAZÃO DA PROFUNDIDADE NO SOLO E CONTATO COM FERTILIZANTE FORMULADO NPK  

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Full Text Available

The sowing association of grass forages and grain producing species increases the soil occupation efficiency and makes possible the crop-livestock rotation. However, limitations do exist, such as sowing the seeds of forage species in unfavorable conditions of germination and emergence. The objective of this research is the evaluation of the emergence and production of Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar MG-5 fitomass, as a function of manuring and sowing depth. Seeds were deposited in soil columns submitted to the absence and presence of manure, equivalent to 300 kg ha-1 of the formulation 08-28-16, in four depths (0. 0 cm; 2.5 cm; 5.0 cm; and 10.0 cm, in a complete blocks design, with four replications, in the 2 x 4 factorial scheme. The maximum emergence of B. brizantha cv. MG-5 was observed when sowing at 2.5 cm depth in the soil. The surface sowing of B. brizantha is not the most appropriate. However, if necessary, seeds should not be mixed with fertilizer. The mixture of fertilizer and seeds harmed the B. brizantha establishment. However, surviving individuals overcame the negative fertilizer effect through higher mass yielding.

KEY-WORDS: Grass forage; saline effect; crop-livestock rotation.

121

Características fisicas e químicas do látex e crescimento da seringueira em função da calagem e da adubação NPK em dois sistemas de explotação / Latex physical and chemistry characteristics and growth of rubber tree as a function of lime and NPK fertilization in two tapping systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de diferentes combinações de NPK, com e sem calagem, sobre as características físicas e químicas do látex e as condições de explotação da seringueira (Hevea sp.), clone RRIM 600, foi conduzido um experimento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas contendo oit [...] o tratamentos: sem adubação e sem calagem (T1), sem adubação e com calagem (T2), N1P1K0 + calagem (T3), N2P2K0 + calagem (T4), N1P1K1 + calagem (T5), N2P2K1 + calagem (T6), N1P1K2 + calagem (T7) e N2P2K2 + calagem (T8). Nas duas subparcelas, foram utilizados os seguintes sistemas de explotação: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y com quatro repetições. As doses utilizadas corresponderam a 0, 40 e 80 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, 0, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o incremento no perímetro do tronco não foi influenciado pelo efeito da interação entre 'adubação+calagem' vs. 'sistemas de explotação'. O aumento da espessura da casca foi afetado pelos tratamentos 'N0P0K0+calagem' e 'calagem+adubação', quando comparado com o tratamento 'N0P0K0 sem calagem'. Plantas submetidas ao tratamento N1P1K0 + calagem e ao sistema ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y apresentam maiores concentrações de sacarose no látex. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluated physiological latex characteristics and the tapping systems of the clone RRIM 600 of rubber tree (Hevea sp.) an experiment was conducted with continuous supply NPK fertilizers with or without lime. The experiment was conducted in a randomized split-plot d [...] esign with eight treatments: without fertilizer and without lime (T1), without fertilizer and with lime (T2), N1P1K0 + lime (T3), N2P2K0 + lime (T4), N1P1K1 + lime (T5), N2P2K1 + lime (T6), N1P1K2 + lime (T7) e N2P2K2 + lime (T8). In the two sub-treatments the following tapping systems were used: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y with four replicates. The rates used were 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 y-1; 0, 17.5 e 35.0 kg ha-1 y-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33.2 e 66.4 kg ha-1 y-1 de K2O. The interaction of fertilizer with or without lime versus tapping system did not affect trunk girth increment. The bark thickness was significantly increased with liming, and N1P1K0 and tapping system ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y increased latex saccharose concentration.

Adonias De Castro, Virgens Filho; Adônis, Moreira; Paulo Roberto de Camargo e, Castro.

1237-12-01

122

Características fisicas e químicas do látex e crescimento da seringueira em função da calagem e da adubação NPK em dois sistemas de explotação Latex physical and chemistry characteristics and growth of rubber tree as a function of lime and NPK fertilization in two tapping systems  

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Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de diferentes combinações de NPK, com e sem calagem, sobre as características físicas e químicas do látex e as condições de explotação da seringueira (Hevea sp., clone RRIM 600, foi conduzido um experimento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas contendo oito tratamentos: sem adubação e sem calagem (T1, sem adubação e com calagem (T2, N1P1K0 + calagem (T3, N2P2K0 + calagem (T4, N1P1K1 + calagem (T5, N2P2K1 + calagem (T6, N1P1K2 + calagem (T7 e N2P2K2 + calagem (T8. Nas duas subparcelas, foram utilizados os seguintes sistemas de explotação: (S1 ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2 ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y com quatro repetições. As doses utilizadas corresponderam a 0, 40 e 80 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, 0, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o incremento no perímetro do tronco não foi influenciado pelo efeito da interação entre 'adubação+calagem' vs. 'sistemas de explotação'. O aumento da espessura da casca foi afetado pelos tratamentos 'N0P0K0+calagem' e 'calagem+adubação', quando comparado com o tratamento 'N0P0K0 sem calagem'. Plantas submetidas ao tratamento N1P1K0 + calagem e ao sistema ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y apresentam maiores concentrações de sacarose no látex.The objective of this study was to evaluated physiological latex characteristics and the tapping systems of the clone RRIM 600 of rubber tree (Hevea sp. an experiment was conducted with continuous supply NPK fertilizers with or without lime. The experiment was conducted in a randomized split-plot design with eight treatments: without fertilizer and without lime (T1, without fertilizer and with lime (T2, N1P1K0 + lime (T3, N2P2K0 + lime (T4, N1P1K1 + lime (T5, N2P2K1 + lime (T6, N1P1K2 + lime (T7 e N2P2K2 + lime (T8. In the two sub-treatments the following tapping systems were used: (S1 ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2 ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y with four replicates. The rates used were 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 y-1; 0, 17.5 e 35.0 kg ha-1 y-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33.2 e 66.4 kg ha-1 y-1 de K2O. The interaction of fertilizer with or without lime versus tapping system did not affect trunk girth increment. The bark thickness was significantly increased with liming, and N1P1K0 and tapping system ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y increased latex saccharose concentration.

Adonias De Castro Virgens Filho

2003-12-01

123

Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental / Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol), no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualm [...] ente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N) na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5) na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O) na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente. Abstract in english The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic) in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually eve [...] ry year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N) in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5) in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O) in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three replicates, being the treatments disposed as an incomplete factorial. The spacing was of 3.0 m between lines and 2.5 m between plants with six useful plants per plot. The results evidenced positive response of nitrogen in relation to black pepper grain yield with the application of 72 and 78 kg ha-1 of N, for cultivars Cingapura and Bragantina, respectively. Only cultivar Guajarina responded to the phosphorus application. Growing levels of K2O, reduced the present potassium content in the foliar tissue of the peppers. The potassium addition favored the increase of the production of grains with the application of 42, 13 and 22 kg ha-1 of K2O, for the Cingapura, Bragantina and Guajarina cultivars, respectively.

Carlos Alberto Costa, Veloso; Eduardo Jorge Maklouf, Carvalho; Eurípedes, Malavolta; Takashi, Muraoka.

2000-06-01

124

Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol, no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualmente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente.The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually every year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three replicates, being the treatments disposed as an incomplete factorial. The spacing was of 3.0 m between lines and 2.5 m between plants with six useful plants per plot. The results evidenced positive response of nitrogen in relation to black pepper grain yield with the application of 72 and 78 kg ha-1 of N, for cultivars Cingapura and Bragantina, respectively. Only cultivar Guajarina responded to the phosphorus application. Growing levels of K2O, reduced the present potassium content in the foliar tissue of the peppers. The potassium addition favored the increase of the production of grains with the application of 42, 13 and 22 kg ha-1 of K2O, for the Cingapura, Bragantina and Guajarina cultivars, respectively.

Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

2000-06-01

125

Adubação da mamoneira: IV - Experiências de espaçamento x adubação (2.a série Fertilizer experiments with castor beans: IV - Plant density x fertility level (2nd series  

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Full Text Available Para estudar a influência da densidade de plantio sôbre a produção da mamoneira-anã, variedade IAC-38, foram conduzidas duas experiências fatoriais com os espaçamentos de 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0 m entre as linhas de plantas, as distâncias de 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 m entre as covas (deixando-se duas plantas por cova e três níveis de NPK: 0, 30-60-30 e 60-90-60 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O. As experiências, localizadas em Pindorama e Tatuí, foram instaladas em 1960-61 e repetidas (adubadas e plantadas, nos mesmos canteiros, em 1961-62. As melhores produções foram obtidas com os espaçamentos de 1,0 x 1,0 e 1,5 x 0,5 m. Para o efeito de NPK, as distâncias intermediárias, entre as linhas ou entre as covas; proporcionaram muito melhores condições do que as extremas. Levando em consideração detalhes das observações efetuadas, os autores supõem que um espaçamento da ordem de 1,25 x 0,80 m seria mais adequado, pois, em relação ao de 1,0 x 1,0 m, facilitaria os tratos culturais e a colheita, e, em relação ao de 1,5 x 0,5 m, evitaria possível desperdício de espaço entre as linhas e atenuaria a concorrência entre as plantas da.mesma linha.This paper reports the results obtained in two factorial experiments designed to study the effect, on the dwarf castor beans variety IAC-38, of three spacings between the rows (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 meters, three distances between the hills (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 meters, and three levels of an NPK fertilizer. The experiments were conducted for two years. The largest yields were obtained with the spacings of 1.0 x 1.0 and 1.5 x 0.5 meters. For the effect of NPK, the intermediate distances, between the rows, as well as between the hills, were much better than the wider and the closer ones. After considering the observations made, the authors believe that a spacing of about 1.25 x 0.8 meters would be more adequate. Compared with that of 1.0 x 1.0 meters, it would contribute to facilitate cultivations and harvest; compared with that of 1.5 x 0.5 meters, it would afford better use of the space between the rows and reduce the crowding of the plants within the rows.

José Luiz V. Rocha

1964-01-01

126

Nutrient Content (% Dry Matter of Maize as Affected by Different Levels of Fertilizers in Asaba Area of Delta State  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State. University, Asaba campus (Nigeria from March 2008 to June 2010 to evaluate the nutrient content (% dry matter of maize as affected by different levels of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factorial layout. Four different rates of poultry droppings, cattle dung and NPK 20: 10: 10 fertilizer were applied to three maize varieties sown at 75 cm x 15 cm spacing and the maize grains produced were evaluate for their nutrient content in percentage dry matter. The results obtained indicated that hybrid variety 9022-13 had the highest N, P and K contents (1.03, 1.68 and 0.26, respectively. Also, plants that received inorganic fertilizer had the highest values of 1.27% N, 1.64% P and 0.29% K. Based on rates of application, plants that received 450 kgha-1 NPK 20: 10: 10 fertilizer had the highest values of 1.74% N, 1.71% P and 0.49% K. The interaction effects showed that only variety, manure type and rates % application were significant (P < 0.05. Based on this study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid variety, 9022-13, which was outstanding in its nutrient content be grown in the study area. Alternatively, farmers who prefer open-pollinated varieties could grow BR 9922-DMRSF2 or Agbor local variety for people who prefer local varieties in maize production (ii Spacing of 75 cm x 15 cm (88, 888 plants/ha which resulted in better growth performance and yield should be adopted in maize production (iii Farmers who prefer mineral fertilizer for increased growth and yield of maize should apply 450 kg ha-1 of NPK 20: 10: 10 (iv Farmers who practice organic agriculture in Asaba agro-ecological zone should apply 30 tha-1 of poultry manure to enhance maize yield.

E. C. Enujeke

2013-03-01

127

Restauração de cultura decadente de fórmio, plantada e mantida sem adubação, mediante o emprêgo de calcário, resíduos de desfibragem, estêrco e NPK mineral Restoration of an old and never fertilized Phormium tenax plantation by means of lime, organic and mineral fertilizer applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A possibilidade de restaurar uma cultura decadente de fórmio, plantada sem adubo e assim mantida durante quatorze anos, foi estudada em uma experiência realizada no Estado de São Paulo. A reação aos tratamentos, inicialmente pequena, cresceu progressivamente, e, no terceiro e último corte efetuado, o melhor tratamento (calcário + esterco + NPK proporcionou aumento de 10,9 t/ha de folhas frescas, correspondente ao dôbro da produção obtida sem calcário e sem adubo.The possibility of restoring an old and decadent Phormium tenax plantation was studied in an experiment conducted in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The responses to the treatments tested were initially small, but they grew progressively, so that in the third and last harvest the yield increase due to the best treatment (lime + manure + NPK fertilizer reached 10.9 tons of leaves per hectare, corresponding to 196 per cent of the yield obtained in the control plots. The results indicate that the restoration is technically possible, but the experiment was not sufficiently prolonged to allow the study of the economical side of the method used.

G. A. de Paiva Castro

1969-01-01

128

Restauração de cultura decadente de fórmio, plantada e mantida sem adubação, mediante o emprêgo de calcário, resíduos de desfibragem, estêrco e NPK mineral / Restoration of an old and never fertilized Phormium tenax plantation by means of lime, organic and mineral fertilizer applications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A possibilidade de restaurar uma cultura decadente de fórmio, plantada sem adubo e assim mantida durante quatorze anos, foi estudada em uma experiência realizada no Estado de São Paulo. A reação aos tratamentos, inicialmente pequena, cresceu progressivamente, e, no terceiro e último corte efetuado, [...] o melhor tratamento (calcário + esterco + NPK) proporcionou aumento de 10,9 t/ha de folhas frescas, correspondente ao dôbro da produção obtida sem calcário e sem adubo. Abstract in english The possibility of restoring an old and decadent Phormium tenax plantation was studied in an experiment conducted in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The responses to the treatments tested were initially small, but they grew progressively, so that in the third and last harvest the yield increase due [...] to the best treatment (lime + manure + NPK fertilizer) reached 10.9 tons of leaves per hectare, corresponding to 196 per cent of the yield obtained in the control plots. The results indicate that the restoration is technically possible, but the experiment was not sufficiently prolonged to allow the study of the economical side of the method used.

G. A. de Paiva, Castro; Dirceu, Ciaramello; W. R., Venturing; E. S., Freire; L. C. Pinto de, Toledo.

1969-01-01

129

MAXIMIZING SUGAR BEET YIELDS WITH DECREASING MINERAL FERTILIZATION POLLUTION  

OpenAIRE

In order to increase sugar beet productivity beside decreasing mineral fertilization pollution two field experiments were carried out at El-Garayda Village, Bialla Center, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. This study aimed to determine the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers levels (100, 75 and 50% decrease from recommended dose) and foliar fertilization treatments as follows; control treatment, spraying with water, Melagrow, Amino-P...

Seadh, S. E.

2012-01-01

130

[Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].  

Science.gov (United States)

Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2. PMID:24558863

Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

2013-11-01

131

Use of Gypsum to Increase Fertilizer Efficiency on Normal Soils  

OpenAIRE

Field experiments were conducted on maize and wheat under normal soil conditions at Qalla, Charsadda and Tarnab, Peshawar irrigated with canal water to evaluate the effect of gypsum application on the efficiency of NPK fertilizers. Gypsum was applied @ 0, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 with two levels of fertilizers i.e. recommended dose of NPK (120,90, 60 kg ha-1) and half dose (60, 45 and 30 kg ha-1) respectively. Maximum grain (3605 kg ha-1) and stalk (992...

Niazi, Banaras H.; Izhar-ul-Haq; Salim, M.; Manzoor Ahmad

2003-01-01

132

Impact of Long-Term Fertilization Practice on Soil Structure Evolution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study characterized soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizer over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm tall) and bulk soil samples were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil properties including texture, organic carbon, soil–water characteristic, air permeability and diffusivity were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Long-term applications of AM and NPK had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 0.015 kg kg? 1 (unfertilized plot) to 0.024 kg kg? 1 (well fertilized plot, 30 T ha? 1 2y? 1 AM with NPK). Total porosity linearly followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.36 to 0.43 m3 m? 3. The water holding capacity of the soil was considerably increased with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Gas diffusivity andair permeability measurements clearly indicated that the level of soil aeration improved with increasing AM and NPK fertilizer amount. The three-dimensional X-ray CT visualizations revealed higher macroporosity and biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized areas when compared to plots without or only a small amount of fertilizer applied. A combined evaluation of the soil water characteristic, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggested that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved with increasing fertilizer amount. Furthermore, the soils fertilized with both AM and NPK showed a more aggregated structure than soils amended with AM only.

Naveed, Muhammad; MØldrup, Per

2014-01-01

133

Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Beberapa Varietas Bawang Merah (Allium ascolonicum L) Terhadap Pemberian Pupuk Majemuk NPK Dalam Berbagai Taraf  

OpenAIRE

Antonio Marro Sipayung. The objective of the research was to know the growth and production some variety of shallot about giving various level of NPK fertilizer. The research was done in pasar 6 gang sepadan, at altitude 25 metres above sea level from May to July 2010. The research was using the Randomized Block Design Factorial with two factors. The first factor was variety in three levels namely : variety of kuning(V1), variety of Maja(V2), and variety of Bima(V3). The second factor was...

Sipayung, Antonio Marro

2011-01-01

134

Pengaruh Kombinasi NPK dan Pupuk Kandang terhadap Sifat Tanah dan Pertumbuhan serta Produksi Tanaman Caisim  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted in Keputran village, Tanggamus District, Lampung Province. The aim of this study was to examine a proper combination of NPK fertilizer and chicken manure for the vegetable crops, especially chinese mustard (Brassica campetris Var. Chinensis L. in order to increase the production. A randomized completely block design was used in this experiment with ten treatments and three replications. The results showed that the application of chicken manure with the dosage of less than 5 Mg ha-1 combined with NPK fertilizer did not effective to affect the increasing of growth and production of chinese mustard. Meanwhile, application of chicken manure more than 5 Mg ha-1 combined with NPK fertilizer was significantly affected the growth, production of chinese mustard and soil properties i.e. total-C, total-N, available P , exchangeable K, and humic and fulvic acid. The application of chicken manure effective to reduce NPK fertilizer. The best yield was found in using 50% of NPK fertilizer and 50% of chicken manure (10 Mg ha-1.

Sarno

2009-09-01

135

Pengaruh Kombinasi Arang Kompos Bioaktif Dan Pupuk NPK Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Suren (Toona sureni Merr) Pada Tanah Pasca Tambang Emas  

OpenAIRE

LINDRAYANA D. MANIK: Effect of Combination Charcoal Bioactive Compost and NPK Fertilizer Growth Of Seeds Suren (Toona sureni Merr) on Gold Post-Mine Land, Supervised by Deni ELFIATI and DELVIAN. Mining activities resulted in damage to the land either physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Furthermore, soil nutrient deficiency, low pH, pollution, and reduced soil microbial activity. Therefore carried out research which combines charcoal bioactive compost and NPK fertilizer applied to p...

Manik, Lindrayana Dekawati

2012-01-01

136

Adubação da mamoneira: IV - Experiências de espaçamento x adubação (2.a série) / Fertilizer experiments with castor beans: IV - Plant density x fertility level (2nd series)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para estudar a influência da densidade de plantio sôbre a produção da mamoneira-anã, variedade IAC-38, foram conduzidas duas experiências fatoriais com os espaçamentos de 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0 m entre as linhas de plantas, as distâncias de 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 m entre as covas (deixando-se duas plantas por cova) [...] e três níveis de NPK: 0, 30-60-30 e 60-90-60 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O. As experiências, localizadas em Pindorama e Tatuí, foram instaladas em 1960-61 e repetidas (adubadas e plantadas), nos mesmos canteiros, em 1961-62. As melhores produções foram obtidas com os espaçamentos de 1,0 x 1,0 e 1,5 x 0,5 m. Para o efeito de NPK, as distâncias intermediárias, entre as linhas ou entre as covas; proporcionaram muito melhores condições do que as extremas. Levando em consideração detalhes das observações efetuadas, os autores supõem que um espaçamento da ordem de 1,25 x 0,80 m seria mais adequado, pois, em relação ao de 1,0 x 1,0 m, facilitaria os tratos culturais e a colheita, e, em relação ao de 1,5 x 0,5 m, evitaria possível desperdício de espaço entre as linhas e atenuaria a concorrência entre as plantas da.mesma linha. Abstract in english This paper reports the results obtained in two factorial experiments designed to study the effect, on the dwarf castor beans variety IAC-38, of three spacings between the rows (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 meters), three distances between the hills (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 meters), and three levels of an NPK fertilize [...] r. The experiments were conducted for two years. The largest yields were obtained with the spacings of 1.0 x 1.0 and 1.5 x 0.5 meters. For the effect of NPK, the intermediate distances, between the rows, as well as between the hills, were much better than the wider and the closer ones. After considering the observations made, the authors believe that a spacing of about 1.25 x 0.8 meters would be more adequate. Compared with that of 1.0 x 1.0 meters, it would contribute to facilitate cultivations and harvest; compared with that of 1.5 x 0.5 meters, it would afford better use of the space between the rows and reduce the crowding of the plants within the rows.

José Luiz V., Rocha; Vicente, Canecchio Filho; E. S., Freire; H., Scaranari; A., Pettinelli.

137

Working levels in the phosphate fertilizer plant in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate rocks used for production of phosphate fertilizers contain various concentrations of radioactive elements. The principal radionuclides are from the 238U and 3Th decay series and 40K. In classic phosphoric acid process, concentrations of uranium and radium were disrupted, with uranium appearing primarily in the finished product (fertilizer) and radium favoring the gypsum. Since the activity mass concentrations of uranium and radium in phosphate fertilizers are several times higher than in average soil, they constitute an additional source of radiation exposure for workers and members of public. One of the source of exposure to the population in the vicinity of phosphate fertilizer plant (PFP) results from inhalation of radon daughters. For the reason the investigations of the hazards were undertaken in the fertilizer plant in Croatia, and the radon daughter concentrations in different atmospheres are discussed in this paper. Working levels were measured as 'grab samples' at several stations on-site and off-site of the PFP. The average mean values of working levels are presented. (author)

138

Impact of long-term fertilization practice on soil structure evolution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agricultural soil structure plays a central role for plant growth and development by controlling root penetration and the availability of water, air and essential nutrients. The factors contributing to soil structure development and evolution are so complex that it is not yet possible to precisely predict the impact of a particular management practice. In this study, we characterized the soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizers over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm height) were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil physical properties including texture, water retention, and air permeability and diffusion were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Soil textural analysis revealed that AM and NPK applications had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 1.53% (unfertilized plot) to 2.37% (well fertilized plot, NPK and 30 T ha-1 2y-1 AM). Total porosity closely followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.37 to 0.43 m3 m-3. The water-holding capacity of the soils was also greatly improved with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Air permeability and diffusion measurements clearly indicated that all soils were sufficiently aerated for plant growth. However, the level of aeration was higher for well-fertilized soils. The X-ray CT 3D visualizations revealed higher biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized soils when compared to plots without or small amount of fertilizer application. A combined evaluation of the water retention, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggests that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved for soils fertilized with AM and NPK as compared to soils with AM only.

Naveed, Muhammad; MØldrup, Per

2014-01-01

139

Use of Gypsum to Increase Fertilizer Efficiency on Normal Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on maize and wheat under normal soil conditions at Qalla, Charsadda and Tarnab, Peshawar irrigated with canal water to evaluate the effect of gypsum application on the efficiency of NPK fertilizers. Gypsum was applied @ 0, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 with two levels of fertilizers i.e. recommended dose of NPK (120,90, 60 kg ha-1 and half dose (60, 45 and 30 kg ha-1 respectively. Maximum grain (3605 kg ha-1 and stalk (9922 kg ha-1 yield of maize was recorded at Qalla by the application of recommended dose of NPK with 1000 kg gypsum ha-1. The NPK with 500 kg gypsum ha-1 ranked second in this respect. Half dose of the NPK without any gypsum gave minimum grain (2248 kg ha-1 and stalk (3435 kg ha-1 yield. The yields were non- significantly different at Tarnab under the same treatment compared with that of Qalla. During the second year, the soil conditions improved and yield of grain (2883 kg ha-1 as well as stalk (15833 kg ha-1 was better at both sites. Wheat yield was non-significantly different at Tarnab. Uptake of different ions was variable. Uptake of P, K, Zn and Cu decreased while that of Mn and Fe increased during the second year. Maximum yield of maize grain (2883 kg ha-1 and stalk (15833 kg ha-1 with half dose and wheat grain (3605 kg ha-1 and stalk (12910 kg ha-1 was obtained by application of 1000 kg ha-1 gypsum with full dose of NPK.

Banaras H. Niazi

2003-01-01

140

Community Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria under Long-Term Application of Mineral Fertilizer and Organic Manure in a Sandy Loam Soil?  

OpenAIRE

The effects of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure on the community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in a long-term (16-year) fertilizer experiment. The experiment included seven treatments: organic manure, half organic manure N plus half fertilizer N, fertilizer NPK, fertilizer NP, fertilizer NK, fertilizer PK, and the control (without fertilization). N fertilization greatly increased soil nitrification potential, and mineral N fertilizer had a grea...

Chu, Haiyan; Fujii, Takeshi; Morimoto, Sho; Lin, Xiangui; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hu, Junli; Zhang, Jiabao

2007-01-01

141

Pemupukan Tanaman Padi Sawah Dengan Penggunaan Azolla, Fosfat Alam dan Arang Jerami Padi Sebagai Pupuk Alternatii NPK  

OpenAIRE

The experiment of Green House titled rice plant fertilizer in plantation by using azolla, rock phosphate and dried rice stalks as alternative fertilizer of NPK. The design of this experiment used was block randomize design non-factorial with 9 treatment and 3 replicate, so it got 27 units treatment. Each of this treatment was combined between natural fertilizer ( azpla, rock phosphate and dried rice stalks) by made fertilizer ( Urea, TSP and KG )./-\\ The results showed that combination ...

Purba, Siti Rahma

2012-01-01

142

Pengaruh Pupuk Kandang Kelinci dan Pupuk NPK (16:16:16) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.)  

OpenAIRE

One of the factors that determine the quality of cocoa seedlings are growing medium that has a chemical and physical fertility, in order to obtain a good and healthy seeds for further growth. Growing media fertility can be improved or enhanced with inorganic or organic fertilizer, such as Rabbit manure, which is one type of solid waste rabbit manure and NPK fertilizer, is expected to increase the growth of cocoa seedling. This research had been conducted at experimental field of Fakultas Per...

Sitompul, Hendrikson Ferrianto

2014-01-01

143

Pengarug Pupuk Kandang Kelinci Dan Pupuk NPK (16:16:16) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.)  

OpenAIRE

One of the factors that determine the quality of cocoa seedlings are growing medium that has a chemical and physical fertility, in order to obtain a good and healthy seeds for further growth. Growing media fertility can be improved or enhanced with inorganic or organic fertilizer, such as Rabbit manure, which is one type of solid waste rabbit manure and NPK fertilizer, is expected to increase the growth of cocoa seedling. This research had been conducted at experimental fiel...

Sitompul, Hendrikson Ferrianto

2014-01-01

144

Tanggap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Jagung (Zea mays L.) Varietas Pioneer-23 Terhadap Berbagai Komposisi Vermikompos dengan Pupuk Anorganik (N,P,K)  

OpenAIRE

EFRIDA SARI NASUTION: The Response of Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) Pioneer 23 Variety on Some Compotition of Vermicompost and Anorganic Fertilizer (N,P,K), supervised by MARIATI SINURAYA and ASIL BARUS. The research has been conducted to investigate the response of growth and yield of maize on some compotition of organic (vermicompost) and anorganic (N,P,K) fertilizer at Bunga Terompet street, Sempakata village chief, Medan Selayang subdistrict head, with a height...

Nasution, Efrida Sari

2013-01-01

145

Efecto de la presión de pastoreo y fertilización NPK en la producción de forraje de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero en el estado Mérida / Grazing pressure and NPK fertilization on the kikuyo-forage peanut association in Merida state. Pasture production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la Finca Las Mesas (1.850 msnm), Jají, estado Mérida, se condujo un experimento con la finalidad de seleccionar la mejor presión de pastoreo y fertilización para la producción de forraje de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones, en parc [...] elas divididas, donde la parcela principal fue la presión de pastoreo (PPA: 800 y PPB: 1.600 kg MS residual/ha) y la secundaria los niveles de nitrógeno (0 y 200 kg/ha), fósforo (0, 150 y 300 kg P2O5/ha) y potasio (0 y 200 kg K2O/ha). Se evaluaron la oferta y el residuo, los cuales se estimaron con una curva de regresión para esta asociación (Y= -422,66 + 225,11X, donde X= altura del disco, con r² = 0,904). En la presión de pastoreo no se detectaron diferencias significativas en las variables evaluadas. Para el efecto de bloques, los potreros planos tuvieron más consumo acumulado (12.629,6 kg MS/ha), con respecto a los inclinados (5.848,3 kg MS/ha). El nitrógeno influyó significativamente en la oferta, obteniéndose un incremento promedio de 314,9 kg MS/ha/pastoreo y para casi todos los consumos, los incrementos fueron positivos, con una eficiencia de 9,03 kg MS de consumo por kg de nitrógeno aplicado, mientras que para el residuo no hubo diferencias estadísticas. El máximo efecto se encontró cuando se aplicó este macroelemento en los periodos de alta precipitación. El fósforo y el potasio no fueron significativos para las características forrajeras de la asociación; sin embargo, la tendencia de estos nutrientes fueron positivas en la mayoría de los tratamientos. Abstract in english A grazing field trail was carried out in "Las Mesas" farm (1.950 masl), Jají, Mérida state, with the purpose of selecting the best grazing pressure and fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels on the pasture production of the kikuyu-forage peanut association. A complete randomized [...] block design with three replications in a split-plot arrangement was used. Main plots (0.6 ha) were grazing pressures (HGP: 800, and LGP: 1.600 kg residual MS), and as subplots the combinations of fertilizer: nitrogen (0 and 200 kg N/ha), phosphorus (0, 150, and 300 kg P(2)0(5)/ha), and potassium (0 and 200 kg K(2)0/ha). Offered and residual pasture were estimated with an equation for this association (Y = -422,66 + 225,11X, were X = disk height, with r² = 0.904). The experimental period was 280 days. Grazing pressure did not show significant differences for the estimated variables. For blocks in flat areas pastures, more forage was consumed (12.629,6 kg DM/ha) than on the inclined ones (5.848,3 kg DM/ha). Nitrogen affected offered pasture with 314,9 kg DM/ha per grazing, and for almost all forage consumed the increments were positive with an efficiency of 9,03 kg DM consumed/kg N applied. For the residual DM, there were not significant differences. Maximum N influence was obtained when this element was applied during the raining season. The effects of phosphorus and potassium were not significant for the association, but it was a positive tendency on the offered and consumed pasture in almost all the treatments.

Ciro, Dávila; Fernando, Castro; Diannelis, Urbano.

2004-04-01

146

Effects of Organic-Chemical Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Rice (Chai Nat 1)  

OpenAIRE

A field experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of organic-chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer (NPK 16:16:8) on the growth and yield of rice Chai Nat 1 in Roi-Et province, Northeast Thailand. Organic-chemical fertilizer was developed from organic fertilizer 82+9.0 kg of NPK 46:0:0 + 4.5 kg of NPK 18:46:0 and 4.5 kg of NPK 0:0:60. Five treatments were compared consisting of : T1 (control without fertilizer); T2 (312.5 kg ha-1 organic-ch...

Sopit Vetayasuporn

2012-01-01

147

Bio-economics of autumn planted sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under different NPK applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were undertaken to evaluate the response of autumn planted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to different levels of N, P and K fertilizers at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during, 2004 and 2005. Treatments comprised five N levels (0, 60. 90, 120 and 150 kg ha/sup -1/), five P levels (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/), four K levels (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/) in different combinations and two hybrids viz. FH-314 (standard height) and FH-245 (semi dwarf). Hybrid FH-314 produced significantly higher achene yield (2725.41 kg ha/sup -1/) than that of FH-245. There was a progressive increase in achene yield and yield components With increasing levels of N, P and K. The highest achene yield (3023 kg ha/sup -1/) and highest net benefit (Rs.19743) was obtained when the crop was fertilized at the rate 120:90:60 kg NPK ha/sub -1/. (author)

148

Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients / Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: I - macronutrientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O uso de cultivares com maior potencial produtivo e a adoção de maior nível tecnológico têm possibilitado a obtenção de elevadas produtividades de grãos da cultura do feijão, o que provavelmente alterou a demanda por nutrientes dessa cultura. No entanto, quase não existem informações sobre as quanti [...] dades e as épocas do ciclo em que os nutrientes são mais exigidos pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a extração e a exportação de macronutrientes pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1- - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Sob maiores níveis de adubação NPK, ambos os cultivares apresentaram as maiores produtividades de grãos, extração e exportação de macronutrientes, porém sem diferirem entre si. Os tratamentos com 100 % da adubação NPK recomendada apresentaram maior extração de macronutrientes, com quantidades médias por hectare de 140 kg de N; 16,5 kg de P; 120 kg de K; 69 kg de Ca; 17,9 kg de Mg; e 16,3 kg de S. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por N, P, K, Ca e Mg ocorreu dos 45 aos 55 dias após emergência (DAE), ou seja, no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), enquanto as maiores taxas de absorção de S concentraram-se entre os 55 e 65 DAE. Mais de 70 % do P, entre 58 e 69 % do N, 40 e 52 % do S, 40 e 48 % do K e 35 e 45 % do Mg absorvidos ao longo do ciclo foram exportados com os grãos, enquanto menos de 15 % do Ca foi exportado Abstract in english The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most deman [...] ded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S). Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE), i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation), while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than

Rogério Peres, Soratto; Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Letícia Andriani dos, Santos; André Luiz Gomes, Job.

1027-10-01

149

Nitrate leaching during establishment of willow (Salix viminalis) on two soil types and at two fertilization levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of willow in short rotation is expected to result in low nitrate leaching losses as is the case with other permanent crops. However, there is a risk of leaching of nitrate during establishment when the plant cover is limited. Nitrate leaching was followed for three years from the establishment in 1993 of willow (Salix viminalis) at two sites, a coarse sand at Jyndevad and a loamy sand at Foulum. Two levels of nitrogen, 0 or 75 kg N/ha in NPK, were applied annually, though only 38 N/ha was applied in the first year. Leaching was calculated from usually weekly measurements of the nitrate concentration in soil solution and relating with the amount of percolation based on measured precipitation and changes in the soil water content over the sampling periods. Mean leaching for the three periods 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-96 amounted to respectively 142, 61 and 0 kg N/ha at Foulum and to 130, 9 and 4 kg N/ha at Jyndevad. The high leaching in the first year was caused by an unusually high content of mineral N in the soil at the start of the experiment. The absence of any leaching 1995-96 at Foulum was due to very low precipitation and a consequent lack of percolation. For the first period (1993-94) the fertilized treatment increased leaching by 32 kg N/ha compared to no fertilizer as a mean of the two sites, while the difference for the following two periods was reduced to 1-2 kg N/ha. It is concluded that application of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of planting of willows, while in the following years 75 kg N/ha can be given without risk of increased leaching. (Author)

150

The Rule of Organic Fertilizer on Fertilizer Efficiency and Requirement Rate for Vegetable Crop on Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Utilization of organic fertilizer is an alternative to increase soil health and supply a small amount of plant nutrient. Meanwhile agricultural soil in Indonesia commonly have low organic carbon content (<2% therefore application of organic fertilizer is recommended. Based on that, the aim of the research is to measure the effectiveness of organic fertilizer on caisim (Brassica chinensis L. growth, to measure the release of N-NO3- and N-NH4+, to determine the recommendation of organic fertilizer for caisim on Incentisols Ciherang, Bogor. The research had been conducted at Research and Soil Testing Laboratory and green house of Soil Research Institute, Laladon – Bogor on April to July 2008 using soil sample of Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor. The treatments were: Control (no fertilizer, NPK, NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¾ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ½ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¼ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer 500kg, organic fertilizer 1000 kg, NPK + 750 kg organic fertilizer, and NPK + 250 kg organic fertilizer. The five replications research had been conducted with Completely Randomized Design. The result indicated thats: (1 NPK fertilizer increased with addition of organic fertilizer approved by the evidence of increasing of plant high 2-10%, leaves number 1-2%, and crop production 16-36%. The relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of treatment NPK+various rate of organic fertilizer were higher than NPK alone with value of 136-181%. (2 The release of NH4+-N and NO3--N from anorganic fertilizer (NPK treatment in four weeks incubation period showed balance proportion with N rate. Nitrogen released from organic fertilizer in the same incubation period are 5.39 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 12.39 mg NO3- -N kg-1. (3 The best organic fertilizer rate based on fertilizer curve for Inceptisols Cicadas-Bogor having low C and N-organic is 560 kg organic fertilizer + NPK (300 kg Urea ha-1; 50 kg SP-36 ha-1; 50 kg KCl ha-1 produce caisim 134 g bag-1.

Ladiyani Retno Widowati

2009-09-01

151

Efecto de la presión de pastoreo y fertilización NPK sobre la composición botánica de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero en la zona alta del estado Mérida / Grazing pressure and NPK fertilization effects on botanical composition of kikuyu grass - perennial peanut association in highlands of Mérida state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de determinar la mejor presión de pastoreo y fertilización con nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio que permita mantener un balance en la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero, se condujo un experimento en Jají, estado Mérida, Venezuela. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repetici [...] ones, en un arreglo factorial de los tratamientos en parcelas divididas, donde en la parcela principal se aplicaron dos presiones de pastoreo (PPA: 800 y PPB: 1.600 kg MS residual/ha) y en la secundaria las combinaciones de dos niveles de nitrógeno (0 y 200 kg/ha/año), tres de fósforo (0, 150 y 300 kg P2O5/ha/año) y dos de potasio (0 y 200 kg K2O/ha/año), evaluándose la composición botánica al inicio y al final del experimento. El porcentaje de kikuyo en la mezcla disminuyó un 11%, mientras que el maní forrajero incrementó un 9%. Los componentes de biomasa muerta y del pasto Cynodon sp disminuyeron en 3 y 0,79%, respectivamente. La presión de pastoreo y sus interacciones no influyeron significativamente en los diferentes componentes de la mezcla; sin embargo, la tendencia del kikuyo en la asociación fue a declinar más en la presión de pastoreo baja (13,1%) que en la alta (8,1%), mientras que el porcentaje de maní incrementó en la asociación en ambos sistemas con 12,8 y 6,1%, respectivamente. El porcentaje del kikuyo en la mezcla fue afectado por el nitrógeno (P Abstract in english To obtain the best combination of the grazing pressure and fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium that allow a good balance in the species kikuyu grass-perennial peanut association, a field grazing experiment was conducted in Jají, Mérida state, Venezuela. A complete randomized block [...] design was used, with three replications. The treatments were a factorial in a split plot arrangement. Two grazing pressures were applied to main plots (HGP: 800 and LGP: 1600 kg residual DM/ha) and two levels of nitrogen (0 and 200 kg N/ha), three of phosphorus (0, 150, and 300 kg P2O5), and two of potassium (0 and 200 kg K2O/ha) were applied to sub-plots. Botanical composition was estimated at the beginning and the end of the trial. Percent of kikuyu grass in the mixture decreased 11%, while perennial peanut increased in 9%. Also, dead material and the grass Cynodon sp decreased 3 and 0.79%, respectively. The grazing pressure factor and its interactions were not significant, but the tendency for the components of the association was that kikuyu grass decreased 13.1% in the LGP and 8.1% in HGP, but perennial peanut increased in both systems 12.8% and 6.1%, respectively. Nitrogen application and N x K interaction were significant (P

Diannelis, Urbano; Fernando, Castro; Ciro, Dávila.

2005-10-01

152

Fertilizers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review covers the literature reported from January 1, 1973 to December 31, 1974, and includes procedures recorded in readily available journals, in Chemical Abstracts, and in Fertilizer Abstracts. Some selectivity was exercised in order to include only those procedures especially pertinent for direct application to fertilizers, easily adapted to fertilizers, or containing information related to research in fertilizer methodology. Methods are discussed for the determination of N, K, P, secondary nutrients, and micronutrients, including Mn, Mo, Na, B, Cl, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Co. (204 references.) (U.S.)

153

Vegetative Growth, Yield Components and Seed Yield Response of Inoculated and Un-inoculated Soybean Regard to Fertility Regimes  

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Full Text Available Field trials were performed during summer, 1990, 1991 and 1993 at agronomy experimental field, Agriculture Research Institute, Tando Jam. Soybean seed inoculated and with Rhizobium japonicum and un-inoculated were sown and treated with various NPK levels (0-0-0, 50-25-0, 50-50-0, 75-75-0, 75-100-0, and 75-100-50 kg NPK-ha. Days to maturity, branches, pods, seeds/pod, seeds weight, seed index and seed yield-ha affected significantly (p<0.01 by inoculation treatment during all three seasons. Seed inoculation resulted significantly improved growth and yield, the increase in yield was associated with the increase of all yield components. Similarly, fertilizer regimes had pronounced effect on all the characters studied. Application of 75-100-50 kg NPK-ha improved growth and yield attributes which in turn caused more yield-ha in each season. It may be argued that soybean seed may be inoculated and fertilized with 75-100-50 kg NPK-ha to get better yield, assuming that all soils have an equal initial fertility level.

Lubna S. Rajput

2001-01-01

154

Chromium accumulation potential of Zea mays grown under four different fertilizers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. We performed pot experiment with chromium (30 mg/soil) to assess the accumulation potential of Zea mays and study the influence of four fertilizers, viz. Farm Yard Manure (FYM), NPK, Panchakavya (PK) and Vermicompost (VC) with respect to Cr accumulation. The oxidative stress and pigment (chlorophyll) levels were also examined. The results showed increased accumulation of chromium in both shoots and roots of Zea mays under FYM and NPK supply, and reduced with PK and VC. While the protein and pigment contents decreased in Cr treated plants, the fertilizers substantiated the loss to overcome the stress. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) indicating the enhanced damage control activity. However, these levels were relatively low in plants supplemented with fertilizers. Our results confirm that the maize can play an effective role in bioremediation of soils polluted with chromium, particularly in supplementation with fertilizers such as farm yard manure and NPK. PMID:25651615

Dheeba, B; Sampathkumar, P; Kannan, K

2014-12-01

155

Adubação N-P-K e o desenvolvimento, produtividade e qualidade dos frutos do abacaxi 'gold' (MD-2 Nitrogen, P and K fertilization and the development, yield and fruit quality of pineapple 'gold' (MD-2  

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Full Text Available O abacaxi Gold (MD-2 tem atraído interesse no Brasil, visando à exportação. No entanto, há poucas informações científicas no País sobre o manejo nutricional dessa cultivar. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação com N, P e K no estado nutricional da planta, no desenvolvimento, na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos do abacaxi MD-2. Foram avaliados os efeitos de cinco doses de N, cinco de P2O5 e cinco de K 2O sobre as características de crescimento da folha D e do fruto, bem como sobre os teores de N, P e K das folhas D e as características de qualidade do fruto. Concluiu-se que as maiores produtividade e massa de fruto foram obtidas com a aplicação de 650,6 kg ha-1 de N e 735,9 kg ha-1 de K2O, correspondendo a 12,7 e 14,4 g/planta de N e K2O, respectivamente. Nesse caso, a indução floral deve ser recomendada quando a folha D apresentar comprimento > 75,5 cm. Os valores das características de qualidade do fruto diminuíram com a aplicação de N e aumentaram com a adição de P e K, sendo que as doses máximas de 205,8 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 703,4 kg ha-1 de K2O corresponderam a 4,01 e 13,7 g/planta de N e K2O, respectivamente.The cultivar Gold (MD-2 has attracted interest in Brazil, with a view to fresh pineapple export. However, little scientific information is available on the nutritional management of this cultivar in the country. This study aimed to determine the effect of N, P and K fertilization on the nutritional status, development, yield and fruit quality of MD-2 pineapple plants. Five doses of N; P2O5 and K2O, were studied and the leaf 'D' development, the N, P and K levels, and fruit development and quality were evaluated. The yield and fruit weight were highest after the application of 650.6 kg ha-1 N and 735.9 kg ha-1 K2O, corresponding to 12.7 and 14.4 g/ plant, respectively; in this case, flowering should be induced when the 'D' leaf length is > 75.5 cm; the fruit quality was reduced with application of N, but increased with the addition of P and K, up to a maximum of 205.8 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 703.4 kg ha-1 K2O, corresponding to 4.01 and 13.7 g/plant, respectively.

André Guarçoni M

2011-08-01

156

Adubação N-P-K e o desenvolvimento, produtividade e qualidade dos frutos do abacaxi 'gold' (MD-2) / Nitrogen, P and K fertilization and the development, yield and fruit quality of pineapple 'gold' (MD-2)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O abacaxi Gold (MD-2) tem atraído interesse no Brasil, visando à exportação. No entanto, há poucas informações científicas no País sobre o manejo nutricional dessa cultivar. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação com N, P e K no estado nutricional da planta, no desenvo [...] lvimento, na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos do abacaxi MD-2. Foram avaliados os efeitos de cinco doses de N, cinco de P2O5 e cinco de K 2O sobre as características de crescimento da folha D e do fruto, bem como sobre os teores de N, P e K das folhas D e as características de qualidade do fruto. Concluiu-se que as maiores produtividade e massa de fruto foram obtidas com a aplicação de 650,6 kg ha-1 de N e 735,9 kg ha-1 de K2O, correspondendo a 12,7 e 14,4 g/planta de N e K2O, respectivamente. Nesse caso, a indução floral deve ser recomendada quando a folha D apresentar comprimento > 75,5 cm. Os valores das características de qualidade do fruto diminuíram com a aplicação de N e aumentaram com a adição de P e K, sendo que as doses máximas de 205,8 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 703,4 kg ha-1 de K2O corresponderam a 4,01 e 13,7 g/planta de N e K2O, respectivamente. Abstract in english The cultivar Gold (MD-2) has attracted interest in Brazil, with a view to fresh pineapple export. However, little scientific information is available on the nutritional management of this cultivar in the country. This study aimed to determine the effect of N, P and K fertilization on the nutritional [...] status, development, yield and fruit quality of MD-2 pineapple plants. Five doses of N; P2O5 and K2O, were studied and the leaf 'D' development, the N, P and K levels, and fruit development and quality were evaluated. The yield and fruit weight were highest after the application of 650.6 kg ha-1 N and 735.9 kg ha-1 K2O, corresponding to 12.7 and 14.4 g/ plant, respectively; in this case, flowering should be induced when the 'D' leaf length is > 75.5 cm; the fruit quality was reduced with application of N, but increased with the addition of P and K, up to a maximum of 205.8 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 703.4 kg ha-1 K2O, corresponding to 4.01 and 13.7 g/plant, respectively.

André, Guarçoni M; José Aires, Ventura.

1367-13-01

157

To evaluate the efficacy of zinc sulphate mixed with phosphate and potash fertilizer on the grain yield of wheat (tritium aestivum L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate yield response of wheat cv, BK-2002 at various fertilizer levels, at farmer, fields of District Mianwali during consecutive years 2006-07 and 2007-08. Six levels of ZnSo/sub 4/ mixed with NPK were evaluated in farmer's fields in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. All doses of znSo/sub 4/ along with Departmental recommended dose of NPK (114-84- 62 kg ha/sup-l/) revealed a linear increase in, plant height, number of tillers/m/sup 2/, number of spikelets /spike. number of grains/spike, 1000 grains weight (g) and yield (kg ha/sup-1/) of wheat variety BK-2002 were recorded. Maximum yield of wheat was recorded when it was subjected to 22.5 kg ho/sub -1/ 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ Departmental recommended dose of NPK fertilizer. The study indicated the potential role of ZnSo/sub 4/ in enhancing the growth and yield of wheat in arid climate and that 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ (22.5 kg ha/sub -1/) + Departmental recommended dose of NPK, (fertilizer might be the optimum level (T5) for the production of wheat in arid climate. (author)

158

Effect of Fertilizer and Inoculation on Lipase and Urease Activity of Mature Soybean cv. Williams-82 Seeds  

OpenAIRE

A field experiment on soybean cv. Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil with six different level (T2 to T7) of added N fertilizer @ 23, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 plus a constant dose of P2O5 + K2O fertilizer @ 60 + 30 kg ha-1 respectively, Whereas T1 with zero level of added NPK was kept control. These six fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated field grown soyb...

Abdul Kabir Khan Achakzai; Safdar Ali Kayani; Muhammad Yaqoob; Abdul Nabi

2003-01-01

159

Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pirolygneous extract on vegetative development palm phoenix (Phoenix roebeleniiAdubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas de palmeiras fênix (Phoenix roebelenii  

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Full Text Available The effect of the use of chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pirolygneous extract (EPL was evaluated in the width and number of leaves of seedlings of phoenix palms. The plants were fertilizer with organic castor bean, chemical fertilizer NPK 20-05-20 formula and EPL concentrations of 0,1 and 0,2%. The length of the longest leaf and leaf number were evaluated monyhly for one from the start of the experiment. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test at 5% significance level. Treatment organic fertilizer and EPL 0,1% + organic fertilization increased the number of leaves of palm phoenix plants. Mineral fertilizer NPK combined or not with EPL provided no increases in length and number of leaves. The EPL itself did not change the parameters. O efeito da utilização da adubação química, da adubação orgânica e do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL foi avaliado no comprimento e número de folhas de mudas de palmeiras fênix. As plantas receberam adubação orgânica com torta de mamona, química com o fertilizante mineral NPK na fórmula 20-05- 20 e EPL nas concentrações de 0,1 e 0,2%. O comprimento da maior folha e o número de folhas foram avaliados mensalmente durante um ano desde o início do experimento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste Tukey, a 5% de significância. O tratamento adubação orgânica isolada e adubação orgânica +EPL promoveu aumento no comprimento e no número de folhas das plantas de palmeiras fênix. O fertilizante mineral NPK, combinado ou não com o EPL, não proporcionou incrementos no comprimento e número de folhas das plantas. O EPL isoladamente não alterou os parâmetros avaliados.

Maurício Ursi Ventura

2012-12-01

160

Efecto de la fertilización química, orgánica y combinada sobre el rendimiento de la papa variedad Granola / Effect of the fertilization chemical, organic and combined on the yield of variety Granola  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cultivo de la papa, Solanum tuberosum L., demanda un alto uso de insumos agrícolas entre los que destacan los fertilizantes químicos (FQ) y enmiendas orgánicas (EO), las cuales alcanzan en muchos casos un alto porcentaje en los costos de producción, por lo que se hace necesario buscar estrategias [...] de manejo que disminuya el valor de la fertilización. En la Aldea Pernía, municipio Vargas del estado Táchira, se condujo un experimento en papa, variedad Granola a 1.900 m.s.n.m., precipitación promedio de 900 mm, temperatura entre 12 y 17ºC, zona de vida (B-h-p) según Holdridge, suelo Fa, Orthends, donde se evaluaron dos manejos de fertilización, cinco tipos de FQ: Testigo con cero aplicación; NPK; NPK + Mg; NPK + Mg+B y NPK+B a tres niveles de fertilización orgánica (FO): 0; 5 y 10 t.ha-1 de gallinaza (abono orgánico; AO) con tres repeticiones. Se determinó el efecto de la FQ, EO y combinada sobre el rendimiento de esta variedad. Los resultados indican que el mayor se obtuvo en el tratamiento NPK+Mg (38,39 t.ha-1) seguido del NPK+B (36 t.ha-1) con el nivel 5 t.ha-1 de la AO (P?0,01). No hubo diferencias significativas (P?0,01) al aplicar 5 y 10 t.ha-1 (34,77 y 36,10 t.ha-1, respectivamente). Sin embargo, este nivel de 0 t.ha-1 es menor 22,55 t.ha-1. El mejor resultado se encontró cuando se aplica el FQ y la EO al momento de la siembra Abstract in english In Venezuela, the production of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., normally requires the applications of great amount of mineral fertilizers (OF), and organic amendments (OA) which represent an important part of the production costs of this crop. So it is necessary to develop strategies to decrease its u [...] se. We carried out an experiment in the town of Pernia, Vargas county in Tachira State, to evaluate the response of potato (variety Granola) to the application of 5 treatment of chemical fertilization (testwithout fertilizer; NPK, NPK+Mg; NPK+Mg+B and NPK+B) and 3 levels of organic fertilization (0, 5 and 10 t.ha-1 of chicken manure), with 3 repetitions for each combination. The experimental site is located at 1.900 masl, with a mean annual precipitation of 900 mm, and air temperature between 12 and 17 ºC. The soil is classified as Orthends. The results showed that the greatest yield was found with the application of NPK+Mg (38.39 t.ha-1), followed by the treatment of NPK+B (35.90 t.ha-1) and 5 t.ha-1 of chicken manure (P?0,01). The split of the organic and mineral fertilizer doses does not improve the yield of potato, when compared against the application of the whole dose of fertilizer at the sowing time. Also, there were not significant differences in the potato yield when it was fertilized with five and 10 t of chicken manure (34.77 y 36.10 t.ha-1, respectively), however at the level of 0 t.ha-1 of chicken manure the yield is smaller 22.55 t.ha-1. When placing the chemical fertilizer and the organic amendment were splitted, yield not different from the whole dose application at the time of seedtime

Karen, Arias; Olga, Arnaude de Chacón.

2010-03-01

161

[Effects of long-term fertilization on evolution of S forms in a red soil and a black soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur (S) forms in two contrasting soils (a red soil and a black soil) under different long-term fertilization treatments (from 1990 to 2011) from the National Long-term Monitoring Network of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Effects of China were investigated using a fractionation scheme in order to explore the distribution and transportation of S with different forms in the soils. The soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) horizons that were treated with no fertilizers (CK), nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers (NPK), or NPK plus organic manures (MNPK) since 1990. The results indicated that when compared with the CK, total S contents in the topsoil layers treated with NPK and MNPK were increased by 42% and 33% for the red soil, and by 6% and 76% for the black soil, respectively, while the total S in the subsoil layer was less affected by the fertilization treatments and obviously lower than in the topsoil layer except for the red soil treated with NPK. The main forms of inorganic S in the red soil and black soil were found to be available S and HCl-extracted S, respectively. The application of NPK and MNPK increased the available S by 447% and 102% in the topsoil layer of the red soil compared with CK, and facilitated the transportation of available S into the lower depth. In contrast, NPK and MNPK only increased the available S by 54% and 93% in the topsoil layer of the black soil, and showed a slight influence on available S in the subsoil. The organic S forms were predominantly composed of ester S and residual S in the two soils. Under long-term fertilization, the residual S significantly increased over 32% and 55% in the topsoil and subsoil layers, respectively, compared with CK. The ester S and carbon-bonded S, which were relatively active, were less affected by the fertilization treatments, but positively related to the level of organic carbon in each soil (P < 0.05). In addition, the results from the long-term experiments indicated that the contribution of S input from atmospheric deposition was significant and should not be neglected. PMID:25011301

Xu, Chuang; Wang, Song-Shan; Li, Ju-Mei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Sun, Wen-Tao; Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shu-Zhen

2014-04-01

162

Community-level education accelerates the cultural evolution of fertility decline  

OpenAIRE

Explaining why fertility declines as populations modernize is a profound theoretical challenge. It remains unclear whether the fundamental drivers are economic or cultural in nature. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests that community-level characteristics, for example average education, can alter how low-fertility preferences are transmitted and adopted. These assumptions have not been empirically tested. Here, we show that community-level education accelerates fertility decline in a way th...

Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

2014-01-01

163

Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e níveis de adubação sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato em folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 / Different planting spacings and fertilization levels on the activity of nitrate reductase in leaves of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e de níveis de adubação NPK sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato (RN) nas folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 , visando a sugerir possível ajuste em seu manejo de adubação nitrogenada, no sentido de ma [...] ximizar a eficiência do uso do nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., no município de Linhares - ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,8 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,7 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão; A2 = 100% padrão da empresa; A3 = 120% do padrão; A4 = 140% do padrão, e A5 = 160% do padrão) e cinco períodos de avaliação (meses de março a julho). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K), respectivamente. Os dados obtidos para a atividade da RN foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e teste de médias. Dentre os tratamentos testados, o nível A1 (80% do padrão), independentemente do espaçamento, poderia ser indicado no manejo do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01, pois em todos eles a atividade da redutase do nitrato, em praticamente todos os períodos avaliados, apresentou valores adequados, ou até mesmo superiores aos encontrados na literatura em cultivares de mamoeiro. A redução da adubação NPK pôde ser justificada, uma vez que não houve diferença na produtividade das plantas entre os tratamentos avaliados. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different planting spacings and levels of NPK manuring on the activity of the nitrate reductase (NR) in the leaves of the papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, aiming to suggest possible adjustment in the handling of nitrogen fertilization, in the se [...] nse of maximizing the efficiency of the use of the nitrogen. The experiment was driven in the Caliman Agrícola S.A. farm, in the municipal district of Linhares- ES. A complete block design, factorial, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1.8 m, E2 = 2.25 m and E3 = 2.7 m), five levels of NPK conventional manuring (A1 = 80% of the standard, A2 = 100% of the company standard, A3 = 120% of the standard, A4 = 140% of the standard and A5 = 160% of the standard) and five evaluation periods ( from March to July) was used. The standard of the company NPK manuring consists of 350, 105 and 660 Kg ha-1year -1 of sulfate of ammonium (20% of N), simple superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. The data obtained for the activity of NR were submitted to a variance analysis and average test. Among the tested treatments, A1 (80% of standard), independent of the spacing, could be indicated in the handling of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, because in all of them the activity of the nitrate reductase in, practically, all of the appraised periods, presented appropriate values, or even, superiors to the ones found in the literature for the papaya tree. The reduction of NPK fertilization could be justified, once that did not have difference in the productivity of the plants among the evaluated treatments.

Renata Venturim, Fontes; Alexandre Pio, Viana; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Jurandi Gonçalves de, Oliveira; Diolina Moura, Silva; Sabrina Garcia, Broetto; Mariela Mattos da, Silva.

1138-11-01

164

Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e níveis de adubação sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato em folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 Different planting spacings and fertilization levels on the activity of nitrate reductase in leaves of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e de níveis de adubação NPK sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato (RN nas folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 , visando a sugerir possível ajuste em seu manejo de adubação nitrogenada, no sentido de maximizar a eficiência do uso do nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., no município de Linhares - ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,8 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,7 m, cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão; A2 = 100% padrão da empresa; A3 = 120% do padrão; A4 = 140% do padrão, e A5 = 160% do padrão e cinco períodos de avaliação (meses de março a julho. O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N, superfosfato simples (18% de P e cloreto de potássio (60% de K, respectivamente. Os dados obtidos para a atividade da RN foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e teste de médias. Dentre os tratamentos testados, o nível A1 (80% do padrão, independentemente do espaçamento, poderia ser indicado no manejo do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01, pois em todos eles a atividade da redutase do nitrato, em praticamente todos os períodos avaliados, apresentou valores adequados, ou até mesmo superiores aos encontrados na literatura em cultivares de mamoeiro. A redução da adubação NPK pôde ser justificada, uma vez que não houve diferença na produtividade das plantas entre os tratamentos avaliados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different planting spacings and levels of NPK manuring on the activity of the nitrate reductase (NR in the leaves of the papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, aiming to suggest possible adjustment in the handling of nitrogen fertilization, in the sense of maximizing the efficiency of the use of the nitrogen. The experiment was driven in the Caliman Agrícola S.A. farm, in the municipal district of Linhares- ES. A complete block design, factorial, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1.8 m, E2 = 2.25 m and E3 = 2.7 m, five levels of NPK conventional manuring (A1 = 80% of the standard, A2 = 100% of the company standard, A3 = 120% of the standard, A4 = 140% of the standard and A5 = 160% of the standard and five evaluation periods ( from March to July was used. The standard of the company NPK manuring consists of 350, 105 and 660 Kg ha-1year -1 of sulfate of ammonium (20% of N, simple superphosphate (18% of P and potassium chloride (60% of K, respectively. The data obtained for the activity of NR were submitted to a variance analysis and average test. Among the tested treatments, A1 (80% of standard, independent of the spacing, could be indicated in the handling of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, because in all of them the activity of the nitrate reductase in, practically, all of the appraised periods, presented appropriate values, or even, superiors to the ones found in the literature for the papaya tree. The reduction of NPK fertilization could be justified, once that did not have difference in the productivity of the plants among the evaluated treatments.

Renata Venturim Fontes

2010-12-01

165

Effect of Mineral Fertilization and Sowing Rate on Chemical Composition of Two Linseed Cultivars  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of two levels of mineral fertilization (90 and 180 kg NPK/ha) and three sowing rates (300, 600 and 900 germinating seeds per 1 m2) on chemical composition of two linseed cultivars (Opal and Hungarian Gold) differing in seed colour. Basic chemical composition, fatty acid profile, amino acid composition and yields of the seeds were determined. The yields of protein and fat were also estimated. Seeds of these two...

Klimek-Kopyra A.; Zajac T.; Micek P.; Borowiec F.

2012-01-01

166

Nutrição mineral de plantas ornamentais: VII. estudos de adubação NPK na cultura de gladíolo (Gladiolus grandiflorus, cv. 'Perusi') / Mineral nutrition of ornamental plants: VII. studies on N, P, K fertilization of gladiolus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Três doses de N, P e K foram testadas em culturas de gladíolos (Gladiolus grandiflorus cv. 'Perusi') provenientes de três tamanhos diferentes de bulbos (Nº 3, Nº 1 e Jumbo). Todos os tratos culturais necessários foram dispensados aos experimentos cuja instalação se deu em um solo podzolizado da Coop [...] erativa Agrícola de Holambra, em Jaguariúna - SP. Estudaram-se os efeitos de adubação sobre produção de flores, produção de bulbos e de bulbilhos. A resposta do gladíolo aos níveis de fertilização variou bastante com o tamanho de bulbo plantado. São discutidos os efeitos de cada nutriente sobre as características estudadas. Abstract in english Studies on N, P. K fertilization of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus, cv. 'Perusi'). At the Agricultural Cooperative of Holambra, Jaguariúna SP, experiments with gladiolus were conducted with the objective of studying the effects of increasing dosis of N, R and K on the floral stems and corms produ [...] ction. The response of gladiolus to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium varied with the size of the corm that was planted. The effects of each nutrient on several characteristics of plants are discussed.

Pedro Dantas, Fernandes; Henrique Paulo, Haag; Salim, Simão; Jairo Ribeiro de, Mattos.

167

Híbridos de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Cultivados sob Níveis Crescentes de Adubação: Rendimento, Proteína Bruta e Digestibilidade in Vitro Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Hybrids Cultivated under Increasing Fertilization Levels: Yield, Crude Protein and in Vitro Digestibility  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, os teores de proteína bruta (PB e a digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (DIVMS de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215, cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial 5 x 4 com quatro repetições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram altas produções médias de MS/ ha e resposta linear positiva, em função da adubação, ressalvando a alta produtividade (15,47 t/ha nas parcelas sem adubação, em função da fertilidade do solo e das condições climáticas. Os híbridos apresentaram respostas diferenciadas quanto aos teores de PB, em função da adubação, predominando respostas quadráticas, determinando o comportamento quadrático da produção de proteína bruta. A DIVMS e a produção de matéria seca digestiva apresentaram respostas lineares positivas em função da adubação, sendo a produção de matéria seca digestível fortemente correlacionada (0,91** com o aumento da produção de MS/ha.The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage yield, crude protein (CP contents and dry matter (DM in vitro digestibility of five forage sorghum hybrids (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215, cultivated under four NPK fertilization levels. A randomized blocks design, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The evaluated hybrids showed high average DM/ha yield and positive linear answer in function of fertilization, except for the high productivity (15.47 t/ha in the plots without fertilization, in function of soil fertilization and climatic conditions. The hybrids showed different answers for the CP contents, according to the fertilization, in a quadratic way, determining the quadratic behavior for the crude protein yield. IVDMD and digestive dry matter yield showed positive linear answers in function of fertilization, and the digestible dry matter yield was highly correlated (0.91** with the increase of DM/ha yield.

Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto

2002-07-01

168

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Crop Fertilization and Soil Fertility in the Loess Plateau in China from the 1970s to the 2000s  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

2014-01-01

169

Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

2014-01-01

170

Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status  

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Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

Alexandra Tragaki

2014-07-01

171

The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

172

Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates  

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Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that, from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1, since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1.

Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

2012-06-01

173

Effect Of Urea, Superphosphate, Potash And Npk On Soil Respiration ( Carbon Dioxide Evolution From Soil  

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Full Text Available Soil microorganisms have been reported for maintaining the soil fertility by breaking down of organic matter and release of carbon dioxide, which is a measure of soil respiration, during their metabolic activities. But due to excessive use of agrochemicals, the populations of these beneficial microorganisms are declining which may decrease the fertility status of soil. Several studies were conducted on the toxic impact of some pesticides on soil respiration.On contrary, few studies were conducted on the effect of fertilizer on soil respiration and no specific result could be found out. So the present experiment was undertaken to find out effect of the most common fertilizer (Urea, Superphosphate, Potash and NPK on soil respiration. The CO evolution reached a highest peak within 15 2days of the experiment and then gradually started decreasing and finally became stabilize when compare with the control sample

Anindita Bhattacharya

2013-11-01

174

Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine seedlings in Uganda  

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Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack ofgood quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out; to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts(experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25?5?5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18?4?14 +TE (C mixed in 1 m3 of soil.Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experimentswere laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorialtreatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara.Results of experiment two showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1½ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (Pvalue = 0.021, Pvalue = 0.001 at 1½ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 171717 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m3 of soil.

Samuel Lumu

2013-11-01

175

Impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels and heritability on spineless performance in safflower genotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to study the impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels on spineless percentages, meanwhile, heritability and genetic gain were determind for further selection for eight safflower genotype, during 1998/1999-1999/2000 seasons, at nuclear research center-inshas. Concerning irrigation intervals, results showed that spineless percentages of safflower genotypes were markedly increased with the increasing of irrigation intervals, this eans that increase of drought conditions leds to increase the spineless percentages in all the genotypes. Regarding nitrogen fertilizer levels, results exhibited that spineless percentages were increased with the increasing of nitrogen fertilizer levels for all the studied genotypes. Combined analysis of variance chowed highly significant effect for irrigation intervals, fertilizer levels, years and genotypes for spineles trait. The first order interaction, second order interaction and third order interaction were highly significant suggesting that spineless trait was affected the environmental factors

176

Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management) and farm (organizational management). Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05) among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highe...

Farah Ali, L. A. Lodhi

2010-01-01

177

ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS  

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Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T. Singh et al. (1974, Singh (1964, Bhattacharya (1986,Pathak (1999 and Khan and Raeside (1998 have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980 considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

S.B.Bhardwaj

2009-01-01

178

Estimation of gamma radiation levels in the environs of fertilizer stockyards of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India using thermoluminescence dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate and potash fertilizers are known for having higher concentrations of radionuclides and thus fertilizer stockyard environment might have higher radiation levels than that of outside natural background radiation. An attempt has been made to estimate the gamma radiation levels using thermoluminescence dosimeters and ?R-survey meter in different fertilizer stockyards in Hyderabad, India. (author)

179

Community-level education accelerates the cultural evolution of fertility decline.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explaining why fertility declines as populations modernize is a profound theoretical challenge. It remains unclear whether the fundamental drivers are economic or cultural in nature. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests that community-level characteristics, for example average education, can alter how low-fertility preferences are transmitted and adopted. These assumptions have not been empirically tested. Here, we show that community-level education accelerates fertility decline in a way that is neither predicted by individual characteristics, nor by the level of economic modernization in a population. In 22 high-fertility communities in Poland, fertility converged on a smaller family size as average education in the community increased-indeed community-level education had a larger impact on fertility decline than did individual education. This convergence was not driven by educational levels being more homogeneous, but by less educated women having fewer children than expected, and more highly educated social networks, when living among more highly educated neighbours. The average level of education in a community may influence the social partners women interact with, both within and beyond their immediate social environments, altering the reproductive norms they are exposed to. Given a critical mass of highly educated women, less educated neighbours may adopt their reproductive behaviour, accelerating the pace of demographic transition. Individual characteristics alone cannot capture these dynamics and studies relying solely on them may systematically underestimate the importance of cultural transmission in driving fertility declines. Our results are inconsistent with a purely individualistic, rational-actor model of fertility decline and suggest that optimization of reproduction is partly driven by cultural dynamics beyond the individual. PMID:24500166

Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

2014-03-22

180

Yield of Maize Hybrid-3335 as Affected by NP Levels  

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Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to see the effect of different NP levels on maize hybrid "3335". The fertilizer levels were 90-90-90, 90-120-90, 90-150-90, 150-90-90, 150-120-90, 150-150-90, 210-90-90, 210-120-90, and 210-150-90 Kg ha -1 NPK including control having no fertilizer. The results revealed that maximum plant height (175.8 cm, number of cobs/plant (2.067, number of grains/cob (374.3, 1000-grain weight (226.5 g, Biological yield (15.42 t ha -1, and grain yield (48.08 t ha -1 was obtained by the application of NPK @ 210-120-90 kg ha -1. This level proved to be the optimum for maize crop under local conditions of Dera Ismail Khan.

M. Ayyaz Khan

1999-01-01

181

Effects of fertilization regimes on tea yields, soil fertility, and soil microbial diversity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Fertilization is an important agricultural practice for increasing crop yields and influencing soil properties. A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2006-2011 in southeastern China, to investigate the effects of fertilization regimes on tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) yields, soil c [...] hemical properties, and soil bacterial and fungal communities. The field experiment included six treatments: (1) unfertilized control (CON); (2) chemical fertilizers (NPK); (3) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure (1/2NPKOM); (4) organic manure fertilizers (OM); (5) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure plus legume stover returned (1/2NPKOM+L), and (6) chemical fertilizers plus legume stover returned (NPKL). Results showed that, compared to the control, NPK treatment showed no significant effect on soil organic matter (SOM), total N (TN), total P (TP), total K (TK), available N (AN), available K (AK) and tea yields, but showed the lowest bacterial Shannon index of 1.714 and the lowest value of 2.002 for fungal Shannon index. Organic manure treatment had the richest diversity of soil bacterial community with Shannon index of 2.542, and the highest levels of soil essential nutrients, including SOM (30.03%), TN (2.90 g kg-1), TP (1.35 g kg-1), AN (245.30 mg kg-1), AP (57.00 mg kg-1), and AK (271.80 mg kg-1), followed by 1/2NPKOM+L, which appeared the maximal tea yields of 6772 kg ha-1. Organic manure amendment was a key factor in determining soil properties and productivity. Base on soil quality and tea yields, both OM and 1/2NPKOM+L treatments were recommended as better choices of fertilization practices for tea soils in southeastern China. These findings provided a better understanding of the importance of fertilizations in promoting soil fertility, crop yields, and altering soil microbial diversity, leading to selection of scientific fertilization practices for sustainable development of agroecosystems.

Shan-Lian, Qiu; Li-Min, Wang; Dong-Feng, Huang; Xin-Jian, Lin.

2014-09-01

182

Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level  

OpenAIRE

The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and...

Majewski, Micha?; Bajer, Marta; Kuczkowska, Agnieszka; We?glar, Zenon; Sereda, Anna; Gajewski, Marek

2010-01-01

183

Amelioration of NPK on Metals Polluted Bare and Vegetated Sites of Trelogan Mine  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Trelogan lead/zinc mine waste in North Wales, England with the amelioration of N, P, K. NP, NK, PK and NPK in bare and vegetated areas. In seven treated plots of bare mine area, the seedlings of three species, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris and Anthoxanthum odoratum differed significantly (p = 0.01. Similarly dry weight of four species, F. rubra, A. capillaris, A. odoratum and Cladonia sp. (a lichen in vegetated treated plots also differed significantly (p = 0.001. Fertilizers did not differed significantly in both bare and vegetated areas.

M. Anwer

2001-01-01

184

Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plantha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

185

Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

2010-04-01

186

Determinants of fertility decisions at a household level in the Alaje District of Southern Tigray-Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

High fertility has the potential to affect the health and well being of mothers and the survival of their children. Even though fertility in Ethiopia shows a declining trend at the national level, the onset of fertility decline is yet to come in rural areas. The main objective of this research is to identify major factors affecting the observed high fertility in rural Ethiopia. The study area was selected based on the Ethiopian demographic and health survey made by the Central Statistical Age...

Woldesenbet, Abeba K.

2011-01-01

187

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application  

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Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo.The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated with this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control; 2. NPK (control; 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

Raphael Alvarez

1979-01-01

188

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo / Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de am [...] ônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo. Abstract in english The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated wi [...] th this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control); 2. NPK (control); 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

Raphael, Alvarez; Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano Vaz de, Arruda; Gentil, Godoy Júnior.

189

Wheat Response to Fertilizer Application Techniques and Nitrogen Levels: II. Crop Growth and Yield Attributes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to evaluate difference among various levels of Nitrogen (N fertilizer, its application techniques and their interaction on the growth, yield components and yield of wheat. Treatments of N fertilizer application techniques, viz., broadcast and side-dressing were allocated to main-plots and nitrogen levels, viz., 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg N/ha were placed in sub-plots. This experiment was repeated for two years with the same treatments. Results revealed that nitrogen application techniques had non-significant impact on most of the crop parameters except count of fertile tillers. Various rates of nitrogen showed significant influence on all the parameters under study and showed significantly higher grain yield of wheat with successive increase of dose up to 180 kg N/ha. Maximum plant height and biological yield were obtained under the highest nitrogen level, viz., 210 kg N/ha. However, the highest count of fertile tillers, spike length, number of grains, 1000-grain weight and harvest index were recorded in the treatment receiving 180 kg N/ha. Interactions between fertilizer application techniques and nitrogen levels were non-significant for all the crop parameters studied in this experiment on wheat.

Muhammad Saleem Jilani

2013-01-01

190

Response of maize to poultry manure and mineral fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of mineral fertilizer, poultry manure, and their combination on maize was evaluated in a pot experiment. Six treatments viz 0, 4, 8, 12 tons of poultry manure (PM) ha-1, 60-40-40 kg NPK ha-1 (NPK) and 2 t PM ha-1+30-20-20 Kg NPK ha-1 (2 t + 1/2 NPK) were used in a completely randomized design. Root dry matter of the 2 t+1/2 NPK was greater than that of the 4 t ha-1 and control, and similarly to that of the NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Shoot biomass showed a similar trend as the root dry matter. The NPK treatments and 12 t PM ha-1, rate had high shoot-root ratios. Although the NPK outyielded the other treatments in grain weight, it did differ significantly from that of the 2 t + 1/2 NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Thousand grain weight values did not differ statistically among treatments. The harvest index indicated a higher efficiency of dry matter partitioning into the sink in the combined treatment than in the 4 and 8 t PM ha-1, rates. For practical purposes and from economic point of view, 4 t PM ha1 may be recommended while the combined treatment is promising. Poultry manure appeared more advantageous in supplying C and N to the subsequent crop as more C and N remain in the soil after the maize harvest than mineral fertilizer. The 12 t PM ha-1 rate retained over 40% more C than the mineral fertilizer rate. Further studies, mineral fertilizer rate. Further studies, especially in field situations, are recommended (au)

191

Levels and behavior of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of phosphate fertilizer plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate rocks are used for phosphoric acid production, which is the basis of agricultural phosphate fertilizers. It is known that phosphate ores contain, due to geological reasons, important amounts of natural radioactivity, mainly U-isotopes and daughters. By studying a specific case in Southwestern Spain, it is shown that the operation of phosphate fertilizer factories clearly enhance the natural radiation levels of its close environment. Levels of U-, Th-isotopes, and other natural radionuclides are given for a wide set of different samples, which support such a conclusion. In addition, the study of isotopic ratios gives information on the environmental behavior of such radionuclides. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

192

Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine (Pinus nigra seedlings in Uganda  

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Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack of good quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out, to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts (experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25-5-5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18-4-14 +TE (C mixed in 1m3 of soil. Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experiments were laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorial treatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara. Experiment two results showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1? months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (P-value = 0.021, P-value = 0.001 at 1? months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 17-17-17 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m?3 of soil. (Pinus nigra

S. Lumu

2013-12-01

193

Desempenho agronômico do milho sob adubação mineral e inoculação das sementes com rizobactérias / Agronomic performance of maize under mineral fertilizer and seed inoculation with rhizobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para avaliar o desempenho agronômico da cultura do milho (Zea mays) de segunda safra submetido à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens sob níveis de adubação NPK, um experimento em campo foi conduzido utilizando-se a cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35 cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Fora [...] m testados seis tratamentos sob o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados as características fitométricas, os componentes de produção e a produtividade de grãos do milho. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey p Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic performance of second maize (Zea mays) crop, subjected to inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens under different levels of NPK fertilization, a field experiment was conducted using the cultivar of hybrid maize 30F35 grown in Oxisol. Six treatments were tested in a random [...] ized block design in factorial scheme 3 x 2, with three levels of NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculants (with and without), and four replications. The characteristics, yield components and productivity were evaluated. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at p

Mariana A. de, Oliveira; Claudemir, Zucareli; Leandro T., Spolaor; Allan R., Domingues; André S., Ferreira.

1040-10-01

194

MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE  

OpenAIRE

Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK) amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM ...

Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

2011-01-01

195

External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fertilizers containing phosphate have been used worldwide in increasing quantities in order to replenish natural nutrients, which are being continuously taken off from the soil for farming activities. Phosphate rocks together with potassium ores and nitrogenous compounds are the main raw materials used for industrial fertilizer production. Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphor-gypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in soil samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were estimated. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and external dose rate due to natural gamma background at various locations around the plant were also measured. (author)

196

Growth of chamaecyparis lawsoniana nursery trees with different levels of covering and substrate mineral fertilization /
Crescimento de mudas de chamaecyparis lawsoniana em diferentes níveis de adubação mineral do substrato e em cobertura
 

OpenAIRE

Two simultaneous experiments were accomplished in the Nursery of Ornamental Plants of the Federal University of Paraná State with the objective of evaluating the effect of mineral fertilization on the growth of nursery trees of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana planted directly in the field and in individual packings. The experimental design was the completely randomized with five combinations of NPK 4-30-10 + urea, in grams (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 and 120 + 40 for the field and 0 + 0; 10 +...

Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho; Denise Bruginski de Carvalho; Gabriely Pinto Pereira; Andressa Emanoela do Prado

2009-01-01

197

Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral. The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial. Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral. Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante.

Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

2010-10-01

198

Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content  

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Full Text Available The Wroc?aw version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

Tomasz J. Nowak

1980-06-01

199

Segregation of the bulk blend fertilizers  

OpenAIRE

Bulk blend fertilizers are a mixture of different kinds of fertilizers in order to obtain a predicted N-P-K chemical composition. Although this production method has some advantages, segregation appears at different stages, from the production to the final spreading on the field. An experiment has been implemented to predict and quantify the influence of some physical properties on the occurrence of segregation. The principle was to blend two fertilizers having identical physical properties e...

Miserque, Olivier; Pirard, Eric

2004-01-01

200

Levels of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study is aimed at the determination of the activity levels of primordial radionuclides in soil from various locations around a phosphate fertilizer plant and also to figure out the external dose rate due to natural gamma background in the area by mapping the dose rates with the geographical co-ordinates within the plant premises

201

Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia  

OpenAIRE

The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida). The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose) recorded the highest plant height, number o...

Moghadam, Mina Zarghami; Shoor, Mahmud

2013-01-01

202

Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml) was significantly higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml) (p value< 0.001), and had negative relationship with sperm count, motility and morphology. Therefore it could be concluded that in...

Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar; Mehdi Pouramir; Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony; Sayed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei

2009-01-01

203

Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

2015-01-01

204

Pengaruh NPK dan TNF Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Cabai  

OpenAIRE

Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh NPK dan TNF terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman cabai. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Fakultasa Pertanian Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara, Gedung Johor Medan dengan ketinggian tempat ± 25 m dpi dan berlangsung dari bulan Oktober 2002 sampai Februari 2003. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) Faktorial dengan dua faktor, yaitu: faktor I.Pupuk NPK Nitroposka (N), terdiri dari 4 taraf yaitu: N0 (0 g...

Purnama, Nana

2012-01-01

205

Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers / Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânico [...] s e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial). Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral). Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante. Abstract in english Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fe [...] rtilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral). The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.

Donizetti Tomaz, Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira, Novais; Víctor Hugo, Alvarez V.; José Maria Moreira, Dias; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque, Villani.

1609-16-01

206

EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS  

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Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

Asaad DERBALA

2013-01-01

207

ONION YIELD AS AFFECTED BY FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH AMINO AND HUMIC ACIDS UNDER NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nutrient foliar spraying such as amino and humic acids under nitrogen fertilizer levels on growth, yield and keeping quality of onion bulbs cv. Giza 20. Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The obtained results showed that foliar spraying with humic acid resulted in highest growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as TSS %, dry matter and total weight loss percentages at storage period  compared with the control treatment. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels up to 214.2 kg N/ha significantly increased growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as total weight loss percentages at storage period. In addition, fertilization with 71.4 kg N/ha significantly increased TSS and dry matter percentages. It could be recommended that spraying with humic acid and adding 214.2 kg N/ha maximize onion bulb yield under the environmental conditions of Gharbeia Governorate. The interaction between nutrients spraying and nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly affected foliage fresh weight, total weight loss % after 1, 2, 3 and 5 months.

Ahamed A. Kandil

2013-08-01

208

Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl) detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598- [...] 2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h) after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

Raad Obid, Hussain; Hayder Hamza, Hussain.

2011-08-01

209

Analysis of some factors affecting fertility levels in a high-producing dairy herd in south-western Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to know whether all cows have been showing declining fertility or only a proportion of cows are attributed to the declining fertility, and to describe factors affecting the level of fertility. A total of 131 cows calved from February 2005 to December 2007 in a dairy herd were examined. Fourteen cows were excluded from the study because of early culling. Of the remaining 117 cows, 47 (40%) conceived within 115 days postpartum after 1-3 artificial insemination (AI) (normal fertility cows), 42 (36%) conceived after 115 days postpartum following 1-3 AI or were culled after 1-2 (sub-fertility cows/culled), and 28 (24%) were inseminated more than three times without detectable genital tract abnormalities (repeat breeders). Calving to conception interval in the normal fertility group was 72 + 3 days, while in the sub-fertility/culled and repeat breeding groups the intervals were 170 + 8 and 259 + 16 days, respectively. Endometritis was the risk factor for sub-fertility/culled (odds ratio (OR) = 3.76). Prolonged luteal phase (OR = 4.08), delayed first ovulation (OR = 6.02), and delayed corpus luteum formation after AI (OR = 8.55) were the risk factors for repeat breeding. In conclusion, 60% cows showed reduced fertility in a herd, while the other 40% had normal fertility. Uterine infection and some ovarian disorders contributed to reduced fertility. PMID:20662816

Yusuf, Muhammad; Nakao, Toshihiko; Long, Su T; Gautam, Gokarna

2010-08-01

210

Pineapples cultivated by conventional and organic methods in a soil from banana plantation. A comparative study of soil fertility, plant nutrition and yields  

OpenAIRE

A comparative study on conventional and organically grown pineapples cultivated in a soil from a banana plantation has been carried out in the Canary Islands. Garden waste compost was used as fertilizer in the organic treatment and current NPK fertilization in the conventional one. Soil pH, and available Ca and Mg were higher with the compost. "D" leaf N. K. Ca and Mg levels of plants from the conventional treatment exceeded those from the organic one. but only N seemed to influence ...

Alvarez, C. E.; Carracedo Torres, A. E.; Iglesias, E.; Marti?nez, M. C.

1993-01-01

211

Doses de NPK em viveiro de Hevea spp. na obtenção de plantas aptas para enxertia em latossolo amarelo textura média, na Ilha do Mosqueiro - PA / Levels of NPK on nursery of Hevea spp on the development of plants ready for grafting in a sandy clay loamy yellow latosol, in Mosqueiro Island - PA, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a finalidade de determinar as doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio mais adequadas para obtenção de plantas aptas para enxertia em viveiro de seringueira, instalou-se um experimento em Latossolo Amarelo textura média na Ilha do Mosqueiro-PA. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso c [...] om duas repetições obedecendo ao arranjo fatorial 33 Foram utilizadas as doses de 0-2,1-4,2 g/planta de N; 0-3,5-7,0 g/planta de P2O5; 0-1,4-2,8 g/planta de K2O e dose constante de 0,8 g/planta de MgO, empregando-se como fontes, respectivamente, sulfato de amônio, superfosfato triplo, cloreto de potássio e sulfato de magnésio. Os resultados foram obtidos duzentos e vinte dias após a instalação do experimento, sendo realizadas as seguintes avaliações: análises químicas do solo e folhas, altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e plantas aptas para a enxertia. Pelos resultados obtidos chega-se à conclusão que as doses mais adequadas foram 330 kg/ha (4,6 g/p) de N, 340 kg/ha (4,8 g/p) de P2O5 e 190 kg/ha (2,7 g/p) de K2O, aliadas a dose constante de 60 kg/ha (0,8 g/p) de MgO, propiciando um índice de aproveitamento de oitenta e sete porcento de plantas aptas para enxertia. Abstract in english With the purpose of determining the most adequate levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for the production of plants ready for grafting in nursery, a trial was carried out in a sandy clay loamy yellow Latosol in Mosqueiro Island-PA, Brazil. It was used a randomized block design with two repli [...] cations following a factorial design of 33. The levels applied were of 0-2.1-4.2 g/plant of N; 0-3-5-7-0 g/plant of P2O5; 0-1.4-2.8 g/plant of K2O and a permanent level of 0.8 g/plant of MgO, the sources applied were, respectively, ammonium sulfate, triple superphosphate, potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate. The results were abtained two-hundred and twenty days after the beginning of the trial, the following evaluations were made: chemical analysis of soil and leaves, plants height, stem diameter, dry matter weight of aerial parts and plant ready for grafting. Based on the overall results od the study it was concluded that the adequate levels were 330 kg/ha (4.6 g/plant) of N; 340 kg/ha (4.8 g/plant) of P2O5 and 190 kg/ha (2.7 g/plant) of K(2)0, together with the permanent level of 60 kg/ha (0.8 g/plant) of MgO, producing a rate of profit of eighty-seven percent of plant ready for grafting.

Ismael de Jesus Matos, Viégas; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

212

Nitrogen and Crude Proteins in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva under Different Fertilization Treatments  

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Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the influence of different organic and mineral fertilization treatments and post-harvest treatments on the content of nitrogen and crude proteins in the edible part of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva. A field trial (2003-2005 was set up in a hilly part of Croatia according to the Latin square method with four types of fertilization (control, 50 t ha-1 stable manure, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30, while treatments involved harvested fresh beetroot and stored fresh beetroot. The highest dry weight (DW content was determined in climatologically favourable 2004 (average 14.8% DW and in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (15.6% DW in harvested beetroot. In 2004 and 2005, the highest levels of nitrogen and crude proteins in harvested beetroot were determined in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (2.41 and 2.43 g N kg-1 in fresh weight and 15.07 and 15.21 g crude proteins kg-1 in fresh weight, respectively. Regardless of fertilization treatment or studied year, nitrogen and crude protein contents were higher in stored than in harvested beetroot, by 12% on average. The lowest crude protein content was determined in treatment with stable manure what confirmed that protein content decreased by organic fertilization. It can be concluded that beetroot lost some water during the storage period, which increased its content of nitrogen and crude proteins in fresh weight and thus increased the nutritional quality of beetroot as a functional food.

Sasa CVETKOVIc

2012-11-01

213

Gas exchange in massai grass under five nitrogen fertilization levels during establishment and regrowth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate gas exchange in the massai grass during establishment and regrowth cycles in a greenhouse, using five nitrogen (N) fertilization levels. A completely randomized split-plot design of five nitrogen levels (0; 150; 300; 450 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil) was empl [...] oyed with the N levels as plots, and the cycles (establishment, regrowth 1 and 2) as subplots, evaluated with five replicates. We evaluated leaf transpiration (E), leaf temperature (TFOL), leaf photosynthesis rate (A), leaf carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis/transpiration ratio (A/E), photosynthesis/conductance ratio (A/gs), chlorophyll relative index (CRI), and nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI). Growth cycles influenced all physiological characteristics, except for NSI. N fertilization levels affected TFOL, A, CRI and NSI variables, whereas for gs, E, Ci, A/E and A/gs it did not occur. A increased from 6.38 to 10.33 µmol•m-2.s-1, at levels 0 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil, respectively. Gas exchange in the massai grass was favored by nitrogen fertilization, since the cycles amended these characteristics of the grass.

Marcos Neves, Lopes; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Magno José Duarte, Cândido; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco, Pompeu; Rodrigo Gregório da, Silva; José Wellington Batista, Lopes; Francisco Ronaldo Belém, Fernandes; Francisco Marcus Lima, Bezerra.

1862-18-01

214

Effect of Seed Inoculation and Different Nitrogen Levels on the Grain Yield of Mungbean  

OpenAIRE

Effect of seed inoculation and different nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of mungbean was studied at Agronomic Research Station, Farooqabad during the year 2000 and 2001. Results showed that various yield components like No. of pods plant -1, No. of grain pods -1, 1000 grain weight, biological and grain yield were affected significantly by seed inoculation and fertilizer application. Seed inoculation + 50-50-0 NPK kg ha -1, exhibited superior perf...

Asrar Mahboob; Muhammad Asghar

2002-01-01

215

Effects of Levels of Sulfur Fertilizer on Growth of Digitaria eriantha Grass  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of sulfur fertilizer application on the quantity and chemical composition of Digitaria eriantha grass. The experiment was conducted at Petchaburi Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Petchaburi, Thailand, during August to October, 2006. Treatments consisted of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai applications in the form of ammonium sulfate and were arranged in randomized complete block with 4 field blocks as replication. Grass was sampled at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of regrowth to determine biomass accumulation over maturation period between and within treatments. The samples of 6-week old grass were subjected to chemical composition evaluation.The results showed that there was a significant linear correlation between levels of S fertilizer application and biomass accumulation of 2-week old grass. Biomass accumulation was significantly increased with the increasing rates of S fertilizer applications (120.56, 176.48 and 200.62 kgDM/rai at 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai, respectively. Sulfur (0.09, 0.17 and 0.18 %DM and crude protein (6.10, 8.22 and 10.25 %DM concentrations and crude protein yield (40.48, 61.35 and 76.00 kg/rai had increased linearly with the increasing levels of sulfur fertilizer application of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai, respectively. The result of this study showed that quality of grass can be improved through S fertilizer application. There is a need for further study on the effect of S application on ruminant performance to improve pasture management. This information can be used to make sensible recommendation for sustainable pasture management for animal production.

Auraiwan Isuwan

2007-12-01

216

Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of 137Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears to be an effective countermeasure (at least in the type of forest used in this study). The reduction of the 137Cs levels in plants and fungi persisted for quite a long period of time

217

Emergence and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Maize under Different Tillage Operations and Fertility Levels  

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Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan to observe the emergence of maize and nitrogen use efficiency of the crop under different fertility regimes (0-0, 90-00, 90-60, 90-90, 90-120, 150-00, 150-60, 150-90 and 150-120 NP kg ha-1 applied in the plots plowed through tillage practices with cultivator, chisel and desi plows. The better emergence was obtained with 90-90 NP kg ha-1. The seedling emergence decreased at higher doses of N and P. The interaction of tillage x fertilizer revealed that fertilizer at the rate of 90-150 kg ha-1 and tillage practices with cultivator exhibited higher seedling emergence, while the plots ploughed with chisel plow and desi plow recorded decreased emergence. However, chisel plowing recorded higher fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency than the plots ploughed by cultivator or desi plough. Nitrogen use efficiency at high levels of nitrogen applications was low than in the low rates of N incorporation. It was concluded that tillage practices should be performed with cultivator and 90 kg N ha-1 is suitable combination for seedling emergence and crop yield of maize.

M.H. Siddiqui

2006-01-01

218

Impact of Row Spacing and Fertilizer Levels (Diammonium Phosphate on Yield and Yield Components of Canola  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the impact of row spacing (15, 30, 45 and 60 cm and fertilizer levels (0, 50, 75 and 100 kg ha-1 on canola. The number of pods plant-1, number of grains pod-1, thousand grain weight and grain yield ha-1 was recorded during the study. The highest number of pods (177 Plant-1, number of grains (30, thousand grain weight 0.86 g and grain yield kg ha-1 (1692 was observed from plots where row spacing was kept at 45 cm. Similarly the highest number of pods (211 Plant-1, number of grains (36, thousand grain weight (1.02 and grain yield kg ha-1 (2270 was observed from plots where fertilizer level was 100 kg ha-1. The maximum yield and yield components were observed at the interaction of 45 cm row spacing and 100 kg DAP ha-1.

Mujtaba Masood

2003-01-01

219

An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

220

Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T) levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protoco...

Sun Mei; Zhao Zhiyi; Qin Yingying; Geng Ling; Che Li; Chen Zi-Jiang

2011-01-01

221

Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization  

OpenAIRE

The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, correspo...

José Ricardo Mantovani; Igor Arthur da Costa Oliveira; Douglas José Marques; Adriano Bortolotti da Silva; Paulo Roberto Corrêa Landgraf

2014-01-01

222

Gas exchange in massai grass under five nitrogen fertilization levels during establishment and regrowth  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to evaluate gas exchange in the massai grass during establishment and regrowth cycles in a greenhouse, using five nitrogen (N) fertilization levels. A completely randomized split-plot design of five nitrogen levels (0; 150; 300; 450 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil) was employed with the N levels as plots, and the cycles (establishment, regrowth 1 and 2) as subplots, evaluated with five replicates. We evaluated leaf transpiration (E), leaf temperature (TFOL), leaf p...

Marcos Neves Lopes; Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda; Magno José Duarte Cândido; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco Pompeu; Rodrigo Gregório da Silva; José Wellington Batista Lopes; Francisco Ronaldo Belém Fernandes; Francisco Marcus Lima Bezerra

2011-01-01

223

Effect of Different NP Fertilizer Levels on the Yield of Cotton Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 03 replications. Treatments comprised of 03 cotton cultivars (TH- 41/83, 35/83 and Rehmani and 10 fertilizer levels. It has been observed that cotton cultivar TH- 35/83 gave highest seed cotton yield per plant i.e., 95.13 g, fallowed by TH - 41/83 i.e., 84. 19 g plant-1. While the maximum yield per plant was recorded under fertilizer level 200 -50 kg ha-1 (100.52. Cultivar TH – 41/83 gave highest yield per plot 4.89 kg and 3773.12 kg ha-1. Cultivar Rehmani gave lowest yield i.e. 3.97 kg plot-1 and 3063.25 kg ha-1. It is also investigated that NP, fertilizer level 200-75 kg ha-1, produced maximum cotton yield 4.88 kg plot-1 and 37.65. 40-kg ha-1

Z.A. Abbasi

2001-01-01

224

Distribution of uranium in soil components of agricultural fields after long-term application of phosphate fertilizers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term application of phosphate fertilizers causes accumulation of U in the surface soil of agricultural fields. We investigated the soil constituents that contribute to the accumulation of U by using chemical extraction methods. Surface soil samples were obtained from upland fields, pastures, and paddy fields cultivated without any phosphate fertilizer (control site), with NPK fertilizer (NPK site), and with both NPK fertilizer and compost (NPK+compost site) for more than 20 years. In addition to the total U (Ut) concentration in soil, the concentrations of pyrophosphate- and acid oxalate-extractable U were determined as a measure of U associated with soil organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in soil, respectively. The total, pyrophosphate-extractable, and acid oxalate-extractable U concentrations were higher in the soil obtained from the NPK and NPK+compost sites than in that obtained from the control site. The difference in the U concentrations between the NPK or NPK+compost site and the control site corresponded with the increased U concentration observed after the application of the phosphate fertilizer or both the fertilizer and compost. In the upland field and pasture soil, the increase in pyrophosphate-extractable U was 83-94% of that in Ut. On the other hand, the increase in acid oxalate-extractable U was 44-58% of that in Ut in the upland field and pasture soil, but it was almost equivalent to the increase in Ut in the paddy soil with NPK. In conclusion, most of the phosphate fertilizer-derived U was either incorporated into the soil organic matter or poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in the surface soil of agricultural fields. Thus, soil organic matter is an important pool of U in upland field and pasture soil, whereas poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals are important pools of U in paddy soil experiencing alternating changes in redox conditions. PMID:19033080

Yamaguchi, N; Kawasaki, A; Iiyama, I

2009-02-01

225

Soil pollution state as affected by different soil fertility regulation measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of 14 chemical elements was measured in the soil of ten long-term field trials located in different climatic zones of Lithuania. Soil samples were taken from the control (untreated) and anthropogenic (fertilized with mineral NPK and/or organic fertilizers, limed) treatment plots. The samples were analyzed by the AAS method and directly analyzed with X-rays upon fine grinding (for Sr). In the western zone of Lithuania the anthropogenic impact (liming with fertilizing) resulted in statistically significant increase in the content of 4 elements (B, Ni, Sr, Zn). In the eastern zone 3 elements (Cu, Co, Sr) showed significant differences. Soil contamination index was exceeded significantly (up to 2 versus the background levels) only for Sr (2.14 times) in the western zone

226

Effect of fertilizer and inoculation on the growth and yield of soybean cv.williams-82 in pot culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pot culture experiment in response to different levels of added N fertilizer on soybean cv.Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of Quetta. Fertilizer treatments were applied at the rate zero (control); 23; 25; 50; 75; 100 and 125 kg N/ha plus a constant dose of 60 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha and 30 kg K/sub 2/O/ha in all treatments (except control). These seven fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated pot culture crop. Results showed that nodules were found to be absent in both set of experiments which could be indirectly attributed to either sufficient level of soil NO/sub 3/ (5.10 mm) or deficient level of total Fe (8.25 ppm) and Cu (below detection limit) or might be directly due to any other edaphic or climatic factor(s). Results also showed that in general petiole length, middle leaflet area,' plant height, yield, 100 seed weight (except inoculated fertilized), total number of pods/plant (except non-inoculated fertilized) and pod both set of experiment are significantly different (P > 0.05) as compared with their respective control treatment. While remaining yield attributes viz., one-seeded, two-seeded and three-seeded pods are found as non-significantly different in response to both fertilizer and inoculum treatments. Results further revealed that pots receiving N fertilizer without inoculum mathematically out-yielded (1718 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 100+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-yielded (1912 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 125+60+30 kg NPK/ha. It was also revealed that all growth parameters and most of the yield attributes exhibited significant positive correlation with yield. However, number of seedless and one-seeded pods also exhibited significant but negative association with yield. (author)

227

Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels o [...] f leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

Saime, Guzel; Meltem, Tanriverdi.

2014-12-01

228

Effects of (Azotobacter and Azosprillium Inoculants and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Productivity of Canola (Brassica napus L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the effects of inoculants (biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer on the yield, yield components and seed oil content of canola (Brassica napus L., a split-plot experimental design with 20 treatments in 4 replications was carried out during 2004-2005 growing season at the Baiecola Agricultural Research Station in the Mazandaran province, Iran. Canola (cv. Hyola 401 hybrid, a high yielding early maturity variety, was grown in rotation after wheat. In the main plots, the biofertilizer treatments were at two different levels: 1 control (no seed inoculation and 2 seed-inoculation with a combination of three different strains of bacteria Azotobacter chrocooccum and Azosprillium brasilense and Azosprillium lipoferum. In the two sets of 10 sub-plots chemical fertilizers comprising N, P, K and their combinations, NPKS and NPK Zn were applied. The seed yield touched a high of 3741.5 kg h-1 at treatment T20 (Bio + NPK Zn, that corresponded to 257.7 pods per plant and maximum CGR (18.3 g m-2 day-1. The highest weight of 1000 seeds (4.45 g was obtained at treatment no T19 (Bio + NPK S which coincided with the maximum TDM (1155 g-2 and maximum LAI (5.06. The maximum branching (4.43 branches per plant was obtained at treatment T20 (Bio + NPK Zn showing a 46.2% increase over the control. The maximum oil content 47.73% was obtained at T16 (Bio + NK. The application of inoculation with Azotobacter and Azosprillium helped to increase the yield by 21.17% over the control, raised the number of pods per plant (16.05%, number of branches (11.78%, weight of 1000 grain (2.92% and the oil content of seeds (1.73% but decreased (-0.24% the number of seeds per pod.

Esmaeil Yasari

2007-01-01

229

Evaluation of some lupin mutants under different irrigation intervals and nitrogen fertilizer levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation was carried out during the two seasons of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 at the experimental farm belonging to the plant research department, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority in Inshas to evaluate four lupin mutant lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4) along with their original mother varieties giza 1 and giza 2 under different levels and nitrogen fertilizer levels. The results indicated that seed yield/ plant and its effective components number and weight of pods/plant were significantly higher in all the mutant lines as compared to their parents either in the first or second seasons. Concerning the effect of irrigation intervals on yield and its components for developed mutants and their mother varieties as well as the results gave an evidence that the wider interval showed the lesser values for yield and most of yield components. Obtained data also revealed that yield attributes of lupin mutants and their parents were affected by applying nitrogen fertilizer. However, the application of 20 or 40 kg N/fad. Mostly increased yield and yield components of the different genotypes for both growing seasons. The third interaction of genotypes x irrigation x N fertilizer was significant for all studied characters in the two growing seasons

230

Effect of Different Levels of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Protein Content of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on the growth, yield and protein content of two wheat varieties. Two varieties of wheat were tested. Aghrani and Kanchan with five levels of chemical and organic fertilizer viz. F1 (control, F2, F3, F4 and F5. Urea was applied in 2 splits in F1 and in 3 splits in F2 to F4 as per recommendation. In F5, it was applied in 4 equal splits. In F1, inorganic fertilizers were applied @ 100 kg N, 36 kg P, 25 kg K and 20 kg S/ha. In F2 to F5, fertilizers were applied @ 120 kg N, 27 kg P, 83 kg K, 30 kg S and 4 kg Zn/ha. Grain Yield and protein content was higher in Kanchan than Aghrani variety. Among the different levels of fertilizer application, F5 had superior performance on all the parameters, whereas, F1 had the most inferior effect on all the parameters including grain and straw yields. The yield, yield contributing characters and protein content of wheat increased with increase in the levels inorganic fertilizers, addition of composts with fertilizer and also by increasing split application of nitrogen.

M. Rafiqul Islam

2002-01-01

231

[Present situation of rice fertilization in qin-ba mountainous area of Southern Shaanxi, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the present situation of rice fertilization and the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input in the Qin-Ba mountainous area of southern Shaanxi, the survey data from 2854 households in 11 counties of this area in the project "soil testing and formulated fertilization in 2006-2009" were analyzed and evaluated, and the countermeasures for the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were proposed. In the study area, the average rice yield was 7822 kg x hm(-2) per year, and the ratio of the households obtained the medium level yield was up to 50.9%. The input of the total fertilizers N, P2O5, K2O was 169, 68, and 54 kg x hm(-2), and the chemical fertilizer rate was 159, 62, and 45 kg x hm(-2), with the partial factor productivity (PFP) of the N, P2O5, and K2O being 51.52, 135.69, and 158.26 kg x kg(-1), respectively. According to the nutrient fertilization level, the proportion of the households fertilized with rational level of chemical N, P2O5, and K2O occupied 48.0%, 42.4%, and 7.2%, that of the households fertilized with excessive level was 22.6%, 11.2%, and 0.6%, and the proportion of the households fertilized with insufficient level occupied 29.4%, 46.5%, and 92.2%, respectively. The rice yield in the Qin-Ba mountainous area could be increased by 77 thousand tons if the households fertilizing with insufficient level of chemical NPK fertilizers increased the fertilization rate to a rational level. The existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were mainly the coexistence of excessive and insufficient application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers and the insufficient input of potassium fertilizer and organic manure. In the rice fertilization in this area, the focus would be the balanced application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, the increase of the fertilization rates of potassium fertilizer and organic manure, and the increase of top dressing, especially potassium. PMID:24564138

Wang, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Fen; Tong, Yan-An; Zhao, Zuo-Ping

2013-11-01

232

Agronomic Traits of Mungbean and Subsequent Rice Crop as Affected by Seed Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Level  

OpenAIRE

Effect of seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels on the yield and yield components of mungbean and subsequent rice crop was studied. Results showed that seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels significantly affected yield and yield components of mungbean and rice crops. Treatment (T6) exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential of mungbean crop (954.8 kg ha-1 grains), which was 50% more than that of control. Whereas T7 ga...

Aasrar Mahboob; Muhammad Jamil Tahir; Asmat Ali Javed; Tariq Mehmood

2003-01-01

233

Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization  

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Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

José Ricardo Mantovani

2014-09-01

234

EFFECTS OF MIXED ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND THE GROWTH OF KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L. CULTIVATED ON BRIS SOILS  

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Full Text Available The demand for kenaf in the world increases rapidly by the years. Cultivation of the crop in Malaysia is a challenging task, especially when kenaf is grown on sandy soils with low fertility, such as the BRIS Soils (Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales. A pot study was conducted in a glasshouse at Universiti Putra Malaysia to evaluate the potential of inorganic and organic fertilizers or their combination for growing kenaf on very sandy BRIS Soils, using variety V36. There were altogether sixteen treatments: (T1-control (100% BRIS soil, (T2-NPK (chemical fertilizer, (T3-CM (chicken manure, (T4-B (biochar, (T5-Z (zeolite, (T6-NPK+CM, (T7-NPK+B, (T8-NPK+Z, (T9-CM+B, (T10-CM+Z, (T11-B+Z, (T12-NPK+CM+B, (T13-NPK+CM+Z, (T14-CM+B+Z, (T15-NPK+B+Z and (T16- NPK+CM+B+Z. Results showed that application of inorganic material or organic fertilizer in combination with chemical fertilizer (T2 and T16 improved soil fertility, which are reflected by the increase inexchangeable K, Ca and Mg, CEC, total N, total C and available P. The highest kenaf growth was observed in T15 treatment.Application of biochar, zeolite or chicken manure alone on the soils did not result in better kenaf growth compared to the control. Zeolite and biochar should be applied with other fertilizers or organic substrate to obtain a positive yield of crop and increase the soil properties. In addition, more studies on the application of chicken manure at different ratios should be conducted to obtain the best yield. Combination treatment, T15 (NPK + biochar + zeolite can be suggested to the farmers especially cultivation of kenaf on sandy BRIS soil in order to obtain the best kenaf growth performance and indirectly reduce excessive use of chemical fertilizers.

Mohd Hadi Akbar Basri

2013-01-01

235

Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996  

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Full Text Available EnglishThis study focuses on the fertility levels and trends of Iranian women aged10-49 years during three decades, 1967-1996. Information was collected by interviewing a systematiccluster sample of 13,253 households. The basic date of concern was the date of each live born childfor a sample of women in reproductive age and whether the live born was alive at the time of thestudy. The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to becalculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates werefound for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels areprobably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately afterthe 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 haddropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96. This declinewas probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularlysince 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a babyboom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the comingdecades.FrenchCette étude porte sur les niveaux et les tendances de fertilité chez les Iraniennes âgées de 10 à 49 ans sur une période de trente ans, soit de 1967-1996. L'information a été recueillie en interviewant un échantillon en grappes systématique de 13 253 ménages. La principale date qui nous intéresse est la date de naissance de chaque enfant vivant pour un échantillon de femmes en âge de procréer et le fait que l'enfant soit toujours en vie au moment de l'étude. La nature détaillée des données recueillies pour chaque naissance a permis d'établir les taux de fertilité pour les périodes précises avant le sondage pour les années civiles précises. Les taux de fertilité étaient supérieurs pour les périodes de 10 à 15 ans et de 15 à 20 ans avant le sondage. Ces taux élevés sont sans doute attribuables à des changements socio-économiques favorisant une plus grande fertilité immédiatement après la révolution de 1979. Cependant, les résultats de ce sondage indiquent qu'entre 1967 et 1996, l'ISF est passé de 6,38 à 2.88 (ISF avait été établi à partir du comportement procréateur des années 1992-96. Cette chute avait probablement été causée par le fait que les femmes se mariaient plus tard et à des changements dans la politique favorisant la régulation des populations, surtout depuis 1987. Malgré ce déclin éventuel de la fertilité des dernières années, l'Iran s'attend, au cours des prochaines décennies, à une explosion démographique une fois que les enfants nés entre 1976 et 86 auront atteints l'âge de procréer.

Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi

2002-01-01

236

Ensaio de adubação N-P-K em amendoim N-P-K fertilizer test with peanuts  

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Full Text Available O presente ensaio, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich contendo terra-roxa-misturada, foi instalado com a finalidade de se determinar o efeito dos elementos fertilizantes nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, na produção do amendoim. Empregou-se para êste estudo o delineamento fatorial 3x4x3, contendo cada tratamento três repetições. Foram colhidos separadamente a parte aérea e os frutos e sôbre êstes dois fatôres foi estudada a ação daqueles elementos fertilizantes. Os dados coletados mostram haver semelhança entre os resultados com a produção da parte aérea e a dos frutos. O elemento responsável pela maior produção foi o fósforo, vindo a seguir o nitrogênio; o potássio não teve influência no aumento de produção. Pelos dados obtidos neste experimento deduz-se que a fórmula de adubação que melhores resultados apresentou foi a N1P3, ou sejam, 30 e 240 quilos de N e P2O5 por hectare, respectivamente.The present test was carried out with peanut plants grown in Mitscherlich pots filled with the "terra-roxa-misturada" type of soil. Its objective was to determine the influence of the three major elements, viz. nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the yield. A 3 x 4 x 3 factorial design was employed, each treatment being replicated 3 times. Both the aerial parts of the plants and the fruit were harvested separately and used for statistical analysis. Fruit yield and weight of aerial parts showed similar responses to the treatments. Phosphorus increased the yield the most, followed by nitrogen; potash had no influence on yield. According to the results obtained the best formula was N1P3, corresponding to 30 and 240 kg of N and P2O5 per hectare, respectively.

H. Gargantini

1958-01-01

237

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th series, their decay products and {sup 40}K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring {gamma}-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5{+-}5.2-106.3{+-}7.5, 5.1{+-}1.6-9.9{+-}3.2. and 462.6{+-}21-607.3{+-}14 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra{sub eq} in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43 Bq kg{sup -1} and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19 Bq kg{sup -1}, which are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1} adopted from . The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmeasured activity levels of natural radionuclides in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Saudi Arabia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activity of natural radionuclides in chemical fertilizer higher than in organic fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA{sub eq} in chemical and organic fertilizers ranged between 34.07 and 161.43 Bq kg{sup -1}.

El-Taher, A., E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit 71452 (Egypt); Althoyaib, S.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia)

2012-01-15

238

Poder de mercado na indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08), no período de 1993-2006  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As barreiras à entrada, a concentração observada e a alta de preços dos fertilizantes induziram à desconfiança de possibilidade de exercício do poder de mercado por parte das empresas representativas da indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08). Esses indícios podem ser condição necessári [...] a, porém não suficiente para afirmar a existência e o exercício de fato do poder. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar a conduta das empresas representativas da indústria de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08), por meio da estimação do parâmetro de conduta médio, ?. O período de análise foi fevereiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2006. A análise do comportamento das firmas baseou-se na teoria da Nova Organização Industrial Empírica. O ? foi estimado via interação da equação de demanda e relação de oferta representativa da indústria. Sob o ?, aplicou­-se o teste de hipótese para conhecer a conduta das firmas. Os resultados não permitiram identificar a existência do poder de mercado, exceto quando foram consideradas apenas as quatro maiores empresas. Entretanto, não foi possível fazer inferências sobre o exercício do poder de mercado das quatro maiores empresas, haja visto que a principal preocupação foi em relação à possibilidade de exercício, e não ao seu exercício de poder de fato. Abstract in english Barriers to the entrance, the concentration observed and the increase of prices of fertilizers had conducted to the diffidence of the possibility of the exercise of market power on part of companies which represent the Brazilian industry of the NPK (04-14-08) fertilizer. These indications can be a n [...] ecessary condition, however not enough to affirm the existence and the exercise, in fact, of the power. The objective was to identify the behavior of the representative companies of the NPK (04-14-08) fertilizer industry, through the estimate of the average parameter of behavior, ?. The period of analysis was February 1993 until December 2006. The analysis of the behavior of the firms was based on the New Empirical Industrial Organization (Neio) theory. ? was projected through the interaction of the demand equation and the representative supply ratio of the industry. Under ?, the hypothesis test was applied to know the behavior of the firms. Results did not allow identifying the existence of the market power, except when only the four major companies had been considered. However, it was not possible to make inferences on the exercise of the market power of the four major companies, since that the main concern was regarding the possibility of the exercise, and not the exercise in fact.

Graciela Aparecida, Profeta; Marcelo José, Braga.

2011-12-01

239

The effect of NPK Compound (6:16:7 on Chemical Soil Properties of Thapic Epiaquands and Cucumber Yield  

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Full Text Available The effect of NPK compound (6:16:7 on chemical soil properties of Thapic Epiaquands, growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus has been studied in Punthuk Rejo Village, Karanganyar District. The aims were to study the influence of NPK fertiliser on chemical soil properties, growth and yield of cucumber. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. The treatments were rate of NPK fertilisers including control, NPK standard, 150 kg NPK compound (6:16:7 ha-1, 300 kg NPK compound (6:16:7 ha-1, 450 kg NPK compound (6:16:7 ha-1, 600 kg NPK compound (6:16:7 ha-1, 300 kg NPK compound (6:16:7 ha-1 + ¼ NPK standard, and 300 kg NPK compound (6:16:7 ha-1 + ½ NPK standard. The NPK standard originated from single fertiliser, namely urea, SP-36 and KCl, while the NPK compound was Agrotop, containing 6.15% N, 16.23% P2O5 and 6.87% K2O following named NPK compound (6:16:7. The rate of NPK standard was 100 kg urea ha-1, 100 kg SP-36 ha-1 and 200 kg KCl ha-1 referring to the local recommended fertiliser rate. Application of NPK, both NPK (6:16:7 and NPK Standard, improved the chemical soil properties, namely N, P and K total as well available P. So far, application of 300 kg NPK compound ha-1 significantly increased the number of cucumber fruits and cucumber yield. Compared to the control, the increases were 13% and 44% for the number of cucumber fruits and cucumber yield, respectively. So far, combination of NPK compound (6:16:7 at the rate of 300 kg ha-1 with half recommended rate of NPK standard yielded a significant effect on both the number of cucumber fruits and weight of cucumber. These improvements were comparable to the NPK standard under fully recommended rate. The relative agronomic effectiveness value of combination of NPK (6:16:7 at the rate of 300 kg ha-1 with half recommended rate of NPK standard were about 100%, similar with the value of NPK standard. The economic analysis indicated that NPK standard with recommended application rate and combination of NPK Agrotop at the rate of 300 kg ha-1 with half recommended rate of NPK standard gave high benefit, B/C ratio and IBCR. The B/C ratio and IBCR were higher than one.

Sukristiyonubowo

2009-09-01

240

Response of different combinations of manure and fertilizers to the yield of rape crop  

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Full Text Available This study was an attempt to determine the effect of different combinations of manure and fertilizers on the yield of rape crop so as to improve yield by recommending the best combination of manure and fertilizers to the rape growers in Botswana. Rape crop was planted on farmers field in a complete randomized block design where nine different combinations of manure and fertilizers, namely, chicken manure (Ch; Ch and NPK (2:3:2; Ch and Fe (Iron; Ch, NPK and Fe; Ch and Urea; Ch, NPK and Urea; Ch, Urea and Fe; Ch, NPK, Urea and Fe; and control (No application of manure and fertilizer were considered. Each fertilizer combination was replicated four times in a total of thirty six plots in the layout of the experiment. The data on rape yield was collected. The leaves of rape were harvested three times a month and the rape yield (in kg was recorded in a harvest sheet. A two way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed using the SPSS software. The results indicated that fertilizer combination of chicken manure, NPK and Urea produced the highest yield of rape which was 2.61 times higher than the yield produced by the control plots (where no manure and fertilizer was applied and therefore, a fertilizer combination of chicken manure, NPK and Urea was recommended to the rape growers. Suggested future studies included the comparative profitability of different fertilizer combinations as well as the effects of different doses of the organic and inorganic fertilizers on rape production.

S.P. Baliyan

2012-12-01

241

Effect of Cultivars, Harvesting Time and Level of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Nitrate and Nitrite Content, Yield in Romaine Lettuce  

OpenAIRE

In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 60, 120, 180), cultivars (Pich Ahwazi, Pich Varamini) and harvesting time (morning, evening) on yield, nitrate and nitrite accumulation in edible parts of lettuce, a research was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran. This study was arranged in spilt plot experiment on randomized complete block design base, in three replications. Results indicated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer amount on yield were signific...

Maryam Boroujerdnia; Naser Alemzadeh Ansari; Farideh Sedighie Dehcordie

2007-01-01

242

Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Two Types of Bio-Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Two Cultivars of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different rates of nitrogen (N fertilizer with two types of bio-fertilizers (0, 125, 75, 225, 125 plus Super Nitro and 125 kg N h-1 plus Nitroxin bio-fertilizer and two cultivars (Super Chief and Super Beita on growth and yield of tomato, at a field Andimeshk, Khuzestan Iran, during 2006. The experiment design was randomized complete block design arranged in split plot, with three replications. During of study, were measured some of vegetative and reproductive characteristics such as seedling emergence time, plant height, leaf number, leaf number below the inflorescence, flowering time in the first inflorescence, flowers and fruits number per the first inflorescence, fruit mean weight, fruit number per plant and fruit yield. Results indicated that there were significant differences between N level and most of characteristics such as plant height, leaf number, fruit number per the inflorescence, fruit number per plant, fruit mean weight and fruit yield and bio-fertilizers affected the growth parameters such as seedling emergence time, plant height, leaf number, fruit mean weight and fruit yield but they have not significant effect on flowering time, flower and fruit number per the first inflorescence and fruit number per plant. Also there was significant differences between the cultivars in seedling emergence time, plant height, flowers and fruits number per the first inflorescence, fruit mean weight and fruit yield. The maximum yield was accomplished when Super Beita cultivar received 225 kg N h-1.

S. Najafvand Direkvandi

2008-01-01

243

Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not endanger the health safety of the produced food.

Ahmad, Fawzia

244

Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia  

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Full Text Available The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida. The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose recorded the highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes such as number of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plot, flower yield/plant, flower yield/plot. The early flower bud initiation, 50 percent flowering and more flowering duration was achieved in the treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose. Application of Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose registered significantly higher quality parameters such as flower diameter.

Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM

2013-05-01

245

Role of PACAP in female fertility and reproduction at gonadal level - recent advances  

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Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides.

DoraReglodi

2012-12-01

246

MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE  

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Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM + NPK amendments showed lower accumulation of heavy metals and higher yield. Plants grown in NPK and N amended soil showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and lower yield compared to the control. Higher uptake of heavy metals in plants under NPK and N amendments, led to increase in the antioxidants enzymes, but reductions in photosynthesis rate, growth and yield. The results suggest that the application of FYM alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers may be recommended as cost effective technique for reducing the availability of heavy metals in waste water irrigated soil.

Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

2011-01-01

247

Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. PMID:23504873

Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

2013-05-01

248

Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level  

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Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and ?-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and ?-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

Micha? MAJEWSKI

2010-06-01

249

[Change characteristics of rice yield and soil organic matter and nitrogen contents under various long-term fertilization regimes].  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-term (1982-2010) field experiment was conducted in the Red Soil Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Qiyang County of Hunan Province, South-central China to investigate the dynamic changes of rice yield and soil organic matter (OM) and nitrogen contents under different fertilization treatments. The treatments included NPK, NPKM (M: manure), NPM, NKM, PKM, M, and CK. Fertilization increased the soil OM, total N, and alkaline-hydrolysable N contents and the rice yield. In treatment NPKM, the rice yield across the 28 years maintained at the highest level; while in treatment NPK, the yield showed a decreasing trend, being lower than that in other fertilization treatments. In the treatments applied with manure only or in combining with chemical fertilizers, the soil OM content increased rapidly in the first 16 years, and then fluctuated around a constant level (29.42-39.32 g x kg(-1)). In the treatments of chemical fertilization, the soil OM content only had a quicker increase in the first 8 years, and then fluctuated within a relatively stable range. Fertilization with manure increased the soil OM significantly, as compared to fertilization with chemical fertilizers only. The soil total N content in all fertilization treatments showed a rapid increase in the first 8 years, and the increment was the highest in treatment NPKM. The soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in all fertilization treatments had a slower increase in the first 12 years, with an average annual increment of 0.66-2.25 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1). In 1994-1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in fertilization treatments had a quicker increase, with an average annual increment of 6.45-32.45 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1); but after 1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content had a slight decrease. It was concluded that organic fertilization was the key measure to stably improve the physical and chemical properties and the productivity of red paddy soils by increasing their OM and nitrogen contents, and to sustain the rice production in red soil region in subtropical China. PMID:24175518

Huang, Jing; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Yang-Zhu; Qin, Dao-Zhu; Xu, Ming-Gang

2013-07-01

250

County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987–2006  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintained—the periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also, states with higher nonfarm-to-total fertilizer ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus tended to have higher urban land-use percentages.

Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.

2012-01-01

251

Efficiency of soil and fertilizer nitrogen in relation to rice variety and application time, using 15N labelled fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the investigation of efficient use of fertilizer nitrogen NPK simple trials were carried out using newly bred Tongil line(japonica indica hybrid selection) and the leading local varieties with sulfur coated urea in fields for two years. The yield of Tongil line was higher than that of leading local varieties by 16% in the cool year and 23% in warm year with high solar radiation from NPK simple trials including SCU and 2-split application which were carried in 130 fields at 32 locations. Warm year increased yield by 9% in Tongil but only 3% in the local than the cool year did. Optimum nitrogen level was higher in Tongil by 3.8kg in the cool year and 5.5kg in warm year than for the local. Yearly variation of optimum nitrogen in the same variety was greater than varietal variation in the same year. Two-split application resulted in 1 to 2% of inconsistent yield variation. Sulfur coated urea increased yield by average 2 to 4% even at 20% reduced rate of nitrogen. It was remarkablly effective in saline (27-39%), virgin (20%) and unmatured (10%)soils. (Author)

252

Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species. PMID:22404621

Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup

2012-04-17

253

Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

2011-01-01

254

Influence of Both Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Productivity of Barley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influences of gamma irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) as well as nitrogen fertilizer levels (zero, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/fad) on growth, yield and yield components of barley cultivar Giza 123 were studied during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. The study was conducted in an extension field at Belbees District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Irradiation with the lowest gamma does gave the highest value for each of emergence/m2, plant height at heading (cm), flag leaf area at heading (cm2), spike length (cm), number of grains/spike and weight of grains/spike. Nitrogen application significantly increased emergence/m2, plant height, flag leaf area (cm2), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2 as well as grain, straw and biological yields (kg/fad). Accepted September 2013.

255

INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION AND CUTTING ON FLORISTIC AND PHYTOCENOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FACIES (Arrenatheretum elatioris alopecurosum)  

OpenAIRE

In the period 1993-1997 investigations were conducted on natural low marshy grassland of facies Arrhenatheretum elatioris alopecurosum located 60 km west of Osijek and 7 km south of the river Drava. Variants of nitrogen fertilization, NPK fertilizers and non-fertilized were comprised in the investigation. Presence of 121 plant species of which 22 grass and grass-like species, 12 legumes and 87 other plant species was determined. On the average of five years grassland fertilization affected c...

Mirko Stjepanovi?; Ana Skender; Gordana Bukvi?; Svetislav Popovi?; Sonja Grljuši?

2000-01-01

256

Are Environmental Levels of Bisphenol A Associated with Reproductive Function in Fertile Men?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Rodent and in vitro studies have demonstrated the estrogenicity of bisphenol A (BPA). However, few studies have examined the relationship between human exposure to BPA and male reproductive function. Objectives We investigated the relationships between environmental BPA exposure and reproductive parameters, including semen quality and male reproductive hormones, in prospectively recruited fertile men. Methods Participants (n = 375) were partners of pregnant women who participated in the Study for Future Families in four U.S. cities, and all of the men provided blood, semen, and urine samples. BPA was measured in urine. Serum samples were analyzed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, inhibin B, estradiol, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the free androgen index (FAI). Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Pearson correlations were used for unadjusted analyses, and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine associations controlling for age, body mass index, smoking, ethnicity, urinary creatinine concentration, time of sample collection, and duration of abstinence. Results After multivariate adjustment, we observed no significant associations between any semen parameter and urinary BPA concentration. However, a significant inverse association was found between urinary BPA concentration and FAI levels and the FAI/LH ratio, as well as a significant positive association between BPA and SHBG. Conclusions Our results suggest that, in fertile men, exposure to low environmental levels of BPA may be associated with a modest reduction in markers of free testosterone, but any effects on reproductive function are likely to be small, and of uncertain clinical significance. PMID:20494855

Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Redmon, J. Bruce; Drobnis, Erma Z.; Wang, Christina; Sparks, Amy; Thurston, Sally W.; Liu, Fan; Swan, Shanna H.

2010-01-01

257

Study on the effect of temperature and the level of nitrogenase fertilizer on formation dynamics of nitrate in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of temperature and application level of nitrogenase fertilizer on the formation dynamics of nitrate in soil were studied with the isotope tracer CO(15NH2)2 by planting spinages in pot culture. the dynamics model of nitrate in soil after applying urea was established as: C = A(e-ket-e-kat). With temperature of 10 degree C, the model was as follows: C = 1-e-kat. The results showed that temperature had an obvious effect on the formation and degradation velocity of nitrate in soil but the application level of nitrogenase fertilizer had no significant effect on them

258

Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

2014-09-01

259

Influência de lâminas de água e adubação mineral na nutrição e produtividade de arroz de terras altas Influence of water levels and mineral fertilization on nutrition and yield of upland rice  

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Full Text Available Para recomendações de adubação mais racionais, é fundamental o conhecimento das exigências nutricionais da cultura do arroz, nos diversos sistemas de cultivo. Objetivando estudar a influência de lâminas de água na nutrição e exportação de nutrientes pelo arroz de terras altas, cultivar IAC 201, sob dois níveis de adubação, foram instalados experimentos em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em Selvíria (MS, nos anos agrícolas de 1994/95 e 1995/96. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da precipitação natural e de quatro lâminas de água fornecidas por aspersão. A lâmina L2 foi baseada no coeficiente de cultura (Kc do arroz de terras altas. As lâminas L1 e L3 foram definidas como 0,5 e 1,5 vez os Kcs utilizados em L2, respectivamente, e na lâmina L4 foi adotado Kc = 1,95 durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Em 1995/96, foram utilizados os mesmos tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as subparcelas constituídas por duas doses de adubação (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 de N, 90 de P2O5 e 30 de K2O, e AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 de N, 180 de P2O5 e 60 de K2O. A menor disponibilidade de água durante a fase vegetativa e reprodutiva proporcionou redução na produção de matéria seca, nos teores e quantidades de nutrientes acumuladas na parte aérea. O sistema irrigado por aspersão, independentemente da lâmina utilizada, proporcionou maior produtividade de grãos e exportação de nutrientes. Em solos com teores adequados de nutrientes para o sistema de sequeiro, não há resposta ao aumento da adubação mineral pelo arroz no sistema irrigado por aspersão, apesar da maior extração de nutrientes.In order to achieve more sound fertilizer recommendations, knowledge about nutritional requirements of rice in different growing systems is fundamental. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of water levels on nutrition and nutrient exportation by upland rice (cultivar IAC 201 under two levels of mineral fertilizer. Experiments were conducted in the growing seasons of 1994/95 and 1995/96 on a Typic Haplustox, in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments were five water levels: natural rain and four water levels provided by sprinkler irrigation. Water level 2 (L2 was based on the crop coefficient (Kc for upland rice. L1 and L3 were then defined as 0.5 and 1.5 times the Kcs used in L2, respectively. For water level 4 (L4, Kc = 1.95 was used during the entire plant cycle. The same treatments were applied in 1995/96 in a split-plot scheme. The subplots consisted in two NPK-fertilization levels (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 of N, 90 of P2O5, and 30 of K2O; and AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 of N, 180 of P2O5, and 60 of K2O. Low water availability during the vegetative and reproductive phases decreased the dry matter yield, nutrient contents, and nutrient uptake. Sprinkler irrigation increased grain yield and nutrient exportation, independent of the water level. In soils with appropriate nutrient levels for the dryland system, the irrigated rice did not respond to increased mineral fertilization, despite the larger nutrient uptake.

C. A. C. Crusciol

2003-08-01

260

Influência de lâminas de água e adubação mineral na nutrição e produtividade de arroz de terras altas / Influence of water levels and mineral fertilization on nutrition and yield of upland rice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para recomendações de adubação mais racionais, é fundamental o conhecimento das exigências nutricionais da cultura do arroz, nos diversos sistemas de cultivo. Objetivando estudar a influência de lâminas de água na nutrição e exportação de nutrientes pelo arroz de terras altas, cultivar IAC 201, sob [...] dois níveis de adubação, foram instalados experimentos em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em Selvíria (MS), nos anos agrícolas de 1994/95 e 1995/96. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da precipitação natural e de quatro lâminas de água fornecidas por aspersão. A lâmina L2 foi baseada no coeficiente de cultura (Kc) do arroz de terras altas. As lâminas L1 e L3 foram definidas como 0,5 e 1,5 vez os Kcs utilizados em L2, respectivamente, e na lâmina L4 foi adotado Kc = 1,95 durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Em 1995/96, foram utilizados os mesmos tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as subparcelas constituídas por duas doses de adubação (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 de N, 90 de P2O5 e 30 de K2O, e AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 de N, 180 de P2O5 e 60 de K2O). A menor disponibilidade de água durante a fase vegetativa e reprodutiva proporcionou redução na produção de matéria seca, nos teores e quantidades de nutrientes acumuladas na parte aérea. O sistema irrigado por aspersão, independentemente da lâmina utilizada, proporcionou maior produtividade de grãos e exportação de nutrientes. Em solos com teores adequados de nutrientes para o sistema de sequeiro, não há resposta ao aumento da adubação mineral pelo arroz no sistema irrigado por aspersão, apesar da maior extração de nutrientes. Abstract in english In order to achieve more sound fertilizer recommendations, knowledge about nutritional requirements of rice in different growing systems is fundamental. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of water levels on nutrition and nutrient exportation by upland rice (cultivar IAC 201) und [...] er two levels of mineral fertilizer. Experiments were conducted in the growing seasons of 1994/95 and 1995/96 on a Typic Haplustox, in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments were five water levels: natural rain and four water levels provided by sprinkler irrigation. Water level 2 (L2) was based on the crop coefficient (Kc) for upland rice. L1 and L3 were then defined as 0.5 and 1.5 times the Kcs used in L2, respectively. For water level 4 (L4), Kc = 1.95 was used during the entire plant cycle. The same treatments were applied in 1995/96 in a split-plot scheme. The subplots consisted in two NPK-fertilization levels (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 of N, 90 of P2O5, and 30 of K2O; and AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 of N, 180 of P2O5, and 60 of K2O). Low water availability during the vegetative and reproductive phases decreased the dry matter yield, nutrient contents, and nutrient uptake. Sprinkler irrigation increased grain yield and nutrient exportation, independent of the water level. In soils with appropriate nutrient levels for the dryland system, the irrigated rice did not respond to increased mineral fertilization, despite the larger nutrient uptake.

C. A. C., Crusciol; O., Arf; R. P., Soratto; J. R., Machado.

2003-08-01

261

STUDIES OF SHADING LEVELS AND NUTRITION SOURCES ON GROWTH, YIELD  

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Full Text Available Growth and biochemical content of medicinal crops are influenced by agroecosystems characteristics . The objective of this research was to determine the optimum shading level and type of fertilizer as sources of nutrition on the growth, yield, and andrographolide content of sambiloto. The experiment used Split Plot Design with basic design of Randomized Complete Block Design arranged with two treatment factors, with three replications. The first factor as the main plot was shading levels, namely without shading, 25% shading, 50% shading, and 75% shading. The second factor as the sub plot was sources of nutrition reprented by type of fertilizer, namely NPK fertilizer, cow stable fertilizer, and compost fertilizer. The result of research indicated that shading level and the kind of nutrition influenced some growth and yield variables such as number of leaves, number of branches, plant height, plant dry weight and simplisia weight, and andrographolide content. Interaction of shading level at 25% and straw compost fertilizer performed best in growth characteristics, while the highest andrographolide content resulted from the treatment combination of 50% shading level and straw compost fertilizer.

Edi Purwanto

2011-10-01

262

The influence of tillage systems, fertilization and plant protection levels on weed infestation in winter rye cultivated on light soil  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional and ploughless tillage systems upon infestation in two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on light soil. Before harvest winter rye there was determined weed infestation of square-frame method. There were estimated weed species composition and air dry matter of weeds in two randomly selected place. Number of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds and dry matter of weeds was higher on the objects with ploughless tillage system compared with conventional tillage. Intensive fertilization and plant protection decreased number of dicotyledonous weeds in canopy of winter rye. Conventional tillage system decreased Apera spica-venti occurrence in a canopy of winter rye and increased number of Plantago major plants. Intensive level of fertilization and plant protection decreased weed infestation first of all through Matricaria maritima.

Piotr Kraska

2002-12-01

263

Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g?1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg?1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g?1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

264

Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

Sun Mei

2011-01-01

265

Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

266

Effect of Cultivars, Harvesting Time and Level of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Nitrate and Nitrite Content, Yield in Romaine Lettuce  

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Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 60, 120, 180, cultivars (Pich Ahwazi, Pich Varamini and harvesting time (morning, evening on yield, nitrate and nitrite accumulation in edible parts of lettuce, a research was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran. This study was arranged in spilt plot experiment on randomized complete block design base, in three replications. Results indicated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer amount on yield were significant at 1% levels. Highest yield was accomplished when the Pich Ahwazi cultivar received 120 kg N ha-1. There was appositive relation ship between amount of nitrogen fertilizer and level of nitrate and nitrite accumulation in edible parts of lettuce. In two cultivars nitrate and nitrite is stem and of outer leaves were higher than inner leaves. The effect of harvest time on nitrate and nitrite content was significant at 1% level and nitrate and nitrite amount were lower in evening in comparison to morning harvesting. There had significant different in the nitrate content between cultivar and nitrite accumulation in Pich Varamini was higher than Pich Ahwazi but significant different was not seen among cultivars in nitrite accumulation. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizer and harvesting time are major factors on nitrate and nitrite accumulation in lettuce.

Maryam Boroujerdnia

2007-01-01

267

Effects of decaying leaf litter and inorganic fertilizer on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available The effects of decaying leaf litter of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina as organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a screen house. Twenty-four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which included: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1, 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2, 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic fertilizer (T3, a mixture of 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T4, a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T5 and control (T6. The significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize seedlings, and this was closely followed by T4 treated seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as an organic fertilizer in maize production in a screen house conditions did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.

Chukwuka Kanayo S.

2014-01-01

268

Effects of long-term fertilization on the diversity of bacterial mercuric reductase gene in a Chinese upland soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil mercury (Hg) pollution has received considerable attention due to its neurotoxin effects and its potential risk to food safety. The microbial transformation of Hg plays a key role in reducing Hg toxicity by the mercuric reductase (MerA) conferred by genes arranged in the mer operon. This study investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on the diversity of bacterial mercuric reductase gene (merA), which specify the reduction of ionic Hg²? to the volatile elemental form Hg?, in an agricultural soil with relatively high Hg content. The soil samples were collected from different treatments, including control without fertilizer (CK), fertilizer nitrogen (N), combined fertilizers (NPK) of N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), and NPK plus organic manure (NPK + OM). The merA gene diversity patterns were analyzed based on the merA clone libraries and sequencing measurements. Results showed that the merA gene diversity was influenced by soil variables depending on the fertilization practices. In particular, NH?? and NO?? contents had strong effect on the merA gene diversity pattern both in the N and NPK treatments, whereas the merA gene diversity pattern in NPK + OM treatment was distinctly influenced by the contents of organic matter, available P and K. These results suggested that long-term fertilization had significant influences on merA gene diversity, which could be helpful to understand the Hg reduction process and potentially serve microbial remediation of Hg contaminated soil. PMID:22052505

Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng; Zhang, Li-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Ming

2012-02-01

269

[Analysis of soil humus and components after 26 years' fertilization by infrared spectroscopy method].  

Science.gov (United States)

The infrared spectrum was used to discuss structure change of soil humus and components of chemical groups in soil humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) isolated from soils in different fertilization treatment after 26 year's fertilization. The result indicated that using the infrared spectroscopy method for the determination of humus, humus fractions (HA and FA) and their structure is feasible. Fertilization affected the structure and content of soil humus and aromatization degree. After 26 years' fertilization, the infrared spectrum shapes with different treatments are similar, but the characteristic peak intensity is obviously different, which reflects the effects of different fertilization treatments on the structure and amounts of soil humus or functional groups. Compared with no fertilization, little molecule saccharides decreased and aryl-groups increased under application of inorganic fertilizer or combined application of organic and chemical fertilizer. The effect was greater in Treatment NPK and M+NPK than in Treatment M1 N and M2 N. Organic and NPK fertilizer increased the development of soil and increased soil quality to a certain extent. Results showed that organic fertilization increased aromatization degree of soil humus and humus fractions distinctly. The authors could estimate soil humus evolvement of different fertilization with infrared spectroscopy. PMID:20672603

Zhang, Yu-Lan; Sun, Cai-Xia; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Dong-Po; Liu, Xing-Bin; Chen, Li-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Du, Jian-Xiong

2010-05-01

270

Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench to Different Levels of N, P and K Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available The fertilizers were applied @ 50, 75, 100, or 125 kg ha-1 N, 60, 80 or 100 kg ha -1 P2O5 and 60 or 80 kg ha-1 K2O in different combinations to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. Results divulged that seed germination was not affected statistically by the fertilizer application while plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and green pod yield were affected significantly and were highest at the highest dose of fertilizers.

Muhammad Akbar Anjum

1999-01-01

271

Evaluation Of Compost Fertilizer "Zarkhez" In Conjunction With Chemical Fertilizers For Rice And Wheat Production  

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Full Text Available Experiments conducted to evaluate a compost fertilizer "Zarkhez" showed that effect of compost alone (2000 kg/ha and 4000 kg/ha on number of tillers, 1000-grain weight, yield and NPK uptake by rice and wheat was almost similar to control, whereas, significant improvements were observed when combination of compost and chemical fertilizers were applied. Maximum yield of paddy (4.25 t ha-1 and wheat (2.61 t ha-1 were obtained with 4000 kg ha-1 compost + chemical fertilizers (150-75-0 kg ha-1, which were 170.70 and 272.86 per cent increased over control, respectively.

Aslam John

1998-01-01

272

Effects of sampling time and nitrogen fertilization on anthocyanidin levels in Vaccinium myrtillus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccinium myrtillus berries (bilberries) contain antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, which are secondary metabolites that have proven health-promoting effects. Bilberries were collected at the Svartberget research forest in northern Sweden from plots with no, low, and high applications of NH(4)NO(3) on three replicated dates in each year from 2005-2007, and their anthocyanidin contents were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Their mean total anthocyanidin contents were 9.0, 6.2, and 22.7 mg/g DW in 2005, 2006, and 2007, respectively. The values were significantly higher in 2005 than in 2006 and significantly higher in 2007 than in both previous years, across all three sampling dates. In addition, anthocyanidin contents were significantly affected by sampling date in all years (P < 0.001); they were linearly correlated with the thermal sum in 2005 and 2007 but rose between the first and second sampling occasions and subsequently declined in 2006. No significant effect of nitrogen fertilization on total anthocyanidin levels was detected in any of the studied years. The results indicate that climatic factors and yearly fluctuations influence anthocyanidin biosynthesis and degradation more strongly than nitrogen availability. To our knowledge, this is the first time this effect of sampling time on anthocyanins in mature bilberries has been shown. PMID:19368355

Akerström, Andreas; Forsum, Asa; Rumpunen, Kimmo; Jäderlund, Anders; Bång, Ulla

2009-04-22

273

Comportamento de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro em diferentes níveis de adubação N,P e K, em Latossolo Roxo - (1.ª série Behavior of São Paulo cotton varieties under different levels of N, P and K fertilization on Lattossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available São relatados resultados de três ensaios de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro adubadas com diferentes doses dos elementos N, P e K, conduzidos em Latossolo Roxo não infestado pelo fungo causador da murcha de Fusarium, em 1965/66. As variedades IAC 13 e IAC 12 apresentaram ciclo vegetativo mais longo que a IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 13 superou em produção a IAC 12, e a variedade IAC RM3, que apresentou sintomas mais intensos de deficiência de potássio, obteve a menor média de produção. A dose básica de adubação, correspondente a 20, 45 e 40 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, aumentou significativamente a produção. Em média, a dose dupla proporcionou pequeno aumento, quando comparada com a básica, nas variedades IAC 12 e IAC 13. Em um dado ensaio, essa dose mostrou--se inferior à básica, quando aplicada à variedade IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 12 apresentou a mais alta média de porcentagem de fibra. A IAC 13 foi a melhor quanto aos índices Micronaire e Pressley. A adubação utilizada não concorreu para melhorar nenhuma dessas características; contribuiu entretanto para aumentar o pêso dos capulhos e das sementes.The behavior of three São Paulo cotton varieties (IAC 12, IAC 13 and IAC RM3, which differ themselves in vegetative cycle and nutrient requirements, after receiving three levels of complete N, P and K fertilization, were compared under cultivation on latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils. The inclusion of the variety IAC RM3, resistant to Fusarium wilt, was made considering a possible spreading of this disease, now common in sandy soils, to clay soils. A basic dose of NPK fertilizer, containing 20, 45 and 40 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K..O respectively, induced a significant increase in cotton yield, in relation to control plots, where no fertilizer was added. Among the varieties, IAC 13, with longest life cycle, presented the highest yield, followed by IAC 12, with intermediate cycle length. IAC RM3 was the less productive. There was also a significant increase in the weight of seeds and bolls due to this basic dose. No appreciable effect of a possible interaction between varieties and fertilization could be noticed. A double dose of fertilizer produced further increase in yield, except in the case of IAC RM3, in which additional amount of fertilizer induced a slight yield reduction and many plants showed signs of potassium defficiency. Considering the fiber characteristics the tested varieties differed significantly. IAC 12 had the highest mean of lint percentage, while IAC 13, on the average, was the best for Micronaire and Pressley indices, confirming previous unpublished determinations.

Nelson Machado da Silva

1970-01-01

274

The Effect of Crop Rotation, Mineral Fertilizer Application and Herbicide on Weed Control in Winter Rye  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent years' problems of herbicide use have led a growing number of researchers to seek alternative methods that are less reliant on herbicides. This research was conducted to determine the effect of long-term crop rotation, mineral fertilizer and herbicide on the weed infestation and grain yield of winter rye during 2004 and 2005 at the long-term experimental site of the University of Timiriazev, Moscow. Treatments were control (no weed control, herbicide, combined fertilizer (NPK and NPK plus herbicide in field winter rye cultivated in continuous and crop rotation with other crops since 1912. Crop rotation significantly decreased weed density and dry mass. Long-term NPK application significantly decreased weed density, but had not any effect on weed dry mass. Crop rotation, NPK application and herbicide increased ground crop cover and decreased ground weed cover. In continuous crop, weed ground cover was 10 % in control plot and 3.33 % in plots where NPK was applied. Data showed that long-term crop rotation and NPK application can reduce weed infestation and increase grain yield of winter rye.

H Mohamad Dost CHamanabad

2009-04-01

275

The effect of fertilization levels and genetic deployment on soil organic matter chemistry and turnover in managed loblolly pine forests  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics were examined for two managed loblolly pine forests (Pinus taeda L.) located in north-central Florida on sandy Spodosols. The study designs were split-plots with the whole plots designated as fertilization levels, and the split-plots full-sib families of loblolly pine. The forests were aged 9 and 10 years at sampling. Roots, wood, and charcoal were hand-picked from SOM and density fractionation (1.6 g/ml) used to further separate SOM into a light (LF) and heavy fraction (HF). LF turnover rates were estimated using radiocarbon and LF chemistry determined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Family or fertilization level effects on the mass of SOM components were not significant at both sites. The largest proportions of SOM were in the LF (83% and 85%) and wood (6% and 9%). Varying in relative contributions were charcoal (2% and 3%) and the HF (4% and 1%) while fine dead roots were between 1-2% of total SOM. Higher fertilization levels generally depressed fine root (<1 mm) biomass, but whether the effect was significant varied with family and soil horizon. The turnover rate for one family under low fertilization was significantly slower (14 yrs) than the other treatments. This treatment also had a greater proportion of lignin, and given the slow turnover, the results suggest this lignin derived from the previous stand. At the other site lignin and lipids differed significantly (p<0.05) between families. These results suggest that tree genetics in forests can influence SOM chemistry, but that family and the degree of fertilization have little net effect on SOM chemistry and turnover.

Vogel, J. G.; Jokela, E. J.; He, D.; Hockaday, W. C.; Schuur, E. A.

2013-12-01

276

Changes of the internal dependency rate and related childbearing strategies and policies for fertility rate at the replacement level.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early 1990s, China had a negative internal growth rate and a positive natural growth rate. Calculations were made of the percentage of stable population aged under 15 years and over 65 years according to the general reproduction rate (GRR) and life expectancy. If GRR stabilized at 1.25, the proportion of children and infants would remain stable at 24%. A decline in GRR would yield a decline in the infant and child population to 19%. The child dependency coefficient was affected by fertility and not mortality. Fertility decline would affect the population aged 0-14 years and speed of change of the proportion elderly. For example, a change in GRR from 1.75 to 1.5 would yield an elderly proportional increase of 2.0%, while a change from 1.25 to 1.0 would increase the proportion by 4.1%. GRR declines from 1.75 to 1.5 and then 1.25 would decrease the internal dependency coefficient. When fertility was near or below replacement level, the internal dependency coefficient stopped and then increased. When fertility was high above replacement level, the internal dependency coefficient was determined mostly by the infant and child internal dependency coefficient. At replacement level or below, the elderly internal dependency coefficient had the strongest impact. Society would be affected differently by shifts in dependency groups from children to the elderly; the expenditures would shift from education to health and medical care. Berelson has contended that population growth and development were interrelated such that fertility decline would yield funds for development, which with increases over 50 years would offset the increased costs for the elderly population increases. This policy was dependent on the speed of change and the balance between loans and debts. If fertility decline was accompanied by economic decline, the elderly burden would add to the debt. A GRR of 1.0 or a strict 2-child policy would produce milder bounce-back effects than a policy of 1 child and a GRR of 0.8. The one-child policy would be riskier and have potentially higher economic yields. China's economic growth has been rapid and fertility-limiting policy would yield a high profit. If economic development led to population growth limits, a policy with the lowest internal dependency coefficient and the least risk would be appropriate. PMID:12319206

Li, Y

1994-01-01

277

Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N2-fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

278

Response of Achillea santolina L. To Fertilizers under Different Irrigation Intervals  

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Full Text Available Most of promising lands in El-Arish are situated near the Mediterranean Sea, as insufficient available water irrigation with high concentration of salinity from wells water is generally used for irrigation. Production of medicinal and aromatic plants using microorganisms in biofertilization to reduce or replace the chemical fertilizers became an essential process to ensure safety for human and environment. The effect of three irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days and half or full dose of recommended rate inorganic NPK fertilizer as compared with control ones (recommended rate of inorganic NPK fertilizer without microbial inoculation on vegetative growth, chemical composition and essential oil productivity of Achillea santolina L. Plants was studies at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Environmental Agriculture Science, El-Arish, during two seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012. Results showed that the moderate irrigation interval every 14-days was the prior for producing higher percentage and yield of volatile than the intervals every 7 and 21 days. The growth and yield parameters of the plants increased as a result of inoculation of symbiotic N2-fixers+phosphobacteria with inorganic fertilizer followed by the same mixture given half dose NPK fertilizer and then control. The interaction between the two factors of study, it could be noticed that growth and yield parameters considerably improved as a result of watering interval at 14 days and inoculation with biofertilizeres and supplemented with half or full dose of inorganic NPK-fertilizer in the two seasons.

M.A.M. El-Mekawy

2013-01-01

279

PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da correção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus, cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and 128 for the 50, 100 and 150% recommended fertilizer rates. The NPK fertilizer levels, keeping c

Enio Marchezan

2002-04-01

280

The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha), four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P), NPK (20 : 10 : 10), and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N)] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS). Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP) and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm), density (plants/m2) and spread (cm) were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. ...

Onifade, Os; Omokanye, At; Amodu, Jt

2001-01-01

281

Effects of fertilizer and plant density on yield and quality of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)  

OpenAIRE

In order to understand the effect of organic fertilizer on yield of anise, an experiment was conducted in the form of split-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad, Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center. Four treatments of fertilization: the control, vermicompost - 5 t/ha, cow manure - 25 t/ha, and mineral fertilizer (NPK) - 60 kg/ha (the same rate of each nutrient) were applied as the main factor. The...

Faravani Mahdi; Salari Behjat; Heidari Mostafa; Kashki Mohammad Taghi; Gholami Barat Ali

2013-01-01

282

Influence of simple, complex and leaf feed fertilizers on white cabbage crop  

OpenAIRE

In 2001-2003 the experiments were carried out at the research station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture and Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of medium and high rates of NPK fertilization in the forms of simple and complex fertilizers as well as the influence of leaf feed fertilizers on the white cabbage crop yield, quality, nutrient balance, energy efficiency and profitability. The middle-late white cabbage crop, destin...

Staugaitis, Gediminas; Dalangauskiene?, Asta; Dalangauskas, Aidas

2005-01-01

283

Influence of simple, complex and leaf feed fertilizers on red beet crop  

OpenAIRE

In 2001-2003 the experiments were carried out at the research station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture and Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of medium and high rates of NPK fertilization in the forms of simple and complex fertilizers as well as the influence of leaf feed fertilizers on the red beet crop yield, quality, nutrient balance, energy efficiency and profitability. Red beet crop was cultivated on well-tamed soil...

Staugaitis, Gediminas; Dalangauskiene?, Asta

2005-01-01

284

Impact of fertilization and granular insecticides on the incidence of tobacco aphid, myzus persicae (sulz)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field studies were conducted on the control of tobacco aphid, Myzus persicase (Sulz) with four granular insecticides, viz, Furadan 3% G, Diazinon 5% g, Thiodan 5% g and Larsban 5% g, with and without NPK fertilization. The aphid population was significantly higher in the fertilized plots compared to the non-fertilized ones. All the four insecticides significantly reduced the aphids density compared to the check. Furada 3% gave best results for the control of this pest. (author)

285

Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm) and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm) and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weightin...

Piotr Kraska; Edward Pa?ys

2006-01-01

286

The influence of tillage systems, fertilization and plant protection levels on weed infestation in winter rye cultivated on light soil  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional and ploughless tillage systems upon infestation in two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on light soil. Before harvest winter rye there was determined weed infestation of square-frame method. There were estimated weed species composition and air dry matter of weeds in two randomly selected place. Number of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds and dry matter of weeds was higher on the objects with pl...

Piotr Kraska; Edward Pa?ys

2002-01-01

287

Effect of Potassium and Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Biomass of Some Halophytes Grown under High Levels of Salinity  

OpenAIRE

A field experiment was carried out at Nahshala Farm, about 50 km from Al-Ain, UAE during the 2001/2002 growing seasons, using five halophyte species; Spartina sp., Distichlis palmeri., Paspalum vaginatum, Juncus roemerianus and Batis maritima, under six levels of N and K fertilizer combinations irrigated with salinity water of 20 g L-1. The objectives of the experiment were twofold; 1) to find out the optimum rate of potassium and nitrogen under such high salinity stress and...

Noaman, Maher N.

2004-01-01

288

Bacterial diversity in Greenlandic soils as affected by potato cropping and inorganic versus organic fertilization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems will in the near future be exposed to severe environmental stresses due to global warming. For example, the microbial community structure and function may change as a result of increased temperatures. In Greenland, agriculture is carried out in the Subarctic regions with only limited pest management, despite the presence of plant pathogenic fungi. The microbial community composition in agricultural soils, which plays an important role for soil and plant health and for crop yield, may be affected by the use of different fertilizer treatments. Currently, only limited research has been performed on the effects of these treatments on bacterial communities in Arctic and Subarctic agricultural soils. The major objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of conventional (NPK) and organic (sheep manure supplemented with nitrogen) fertilizer treatments on bacterial diversity, nutrient composition and crop yield in two Greenlandic agricultural soils. An effect of fertilizer was found on soil and plant nutrient levels and on crop yields. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences did not reveal any major changes in the overall bacterial community composition as a result of different fertilizer treatments, indicating a robust microbial community in these soils. In addition, differences in nutrient levels, crop yields and bacterial abundances were found between the two field sites and the two experimental growth seasons, which likely reflect differences in physical-chemical soil parameters. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund; Pedas, Pai

2014-01-01

289

Stimulation of N2-fixation in chickpea by gamma irradiation as affected by different levels of ammonium sulfate fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pot experiment was conducted under natural climatic conditions to study the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10, and 20 Gy) on the performance of winter chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in the presence of increased supply of 15N labeled ammonium sulfate (0, 20, 50, and 100 kg N ha-1). Presowing seed irradiation produced a significant increase in dry matter production (up to 36%) and total nitrogen yield (up to 45%). The stimulative effect of irradiation was more pronounced with the application of NH4+-N fertilizer. Seed irradiation increased the amount of N2-fixation by 8-61% depending on the dose and level of NH4+-N fertilizer rate. A 10 Gy was found to be the optimal irradiation dose for enhancing N2-fixation. High levels of NH4+-N decreased the percentage and the amount of N2-fixation, but did not affect nodule formation. However, the Presowing 10 Gy irradiation dose reduced the negative effect of ammonia-N fertilizer on N2-fixation. Therefore, we recommend irradiating chickpea seeds with a 10 Gy dose before planting in soil containing high levels of mineral nitrogen to reduce its negative effect on N2-fixation. (Authors)

290

Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

Piotr Kraska

2006-12-01

291

Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine seedlings in Uganda  

OpenAIRE

Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack ofgood quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out; to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1) and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts(experiment 2). Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K), South Busoga (S), and Mbarara (M) and from Mubende forest reserv...

Samuel Lumu; Kenneth Nyombi; Aoron Swaga; Mohamed Bukenya; Hussein Balimunsi; Susan Balaba Tumwebaze

2013-01-01

292

Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force causing bean damage and bean deformation up to crack.

Gorzelany J.

1999-06-01

293

Effects of Different Fertilizer Application Level on Growth and Physiology of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on BRIS Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is one of the most potential annual crop planted throughout the world. Being fastgrowing and multipurpose, it has been utilized as a substitute of jute and, more recently, as raw product for the productionof pulp and paper. With strong and long fiber yield, mass production of Kenaf throughout Malaysia is critical. Theutilization of less fertile soils such as BRIS soils is important to increase the Kenaf production throughout Malaysia. Thus,the objective of this study was to determine the effects of different level fertilizer application on growth and physiology ofKenaf planted on BRIS soils. V36 variety was used and planted in three different plots by treatments with fertilizersnamely high (1960 kg/ plot, medium (1260 kg/ plot and low (700 kg/ plot respectively. Each plot comprises 106,000trees where trees were planted on 20 lines. There were contrasting results on the effects of fertilizer on growth andphysiology of Kenaf in the dry (41 days and wet season (64 days. Significant effects were only observed for diameter,height, leaf number and area during the wet season. Similar results were also found for biomass. The increasing trendswith increasing the rates of fertilizer were observed in the wet season for growth and biomass parameters. The correlationanalyses between total aboveground biomass with diameter and height were more pronounced in the wet season. AGR,RGR and EG calculated from the differences between the dry and wet season readings for aboveground biomass showedthat the higher rate of fertilizer recorded the higher values of AGR and RGR. However, no trend was observed for EG.

Hazandy Abdul-Hamid

2009-05-01

294

Future fertility in low fertility countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses results of the global survey of experts on the future of low fertility in low-fertility countries. The survey was coordinated by the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital as a part of an effort to produce global argumentbased population projections by age, sex and level of education. First we give an overview of fertility changes in major low-fertility regions. Next we outline main theoretical arguments and review a wide range of factors contributing...

Basten, Stuart; Sobotka, Toma??; Zeman, Kry?tof

2013-01-01

295

The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether an additional foliar calcium application influenced the same parameters. Subsequently, the effect of the various treatments on the germination of the obtained seeds was explored. Two identical experiments (A and B) were carried out with five concentrations of nutrient solutions corresponding to an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.25 mS·cmL1, 2.50 mS·cmL1, 3.75 mS·cmL1, 5.00 mS·cmL1, and 6.25 mS·cmL1. Additionally, plants were sprayed with a 0.5% foliar-applied calcium solution or deionized water (control) three times during the experimental period. In Expt. A, the concentration of fertilizer significantly affected seed production. Number of flower heads and seed weight were not influenced by the dose of fertilizer, but plant biomass and number of seeds were significantly reduced at the highest concentration (6.25 mS·cmL1). In Expt. B, the fertilizer concentration did not affect number of flower heads and seed number, but seed weight and plant biomass were significantly reduced at the highest fertilizer concentration. In both experiments, the seeds germinated slower and less seeds germinated when plants had received the largest amount of fertilizer (6.25 mS·cmL1). In none of the experiments did applied calcium affect the number of flowers, seed production, seed weight, or the total biomass. Our data indicate that seed producers of G. hybrida should not apply standard fertilizer in a concentration higher than corresponding to an EC of ’1.25 mS·cmL1. It would have been valuable if we also had included a treatment with a lower EC value like 0.75 mS·cmL1 to improve the estimate of the optimal EC level from a curved function for the seed production and quality parameters.

Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen

2014-01-01

296

Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Ba?cyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘?l?za’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

Bo?ena Cwalina-Ambroziak

2012-10-01

297

Effect of Potassium and Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Biomass of Some Halophytes Grown under High Levels of Salinity  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Nahshala Farm, about 50 km from Al-Ain, UAE during the 2001/2002 growing seasons, using five halophyte species; Spartina sp., Distichlis palmeri., Paspalum vaginatum, Juncus roemerianus and Batis maritima, under six levels of N and K fertilizer combinations irrigated with salinity water of 20 g L-1. The objectives of the experiment were twofold; 1 to find out the optimum rate of potassium and nitrogen under such high salinity stress and 2 to study the response (growth and biomass production of such halophytes to different levels of K and N as an anti-salinity nutrients. The experiment was conducted in triplicate with a split-plot design arranged in randomized complete block. Results indicate that controlling soil fertility especially N and K under saline soils condition is considered one of the most important factors in order to conduct reliable study on the evaluation of tolerance of plants to salinity stress. Nitrogen and potassium proved to increase plant salt tolerance to produce high biomass. This study also supports the idea of using high saline water of about 20 g L-1 salt concentration in agriculture along with N and K fertilizers accompanied with increasing leaching fraction to maintain satisfactory yield production of such halophytes

Maher N. Noaman

2004-01-01

298

Nitric oxide level in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile males and its correlation with sperm parameters  

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Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a free radical molecule, produced by most cells and tissues in the body. The effect of NO on cells is concentration dependent. Low concentration of NO is essential in biology and physiology of most of cells, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has detrimental effects on cells. The role of NO in biology of male and female genital systems is under investigation. In the present study, the nitric oxide concentration was measured in the seminal plasma of both fertile and infertile males and compared with spermatogram parameters. For this purpose, semen samples were collected from 45 patients and 70 healthy donors. After analysis of samples, the stable metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate were measured by Griess assay. The results indicated that the nitric oxide concentration in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly higher than controls. There was a significant negative correlation between the nitric oxide concentration and sperm motility and viability in infertile males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the level of nitric oxide in seminal plasma of infertile men was higher than that of fertile men. The increasing level of nitric oxide concentration in seminal plasma leads to the decrease in sperm motility and viability and affects fertility.

Amiri I.

2006-07-01

299

Anti-sperm antibody levels are not related to fertilization or pregnancy rates after IVF or IVF/ICSI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seminal antisperm antibodies (ASAs) have been associated with male infertility and a reduced probability of achieving a spontaneous pregnancy. However, the impact of ASAs on reproductive outcomes after assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) remains controversial. We sought to further examine the relationship between ASAs and reproductive outcomes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive IVF and IVF/ICSI cycles where the male partner had had direct ASA testing in the six months preceding the ART cycle. We examined the relationship between semen parameters (sperm concentration, motility, strict morphology, ASA levels [by direct mixed agglutination reaction and expressed as the percentage of spermatozoa with IgG or IgA antibodies]) and reproductive outcomes (fertilization and clinical pregnancy rate) after IVF and IVF/ICSI. There was no significant relationship between direct ASA levels and reproductive outcomes after IVF and IVF/ICSI. Similarly, we found no significant relationships between sperm parameters (concentration, motility, strict morphology) and reproductive outcomes after IVF and IVF/ICSI. Clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly different in ASA-positive (>50% of sperm coated with ASAs) compared with ASA-negative samples (42% vs. 52% respectively, odds ratio: 1.45 (95% CI 0.63, 3.30, P>0.05). The data indicate that ASAs in semen are not associated with reproductive outcomes (fertilization and clinical pregnancy rate) after IVF or IVF/ICSI. PMID:21111486

Zini, Armand; Lefebvre, Josee; Kornitzer, Gaelle; Bissonnette, Francois; Kadoch, Isaac Jacques; Dean, Nicola; Phillips, Simon

2011-01-01

300

Cs-134 transfer factor in spinach at different levels of potassium fertilizing and soil properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A greenhouse experiment was carried out using five types soils representative for different regions, with different chemical and physical properties. The coefficients of Cs-134 uptake by the leaves were established at two variants of K-fertilization. The Cs-uptake in varying degrees depends on plant organ type and soil type. The introduction of K-fertilizers reduces the Cs-134 uptake by 21-59% in leaves and by 3-13% in roots. The clay type soils as well as these with high humus content have high sorption coefficients and transmit less Cs-134 in comparison to brown forest soil. Radiometric measurements show that the plants prefer potassium to caesium to extract and the coefficients of disrimination were determined. 1 ref., 1 tab., 2 figs. (author)

301

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Levels of Some Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances in Hibiscus sabdariffa  

OpenAIRE

The presence of antinutrients and toxic substances in vegetables limits the derivable benefits from vegetables. The levels of these substances in vegetables are influenced by the nature of soil in which the vegetables are grown. The effect of applied nitrogen fertilizer on the levels of some antinutrients and toxic substances is investigated with a view to determine the appropriateness or otherwise of the application of nitrogen fertilizer in growing vegetables. Pot experiments were conducted...

Ogbadoyi, Emmanuel O.; Amanabo Musa

2012-01-01

302

L-Carnitine Level in Seminal Plasma of Fertile and Infertile Men  

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Full Text Available

Background: To determine any correlation between infertility and semen quality with concentrations of L-carnitine in human seminal plasma.

Methods: This case-control study performed in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Seminal plasma of 72 infertile men and 80 men with proved fertility as a control group was investigated and L-carnitine level was determined using UV enzymatic test at 340 nm.

Results: The concentration of L-carnitine was significantly lower in the infertile group compared with control group (80.59±56.43 mg/l versus 108.43±42.26 mg/l; P= 0.0009. There was also a statistically significant positive correlation between seminal plasma L-carnitine concentration, total sperm count, and the percentage of motile sperm (P= 0.0009, and P= 0.0000, respectively.

Conclusion: These finding suggest that the determination of seminal plasma L-carnitine level may be a useful test in evaluation of male infertility.

N Sheikh

2011-06-01

303

Effects of Levels of Sulfur Fertilizer on Growth of Digitaria eriantha Grass  

OpenAIRE

This study was aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of sulfur fertilizer application on the quantity and chemical composition of Digitaria eriantha grass. The experiment was conducted at Petchaburi Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Petchaburi, Thailand, during August to October, 2006. Treatments consisted of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai applications in the form of ammonium sulfate and were arranged in randomized complete block with 4 field blocks as replication. Grass was sampl...

Auraiwan Isuwan; Jeerasak Saelim; Somsak Paothong

2007-01-01

304

Effects of Early Maturation on Growth, Fertility and Testosterone Levels in Broiler Breeder Males  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted determine the feasibility of rearing broiler breeder males to an earlier age of sexual maturation. Three hundred Ross males were divided at 3 weeks of age into three treatments and four reps. Control birds (CD were fed a normal 15% grower diet and an increased photoperiod began at 22 weeks of age. The fast growth (FG birds were divided into 2 treatments; high protein (HP birds were fed a 20% grower diet and normal protein (NP birds were fed the control diet. FG males were raised to the breeder guideline recommend 22 wk target body weight by the age of 16 weeks, at which time photoperiod was increased to promote sexual maturity. CD males were photostimulated (PS at 22 weeks. The second part of the trial was a fertility study. Following PS, 16 cockerels from each treatment were divided into 2 replicates and placed with 80 hens/ replicate. Eggs were collected and set weekly to determine fertility. Results indicated no differences between the NP and CD birds in performance. NP males performed better with respect to uniformity and growth. The HP males had the lowest fertility but the highest uniformity. It was concluded that early maturation is feasible in male broiler breeders and extra protein is unnecessary for an accelerated growth program.

C. Pietsch

2008-01-01

305

[Nutrient spatial variability of tobacco soil restoration area and fertility suitability level evaluation].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using geographic information system technology (GIS) and geostatistics methods, this paper studied the spatial variability of soil properties and available nutrients in the new regulation area units located in Qingjiangyuan modern tobacco agriculture science and technology park (Enshi, Hubei), suburb of Enshi City and the Baiyang base of Lichuan City, and further evaluation of the soil fertility suitability index (SFI) was carried out by use fuzzy mathematics. The results indicated that the effects of land restoration on the soil available phosphorus content variability and spatial distribution were very obvious, possibly due to the landform characteristics and restoration extent. The effect of land restoration on soil pH was small, however, serious soil acidification was detected in the soil sampled from Baiyang (pH < 5.5). Low SFI was found in 77.6%, 17.1% and 31.4% of the soils taken from the suburb, Baiyang and Qingjiangyuan, respectively. In conclusion, attentions should be paid on soil acidification in Baiyang, soil fertility and equalization in the suburb, and soil fertility in the region of Qingjiangyuan with low SFI. PMID:24984498

Xu, Da-Bing; Deng, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Bi; Si, Guo-Han; Peng, Cheng-Lin; Yuan, Jia-Fu; Zhao, Shu-Jun; Wang, Rui

2014-03-01

306

Effect of fertilization on the weediness of maize in a long-term field experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We carried our examination in a long-term fertilization field experiment in 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM1 treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and maize. The bi-factorial trial was arranged in split plot design with three replications. The weed survey was made 25 days after seeding in the 27th of may. For the weed survey the Balázs-Ujvárosi method was applied. After the weed survey we collected all the weed species from the plots per 1-1 m2. We counted, mesured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial shoots. We collected maize too, five pieces per plots. In the experiment were found 12 weed species, 9 annual: Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus chlorostachys, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium hybridum, Echinochloa crus-galli, Polygonum lapathifolium, Xantium strumarium, Veronica hederi-folia, and 3 perennial: Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Lathyrus tuberosus. On the NPK plots the Ch. album, on NPK + FYM treatments the A. theophrasti was the first in order of the dominance. The biomass production of weeds in the NPK + FYM treatments were 3 times higher than in the only NPK treatments. PMID:17390821

Kismányoky, A; Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, T

2006-01-01

307

Determination of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, lead, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium in fertilizers by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing regulatory interest in the non-nutritive metals content of fertilizer materials, but at present there is no consensus analytical method for acid digestion and instrument detection of those elements in fertilizer matrixes. This lack of method standardization has resulted in unacceptable variability of results between fertilizer laboratories performing metals analysis. A method has been developed using microwave digestion with nitric acid at 200 degrees C, followed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry instrument detection, for the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, and selenium. The method has been collaboratively studied, and statistical results are here reported. Fourteen collaborators were sent 62 sample materials in a blind duplicate design. Materials represented a broad cross section of fertilizer types, including phosphate ore, manufactured phosphate products, N-P-K blends, organic fertilizers, and micro-nutrient materials. As much as possible within the limit of the number of samples, materials were selected from different regions of the United States and the world. Limit of detection (LOD) was determined using synthetic fertilizers consisting of reagent grade chemicals with near zero levels of the non-nutritive elements, analyzed blindly. Samples with high iron content caused the most variability between laboratories. Most samples reasonably above LOD gave HorRat values within the range 0.5 to 2.0, indicating acceptable method performance according to AOAC guidelines for analyses in the mg/kg range. The method is recommended for AOAC Official First Action status. PMID:17225590

Kane, Peter F; Hall, William L

2006-01-01

308

Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of P fertilisation on the function of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) measured as P transport to flax. Two methods were applied to soil from a long-term field experiment with NaHCO3-extractable soil P levels of 24 and 50 mg kg(-1) in an experiment under controlled conditions: i) Measurement of plant growth and P uptake in the presence or absence of the fungicide benomyl and ii) measurement of hyphal P transport from a root-free compartment labelled with P-32. Benomyl successfully prevented mycorrhizal function. The absolute contribution of AMF to plant P uptake was of the same magnitude with or without P fertilisation at 27 days after sowing. Therefore, even though plants grown at the higher soil P level had greater P uptake, the relative contribution of AMF to P uptake was greater at the lower P level than at the higher P level (77 and 49% of total P uptake, respectively). The AMF in P-fertilized soil transported less P-32 from the root-free compartment to the plant after 23 days than the AMF in unfertilized soil, but this difference disappeared in plants harvested after 27 and 32 days. The production of hyphae was largely similar in both fertilization treatments, indicating that the capacity for P uptake and transport by hyphae of the two AMF communities was similar.

Thingstrup, I.; Kahiluoto, H.

2000-01-01

309

Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70% and KNO3 - zeolite (30%. Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

2008-09-01

310

Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK / Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por [...] 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1) ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z) e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK), e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP). Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura. Abstract in english The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibb [...] le tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1) with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant) of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70%) and KNO3 - zeolite (30%). Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

Alberto Carlos de Campos, Bernardi; Carlos Guarino, Werneck; Patrick Gesualdi, Haim; Nélio das Graças de Andrade da Mata, Rezende; Paulo Renato Perdigão, Paiva; Marisa Bezerra de Mello, Monte.

2008-09-01

311

Dynamics of the level and ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus in carp ponds water: the effect of mineral fertilizers upon its quality  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation is to establish the dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus level variation and of their ratio after mineral fertilizers application in water. After mineral fertilizers application into the ponds, the real biogenic quantities in water have increased by 2.8-10 times for nitrogen, and by 2-28 times for phosphates, at scheduled nitrogen levels of 5-7 mg L-1 and nitrogen/phosphorus ratio of 10:1, 16:1 and 20:1, respectively. During the period 1st – 3rd day after fertilizer application, optimum nitrogen levels have been preserved of 2.60 – 5.79 mg L-1. A tendency of residual biogenic quantities decrease in the water has been observed from the 10th to the 30th day after fertilizer application.

Liliana Hadjinikolova

2009-04-01

312

Long-term fertilization effects on soil organic carbon fractions in a red soil of southern China  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a study of long-term (17 years) fertilization effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions in a typical red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) under intensive cropping with maize-wheat with various fertilizations in Hunan, China. The fertilization treatments include non-fertilization (Control), mineral nitrogen (N), mineral nitrogen-phosphorus (NP), nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium combination (NPK), and mineral NPK combined with organic amendments (e.g., pig manure and straw). Two sets of soil samples were used: (1) collected in 1990, and (2) collected in 2007. Soil samples were separated to measure free particulate organic C (fPOC), intra-microaggregate particulate organic C (iPOC), and mineral associated organic C (MOC) with physical fractionation. The percentage of SOC fractions in all treatments follows an order: MOC (45-89%) >fPOC (7-35%) >iPOC (11-20%), suggesting that MOC is the primary organic carbon pool in the red soil. Compared with the control, there is no increase in iPOC and MOC under imbalanced mineral fertilizer applications (i.e., N, NP). However, all SOC fractions show a significant increase under balanced mineral fertilizer application (NPK), and mineral NPK applied with organic amendments. Particularly, manure application results in an increase of 290.6-408.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 for fPOC, 162.0-179.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for iPOC and 322.9-514.5 kg ha-1 yr-1 for MOC.

Tong, X.; Xu, M.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.; Cong, R.

2010-12-01

313

Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

2003-10-01

314

EFFECT OF CROP ROTATION AND LONG TERM FERTILIZATION ON THE CARBON AND GLOMALIN CONTENT IN THE SOIL  

OpenAIRE

The research was performed on the basis of soil samples taken from a multi-year long fertilization experiment carried out in Skierniewice. The source of samples was soil under potato and rye cultivated in monoculture and in the 5-fields rotation system. The following combinations of fertilization were concerned: Ca, NPK and CaNPK (doses since 1976: 1.6 t·ha-1 CaO every 4 years in monoculture and 2 t·ha-1 CaO every 5 years in crop rotation, 90 kg·ha-1 N, 26 kg·ha-1 P, 91 kg·ha-1 K). Labor...

Wojewo?dzki, Piotr; Ciescinska, Bogumi?a

2012-01-01

315

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana.In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replications, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1 NPK (control, 2 NPK + Fe, 3 NPK + B, 4 NPK + Cu, 5 NPK + Mn, 6 NPK + Zn, 7 NPK + Mo, 8 NPK + Mg and 9 NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

R. Alvarez

1963-01-01

316

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes / Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetrabor [...] ato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana. Abstract in english In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replication [...] s, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1) NPK (control), 2) NPK + Fe, 3) NPK + B, 4) NPK + Cu, 5) NPK + Mn, 6) NPK + Zn, 7) NPK + Mo, 8) NPK + Mg and 9) NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo). The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

R., Alvarez; A. C. P., Wutke.

317

Composição química dos grãos de milho em resposta à adubação mineral e inoculação com rizobactérias / Chemical composition of corn grains in response to mineral fertilization and inoculation with rhizobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para o aumento da produtividade agrícola no País, são necessários estudos para melhor aproveitamento da adubação mineral, a fim de uma produção de grãos com melhor qualidade nutricional. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor e o acúmulo de proteína, de cinzas e de nutrientes em grãos de mi [...] lho provenientes de plantas submetidas à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens e cultivadas em diferentes níveis de adubação NPK no solo. Foram testados seis tratamentos, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0,125 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições, sendo instalado em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, utilizando o cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35. Determinaram-se os teores e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, proteína e cinzas dos grãos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english To increase agricultural productivity in the country, studies are needed to improve the utilization of mineral fertilizers in order to produce grains with improved nutritional quality. The study aimed to evaluate the content and accumulation of protein, ash and nutrients in corn grains from plants i [...] noculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens and grown under different levels of NPK fertilizer in the soil. We tested six treatments in a randomized complete block design in a factorial 3 x 2, three levels of chemical fertilizer NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculation using P. fluorecens (with and without), with four replicates, in a Oxisol, using the maize hybrid 30F35. The content and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, protein and ash content of the grains were evaluated. The data were submitted to Anova and means compared by the Tukey test p

Mariana Alves de, Oliveira; Claudemir, Zucareli; Leandro Teodoski, Spolaor; Allan Ricardo, Domingues; André Sampaio, Ferreira.

2012-10-01

318

Differential responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term fertilization in a New England salt marsh  

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Full Text Available Since the discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, new questions have arisen about population and community dynamics and potential interactions between AOA and ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB. We investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on AOA and AOB in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Falmouth, MA, USA to address some of these questions. Sediment samples were collected from low and high marsh habitats in July 2009 from replicate plots that received low (LF, high (HF, and extra high (XF levels of a mixed NPK fertilizer biweekly during the growing season since 1974. Additional untreated plots were included as controls (C. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amoA genes revealed distinct shifts in AOB communities related to fertilization treatment, but the response patterns of AOA were less consistent. Four AOB operational taxonomic units (OTUs predictably and significantly responded to fertilization, but only one AOA OTU showed a significant pattern. Betaproteobacterial amoA gene sequences within the Nitrosospira-like cluster dominated at C and LF sites, while sequences related to Nitrosomonas spp. dominated at HF and XF sites. We identified some clusters of AOA sequences recovered primarily from high fertilization regimes, but other clusters consisted of sequences recovered from all fertilization treatments, suggesting greater physiological diversity. Surprisingly, fertilization appeared to have little impact on abundance of AOA or AOB. In summary, our data reveal striking patterns for AOA and AOB in response to long-term fertilization, and also suggest a missing link between community composition and abundance and nitrogen processing in the marsh.

AnneBernhard

2013-01-01

319

[Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem. PMID:25509090

Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

2014-08-01

320

Radionuclide, Metal and Non-metal Levels in Percolated Water from Soils Fertilized with Phosphogypsum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, which is produced by precipitation during the wet process of phosphate rocks. While commercial uses, in agriculture and in manufacturing gypsum board and Portland cement, consume less than a few percent of this by-product, the vast majority is disposed of on land in gypsum. In Brazil, three main industries are responsible for the production and storage of about 5.5 x 106 tons per year. PG may contain trace metals, non-metals, fluorides and natural radionuclides. Since, in Brazil, PG has been used for many years as soil amendment, it is important to know its availability, mainly in aquatic environments used for human consumption. In this case, more restrictive limits must be adopted. This work aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals in sand and clayey soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements and radionuclides from soils fertilized with PG to crops. In general, it was observed that elemental concentrations were below the actual detection limit of the equipment for all conditions of interest, indicating a low mobility of the analyzed elements in the soil. (author)

321

Growth of chamaecyparis lawsoniana nursery trees with different levels of covering and substrate mineral fertilization / Crescimento de mudas de chamaecyparis lawsoniana em diferentes níveis de adubação mineral do substrato e em cobertura  

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Full Text Available Two simultaneous experiments were accomplished in the Nursery of Ornamental Plants of the Federal University of Paraná State with the objective of evaluating the effect of mineral fertilization on the growth of nursery trees of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana planted directly in the field and in individual packings. The experimental design was the completely randomized with five combinations of NPK 4-30-10 + urea, in grams (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 and 120 + 40 for the field and 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 and 40 + 16 for the packings and four replications. The growth of the plants was observed during one year and the height of plants and the diameter of the trunks were evaluated each two months. The fertilization in covering in the field did not stimulate the growth of the plants. The substrate fertilization promoted significantly higher growth of plants in height and diameter of trunks in the period from September to May. The trunk diameter was more influenced, demonstrating that the secondary growth of the plant is more stimulated by the fertilization. The plant growth in the field was greater than the plant growth in individual packings.Foram realizados dois experimentos simultâneos no Viveiro de Plantas Ornamentais da Universidade Federal do Paraná com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral sobre o crescimento de mudas de Chamaecyparis lawsoniana plantadas diretamente no campo e em recipientes individuais. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado com cinco combinações de NPK (4-30-10 mais uréia, em gramas, (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 e 120 + 40, respectivamente para o campo e 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 e 40 + 16, respectivamente para os recipientes e quatro repetições. O crescimento das plantas foi observado durante um ano, realizando-se avaliações de altura da muda e diâmetro do tronco a cada dois meses. A adubação em cobertura a campo não estimulou o crescimento das mudas. A adubação de substrato promoveu maior crescimento de mudas em recipiente em altura e em diâmetro de tronco mais significativamente no período de setembro a maio. O crescimento em diâmetro do tronco da muda foi mais influenciado, demonstrando que o crescimento secundário da planta foi mais estimulado pela adubação. O crescimento das mudas a campo foi maior que o ocorrido em recipientes.

Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

2009-03-01

322

[Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24483072

Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

2013-10-01

323

Effect of Seed Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Levels on the Growth and Yield of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.)  

OpenAIRE

Response of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivar NM-98 to seed inoculation and different levels of fertilizer (0-0, 15-30, 30-60 and 45-90 kg N-P2O5 ha-1) was studied under field conditions. Number of pod bearing branches plant-1, number of seed pod-1, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and protein contents were affected significantly by seed inoculation. The application of fertilizer significantly increased the seed yield and maximum se...

Muhammad Ather Nadeem; Rashid Ahmad; Sarfraz Ahmad, M.

2004-01-01

324

Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas  

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Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are now reporting the effects of ocean acidification on a broad range of marine species, processes and systems. Many of these are investigating the sensitive early life-history stages that several major reviews have highlighted as being potentially most susceptible to ocean acidification. Nonetheless there remain few investigations of the effects of ocean acidification on the very earliest, and critical, process of fertilization, and still fewer that have investigated levels of ocean acidification relevant for the coming century. Here we report the effects of near-future levels of ocean acidification (??0.35 pH unit change on sperm swimming speed, sperm motility, and fertilization kinetics in a population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from western Sweden. We found no significant effect of ocean acidification – a result that was well supported by power analysis. Similar findings from Japan suggest that this may be a globally robust result, and we emphasise the need for experiments on multiple populations from throughout a species' range. We also discuss the importance of sound experimental design and power analysis in accurate interpretation of non-significant results.

P. Schlegel

2009-04-01

325

Influence of NPK fertilization on the yield of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

OpenAIRE

Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a species of eucalyptus with potential for establishment of planted forests in the savannah area of Roraima. Little is known about the appropriate management of E. camaldulensis in the conditions of the savannah of Roraima, and for this reason, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the production of essential oil of t...

Ricardo Carvalho Santos; Antonio Alves de Melo Filho; Habdel Nasser Rocha da Costa; Francisco dos Santos Panero; Hosana Carolina dos Santos Barreto; Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa; Hélio Tonini; Rita de Cássia Pompeu de Sousa

2011-01-01

326

Phosphate solubilizers enhance NPK fertilizer use efficiency in rice and legume cultivation  

OpenAIRE

It has been reported that phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are the most promising bacteria among the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); which may be used as biofertilizers for plant growth and nutrient use efficiency. Moreover, these soil micro-organisms play a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and other nutrients. Through this study, the managem...

Duarah, I.; Deka, M.; Saikia, N.; Deka Boruah, H. P.

2011-01-01

327

Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production  

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Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

Aleksandra Juriši?

2014-03-01

328

The Effect of Crop Rotation, Mineral Fertilizer Application and Herbicide on Weed Control in Winter Rye  

OpenAIRE

The recent years' problems of herbicide use have led a growing number of researchers to seek alternative methods that are less reliant on herbicides. This research was conducted to determine the effect of long-term crop rotation, mineral fertilizer and herbicide on the weed infestation and grain yield of winter rye during 2004 and 2005 at the long-term experimental site of the University of Timiriazev, Moscow. Treatments were control (no weed control), herbicide, combined fertilizer (NPK) and...

Mohamad Dost Chamanabad, H.; Asghari, A.

2009-01-01

329

Aggregate strength and mechanical behaviour of a sandy loam soil under long-term fertilization treatments  

OpenAIRE

Current concern for soil quality has stimulated research on soil biological and chemical properties. In contrast, the mechanical behaviour of soil is somewhat neglected. We have examined the effects on soil mechanical properties of more than 100years of contrasting fertilization employing three treatments from the Askov long-term experiment: UNF (unfertilized), NPK (mineral fertilized) and AM (animal manured). We have measured tensile strength of aggregates when air-dry and when adjusted to 1...

Munkholm, Lars J.; Schjønning, Per; Debosz, Kasia; Jensen, Henry E.; Christensen, Bent T.

2002-01-01

330

Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine (Pinus nigra) seedlings in Uganda  

OpenAIRE

Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack of good quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out, to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1) and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts (experiment 2). Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K), South Busoga (S), and Mbarara (M) and from Mubende forest rese...

Lumu, S.; Nyombi, K.; Swaga, A.; Bukenya, M.; Balimunsi, H.; Tumwebaze, S. B.

2013-01-01

331

Role of bio-fertilizers in phosphorus utilization by wheat with various levels of N, P and FYM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study P utilization by wheat with various combinations of N, P, FYM and bio-fertilizers. The grain and straw yield of wheat increased with increasing levels of nitrogen along with P and FYM. The highest yield was obtained with 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 and 20 t FYM under no inoculation. However, it was highest with 80 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM under both the inoculation treatments. Almost similar trend was followed for the total P uptake. The values for per cent P derived from fertilizer (% Pdff) and P utilization were higher with 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM than the other treatments under no inoculation as well as Azospirillum inoculation. However, highest Pdff and P utilization were observed with 80 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM under the Azotobacter inoculation. The Azotobacter was superior to uninoculation and Azospirillum inoculation with respect to yield, total P uptake, percent Pdff and per cent P utilization by wheat. (author)

332

Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

2007-01-01

333

Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

2014-01-01

334

Resposta do arroz irrigado à adubação residual e aos níveis de adubação em solo de várzea Response of irrigated rice to residual fertilization and to applied levels of fertilizers in lowland soil  

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Full Text Available Informações sobre o efeito residual da adubação na produção de arroz irrigado em solos de várzeas no Brasil, são escassas. Conduziu-se um experimento de campo, durante três anos consecutivos, para se avaliar o efeito residual da adubação e de níveis de adubação aplicados no sulco de plantio sobre a produção de arroz irrigado em um solo Glei Pouco Húmico (Inseptissolo de várzea, período em que a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e de grãos foi significativamente afetada pela adubação no sulco e não pela adubação residual. As produções máximas de matéria seca e de grãos foram obtidas com o tratamento T7 (efeito residual da adubação média + adubo verde + 75 kg N ha-1, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 e 60 kg K2O ha-1. O tratamento T4 (efeito residual da adubação média + 50 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 e 40 kg K2O ha-1 não foi diferente significativamente em comparação com o tratamento T7; enquanto entre os componentes da produção o número de panículas por m² e o peso de 1.000 grãos foram significativamente afetados pelos tratamentos, por outro lado, a acumulação da maioria dos nutrientes na parte aérea e nos grãos foi significativamente afetada pelos tratamentos.Information on the residual effect of fertilization is scarce for irrigated rice produced in lowland soils in Brazil. A field experiment was conducted during three consecutive years to evaluate the effects of residual and band applied fertilizers on irrigated rice yield in a Low Humic Gley Soil (Inceptisol. Mean dry matter and grain yield were significantly affected with applied fertilizer treatments, which did not happen for residual fertilizer treatments. Maximum dry matter and grain yield were produced under treatment which consisted of residual effect of medium soil fertility level plus green manure + 75 kg N ha-1, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 60 kg K2O ha-1 (T7. The treatment of residual effect of medium soil fertility level plus 50 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 40 kg K2O ha-1 (T4 did not show significant differences in comparison to T7 treatment. Number of panicles m-2 and 1000 grains weight were the yield components which were significantly affected with fertilizer treatments. Accumulation of almost all the nutrients in the dry matter and grain were significantly affected with fertilizer treatments.

Nand Kumar Fageria

2000-01-01

335

MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION  

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Full Text Available The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or for shrinkage, which presented: ¦b = 650kg/cm2, E = 59.877kg/cm2, ¦c = 296kg/cm2 e ¦n = 131kg/cm2. Control treatment showed highest values for shear strength and compression parallel to grain. Too many branches in all trees and also too many knots in lumber were observed. Pruning is recommended for homogeneous planting of Sclerolobium paniculatum to avoid knots in order to be produced wood of superior quality.

Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira

2010-08-01

336

Effect of nitrogen fertilization on morphological and biochemical traits of some Apiaceae crops under arid region conditions in Egypt  

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Full Text Available Khalid KA. 2013. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on morphological and biochemical traits of some Apiaceae crops under arid region conditions in Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 15-20. Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients content and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise, coriander and sweet fennel. So the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of N, namely 0 (control, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 used as ammonium sulphate [(NH42SO4] (20% N, on selected morphological and biochemical characteristics of anise, coriander and sweet fennel plants cultivated under arid regions conditions during two successive seasons. The most effective dose of nitrogen was 200 kg ha-1 of N, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters and content of essential oil, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars, protein and nutrients (NPK.

KHALID ALI KHALID

2013-05-01

337

Effect of Fertilizer and Inoculation on Lipase and Urease Activity of Mature Soybean cv. Williams-82 Seeds  

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Full Text Available A field experiment on soybean cv. Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil with six different level (T2 to T7 of added N fertilizer @ 23, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 plus a constant dose of P2O5 + K2O fertilizer @ 60 + 30 kg ha-1 respectively, Whereas T1 with zero level of added NPK was kept control. These six fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated field grown soybean crop. After harvest the mature dry seed of each treatment were analyzed for their lipase and urease activity. Results showed that fertilizer treatments significantly and positively affected the lipase activity in general and urease activity in particular. Statistically maximum activity of both enzymes was recorded in T3 dose of fertilizer. Results further revealed that by comparing the inoculated with non-inoculated treatments in particular doses of fertilizer, inoculation significantly increased the urease activity, but reverse was true for lipase activity. Statistically maximum activities of both enzymes were also noted in T3 dose of inoculated treatment. It was also concluded that lipase activity exhibited significant positive association with starch and soluble sugars, but negative with seed protein and moisture content. On the other hand urease activity showed significant positive correlation with oil and moisture content, but negative with starch content. However, they both were insignificantly correlated with grain yield and remaining biochemical components. Therefore, seed lipase activity in particular and urease activity in general could not be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the quantity as well as quality of grain yield in soybean cv.Williams-82.

Abdul Kabir Khan Achakzai

2003-01-01

338

Short Communication: Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphatefertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan,Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphatefertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture andBiology (NIAB (about 80 hectares, 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF farmand Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI (about 100 hectares. These all soils were situated inthe urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimationwas gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farmsresult the presence of Potassium (40K, Cesium (137Cs, and Uranium (238U. The average amount ofradioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6 and 659.50 Bqkg-1, respectively. For 232Th contamination, the averaged values found were 57.52, 55.80 and 63.0 Bqkg-1 for AARI, NIAB and UAF farms, respectively. For 238U, the average values were 36.51, 30.60 and39.8 Bq kg-1 for all the above farms, respectively. For 137Cs (nuclear fall the averaged value in all theinvestigated farms was 2.50, 2.43 and 2.60 Bq kg-1, respectively. The existence of 137Cs in the soilsamples of the investigated farms shows that these farms might have received the nuclear fall from manmade sources. Its absorbed dose in air for NIAB, AARI and UAF farms amounted to 49.52, 47.55 and52.99 nGy kg-1, respectively. The values of Radium equivalent activity were 159.74, 145.01 and 163.67Bqkg-1, respectively. The calculated annual effective doses for the selected agricultural farms were0.96, 0.95 and 0.98 mSvy-1, respectively. External and Internal radioactive radiation hazard index forall the investigated farms were also calculated, which were less than one. This result leads to theinformation that the existing radiation contamination in the soils of the investigated farms is not animmediate hazard to the labourers/general public who are in contact with these farms. However, if thecultivation of these farms with the use of artificial fertilizers goes on then with time, in future the soilsof these farms may pose a risk for the general public.

Nasim-Akhtar*, M. Tufail, Muhammad Yousuf Hussain and Muhammad Akram

2011-04-01

339

Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicum annum)  

OpenAIRE

Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasibakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicumannum). Bioteknologi 6: 63-69. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui peningkatan populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum akibat pemberian pupuk kandang. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan perlakuan: (i) tanpa pupuk sebagai kontrol, (ii) dengan pupuk kandang, (iii) dengan pupuk NPK. Data dikumpulkan se...

MUJIYATI; SUPRIYADI

2009-01-01

340

Cassava/Maize Intercrop Performance and Soil Nutrient Changes with Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available Field trials were conducted in the forest vegetation (Ibadan and the derived savannah (Ilora zones of south west Nigeria to assess the yield performance of cassava/maize intercrop and soil nutrient changes with sole and some combined ratios of organic-based fertilizer (OBF and inorganic fertilizer. Sole OBF was assessed at 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 t ha-1 while 400 kg ha-1 NPK 15-15-15 served as the sole inorganic fertilizer treatment. The combined treatments were: 2.5 t ha-1 OBF + 100 kg ha-1 NPK 15-15-15 and 5 t ha-1 OBF + 100 kg ha-1 NPK 15-15-15. An unfertilized treatment served as the control treatment. Maize grain yield was highest with application of 5 t ha-1 OBF + 100 kg ha-1 NPK. It gave a mean yield of 2.45 t ha -1 at Ibadan and 2.49 t ha-1 at Ilora. Cassava root yield was however highest with 10 t ha-1 OBF. It gave a mean yield of 14.55 t ha-1 at Ibadan and 12.52 t ha-1 at Ilora. Soil N, P, K and Organic C was most increased with 10 t ha-1 OBF and 5 t ha-1 OBF+NPK. Crop yields and soil nutrient status decreased with no fertilizer application. Cassava –maize intercrop gives optimum yields and highest soil N, P, K increase with 10 t ha-1 OBF.

O.T. Ayoola

2011-11-01