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Sample records for npk fertility levels

  1. Response of Early Maturity Mutant Lines of Low Land Rice on Several Levels of NPK Fertilizers and Irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A problem which will occur in the IP400 program is the exploitation of nutrient and water. This problem could be overcome by using early maturating having high fertilizer and water use efficiency. For this purpose several mutant lines were tested for their efficiency on using fertilizers and water. The testing of the mutant lines were done in the field at the experimental station of the Agricultural Department Pusakanagara, West Java. Treatments employed were six mutant lines and two rice varieties which four rates of NPK fertilizers (0, 25, 50, and 100%) and three irrigation regimes (continuously sub merging, 10 and 15 days of alternate sub merging). The soil water content was determined by neutron probe at the start of each water regimes. The N total mutant of the plants were carried out at the Plant Nutrition Laboratory, PATIR-BATAN. Results showed that the average yield, in sequence from the highest to the lowest (t/ha) is OBS 1705 (9,3597), Cimelati (8,9631), OBS 1700 (8,9192), Diah Suci (8,7706), OBS 1713 (8,2797), OBS 1703 (8,2733), OBS 1718 (8,2489) and OBS 1704 (8,0019). Statistically highest yield/ha was obtained at all the water regimes and NPK fertilizer rates was shown by OBS 1705 and did not differ significantly from Cimelati variety, but it significantly differ from Diah Suci variety, OBS 1713, OBS 1703, OBS 1718 and OBS 1718. The OBS 1704 was highly responsive to the NPK fertilization, producing and increase any weight at the lowest rate of NPK fertilization (25%). The uptake of total nitrogen (kg N/ha) in the grain of the mutant lines were all higher than that of the parent lines (Cimelati and Diah Suci). (author)

  2. Effect of Different Levels of N.P.K Fertilizers on the Yield and Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The data obtained revealed that maximum plant height (422 cm, number of flowers (532, number of fruits per tree (940, fruit length (19.11 cm and average fruit yield per tree (61.22 kg were recorded in 1.5-1.5-0.75 NPK kg/plant. Maximum plant girth (78 cm and maximum fruit weight (133.5 g was found in 1.5-0.75-00 NPK kg/plant. Whereas, maximum number of inflorescence/ shoot (23.7 was recorded in 00-00-00 NPK kg/plant.
    Key words: Manqo, Manqifera indica, flowers, fruits, yield

  3. Diferentes combinações de NPK na produção do feijão-vagem em solo orgânico álico do Vale do Ribeira (SP) / Influence of different levels of NPK fertilizers on the yield of pole snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Issao, Ishimura; Celi Teixeira, Feitosa; Rogério Salles, Lisbão; Francisco Antonio, Passos; João Baptista, Fornasier; Massaharu, Noda.

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se verificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 e 354-576-558 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O respectivamente) na produção do feijão-vagem, cv. Teresópolis, desenvolveu-se um experimento na Estação Experimental de Pariquera-Açu em solo orgânico álico de alta acidez. [...] Nas condições do experimento, verificou-se apenas resposta linear e positiva altamente significativa para os seguintes caracteres estudados: produtividade total de vagens, produtividade de vagens comerciáveis e número total de vagens. Desse modo, as maiores produtividades em peso e número de vagens, em magnitude, foram obtidas quando se utilizou a dose máxima de NPK. Abstract in english A trial was carried out at the Experimental Station of 'Pariquera-Açu', State of São Paulo, Brazil, on an organic soil, of high acidity (pH = 4.9), to determine the influence of four levels of fertilizers (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 and 354-576-558 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O respectively) on the yield [...] of pole snap beans, cultivar Teresópolis. The results showed that the pod yield increased with the increasing levels of fertilizers applied (linear effect). The highest yield of snap bean pods was obtained at the levels of 354-576-588kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, respectively. The results also showed that the average weight of pods remained constant and the number of pods increased linearly with the fertilizer levels.

  4. Yield and Distribution/Uptake of Nutrients of Dioscorea rotundata Influenced by NPK Fertilizer Application

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    Samson Uduzei REMISON

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted in 2005 and 2006 at Evboneka to determine the optimum level of NPK requirement for yield and nutrient composition of D. rotundata for the forest ultisol location. Fresh tuber yield, dry matter accumulation, percentage of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K content of leaves and tubers at various stages and crude protein content of harvested tubers were evaluated under five levels (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kilogramme per hectare (kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer using randomized complete block design. NPK fertilizer application significantly increased all the tested parameters. The optimum level of NPK for successful production of white guinea yam was 300 (45 kg N + 20.37 kg P + 37.35 kg K kg ha-1 in a forest ultisol that been under cultivation for at least two years.

  5. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia

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    Jelena Milinovi?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20 exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

  6. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crud...

  7. Varietal Response to Varying Doses of NPK Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, A. R.; Channa, M. H.; Kalwar, G. H.; Channa, A. A.; Dayo, G. N.; Memon, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    A field experiment was laid out to assess the yield performance of two cultivars under ten fertilizer (NPK) treatments during 1992, 1993 and 1994 crop seasons at CRS, Ghotki Sindh. On an average, highest seed cotton yield of 2062 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was fertilized with 112, 56 and 50 kg ha-1 of N, P, and K respectively followed by 112 nitrogen, zero phosphorus and 50 potash kg ha-1 where seed cotton yield of 1933 kg ha-1 was obtained. The lowest yield of 1283 kg ha-1 was produc...

  8. Physiology, phenology and yield of sunflower (autumn) as affected by NPK fertilizer and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn, 2000 and 2001. The response of sunflower hybrids (SF-187 and Parsun-1) were studied using low medium and high rate of NPK (0, 50, 100,150 kg ha/sup -1/) in factorial design with split plot arrangements. Days to R1 (button stage), R4 (inflorescence begins to open), R5.8 (80% anthesis) and R9 (physiological maturity) stages significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Among the hybrids, Parsun-1 matured 4-5 days later than SF-187. Similarly, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), and dry matter accumulation (DMA) also significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Maximum LAI, CGR, DMA and seed yield was produced by fertilizer treatments of 150:100:100 kg ha/sup -1/ during both the seasons. Oil content also varied with different combinations of NPK fertilizers which ranged from 37 to 39% during both the seasons. (author)

  9. NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol Adubação NPK no crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em Neossolo Quartzarênico

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Teixeira de Souza; Enilson de Barros Silva; Paulo Henrique Grazziotti; Luiz Arnaldo Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x...

  10. Varietal Response to Varying Doses of NPK Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Soomro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was laid out to assess the yield performance of two cultivars under ten fertilizer (NPK treatments during 1992, 1993 and 1994 crop seasons at CRS, Ghotki Sindh. On an average, highest seed cotton yield of 2062 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was fertilized with 112, 56 and 50 kg ha-1 of N, P, and K respectively followed by 112 nitrogen, zero phosphorus and 50 potash kg ha-1 where seed cotton yield of 1933 kg ha-1 was obtained. The lowest yield of 1283 kg ha-1 was produced from the control plot where no chemical fertilization was done. The highest yielding variety GH-3 produced 1751 kg ha-1 seed cotton followed by Shaheen (1657 kg ha-1.

  11. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  12. Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK / NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PAULO BOLLER, GALLO; BERNARDO VAN, RAIJ; JOSÉ ANTONIO, QUAGGIO; LUIS CARLOS ESTEVES, PEREIRA.

    Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ? [...] Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP), em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação. Abstract in english The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee p [...] lantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

  13. Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO BOLLER GALLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ?Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP, em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação.The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee plantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4 factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

  14. Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization

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    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate. A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³ was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per plot and double border rows. Treatments were composed of four rates of nitrogen (0 to 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, phosphorus (0 to 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and potassium (0 to 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1, applied in stripes and divided in five annual applications. The fertilizers used were: calcium nitrate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride. Plants were cultivated in a 2 × 1 m array, and periodically evaluated in relation to diameter of main stem, number of offshoots and percentage of plants with offshoots. In this sandy and low fertility soil, peach palm growth responses in relation to N and K amendments were linear and positive. Initial responses were observed three months after fertilizer application. No isolated effects of P fertilization, nor significant interactions among fertilizers were observed. Maximum growth responses were reached with 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1.

  15. Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

  16. BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.R, Tortella; O, Rubilar; M, Cea; C, Wulff; O, Martínez; M.C, Diez.

    Full Text Available Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinid [...] ol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity) in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1%) and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0%) and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

  17. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd. PMID:24897796

  18. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M Oloyede

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

  19. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M Oloyede

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

  20. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.M, Oloyede.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivat [...] ion and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

  1. Yield and Distribution/Uptake of Nutrients of Dioscorea rotundata Influenced by NPK Fertilizer Application

    OpenAIRE

    Remison, Samson Uduzei; Law-ogbomo, Kolawole Edomwonyi

    2009-01-01

    Two field trials were conducted in 2005 and 2006 at Evboneka to determine the optimum level of NPK requirement for yield and nutrient composition of D. rotundata for the forest ultisol location. Fresh tuber yield, dry matter accumulation, percentage of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content of leaves and tubers at various stages and crude protein content of harvested tubers were evaluated under five levels (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kilogramme per hectare (kg ha-1) of NPK ferti...

  2. Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Al-hazmi, Ahmad S.; Dawabah, Ahmed A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increase...

  3. BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tortella, G. R.; Rubilar, O.; Cea, M.; Wulff, C.; Marti?nez, O.; Diez, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing conc...

  4. Inoculação de Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK na composição química e contaminação fungo-fumonisina de milho / Inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization on chemical composition and fungal-fumonisin contamination of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana P., Bernd; Thiago M., Souza; Mariana A. de, Oliveira; Elisabete Y. S., Ono; Claudemir, Zucareli; Elisa Y., Hirooka.

    1274-12-01

    Full Text Available Propôs,neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da inoculação de sementes com Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio) na composição química e contaminação por fungo-fumonisina de grãos de milho. O delineamento experimental foi bloco casualizado em fatorial 2 x 3, corresponden [...] te à inoculação com P. fluorecens (não inoculada ou inoculada) e níveis de adubação NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1, formulados 08-28-16) com 4 repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram composição química (proteína e cinzas), contaminação fúngica (bolores e leveduras) e fumonisinas B1 (FB1) e B2 (FB2). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey e correlação de Pearson, pelo teste-t (p 0,05). A interação entre fatores, com incremento no nível de adubação NPK e uso de P. Fluorescens, resultou em aumento no teor de cinzas e proteína (p Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the effect of inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) on chemical composition and contamination by fungal-fumonisin of maize grains. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in factorial 2 [...] x 3, corresponding to inoculation with P. fluorescens (non-inoculated or inoculated) and levels of NPK fertilization (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1, formulation 8-28-16), with 4 replications. The parameters evaluated were chemical composition (protein and ash), contamination by fungal (mold and yeast) and fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2). The data were subjected to analysis of variance, comparisons of means by Tukey test and Pearson correlation by test-t (p 0.05). The interaction between factors, increase in NPK level and use of P. fluorescens, resulted in increase in protein content and ash (p

  5. Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S; Dawabah, Ahmed A M

    2014-04-01

    Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increased (P ? 0.05) the dry weight of nematode-infected wheat plants. Fenamiphos and urea resulted in the best control, followed by the NPK fertilizers. The combined application of urea and fenamiphos resulted in the most significant effect in decreasing (P ? 0.05) the number of cysts/root system and increasing (P ? 0.05) the growth of nematode-infected wheat plants. PMID:24600314

  6. Growth and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) as Influenced by Combined Application of Cowdung and NPK Fertilizer in Ogoja, Southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ndaeyo, N.; Oguzor, Ns; Utuk, Es; Dan, So

    2000-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted in 1990 and 1991 sowing seasons at the University of Cross River State Teaching and Research Farm, Ogoja campus, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of soybean under diverse soil fertility levels. The findings suggest that combined use of Cowdung and NPK appears a better option.

  7. Bioremediation in Mangrove Sediments Impacted by Oil Using Two Types of Fertilizers NPK and OSMOCOTE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danusia Ferreira Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a technique applied to several environmental impacts, among which the ones generated by petroleum derivatives, through the introduction of microorganisms into the environment, or creating optimal conditions for them to develop. The present study aimed to evaluate the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons through the biostimulation technique in the mangrove sediment impacted by petroliferous activities, testing the potentiality of two fertilizers (NPK and OSMOCOTE as accelerating agents of the biodegradation of petroleum components, under experimental conditions. In order to understand the bioremediation process it was used the quantification of nutrient contents, the percent of saturated, aromatic and NSO hydrocarbons, and the behavior of saturated compounds along the entire experiment, besides the monitoring of physical and chemical parameters. Chromatographic profiles characterized a major degradation of saturated hydrocarbons at the units with NPK, presenting a better efficiency of this fertilizer in the tested biostimulation process.

  8. Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Spacing on the Yield of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceratia M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nek Dara Jan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trail was conducted to assess the effect of different plant spacing (S1=50 cm, S2=75 cm and S3=100 cm and NPK doses (T1= control, T2=104-54-104, T3=124-74-124, T4=144-94-144 and T5=164-114-164 kg per hectare on the growth and yield of bottle gourd. The NPK fertilizer doses has significant effect on days to germination, fruit weight (gm, fruit volume (ml, number of fruits per vine, vine length (cm and yield per hectare (tones. Increasing NPK fertilizer doses also increased the above mentioned parameters. Maximum yield (20.403 t ha-1 was obtained from T5 (164-114-164. Plant spacing had significant influence on days to germination, fruit weight (gm, fruit volume (ml, number of fruits per vine, vine length (cm and yield per hectare. Increasing plant spacing increased all the above mentioned parameters, except yield per hectare. Maximum yield (19.709 t ha-1 was obtained from S1 (50 cm.

  9. Acúmulo de NPK e sódio na mamoneira sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada / Accumulation of NPK and sodium in castor bean under saline stress and nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reginaldo G., Nobre; Lauriane A. dos A., Soares; Hans R., Gheyi; Geovani S. de, Lima; Givanildo da S., Lourenço; Saulo da S., Soares.

    1066-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com água de diferentes salinidades e doses de nitrogênio, sobre a acumulação de NPK e sódio na parte aérea da mamoneira, em experimento conduzido em lisímetros. Utilizou-se aleatorização em bloco em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com três rep [...] etições, estudando-se os cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água (CEa), variando de 0,4 a 4,4 dS m-1, associados a cinco doses de nitrogênio (50 a 150% da recomendada). Os teores de NPK e de sódio na cv. BRS Energia foram maiores nas folhas que no caule e entre as épocas de avaliação, aos 120 dias após a semeadura (DAS) em relação aos 46 DAS. Nas folhas os teores acumulados aos 46 DAS, variou na sequência K > Na > N > P e aos 120 DAS K > N > Na > P; enquanto no caule variaram em ambas as épocas, a ordem foi Na > K > P ? N e em função da CEa e K> Na> P ? N em função das doses de N aos 46 DAS níveis crescentes de CEa promoveram aumento no teor de Nfolha e Kfolha assim como o incremento da adubação com N inibiu o teor de Na folha; aos 120 DAS o maior teor de Nfolha foi obtido com a CEa de 4,4 dS m-1 e a dose de N de 150%, já o teor de Kfolha e Kcaule foi obtido na dose de 150% de N enquanto o teor de P não foi influenciado por nenhum fator estudado. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water of different salinities and doses of nitrogen fertilization on accumulation of NPK and sodium in the aerial parts of the castor bean, the experiment was conducted in lysimeters. A randomized block design in 5 x 5 factorial ar [...] rangement with three replications was used, and the effects of electrical conductivity of water (ECw) varying from 0.4 to 4.4 dS m-1 associated with nitrogen dose (50 to 150% of recommended dose) were studied. The NPK and sodium contents in the aerial parts of to plant in the leaves in comparison to stems and evaluation times 120 days after sowing (DAS) > 46 DAS. In leaves the content at 46 DAS varied according to following sequence K > Na > N > P and at 120 DAS K > N > Na > P while in the stem in both study periods it accumulated in the order Na > K > P ? N under water salinity and K > Na > P ? N depending on nitrogen fertilization. At 46 DAS, the increasing levels of ECw caused an increase in the Nleaf and Kleaf and nitrogen dose inhibited Na leaf content. At 120 DAS the highest content of Nleaf was obtained in treatment ECw 4.4 dS m-1 and in dose of 150% N while the contents of Kleaf and Kstem were obtained in the dose of 150% N. The P content was not affected by any of the studied factors.

  10. Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7% and leaf area (9% when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%, P (30% and K (17% of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria diazotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas as características de crescimento e nutricionais das plantas. O crescimento do milho foi influenciado pela adubação, mas foi reforçado pela combinação com a bactéria, que resultou em aumentos significativos na matéria seca da parte aérea (7 % e área foliar (9 %, quando comparado com as das plantas não inoculadas. Os resultados indicaram incrementos no acúmulo de N (11 %, P (30 % e K (17 %, em plantas de milho, em resposta à inoculação bacteriana em conjunto com NPK, quando comparado com os das plantas que apenas receberam adubação. A estabilidade e maior consistência da resposta da planta hospedeira para bacterização, na presença de fertilização química, apontam para uma ferramenta biotecnológica promissora para melhorar o crescimento inicial e adaptação de plantas de milho ao ambiente de cultivo.

  11. A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release systems. However, there are no attempts to explore the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as controlled release for NPK fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of NPK fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and zeta-potential. The FTIR results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements N, P and K. The stability of the CS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of nitrogen and potassium than with the addition of phosphorus, due to the higher anion charge from the calcium phosphate than the anion charges from the potassium chloride and urea. The mean diameter increase of the CS-PMAA nanoparticles in suspension with the addition of different compounds indicated that the elements are being aggregated on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles.

  12. Influence of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre Habimana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L. in a volcanic soil of Musanze District in the Northern Province of Rwanda. This was geared upon by many unattended biotic and agronomic factors pertaining to low yields of carrot crop in this area. The treatments were: the control (T0, 10 t ha-1 of chicken manure (T1, 300 kg ha-1 of NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer (T2, and 5 t ha-1 chicken manure + 150 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer (T3 and each treatment was in three repetitions. The soil was tested for some of its physical and chemical properties and the soil reaction was moderately acid (pH 5.97 and the quantities of N, P, K were moderate. The growth and yield parameters were studied along with the effect of treatments and the economic contribution of the intervention was determined by Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BGR approach. Results revealed that the significantly (p < 0.05 highest plant height (45.59 cm and leaf length (45.29 cm were obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer and the lowest were 34.12 and 34.69 cm, respectively, in the absolute control. The sole application of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer recorded plant heights of 43.70 and 39.89 cm and leaf lengths of 43.46 and 39.61 cm, respectively. Results also indicated that marketable root yield was statistically similar between control (5.6 t ha-1 and chicken manure alone (5.7 t ha-1 and between NPK fertilizer alone (8.55 t ha-1 and combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (10.55 t ha-1. The best BCR was obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (2.09 compared with the absolute control (1.12, chicken manure alone (1.75 and NPK fertilizer alone (1.62.

  13. Efecto de fertilización con n-p-k y la distancia de siembra sobre el rendimiento de la cebolla (allium cepa l. Effect of N-P-K fertilization and planting distance on onion (Allium cepa L. yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viloria

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Se establecieron cuatro dosis de fertilización con N-P-K y cuatro distancias de siembra en un diseño de parcelas divididas con subunidades en cuadrado latino, para estudiar su efecto sobre el tamaño y el rendimiento del bulbo de cebolla Texas Grano 438. El diámetro del bulbo se comportó como una característica dependiente de la fertilización y la distancia de siembra. Con las dosis menor (150-44-166 kg/ha de N-P-K, respectivamente el máximo diámetro se logró en la distancia 12 x 20 cm mientras que con las dosis mayores lo fue en la distancia 10 x 20 cm. Al variar la distancia desde 6 x 20 cm hasta 12 x 20 cm se modificó significativamente la altura y el peso fresco del bulbo, lográndose los valores máximos en la distancia 10 x 20 cm. No se detectaron diferencias entre las dosis del fertilizante. El rendimiento por unidad de área presentó respuestas inversamente proporcionales a las distancias de siembra.The effect of four doses of N-P-K and four plant spacing on size and yield of Texas Grano 438 onion bulb was studied in a latin square design. Bulb diameter was dependent on fertilization and plant spacing. At the 12 x 20 cm spacing, maximum diameters were obtained with the lowest level of fertilization (150-44-166 kg/ha N-P-K, respectively while with higher dose the maximum diameter was found at the 10 x 20 cm plant spacing. When spacing was changed from 6 x 20 cm to 12 x 20 cm, the bulb's height and fresh weight were significantly modified, obtaining maximum values at the 10 x 20 cm. No differences were found for fertilizer dose. Yield per area unit showed results in indirect proportion to plant spacing.

  14. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere elsined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  15. Influence of mineral fertilization (NPK) on the quality of apricot fruit (cv. Canino). The effect of the mode of nitrogen supply

    OpenAIRE

    Radi, Mohamed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Jaouad, Abderrahime; Amiot, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers were evaluated on biochemical markers involved in the quality of apricots (sugars, organic acids and free acidity) and technological qualities (phenolic compounds: substrates of the enzymatic browning reaction). Apricot fruits (cv. Canino) were picked in the Marrakech area (Morocco). An experimental design was carried out with four factors: N, P and K, each one at two levels, and two modes of N ...

  16. Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayub

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1, respectively. Sucrose contents and commercial cane sugar were not affected significantly by fertilizer application. However, variety SPSG-26 gave significantly higher sucrose contents (18.82 % and commercial cane sugar (12.89 % than SPSG-394 and BL-4. The fertilizer application @ 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 was found to be optimum level for achieving maximum cane yield.

  17. Efeito da adubação NPK sobre o período de imaturidade da seringueira / Effect of NPK fertilization on the immature phase of rubber tree

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ONDINO CLEANTE, BATAGLIA; WAGNER RODRIGUES DOS, SANTOS; PAULO DE SOUZA, GONÇALVES; IVO, SEGNINI JUNIOR; MÁRIO, CARDOSO.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] à adubação NPK visando recomendá-la no período de formação dos seringais. Relata os resultados do experimento em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico no município de M [...] atão (SP). O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O. Até 104 meses de idade das plantas, avaliaram-se o perímetro do caule 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal, efetuando-se análises de solo e folhas em diversas épocas. Observou-se, a partir de 24 meses de idade, pouco mais de um ano depois do início das aplicações efeito linear da adubação potássica sobre o perímetro do caule e, a partir de de 48 meses, com freqüência, a interação NK linear. Usando como indicador de desenvolvimento a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para K e, em algumas poucas épocas, também paraN. O período de imaturidade, apesar de afetado significativamente apenas pela adubação potássica, mostrou-se dependente do equilíbrio dos nutrientes. Adubações desequilibradas podem retardar até em 15 meses o tempo de imaturidade, comparando-se os melhores e os piores tratamentos. Na ausência de adubação potássica, verificou-se um efeito antagônico dos nutrientes N e P. Adubações potássicas foram essenciais para garantir a antecipação do início da fase produtiva. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] to NPK fertilization in order, to improve fertilizer recommendation during the immature phase of this crop. It reports the results obtained from an experiment conducted on [...] a podzolic soil at Matão, State of São Paulo, Brazil. It was a randomized block design in a fractionated factorial experiment 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) using 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 of N, P2O5 e K2O. Fertilizers were applied every year starting eight months after planting. During the experimental period evaluations of trunk girth 1.20 m above the budgrafting union was measured at each four months. The percentage of plants able for tapping and the period of immaturity were calculated from girth measurements. Soil and plant analysis were performed at several ages. Plant responses to potassium fertilizations were observed starting at 24 months of plant age. Linear NK interaction was frequently observed after 48 months of plant age. Considering the percentage of plants able for tapping, responses were linearly and statistically significant for K fertilization, while N responses were observed in some ocasions. The immaturity period of the crop was significantly affected only by K fertilizers. Besides of this observation, the analysis of the response surface showed that the immaturity period was very dependent on equilibrated relations among nutrients. Unbalanced relations of NPK can delay up to 15 months the beginning of tapping, considering differences between the best and worst treatments. In the absence of K fertilization there was an antagonistic effect of N and P. Potassium fertilization was essential to reduce the immaturity period.

  18. INFLUENCE OF COMPOST, MICROORGANISMS AND NPK FERTILIZER UPON GROWTH, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pokluda, Robert; Abdelwahab, Mohamed Mahmoud; Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis

    2007-01-01

    The performance of compost and microorganisms was compared with standard, commercial rates of NPK fertilizers with respect to the growth, chemical composition and essential oil production of Rosmarinus officinalis L. In two successive seasons, plants treated by a mixture of compost and microorganisms showed a significant increase in vegetative growth, total N, P and carbohydrate content and essential oil production. The findings clearly indicate that compost and microorganisms could replace c...

  19. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Oloyede, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized...

  20. Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK = Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães Teles

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF, colmos (MSC e total (MST, teor de proteína bruta (PB, N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic RedYellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

  1. Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

  2. Manejo da cultura do híbrido de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN : 01 para melhoria na qualidade do fruto com menor aplicação de adubação NPK / Management of the papaya crop of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN : 01 of 'Formosa' group for fruit quality improvement and less NPK fertilizer application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Venturim, Fontes; Alexandre Pio, Viana; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Jurandi Gonçalves de, Oliveira; Henrique Duarte, Vieira.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de alguns aspectos do manejo da cultura do mamoeiro como espaçamento e nível de adubação NPK, sobre alguns atributos de qualidade dos frutos do híbrido do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agr [...] ícola S.A., em Linhares-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,70 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão da empresa (PE); A2 = 100% PE; A3 = 120% PE; A4 = 140% PE, e A5 = 160% PE), e três períodos de avaliação (junho, agosto e outubro de 2007). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa (PE) consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P2O5) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K2O), respectivamente. Foram analisados a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a concentração de sólidos solúveis (SS), o pH, a acidez titulável (AT) e a razão SS/AT da polpa. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de médias. Os resultados mostram que, entre as condições de espaçamento e níveis de adubação NPK testados, o melhor desempenho foi obtido pelas combinações E1A1 ou E2A1, os quais devem ser adotadas para o manejo do híbrido UC01. Os tratamentos resultaram em frutos com atributos de qualidade superiores, além de proporcionar redução nos gastos com adubação NPK e menor impacto ambiental em função da aplicação excessiva de adubo no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of some aspects of the management of the crop as spacing and level of NPK fertilizer application on some quality attributes of fruits of the papaya hybrid of 'Formosa' group UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). The experiment was conducted in the farm Caliman [...] Agrícola S.A., in Linhares -E. S. We used the randomized complete block design, with factorial arrangement, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m; E3 = 2,70 m), five levels of conventional NPK (A1 = 80% of the company's standard; A2 = 100% of the standard; A3 = 120% of the standard; A4 = 140% of the standard; and A5 = 160% of the standard) and three evaluation periods (June, August and October 2007). The standard NPK fertilizer company consists of 350, 105 and 660 kg/ha/year of ammonium sulphate (20% of N), superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. We evaluated the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the concentration of soluble solids (SS), pH, acidity (TA) and the ratio SS /TA of the pulp. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and mean test. The results show that among the conditions of spacing and NPK fertilizer levels tested, the best performance was obtained by combinations E1A1 or E2A1, which should be adopted to manage the hybrid UC01. These treatments resulted in fruits with superior quality attributes, in addition to these management practices provide a reduction in spending on NPK fertilizer and a smaller environmental impact according to excessive application of fertilizer in the soil.

  3. Adubação com NPK e irrigação do girassol em Luvissolo: Comportamento vegetativo / NPK fertilization and irrigation of sunflowers in Luvisol: Vegetative behavior

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vinícius Batista, Campos; Lúcia Helena Garófalo, Chaves; Hugo Orlando Carvallo, Guerra.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre as culturas utilizadas para a produção de biocombustíveis, o girassol é um das mais importantes. Apesar de existir informações na literatura, as necessidades hídricas e de nutrientes do girassol ainda não estão perfeitamente definidas. Com o objetiv [...] o de verificar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada, fosfatada, potássica e o conteúdo de água disponível no solo (AD) sobre o comportamento vegetativo do girassol Embrapa 122 V2000, na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande-PB, foi conduzido um experimento com quarenta e quatro tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de doses (kg ha-1) de N, P e K de acordo com uma matriz baconiana, sendo 1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 e quatro conteúdos de água disponível (55, 70, 85 e 100% da AD). O tratamento nove é o de referência, correspondendo às doses adotadas pelos produtores de girassol do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em triplicata. Avaliou-se a altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas e área foliar, aos 40 e 60 dias após a semeadura. Os resultados indicaram que os efeitos da água disponível e adubação com NPK sobre a cultura do girassol ocorreram de forma independente, excetuando-se o número de folhas. Todas as variáveis apresentaram comportamento linear crescente em função da água disponível do solo, exceto a área foliar. Para as condições estudadas, as doses 100, 80 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, proporcionaram os maiores índices de crescimento. Abstract in english The sunflower is one of the most important crops used for the production of biofuels. While the literature does contain some information, the hydric and nutritional requirements of sunflowers are still not completely defined. In order to correct this defi [...] ciency, an experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil, with the aim of evaluating the effect of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium fertilization and available soil water (AW) on the behavior of Sunflower cv. Embrapa 122 V2000. The experiment consisted of 44 treatments with compound fertilizers using a Baconian Matrix (1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 kg ha-1 of N, P and K, respectively, and four difference quantities of available soil water (55, 70, 85 and 100%). The 9th compound fertilizer treatment was considered the reference since its doses are those used by the region's sunflower growers in Rio Grande do Norte State. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area of the plants were evaluated at 40 and 60 days after sowing. The results showed that the effects of available soil water and NPK fertilization on sunflower crop occurred independently for all variables except for the number of leaves. All variables increased linearly as a function of available soil water, except for leaf area. For the conditions studied, the doses 100, 80 and 80 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O resulted in the highest growth rates, respectively.

  4. Influência da adubação mineral NPK sobre a qualidade da semente de milho Influence of NPK fertilization on the quality of corn seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocely A. Maeda

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Colhendo as sementes de um ensaio permanente de adubação mineral NPK de milho, procurou-se avaliar possíveis efeitos da aplicação de fertilizantes sobre algumas características de qualidade da semente. Foram feitas as determinações seguintes: peso de cem sementes, teor de umidade inicial, porcentagem de germinação e testes de vigor (envelhecimento rápido e primeira contagem. A porcentagem de germinação e a primeira contagem foram realizadas desde o primeiro mês após a colheita e, subseqüentemente, de seis em seis meses, num total de 25 meses de armazenamento em condições de laboratório. A principal observação foi um efeito negativo marcante do fósforo, tanto isolado quanto em interação com um ou mais elementos, sobre a porcentagem de germinação. Pelo teste de vigor (primeira contagem, a qualidade das sementes não foi influenciada pela adubação nas diversas épocas de armazenamento. Na maioria dos casos estudados, as características de produção de grãos e peso de cem sementes correlacionaram-se negativamente com características de qualidade da semente.Evaluation of possible effects of mineral nutrition on seed quality characteristics was made using seed of a permanent corn fertilization trial. The following determinations were made: 100 seeds weight, initial humidity content, germination percentage and vigor test (accelerated aging and first count. The first determination of germination percentage and first count was made after one month following of harvest and later every six months until 25 months of storage under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a main negative effect of phosphorus, either alone or interaction with N or K on the germination percentage. Vigor test (first count did not show influence of fertilization on seed quality at the differents periods of storage. In most of the tests, grain yield and 100 seeds weight were negatively correlated with seed quality characteristics.

  5. Influência da adubação mineral NPK sobre a qualidade da semente de milho / Influence of NPK fertilization on the quality of corn seed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jocely A., Maeda; Eduardo, Sawazaki; Celso Valdevino, Pommer.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Colhendo as sementes de um ensaio permanente de adubação mineral NPK de milho, procurou-se avaliar possíveis efeitos da aplicação de fertilizantes sobre algumas características de qualidade da semente. Foram feitas as determinações seguintes: peso de cem sementes, teor de umidade inicial, porcentage [...] m de germinação e testes de vigor (envelhecimento rápido e primeira contagem). A porcentagem de germinação e a primeira contagem foram realizadas desde o primeiro mês após a colheita e, subseqüentemente, de seis em seis meses, num total de 25 meses de armazenamento em condições de laboratório. A principal observação foi um efeito negativo marcante do fósforo, tanto isolado quanto em interação com um ou mais elementos, sobre a porcentagem de germinação. Pelo teste de vigor (primeira contagem), a qualidade das sementes não foi influenciada pela adubação nas diversas épocas de armazenamento. Na maioria dos casos estudados, as características de produção de grãos e peso de cem sementes correlacionaram-se negativamente com características de qualidade da semente. Abstract in english Evaluation of possible effects of mineral nutrition on seed quality characteristics was made using seed of a permanent corn fertilization trial. The following determinations were made: 100 seeds weight, initial humidity content, germination percentage and vigor test (accelerated aging and first coun [...] t). The first determination of germination percentage and first count was made after one month following of harvest and later every six months until 25 months of storage under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a main negative effect of phosphorus, either alone or interaction with N or K on the germination percentage. Vigor test (first count) did not show influence of fertilization on seed quality at the differents periods of storage. In most of the tests, grain yield and 100 seeds weight were negatively correlated with seed quality characteristics.

  6. Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil / Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar, Spironello; José Antonio, Quaggio; Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Pedro Roberto, Furlani; José Maria Monteiro, Sigrist.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Am [...] arelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribuídos em dois blocos. O P foi aplicado somente no plantio nas doses de 0; 80; 160 e 320 kg/ha de P(2)0(5), como superfosfato. As doses de N e K2O foram 0; 175; 350 e 700 kg/ha, aplicadas como uréia e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente, parceladas em quatro aplicações, durante o período de crescimento da cultura. Ajustaram-se funções de resposta para a produção e características de qualidade dos frutos com o objetivo de estimar as doses de N, P e K para atingir valores máximos. Observou-se resposta quadrática na produção, com um máximo de 72 t/ha de frutos frescos estimado para as doses de 498 e 394 kg/ha de N e K2O, respectivamente. Para a maximização do tamanho do fruto e da porcentagem de frutos de primeira classe (massa maior que 2,6 kg), as doses de N e K foram, respectivamente, 11 e 43% maiores daquelas necessárias para atingir a produção máxima. Não foi observado efeito das doses de P no crescimento ou produção, mesmo com a baixa disponibilidade do nutriente no solo da área experimental. O aumento nas doses de N diminuiu o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, enquanto o oposto ocorreu com as doses de K, que aumentaram também os teores de vitamina C. Produção e tamanho de fruto apresentaram relação positiva com os teores de N e de K nas folhas. Abstract in english There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the [...] State of São Paulo (Agudos county). The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5), as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg), were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.

  7. Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamil Khan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat crop in both experiments. The soil under investigation was calcareous in nature, having a high pH (8.2, low in organic matter (8200 mg kg-1, and deficient in N (300 mg kg-1, P (7.5 mg kg-1 and Zn (6.2 mg kg-1. Boiler ash was rich inmicronutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and also contained sufficient amount of Ca, Mg, Na, S, K and P. Consequently, total porosity of soil, available P, S and K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu content in soil, increased with the levels of boiler ash application.On the other hand, dry bulk density declined which is a positive effect. ECe and pH of the soil was minutely increased. Yields and most of the yield components of wheat crop in pots, as well as in the field experiment, also increased due to boiler ashapplication. It is recommended that application of boiler ash @ 50 t ha-1 will result in enhanced yield of wheat in calcareous soil.

  8. Effect of Spacing and NPK Fertilizer on the Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Futuless, K. N.; Sajo, A. A.; Philip, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons with the aim of assessing the effect of spacing and NPK fertilizer on the yield and yield components of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Treatments consisted of four spacing (60x30 cm, 90x30 cm, 60x60 cm and 75x45 cm) and four NPK rates (0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) in a split plot design with plant spacing allocated to main pl...

  9. Efeito da adubação NPK sobre o período de imaturidade da seringueira Effect of NPK fertilization on the immature phase of rubber tree

    OpenAIRE

    ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA; WAGNER RODRIGUES DOS SANTOS; PAULO DE SOUZA GONÇALVES; IVO SEGNINI JUNIOR; MÁRIO CARDOSO

    1999-01-01

    O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] à adubação NPK visando recomendá-la no período de formação dos seringais. Relata os resultados do experimento em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico no município de Matão (SP). O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O. Até 104 meses de idade das...

  10. Respuesta del litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en el norte de Oaxaca, México / Response of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) to NPK fertilization in northern Oaxaca, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramiro, Maldonado Peralta; Antonio, Trinidad Santos; Daniel, Téliz Ortíz; Vicente A., Velasco Velasco; Víctor H., Volke Haller.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la respuesta de litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en árboles de la var. 'Brewster' de seis años plantados al norte de Oaxaca, en el periodo 2009 - 2011. Se usaron seis proporciones (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 y 125 %) de la dosis 50-130-50 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 y K2O como tra [...] tamientos; adicionalmente se probaron otros tres tratamientos: dosis 100 % + 3.6 t ha-1 de composta, dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores, y dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores + 720 kg ha-1 de Ca (OH)2. La primera fertilización se aplicó en noviembre de 2009 pero no se encontró respuesta a la fertilización en 2010. En 2010 y 2011 la fertilización se dividió en dos partes. La primera mitad se aplicó el 30 de agosto de 2010, y la otra mitad el 11 de febrero de 2011. Los resultados que aquí se reportan son del periodo 2010 - 2011. Las concentraciones foliares mayores de N, P y K se obtuvieron al inicio de la yema floral con las dosis mas altas de fertilización. La mayor floración y el mayor rendimiento de fruta se lograron con la dosis 100 % de N-P-K + elementos menores que superó (P ? 0.05) al testigo. El mayor contenido de clorofila foliar se obtuvo con el tratamiento 125 %, en comparación con el testigo. Los mayores valores de peso de materia seca de brotes vegetativos y de área foliar se lograron con el tratamiento 100 % + composta. El contenido de N foliar correlacionó con el rendimiento de brotes y con área foliar (r = 0.72 y r = 0.65, respectivamente). Se concluye que los árboles de litchi fertilizados con NPK, composta y elementos menores, aumentaron su concentración foliar de N, P y K, cantidad de flores, rendimiento de fruta, color verde de las hojas, biomasa de nuevos brotes y área foliar. No se encontró respuesta del litchi a la aplicación de hidróxido de calcio. Abstract in english Responses of six years old litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees cv. 'Brewster' to NPK fertilization at north of Oaxaca state were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Six dosage treatments (0, 25, 50 75, 100 and 125 %) of the 50-130-50 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O were used. Additional treatments were: 100 % [...] dosage + 3.6 t ha-1 of compost, 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients, and 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients + 720 kg ha-1 of Ca(OH)2. The first fertilization was applied on November 2009, but no response was obtained in 2010. In 2010 and 2011 the fertilization was divided in two parts. The first half was applied in August 30, 2010, and the other in February 11, 2011. The results reported here correspond to the 2010 - 2011 period. Highest concentrations of N, P and K in the leaves at the flower bud stage were obtained with the highest dosages. The highest amounts of flowers and fruit yield compared to the control were observed with 100 % of NPK + micronutrients. Highest chlorophyll contents were found with the 125 % dosage. The highest values of new shoots dry weight and leaf area were obtained with the 100 % dosage + compost. Positive correlations between foliar nitrogen with new shoots weight and leaf area (r = 0.72 and r = 0.65, respectively), were found. It is concluded that litchi trees fertilized with NPK , compost and micronutrients increased N, P and K concentration in the leaves, amount of flowers, fruit yield, green color of leaves, new shoots weight and leaf area. No response to calcium hydroxide application was observed in litchi trees.

  11. Análise de formulações NPK fiscalizadas pelo mapa, de 2008 a 2010 / Analysis of NPK fertilizers inspected by mapa from 2008 to 2010

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Coelho de, Sena; Tairone Paiva, Leão; George Freitas, von Borries; Osiris, Turnes.

    1207-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Brasil ocupa o quarto lugar mundial em consumo de fertilizantes; dentre esses, destaca-se o fertilizante mineral misto como o mais consumido no País. Depois da atualização da legislação brasileira de fertilizantes em 2004, muitos produtores desses insumos afirmam que houve aumento excessivo no rig [...] or da legislação em relação à fiscalização dos teores de nutrientes neles contidos. Dentro desse contexto, os objetivos deste trabalho foram aplicar técnicas de análise estatística exploratória e descritiva e de regressão logística aos dados de análises fiscais de fertilizantes realizadas pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA), nos anos de 2008 a 2010, buscando indicadores da contribuição das fontes de variação referentes aos fatores estabelecimento, formulação e laboratório para a variação total dos resultados; e verificar se os níveis de tolerância estabelecidos pelo MAPA estão sendo praticados. Para tanto, esses dados, separados por estabelecimento, formulação, laboratório, especificação granulométrica e período foram submetidos à análise descritiva, seguida de regressão logística. A regressão logística demonstrou que, para N e P analisados pelo laboratório com maior número de observações, as variáveis "estabelecimento" e "formulação" influem no resultado final da análise, dentro ou fora da garantia, enquanto para K, analisado pelo mesmo laboratório, apenas a variável "formulação" influi nesses resultados. Abstract in english Brazil is the fourth largest consumer of fertilizers in the world. Among these, bulk blends fertilizers are the most consumed in the country. After updating of Brazilian legislation in regard to fertilizers in 2004, many producers claim that there was an excessive increase in the strictness of legis [...] lation concerning inspection of nutrient levels in those products. Within this context, the objective of this study was to provide an exploratory and descriptive statistical analysis to the data gathered by MAPA (Ministry of Agriculture) from the inspection of the fertilizer industry from the years 2008 to 2010, looking for the most important source of variation, including producer, formula, and laboratory, and verifying if the minimum requirements established by law are being practiced. These data, separated by producer, formula, laboratory, particle size, and period, were subjected to descriptive analysis, followed by logistic regression. Logistic regression showed that for nitrogen and phosphorus analyzed by the laboratory with the greatest number of observations, the "producer" and "formula" variables affect the final results (not-in-conformity or in-conformity), whereas for potassium analyzed by the same laboratory, only the "formula" variable affected the results.

  12. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average height of residue of 30 cm. A complete randomized block design was used with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial with three field replications. The fertilization doses corresponded to the reduction of 30 % and the increase of 30 and 60% in relation to a standard dose of 145; 21.6; and 180 kg/ha of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively (assuming the contents of 1.2, 0.08, and 1.2% of N, P, and K in DM, to reach an estimated DM production of 12000 kg/ha. There was a linear effect of fertilization doses on green DM (GDM before and after grazing. The cv. Mombaça exhibited higher herbage mass before and after grazing (9183 and 5279 kg/ha of GDM, respectively than the cv. Tanzania (6275 and 3808 kg/ha of GDM, respectively. The proportion of leaf blade in the GDM available was lower in the cv. Tanzania (51% than in the cv. Mombaça (54 %. The tiller density was not affected by the fertilization doses. However, the increase in tiller weight due to fertilizer doses was responsible for the higher GDM production. The senesced DM did not vary between cultivars, with a mean value of 3108 kg/ha. In general, higher rates of fertilization resulted in greater GDM accumulation rate and higher losses of GDM by trampling. The cv. Mombaça showed a greater response potential to fertilization than the cv. Tanzania with stocking rates of 6.2 and 4.0 UA/ha, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  14. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  15. Nutrição do cafeeiro arábica em função da densidade de plantas e da fertilização com NPK Coffee nutrition as a function of plant density and NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Prezotti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora aumente a produtividade por área, o adensamento reduz a produção por planta, eleva sua eficiência de recuperação de nutrientes, o que contribui para a redução da quantidade de fertilizantes a ser aplicada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do cafeeiro arábica à aplicação de N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de N, P (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg.ha-1 de P2O5 e K (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de K2O, cultivados em diferentes densidades de plantio (3.333, 5.000, 10.000 e 20.000 plantas por hectare. Com base em informações obtidas em cinco produções, não foram observadas diferenças significativas de produtividade em função da densidade de plantas. A resposta em produtividade do café arábica às doses de N, P e K foi variável nos diversos espaçamentos, com maior freqüência de resultados positivos a N e P e menos expressivos para K. Os teores foliares de N e P foram pouco influenciados pelas doses de N e P2O5. Os teores foliares de K foram fortemente influenciados pelas doses de K2O. Cafeeiros submetidos ao sistema de cultivo adensado apresentaram maiores teores foliares de P e K, quando comparados àqueles cultivados em espaçamento mais largo. Os solos sob cultivo adensado, quando comparados a solos sob cultivos mais largos, apresentaram variações em suas características químicas, sendo mais evidente a redução do teor de H + Al.Although increasing in productivity, high-density tree planting provides reduction of the production per plant, increases the efficiency of recovery of nutrients by plants, and can contributes to the reduction of the amount of fertilizers to be applied per plant. Due to evaluate the answer of coffee tree plants (Coffea arabica L. to N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 of N; P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1 of P2O5 and K (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg.ha-1 of K2O application, on work was carried out in a coffee cultivated at four densities (3,333; 5,000; 10,000 and 20,000 plants/ha. Database obtained at five harvests showed no significant differences of productivity as function of planting densities. Answers in productivity were obtained more strongly related to N and P doses. Answers to K application were less expressive. N and P foliar levels were little influenced by the doses of N and P2O5 applied by soil each year. K foliar levels were strongly influenced by the doses of K2O. Foliar levels of N and K were highest in coffee high-density tree when compared with those cultivated in wider spacing. The major variation on chemical soil characteristics was the highest levels of reduction on H+Al observed in coffee high-density tree coffee.

  16. Adubação com NPK em coqueiro-anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.) rendimento e qualidade de frutos / NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) - yield and fruit quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Ondino Cleante, Bataglia; Salatiér, Buzetti; Enes, Furlani Junior; Jacira dos Santos, Isepon.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A produção de coco para extração de água no Estado de São Paulo está em expansão. Entretanto, faltam informações básicas sobre o manejo desta cultura. Desse modo, instalou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W), visando ao estudo da resposta do coqueiro à adubação com NPK d [...] e set/2000 a fev/2004. Empregou-se o esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4³), sendo os tratamentos formados pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de N), P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha¹ de P2O5) e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de K2O). Como fontes de N, P e K, respectivamente, aplicaram-se NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, fracionadamente, durante a época das chuvas. A aplicação de N causou diminuição no volume de água e massa média dos frutos e na quantidade de frutos por cacho; inversamente, a adubação potássica teve efeito positivo nestas características. Os teores de P e K da água de coco aumentaram com a aplicação de P e K, entretanto não houve efeito dos tratamentos nos resultados da avaliação sensorial. A aplicação de P não teve efeito significativo na produção de frutos. Abstract in english Coconut production aiming water extraction is increasing in São Paulo State, Brazil. Coconut is a new crop in this region, so there is a lack of information about its management. A field experiment was conducted in Pereira Barreto, SP, Brazil (20º47'S; 51º01'W) to study the effects of NPK rates on y [...] ield and fruit quality, from September,2000 to February, 2004. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of N), P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha¹ of P2O5) and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of K2O), applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. The effect of N rates was negative on water volume production on fruits, weight and number of fruits per bunch, and in a different way, K application had a positive effect on them. P and K contents in the coconut water increased with P and K fertilization, otherwise the treatments had no effect on sensory evaluation results. P application had no effect on fruit production.

  17. Adubação do milho: XXXIII - Influência do fósforo, do potássio e da adubação com NPK sôbre algumas características das plantas e das espigas / Fertilizer experiments with corn: XXIII- Influence of P, K, and NPK on certain plant and ear characters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G. P., Viégas; E. S., Freire.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A influência do fósforo, do potássio e da adubação com NPK sôbre algumas características do milho, foi estudada em duas experiências conduzidas por vários anos em Campinas. Os efeitos dêsses nutrientes, que foram muito grandes sôbre as produções de grãos, manifestaram-se aumentando o número de plant [...] as que chegaram à maturidade, o tamanho destas e a proporção das que possuiam espigas, bem como o pêso das espigas e seu rendimento porcentual em grãos. Não obstante a grande influência que tiveram sôbre a maioria das características estudadas, as adubações pouco modificaram as porcentagens de grãos das espigas; contudo, nos canteiros que receberam igual tratamento essas porcentagens variaram de ano para ano. Baseados nesses resultados, os autores sugerem medidas para avaliar, com razoável aproximação, as produções de grãos nas experiências em que não fôr possível determiná-las para cada canteiro. Abstract in english The influence of P, K, and NPK on some plant and ear characters was studied in two experiments conducted for various years at Campinas. The effects of the mentioned nutrients, which were very high on the total grain yields, manifested by increasing the number of plants which attained maturity, their [...] size and the proportion of those bearing ears, as well as the weight of the ears and their shelling percentages. While the fertilizers affected considerably most of the characteristics studied, they modified only slightly the shelling percentage; however, irrespectively of the treatments, these percentages varied remarkably in the different years. Based on these results the authors suggest means for estimating the grain yields in outlying experiments, where the determination of the shelling percentage for each plot is frequently impracticable.

  18. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2009-03-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O(3) concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O(3). PMID:19070410

  19. Poaceae cespitosa e decumbente adubadas com NPK: efeitos na agregação do solo / Caespitosa and decumbens Poaceae fertilized with NPK: effects on soil aggregation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dácio Jerônimo de, Almeida; Ivandro de França da, Silva; Flávio Pereira da Mota, Silveira; Robeval Diniz, Santiago; José Ronaldo Calado, Costa.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A desagregação de partículas do solo afeta a sua capacidade produtiva, resultando em processos de compactação, erosão e perdas de nutrientes. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a qualidade e estabilidade dos agregados de um Latossolo Amarelo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, representado por Urochloa dec [...] umbens e Urochloa brizantha, na presença e ausência de adubação mineral, e por duas formas de amostragem (fileiras e entre as fileiras), em três profundidades de amostragem. As amostras indeformadas de solo coletadas foram destorroadas, passadas em peneira de 9,52 mm e, após secagem, em peneiras de 2,00 mm; 1,00 mm; 0,50 mm e 0,25 mm, obedecendo às seguintes classes de diâmetro: 9,52-2,00 mm; 2,00-1,00 mm; 1,00-0,50 mm e 0,50-0,25 mm, por peneiragem seca. Estes agregados foram, também, separados por peneiragem úmida, sendo, ainda, determinada a argila dispersa e a massa seca de raízes. Os agregados maiores que 2,00 mm apresentaram estabilidade elevada, na camada de 0,00-0,05 m, em comparação aos agregados de menores classes, não havendo efeito do local de amostragem e de adubação sobre o tamanho e estabilidade dos agregados. Concluiu-se não haver diferença entre as duas espécies estudadas, forma de coleta das amostras e adubação, na formação e estabilidade de agregados. Abstract in english The disintegration of soil particles affects its productive capacity, resulting in compression, erosion and nutrient losses. This study aimed at evaluating the aggregates quality and stability of a Yellow Latosol, in a randomized blocks design represented by Urochloa decumbens and Urochloa brizantha [...] , with and without mineral fertilization, and two sampling forms (rows and between rows), in three sampling depths. The undeformed soil samples collected were shattered and passed through a 9.52 mm sieve and, after drying, through a 2.00 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.50 mm and 0.25 mm sieves, according to the following diameters classes: 9.52-2.00 mm, 2.00-1.00 mm, 1.00-0.50 mm and 0.50-0.25 mm, by using dry sieving. These aggregates were also separated by wet sieving and the dispersed clay and root dry matter were determined. Aggregates larger than 2.00 mm showed high stability, in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, when compared to the aggregates from smaller classes, with no effect of sampling and fertilization site on the aggregates size and stability. There was no difference for the two species analyzed, sampling method and fertilization on the aggregates formation and stability.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer-NPK on three cropping systems in vertisols of semi-arid tropics. II. Dry matter yield, nodulation, chlorophyll content and enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P K; Ajay; Bandyopadhyay, K K; Manna, M C; Mandal, K G; Misra, A K; Hati, K M

    2004-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a deep Vertisol of Bhopal, India to compare root and shoot biomass, chlorophyll content, enzyme activity and nodulation in three cropping systems at three combinations of organic manure and inorganic-fertilizer: 75%NPK + 5 t farmyard manure (FYM), 75%NPK + 1.5 t poultry manure (PM), and 75%NPK + 5 t phosphocompost (PC) vis-a-vis 0%, 75% and 100% of fertilizer-NPK. In general, nodule number and its mass were lower in intercrop soybean than sole soybean. Also there was decrease in the nodule number with higher NPK dose. The FYM treated plots recorded 22.0% and 7.6% higher nodule mass than poultry manure and phosphocompost plots, respectively. Also, the total chlorophyll content was higher in organically treated plots than that in 100% NPK particularly at 30 days after sowing (DAS, pre-flowering). In sorghum the peak nitrate reductase (NR) activity was recorded at 60 DAS while in soybean it was at 30 DAS. The NR activity was higher in intercrop sorghum than that in sole sorghum. Maximum NR activity was observed in 100% NPK. Soybean/sorghum intercropping system recorded significantly higher root and shoot biomass than sole soybean and sorghum. The crop growth rates were relatively rapid during 30-60 DAS and followed the order; intercropping > sole sorghum > sole soybean. With the increase in NPK dose from 0% to 100% there was significant improvement in the dry matter (DM) production in sole sorghum and soybean/sorghum intercropping system. Soybean as preceding crop recorded the highest DM, chlorophyll content, NR activity in wheat while these values were the lowest in sorghum-wheat system. PMID:15207300

  1. Produtividade e composição bromatológica do capim-Tobiatã com adubação NPK = Productivity and nutritional quality of Tobiatã grass as a function of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Alarcon Fabricio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1, duas doses de P2O5 (96 e 30 kg ha-1 e duas doses de K2O (170 e 143 kg ha-1, na forrageira Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã irrigada. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Na implantação do experimento foram aplicados fósforo e potássio, com base em doses teóricas para se atingir valor de P de 40 mg dm-3 e K a 5% da CTC. Após três cortes, foi estimada a MS produzida pela forrageira, a fim de obter os valores dos nutrientes exportados pela planta. Somente após este procedimento, realizou-se a aplicação das doses de N. A produção de massa seca e os teores de PB, FDA e FDN foram influenciados pelos cortes; com a elevação da adubação nitrogenada houve aumento na produção de MS e nos teores de PB, além de menores teores de FDA e FDN, proporcionando melhor qualidade da forragem. A adubação fosfatada e potássica podem ser realizadas tanto com base na produção de massa seca produzida, quanto pelos teores dos elementos no solo.The present study had as objective to study five N rates (0, 50,100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1, two P2O5 rates (96 and 30 kg ha-1 as superphosphate triple, and two doses of K2O (170 and 143 kg ha-1 as potassium chloride, in the forage Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã, with irrigation. The experiment was conducted using a randomized blocks design with four replicates. In the implantation of the experiment, P and K were applied based on theoretical doses required to reach values of 40 mg dm-3 of P and K 5% of CTC. After three cuts, dry mass produced by the forage was estimated in order to obtain the values of the nutrients exported by the plant. Only after this procedure did theapplication of the doses of N take place. The production of dry mass - DM, crude protein - CP, neutral-detergent fiber – NDF, and acid-detergent fiber – ADF, were influenced by cuts; increasing N fertilization increased the production of DM, CP and decreased ADFand NDF, providing better forage quality. The fertilization with phosphorus and potassium can be done based on DM production or P and K content in soil.

  2. Adubação com NPK em coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.: atributos químicos do solo e nutrição da planta NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de informações sobre adubação de coqueiro para o Estado de São Paulo, realizou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W, visando a estudar os efeitos da aplicação de NPK em alguns atributos do solo e nutrição da planta, de set/2000 a fev/2004. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³, com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de N, P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de K2O. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas fracionadamente durante a estação das chuvas, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. A aplicação de N em doses superiores a 240 kg ha-1 ano-1 causou excessiva acidificação do solo, sendo que 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 foi suficiente para manter o teor de N foliar na faixa de suficiência. A adubação com P e K nas doses mais elevadas resultou em perdas por lixiviação. A adubação com 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O foi suficiente para manter o teor de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial e as plantas com teores de K foliar acima da faixa de suficiência. O P foliar manteve-se sempre acima da faixa de suficiência, independentemente da adubação fosfatada.There are very few information about fertilization of coconut grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with 'Dwarf Green' coconut was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on some soil chemical properties and plant nutrition, from September, 2000 to February, 2004. The trial was located on an Oxisol in the west part of the State of São Paulo (20º47'S; 51º01'W. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³. The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of N, P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of K2O, applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. Rates of N higher than 240 kg ha-1year-1 caused excessive soil acidification, whereas 120 kg ha-1year-1 was enough to achieve sufficiency range on leaves. Application of higher rates of P and K caused losses by leaching. It was necessary 120 kg of K2O ha-1year-1 to maintain soil exchangeable K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment, the same rate kept leaf K concentration above sufficiency range. Foliar P contents were always higher than sufficiency range despite of P fertilization.

  3. Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivair André Nava

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, pois os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn, um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas.Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tissues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn, a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application. Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

  4. Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn / Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivair André, Nava; Affonso Celso, Gonçalves Junior; Herbert, Nacke; Valdir Luiz, Guerini; Daniel, Schwantes.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, poi [...] s os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1)x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn), um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro). Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas. Abstract in english Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tiss [...] ues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1)x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn), a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application). Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

  5. Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer-NPK on three cropping systems in vertisols of semi-arid tropics. I. Crop yields and system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P K; Ramesh, P; Bandyopadhyay, K K; Tripathi, A K; Hati, K M; Misra, A K; Acharya, C L

    2004-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted on deep vertisols of Bhopal, India to evaluate the manural potential of three organic manures: farmyard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM), phosphocompost (PC) vis-a-vis 0%, 75% and 100% recommended dose of fertilizer-NPK and to find out the most productive cropping system at various combinations of organic manures and chemical fertilizers. The seed yield of intercrop soybean (population converted to 100%) was 8.7% less than sole soybean whereas the grain yield of intercrop sorghum was 9.5% more than that of sole sorghum. However, the productivity in terms of soybean equivalent yield (SEY) was relatively high in intercropping system. The increasing NPK dose from 0% to 100% significantly improved SEY in sole sorghum and soybean/sorghum intercropping system and the integrated use of organics and inorganics recorded significantly more SEY than inorganics. The effect of nutrient management followed the order; 75% NPK + 5 t FYM ha(-1) > 75% NPK + 1.5 t PM ha(-1) > 75% NPK + 5 t PC ha(-1) > 100% NPK. Sorghum, both as sole and intercrop, responded more to PM while soybean to FYM. Application of 75% NPK in combination with PM or FYM or PC to preceding rainy season crops (soybean and sorghum) and 75% NPK to wheat produced significantly higher grain yield of wheat than those in inorganics and control indicating noticeable residual effect on the succeeding wheat crop and saving of 25% fertilizer-NPK. The effect of PC on rainy season crops was not as prominent as those of FYM and PM, but its residual effect on grain yield of wheat was comparable to those two organic manures. Among the cropping systems, soybean as preceding crop recorded the highest seed yield of wheat and was on a par with that of soybean/sorghum intercropping system. The yield of wheat following sorghum was the lowest. The total system productivity (TSP) was the highest in sorghum + soybean-wheat system and the lowest in the soybean-wheat system. PMID:15207299

  6. Small-scale experiments of self-sustaining decomposition of NPK fertilizer and application to events aboard the Ostedijk in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Rory M; Rein, Guillermo

    2011-02-15

    Small-scale experiments to investigate the self-sustaining decomposition (SSD) behaviour of NPK 16.16.16 fertilizer have been undertaken. These experiments show that this material will undergo self-sustaining decomposition and are used to give insight into the behaviour of the reaction. A three-step decomposition process is observed leading to a self-sustained reaction reaching temperatures of 200-350°C. The measured heat of reaction is 0.73-1.8 MJ/kg. Measurements are applied to the events that occurred aboard the ship Ostedijk in 2007 in which a SSD reaction occurred. The mass loss rate from the cargo was calculated to range from 0.5 kg/s on the first day to 12 kg/s on the last day. From this measurement, the maximum fire size was estimated to be in the range 5.8-29 MW. PMID:21146295

  7. Produtividade do milho em resposta a adubação com NPK e Zn em argissolo vermelho-amarelo eutrófico e latossolo vermelho eutroférrico / Corn productivity as an answer to fertilization with NPK and Zn on eutrophic red-yellow argissol and red eutroferric latossol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Affonso Celso, Gonçalves Júnior; Ricardo Robson, Trautmann; Nilton Garcia, Marengoni; Ossival Lolato, Ribeiro; Alexandre Leseur dos, Santos.

    1231-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando-se avaliar os componentes de produção e a produtividade da cultura do milho em função da adubação, com diferentes doses de Zn (Zinco), e NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio), realizou-se este trabalho nos municípios de Palotina - PR, em Argissolo Vermelho - Amarelo eutrófico e Marechal C [...] ândido Rondon - PR, em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 3x3 constituindo três doses de adubação NPK: sem adubação; uma vez (30-100-50 kg ha-1), e duas vezes a recomendação de adubação (60-200-100 kg ha-1), com base na análise do solo. Outro fator em estudo foi o Zn, em diferentes doses: 0,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg dm-3. As parcelas corresponderam a 3,6 m de largura por 6 m de comprimento. Foram semeadas 4 linhas espaçadas com 0,9 m, utilizando-se como parcela útil as 2 linhas centrais, descartando-se 1,5 m de bordadura. A população de plantas foi de 6,5 sementes, por metro linear. Com relação à adubação de NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio), obteve-se aumento significativo para os componentes: número de grãos, massa de 1000 grãos e a produtividade, sendo a dose 60-200-100 kg ha-1 a que proporcionou os melhores resultados no Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico e no Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico, proporcionou aumento significativo na massa de 1000 grãos e na produtividade. Em relação à adubação com o Zn, não obteve-se aumento significativo, nos dois solos, entre os tratamentos para os componentes avaliados e a produtividade. Com este trabalho, pode-se concluir que a adubação com NPK aumentou a produtividade da cultura nos dois solos e na adubação com Zn não se obteve diferenças de produtividade, para a cultura do milho. Abstract in english It's with the purpose of evaluating the production components and the corn crop productivity due fertilization with different doses of Zn (Zinc) an NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), this research has been done over the municipalities of Palotina-PR, on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol and Marec [...] hal Cândido Rondon - PR, on Red Eutroferric Latossol. The treatments were arranged on a factorial scheme 3x3 constituting three doses of fertilization NPK: no fertilization, once (30-100-50 kg ha-1) and twice the fertilization recommended (60-200-100 kg ha-1), based on the soil analysis. Another factor under studying was the Zn in different doses: 0,0; 5,0 and 10,0 mg dm-3. Such parcels were corresponded to 3,6 m width by 6 m length. It were sowed 4 spaced lines with 0,9 m, using as a useful parcel the 2 central lines discarding 1,5 m of edging. The plant population was about 6,5 seeds by linear meter. Considering the NPK fertilization it was gotten a considerably increase for the components of seeds number, 1000 seeds mass and the productivity, being the dose 60 - 200 - 100 kg ha-1 the one that has given the best results on Red Eutroferric Latossol and on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol that has given a considerably increase on the 1000 seeds and productivity. According to the fertilization with Zn, it has not given a considerably increase on both soils among the treatments for the evaluated components and productivity. With this word it can be concluded that the fertilization with NPK increased the crop productivity on both soils while the fertilization with Zn differences were not gotten over corn crop productivity.

  8. Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Farmyard Manure on Nut Production of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Baloch, P. A.; Moizuddin, M.; Imam, M.; Abro, B. A.; Lund, J. A.; Solangi, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    During the present studies it was found that coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) had a good response to fertilizers. The maximum yield of 658 nuts was obtained by the application of 700 g Urea+270 g DAP+1600 g MOP. The results also indicated that the application of fertilizers helped to increase nut yield in coconut.

  9. Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca) / Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar, Espironelo; José Romano, Gallo; Arquimedes, Lavorenti; Toshio, Igue; Ruter, Hiroce.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e [...] Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%. Abstract in english Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety) were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in [...] the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

  10. Crecimiento y extracción de N-P-K por plantas de pimentón (Capsicum annuum L.) abonadas con estiércol de pollo en Quíbor, estado Lara / Growth and N-P-K removal in chicken manure fertilized bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Escalona; R, Pire.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El crecimiento de los cultivos depende en gran medida de una adecuada nutrición mineral, por lo que la extracción de nutrientes que ellos hacen es la base para establecer los programas de fertilización. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, estado nutricional y los niveles de extra [...] cción de N, P y K en plantas de pimentón abonadas con dosis altas de estiércol de pollo. El ensayo se realizó en el campo experimental del INIA en Quibor, estado Lara, utilizando el híbrido Enterprise, el cual se trasplantó a una distancia de 0,35 m entre plantas y 1,20 m entre hileras. Cada parcela estuvo constituida por 4 hileras de 11 plantas cada una. Las parcelas fueron repetidas seis veces. El crecimiento inicial, expresado como altura y peso seco de las plantas, fue lento y el mismo aumentó rápidamente a partir de los 45 días después de la siembra (dds) mostrando un comportamiento normal en este cultivo. Se detectó una tendencia general al incremento de la concentración de N y K en el tejido vegetal durante el ciclo de crecimiento. A los 90 dds la mayor concentración de N y K existió en las hojas (41,7 y 39,3 mg.g-1), mientras que la mayor concentración de P se encontró en los frutos (3,7 mg.g-1). Cada planta extrajo, en promedio, 1,749 g N, 0,137 g P y 1,725 g K, reflejando similares niveles de extracción para el nitrógeno y el potasio, pero mucho menores para el fósforo. La proporción de extracción fue de 12:1:12 para el N:P:K, respectivamente. Abstract in english Crops growth depends strongly on appropriate mineral nutrition, so plant nutrient removal creates the basis for many fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status, and N-P-K removal of bell pepper plants fertilized with high dose of chicken manure. Th [...] e essay was carried out at the Experimental Station of INIA in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela, by using the Enterprise hybrid, which was transplanted at 0.35 m within and 1.20 m between rows. Six plots were conformed by four rows with 11 plants each. The initial growth, expressed as plant height and dry weight, was low but it increased rapidly since the mid cycle (45 DAS) following a normal trend for this crop. Overall trend of N and K tissue levels increased during the plant cycle. In 90-day old plants the highest N and K levels were found in leaves (41.7 and 39.3 mg.g-1) while the highest P level was found in fruits (3.7 mg.g-1). As an average, each plant removed from the soil 1.749 g N, 0.137 g P and 1.725 g K, showing similar values for nitrogen and potassium, but much lower for phosphorus. The nutrient removal ratio was 12:1:12 for N:P:K, respectively.

  11. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo. Parte II - Efeito do calcário e de vários adubos / Effect of lime, manure, green manure, and NPK-fertilizers on the yields of sweet potatoes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. Paes de, Camargo; E. S., Freire; W. R., Venturini.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Entre 1945 e 1950 foram conduzidas quatro experiências em solos ácidos, duas em Campinas (terra-roxa) e duas em Tupi Paulista (solo do Glacial), para estudar os efeitos, sôbre a batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam.), das aplicações de 3 t/ha de calcário, 50 t/ha de estêrco e duas adubações com 60-1 00- [...] 40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O, sendo uma exclusivamente mineral e outra organomineral. Além dêsses tratamentos, que constituiram um esquema fatorial 4X2, tôdas as experiências tiveram um tratamento extra, com adubação verde na ausência do calcário. Isolada, a calagem não trouxe aumentos de produção; no presença do estêrco, porém, ela provocou, em quatro experiências, aumentos correspondentes a 5, 12, 20 e 84%. Sòmente três das experiências permitiram estudar as respostas ao corretivo na presença das adubações NPK, mineral e organomineral: no primeiro caso elas foram -26, +26 e +34%; no segundo, -29, -20 e +21%. Os efeitos do estêrco foram sempre elevados, principalmente na presença do calcário, quando alcançaram +104, +148, +158 e +254%. Embora menores que as do estêrco, as respostas às adubações com NPK (em três experiências) também foram muito boas, mas nem sempre a presença do calcário lhes foi favorável: as da adubaçâo mineral, de +62, +62 e +88% na ausência do calcário, passaram, na sua presença, respectivamente para +94, +34 e +144%; as da adubação organomineral, de +148, +94 e +74 % na ausência, passaram para +67, +73 e + 104% na presença do corretivo. Quanto à adubação verde, no conjunto, das quatro experiências seu efeito foi quase igual ao do estêrco. Na dose empregada, o estêrco levou ao solo muito maiores quantidades de nutrientes que as adubações com NPK. O método de aplicação destas, que foi o usado naprática - ou seja, colocando-as, no momento do plantio, em contacto com as mudas - parece também ter concorrido para reduzir-lhes o efeito. As depressões causadas pela colagem são atribuídos à conhecido influência nociva da "overliming". Em duas experiências cujos solos foram analisados opas a colheita, verificou-se que a calagem elevou o pH de 5,6 o 6,7, em média, mas reduziu opreciàvelmente as disponibilidades de fósforo assimilável, sobretudo nos tratamentos adubados com NPK. Abstract in english This paper reports the results of four experiments with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) to study the effects of liming, two different NPK-fertilizers, manure and green-manuring on different areas of two localities of the State of São Paulo. Liming alone did not increase the yields. In the pres [...] ence of manure, its effects corresponded to +5, +12, +20, and +48%, but in the presence of the NPK-fertilizers they varied from satisfactory to negative. The responses to manure were always very high, principally in the presence of lime. Although not sa large, the effects the NPK-fertilizers were also very good, bul the presence of lime, which enhanced them in some cases, in other coses depressed them considerably. The results of green-manuring were almost equal to those of manure. In the dosage used, manure supplied the soil with much larger quantities of nutrients than the NPK-fertilizers. The method of application of the latter - at planting time and in contact with the cuttings - contributed also to reduce their effectiveness. Regarding the yield reduction caused by liming, they are attributed to the so-called overliming injury. The study of the soils of two trials showed that in the limed the pH averaged only 6.7, ut the quantities of available phosphorus were appreciably reduced, especially in the treatments with the NPK-fertilizers.

  12. Organic Fertilization Changes the Response of Mycelium of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Sporulation to Mineral NPK Supply.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Vosátka, M.; Votruba, Jaroslav; Klír, J.

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 6, ?. 46 (2001), s. 540-542. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/00/1276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : organic * fertilization * changes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  13. Response of mature ‘Manzanilla’ olive trees to different doses of N-P-K fertilizer applied by fertigation

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Sillero, Ana; Ferna?ndez Luque, Jose? Enrique; Troncoso Arce, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Fertigation is widely used in the new intensive olive orchards, although, there is not enough information for a rational management of this practice. Preliminary results of an fertigation experiment iniciated in 1999 in a mature olive orchard of the cultivar ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ are presented. Four treatments were established: T1(no fertilizer) and T2, T3 and T4, in which the trees received 200, 400 and 600 g N per tree and irrigation season (May to October), respectively, of a dose of...

  14. Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca) Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops

    OpenAIRE

    Ademar Espironelo; José Romano Gallo; Arquimedes Lavorenti; Toshio Igue; Ruter Hiroce

    1986-01-01

    Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações d...

  15. Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

  16. Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ayub, M.; Ahmad, R.; Tanveer, A.; Ahmad, Hafiz Z.; Sharar, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1, respectively. Sucrose contents ...

  17. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo parte: III - Métodos de aplicação de NPK e estêrco Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes: III - Trials on the placement of npk and manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatadas nove experiências sôbre a localização de adubos na cultura de batata-doce, realizadas entre 1943-44 e 1946-47, sendo quatro com NPK (60-100-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O e cinco com estêrco. Em dois dos ensaios com NPK, conduzidos em Tupi Paulista (um dêles repetido por três anos no mesmo local, a adubação foi mais eficiente quando misturada com a terra dos camalhões do que aplicada sob eles ou em sulcos feitos em seus cumes. Nos outros dois, realizados em Campinas, a aplicação sob os camalhões se mostrou melhor, em média, mas os resultados variaram muito. Tratando-se de assunto que depende de muitos fatôres, inclusive das condições meteorológicas, os autores encarecem a necessidade de se continuarem as experiências, e, tendo discutido as vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos estudados, sugerem a inclusão, em futuros planos, do aplicação de P e K em sulcos laterais às mudas e de N em cobertura. Nas cinco experiências com estêrco, tôdas anuais e executadas em três localidades, seu espalhamento entre os camalhões se mostrou, em regra, inferior à aplicação sob os camalhões ou de mistura com o solo dêstes. Dos dois últimos métodos, o primeiro foi superior em três ensaios, igual em um e inferior no outro. As observações feitas indicam que, em geral, o estêrco deve ser colocado sob os camalhões.This paper reports the results of nine experiments conducted in the State of Sao Paulo on methods of application of NPK and manure for sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.. In two of the four trails with NPK, better results were obtained where it was broadcast before ridging than where it was placed in o furrow either under or on the top of the ridges. In the other two, the placement under the ridges showed better in the average, but the yearly results varied considerably. As the suitability of different methods of application depends on many factors, especially on the weather, the authors point to the need of farther trials and, after discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied, they suggest for the next project the inclusion of side-placement of the phosphorus, potosh and part of the nitrogen doses, the greater portion of the latter being top-dressed two to four weeks after planting. In the five trials with manure, its application between the ridges was, as a rule, inferior to both the placement under the ridges and broadcasting before ridging. Of the two last methods, the former gave better average results, but there were some indications that the latter would be more suitable either for heavy or for very light soils, in order that the organic matter improves the physical conditions of a larger volume of the soils.

  18. Effects of Pruning Levels and Fertilizer Rates on Yield of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kesmala, T.; Songsri, P.; Sanitchon, J.; Suriharn, B.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate canopy management and proper application of fertilizer under different growing conditions and agronomic practices can obtain reliable yield of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pruning level in first year and fertilizer rate of combined NPK in the first and second years on growth and yield of three-year old physic. A split plot design with four replications was used. Three pruning levels of 50, 75 and 90 cm from the ground...

  19. Effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols for the Growth and Yield of Caisim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on the growth and yield of caisim (Brassica sp. was examined in the greenhouse of Indonesian Soil Research Institute in Bogor. The completely randomized design (CRD was performed to examine the effects of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols. The treatments were consists of 10 combinations between NPK-recommendation (NPK-rec and CBF1, with six replications. The experiment was conducted from August to October 2009. The result showed that CBF I increased the yields of caisim when combining by fertilizer NPK-rec, while giving CBF1 alone did not significantly increases yields compare to control (without fertilizer. Giving ¾ dosage NPK-rec. + CBF1 had RAE value 163%, indicating the effectiveness of CBF1 was optimum, that it reduce the need of NPK fertilizer by 25% by providing the increasing of yield 63% compared to NPK rec. The higher the level of NPK-rec. the lower the efficiency of fertilization. CBF1 had given effectives on yields when it was combined by inorganic fertilizer. However, when it was not combined with inorganic fertilizers, it would harm plants and decreased the soil nutrients. The influence of biofertilizer in plants were predictable unpredictable, while the influent of inorganic fertilizers were predictable.

  20. Adubação NPK e tamanho da batata-semente no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade de plantas de batata / NPK fertilization and potato tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Raphael de M, Queiroz; Jackson, Kawakami; Marcelo ML, Muller; Ires Cristina R, Oliari; Renan C, Umburanas; Vlandiney, Eschemback.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cultura da batata demanda alto investimento para a sua implantação. Dentre os insumos responsáveis pelo alto custo da lavoura, destacam-se os fertilizantes e a semente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-sementes no crescimento, produt [...] ividade e rentabilidade da cultura da batata. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura comercial de batata em Guarapuava-PR, a partir de dezembro de 2010. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de 0, 2, 4 e 6 t ha-1 do fertilizante mineral 4-14-08 (parcela) e batatas-semente do tipo I e III (subparcela), arranjados em esquema de parcela subdividida, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Foram avaliados o comprimento da haste principal, número de hastes, índice de área foliar, massa fresca e número de tubérculos, aos 24, 41 e 57 dias após a emergência, além de quantificar a produtividade comercial e o número de tubérculos no período da colheita. Calculou-se também a máxima eficiência técnica e econômica das doses de fertilizantes. Não houve interação significativa entre doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-semente em nenhuma característica analisada. As doses de fertilizantes influenciaram todas as características analisadas, sendo que, de modo geral, as maiores doses resultaram em maiores valores das características. Entretanto, as doses de fertilizantes influenciaram com menor intensidade o número de hastes, que foi a característica mais influenciada pelo tamanho da batata-semente, sendo maior em plantas oriundas de sementes do tipo I. O tamanho da batata-semente não influenciou a produtividade de tubérculos. Observou-se aumento da produtividade de tubérculos com o aumento da dose de fertilizante até 4,2 t ha-1, porém a máxima eficiência econômica foi atingida com 3,5 t ha-1 de fertilizante. Conclui-se, portanto, que a utilização da dose de 3,5 t ha-1 e batatas-semente do tipo III resultaram na melhor opção econômica para o produtor. Abstract in english Potato crops need high investment for its establishment. Among the inputs responsible for the high crop cost, fertilizers and seeds stand out. We identified the effect of fertilizer doses and tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato crop. The experiment was carried out in a comme [...] rcial potato field at Guarapuava, Paraná state, Brazil, beginning on December 2010. The treatments were 0, 2, 4 and 6 t ha-1 of mineral fertilizer (main plot) and potato seeds of type I and III (sub plot), arranged in a split-plot with three blocks. The analyzed characteristics were main stem length, number of stems, leaf area index, fresh weight and number of tubers at 24, 41 and 57 days after emergence, and marketable yield, number of tubers and maximum technical and economical doses of fertilizers at harvest. There was no significant interaction between fertilizer doses and potato seed tuber size for any analyzed characteristic. The doses of fertilizer influenced all the analyzed plant characteristics, where, in general, the higher dose resulted in higher values of the characteristics. However, the dose of fertilizers had low effect on the number of stems, which was the most influenced characteristic by the seed size; it was higher in plants from seed type I. The size of tuber seeds did not influence tuber yield. Tuber yield increased with increasing doses of fertilizer up to the dose of 4.2 t ha-1, but the maximum economic efficiency was achieved with 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizer. It is concluded, therefore, that the use of 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizers and potato-seed type III resulted in the best economic option for the growers.

  1. Adubação NPK e tamanho da batata-semente no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade de plantas de batata NPK fertilization and potato tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Raphael de M Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da batata demanda alto investimento para a sua implantação. Dentre os insumos responsáveis pelo alto custo da lavoura, destacam-se os fertilizantes e a semente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-sementes no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade da cultura da batata. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura comercial de batata em Guarapuava-PR, a partir de dezembro de 2010. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de 0, 2, 4 e 6 t ha-1 do fertilizante mineral 4-14-08 (parcela e batatas-semente do tipo I e III (subparcela, arranjados em esquema de parcela subdividida, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Foram avaliados o comprimento da haste principal, número de hastes, índice de área foliar, massa fresca e número de tubérculos, aos 24, 41 e 57 dias após a emergência, além de quantificar a produtividade comercial e o número de tubérculos no período da colheita. Calculou-se também a máxima eficiência técnica e econômica das doses de fertilizantes. Não houve interação significativa entre doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-semente em nenhuma característica analisada. As doses de fertilizantes influenciaram todas as características analisadas, sendo que, de modo geral, as maiores doses resultaram em maiores valores das características. Entretanto, as doses de fertilizantes influenciaram com menor intensidade o número de hastes, que foi a característica mais influenciada pelo tamanho da batata-semente, sendo maior em plantas oriundas de sementes do tipo I. O tamanho da batata-semente não influenciou a produtividade de tubérculos. Observou-se aumento da produtividade de tubérculos com o aumento da dose de fertilizante até 4,2 t ha-1, porém a máxima eficiência econômica foi atingida com 3,5 t ha-1 de fertilizante. Conclui-se, portanto, que a utilização da dose de 3,5 t ha-1 e batatas-semente do tipo III resultaram na melhor opção econômica para o produtor.Potato crops need high investment for its establishment. Among the inputs responsible for the high crop cost, fertilizers and seeds stand out. We identified the effect of fertilizer doses and tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato crop. The experiment was carried out in a commercial potato field at Guarapuava, Paraná state, Brazil, beginning on December 2010. The treatments were 0, 2, 4 and 6 t ha-1 of mineral fertilizer (main plot and potato seeds of type I and III (sub plot, arranged in a split-plot with three blocks. The analyzed characteristics were main stem length, number of stems, leaf area index, fresh weight and number of tubers at 24, 41 and 57 days after emergence, and marketable yield, number of tubers and maximum technical and economical doses of fertilizers at harvest. There was no significant interaction between fertilizer doses and potato seed tuber size for any analyzed characteristic. The doses of fertilizer influenced all the analyzed plant characteristics, where, in general, the higher dose resulted in higher values of the characteristics. However, the dose of fertilizers had low effect on the number of stems, which was the most influenced characteristic by the seed size; it was higher in plants from seed type I. The size of tuber seeds did not influence tuber yield. Tuber yield increased with increasing doses of fertilizer up to the dose of 4.2 t ha-1, but the maximum economic efficiency was achieved with 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizer. It is concluded, therefore, that the use of 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizers and potato-seed type III resulted in the best economic option for the growers.

  2. Alterações em atributos químicos de um solo submetido à adubação e cultivado com videira 'Niagara Rosada' / Changes on some soil chemical properties due to npk fertilization for 'Nigara Rosada' grapevine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Marco Antonio, Tecchio; Mara Fernandes, Moura; Maurilo Monteiro, Terra; Erasmo José Paioli, Pires; José Luiz, Hernandes.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar alterações em atributos químicos do solo, causadas pela adubação com NPK em videira 'Niagara Rosada', coletaram-se amostras de solo provenientes de um experimento de campo executado em Louveira (SP), durante quatro ciclos de produção. O delineamento experimental foi em bloc [...] os ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³), com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses de N (0; 65; 130 e 195 kg/ha de N), P (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg/ha de P2O5) e K (0; 45; 90 e 135 kg/ha de K2O) aplicados em cada ciclo de produção. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas em forma fracionada, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. Na implantação do experimento, em agosto de 2005, e após quatro safras, em novembro de 2008, foram coletadas amostras de solo de 0 a 20 cm e de 20 a 40 cm de profundidade, determinando-se valores de pH (CaCl2), o teor de matéria orgânica, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al e calculada a soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases. Avaliaram-se, também, a produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos e das bagas. A adubação nitrogenada em videira determinou incrementos significativos na acidez do solo. Doses baixas de P e K foram suficientes para manter o teor de P e de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial, após quatro ciclos de produção. A produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos não foram influenciadas pela adubação com N, P e K. A adubação com N, P e K em vinhedos com alta disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo, condição comum na região de Louveira e Jundiaí, implica prejuízo econômico ao produtor, eleva os teores de nutrientes no solo acima das necessidades da cultura, podendo, ainda, aumentar o risco de contaminação ambiental. Abstract in english Soil samples were analyzed with the objective of investigating changes on some soil chemical properties due to NPK fertilization of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine. The samples were collected in a field experiment carried out in Louveira, Brazil, during four crop seasons. The experimental design was an i [...] ncomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were rates of N (0, 65, 130, and 195 kg/ha of N as NH4NO3), P (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha of P2O5 as triple superphosphate) and K (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg/ha of K2O as KCl) applied at each crop season. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) availability some chemical properties (organic matter, pH CaCl2, H+Al and base saturation) were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation (August, 2005) and after four production cycles (November, 2008). Soil samples were collected from layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Fruit yield and some physical characteristics of bunches and berries were evaluated. Soil pH decreased with increasing in N rates. Low rates of P and K were sufficient to maintain soil P and K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment. Grapevine production was not affected by NPK fertilization. The application of NPK fertilizers in vineyards with soils with high nutrient availability implies economic losses and environmental contamination risk.

  3. Alterações em atributos químicos de um solo submetido à adubação e cultivado com videira 'Niagara Rosada' Changes on some soil chemical properties due to npk fertilization for 'Nigara Rosada' grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar alterações em atributos químicos do solo, causadas pela adubação com NPK em videira 'Niagara Rosada', coletaram-se amostras de solo provenientes de um experimento de campo executado em Louveira (SP, durante quatro ciclos de produção. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³, com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses de N (0; 65; 130 e 195 kg/ha de N, P (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg/ha de P2O5 e K (0; 45; 90 e 135 kg/ha de K2O aplicados em cada ciclo de produção. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas em forma fracionada, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. Na implantação do experimento, em agosto de 2005, e após quatro safras, em novembro de 2008, foram coletadas amostras de solo de 0 a 20 cm e de 20 a 40 cm de profundidade, determinando-se valores de pH (CaCl2, o teor de matéria orgânica, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al e calculada a soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases. Avaliaram-se, também, a produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos e das bagas. A adubação nitrogenada em videira determinou incrementos significativos na acidez do solo. Doses baixas de P e K foram suficientes para manter o teor de P e de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial, após quatro ciclos de produção. A produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos não foram influenciadas pela adubação com N, P e K. A adubação com N, P e K em vinhedos com alta disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo, condição comum na região de Louveira e Jundiaí, implica prejuízo econômico ao produtor, eleva os teores de nutrientes no solo acima das necessidades da cultura, podendo, ainda, aumentar o risco de contaminação ambiental.Soil samples were analyzed with the objective of investigating changes on some soil chemical properties due to NPK fertilization of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine. The samples were collected in a field experiment carried out in Louveira, Brazil, during four crop seasons. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³. The treatments were rates of N (0, 65, 130, and 195 kg/ha of N as NH4NO3, P (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha of P2O5 as triple superphosphate and K (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg/ha of K2O as KCl applied at each crop season. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg availability some chemical properties (organic matter, pH CaCl2, H+Al and base saturation were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation (August, 2005 and after four production cycles (November, 2008. Soil samples were collected from layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Fruit yield and some physical characteristics of bunches and berries were evaluated. Soil pH decreased with increasing in N rates. Low rates of P and K were sufficient to maintain soil P and K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment. Grapevine production was not affected by NPK fertilization. The application of NPK fertilizers in vineyards with soils with high nutrient availability implies economic losses and environmental contamination risk.

  4. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: II - micronutrients / Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: II - micronutrientes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Rogério Peres, Soratto; Letícia Andriani dos, Santos.

    1043-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Sob maior nível tecnológico, cultivares de feijão com maior potencial produtivo possivelmente exigem maior quantidade de micronutrientes. Porém, no Brasil há carência de informações sobre extração e exportação de micronutrientes pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Neste estudo, objetivou-se aval [...] iar a extração e a exportação de micronutrientes (B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn) pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação NPK, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Maiores níveis de adubação NPK aumentaram a extração de micronutrientes pelos dois cultivares; no entanto, 100 % adubação NPK recomendada proporcionou extração média de 167 g de B, 58 g de Cu, 1.405 g de Fe, 1.213 g de Mn e 211 g de Zn por hectare. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, em ambos os cultivares, ocorreu no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), ou seja, de 42 a 55 dias, após a emergência (DAE). A quantidade de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn exportada foi dependente, principalmente, do nível de adubação NPK utilizado, com valores por hectare variando de 38 a 90 g de B, 12 a 26 g de Cu, 222 a 568 g de Fe, 234 a 467 g de Mn e 40 a 96 g de Zn. Abstract in english Where the level of agricultural technology is higher, common bean cultivars with a higher yield potential possibly require greater amounts of micronutrients. In Brazil however, there is a lack of information about the micronutrient extraction and exportation by the main grown cultivars. The objectiv [...] e of this study was to evaluate micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. Higher levels of NPK fertilization increased micronutrient extraction by both cultivars, and treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization extracted on average 167 g B, 58 g Cu, 1,405 g Fe, 1,213 g Mn and 211 g Zn per hectare. Regardless of the treatment, the highest demand period for B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in both cultivars occurred at the R7 stage (pod formation), i.e. 42 to 55 days after emergence (DAE). The amount of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn exported depended mainly on the level of NPK fertilization used, with values per hectare ranging from 38 to 90 g of B, 12 to 26 g of Cu, 222 to 568 g of Fe 234 to 467 g of Mn, and 40 to 96 g of Zn.

  5. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí.Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  6. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária / Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros, Salgado; Anísio, Azzini; Celi Teixeira, Feitosa; Armando, Petinelli; Arruda, Veiga.

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, e [...] m Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí. Abstract in english Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of Sã [...] o Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  7. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PRODUKSI BEBERAPA AKSESI TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pratikta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH] The experiment was conducted in the Field Research, in Kumendung village, Muncar, Banyuwangi from November 2012 until February 2013. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect of NPK fertilizer in some accession of maize on it’s growth and production. It’s also evaluate the protein content of the accession under different fertilizer treatment. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replications. Main plot were NPK aplication rates (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 and the sub-plots were accesion number ( V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah ; V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning ; V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma ; and V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. An split plot statistical analysis of varience (ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5 % level of probability according to Hanafiah, (2005 was realized using the excel program. Growth and yield parameters recorded at different stages of crop growth and development. There were plant height, leaves number above the ear, leaves number under the ear, tassel emergence, silk emergence, physiologically ripe age, ear lenghth, ear weight, ear circumference, ear weight per plot, kernel weight, kernel weight per plot, 100-grain weight, and protein content. The result showed that no significant different affected by the defferent NPK application rates on these accession. Base on the character selection, the yielding of all accession were higher than Bisma variety. Content of the accession were 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; and 10,10 mg g-1 for V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively. Keywords: NPK Fertilizer; Maize accession; Production [INDONESIAN] Penelitian dilakukan di lahan Desa Kumendung Kecamatan Muncar Kabupaten Banyuwangi pada bulan November 2012 hingga Febuari 2013. Tujuan dari percobaan ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pupuk NPK terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi beberapa Aksesi jagung, dan mengevaluasi kadar protein yang terkandung didalamnya. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Split Plot dengan tiga ulangan. Petak utama adalah Pupuk NPK (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 dan sub-plot adalah aksesi jagung (V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah, V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning, V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma, dan V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. Hasil percobaan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis varian (ANOVA dan Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT pada taraf ? 5% (Hanafiah, 2005 dengan menggunakan program excel. Parameter pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun atas dan dibawah tongkol jagung, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbungan betina, umur masak fisiologis, berat tongkol per petak (kg, berat pipilan per petak (kg, berat tongkol per tanaman (g, panjang tongkol isi (cm, lingkar tongkol (cm, berat 100 biji per tanaman (g, dan kandungan protein biji jagung (mg g-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang nyata antar perlakuan yang dicobakan pada parameter yang diamati. Perlakuan penambahan pupuk NPK tidak menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata pada semua parameter. Berdasarkan pemilihan karakter, semua aksesi terpilih lebih tinggi dibanding varietas Bisma. Kandungan protein rata-rata aksesi yang diuji yaitu 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; dan 10,10 mg g-1 masing-masing untuk V1, V2, V3, dan V4. Kata Kunci: Pupuk NPK; Aksesi Jagung; Produksi How to citate: Pratikta D, S Hartatik, KA Wijaya. 2013. Pengaruh penambahan pupuk NPK terhadap produksi beberapa aksesi tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian 1(2: 19-21.

  8. Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília, para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòmente o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral.Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL. Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minutiflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

  9. Características fisicas e químicas do látex e crescimento da seringueira em função da calagem e da adubação NPK em dois sistemas de explotação / Latex physical and chemistry characteristics and growth of rubber tree as a function of lime and NPK fertilization in two tapping systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adonias De Castro, Virgens Filho; Adônis, Moreira; Paulo Roberto de Camargo e, Castro.

    1237-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de diferentes combinações de NPK, com e sem calagem, sobre as características físicas e químicas do látex e as condições de explotação da seringueira (Hevea sp.), clone RRIM 600, foi conduzido um experimento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas contendo oit [...] o tratamentos: sem adubação e sem calagem (T1), sem adubação e com calagem (T2), N1P1K0 + calagem (T3), N2P2K0 + calagem (T4), N1P1K1 + calagem (T5), N2P2K1 + calagem (T6), N1P1K2 + calagem (T7) e N2P2K2 + calagem (T8). Nas duas subparcelas, foram utilizados os seguintes sistemas de explotação: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y com quatro repetições. As doses utilizadas corresponderam a 0, 40 e 80 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, 0, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o incremento no perímetro do tronco não foi influenciado pelo efeito da interação entre 'adubação+calagem' vs. 'sistemas de explotação'. O aumento da espessura da casca foi afetado pelos tratamentos 'N0P0K0+calagem' e 'calagem+adubação', quando comparado com o tratamento 'N0P0K0 sem calagem'. Plantas submetidas ao tratamento N1P1K0 + calagem e ao sistema ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y apresentam maiores concentrações de sacarose no látex. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluated physiological latex characteristics and the tapping systems of the clone RRIM 600 of rubber tree (Hevea sp.) an experiment was conducted with continuous supply NPK fertilizers with or without lime. The experiment was conducted in a randomized split-plot d [...] esign with eight treatments: without fertilizer and without lime (T1), without fertilizer and with lime (T2), N1P1K0 + lime (T3), N2P2K0 + lime (T4), N1P1K1 + lime (T5), N2P2K1 + lime (T6), N1P1K2 + lime (T7) e N2P2K2 + lime (T8). In the two sub-treatments the following tapping systems were used: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y with four replicates. The rates used were 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 y-1; 0, 17.5 e 35.0 kg ha-1 y-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33.2 e 66.4 kg ha-1 y-1 de K2O. The interaction of fertilizer with or without lime versus tapping system did not affect trunk girth increment. The bark thickness was significantly increased with liming, and N1P1K0 and tapping system ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y increased latex saccharose concentration.

  10. Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental / Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto Costa, Veloso; Eduardo Jorge Maklouf, Carvalho; Eurípedes, Malavolta; Takashi, Muraoka.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol), no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualm [...] ente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N) na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5) na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O) na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente. Abstract in english The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic) in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually eve [...] ry year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N) in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5) in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O) in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three replicates, being the treatments disposed as an incomplete factorial. The spacing was of 3.0 m between lines and 2.5 m between plants with six useful plants per plot. The results evidenced positive response of nitrogen in relation to black pepper grain yield with the application of 72 and 78 kg ha-1 of N, for cultivars Cingapura and Bragantina, respectively. Only cultivar Guajarina responded to the phosphorus application. Growing levels of K2O, reduced the present potassium content in the foliar tissue of the peppers. The potassium addition favored the increase of the production of grains with the application of 42, 13 and 22 kg ha-1 of K2O, for the Cingapura, Bragantina and Guajarina cultivars, respectively.

  11. Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol, no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualmente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente.The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually every year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three replicates, being the treatments disposed as an incomplete factorial. The spacing was of 3.0 m between lines and 2.5 m between plants with six useful plants per plot. The results evidenced positive response of nitrogen in relation to black pepper grain yield with the application of 72 and 78 kg ha-1 of N, for cultivars Cingapura and Bragantina, respectively. Only cultivar Guajarina responded to the phosphorus application. Growing levels of K2O, reduced the present potassium content in the foliar tissue of the peppers. The potassium addition favored the increase of the production of grains with the application of 42, 13 and 22 kg ha-1 of K2O, for the Cingapura, Bragantina and Guajarina cultivars, respectively.

  12. LIMING AND FERTILIZING FOR MAHOGANI (Switenia macrophylla King. SEEDLING FORMATION

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    Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important phases of the cultivation of forest species. Seedlings ofappropriate quality are fundamental in the growth and development of the species. In the production of seedlings, the substratum isfundamental for the good development of the plants. However, the subsoil in general, is acid and it contains low levels of nutritious.The acidity of the soil and the deficiency of nutrients can be corrected through liming and mineral fertilization. The objective of thepresent work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of the fertilization of the soil for the production of mahogany seedlings. Theexperiment was carried out in the period of 120 days, in the Federal University of Amazonas, UFAM. The experimental design wasrandomized complete blocks with statistical analysis in split plot. The plots were composed with eight treatments and four repetitionsand the subplots were eight sampling times of the plants. The treatments were control (natural soil, liming, corrective phosphate,fertilizing with NPK, liming + corrective phosphate, corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK, liming + fertilizing with NPK andliming + corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK. It was concluded that the associated liming and corrective phosphate and withthe fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium promoted the smallest levels of exchangeable aluminum and the largestlevels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in the soil. These levels of nutrients in the soil caused larger levels ofnutrients in the plants, providing larger growth rate. The liming, corrective phosphate and fertilizing are a fundamental practices inthe formation of mahogany seedlings.

  13. Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor

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    Wies?aw Wójcik

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron, Aretit (dinoseb acetate, Gesatop 50 (simazine was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v. An increase of ß-carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (ß-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

  14. MAXIMIZING SUGAR BEET YIELDS WITH DECREASING MINERAL FERTILIZATION POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Seadh, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase sugar beet productivity beside decreasing mineral fertilization pollution two field experiments were carried out at El-Garayda Village, Bialla Center, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. This study aimed to determine the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers levels (100, 75 and 50% decrease from recommended dose) and foliar fertilization treatments as follows; control treatment, spraying with water, Melagrow, Amino-P...

  15. Npk mediated improvement in biomass production, photosynthesis and na+ regulation in panicum antidotale under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panicum antidotale is a promising grass species for use as fodder and forage using non-conventional agricultural practices. It was therefore grown using brackish water irrigation to determine the optimal spacing and fertilizer treatment required for sustainable growth, ion relations and photosynthesis. Planting distance of 1.5 ft2 resulted in higher biomass yield. Composite NPK fertilizer (NPK120) at the rate 120 kg ha-1 supported better plant growth rather than N, P, K individually or their various combinations (NP, NK, PK, NPK). Addition of fermented farmyard manure (NPK120+FM) improved ion regulation (lower Na+ uptake, higher K+/Na+ ratio), photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency but did not improve biomass production compared to NPK120. However, higher Na+ uptake with NPK120 would result in lower ion accumulation in the root zone and delayed soil degradation. We conclude that NPK120 could support sustainable growth of Panicum antidotale in our cropping system by keeping leaf Na+ within safe limits for CO/sub 2/ assimilation and reducing the need for frequent re-planting of salinized root stock. (author)

  16. Impact of Long-Term Fertilization Practice on Soil Structure Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; MØldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    The study characterized soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizer over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm tall) and bulk soil samples were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil properties including texture, organic carbon, soil–water characteristic, air permeability and diffusivity were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Long-term applications of AM and NPK had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 0.015 kg kg? 1 (unfertilized plot) to 0.024 kg kg? 1 (well fertilized plot, 30 T ha? 1 2y? 1 AM with NPK). Total porosity linearly followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.36 to 0.43 m3 m? 3. The water holding capacity of the soil was considerably increased with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Gas diffusivity andair permeability measurements clearly indicated that the level of soil aeration improved with increasing AM and NPK fertilizer amount. The three-dimensional X-ray CT visualizations revealed higher macroporosity and biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized areas when compared to plots without or only a small amount of fertilizer applied. A combined evaluation of the soil water characteristic, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggested that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved with increasing fertilizer amount. Furthermore, the soils fertilized with both AM and NPK showed a more aggregated structure than soils amended with AM only.

  17. Pengaruh Kombinasi NPK dan Pupuk Kandang terhadap Sifat Tanah dan Pertumbuhan serta Produksi Tanaman Caisim

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    Sarno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Keputran village, Tanggamus District, Lampung Province. The aim of this study was to examine a proper combination of NPK fertilizer and chicken manure for the vegetable crops, especially chinese mustard (Brassica campetris Var. Chinensis L. in order to increase the production. A randomized completely block design was used in this experiment with ten treatments and three replications. The results showed that the application of chicken manure with the dosage of less than 5 Mg ha-1 combined with NPK fertilizer did not effective to affect the increasing of growth and production of chinese mustard. Meanwhile, application of chicken manure more than 5 Mg ha-1 combined with NPK fertilizer was significantly affected the growth, production of chinese mustard and soil properties i.e. total-C, total-N, available P , exchangeable K, and humic and fulvic acid. The application of chicken manure effective to reduce NPK fertilizer. The best yield was found in using 50% of NPK fertilizer and 50% of chicken manure (10 Mg ha-1.

  18. Effect of Foliar Application of NPK on Some Growth Characters of Two Cultivars of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabah Ali; Abbas, Majeed K.

    2011-01-01

    -1 of this fertilizer on some growth characters, yield component and chemical constituents of calyces of two cultivars of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.); red and lined. The results show that plant height, number of branches per plant, total number of fruits and dry calyces yield were increased due to foliar application of NPK. Also, all chemical constituents were positively affected by NPK application. The higher rate of NPK, 2 g L-1, was more effective than the lower rate. In addition, red...

  19. Extração de macronutrientes pela soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) em função dos níveis de NPK / Absorption of macronutrients by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) as a function of fertilization with n, p and k

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daltro Silva, Cordeiro; José Renato, Sarruge; Henrique Paulo, Haag; Gilberto Diniz de, Oliveira; Ronaldo Ivan, Silveira.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido visando atingir os seguintes objetivos: 1. quantidade de nutrientes extraídos pelas diversas partes da planta; 2. quantidade exportada pela produção. Foi instalado em fatorial 3³ com três repetições em solo da série Guamium em Piracicaba, SP, usando-se a cultivar [...] IAC-2 de hábito de crescimento indeterminado. Foram aplicados no sulco: 0, 20 e 40 kg de N por ha; 0, 60 e 120 kg de p2O5 por ha, e 0, 30 e 60 kg de K2O por ha. Foram colhidas amostras de plantas, em intervalos de 21 dias, a partir da emergência, até a queda parcial das folhas (105 dias) e analisadas para N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Os grãos, também foram analisados para os elementos citados. O período de maior velocidade da absorção dos nutrientes pelas folhas e caules esta entre 44 a 58 dias de idade para as folhas e entre 55-76 dias para os caules. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídos foram afetados pelas partes da planta, com exceção de N e Mg e pelas doses de P aplicados. O acumulo de N, P, K e Mg nos grãos foi afetado somente pelas doses de P aplicados. O acúmulo de Ca e S nos grãos não sofreu influência da adubação NPK. Abstract in english This study was conducted with the objetives of determing the rate of macronutrient absorption considering the following items: . periods of greatest need for macronutrient nutrition; . amount of macronutrients accumulated in the different parts of the plant; . amount of macronutrients exported in se [...] eds. A 3³ factorial experiment with three replications was used in this study. The experimental area was located at Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The soil belongs to the Guamium series. IAC-2, an indeterminate soybean cultivar, was used. N, P and K were applied in the rows at the levels of 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha (N), 0, 60 and 120 kg/ha (p2o5), and 0, 30 and 60 kg/ha (k2o). Plant samples were taken at 21-day intervals starting at emergence and continuing until partial fall of the leaves (105 days after emergence). The several plants were analysed for macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S). At maturity, seeds from each plant were harvested and analysed for macronutrients. The following conclusions were drawn: . The period of highest rate of absorption of the nutrients by leaves and stems occurred between 44 and 55 days of age for the leaves, and between 55 and 76 days for stems. The amounts of nutrients removed, with exception of N and Mg, were affected by the levels of phosphorus applied to the soil; with exception of N and Mg, the nutrient contents varied according to plant parts; . The accumulation of N, P, K and Mg in the soybean seeds was influenced only by the levels of phosphorus applied to the soil. The accumulation of Ca and S in the seeds was not affected by the levels of N, P, and K. The removal of nutrients through harvest was influenced only by the effects of the treatments on yield of seeds.

  20. Respostas da mandioca à adubação NPK e calagem em solos arenosos do noroeste do Paraná / Cassava response to npk and liming in sandy soils of northwest Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonez, FidalskI.

    1353-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos de campo, em áreas de pastagens degradadas, no período de 1991-92, nos municípios de Paranavaí e Altônia, região noroeste do Paraná, em Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro de baixa fertilidade, originários da formação geológica do arenito Caiuá, com o objetivo de avaliar as [...] respostas da mandioca (Manihot esculenta L.) na produção de raízes e as características químicas do solo à adubação mineral NPK e à calagem. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com 19 tratamentos e quatro repetições, aplicando-se nitrogênio (0, 20, 40 e 60 kg ha-1 de N), fósforo (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 de P2O5), potássio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de K2O) e calcário (0, 850, 1.700 e 2.550 kg ha-1). A produção de raízes de mandioca não apresentou respostas à calagem, adubação nitrogenada e potássica. A adubação potássica não contribuiu para elevar os teores de K no solo. A adubação fosfatada aumentou a produção de raízes de mandioca e os teores de P no solo após o seu cultivo, sendo considerada essencial na produção de mandioca nos dois solos arenosos estudados do noroeste do Paraná. Abstract in english Two field experiments were carried out during 1991-92 in Paranavaí and Altônia cities, Northwest of the State of Paraná, Brazil, in order to evaluate the yield response of cassava and soil chemical characteristics to NPK fertilizers and liming. On sandy Dark Red Podzol, soils have low fertility orig [...] inated from geological formation of "Caiuá" sandstone. The experimental design was a randomized block with nineteen treatments and four replications. Treatments comprised nutrient rates of nitrogen (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1); phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1); potassium (0, 40 ,80 and 120 kg ha-1); and lime (0, 850, 1,700 and 2,550 kg ha-1). Yield of cassava roots was not influenced by liming and nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Potassium fertilizer did not contribute to increase the soil K levels. The P fertilizing increased cassava root production, P content in the soil after cassava cultivation, and was considered as essential in the cassava roots production in both sandy soils of the Northwest of Paraná.

  1. Impact of long-term fertilization practice on soil structure evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; MØldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soil structure plays a central role for plant growth and development by controlling root penetration and the availability of water, air and essential nutrients. The factors contributing to soil structure development and evolution are so complex that it is not yet possible to precisely predict the impact of a particular management practice. In this study, we characterized the soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizers over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm height) were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil physical properties including texture, water retention, and air permeability and diffusion were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Soil textural analysis revealed that AM and NPK applications had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 1.53% (unfertilized plot) to 2.37% (well fertilized plot, NPK and 30 T ha-1 2y-1 AM). Total porosity closely followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.37 to 0.43 m3 m-3. The water-holding capacity of the soils was also greatly improved with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Air permeability and diffusion measurements clearly indicated that all soils were sufficiently aerated for plant growth. However, the level of aeration was higher for well-fertilized soils. The X-ray CT 3D visualizations revealed higher biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized soils when compared to plots without or small amount of fertilizer application. A combined evaluation of the water retention, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggests that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved for soils fertilized with AM and NPK as compared to soils with AM only.

  2. Efecto de la presión de pastoreo y fertilización NPK en la producción de forraje de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero en el estado Mérida / Grazing pressure and NPK fertilization on the kikuyo-forage peanut association in Merida state. Pasture production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ciro, Dávila; Fernando, Castro; Diannelis, Urbano.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la Finca Las Mesas (1.850 msnm), Jají, estado Mérida, se condujo un experimento con la finalidad de seleccionar la mejor presión de pastoreo y fertilización para la producción de forraje de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones, en parc [...] elas divididas, donde la parcela principal fue la presión de pastoreo (PPA: 800 y PPB: 1.600 kg MS residual/ha) y la secundaria los niveles de nitrógeno (0 y 200 kg/ha), fósforo (0, 150 y 300 kg P2O5/ha) y potasio (0 y 200 kg K2O/ha). Se evaluaron la oferta y el residuo, los cuales se estimaron con una curva de regresión para esta asociación (Y= -422,66 + 225,11X, donde X= altura del disco, con r² = 0,904). En la presión de pastoreo no se detectaron diferencias significativas en las variables evaluadas. Para el efecto de bloques, los potreros planos tuvieron más consumo acumulado (12.629,6 kg MS/ha), con respecto a los inclinados (5.848,3 kg MS/ha). El nitrógeno influyó significativamente en la oferta, obteniéndose un incremento promedio de 314,9 kg MS/ha/pastoreo y para casi todos los consumos, los incrementos fueron positivos, con una eficiencia de 9,03 kg MS de consumo por kg de nitrógeno aplicado, mientras que para el residuo no hubo diferencias estadísticas. El máximo efecto se encontró cuando se aplicó este macroelemento en los periodos de alta precipitación. El fósforo y el potasio no fueron significativos para las características forrajeras de la asociación; sin embargo, la tendencia de estos nutrientes fueron positivas en la mayoría de los tratamientos. Abstract in english A grazing field trail was carried out in "Las Mesas" farm (1.950 masl), Jají, Mérida state, with the purpose of selecting the best grazing pressure and fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels on the pasture production of the kikuyu-forage peanut association. A complete randomized [...] block design with three replications in a split-plot arrangement was used. Main plots (0.6 ha) were grazing pressures (HGP: 800, and LGP: 1.600 kg residual MS), and as subplots the combinations of fertilizer: nitrogen (0 and 200 kg N/ha), phosphorus (0, 150, and 300 kg P(2)0(5)/ha), and potassium (0 and 200 kg K(2)0/ha). Offered and residual pasture were estimated with an equation for this association (Y = -422,66 + 225,11X, were X = disk height, with r² = 0.904). The experimental period was 280 days. Grazing pressure did not show significant differences for the estimated variables. For blocks in flat areas pastures, more forage was consumed (12.629,6 kg DM/ha) than on the inclined ones (5.848,3 kg DM/ha). Nitrogen affected offered pasture with 314,9 kg DM/ha per grazing, and for almost all forage consumed the increments were positive with an efficiency of 9,03 kg DM consumed/kg N applied. For the residual DM, there were not significant differences. Maximum N influence was obtained when this element was applied during the raining season. The effects of phosphorus and potassium were not significant for the association, but it was a positive tendency on the offered and consumed pasture in almost all the treatments.

  3. Formas de adição de zinco a um formulado NPK e seu efeito sobre a produção de milho Zn rates and sources, added to a NPK granule formulation, and their effect on corn production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Korndörfer

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de fontes, doses e formas de adição de zinco a um formulado NPK sobre a produção de grãos e matéria seca de milho em um solo de cerrado da região de Uberlândia, MG. Quatro doses de zinco foram aplicadas ao solo (0, 1, 2 e 4 kg de Zn ha-1, através de três formas (ZnO-incorporado, FTE BR-12-incorporado e FTE BR-12-gramilado adicionadas a um formulado NPK (4-30-10. O ZnO e as Fritas em pó foram incorporados ao formulado durante a fabricação, antes da granulação. Um tratamento adicional de FTE previamente granulado e depois misturado ao formulado, também foi testado. Os resultados mostraram que o zinco agregado ao adubo NPK não teve efeito sobre a produção de grãos de milho, nem tampouco sobre a produção de matéria seca, independentemente da dose ou da fonte empregada. Os teores de Zn na folha do milho aumentaram significativamente com as doses de Zn aplicada, sendo o ZnO incorporado ao granulo do formulado NPK, o tratamento que apresentou os mais altos teores. Por sua vez, o FTE em pó incorporado no granulo do formulado e o FTE previamente granulado e posteriormente misturado ao formulado não diferiram entre si quanto aos teores de Zn na folha.Zinc rates and sources added to a NPK granulated fertilizer was observed on corn crop cultivated on a soil originally under "cerrado" vegetation from Uberlândia, MG region. Four zinc rates (0, 1 , 2 e 4 kg ha-1 derived from three types of zinc sources (ZnO-incorporated, FTE BR-12-incorporated and granule FTE BR-12 were used. The ZnO and the "Fritted Trace Elements" (FTE BR-12 were incorporated to the fertilizer before granulation. An additional treatment with granule FTE and later blended to the NPK fertilizer was also tested. The results showed that Zn incorporated to the NPK fertilizer did not increase grain yield and dry matter yield. Zinc in the leaf tissue increased with the applied Zn rates, and the ZnO incorporated into de NPK fertilizer showed the highest Zn concentration. The FTE incorporated into the NPK granules and the granulated FTE blended with NPK were similar with respect to Zn availability to the corn crop, evaluated by the Zn concentration in the leaves.

  4. Community Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria under Long-Term Application of Mineral Fertilizer and Organic Manure in a Sandy Loam Soil?

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Haiyan; Fujii, Takeshi; Morimoto, Sho; Lin, Xiangui; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hu, Junli; Zhang, Jiabao

    2006-01-01

    The effects of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure on the community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in a long-term (16-year) fertilizer experiment. The experiment included seven treatments: organic manure, half organic manure N plus half fertilizer N, fertilizer NPK, fertilizer NP, fertilizer NK, fertilizer PK, and the control (without fertilization). N fertilization greatly increased soil nitrification potential, and mineral N fertilizer had a grea...

  5. Impact of Various Combinations of NPK on the Growth, Yield and Quality Parameters of Rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghaffoor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to observe the effect of various combinations of NPK on the performance of rose, during the year 1996-97. The data was recorded and analyzed for plant growth yield and quality attributes. The data recorded in this trail indicates that days to sprouting, number of branches per bush and days to flowering were non-significant. Whereas, all other parameters remained significant with different doses of NPK fertilizers. Maximum flowers per plant (20 Flowers, longest pedicle length (5.85 cm, largest flower size (8.08 cm and maximum petals per flower (50.38 were recorded in T6 treatment viz. (20-00-12 gm of NPK per plant. Maximum flower duration (4.45 days and flower vase life (3.08 days were also recorded in the same treatment.

  6. Efecto de la presión de pastoreo y fertilización NPK sobre la composición botánica de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero en la zona alta del estado Mérida / Grazing pressure and NPK fertilization effects on botanical composition of kikuyu grass - perennial peanut association in highlands of Mérida state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diannelis, Urbano; Fernando, Castro; Ciro, Dávila.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de determinar la mejor presión de pastoreo y fertilización con nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio que permita mantener un balance en la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero, se condujo un experimento en Jají, estado Mérida, Venezuela. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repetici [...] ones, en un arreglo factorial de los tratamientos en parcelas divididas, donde en la parcela principal se aplicaron dos presiones de pastoreo (PPA: 800 y PPB: 1.600 kg MS residual/ha) y en la secundaria las combinaciones de dos niveles de nitrógeno (0 y 200 kg/ha/año), tres de fósforo (0, 150 y 300 kg P2O5/ha/año) y dos de potasio (0 y 200 kg K2O/ha/año), evaluándose la composición botánica al inicio y al final del experimento. El porcentaje de kikuyo en la mezcla disminuyó un 11%, mientras que el maní forrajero incrementó un 9%. Los componentes de biomasa muerta y del pasto Cynodon sp disminuyeron en 3 y 0,79%, respectivamente. La presión de pastoreo y sus interacciones no influyeron significativamente en los diferentes componentes de la mezcla; sin embargo, la tendencia del kikuyo en la asociación fue a declinar más en la presión de pastoreo baja (13,1%) que en la alta (8,1%), mientras que el porcentaje de maní incrementó en la asociación en ambos sistemas con 12,8 y 6,1%, respectivamente. El porcentaje del kikuyo en la mezcla fue afectado por el nitrógeno (P Abstract in english To obtain the best combination of the grazing pressure and fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium that allow a good balance in the species kikuyu grass-perennial peanut association, a field grazing experiment was conducted in Jají, Mérida state, Venezuela. A complete randomized block [...] design was used, with three replications. The treatments were a factorial in a split plot arrangement. Two grazing pressures were applied to main plots (HGP: 800 and LGP: 1600 kg residual DM/ha) and two levels of nitrogen (0 and 200 kg N/ha), three of phosphorus (0, 150, and 300 kg P2O5), and two of potassium (0 and 200 kg K2O/ha) were applied to sub-plots. Botanical composition was estimated at the beginning and the end of the trial. Percent of kikuyu grass in the mixture decreased 11%, while perennial peanut increased in 9%. Also, dead material and the grass Cynodon sp decreased 3 and 0.79%, respectively. The grazing pressure factor and its interactions were not significant, but the tendency for the components of the association was that kikuyu grass decreased 13.1% in the LGP and 8.1% in HGP, but perennial peanut increased in both systems 12.8% and 6.1%, respectively. Nitrogen application and N x K interaction were significant (P

  7. Effect of long-term different fertilization on bacterial community structures and diversity in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joa, Jae Ho; Weon, Hang Yeon; Hyun, Hae Nam; Jeun, Young Chull; Koh, Sang Wook

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess bacterial species richness, diversity and community distribution according to different fertilization regimes for 16 years in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash. Soil samples were collected and analyzed from Compost (cattle manure, 2,000 kg/10a), 1/2 NPK+compost (14-20-14+2,000 kg/10a), NPK+compost (28-40-28+2,000 kg/10a), NPK (28-40-28 kg/10a), 3 NPK (84-120-84 kg/10a), and Control (no fertilization) plot which have been managed in the same manners with compost and different amount of chemical fertilization. The range of pyrosequencing reads and OTUs were 4,687-7,330 and 1,790-3,695, respectively. Species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1, and Shannon index were higher in 1/2 NPK+compost than other treatments, which were 15,202, 9,112, 7.7, respectively. Dominant bacterial groups at level of phylum were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Those were occupied at 70.9% in 1/2 NPK+compost. Dominant bacterial groups at level of genus were Pseudolabrys, Bradyrhizobium, and Acidobacteria. Those were distributed at 14.4% of a total of bacteria in Compost. Soil pH displayed significantly closely related to bacterial species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1 (pShannon index (p<0.01). However, it showed the negative correlation with exchangeable aluminum contents (p<0.05). In conclusion, diversity of bacterial community in citrus orchard soil was affected by fertilization management, soil pH changes and characteristics of volcanic ash. PMID:25467117

  8. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients / Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: I - macronutrientes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Peres, Soratto; Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Letícia Andriani dos, Santos; André Luiz Gomes, Job.

    1027-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O uso de cultivares com maior potencial produtivo e a adoção de maior nível tecnológico têm possibilitado a obtenção de elevadas produtividades de grãos da cultura do feijão, o que provavelmente alterou a demanda por nutrientes dessa cultura. No entanto, quase não existem informações sobre as quanti [...] dades e as épocas do ciclo em que os nutrientes são mais exigidos pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a extração e a exportação de macronutrientes pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1- - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Sob maiores níveis de adubação NPK, ambos os cultivares apresentaram as maiores produtividades de grãos, extração e exportação de macronutrientes, porém sem diferirem entre si. Os tratamentos com 100 % da adubação NPK recomendada apresentaram maior extração de macronutrientes, com quantidades médias por hectare de 140 kg de N; 16,5 kg de P; 120 kg de K; 69 kg de Ca; 17,9 kg de Mg; e 16,3 kg de S. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por N, P, K, Ca e Mg ocorreu dos 45 aos 55 dias após emergência (DAE), ou seja, no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), enquanto as maiores taxas de absorção de S concentraram-se entre os 55 e 65 DAE. Mais de 70 % do P, entre 58 e 69 % do N, 40 e 52 % do S, 40 e 48 % do K e 35 e 45 % do Mg absorvidos ao longo do ciclo foram exportados com os grãos, enquanto menos de 15 % do Ca foi exportado Abstract in english The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most deman [...] ded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S). Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE), i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation), while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than

  9. Prostate specific antigen level in a fertilizer factory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find the effect of the fertilizer factory environment on serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels. Subjects and Methods: A total of 205 workers, all male, of Pak Arab Fertilizer Factory, Multan had their prostatic specific antigen (PSA) estimated. The age of the workers varied between 22 to 65 years (mean age= 48.3 plus minus 8.5 years). The people belonged to various working groups and most of them were on normal Pakistani diet. They had been residing/working in the factory area for a period varying from 5 to 30 years. PSA levels were also estimated in 118 normal persons to serve as a control group. The age of these persons varied from 19 to 64 years. These were mostly hospital staff and general public not residing in the factory area and had no history of prostatic disease. Sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay techniques were applied to measure the PSA concentrations in serum. Results: Observed PSA levels in this population were between 0.2 and 11.5 ng/ml. Overall mean PSA level was 1.9 plus minus 0.84 ng PSA/ml. Mean PSA level observed in control group was 0.73 plus minus 0.64 ng/ml (upper 95% limit was 3.2 ng/ml). Comparison of PSA levels of factory workers with values in normal subjects showed that 9 out of 205 male workers (4.3% of total) had significantly elevated levels of PSA. In 2 workers (1 % of total) observed PSA levels were above 10 ng/ml. The levels above this limit are most commonly observed in the cancer patients. Conclusi observed in the cancer patients. Conclusion: A significant proportion of the workers of the fertilizer factory are at risk of malignant and non-malignant disease of the prostate. (author)

  10. Nitrate leaching during establishment of willow (Salix viminalis) on two soil types and at two fertilization levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of willow in short rotation is expected to result in low nitrate leaching losses as is the case with other permanent crops. However, there is a risk of leaching of nitrate during establishment when the plant cover is limited. Nitrate leaching was followed for three years from the establishment in 1993 of willow (Salix viminalis) at two sites, a coarse sand at Jyndevad and a loamy sand at Foulum. Two levels of nitrogen, 0 or 75 kg N/ha in NPK, were applied annually, though only 38 N/ha was applied in the first year. Leaching was calculated from usually weekly measurements of the nitrate concentration in soil solution and relating with the amount of percolation based on measured precipitation and changes in the soil water content over the sampling periods. Mean leaching for the three periods 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-96 amounted to respectively 142, 61 and 0 kg N/ha at Foulum and to 130, 9 and 4 kg N/ha at Jyndevad. The high leaching in the first year was caused by an unusually high content of mineral N in the soil at the start of the experiment. The absence of any leaching 1995-96 at Foulum was due to very low precipitation and a consequent lack of percolation. For the first period (1993-94) the fertilized treatment increased leaching by 32 kg N/ha compared to no fertilizer as a mean of the two sites, while the difference for the following two periods was reduced to 1-2 kg N/ha. It is concluded that application of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of planting of willows, while in the following years 75 kg N/ha can be given without risk of increased leaching. (Author)

  11. NPK Trial on Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Deho, N. A.; Wagan, M. R.; Baloach, M. K.; Rajpar, I.; Keerio, M. I.

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum doze of NPK fertilizers for the onion (Allium cepa L.), variety Phulkara on a loamy soil. The bed size was 4.5 x 4.0 m. Six fertilizer treatments were tested in RCBD for the height of plant (cm), number of leaves plant-1, single plant weight, bulb diameter (horizontal and vertical), bulb size (Volume) and yield ha-1. Compared to other fertilizer treatments, the application of 80 N + 60 P2O5 + 40 K2O (kg ha-1) produced more leaves and l...

  12. Yielding Components of Canola Response to NPK Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zahir Afridi; Mohammad Tariq Jan; Imtiaz Ahmad; Muhammad Azim Khan

    2002-01-01

    Two methods of N application, four levels of P and two levels of K were tested to evaluate the effect of NPK on the yielding components of canola (cv. Dunkeld). Sole dose of N proved superior to split dose and produced significantly more branches per plant. Nitrogen had no influence on pods per plant, seeds per pod and grain weight. Increase in P, linearly increased the pods per plant and seeds per pod, while P had no influence on grain weight and branches per plant. Potassium showed no signi...

  13. Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

    2006-04-01

    Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

  14. Nutrição mineral de plantas ornamentais: VII. estudos de adubação NPK na cultura de gladíolo (Gladiolus grandiflorus, cv. 'Perusi') / Mineral nutrition of ornamental plants: VII. studies on N, P, K fertilization of gladiolus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Dantas, Fernandes; Henrique Paulo, Haag; Salim, Simão; Jairo Ribeiro de, Mattos.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Três doses de N, P e K foram testadas em culturas de gladíolos (Gladiolus grandiflorus cv. 'Perusi') provenientes de três tamanhos diferentes de bulbos (Nº 3, Nº 1 e Jumbo). Todos os tratos culturais necessários foram dispensados aos experimentos cuja instalação se deu em um solo podzolizado da Coop [...] erativa Agrícola de Holambra, em Jaguariúna - SP. Estudaram-se os efeitos de adubação sobre produção de flores, produção de bulbos e de bulbilhos. A resposta do gladíolo aos níveis de fertilização variou bastante com o tamanho de bulbo plantado. São discutidos os efeitos de cada nutriente sobre as características estudadas. Abstract in english Studies on N, P. K fertilization of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus, cv. 'Perusi'). At the Agricultural Cooperative of Holambra, Jaguariúna SP, experiments with gladiolus were conducted with the objective of studying the effects of increasing dosis of N, R and K on the floral stems and corms produ [...] ction. The response of gladiolus to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium varied with the size of the corm that was planted. The effects of each nutrient on several characteristics of plants are discussed.

  15. Efecto de la fertilización química, orgánica y combinada sobre el rendimiento de la papa variedad Granola / Effect of the fertilization chemical, organic and combined on the yield of variety Granola

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karen, Arias; Olga, Arnaude de Chacón.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de la papa, Solanum tuberosum L., demanda un alto uso de insumos agrícolas entre los que destacan los fertilizantes químicos (FQ) y enmiendas orgánicas (EO), las cuales alcanzan en muchos casos un alto porcentaje en los costos de producción, por lo que se hace necesario buscar estrategias [...] de manejo que disminuya el valor de la fertilización. En la Aldea Pernía, municipio Vargas del estado Táchira, se condujo un experimento en papa, variedad Granola a 1.900 m.s.n.m., precipitación promedio de 900 mm, temperatura entre 12 y 17ºC, zona de vida (B-h-p) según Holdridge, suelo Fa, Orthends, donde se evaluaron dos manejos de fertilización, cinco tipos de FQ: Testigo con cero aplicación; NPK; NPK + Mg; NPK + Mg+B y NPK+B a tres niveles de fertilización orgánica (FO): 0; 5 y 10 t.ha-1 de gallinaza (abono orgánico; AO) con tres repeticiones. Se determinó el efecto de la FQ, EO y combinada sobre el rendimiento de esta variedad. Los resultados indican que el mayor se obtuvo en el tratamiento NPK+Mg (38,39 t.ha-1) seguido del NPK+B (36 t.ha-1) con el nivel 5 t.ha-1 de la AO (P?0,01). No hubo diferencias significativas (P?0,01) al aplicar 5 y 10 t.ha-1 (34,77 y 36,10 t.ha-1, respectivamente). Sin embargo, este nivel de 0 t.ha-1 es menor 22,55 t.ha-1. El mejor resultado se encontró cuando se aplica el FQ y la EO al momento de la siembra Abstract in english In Venezuela, the production of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., normally requires the applications of great amount of mineral fertilizers (OF), and organic amendments (OA) which represent an important part of the production costs of this crop. So it is necessary to develop strategies to decrease its u [...] se. We carried out an experiment in the town of Pernia, Vargas county in Tachira State, to evaluate the response of potato (variety Granola) to the application of 5 treatment of chemical fertilization (testwithout fertilizer; NPK, NPK+Mg; NPK+Mg+B and NPK+B) and 3 levels of organic fertilization (0, 5 and 10 t.ha-1 of chicken manure), with 3 repetitions for each combination. The experimental site is located at 1.900 masl, with a mean annual precipitation of 900 mm, and air temperature between 12 and 17 ºC. The soil is classified as Orthends. The results showed that the greatest yield was found with the application of NPK+Mg (38.39 t.ha-1), followed by the treatment of NPK+B (35.90 t.ha-1) and 5 t.ha-1 of chicken manure (P?0,01). The split of the organic and mineral fertilizer doses does not improve the yield of potato, when compared against the application of the whole dose of fertilizer at the sowing time. Also, there were not significant differences in the potato yield when it was fertilized with five and 10 t of chicken manure (34.77 y 36.10 t.ha-1, respectively), however at the level of 0 t.ha-1 of chicken manure the yield is smaller 22.55 t.ha-1. When placing the chemical fertilizer and the organic amendment were splitted, yield not different from the whole dose application at the time of seedtime

  16. EFFECT OF MILK UREA AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON FERTILITY INDICES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata JANKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of milk urea and protein levels in four consecutive lactations on fertility indices of Blackand- White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, milk recorded in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province has been made. Poorer fertility indices were found in first-calf heifers and second lactation cows receiving energy-deficient diets and in older (third and fourth lactation cows receiving excess dietary protein and energy. Best fertility was found in young cows fed excess protein (>3.60% regardless of milk urea levels, and in older cows having lower and optimum levels regardless of protein levels. Cow fertility is differentiated more by milk protein levels than by urea content. Fertility parameters were poorer in first and second lactation cows than in older cows. The coefficients of correlation between milk urea and protein levels and fertility indices were very low, with the only significant differences between protein content vs. calving interval and reproductive rest period.

  17. [Effects of long-term fertilization on evolution of S forms in a red soil and a black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Wang, Song-Shan; Li, Ju-Mei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Sun, Wen-Tao; Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shu-Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Sulfur (S) forms in two contrasting soils (a red soil and a black soil) under different long-term fertilization treatments (from 1990 to 2011) from the National Long-term Monitoring Network of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Effects of China were investigated using a fractionation scheme in order to explore the distribution and transportation of S with different forms in the soils. The soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) horizons that were treated with no fertilizers (CK), nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers (NPK), or NPK plus organic manures (MNPK) since 1990. The results indicated that when compared with the CK, total S contents in the topsoil layers treated with NPK and MNPK were increased by 42% and 33% for the red soil, and by 6% and 76% for the black soil, respectively, while the total S in the subsoil layer was less affected by the fertilization treatments and obviously lower than in the topsoil layer except for the red soil treated with NPK. The main forms of inorganic S in the red soil and black soil were found to be available S and HCl-extracted S, respectively. The application of NPK and MNPK increased the available S by 447% and 102% in the topsoil layer of the red soil compared with CK, and facilitated the transportation of available S into the lower depth. In contrast, NPK and MNPK only increased the available S by 54% and 93% in the topsoil layer of the black soil, and showed a slight influence on available S in the subsoil. The organic S forms were predominantly composed of ester S and residual S in the two soils. Under long-term fertilization, the residual S significantly increased over 32% and 55% in the topsoil and subsoil layers, respectively, compared with CK. The ester S and carbon-bonded S, which were relatively active, were less affected by the fertilization treatments, but positively related to the level of organic carbon in each soil (P < 0.05). In addition, the results from the long-term experiments indicated that the contribution of S input from atmospheric deposition was significant and should not be neglected. PMID:25011301

  18. Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e níveis de adubação sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato em folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 Different planting spacings and fertilization levels on the activity of nitrate reductase in leaves of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Venturim Fontes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e de níveis de adubação NPK sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato (RN nas folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 , visando a sugerir possível ajuste em seu manejo de adubação nitrogenada, no sentido de maximizar a eficiência do uso do nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., no município de Linhares - ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,8 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,7 m, cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão; A2 = 100% padrão da empresa; A3 = 120% do padrão; A4 = 140% do padrão, e A5 = 160% do padrão e cinco períodos de avaliação (meses de março a julho. O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N, superfosfato simples (18% de P e cloreto de potássio (60% de K, respectivamente. Os dados obtidos para a atividade da RN foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e teste de médias. Dentre os tratamentos testados, o nível A1 (80% do padrão, independentemente do espaçamento, poderia ser indicado no manejo do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01, pois em todos eles a atividade da redutase do nitrato, em praticamente todos os períodos avaliados, apresentou valores adequados, ou até mesmo superiores aos encontrados na literatura em cultivares de mamoeiro. A redução da adubação NPK pôde ser justificada, uma vez que não houve diferença na produtividade das plantas entre os tratamentos avaliados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different planting spacings and levels of NPK manuring on the activity of the nitrate reductase (NR in the leaves of the papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, aiming to suggest possible adjustment in the handling of nitrogen fertilization, in the sense of maximizing the efficiency of the use of the nitrogen. The experiment was driven in the Caliman Agrícola S.A. farm, in the municipal district of Linhares- ES. A complete block design, factorial, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1.8 m, E2 = 2.25 m and E3 = 2.7 m, five levels of NPK conventional manuring (A1 = 80% of the standard, A2 = 100% of the company standard, A3 = 120% of the standard, A4 = 140% of the standard and A5 = 160% of the standard and five evaluation periods ( from March to July was used. The standard of the company NPK manuring consists of 350, 105 and 660 Kg ha-1year -1 of sulfate of ammonium (20% of N, simple superphosphate (18% of P and potassium chloride (60% of K, respectively. The data obtained for the activity of NR were submitted to a variance analysis and average test. Among the tested treatments, A1 (80% of standard, independent of the spacing, could be indicated in the handling of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, because in all of them the activity of the nitrate reductase in, practically, all of the appraised periods, presented appropriate values, or even, superiors to the ones found in the literature for the papaya tree. The reduction of NPK fertilization could be justified, once that did not have difference in the productivity of the plants among the evaluated treatments.

  19. Radiological impact of use of phosphatic fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of rock phosphate from various sources used for producing phosphate fertilizers of different types of N, P, NPK and by product gypsum were procured from twenty one fertilizer plants. Radio active counts were recorded. Strategies have been suggested to use fertilizers in a more eco-friendly way. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Community-level education accelerates the cultural evolution of fertility decline

    OpenAIRE

    Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Explaining why fertility declines as populations modernize is a profound theoretical challenge. It remains unclear whether the fundamental drivers are economic or cultural in nature. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests that community-level characteristics, for example average education, can alter how low-fertility preferences are transmitted and adopted. These assumptions have not been empirically tested. Here, we show that community-level education accelerates fertility decline in a way th...

  1. Performance of sugarcane somaclones under different irrigation and fertilizers doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro grown plantlets (somaclones) were regenerated through callus culture. Selected somaclone along with parent were tested under different fertilizer and irrigation levels for agronomic and qualitative traits of parent/clones. Maximum plant height, and internodes (plant-1) was observed in NIA-98 somaclone. The tillers (plant-1), weight plant-1, cane yield, sucrose and purity were greater in AEC82-1026 somaclone and maximum stem girth was obtained in BL4 somaclone from the combination of 150-80-100 NPK (kg ha-1) with 25 irrigations during the growing season. It was concluded that the application of 150-80-100 kg NPK ha-1 and 25 irrigations during the growth period of sugarcane were efficient for achieving better agronomic and qualitative traits of sugarcane somaclones. (author)

  2. Effect Of Urea, Superphosphate, Potash And Npk On Soil Respiration ( Carbon Dioxide Evolution From Soil

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    Anindita Bhattacharya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms have been reported for maintaining the soil fertility by breaking down of organic matter and release of carbon dioxide, which is a measure of soil respiration, during their metabolic activities. But due to excessive use of agrochemicals, the populations of these beneficial microorganisms are declining which may decrease the fertility status of soil. Several studies were conducted on the toxic impact of some pesticides on soil respiration.On contrary, few studies were conducted on the effect of fertilizer on soil respiration and no specific result could be found out. So the present experiment was undertaken to find out effect of the most common fertilizer (Urea, Superphosphate, Potash and NPK on soil respiration. The CO evolution reached a highest peak within 15 2days of the experiment and then gradually started decreasing and finally became stabilize when compare with the control sample

  3. Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Brown (Nucleus Medical Media; )

    2013-02-01

    Thomas Brown of Nucleus Medical Media created this video to show the complete journey of fertilization from the cellular perspective. It was awarded an honorable mention in the 2012 International Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge, hosted by Science Magazine and the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  4. Calagem e adubação mineral e orgânica do cafeeiro na região de Campinas / Liming and mineral and organic fertilization of coffee tree at Campinas Region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Genésio da Silva, Cervellini; Toshio, Igue; Sérgio Vasco de, Toledo.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Instalou-se um experimento com cafeeiro cultivar Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 em um latossolo roxo transição para latossolo vermelho-amarelo orto, cuja vegetação original era típica de cerrado, na região de Campinas, comparando-se os tratamentos com esterco de curral e adubação mineral NPK, complementados [...] ou não com calcário dolomítico e com os micronutrientes zinco e boro. Aplicaram-se, por ano e por cova, 40 litros de esterco quando na ausência de NPK e 20 litros quando com NPK. A adubação mineral constou da utilização de 120 g de N, 40 g de P2O5 e 120 g de K2O por ano e por cova; quando em presença de esterco, usou-se metade dessas doses. O calcário foi aplicado na quantidade de 1 kg por ano e por cova, e zinco e boro, na quantidade de 20 g de sulfato de zinco e 20 g de bórax, também por cova e por ano. A análise das produções de café beneficiado no período de 1965 a 1970 permitiu constatar que a testemunha e o tratamento com NPK foram significativamente inferiores aos demais. Destacaram-se com as melhores produções os tratamentos que receberam esterco mais NPK, com ou sem calcário. Nas análises de solos, constatou-se aumento nas bases quando foi aplicado o esterco e, em contrapartida, aumento de acidez com o tratamento de NPK. As análises das folhas mostraram efeitos sobre teores de alumínio e manganês coerentes com os dados obtidos nas produções e análises do solo. Abstract in english Experiments with mineral and organic manure were carried out in a Red Latosolic Soil Transition to Orto Red Yellow Latosolic Soil at Campinas region with Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 coffee tree cultivar. The treatments with manure was compared with the treatments with mineral fertilizers of NPK with or wi [...] thout lime or micronutrients zinc and boron. The analyses of coffee production data showed that the treatments with mineral fertilizers and the test treatment with no fertilizer, had the lowest productions. The treatments with manure and NPK with or without lime had better production than other treatments. The soil analyses showed high levels of bases on the manure treatments and high acidity on the NPK treatments. The leaf analyses confirmed the results of the effects of the treatments on the aluminium and manganese contents.

  5. Investigation of NPK in fertilized and unfertilized vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of selected minerals and moisture in Ridge Gourd, Gourd and Brinjal vegetables, collected from house and market of different localities, were determined. In house vegetables from kitchen garden of PCSIR colony the moisture contents were high (90%) as compared to market vegetables of Taj Bagh, Railway workshop Mandy and Singpura Lahore Mandy was 87%, 86.5% and 87.5% respectively. Regarding nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sodium and potassium was high in market vegetables as compared to house samples due to the accumulation of nutrients in soil and crop. (author)

  6. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that, from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1, since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1.

  7. The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

  8. THE IMPACT OF LOW FERTILITY RATE ON THE LEVEL OF PENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleiddine Ayed Zambaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an overlapping generations model along the lines of the papers by Fanti and Gori (2012. Its objective is to study the effect of low fertility on the level of pension respectively in the system PAYG and funded within the context of an exogenous fertility at long-run.

  9. Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine seedlings in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lumu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack ofgood quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out; to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts(experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25?5?5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18?4?14 +TE (C mixed in 1 m3 of soil.Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experimentswere laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorialtreatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara.Results of experiment two showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1½ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (Pvalue = 0.021, Pvalue = 0.001 at 1½ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 171717 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m3 of soil.

  10. Amelioration of NPK on Metals Polluted Bare and Vegetated Sites of Trelogan Mine

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    M. Anwer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Trelogan lead/zinc mine waste in North Wales, England with the amelioration of N, P, K. NP, NK, PK and NPK in bare and vegetated areas. In seven treated plots of bare mine area, the seedlings of three species, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris and Anthoxanthum odoratum differed significantly (p = 0.01. Similarly dry weight of four species, F. rubra, A. capillaris, A. odoratum and Cladonia sp. (a lichen in vegetated treated plots also differed significantly (p = 0.001. Fertilizers did not differed significantly in both bare and vegetated areas.

  11. Impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels and heritability on spineless performance in safflower genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to study the impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels on spineless percentages, meanwhile, heritability and genetic gain were determind for further selection for eight safflower genotype, during 1998/1999-1999/2000 seasons, at nuclear research center-inshas. Concerning irrigation intervals, results showed that spineless percentages of safflower genotypes were markedly increased with the increasing of irrigation intervals, this eans that increase of drought conditions leds to increase the spineless percentages in all the genotypes. Regarding nitrogen fertilizer levels, results exhibited that spineless percentages were increased with the increasing of nitrogen fertilizer levels for all the studied genotypes. Combined analysis of variance chowed highly significant effect for irrigation intervals, fertilizer levels, years and genotypes for spineles trait. The first order interaction, second order interaction and third order interaction were highly significant suggesting that spineless trait was affected the environmental factors

  12. ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS

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    S.B.Bhardwaj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T. Singh et al. (1974, Singh (1964, Bhattacharya (1986,Pathak (1999 and Khan and Raeside (1998 have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980 considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

  13. Cane Yield and Sugar Recovery of Sugarcane Variety Larkana-2001 under Different Fertilizer Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mahar, G. M.; Buriro, U. A.; Oad, F. C.; Shaikh, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to assess the effect of different sources of fertilizers on the growth, cane yield and sugar recovery of promising sugarcane variety Larkana-2001, at Sugarcane Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan. The treatments included four fertilization sources (225-112-168 NPK kg ha-1, effective microorganism (EM) material, 25 t ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM) and 25 t ha-1 press mud. The chemical source of fertilizer (NPK) at the rate of 225-112-168 ...

  14. Effects of fertilization regimes on tea yields, soil fertility, and soil microbial diversity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shan-Lian, Qiu; Li-Min, Wang; Dong-Feng, Huang; Xin-Jian, Lin.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Fertilization is an important agricultural practice for increasing crop yields and influencing soil properties. A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2006-2011 in southeastern China, to investigate the effects of fertilization regimes on tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) yields, soil c [...] hemical properties, and soil bacterial and fungal communities. The field experiment included six treatments: (1) unfertilized control (CON); (2) chemical fertilizers (NPK); (3) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure (1/2NPKOM); (4) organic manure fertilizers (OM); (5) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure plus legume stover returned (1/2NPKOM+L), and (6) chemical fertilizers plus legume stover returned (NPKL). Results showed that, compared to the control, NPK treatment showed no significant effect on soil organic matter (SOM), total N (TN), total P (TP), total K (TK), available N (AN), available K (AK) and tea yields, but showed the lowest bacterial Shannon index of 1.714 and the lowest value of 2.002 for fungal Shannon index. Organic manure treatment had the richest diversity of soil bacterial community with Shannon index of 2.542, and the highest levels of soil essential nutrients, including SOM (30.03%), TN (2.90 g kg-1), TP (1.35 g kg-1), AN (245.30 mg kg-1), AP (57.00 mg kg-1), and AK (271.80 mg kg-1), followed by 1/2NPKOM+L, which appeared the maximal tea yields of 6772 kg ha-1. Organic manure amendment was a key factor in determining soil properties and productivity. Base on soil quality and tea yields, both OM and 1/2NPKOM+L treatments were recommended as better choices of fertilization practices for tea soils in southeastern China. These findings provided a better understanding of the importance of fertilizations in promoting soil fertility, crop yields, and altering soil microbial diversity, leading to selection of scientific fertilization practices for sustainable development of agroecosystems.

  15. Halophytes and Foliar Fertilization as a Useful Technique for Growing Processing Tomatoes in the Saline Affected Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Shaaban

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to grow processing tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Heinz in saline-affected soil of Suez, Egypt compared to others grown on non-saline soil. The work was dimensioned to take advantage of the high potentiality of the wild grown halophyte Zygophyllum coccinium in reducing soil salinity to a tolerable level for tomatoes to produce a satisfactory yield. To avoid salinity increase by adding macronutrient fertilizers to soil, tomato plants grown after Zygophyllum harvest were sprayed with NPK as a complementary technique to meet the plant nutritional requirements. Results showed that growing Zygophyllum sown two months before tomato transplanting could reduce 72.2% of the total soluble salts of the surface layer, lowering EC of the soil suspension by 67.3% and Mg++, Na+ and Cl-ion-concentrations by 77.3, 65 and 69.4%, respectively. As the plants received NPK as foliar fertilization, concentrations of K, Ca and Mg in stems and leaves as well as K and Ca in the fruits were increased. Macronutrients foliar feeding could also decrease concentrations of the harmful ions Na+ and Cl- in the tissues of plants grown on saline affected soil compared to those received no fertilization. Plants grown under saline affected soil conditions produced nearly one-half of the yield produced by those grown under the same soil conditions but received NPK foliar treatments or those grown under non-saline soil conditions and received no fertilization. However, the highest yield was obtained by the plants grown on non-saline soil and received NPK-foliar feeding

  16. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.

  17. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo / Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael, Alvarez; Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano Vaz de, Arruda; Gentil, Godoy Júnior.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de am [...] ônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo. Abstract in english The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated wi [...] th this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control); 2. NPK (control); 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

  18. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Alvarez

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo.The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated with this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control; 2. NPK (control; 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

  19. Response of different combinations of manure and fertilizers to the yield of rape crop

    OpenAIRE

    Baliyan, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study was an attempt to determine the effect of different combinations of manure and fertilizers on the yield of rape crop so as to improve yield by recommending the best combination of manure and fertilizers to the rape growers in Botswana. Rape crop was planted on farmers field in a complete randomized block design where nine different combinations of manure and fertilizers, namely, chicken manure (Ch); Ch and NPK (2:3:2); Ch and Fe (Iron); Ch, NPK and Fe; Ch and Urea; Ch, NPK and Urea...

  20. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The Wroc?aw version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  1. Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh, Colagar; Mehdi, Pouramir; Eisa Tahmasbpour, Marzony; Sayed Gholam Ali, Jorsaraei.

    1387-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml) was significantly [...] higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml) (p value

  2. Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine (Pinus nigra seedlings in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lumu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack of good quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out, to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts (experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25-5-5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18-4-14 +TE (C mixed in 1m3 of soil. Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experiments were laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorial treatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara. Experiment two results showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1? months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (P-value = 0.021, P-value = 0.001 at 1? months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 17-17-17 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m?3 of soil. (Pinus nigra

  3. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  4. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  5. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two years field experiment 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0,5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0,60, 100, 140 and kg P2 O5/ha. Irradiation doses and P. Fertilizer levels arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the subplots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting. Soil test for P revealed that enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. 8 tabs

  6. The Influence of Varieties and Planting Systems on the Peach Tree Growth, Productivity and NPK Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. MADJAR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the effect of two organo-mineral fertilizers: root fertilizer C011 and foliar fertilizer 411 bio-ionic liquids, on some vegetative and productive features of five new peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] varieties introduced in Romania: ‘Earlirich’, ‘Royal Estate’, ‘Rubirich’, ‘October Star’ and ‘Late Luka’, grafted on GF 677 rootstock. The experimental plot located on a reddish preluvosol, have been established in 2008 with four planting systems: Tatura trellis, V planting system, Sibari Y and Vertical axe with different nutrition area/tree. Fertilization was applied on the beggining of June and August, 2010 and 2011 on the soil, locally on the tree rows (C011 and by foliar spraying (411. Trees vegetative growth was compared at the end of the vegetation period by number of fruit buds per unit trunk surface section (CM/TSS with significant differences between types of crowns and the biggest values for ‘Rubirich’; the total shoots length with significant differences between varieties. The influence of fertilization on trees productivity was apreciated by analyzing the yield and some typical productivy indexes. The studied parameters including the NPK uptake, have been significantly influenced by the variety 3.39% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2010 and 2.75% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2011 in Tatura trellis planting system.

  7. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral. The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial. Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral. Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante.

  8. Segregation of the bulk blend fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Miserque, Olivier; Pirard, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Bulk blend fertilizers are a mixture of different kinds of fertilizers in order to obtain a predicted N-P-K chemical composition. Although this production method has some advantages, segregation appears at different stages, from the production to the final spreading on the field. An experiment has been implemented to predict and quantify the influence of some physical properties on the occurrence of segregation. The principle was to blend two fertilizers having identical physical properties e...

  9. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  10. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers / Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Donizetti Tomaz, Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira, Novais; Víctor Hugo, Alvarez V.; José Maria Moreira, Dias; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque, Villani.

    1609-16-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânico [...] s e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial). Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral). Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante. Abstract in english Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fe [...] rtilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral). The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.

  11. Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Obid Hussain

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598-2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

  12. Realistic Levels of a Fertilizer Impair Iberian Newt Embryonic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Orti?z-santaliestra, Manuel E.; Marco, Adolfo; Lizana, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    : A wide variety of agricultural chemicals with potential to affect amphibian health are released into the environment daily. Most of these chemicals are xenobiotic compounds that are highly toxic to embryos, tadpoles, and terrestrial stages. Other substances that occur in pristine environments at harmless concentrations, such as inorganic nitrogenous compounds, may reach potentially toxic levels as a consequence of certain human activities, including the applic...

  13. Impact of maternal nutritional level on progeny ovarian development and fertility in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of replacement beef heifers on dietary energy levels to achieve 55 vs. 65% of mature body weight at 14 mo of age did not affect their ovarian follicular development or subsequent fertility (Eborn et al., 2013, J. Anim. Sci. 91:4168). Because bovine ovarian gametogenesis and folliculogene...

  14. Nitrogen and Crude Proteins in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva under Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa CVETKOVIc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the influence of different organic and mineral fertilization treatments and post-harvest treatments on the content of nitrogen and crude proteins in the edible part of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva. A field trial (2003-2005 was set up in a hilly part of Croatia according to the Latin square method with four types of fertilization (control, 50 t ha-1 stable manure, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30, while treatments involved harvested fresh beetroot and stored fresh beetroot. The highest dry weight (DW content was determined in climatologically favourable 2004 (average 14.8% DW and in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (15.6% DW in harvested beetroot. In 2004 and 2005, the highest levels of nitrogen and crude proteins in harvested beetroot were determined in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (2.41 and 2.43 g N kg-1 in fresh weight and 15.07 and 15.21 g crude proteins kg-1 in fresh weight, respectively. Regardless of fertilization treatment or studied year, nitrogen and crude protein contents were higher in stored than in harvested beetroot, by 12% on average. The lowest crude protein content was determined in treatment with stable manure what confirmed that protein content decreased by organic fertilization. It can be concluded that beetroot lost some water during the storage period, which increased its content of nitrogen and crude proteins in fresh weight and thus increased the nutritional quality of beetroot as a functional food.

  15. EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaad DERBALA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

  16. ONION YIELD AS AFFECTED BY FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH AMINO AND HUMIC ACIDS UNDER NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed A. Kandil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nutrient foliar spraying such as amino and humic acids under nitrogen fertilizer levels on growth, yield and keeping quality of onion bulbs cv. Giza 20. Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The obtained results showed that foliar spraying with humic acid resulted in highest growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as TSS %, dry matter and total weight loss percentages at storage period  compared with the control treatment. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels up to 214.2 kg N/ha significantly increased growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as total weight loss percentages at storage period. In addition, fertilization with 71.4 kg N/ha significantly increased TSS and dry matter percentages. It could be recommended that spraying with humic acid and adding 214.2 kg N/ha maximize onion bulb yield under the environmental conditions of Gharbeia Governorate. The interaction between nutrients spraying and nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly affected foliage fresh weight, total weight loss % after 1, 2, 3 and 5 months.

  17. The historical fertility transition at the micro level: Southern Sweden 1815-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Bengtsson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We know a great deal about the historical fertility transition at the macro level. The dominating focus on the macro level in previous research on the fertility transition means, however, that to a large extent we lack knowledge about details of the decline and empirical tests of the leading explanatory frameworks. Objective: Our aim is to explore socioeconomic fertility differentials in an industrializing community, to gain insight about the details and discuss possible mechanisms. The study starts well before industrialization and finishes at the end of the transition. Methods: We use longitudinal individual-level data from the Scanian Economic-Demographic Database, which contains demographic as well as socioeconomic information, including occupation, landholding, and income. In the analysis we use hazard regressions with shared frailty at the family level. Results: The transition involved not only parity-specific stopping but also spacing. While the upper social strata had higher fertility prior to the transition, they started to control their fertility earlier, by the 1880s, and also more consistently. Farmers, the middle class, and skilled workers followed in the decades after, and unskilled workers with some additional delay. Conclusions: These findings are partly inconsistent with several of the major explanations in the literature, such as mortality decline, increased female labor force participation, and a quantity-quality trade-off, but consistent with an innovation process where new ideas and attitudes about family limitation spread from the elite to other social groups. Comments: Further studies are required to empirically test the innovation-diffusion theory.

  18. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, 226Ra and 232Th series, their decay products and 40K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2–106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6–9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21–607.3±14 Bq kg?1, respectively. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Raeq in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43 Bq kg?1 and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19 Bq kg?1, which are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg?1 adopted from . The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those the limits of those used worldwide. - Highlights: ? Mmeasured activity levels of natural radionuclides in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Saudi Arabia. ? Determined heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents. ? Activity of natural radionuclides in chemical fertilizer higher than in organic fertilizer. ? RAeq in chemical and organic fertilizers ranged between 34.07 and 161.43 Bq kg?1.

  19. Effect of Mineral Fertilization and Sowing Rate on Chemical Composition of Two Linseed Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek-Kopyra A.; Zajac T.; Micek P.; Borowiec F.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of two levels of mineral fertilization (90 and 180 kg NPK/ha) and three sowing rates (300, 600 and 900 germinating seeds per 1 m2) on chemical composition of two linseed cultivars (Opal and Hungarian Gold) differing in seed colour. Basic chemical composition, fatty acid profile, amino acid composition and yields of the seeds were determined. The yields of protein and fat were also estimated. Seeds of these two studied cultivars did n...

  20. Analysis of some factors affecting fertility levels in a high-producing dairy herd in south-western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Muhammad; Nakao, Toshihiko; Long, Su Thanh; Gautam, Gokarna

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to know whether all cows have been showing declining fertility or only a proportion of cows are attributed to the declining fertility, and to describe factors affecting the level of fertility. A total of 131 cows calved from February 2005 to December 2007 in a dairy herd were examined. Fourteen cows were excluded from the study because of early culling. Of the remaining 117 cows, 47 (40%) conceived within 115 days postpartum after 1???3 artificial inseminat...

  1. Soil pollution state as affected by different soil fertility regulation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of 14 chemical elements was measured in the soil of ten long-term field trials located in different climatic zones of Lithuania. Soil samples were taken from the control (untreated) and anthropogenic (fertilized with mineral NPK and/or organic fertilizers, limed) treatment plots. The samples were analyzed by the AAS method and directly analyzed with X-rays upon fine grinding (for Sr). In the western zone of Lithuania the anthropogenic impact (liming with fertilizing) resulted in statistically significant increase in the content of 4 elements (B, Ni, Sr, Zn). In the eastern zone 3 elements (Cu, Co, Sr) showed significant differences. Soil contamination index was exceeded significantly (up to 2 versus the background levels) only for Sr (2.14 times) in the western zone

  2. Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of 137Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears to be an effective countermeasure (at least in the type of forest used in this study). The reduction of the 137Cs levels in plants and fungi persisted for quite a long period of time

  3. Effect of fertilizer and inoculation on the growth and yield of soybean cv.williams-82 in pot culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot culture experiment in response to different levels of added N fertilizer on soybean cv.Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of Quetta. Fertilizer treatments were applied at the rate zero (control); 23; 25; 50; 75; 100 and 125 kg N/ha plus a constant dose of 60 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha and 30 kg K/sub 2/O/ha in all treatments (except control). These seven fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated pot culture crop. Results showed that nodules were found to be absent in both set of experiments which could be indirectly attributed to either sufficient level of soil NO/sub 3/ (5.10 mm) or deficient level of total Fe (8.25 ppm) and Cu (below detection limit) or might be directly due to any other edaphic or climatic factor(s). Results also showed that in general petiole length, middle leaflet area,' plant height, yield, 100 seed weight (except inoculated fertilized), total number of pods/plant (except non-inoculated fertilized) and pod both set of experiment are significantly different (P > 0.05) as compared with their respective control treatment. While remaining yield attributes viz., one-seeded, two-seeded and three-seeded pods are found as non-significantly different in response to both fertilizer and inoculum treatments. Results further revealed that pots receiving N fertilizer without inoculum mathematically out-yielded (1718 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 100+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-yielded (1912 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 125+60+30 kg NPK/ha. It was also revealed that all growth parameters and most of the yield attributes exhibited significant positive correlation with yield. However, number of seedless and one-seeded pods also exhibited significant but negative association with yield. (author)

  4. Investigation of high level of AsAb, EmAb in fertility female serum infected by chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of chlamydia trachomatis. AsAb, EmAb in female fertility. Methods: LPS antigen of chlamydia in reproduction tract of fertility female was detected by monoclonal antibody and immunology chromatography; the content of AsAb, EmAb in serum of fertility female was detected by ELISA. Results: Infections rate of chlamydia trachomatis in fertility female was higher than that in the control AsAb, EmAb in serum of the fertility patients who were infected with chlamydia trachomatis showed a significant difference from that in the control group. Conclusion: The level of AsAb, EmAb increases in patients who have been infected with chlamydia trachomatis and these cytokines is involved in the course of female fertility

  5. An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

  6. Adolescent fertility and risky environments: a population-level perspective across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Placek, Caitlyn D.; Quinlan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Timing of first reproduction is a key life-history variable with important implications for global economic development and health. Life-history theory predicts that human reproductive strategies are shaped by mortality regimes. This study provides the first test of the relationship between population-level adolescent fertility (AF) and extrinsic risk at two time points. Data are from United Nations database and were analysed using mediation and moderation techniques. The goals were to determ...

  7. Associations among descriptors of herd management and phenotypic and genetic levels of health and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Calus, M. P. L.; Windig, J. J.; Veerkamp, R. F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the association of descriptors of herd environment with phenotypic levels and breeding values of fertility and health traits. Analyses were performed for 82,080 first-lactation heifers and 173,787 multiparous cows. Fourteen environmental parameters were defined that described herd environment, such as average protein production, average somatic cell score (SCS), average calving interval, and average body condition score (BCS). Herds with lower av...

  8. Poder de mercado na indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08), no período de 1993-2006

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graciela Aparecida, Profeta; Marcelo José, Braga.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As barreiras à entrada, a concentração observada e a alta de preços dos fertilizantes induziram à desconfiança de possibilidade de exercício do poder de mercado por parte das empresas representativas da indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08). Esses indícios podem ser condição necessári [...] a, porém não suficiente para afirmar a existência e o exercício de fato do poder. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar a conduta das empresas representativas da indústria de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08), por meio da estimação do parâmetro de conduta médio, ?. O período de análise foi fevereiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2006. A análise do comportamento das firmas baseou-se na teoria da Nova Organização Industrial Empírica. O ? foi estimado via interação da equação de demanda e relação de oferta representativa da indústria. Sob o ?, aplicou­-se o teste de hipótese para conhecer a conduta das firmas. Os resultados não permitiram identificar a existência do poder de mercado, exceto quando foram consideradas apenas as quatro maiores empresas. Entretanto, não foi possível fazer inferências sobre o exercício do poder de mercado das quatro maiores empresas, haja visto que a principal preocupação foi em relação à possibilidade de exercício, e não ao seu exercício de poder de fato. Abstract in english Barriers to the entrance, the concentration observed and the increase of prices of fertilizers had conducted to the diffidence of the possibility of the exercise of market power on part of companies which represent the Brazilian industry of the NPK (04-14-08) fertilizer. These indications can be a n [...] ecessary condition, however not enough to affirm the existence and the exercise, in fact, of the power. The objective was to identify the behavior of the representative companies of the NPK (04-14-08) fertilizer industry, through the estimate of the average parameter of behavior, ?. The period of analysis was February 1993 until December 2006. The analysis of the behavior of the firms was based on the New Empirical Industrial Organization (Neio) theory. ? was projected through the interaction of the demand equation and the representative supply ratio of the industry. Under ?, the hypothesis test was applied to know the behavior of the firms. Results did not allow identifying the existence of the market power, except when only the four major companies had been considered. However, it was not possible to make inferences on the exercise of the market power of the four major companies, since that the main concern was regarding the possibility of the exercise, and not the exercise in fact.

  9. Effects of Soil and Foliar Application of Different Concentrations of NPK and Foliar Application of (NH4)2 SO4 on Different Yield Parameters in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar Jamal; Muhammad Hamayun; Nadeem Ahmad; Fayyaz Chaudhary, M.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was designed and conducted in order to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) i.e., NH4NO3, K2HPO4 and KH2PO4 on the yield parameters of Wheat when applied both through foliage and soil. The effect of (NH4)2SO4 through foliar application on the same plant was also studied. The grain yield increased in treatments where NPK was applied both through foliar sprays and soil. Soil application of fertilizer yield better results than ...

  10. Evaluation of the Performance of Lowland Rice-ratooned Rice-vegetable as Influenced by Fertilizer Rates in Sawah Rice Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Adigbo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial was conducted at the Federal University of Agriculture; Abeokuta, Nigeria in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 cropping season to evaluate the performance of lowland rice-ratooned rice-okra as influenced by fertilizer rates in sawah rice based system. Field was manually cleared and bunded but power tilled, puddled and leveled with inlet and outlet connections for irrigation and drainage. Fertilizer treatments evaluated on lowland rice were 90:45:45, 60:30:30, 45:22.5:22.5 and 30:15:15 NPK kg ha-1 whereas those of ratooned rice were 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha-1. Grain yield, chlorophyll content and plant height at maturity of the main lowland rice were similar. The ratooned rice crop treated with N-fertilizer had similar grain yield. The total grain yield of the two crops of rice ranged between 4.47 and 5.65 t ha-1 year-1. The okra leaf chlorophyll content and okra pod weight obtained from the previous N-fertilizer plot of 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 were similar but significantly higher than those of 0 and 30 kg N ha-1. Thus, fertilizer combination of 30:15:15 kg NPK ha-1 for lowland rice and 60 kg N ha-1 for ratooned rice in sawah rice based production system enhanced the productivity of succeeding okra plant.

  11. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND RATES OF NITROGEN AND SUPRA OPTIMAL LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY SUGARCANE GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCUSS ROSS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of our pervious studies indicated that application of potassium @150 kg K2O ha-1 is effective in achieving economical sugarcane yield and optimum nutrient uptake under saline conditions. Keeping in view these findings, experiments were conducted on salt-affected soils at three sites of Punjab, Pakistan to select a suitable source and rate of N for obtaining optimum sugarcane yield and nutrient uptake from salt-affected soils. The experiments were conducted with two sugarcane varieties, salt tolerant (SPSG-26 and sensitive (CP-77400 using supra optimal level of K (150 kg K2O ha-1 as sulphate of potash SOP, P @ 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 as DAP (diammonium phosphate and N @100 and 200 kg N ha-1 as urea or calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN. The results showed that cane length and diameter, number of tillers per plant, cane yield and sugar recovery increased with the application of N in both the sugarcane varieties under normal or saline conditions. Sugarcane growth and yield increased with increasing N rate from 100 to 200 kg N ha-1 in case of both urea and CAN. However, CAN as N source was more effective in enhancing sugarcane growth and yield than urea. The concentration of Na+ increased in both the sugarcane varieties due to salinity, however, application of K and N decreased its concentration. The combined application of NPK also significantly reduced Na+ uptake in leaves, however, the best combination observed was DAP+SOP+CAN. It was also observed that salt tolerant variety (SPSG-26 had lesser accumulation of Na+ than that of sensitive one (CP-77400. Application of N fertilizers significantly enhanced the nutrient (K, P, and N uptake in both the varieties at both N rates (100 and 200 kg N ha-1 under normal as well as saline conditions. However, maximum uptake of nutrients was recorded at the highest dose (200 kg N ha-1 but CAN treated plants performed better than that of urea. On the basis of above results, the application of K as SOP and N as CAN was recommended for salt-affected soils to enhance the sugarcane yield. The salt tolerant variety for higher yield in salt-affected soil is also necessary for improving the cost benefit ratio. The results revealed that if salinity level of soil would exceed 10 dS m-1, considerable reduction in sugarcane yield could occur.

  12. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saime, Guzel; Meltem, Tanriverdi.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels o [...] f leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  13. Fertility and blood progesterone levels following LHRH-induced superovulation in FSH-treated anestrous goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlosotu, B A; Wilder, C D

    1993-11-01

    Twenty mature, mixed-breed, seasonally anestrous female goats were used to study the effects of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) on ovulation rate, fertility, and blood progesterone levels following norgestomet-induced estrus and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments. Each goat received 6 mg norgestomet by subcutaneous (sc) implant and 3 mg intramuscularly, along with an intramuscular (im) injection of 5 mg estradiol valerate. Four injections of FSH were given for 2 d in divided doses of 10, 10, 5 and 5 mg im every 12 h, starting at 24 h before implant removal. The goats were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 equal treatment groups, and were treated with 2 intravenous (iv) injections of either 0.9% saline (control) or 300 ug LHRH at 24 and 48 h after the removal of the implants. All the goats exhibited estrus within 24 or 36 h of implant withdrawal and were mated to bucks of proven fertility. At laparotomy on Day 7 or 8 after the removal of the implants, the mean number of unovulated follicles was higher (Povulation rate), the total number of embryos and the number of normal embryos recovered were higher (Povulation rate and blood progesterone levels in norgestomet-treated anestrous goats. Moreover, LHRH treatment enhanced fertility, and improved embryo quality as indicated by the significantly higher total number of embryos as well as the higher (P<0.05) number of normal recoverable embryos. PMID:16727371

  14. EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Derbala, Asaad; Hashad, Abdelmonem

    2013-01-01

    The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respe...

  15. [Present situation of rice fertilization in qin-ba mountainous area of Southern Shaanxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Fen; Tong, Yan-An; Zhao, Zuo-Ping

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the present situation of rice fertilization and the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input in the Qin-Ba mountainous area of southern Shaanxi, the survey data from 2854 households in 11 counties of this area in the project "soil testing and formulated fertilization in 2006-2009" were analyzed and evaluated, and the countermeasures for the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were proposed. In the study area, the average rice yield was 7822 kg x hm(-2) per year, and the ratio of the households obtained the medium level yield was up to 50.9%. The input of the total fertilizers N, P2O5, K2O was 169, 68, and 54 kg x hm(-2), and the chemical fertilizer rate was 159, 62, and 45 kg x hm(-2), with the partial factor productivity (PFP) of the N, P2O5, and K2O being 51.52, 135.69, and 158.26 kg x kg(-1), respectively. According to the nutrient fertilization level, the proportion of the households fertilized with rational level of chemical N, P2O5, and K2O occupied 48.0%, 42.4%, and 7.2%, that of the households fertilized with excessive level was 22.6%, 11.2%, and 0.6%, and the proportion of the households fertilized with insufficient level occupied 29.4%, 46.5%, and 92.2%, respectively. The rice yield in the Qin-Ba mountainous area could be increased by 77 thousand tons if the households fertilizing with insufficient level of chemical NPK fertilizers increased the fertilization rate to a rational level. The existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were mainly the coexistence of excessive and insufficient application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers and the insufficient input of potassium fertilizer and organic manure. In the rice fertilization in this area, the focus would be the balanced application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, the increase of the fertilization rates of potassium fertilizer and organic manure, and the increase of top dressing, especially potassium. PMID:24564138

  16. Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

  17. Restoration of fertility of gleyic fluvisols to increase rice yields using shellfish products in Toumbokro, Côte d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Kouadio, Koffi Patrice; Yao-kouame, Albert; Alui, Konan Alphonse; Kwadjo, Koffi Eric

    2011-01-01

    A study designed to characterize the effects of shellfish products on the chemical properties of fluvisols gleyic and yield of rice was carried out in Toumbokro, Yamoussoukro’s region, Côte d'Ivoire. The work has been focused on soil amendment by three types of shells (Achatina spp Donax spp and Ostrea spp). Three doses of shellfish products (500, 1000 and 1500 kg.ha- 1) and NPK fertilizer were tested in a split-plot design with three repetitions. At ground level, the study showed that the...

  18. Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Li, Yong; Xiong, Wu; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2014-01-01

    Soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in a rice-wheat cropping system subjected to different fertilizer regimes were investigated in two seasons (June and October). All fertilizer regimes increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Both fertilizer regime and time had a significant effect on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure. The combined application of inorganic fertilizer and manure organic-inorganic fertilizer significantly enhanced the bacterial diversity in both seasons. The bacterial communities across all samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi at the phylum level. Permutational multivariate analysis confirmed that both fertilizer treatment and season were significant factors in the variation of the composition of the bacterial community. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances further revealed that bacterial communities were separated primarily by season. The effect of fertilizer treatment is significant (P = 0.005) and accounts for 7.43% of the total variation in bacterial community. Soil nutrients (e.g., available K, total N, total P and organic matter) rather than pH showed significant correlation with the majority of abundant taxa. In conclusion, both fertilizer treatment and seasonal changes affect soil properties, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. The application of NPK plus manure organic-inorganic fertilizer may be a sound fertilizer practice for sustainable food production. PMID:24465530

  19. Crop Coefficient (kc and Water Use Efficiency (WUE of Soybean as Affected by Soil Moisture Stress and Fertility Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.A. Burriro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment were conducted to study the crop coefficient (Kc and water use Efficiency (WUE of soybean as affected by soil moisture stress and fertility levels at Malir Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University. Tnadojam, Pakistan on silt loam soil. The results revealed that crop efficient (Kc increased with an increase in the crop age. The Kc was higher proportionate to higher moisture availability. The peak Kc was at 105-125 days after sowing, corresponding with early stage to complete fill stage of soybean crop. Water use efficiency at 5 bar tensions signified the plants under stress and were more efficient in utilizing water for the production of grain. The higher fertility was exhibited through appropriate fertilizer levels which in-turn increased the water use efficiency and compensated water deficiency. Thus, it is recommended that crop coefficient and fertility levels should be identified for obtaining maximum water use efficiency and yield targets.

  20. Impact of Row Spacing and Fertilizer Levels (Diammonium Phosphate) on Yield and Yield Components of Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Mujtaba Masood; Imran Haider Shamsi; Noorullah Khan

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the impact of row spacing (15, 30, 45 and 60 cm) and fertilizer levels (0, 50, 75 and 100 kg ha-1) on canola. The number of pods plant-1, number of grains pod-1, thousand grain weight and grain yield ha-1 was recorded during the study. The highest number of pods (177) Plant-1, number of grains (30), thousand grain weight 0.86 g) and grain yield kg ha-1 (1692) was observed from plots where row spacing was kept at 45 cm. Similarly the highest number of pods ...

  1. Effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on sweet corn (Zea maYs L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on emergence m/sup -2/ growth and grain yield of sweet corn. The fertilizer and interaction of fertilizer x seed density had significant negative effect with increasing level while seed density had a positive effect with increased density on emergence per m/sup 2/. Increased seed density significantly reduced plant growth which increased with application of higher fertilizer dose. The grain yield was improves by ridge planting methods, increased seed density and increased fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (3,553.50 kg ha/sup-1/) of sweet corn plants was recorded in ridge planting method with highest NP fertilizer level of 300:150 kg ha/sup 1/ and 4 seeds hill/sup -1/. The lowest grain yield (3,493.75 kg ha/sup -1/) of sweet corn was observed in flat sowing planting method with 120:75 NP level and 2 seeds hill/sup -1/ seed density. The ridge planting rank first then furrow and flat planting methods on basis of grain yield per hectare. The sweet corn plant yield was high with 4 seeds hill/sup -1/ compared with 2 seeds hill/sup -1/. (author)

  2. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, A., E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit 71452 (Egypt); Althoyaib, S.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-01-15

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th series, their decay products and {sup 40}K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring {gamma}-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5{+-}5.2-106.3{+-}7.5, 5.1{+-}1.6-9.9{+-}3.2. and 462.6{+-}21-607.3{+-}14 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra{sub eq} in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43 Bq kg{sup -1} and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19 Bq kg{sup -1}, which are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1} adopted from . The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmeasured activity levels of natural radionuclides in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Saudi Arabia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activity of natural radionuclides in chemical fertilizer higher than in organic fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA{sub eq} in chemical and organic fertilizers ranged between 34.07 and 161.43 Bq kg{sup -1}.

  3. Fertilization regimes affect the soil biological characteristics of a sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, WenXi; Lu, JianWei; Li, FangBai; Wang, Yan; Lu, JunMing; Li, XiaoKun

    2011-06-01

    The sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) rotation is an intensive and new cropping system in Central China. Nutrient management practices in this rotation system may influence soil fertility, the important aspects of which are soil biological properties and quality. As sensitive soil biological properties and quality indicators, soil microbial community activity, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, soil organic matter (SOM) and total N resulting from different fertilization regimes in this rotation system were studied through a four-year field experiment from April 2005 to May 2009. Treatments included control (CK), fertilizer phosphorus and potassium (PK), fertilizer nitrogen and potassium (NK), fertilizer nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) and a fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combination (NPK). Soil microbial community activities in the NK, NP and NPK treatments were significantly lower than those in the CK and PK treatments after the sudangrass and ryegrass trial. The highest microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, SOM, total N, sucrase and urease activities were found in the NPK treatment, and these soil quality indicators were significantly higher in the NK, NP and NPK treatments than in the PK and CK treatments. Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities were positively associated with SOM in the sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system, indicating that fertilization regimes, especially N application, reduced microbial community activity in the soil. Proper fertilization regimes will increase microbial biomass, enzyme activity and SOM and improve soil fertility. PMID:21706419

  4. MAIZE NITROGEN RECOVERY FOR DIFFERENT APPLICATION LEVELS AND SPLITS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA CARVALHO SILVA FERNANDES

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the nitrogen recovery of maize crops growing in the soil under the no-tillage management system, using different levels and splits of N. The experiment was carried out in a sandy-loam soil, located in the ESALQ/USP campus and consisted of two maize croppings (2003/04 and 2004/05 and one black oat cropping grown in the interval between 2003/04 and 2004/05. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications, in an incomplete factorial (3x2 scheme + 1 (control: 0 kg ha-1 of N. Three levels (60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 and two splits (30 or 60 kg ha-1 at sowing and the balance in cover of N were used. The 15N-labelled fertilizer application, performed in order to use the isotope method, was carried out in the level of 120 kg ha-1 in subplots only in the first maize cropping. The following were evaluated: amount of N in plants, 15N abundance fertilizer recovering by plants of the three croppings using both methods of the difference and isotope. The nitrogen recovery, by the difference method, after all croppings of maize, did not decrease with the increase of the applied nitrogen level and, for the level of 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N, the applications of 60 kg ha-1 at sowing showed the highest N recovery by the plants. For the level of 120 kg ha-1 of N, the plant N recovery (in percent obtained by the method of the difference, after the first maize cropping, was 78,5% (in average overestimated in comparison with the value found by the isotope method. The difference method should not be used in residual effect studies.

  5. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. PMID:21906958

  6. [Effect of atrazine on urease activity in soils with different fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Ruilian; Zhao, Bingqiang

    2003-12-01

    Four soils with different fertility were treated with different concentrations of atrazine. The results showed that the urease activity was stimulated in the soils treated with low concentration of atrazine at the first day, while inhibited after treated with high concentration of atrazine during the whole period of the experiment. There was a significant difference in urease activity in soils with different fertility after treated with high concentration atrazine. The urease activity in CK and in NPK was significantly inhibited, the inhibition rate reached 30.35% and 28.89%, respectively, but in NPK + S and NPK + M, the inhibition rate was only 21.35% and 16.86%, respectively. The maximum inhibition rate appeared later in soils with high than with low fertility, showing that soils with high fertility could endure the effect of atrazine. PMID:15031935

  7. Cassava/Maize Intercrop Performance and Soil Nutrient Changes with Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoola, O. T.; Makinde, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in the forest vegetation (Ibadan) and the derived savannah (Ilora) zones of south west Nigeria to assess the yield performance of cassava/maize intercrop and soil nutrient changes with sole and some combined ratios of organic-based fertilizer (OBF) and inorganic fertilizer. Sole OBF was assessed at 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 t ha-1 while 400 kg ha-1 NPK 15-15-15 served as the sole inorganic fertilizer treatment. The combined treatments were: 2.5 t ha-1 OBF + 100 kg ha-1 NPK...

  8. Role of PACAP in female fertility and reproduction at gonadal level - recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DoraReglodi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides.

  9. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha? MAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and ?-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and ?-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  10. Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

  11. Testing the Fertilizer Effect of Compost Produced by Anaerobic Fermentation of Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The compost tested in this study resulted from the anaerobic fermentation process of sewage sludge with cereal straw. Processing and post-treatment were made by Biotechnological Research Centre within INCD ECOIND from Bucharest. Experimental program included testing the effect of fertilizer in quantities of 25 t, 50 t and 100 t compost / ha on the production of soya beans. It was also investigated the influence of the combination of fertilization with compost and inorganic fertilization with levels of 200 kg, respectively, 400 kg NPK / ha. Was analyzed the following productivity indicators: plant density, number of floors of pods, number and weight of pods and total beans production, in full ripening stage. In the case of fertilization only with composted sludge, production of peas and beans was higher in variants with 50 t / ha and 100 t / ha (2095 kg and 1990 kg grain / ha. Therefore, doubling the amount of compost does not provide corresponding increase yields of soybeans. Combining organic and inorganic fertilization determine a proportional production increase only for the total biomass production. The tested compost is a good organic fertilizer and the amount that provides the greatest soybeans production is 50 t / ha.

  12. Deterministic modeling of nutrients (NPK 15-15-15) transport in unsaturated homogeneous sandy-loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of inorganic fertilizers to increase crop yield on the same piece of land is being practiced in most part of the world in recent times as a result of population growth and urbanization. Inorganic fertilizers readily supply plants with the required nutrients in a very short time after application. Application of inorganic fertilizers on the field, if not managed properly can have devastating effects on the environment. When nutrient does not get to plants roots at the right time or travels beyond the reach of plant roots, it causes groundwater pollution and financial loss to farmers as plants do not fully use the nutrients applied. The need to understand how nutrients from inorganic fertilizers are transported in soil is essential to ensure maximum utilization of these nutrients and minimize the harmful effects that can result from their application on the field. Mathematical modeling and simulation techniques are very important in any attempt to understand and predict the transport of nutrients in soils. This research presents mathematical models of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer nutrients transport in an unsaturated homogeneous sandy loam soil. In the thesis, a convection dispersion equation (CDE) was developed (as the governing equation) for the nutrient transport and analytical solution based on Laplace transform technique and numerical solution based on implicit finite difference method were obtained to determine the concentration distribution of nitrate, potassium and phosphorous from inorganic NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer. Solution algorithms for Matlab programming were developed and implemented for generating results for analysis. The analytical and the numerical solution gave similar results for the concentration distribution of the nutrients in soil with respect to both depth and time. The results that were obtained indicated that for analytical or numerical solutions nitrate was the most mobile nutrient in soil among the three nutrients considered in the work, but none of the three nutrients leached beyond the depth of interest (100 cm from the soil surface), since no concentration of the three nutrients was recorded at the 100 cm depth. (au)

  13. Study on the effect of temperature and the level of nitrogenase fertilizer on formation dynamics of nitrate in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of temperature and application level of nitrogenase fertilizer on the formation dynamics of nitrate in soil were studied with the isotope tracer CO(15NH2)2 by planting spinages in pot culture. the dynamics model of nitrate in soil after applying urea was established as: C = A(e-ket-e-kat). With temperature of 10 degree C, the model was as follows: C = 1-e-kat. The results showed that temperature had an obvious effect on the formation and degradation velocity of nitrate in soil but the application level of nitrogenase fertilizer had no significant effect on them

  14. Wheat Response to Application Methods and Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer: I. Phenology, Growth Indices and Protein Content

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Qudrat Ullah Khan; Muhammed Safdar Baloch; Abdul Aziz Khakwani; Muhammed Ayyaz Khan; Inayat Ullah Awan; Ejaz Ahmed Khan; Ghazanfar Ullah; Kashif Wasim; Sadaf Javeria; Ghulam Jilani

    2013-01-01

    Fertilizer use efficiency of nitrogen is very low due to various types of losses. This two year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of various levels of nitrogen and its application methods on phenology, growth indices and quality of wheat. Fertilizer application methods (broadcast and side-dressing) were placed in the main plots, while nitrogen levels (60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg/ha) applied in sub plots. Crop data showed that nitrogen methods had non-significant ...

  15. Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

  16. Dynamics of clay mineralogy with profile depth in relation to long term potassium fertilizer application to sugar cane crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment consisted of treatment of sugar cane crop with N, NP, NPK and farmyard manure and determination of its effect on soil mica, vermiculite and montmorillonite over a period of 18 years. The NPK treatment had greater mica in coarse clay, but less in fine clay than NP and control treatments. Vermiculite in coarse clay fraction, in NPK treatment, increased with the depth as compared to other treatments. The fertilizer treatment effect on smectite content was obvious only in AP horizon in fine clay fraction. (author)

  17. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g?1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg?1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g?1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

  18. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  19. Heterogeneidade do solo sob diferentes adubações na cultura do milho Soil heterogeneity under different fertilizer levels in maize crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir dos dados de um experimento bifatorial em parcelas subdivididas no delineamento inteiramente casualidade, com três formas de adubação nas parcelas principais, e com duas cultivares de milho, com 10 repetições (20 subparcelas, foram estudados: a variabilidade entre as subparcelas agrupadas em diferentes tamanhos, após subtrair-se o efeito da causa de variação cultivar; e o índice de heterogeneidade do solo para cada repetição das formas de adubação. Estas consistiram em: FA1 - adubação recomendada para rendimento de grãos menor do que 3,0t/ha; FA2 - adubação recomendada para rendimento maior do que 6,0t/ha e tratamento das sementes com Zn; e FA3 - igual a FA2, mais a incorporação ao solo de um composto orgânico. Analisando a variância dos diferentes tamanhos de parcela, observou-se uma relação entre o tamanho da parcela e a forma de adubação, sendo que, para o menor tamanho (5m² a FA1 apresentou a menor variância, e para o maior tamanho (25m² , não houve diferença significativa entre as adubações. Pela estimativa do índice de heterogeneidade do solo das formas de adubação, conclui-se que a inclusão do adubo orgânico intensifica a variabilidade existente no solo, quando comparado com adubos químicos.This experiment was based on data obtained from a factorial experiment with a split-plot design in which three sou fertility levels (FL were assigned as main plots, and two maize varieties as 20 sub-plots. The study was conducted to evaluate the variability among sub-plots grouped with different sizes after subtraction of the variety effect, as well as the soil heterogeneity index for each replication of the soil fertility level. The soil fertility levels were: FL1 - fertilization recommended for grain yields up to 3.0 t ha-1 ; FL2 - fertilization for up to 6.0 t ha-1 plus Zn treated seeds; and FL3 - equal to FL2 plus incorporation of an organic compost into the soil. Comparing the the variance between different plot sizes was observed interaction between plot size and fertility level. The smallest plot size (5m² and FL1 showed the smallest variance. However, for fertilitv level no statistic difference was observed when 25m² plot size was used. The estimation of the soil heterogeneity index due to soil fertilization level indicates that the addition of organic mather increases the variability as compared to the addition of mineral fertilizers.

  20. Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascolonicum Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopit Vetayasuporn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A block experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of biological and chemical (NPK 15:15:15 fertilizers on the growth and yield of shallot cultivation in Mahasakham University, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand. Six biological fertilizers were developed from BBF (basically biological fertilizer: 45 g cattle manure + 45 g rice bran + 20 mL of molasses + 10 mL of EM + 10 L of dechlorinated water and used in this experiment. Chemical and biological fertilizers showed insignificant at a confidence level of 95% on the growth and yield of shallots. Increasing biological and chemical fertilizers concentration in this experiment had no significant effect on shallot growth and yield. Except control (without fertilizer, average shallot total weight with leaves and number of leaves per plant in all treatments were ranged between 9.885-12.024 g and 19.095-21.840 leaves, respectively. Average shallot total weight with leaves and number of leaves per plant obtained in this experimental were coincided to the Thai market standard. Growth and yield of these shallots showed significant different to the control (5.525 g of weight and 15.625 leaves per plant. Supplemented golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculat into BBF provided higher NO3? contents (4.28-4.68%. However, the high content of nitrate in biological fertilizer did not show significant effects in promoting shallot growth and yield. Under taking into account chemical fertilizer cost, which is ten times higher than biological fertilizer, the soil amendment with biological fertilizer may be a practicable alternative for the poor farmers who own degraded farmlands may be unable to afford the cost of chemical fertilizer.

  1. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  2. Evaluation Of Compost Fertilizer "Zarkhez" In Conjunction With Chemical Fertilizers For Rice And Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam John; Muhammad Khalid; Farooq Javed

    1998-01-01

    Experiments conducted to evaluate a compost fertilizer "Zarkhez" showed that effect of compost alone (2000 kg/ha and 4000 kg/ha) on number of tillers, 1000-grain weight, yield and NPK uptake by rice and wheat was almost similar to control, whereas, significant improvements were observed when combination of compost and chemical fertilizers were applied. Maximum yield of paddy (4.25 t ha-1) and wheat (2.61 t ha-1) were obtained with 4000 kg ha-1 compost + chemical fertilizers (150-75-0 kg ha-1,...

  3. Effect of biochar on the properties of loamy sand Spodosol soil samples with different fertility levels: A laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizhiya, E. Ya.; Buchkina, N. P.; Mukhina, I. M.; Belinets, A. S.; Balashov, E. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of biochar on the properties of a loamy sand Spodosol with different fertility level in the ploughed horizon has been studied in a 60-day laboratory experiment. It has been found that the application of biochar resulted in a significant increase of the soil water content in the range of soil-water potential from -5 to -50 kPa, a significant decrease of the total shrinkage of the soil with high level of fertility after three wetting-drying cycles, and the accumulation of a significantly higher content of nitrates in the soil. At a water content of 21%, less favorable conditions for the denitrification development were formed in the soil with high level of fertility than in the medium-fertile soil, which resulted in lower cumulative N2O emission from the former. The addition of biochar resulted in no significant changes in the cumulative emission of CO2 from the studied soil but significantly reduced the emission of N2O from the soil at the simultaneous addition of biochar and clover residues.

  4. Comportamento de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro em diferentes níveis de adubação N,P e K, em Latossolo Roxo - (1.ª série Behavior of São Paulo cotton varieties under different levels of N, P and K fertilization on Lattossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Machado da Silva

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados resultados de três ensaios de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro adubadas com diferentes doses dos elementos N, P e K, conduzidos em Latossolo Roxo não infestado pelo fungo causador da murcha de Fusarium, em 1965/66. As variedades IAC 13 e IAC 12 apresentaram ciclo vegetativo mais longo que a IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 13 superou em produção a IAC 12, e a variedade IAC RM3, que apresentou sintomas mais intensos de deficiência de potássio, obteve a menor média de produção. A dose básica de adubação, correspondente a 20, 45 e 40 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, aumentou significativamente a produção. Em média, a dose dupla proporcionou pequeno aumento, quando comparada com a básica, nas variedades IAC 12 e IAC 13. Em um dado ensaio, essa dose mostrou--se inferior à básica, quando aplicada à variedade IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 12 apresentou a mais alta média de porcentagem de fibra. A IAC 13 foi a melhor quanto aos índices Micronaire e Pressley. A adubação utilizada não concorreu para melhorar nenhuma dessas características; contribuiu entretanto para aumentar o pêso dos capulhos e das sementes.The behavior of three São Paulo cotton varieties (IAC 12, IAC 13 and IAC RM3, which differ themselves in vegetative cycle and nutrient requirements, after receiving three levels of complete N, P and K fertilization, were compared under cultivation on latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils. The inclusion of the variety IAC RM3, resistant to Fusarium wilt, was made considering a possible spreading of this disease, now common in sandy soils, to clay soils. A basic dose of NPK fertilizer, containing 20, 45 and 40 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K..O respectively, induced a significant increase in cotton yield, in relation to control plots, where no fertilizer was added. Among the varieties, IAC 13, with longest life cycle, presented the highest yield, followed by IAC 12, with intermediate cycle length. IAC RM3 was the less productive. There was also a significant increase in the weight of seeds and bolls due to this basic dose. No appreciable effect of a possible interaction between varieties and fertilization could be noticed. A double dose of fertilizer produced further increase in yield, except in the case of IAC RM3, in which additional amount of fertilizer induced a slight yield reduction and many plants showed signs of potassium defficiency. Considering the fiber characteristics the tested varieties differed significantly. IAC 12 had the highest mean of lint percentage, while IAC 13, on the average, was the best for Micronaire and Pressley indices, confirming previous unpublished determinations.

  5. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N2-fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  6. [The zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands 60 days after termination of exposure to chemical fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devecerski, V D; Marjanov, M S; Budakov, P M

    1994-01-01

    We detected fatty substances as well as enzymic activity in rats which, after a stay in workshop, where NPK fertilizer is produced, for 30 days survived another 60 days in normal conditions. The quantity of neutral fats and tryglycerides was reduced while the content of phospholipids was increased concerning the fasciculate's zone cells. After exposure to NPK fertilizer the cells nuclei got enlarged and dense. The activity of acid phosphatases increased, MAO was reduced, while the activity of succinat-dehydrogenesis was increased. The dermined quantities of fatty substances as well as the enzyme activity point to stimulated activity of fasciculate's zone cells. PMID:7476694

  7. Impact of fertilization and granular insecticides on the incidence of tobacco aphid, myzus persicae (sulz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were conducted on the control of tobacco aphid, Myzus persicase (Sulz) with four granular insecticides, viz, Furadan 3% G, Diazinon 5% g, Thiodan 5% g and Larsban 5% g, with and without NPK fertilization. The aphid population was significantly higher in the fertilized plots compared to the non-fertilized ones. All the four insecticides significantly reduced the aphids density compared to the check. Furada 3% gave best results for the control of this pest. (author)

  8. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Gorecka; Henryk Gorecki; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Marzanna Bara?ska; Izabela Michalak; Agnieszka Zieli?ska

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with s...

  9. The effect of fertilization levels and genetic deployment on soil organic matter chemistry and turnover in managed loblolly pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J. G.; Jokela, E. J.; He, D.; Hockaday, W. C.; Schuur, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics were examined for two managed loblolly pine forests (Pinus taeda L.) located in north-central Florida on sandy Spodosols. The study designs were split-plots with the whole plots designated as fertilization levels, and the split-plots full-sib families of loblolly pine. The forests were aged 9 and 10 years at sampling. Roots, wood, and charcoal were hand-picked from SOM and density fractionation (1.6 g/ml) used to further separate SOM into a light (LF) and heavy fraction (HF). LF turnover rates were estimated using radiocarbon and LF chemistry determined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Family or fertilization level effects on the mass of SOM components were not significant at both sites. The largest proportions of SOM were in the LF (83% and 85%) and wood (6% and 9%). Varying in relative contributions were charcoal (2% and 3%) and the HF (4% and 1%) while fine dead roots were between 1-2% of total SOM. Higher fertilization levels generally depressed fine root (<1 mm) biomass, but whether the effect was significant varied with family and soil horizon. The turnover rate for one family under low fertilization was significantly slower (14 yrs) than the other treatments. This treatment also had a greater proportion of lignin, and given the slow turnover, the results suggest this lignin derived from the previous stand. At the other site lignin and lipids differed significantly (p<0.05) between families. These results suggest that tree genetics in forests can influence SOM chemistry, but that family and the degree of fertilization have little net effect on SOM chemistry and turnover.

  10. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da correção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus, cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and 128 for the 50, 100 and 150% recommended fertilizer rates. The NPK fertilizer levels, keeping c

  11. Quercetin content in field-cured onions (Allium cepa L.): effects of cultivar, lifting time, and nitrogen fertilizer level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Lars M; Olsson, Marie E; Gertsson, Ulla E

    2006-08-23

    Variation in quercetin content was investigated in field-cured onions (Allium cepa L.) that had been supplied with different nitrogen fertilizer levels and lifted at different developmental stages. Quercetin content varied significantly between years and was well correlated to global radiation in August. Field curing generally resulted in significant increases in quercetin content compared to levels at lifting. Nitrogen fertilizer level did not affect quercetin content, suggesting that nitrogen leakage from soil may be minimized without effects on flavonol content. Lifting time had minor effects on quercetin content in field-cured onions. Cultivar differences in quercetin content were significant but not consistent in all years. Quercetin content increased significantly less in dark environments compared to field curing, but some quercetin synthesis occurred regardless of light. Field curing with or without foliage still attached did not affect quercetin content, suggesting that no transportation from the foliage to the scales occurred. PMID:16910706

  12. Apple fruit quality, yield and leaf macronutrients content as affected by fertilizer treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Milo& #353; evi& #263; ; N, Milo& #353; evi& #263; .

    Full Text Available During two years we have investigated main fruit quality traits, yield and leaf nutrient content at 120 days after full bloom (DAFB) of ,Idared, and ,Melrose, apples on M.9 rootstock when fertilized with complex NPK (15:15:15) alone, and mixture with natural zeolite (Agrozel) and/or cattle manure. R [...] esults showed that fruit quality has been strongly affected by cultivars, whereas fertilizer treatments influenced only yield per tree. Moreover, significant impact of cultivar and fertilizer treatment on leaf P, K and Mg was found. Leaf of ,Melrose, contained higher P and K content, and lower Mg content than those of ,Idared,. In ,Melrose,, NPK alone increased leaf P, whereas in ,Idared, , mixture of NPK+Agrozel and NPK+Manure promoted leaf P, K and Mg content. According to DOP and EDOP indexes, excessive leaf Mg content was found, and deficiency of the rest of nutrients. ,Melrose, exhibited better balanced nutritional values for nutrients as compared to ,Idared,, whereas NPK+M promoted better balanced nutritional values than other treatments.

  13. Bacterial diversity in Greenlandic soils as affected by potato cropping and inorganic versus organic fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund; Pedas, Pai Rosager

    2014-01-01

    Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems will in the near future be exposed to severe environmental stresses due to global warming. For example, the microbial community structure and function may change as a result of increased temperatures. In Greenland, agriculture is carried out in the Subarctic regions with only limited pest management, despite the presence of plant pathogenic fungi. The microbial community composition in agricultural soils, which plays an important role for soil and plant health and for crop yield, may be affected by the use of different fertilizer treatments. Currently, only limited research has been performed on the effects of these treatments on bacterial communities in Arctic and Subarctic agricultural soils. The major objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of conventional (NPK) and organic (sheep manure supplemented with nitrogen) fertilizer treatments on bacterial diversity, nutrient composition and crop yield in two Greenlandic agricultural soils. An effect of fertilizer was found on soil and plant nutrient levels and on crop yields. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences did not reveal any major changes in the overall bacterial community composition as a result of different fertilizer treatments, indicating a robust microbial community in these soils. In addition, differences in nutrient levels, crop yields and bacterial abundances were found between the two field sites and the two experimental growth seasons, which likely reflect differences in physical-chemical soil parameters. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK / Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos, Bernardi; Carlos Guarino, Werneck; Patrick Gesualdi, Haim; Nélio das Graças de Andrade da Mata, Rezende; Paulo Renato Perdigão, Paiva; Marisa Bezerra de Mello, Monte.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por [...] 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1) ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z) e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK), e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP). Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura. Abstract in english The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibb [...] le tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1) with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant) of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70%) and KNO3 - zeolite (30%). Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

  15. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70% and KNO3 - zeolite (30%. Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

  16. Crop Coefficient (kc) and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of Soybean as Affected by Soil Moisture Stress and Fertility Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Burriro, U. A.; Samoon, H. A.; Oad, F. C.; Jamro, G. H.

    2002-01-01

    Experiment were conducted to study the crop coefficient (Kc) and water use Efficiency (WUE) of soybean as affected by soil moisture stress and fertility levels at Malir Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University. Tnadojam, Pakistan on silt loam soil. The results revealed that crop efficient (Kc) increased with an increase in the crop age. The Kc was higher proportionate to higher moisture availability. The peak Kc was at 105-125 days after sowing, corresponding with early stage to comple...

  17. Stimulation of N2-fixation in chickpea by gamma irradiation as affected by different levels of ammonium sulfate fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted under natural climatic conditions to study the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10, and 20 Gy) on the performance of winter chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in the presence of increased supply of 15N labeled ammonium sulfate (0, 20, 50, and 100 kg N ha-1). Presowing seed irradiation produced a significant increase in dry matter production (up to 36%) and total nitrogen yield (up to 45%). The stimulative effect of irradiation was more pronounced with the application of NH4+-N fertilizer. Seed irradiation increased the amount of N2-fixation by 8-61% depending on the dose and level of NH4+-N fertilizer rate. A 10 Gy was found to be the optimal irradiation dose for enhancing N2-fixation. High levels of NH4+-N decreased the percentage and the amount of N2-fixation, but did not affect nodule formation. However, the Presowing 10 Gy irradiation dose reduced the negative effect of ammonia-N fertilizer on N2-fixation. Therefore, we recommend irradiating chickpea seeds with a 10 Gy dose before planting in soil containing high levels of mineral nitrogen to reduce its negative effect on N2-fixation. (Authors)

  18. Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorzelany J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force causing bean damage and bean deformation up to crack.

  19. Effects of Different Fertilizer Application Level on Growth and Physiology of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on BRIS Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazandy Abdul-Hamid

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is one of the most potential annual crop planted throughout the world. Being fastgrowing and multipurpose, it has been utilized as a substitute of jute and, more recently, as raw product for the productionof pulp and paper. With strong and long fiber yield, mass production of Kenaf throughout Malaysia is critical. Theutilization of less fertile soils such as BRIS soils is important to increase the Kenaf production throughout Malaysia. Thus,the objective of this study was to determine the effects of different level fertilizer application on growth and physiology ofKenaf planted on BRIS soils. V36 variety was used and planted in three different plots by treatments with fertilizersnamely high (1960 kg/ plot, medium (1260 kg/ plot and low (700 kg/ plot respectively. Each plot comprises 106,000trees where trees were planted on 20 lines. There were contrasting results on the effects of fertilizer on growth andphysiology of Kenaf in the dry (41 days and wet season (64 days. Significant effects were only observed for diameter,height, leaf number and area during the wet season. Similar results were also found for biomass. The increasing trendswith increasing the rates of fertilizer were observed in the wet season for growth and biomass parameters. The correlationanalyses between total aboveground biomass with diameter and height were more pronounced in the wet season. AGR,RGR and EG calculated from the differences between the dry and wet season readings for aboveground biomass showedthat the higher rate of fertilizer recorded the higher values of AGR and RGR. However, no trend was observed for EG.

  20. PERCHLORATE LEVELS IN SAMPLES OF SODIUM NITRATE FERTILIZER DERIVED FROM CHILEAN CALICHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleogeochemical deposits in northern Chile are a rich source of naturally occurring sodium nitrate. These caliche ores are mined and processed to isolate NaNO3 (16-0-0) for use in fertilizers. Coincidentally, these very same deposits are a natural soure of perchlorate anion (C...

  1. Effects of fertilizer and plant density on yield and quality of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faravani Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the effect of organic fertilizer on yield of anise, an experiment was conducted in the form of split-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad, Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center. Four treatments of fertilization: the control, vermicompost - 5 t/ha, cow manure - 25 t/ha, and mineral fertilizer (NPK - 60 kg/ha (the same rate of each nutrient were applied as the main factor. The second factor was plant density, applied at three levels: 17, 25, and 50 plants/m2. The results showed a significant effect of fertilizer on the number of umbels per plant, number of umbellets per umbel and canopy cover. Plant density had a significant effect on grain yield, biological yield, the number of lateral branches, essential oil percentage and yield of essential oil. Seed and essential oil yield were the highest in the case of the application of vermicompost and plant densities of 50 and 25 plants/m2 respectively.

  2. Variation in Yield Gap Induced by Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoqin; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Yunsheng; Wang, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under a wheat-maize rotation system from 1990 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP) to determine the effects of N, P and K on yield and yield gap. There were five treatments: NPK, PK, NK, NP and a control. Average wheat and maize yields were the highest in the NPK treatment, followed by those in the NP plots among all treatments. For wheat and maize yield, a significant increasing trend over time was found in the NPK-treated plots and a decreasing trend in the NK-treated plots. In the absence of N or P, wheat and maize yields were significantly lower than those in the NPK treatment. For both crops, the increasing rate of the yield gap was the highest in the P omission plots, i.e., 189.1 kg ha?1 yr?1 for wheat and 560.6 kg ha?1 yr?1 for maize. The cumulative omission of P fertilizer induced a deficit in the soil available N and extractable P concentrations for maize. The P fertilizer was more pivotal in long-term wheat and maize growth and soil fertility conservation in NCP, although the N fertilizer input was important for both crops growth. The crop response to K fertilizers was much lower than that to N or P fertilizers, but for maize, the cumulative omission of K fertilizer decreased the yield by 26% and increased the yield gap at a rate of 322.7 kg ha?1 yr?1. The soil indigenous K supply was not sufficiently high to meet maize K requirement over a long period. The proper application of K fertilizers is necessary for maize production in the region. Thus, the appropriate application of N and P fertilizers for the growth of both crops, while regularly combining K fertilizers for maize growth, is absolutely necessary for sustainable crop production in the NCP. PMID:24349204

  3. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  4. Nitric oxide level in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile males and its correlation with sperm parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri I.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a free radical molecule, produced by most cells and tissues in the body. The effect of NO on cells is concentration dependent. Low concentration of NO is essential in biology and physiology of most of cells, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has detrimental effects on cells. The role of NO in biology of male and female genital systems is under investigation. In the present study, the nitric oxide concentration was measured in the seminal plasma of both fertile and infertile males and compared with spermatogram parameters. For this purpose, semen samples were collected from 45 patients and 70 healthy donors. After analysis of samples, the stable metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate were measured by Griess assay. The results indicated that the nitric oxide concentration in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly higher than controls. There was a significant negative correlation between the nitric oxide concentration and sperm motility and viability in infertile males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the level of nitric oxide in seminal plasma of infertile men was higher than that of fertile men. The increasing level of nitric oxide concentration in seminal plasma leads to the decrease in sperm motility and viability and affects fertility.

  5. Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascolonicum) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Sopit Vetayasuporn

    2006-01-01

    A block experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of biological and chemical (NPK 15:15:15) fertilizers on the growth and yield of shallot cultivation in Mahasakham University, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand. Six biological fertilizers were developed from BBF (basically biological fertilizer: 45 g cattle manure + 45 g rice bran + 20 mL of molasses + 10 mL of EM + 10 L of dechlorinated water) and used in this experiment. Chemical and biological fertilizers showed insignific...

  6. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes / Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Alvarez; A. C. P., Wutke.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetrabor [...] ato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana. Abstract in english In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replication [...] s, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1) NPK (control), 2) NPK + Fe, 3) NPK + B, 4) NPK + Cu, 5) NPK + Mn, 6) NPK + Zn, 7) NPK + Mo, 8) NPK + Mg and 9) NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo). The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

  7. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alvarez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana.In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replications, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1 NPK (control, 2 NPK + Fe, 3 NPK + B, 4 NPK + Cu, 5 NPK + Mn, 6 NPK + Zn, 7 NPK + Mo, 8 NPK + Mg and 9 NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

  8. Effect of inorganic fertilizers and municipal solid waste manure on some soil physical properties in cotton-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil for three consecutive years (2002-2005) to study the effects of combined use of chemical fertilizers (NPK) and organic manure (municipal solid waste manure-MSWM) on soil organic matter, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, and yields of crops in cotton (Desi)-wheat cropping system. After three years, organic matter content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil increased (42-68%)to 7.1-8.4 g kg from an initial level of 5.0 g kg with out any significant interaction between two fertilizer doses, three management techniques and six seasons except for dose x season interaction where higher organic matter contents were found after each cotton harvest by site-specific fertilizer application. In general, the bulk density of the surface soil increased un-impressively with the time by unique use of fertilizers and decreased gradually by application of integrated plant nutrients management (IPNM) technique using MSWM with or without pesticides/herbicides use. Porosity of soil increased (2.5 %) by applying IPNM technique compared to unique use of chemical fertilizers. Penetration resistance was increased with unique use of fertilizers to a level of 0.80 M Pa from initial value of 0.74 MPa. Presumably due to higher intrinsic bulk density of the soil. Over the three years, on an average, the MSW manured and fertilized plots (IPNM with pesticides/herbicides use ) produced higher i.e. 2% and 11% increase in seed cotton and whea% and 11% increase in seed cotton and wheat grain yields respectively than did the plots receiving chemical fertilizers. Neglecting herbicides/pesticides application decreased (4-5%) seed cotton yield. (author)

  9. Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth of Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kafeel Ahmed; Nuhammad Iqbal; Abid Nisar Ahmad; Iftikhar Ahmed; Ghulam Yasin

    1999-01-01

    Two varieties of canola (Brassica napus L.) Rainbow and Con I were treated with different levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 90 and 120 N kg ha -1) as urea before sowing and with split application of these levels before sowing and at the time of flower initiation. The data for plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of root as well as shoot and number of flowers each for per plant showed an increasing trend as negating the difference of time of fertilizer application their app...

  10. Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphate fertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan, Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphate fertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) (about 80 hectares), 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF) farm and Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI) (about 100 hectares). These all soils were situated in the urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimation was gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farms result the presence of Potassium (40K), Cesium (137Cs), and Uranium (238U). The average amount of radioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6

  11. Composição química dos grãos de milho em resposta à adubação mineral e inoculação com rizobactérias / Chemical composition of corn grains in response to mineral fertilization and inoculation with rhizobacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Alves de, Oliveira; Claudemir, Zucareli; Leandro Teodoski, Spolaor; Allan Ricardo, Domingues; André Sampaio, Ferreira.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para o aumento da produtividade agrícola no País, são necessários estudos para melhor aproveitamento da adubação mineral, a fim de uma produção de grãos com melhor qualidade nutricional. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor e o acúmulo de proteína, de cinzas e de nutrientes em grãos de mi [...] lho provenientes de plantas submetidas à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens e cultivadas em diferentes níveis de adubação NPK no solo. Foram testados seis tratamentos, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0,125 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições, sendo instalado em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, utilizando o cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35. Determinaram-se os teores e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, proteína e cinzas dos grãos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english To increase agricultural productivity in the country, studies are needed to improve the utilization of mineral fertilizers in order to produce grains with improved nutritional quality. The study aimed to evaluate the content and accumulation of protein, ash and nutrients in corn grains from plants i [...] noculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens and grown under different levels of NPK fertilizer in the soil. We tested six treatments in a randomized complete block design in a factorial 3 x 2, three levels of chemical fertilizer NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculation using P. fluorecens (with and without), with four replicates, in a Oxisol, using the maize hybrid 30F35. The content and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, protein and ash content of the grains were evaluated. The data were submitted to Anova and means compared by the Tukey test p

  12. L-Carnitine Level in Seminal Plasma of Fertile and Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sheikh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To determine any correlation between infertility and semen quality with concentrations of L-carnitine in human seminal plasma.

    Methods: This case-control study performed in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Seminal plasma of 72 infertile men and 80 men with proved fertility as a control group was investigated and L-carnitine level was determined using UV enzymatic test at 340 nm.

    Results: The concentration of L-carnitine was significantly lower in the infertile group compared with control group (80.59±56.43 mg/l versus 108.43±42.26 mg/l; P= 0.0009. There was also a statistically significant positive correlation between seminal plasma L-carnitine concentration, total sperm count, and the percentage of motile sperm (P= 0.0009, and P= 0.0000, respectively.

    Conclusion: These finding suggest that the determination of seminal plasma L-carnitine level may be a useful test in evaluation of male infertility.

  13. Effects of Levels of Sulfur Fertilizer on Growth of Digitaria eriantha Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Auraiwan Isuwan; Jeerasak Saelim; Somsak Paothong

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of sulfur fertilizer application on the quantity and chemical composition of Digitaria eriantha grass. The experiment was conducted at Petchaburi Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Petchaburi, Thailand, during August to October, 2006. Treatments consisted of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai applications in the form of ammonium sulfate and were arranged in randomized complete block with 4 field blocks as replication. Grass was sampl...

  14. Phytometric Assessment of Fertility of Roadside Soils and Its Relationship with Major Nutrients.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akbar, K. F.; Hale, W.H.G.; Šerá, Božena; Ashraf, I.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 5 (2012), s. 1141-1145. ISSN 1230-1485 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11040 Keywords : roadside verges * soil fertility * phytometric assessment * NPK analyses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2012

  15. Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, I.; Kahiluoto, H.

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of P fertilisation on the function of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) measured as P transport to flax. Two methods were applied to soil from a long-term field experiment with NaHCO3-extractable soil P levels of 24 and 50 mg kg(-1) in an experiment under controlled conditions: i) Measurement of plant growth and P uptake in the presence or absence of the fungicide benomyl and ii) measurement of hyphal P transport from a root-free compartment labelled with P-32. Benomyl successfully prevented mycorrhizal function. The absolute contribution of AMF to plant P uptake was of the same magnitude with or without P fertilisation at 27 days after sowing. Therefore, even though plants grown at the higher soil P level had greater P uptake, the relative contribution of AMF to P uptake was greater at the lower P level than at the higher P level (77 and 49% of total P uptake, respectively). The AMF in P-fertilized soil transported less P-32 from the root-free compartment to the plant after 23 days than the AMF in unfertilized soil, but this difference disappeared in plants harvested after 27 and 32 days. The production of hyphae was largely similar in both fertilization treatments, indicating that the capacity for P uptake and transport by hyphae of the two AMF communities was similar.

  16. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased gra 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4.05) and grain yield (768.5 g/m/sup 2/) which were significantly higher than them under N level of 75 kg/ha. According to the results, the treatment of optimum irrigation with minimum N level of 150 kg/ha is recommended for realizing high maize yield in Gonabad, Iran. (author)

  17. Effect of Potassium and Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Biomass of Some Halophytes Grown under High Levels of Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Noaman, Maher N.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out at Nahshala Farm, about 50 km from Al-Ain, UAE during the 2001/2002 growing seasons, using five halophyte species; Spartina sp., Distichlis palmeri., Paspalum vaginatum, Juncus roemerianus and Batis maritima, under six levels of N and K fertilizer combinations irrigated with salinity water of 20 g L-1. The objectives of the experiment were twofold; 1) to find out the optimum rate of potassium and nitrogen under such high salinity stress and 2) to study the r...

  18. Effect of various levels of nitrogen fertilizer on some vegetative growth attributes of pea ( pisum sativum L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive growing years on few growth characteristics of four pea cultivars viz., Arkel, Climax, Green Feast and Olympia in response to different levels of N fertilizer under the climatic conditions of district Mastung, Balochistan. Six N fertilizer levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha/sup -1/) plus a constant dose of 60+40 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/ O ha/sub -1/ were prepared, and designated as T/sub 1/ to T/sub 7/, respectively. These N levels were applied to each sub-plot (except T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) in two split doses first at the time of flowering and second at the time of pod formation to quantify how much N fertiliser's required by different pea cultivars to realize the highest growth and yield. Results exhibited that in response to various levels of added N fertilizer, all mentioned growth attributes were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). However, cultivars response was found significant only for secondary branches plant/sub -1/, plant height and shoot moisture contents. A maximum number of primary branches plant/sup -1/ (6.94), secondary branches plant/sub -1/ (10.72), plant height (69.77 cm), number of leaves plant/sup -1/ (19.75), leaf length (11.81 cm) and shoot moisture contents (571.0 g kg/sup -1/) was recorded with application of 100 kg N ha/sup -1/. The interaction between fertilizer and pea cultivars was found non-significant for all mentioned attributes in the trial. Results further revealbutes in the trial. Results further revealed that all growth parameters were slightly to highly significant and positively correlated among themselves as well as with their fresh pod yields. These attributes could be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the fresh pod yield and also for breeding purposes in peas. (author)

  19. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  20. Radionuclide, Metal and Non-metal Levels in Percolated Water from Soils Fertilized with Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, which is produced by precipitation during the wet process of phosphate rocks. While commercial uses, in agriculture and in manufacturing gypsum board and Portland cement, consume less than a few percent of this by-product, the vast majority is disposed of on land in gypsum. In Brazil, three main industries are responsible for the production and storage of about 5.5 x 106 tons per year. PG may contain trace metals, non-metals, fluorides and natural radionuclides. Since, in Brazil, PG has been used for many years as soil amendment, it is important to know its availability, mainly in aquatic environments used for human consumption. In this case, more restrictive limits must be adopted. This work aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals in sand and clayey soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements and radionuclides from soils fertilized with PG to crops. In general, it was observed that elemental concentrations were below the actual detection limit of the equipment for all conditions of interest, indicating a low mobility of the analyzed elements in the soil. (author)

  1. Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Petter, F. A.; Madari, B. E.; Silva, M. A. S.; Carneiro, M. A. C.; Melo Carvalho, M. T.; Marimon, B.; Pacheco, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar made from Eucalyptus on soil fertility, and on the yield and development of upland rice. The experiment was performed during two years in a randomized block design with four replicates, in a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. Four doses of NPK 05-25-15, annually distributed in stripes (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha(-1)), and four doses of biochar (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha(-1)), applied once in the first year alone or with NPK were evaluate...

  2. Correlation among routine semen parameters, sperm viabilty and malondialdehyde levels in human subjects with different fertility potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Piyali; Choudhari, A R; Singh, A K; Singh, Ramji

    2009-01-01

    Percentage of viable sperms has good potential to reflect male fertilizing potential. In the present study, an attempt was made to find out the percentage of viable sperms in normal and abnormal ejaculates and influence of reactive oxygen species in affecting the viability of sperm. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in seminal plasma of normal and abnormal ejaculates was measured by Thiobarbituric Acid method and percentage of viable sperms was assessed by Eosin-Nigrosin staining. The results revealed that the abnormal semen samples have significantly lower number of viable spermatozoa (59.06 +/- 9.63% vs. 68.33 +/- 5.46%, P < 0.05) and higher levels of MDA (2.53 +/- 0.66 vs. 1.66 +/- 0.37 nmol/ml, P < 0.05) as compared to normal. A significant negative correlation was found between seminal MDA level and sperm viability. Based on the results obtained from the present study, we suggest that viability of sperm is an authentic parameter to assess male fertility potential and it can be affected significantly by oxidative stress. PMID:20329372

  3. Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlegel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are now reporting the effects of ocean acidification on a broad range of marine species, processes and systems. Many of these are investigating the sensitive early life-history stages that several major reviews have highlighted as being potentially most susceptible to ocean acidification. Nonetheless there remain few investigations of the effects of ocean acidification on the very earliest, and critical, process of fertilization, and still fewer that have investigated levels of ocean acidification relevant for the coming century. Here we report the effects of near-future levels of ocean acidification (??0.35 pH unit change on sperm swimming speed, sperm motility, and fertilization kinetics in a population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from western Sweden. We found no significant effect of ocean acidification – a result that was well supported by power analysis. Similar findings from Japan suggest that this may be a globally robust result, and we emphasise the need for experiments on multiple populations from throughout a species' range. We also discuss the importance of sound experimental design and power analysis in accurate interpretation of non-significant results.

  4. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Arabzadeh Somayeh; Hossein Ghamartaj; Rashidi Batool; Hosseini Marziyeh; Zeraati Hojjat

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid ...

  5. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae) y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Fco, Di Stefano; Luis A, Fournier.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis [...] de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años), en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna), la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas). Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (?²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002), probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos. Abstract in english Natural regeneration of woody species in a Costa Rican plantation of Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae) and the effect of P and NPK fertilization. Forest plantation management strategies, including the selection of species, may have positive or negative effects over plant regeneration in the trop [...] ics. in this case, understory woody plants density and richness were studied in Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica, in a monoculture of Vochysia guatemalensis (ten year old plantation). Nineteen 80 m²plots, with several fertilization treatments (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/plant of P, and NPK, during the first years, P placed once at the hole) in a completely randomized factorial design, were analyzed. Afterwards, the NPK fertilizer was increased from 150 to 200 g/ plant/year until the plantation was six year old. The plots, established after the coffee plantation was eliminated, had a minimum management schedule, basically the elimination of herbaceous vegetation once or twice a year during the first three years, and a tree thinning when the plantation was four year old, to increase spacing from 2x2 to 4x4 m. All woody vegetation taller than 0.5 m was tallied. A total of circa 10 000 ind/ha, distributed in 90 species, were found, mostly native of the region, some identified for forestry use, others important for the fauna. The majority of the species had low relative densities and frequencies. Sixteen percent of the plants reached heights greater than 2.5 m. Several factors seem to explain this regeneration pattern: a canopy with an intermediate openness, a low intensity forestry management, the nearness of the plantation to a mature forest fragment, and that the Vochysia plantation substituted a coffee plantation where soil conservation strategies and an annual fertilization management plan were applied. Finally, plots with only P had significantly higher species richness and abundance (?2=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002) probably because the trees in this treatment were less developed (when compared with the others). Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1): 111-118. Epub 2009 November 30.

  6. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años, en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna, la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas. Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (?²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002, probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos.Natural regeneration of woody species in a Costa Rican plantation of Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae and the effect of P and NPK fertilization. Forest plantation management strategies, including the selection of species, may have positive or negative effects over plant regeneration in the tropics. in this case, understory woody plants density and richness were studied in Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica, in a monoculture of Vochysia guatemalensis (ten year old plantation. Nineteen 80 m²plots, with several fertilization treatments (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/plant of P, and NPK, during the first years, P placed once at the hole in a completely randomized factorial design, were analyzed. Afterwards, the NPK fertilizer was increased from 150 to 200 g/ plant/year until the plantation was six year old. The plots, established after the coffee plantation was eliminated, had a minimum management schedule, basically the elimination of herbaceous vegetation once or twice a year during the first three years, and a tree thinning when the plantation was four year old, to increase spacing from 2x2 to 4x4 m. All woody vegetation taller than 0.5 m was tallied. A total of circa 10 000 ind/ha, distributed in 90 species, were found, mostly native of the region, some identified for forestry use, others important for the fauna. The majority of the species had low relative densities and frequencies. Sixteen percent of the plants reached heights greater than 2.5 m. Several factors seem to explain this regeneration pattern: a canopy with an intermediate openness, a low intensity forestry management, the nearness of the plantation to a mature forest fragment, and that the Vochysia plantation substituted a coffee plantation where soil conservation strategies and an annual fertilization management plan were applied. Finally, plots with only P had significantly higher species richness and abundance (?2=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002 probably because the trees in this treatment were less developed (when compared with the others. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 111-118. Epub 2009 November 30.

  7. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

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    Aleksandra Juriši?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  8. Productivity and Quality of Sugar Beet as Affecting by Sowing Methods, Weed Control Treatments and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels

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    Samia S. El-Maghraby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out at Kafr El-Hamam Research Station, Zagazig district, Sharkia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons to study the effect of sowing methods (manual and mechanical, weed control treatments (one hoeing, Goltix 70 WG (metamitron, Goltix+one hoeing and two hoeing and nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 80 and 100 kg N/fed on yield, its components and quality of sugar beet cv. Hanrike. The obtained results could be summarized as follows; Mechanical sowing method of sugar beet significantly surpassed the traditional sowing method in root and foliage fresh weights/plant, root/top ratio, root length and diameter, root, top and sugar yields/fed in both seasons. Sowing methods showed significant effect on TSS, sucrose and purity percentages in both seasons, except purity% in the second season. Controlling weeds by two hand hoeings significantly recorded the highest values of root, top and sugar yields/fed and its components and purity percentage in both seasons. However, the highest percentages of TSS and sucrose were achieved from controlling weed by one hand hoeing in both seasons. Fertilizing sugar beet plants with 100 kg N/fed significantly increased yields and its components and markedly recorded the highest values in both seasons. From the obtained, it can be concluded that sowing sugar beet using mechanical sowing method (planter machine, controlling weeds by hand hoeing and mineral fertilizing with 100 kg N/fed could be recommended in order to maximize its productivity and quality under the environmental conditions of Sharkia Governorate, Egypt.

  9. Effects of Sulphur, Zinc and Boron Supplied from Chemical Fertilizers and Poultry Manure to Wetland Rice (Cv. BRRI Dhan 30

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    M. K. Uddin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of S, Zn and B supplied from chemical fertilizers and poultry manure on yield and nutrient uptake by rice (cv. BRRI Dhan-30. There were ten treatments:- T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8 and T9. The rate of different nutrients were 100 kg N ha?1 from urea, 30 kg P ha?1 from TSP, 60 kg K ha?1 from MP, 20 kg S ha?1 from gypsum, 2 kg Zn ha?1 from zinc oxide, 1 kg B ha?1 from borax and 4 t poultry manure ha?1. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The different nutrients significantly increased plant height, effective tillers hill?1, filled grains panicle?1, 1000-grain weight, grain and straw yields of rice. The highest grain yield of 4850 kg ha?1 was obtained when S, Zn and B were applied together with NPK fertilizers (T8 which was comparable to the yields obtained when S, Zn or B were applied singly or in combination of two with NPK fertilizers (T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 and also with the application of poultry manure with reduced NPK application (T9. The concentrations and uptake of N, P, K and S by grain and straw were higher when poultry manure was used as a source of S, Zn and B with reduced amount of NPK(T9. It appears that application of S, Zn and B along with NPK is essential in this soil to get maximum yield of BRRI Dhan-30. If poultry manure can be applied @ 4 t ha?1 the use of NPK can be reduced and S, Zn and B fertilizers may not be needed.

  10. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

  11. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on morphological and biochemical traits of some Apiaceae crops under arid region conditions in Egypt

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    KHALID ALI KHALID

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Khalid KA. 2013. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on morphological and biochemical traits of some Apiaceae crops under arid region conditions in Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 15-20. Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients content and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise, coriander and sweet fennel. So the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of N, namely 0 (control, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 used as ammonium sulphate [(NH42SO4] (20% N, on selected morphological and biochemical characteristics of anise, coriander and sweet fennel plants cultivated under arid regions conditions during two successive seasons. The most effective dose of nitrogen was 200 kg ha-1 of N, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters and content of essential oil, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars, protein and nutrients (NPK.

  12. Role of bio-fertilizers in phosphorus utilization by wheat with various levels of N, P and FYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study P utilization by wheat with various combinations of N, P, FYM and bio-fertilizers. The grain and straw yield of wheat increased with increasing levels of nitrogen along with P and FYM. The highest yield was obtained with 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 and 20 t FYM under no inoculation. However, it was highest with 80 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM under both the inoculation treatments. Almost similar trend was followed for the total P uptake. The values for per cent P derived from fertilizer (% Pdff) and P utilization were higher with 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM than the other treatments under no inoculation as well as Azospirillum inoculation. However, highest Pdff and P utilization were observed with 80 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM under the Azotobacter inoculation. The Azotobacter was superior to uninoculation and Azospirillum inoculation with respect to yield, total P uptake, percent Pdff and per cent P utilization by wheat. (author)

  13. Biomass components in Massai grass during establishment and regrowth under five nitrogen fertilization levels

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    Marcos Neves Lopes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate biomass components of Massai grass under five doses of N (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil during three cycles of growth (establishment, regrowth 1 and regrowth 2 this study was carried out. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design with measures repeted over time and five replications. In the three cycles, nitrogen doses had increasing linear effect on green herbage dry matter (GHDM, green leaf dry matter (GLDM, on the tiller population density (TPD and on forage density. Canopy height and foliage height were the highest ones in establishment of regrowth 2, respectively, and they decreased at the highest doses of nitrogen. Irrigation depth was the greatest at the highest doses and in regrowth 1. Water use efficiency responded positively to the doses, being the regrowth 2 the highest values were obtained at the highest doses of nitrogen. Nitrogen use efficiency by Massai grass is influenced by fertilizantion as well as by the cycles. Nitrogen fertilization has positive effects on the components of Massai grass biomass.

  14. Biomass components in Massai grass during establishment and regrowth under five nitrogen fertilization levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Neves, Lopes; Magno José Duarte, Cândido; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco, Pompeu; Rodrigo Gregório da, Silva; José Wellington Batista, Lopes; Francisco Marcus Lima, Bezerra.

    1629-16-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate biomass components of Massai grass under five doses of N (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil) during three cycles of growth (establishment, regrowth 1 and regrowth 2) this study was carried out. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design with me [...] asures repeted over time and five replications. In the three cycles, nitrogen doses had increasing linear effect on green herbage dry matter (GHDM), green leaf dry matter (GLDM), on the tiller population density (TPD) and on forage density. Canopy height and foliage height were the highest ones in establishment of regrowth 2, respectively, and they decreased at the highest doses of nitrogen. Irrigation depth was the greatest at the highest doses and in regrowth 1. Water use efficiency responded positively to the doses, being the regrowth 2 the highest values were obtained at the highest doses of nitrogen. Nitrogen use efficiency by Massai grass is influenced by fertilizantion as well as by the cycles. Nitrogen fertilization has positive effects on the components of Massai grass biomass.

  15. Resposta do arroz irrigado à adubação residual e aos níveis de adubação em solo de várzea / Response of irrigated rice to residual fertilization and to applied levels of fertilizers in lowland soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nand Kumar, Fageria; Alberto Baêta dos, Santos; Francisco José P., Zimmermann.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Informações sobre o efeito residual da adubação na produção de arroz irrigado em solos de várzeas no Brasil, são escassas. Conduziu-se um experimento de campo, durante três anos consecutivos, para se avaliar o efeito residual da adubação e de níveis de adubação aplicados no sulco de plantio sobre a [...] produção de arroz irrigado em um solo Glei Pouco Húmico (Inseptissolo) de várzea, período em que a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e de grãos foi significativamente afetada pela adubação no sulco e não pela adubação residual. As produções máximas de matéria seca e de grãos foram obtidas com o tratamento T7 (efeito residual da adubação média + adubo verde + 75 kg N ha-1, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 e 60 kg K2O ha-1). O tratamento T4 (efeito residual da adubação média + 50 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 e 40 kg K2O ha-1) não foi diferente significativamente em comparação com o tratamento T7; enquanto entre os componentes da produção o número de panículas por m² e o peso de 1.000 grãos foram significativamente afetados pelos tratamentos, por outro lado, a acumulação da maioria dos nutrientes na parte aérea e nos grãos foi significativamente afetada pelos tratamentos. Abstract in english Information on the residual effect of fertilization is scarce for irrigated rice produced in lowland soils in Brazil. A field experiment was conducted during three consecutive years to evaluate the effects of residual and band applied fertilizers on irrigated rice yield in a Low Humic Gley Soil (Inc [...] eptisol). Mean dry matter and grain yield were significantly affected with applied fertilizer treatments, which did not happen for residual fertilizer treatments. Maximum dry matter and grain yield were produced under treatment which consisted of residual effect of medium soil fertility level plus green manure + 75 kg N ha-1, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 60 kg K2O ha-1 (T7). The treatment of residual effect of medium soil fertility level plus 50 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 40 kg K2O ha-1 (T4) did not show significant differences in comparison to T7 treatment. Number of panicles m-2 and 1000 grains weight were the yield components which were significantly affected with fertilizer treatments. Accumulation of almost all the nutrients in the dry matter and grain were significantly affected with fertilizer treatments.

  16. Resposta do arroz irrigado à adubação residual e aos níveis de adubação em solo de várzea Response of irrigated rice to residual fertilization and to applied levels of fertilizers in lowland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand Kumar Fageria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre o efeito residual da adubação na produção de arroz irrigado em solos de várzeas no Brasil, são escassas. Conduziu-se um experimento de campo, durante três anos consecutivos, para se avaliar o efeito residual da adubação e de níveis de adubação aplicados no sulco de plantio sobre a produção de arroz irrigado em um solo Glei Pouco Húmico (Inseptissolo de várzea, período em que a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e de grãos foi significativamente afetada pela adubação no sulco e não pela adubação residual. As produções máximas de matéria seca e de grãos foram obtidas com o tratamento T7 (efeito residual da adubação média + adubo verde + 75 kg N ha-1, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 e 60 kg K2O ha-1. O tratamento T4 (efeito residual da adubação média + 50 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 e 40 kg K2O ha-1 não foi diferente significativamente em comparação com o tratamento T7; enquanto entre os componentes da produção o número de panículas por m² e o peso de 1.000 grãos foram significativamente afetados pelos tratamentos, por outro lado, a acumulação da maioria dos nutrientes na parte aérea e nos grãos foi significativamente afetada pelos tratamentos.Information on the residual effect of fertilization is scarce for irrigated rice produced in lowland soils in Brazil. A field experiment was conducted during three consecutive years to evaluate the effects of residual and band applied fertilizers on irrigated rice yield in a Low Humic Gley Soil (Inceptisol. Mean dry matter and grain yield were significantly affected with applied fertilizer treatments, which did not happen for residual fertilizer treatments. Maximum dry matter and grain yield were produced under treatment which consisted of residual effect of medium soil fertility level plus green manure + 75 kg N ha-1, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 60 kg K2O ha-1 (T7. The treatment of residual effect of medium soil fertility level plus 50 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 40 kg K2O ha-1 (T4 did not show significant differences in comparison to T7 treatment. Number of panicles m-2 and 1000 grains weight were the yield components which were significantly affected with fertilizer treatments. Accumulation of almost all the nutrients in the dry matter and grain were significantly affected with fertilizer treatments.

  17. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

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    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or for shrinkage, which presented: ¦b = 650kg/cm2, E = 59.877kg/cm2, ¦c = 296kg/cm2 e ¦n = 131kg/cm2. Control treatment showed highest values for shear strength and compression parallel to grain. Too many branches in all trees and also too many knots in lumber were observed. Pruning is recommended for homogeneous planting of Sclerolobium paniculatum to avoid knots in order to be produced wood of superior quality.

  18. Eficiency and wastewater used as fertilizer on sugar beet crop

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    João Paulo Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Some researchs about wastewater treatment have been show efficiency on DQO removal, however Nitrogen and Phosphorus removal are smaller than other nutrients. The use of wastewater as nutrient source can be interesting due high nutrients amount. This trial was carried out on Suggar beet plants at Horticulture Department of Centro Regional Universitário de Espírito Santo do Pinhal – UNIPINHAL, by using wastewater associated or no with fertilizer at different rates comparing with normal water. The results obtained showed that wastewater has higher amount of nutrients than normal water and increased the sugar beet root weight when associated or no with fertilizer NPK.

  19. Biodegradation of 2,6-Dichlorophenol Wastewater in Soil Column Reactor in the Presence of Pineapple Peels-Derived Activated Carbon, Palm Kernel Oil and Inorganic Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E. Agarry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential effects of palm kernel oil (PKO, pineapple peels derived-activated carbon (PPAC and NPK fertilizer (20:10:10 as amendment agents on the natural bioattenuation of 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP in tropical agricultural soil were investigated. The effect of PPAC dosage on 2,6-DCP biodegradation was also studied. Column reactors containing soil were spiked with 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP wastewater (300 mg/l and amended with PKO, NPK fertilizer and PPAC alone or in combinations. The rates of 2,6-DCP biodegradation were studied for a remediation period of 42 days under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a positive relationship between the rate of 2,6-DCP biodegradation, bacterial growth rate and presence of NPK fertilizer and PPAC (alone or in combination in soil column microcosms contaminated with 2,6-DCP. The 2,6-DCP biodegradation data fitted well to the first-order kinetic model. The model revealed that 2,6-DCP contaminated-soil microcosms amended with NPK fertilizer and PPAC (alone or in combination had higher biodegradation rate constants (k as well as lower half-life times (t1/2 than soil column microcosms amended with PKO and unamended soil (natural attenuation remediation system. Thus, the use of combined NPK fertilizer and activated carbon (NPK + PPAC to enhance 2,6-DCP degradation in the soil could be one of the severally sought bioremediation strategies of remediating natural ecosystem (environment contaminated with organic chemicals.

  20. Valor nutritivo dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça adubados com nitrogênio e sob lotação rotacionada = Nutritive value of Tanzania and Mombaça grasses fertilized with nitrogen under rotational stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A adubação de pastagens aumenta a produção de forragem e a taxa de lotação, mas o alimento deve conter nutrientes necessários à produção por animal satisfatória . O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses crescentes de N (101,5; 145; 188,5 e 232 kg ha-1, mantendo relação de N-P-K de 1-0,07-1, sobre a composição química e adigestibilidade dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça, sob lotação rotacionada. O experimento foi realizado na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, segundo delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 3 repetições. A composição química e a digestibilidade dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça pouco variaram, exceto o conteúdo de FDN nas folhas e a digestibilidade dos colmos, maiores no capim-Tanzânia, antes do pastejo. A adubação nitrogenada aumentou os conteúdos de PB ea digestibilidade, sem alterar as frações fibrosas , atestando que a adubação é requisito básico para a intensificação da produção animal em pastagens.Pasture fertilization increase s forage production and stocking rate. However, forage should contain enough nutrients to animal production . The aim of this work was to evaluate increas ing doses of N (101.5; 145.0; 188.5, and 232.0 kg ha-1, keeping N-P-K relation 1-0.07-1, on chemical composition and digestibility of Tanzania and Mombaça grasses under rotational stocking . The experiment was conducted atFaculdade of Ciências Agrárias and Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, following a randomized block design with three replications. Both chemical composition and digestibility presented low variation between Tanzania and Mombaça grasses, except for NDF content of leaves and digestibility of stems, which were found higher levels as to Tanzaniagr ass, before grazing. Nitrogen fertilization increasedprotein content and digestibility without affecting fiber, testifying that fertilization is an essential operation to animal production on pastures.

  1. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution, and water-use efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, K M; Mandal, K G; Misra, A K; Ghosh, P K; Bandyopadhyay, K K

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a Vertisol for three consecutive years (1998-2000) to study the effects of combined use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure (farmyard manure) on soil physical properties, water-use efficiency, root growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in a soybean-mustard cropping system. Application of 10 Mg farmyard manure and recommended NPK (NPK+FYM) to soybean for three consecutive years improved the organic carbon content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil from an initial value of 4.4 g kg(-1) to 6.2 g kg(-1) and also increased seed yield and water-use efficiency by 103% and 76%, respectively, over the control. The surface (0-15 cm) soil of the plots receiving both farmyard manure and recommended NPK had larger mean weight diameter (0.50 mm) and a higher percentage of water stable aggregates (55%) than both the inorganically fertilized (NPK) (0.44 mm and 49%) and unfertilized control plots (0.41 mm and 45.4%). The saturated hydraulic conductivity (13.32 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) of the NPK+FYM treatment of the 0-7.5 cm depth was also significantly greater than that of the NPK (10.53 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) and control (8.61 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) treatments. The lowest bulk density (1.18 Mg m(-3)) in the 0-7.5 cm layer was recorded in NPK+FYM whereas it was highest in the control plots (1.30 Mg m(-3)). However, at sub-surface (22.5-30 cm) layer, fertilizer and manure application had little effect on bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Root length density (RLD) up to the 30 cm depth was highest in the NPK+FYM plots and it was 31.9% and 70.5% more than NPK and control plots. The RLD showed a significant and negative correlation (r=-0.88( * *)) with the penetration resistance. PMID:16289791

  2. Socioeconomic fertility differentials in a late transition setting: A micro-level analysis of the Saguenay region in Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Vézina; Danielle Gauvreau; Alain Gagnon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Historically, the French Canadian population of Quebec, Canada, is known for its high fertility, which lasted well into the 20th century, and for its late fertility transition. Within Quebec, regions such as Saguenay are known for having experienced an even more delayed fertility transition. Objective: In Quebec, as elsewhere, various factors modulated the transition, and differential behaviors and timing can be observed across socioeconomic groups. These factors are studied he...

  3. Autoregulation of Nodulation Interferes with Impacts of Nitrogen Fertilization Levels on the Leaf-Associated Bacterial Community in Soybeans ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Seishi; Anda, Mizue; Inaba, Shoko; Eda, Shima; Sato, Shusei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tabata, Satoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sato, Tadashi; Shinano, Takuro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2011-01-01

    The diversities leaf-associated bacteria on nonnodulated (Nod?), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans were evaluated by clone library analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. To analyze the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the bacterial leaf community, soybeans were treated with standard nitrogen (SN) (15 kg N ha?1) or heavy nitrogen (HN) (615 kg N ha?1) fertilization. Under SN fertilization, the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was significantly higher in N...

  4. Amelioration of Indian urban air pollution phytotoxicity in Beta vulgaris L. by modifying NPK nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution levels are increasing at an alarming rate in many developing countries, including India and causing a potential threat to crop production. Field experiments were conducted to examine the impact of urban air pollutants on biomass (yield) and some physiological and biochemical parameters of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var. All Green) that grew from germination to maturity at seven periurban sites of Allahabad city having different concentrations of air pollutants under different levels of nutrients. The 6 h daily mean NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations varied from 2.5 to 42.5, 10.6 to 65 and 3.5 to 30.8 ?g m-3, respectively at different locations. Levels of air pollution showed significant negative correlations with photosynthetic pigments, protein, ascorbic acid and starch contents and catalase activity of palak leaves. A significant negative correlation was found for total biomass with SO2 (r = -0.92), NO2 (r = -0.85) and O3 (r = -0.91) concentrations. The increased fertilizer application (N, P and K) over the recommended dose resulted in a positive response by reducing losses in photosynthetic pigments and total biomass. This study proved that ambient air pollution of Allahabad city is influencing negatively to the growth and yield of palak plants. - Air pollution caused adverse impact on growth and biomass accumulation of Beta vulgaris L. plants while higher fertility levels showed rts while higher fertility levels showed reduced yield losses

  5. Experiências preliminares sôbre maneiras de aplicar adubos na cultura da batatinha Preliminary trials on methods of applying fertilizer to potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Em quatro experiências preliminares, realizadas em Campinas, comparou-se o método tradicional de aplicação de adubos na cultura da batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L. - nos sulcos de plantio, ao ser êste efetuado - com outros em que a mistura NPK foi empregada lateralmente, sendo que a distribuição em faixas estreitas l situadas 5 cm de cada lado e cêrca de 3 cm abaixo do nível das batatas-semente, figurou em tôdas as experiências. Para a produção, em duas das experiências, executadas com tempo chuvoso e irrigações complementares, os dois métodos de aplicação deram o mesmo resultado; nas outras duas, porém, tendo, havido escassez de umidade no período imediato ao plantio, a aplicação lateral se mostrou, em média, 25% mais eficiente do que a usual. Os "stands" finais pouco diferiram nos dois métodos de aplicação, mas a emergência dos brotos sofreu considerável atraso nos canteiros adubados nos sulcos de plantio, sobretudo nas experiências conduzidas com tempo relativamente sêco.Four preliminary trials were conducted at Campinas to compare the usual method of fertilizing potatoes, which consists in the addition of the NPK-mixture to the furrows, with the placement on both sides of the row about 2 inches from the seed and 1 inch below the seed level. For the yields, in two experiments with rainy weather after planting both methods gave similar results; in the other two, however, relatively dry weather followed planting and the sideplacement averaged 25% more than the usual method. No diferences were observed in the final stands, but the emergence of the sprouts was considerably delayed where the fertilizer was applied in the furrows, principally in the tests in which dry weather followed planting.

  6. Impact of high basal FSH/LH ratio in women with normal FSH levels on in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Sang Woo; Kim, Ji Won; Choi, Chang Hwan; Seok, Hyun Ha; Yoon, Tae Ki; Kim, Ari

    2013-05-01

    Basal luteinizing hormone (LH) levels have also been suggested to impact on ovarian responsiveness as well as basal follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes according to cycle day 3 FSH/LH ratio and to assess the proper stimulation protocol between gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols. The retrospective cohort study recruited a total of 1211 women having the laboratory values of FSH (IU/L) and LH within 3 months before IVF. Patients were treated with GnRH agonist long or GnRH antagonist protocols and stimulated with recombinant FSH (rFSH). The number of total retrieved oocytes and mature oocytes, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy rate were analyzed between groups: Group I: FSH/LH FSH/LH ? 2. The Group II had the small number of retrieved oocytes and mature oocytes compared to the Group I (p = 0.000). Clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate were lower in Group II (p = 0.006, 0.006, respectively). In comparison of each protocol within groups, Group II showed significantly low pregnancy rate when GnRH antagonist was administered. In women with normal FSH level, high day 3 FSH/LH ratio can present subclinically low ovarian reserve and be predictive of lower pregnancy outcomes in fresh IVF cycles, and the choice of GnRH agonist can be related to favorable IVF outcomes. PMID:23544714

  7. Comportamento de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro em diferentes níveis de adubação N,P e K, em Latossolo Roxo - (1.ª série) / Behavior of São Paulo cotton varieties under different levels of N, P and K fertilization on Lattossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson Machado da, Silva; Milton Geraldo, Fuzatto; Carlos Antônio Menezes, Ferraz.

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São relatados resultados de três ensaios de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro adubadas com diferentes doses dos elementos N, P e K, conduzidos em Latossolo Roxo não infestado pelo fungo causador da murcha de Fusarium, em 1965/66. As variedades IAC 13 e IAC 12 apresentaram ciclo vegetativo mais long [...] o que a IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 13 superou em produção a IAC 12, e a variedade IAC RM3, que apresentou sintomas mais intensos de deficiência de potássio, obteve a menor média de produção. A dose básica de adubação, correspondente a 20, 45 e 40 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, aumentou significativamente a produção. Em média, a dose dupla proporcionou pequeno aumento, quando comparada com a básica, nas variedades IAC 12 e IAC 13. Em um dado ensaio, essa dose mostrou--se inferior à básica, quando aplicada à variedade IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 12 apresentou a mais alta média de porcentagem de fibra. A IAC 13 foi a melhor quanto aos índices Micronaire e Pressley. A adubação utilizada não concorreu para melhorar nenhuma dessas características; contribuiu entretanto para aumentar o pêso dos capulhos e das sementes. Abstract in english The behavior of three São Paulo cotton varieties (IAC 12, IAC 13 and IAC RM3), which differ themselves in vegetative cycle and nutrient requirements, after receiving three levels of complete N, P and K fertilization, were compared under cultivation on latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils. The inclusion o [...] f the variety IAC RM3, resistant to Fusarium wilt, was made considering a possible spreading of this disease, now common in sandy soils, to clay soils. A basic dose of NPK fertilizer, containing 20, 45 and 40 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K..O respectively, induced a significant increase in cotton yield, in relation to control plots, where no fertilizer was added. Among the varieties, IAC 13, with longest life cycle, presented the highest yield, followed by IAC 12, with intermediate cycle length. IAC RM3 was the less productive. There was also a significant increase in the weight of seeds and bolls due to this basic dose. No appreciable effect of a possible interaction between varieties and fertilization could be noticed. A double dose of fertilizer produced further increase in yield, except in the case of IAC RM3, in which additional amount of fertilizer induced a slight yield reduction and many plants showed signs of potassium defficiency. Considering the fiber characteristics the tested varieties differed significantly. IAC 12 had the highest mean of lint percentage, while IAC 13, on the average, was the best for Micronaire and Pressley indices, confirming previous unpublished determinations.

  8. Adubação mineral e orgânica e a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) em cebola / Mineral and organic fertilization and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population density

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza, Gonçalves; Carlos Roberto, Sousa e Silva.

    1255-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O efeito da adubação mineral e orgânica sobre a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola, Allium cepa L., foi avaliado na Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina), entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram [...] níveis de adubação mineral com N, P2O5 e K2O em dose recomendada e três vezes a recomendada, adubação orgânica e a testemunha foi a ausência de adubação. Os tratamentos foram as seguintes doses de nutrientes: 1) 30 + 120 + 60kg ha-1 de NPK; 2) 90 + 360 + 180kg ha-1 de NPK; 3) 75kg ha-1 de N; 4) 225kg ha-1 de N; 5) 80kg ha-1 de P2O5; 6) 240kg ha-1 de P2O5; 7) 60kg ha-1 de K2O; 8) 180kg ha-1 de K2O; 9) 75kg ha-1 de N + 80kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural); 10) 225kg ha-1 de N + 240kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural); 11) 37,5kg ha-1 de N + 40kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural); testemunha sem adubação. Nenhuma das fontes e níveis de adubação apresentaram nível populacional de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo. Abstract in english The effect of the mineral and organic fertilization on onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind., population density was evaluated at Ituporanga Experiment Station, EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between August and December 1998. The treatments were different levels of mineral fertilization with N, P [...] 2O5 and K2O at recommended rate and three times recommended rate, the organic fertilization and without fertilization was check. The treatments in nutrient rate were: 30 + 120 + 60kg NPK ha-1; 90 + 360 + 180kg NPK ha-1; 75kg N ha-1; 225kg N ha-1; 80kg P2O5 ha-1; 240kg P2O5 ha-1; 60kg K2O ha-1; 180kg K2O ha-1; 75kg N ha-1 + 80kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock); 225kg N + 240kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock); 37,5kg N + 40kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock); check without fertilizer. The onion thrips population density was similar among treatments with fertilizer and the check without fertilization. The mineral fertilization didn’t increase significantly onion thrips incidence.

  9. Long-term balanced fertilization increases the soil microbial functional diversity in a phosphorus-limited paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Ding, Long-Jun; Xue, Kai; Yao, Huai-Ying; Quensen, John; Bai, Shi-Jie; Wei, Wen-Xue; Wu, Jin-Shui; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of long-term chemical fertilization on soil microbial communities has been one of the frontier topics of agricultural and environmental sciences and is critical for linking soil microbial flora with soil functions. In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and a functional gene array, geochip 4.0, were used to investigate the shifts in microbial composition and functional gene structure in paddy soils with different fertilization treatments over a 22-year period. These included a control without fertilizers; chemical nitrogen fertilizer (N); N and phosphate (NP); N and potassium (NK); and N, P and K (NPK). Based on 16S rRNA gene data, both species evenness and key genera were affected by P fertilization. Functional gene array-based analysis revealed that long-term fertilization significantly changed the overall microbial functional structures. Chemical fertilization significantly increased the diversity and abundance of most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling, especially for the treatments NK and NPK. Significant correlations were found among functional gene structure and abundance, related soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, suggesting that a fertilizer-induced shift in the microbial community may accelerate the nutrient turnover in soil, which in turn influenced rice growth. The effect of N fertilization on soil microbial functional genes was mitigated by the addition of P fertilizer in this P-limited paddy soil, suggesting that balanced chemical fertilization is beneficial to the soil microbial community and its functions. PMID:25410123

  10. Produção de morangos a partir de fertilizantes alternativos em pré-plantio Pre-planting fertilization effects on strawberry fruit yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Kleinick Vignolo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar doses de fertilizantes alternativos na adubação de pré-plantio quanto à produção de frutos de morangueiro. Os tratamentos foram baseados em doses de adubação NPK (kg ha-1 recomendada para a cultura do morangueiro em que as doses de torta de mamona (TM, fosforita alvorada (FA e cloreto de potássio (KCl variaram de acordo com a recomendação da análise de solo. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento em blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as cultivares dispostas na parcela e as adubações na subparcela. Foi utilizado um esquema fatorial 2x4, em que o fator cultivar apresentou dois níveis: 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real', e o fator adubação de pré-plantio, quatro níveis. As avaliações realizadas foram produção de frutos por planta, massa seca da parte aérea e índice de clorofila. A cultivar 'Camarosa' apresentou maior número e massa de frutos por planta e maior massa seca da parte aérea. A cultivar 'Camino Real' apresentou maior massa média por fruto e maior índice de clorofila. Com relação às doses de adubação de pré-plantio que propiciaram maior número e massa de frutos por planta, foram 1.937kg ha-1 e 1.713kg ha-1 de adubo, respectivamente.The study aimed to evaluate the doses of alternative fertilizer pre-planting fertilization on strawberries yield. The treatments were based on doses of NPK (kg ha-1 recommended for strawberry culture in which the doses of castor bean (TM, phosphorite dawn (FA and potassium chloride (KCl varied according to the recommendation of the soil analysis. The treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design at split plots with cultivars in the plot and fertilization in the sub-plot. It was used a factorial 2x4 arrangement, in which the cultivar factor had two levels: 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real', and the pre-planting fertilizer factor with four levels. The evaluations were fruit yield per plant, shoot dry mass and chlorophyll content. 'Camarosa' cultivar showed a greater number and weight of fruits per plant and higher dry mass shoots. Cultivar 'Camino Real' had the largest average per fruit and increased chlorophyll content. Regarding the fertilization rates of pre-planting, which fostered a greater number and weight of fruits per plant, it was 1937kg ha-1 and 1713kg ha-1 of fertilizer, respectively.

  11. Produção de morangos a partir de fertilizantes alternativos em pré-plantio / Pre-planting fertilization effects on strawberry fruit yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerson Kleinick, Vignolo; Vanessa Fernandes, Araújo; Roberta Jeske, Kunde; Carlos Augusto Posser, Silveira; Luis Eduardo Corrêa, Antunes.

    1755-17-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar doses de fertilizantes alternativos na adubação de pré-plantio quanto à produção de frutos de morangueiro. Os tratamentos foram baseados em doses de adubação NPK (kg ha-1) recomendada para a cultura do morangueiro em que as doses de torta de mamona (TM), fosfori [...] ta alvorada (FA) e cloreto de potássio (KCl) variaram de acordo com a recomendação da análise de solo. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento em blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as cultivares dispostas na parcela e as adubações na subparcela. Foi utilizado um esquema fatorial 2x4, em que o fator cultivar apresentou dois níveis: 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real', e o fator adubação de pré-plantio, quatro níveis. As avaliações realizadas foram produção de frutos por planta, massa seca da parte aérea e índice de clorofila. A cultivar 'Camarosa' apresentou maior número e massa de frutos por planta e maior massa seca da parte aérea. A cultivar 'Camino Real' apresentou maior massa média por fruto e maior índice de clorofila. Com relação às doses de adubação de pré-plantio que propiciaram maior número e massa de frutos por planta, foram 1.937kg ha-1 e 1.713kg ha-1 de adubo, respectivamente. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the doses of alternative fertilizer pre-planting fertilization on strawberries yield. The treatments were based on doses of NPK (kg ha-1) recommended for strawberry culture in which the doses of castor bean (TM), phosphorite dawn (FA) and potassium chloride (KCl) varied a [...] ccording to the recommendation of the soil analysis. The treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design at split plots with cultivars in the plot and fertilization in the sub-plot. It was used a factorial 2x4 arrangement, in which the cultivar factor had two levels: 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real', and the pre-planting fertilizer factor with four levels. The evaluations were fruit yield per plant, shoot dry mass and chlorophyll content. 'Camarosa' cultivar showed a greater number and weight of fruits per plant and higher dry mass shoots. Cultivar 'Camino Real' had the largest average per fruit and increased chlorophyll content. Regarding the fertilization rates of pre-planting, which fostered a greater number and weight of fruits per plant, it was 1937kg ha-1 and 1713kg ha-1 of fertilizer, respectively.

  12. Effects of foliar feeding under different soil fertilization conditions on the yield structure and quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis?aw Chwil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse foliar feeding of winter wheat cv. ‘Kobra’ in combination with different soil fertilization treatments with calcium and magnesium compounds. The foliar fertilizers INSOL PK + 5% urea solution and EKOSOL U were applied 3 times during the during the growing season in four soil fertilization treatments: control without fertilization, NPK, NPK + MgSO4 × 7H2O, and NPK + CaO + MgO. The investigations involved a 3-year field experiment established on medium soil with a pH of 4.2 in 1 mole KCl × dm-3 and with the granulometric composition of clayey silt. The soil was characterised by a low content of available phosphorus and potassium as well as a very low content of sulphur and magnesium. The foliar fertilizers applied and the soil fertilization treatments had a varied effect on the yield parameters, the macronutrient content in grain and straw, and the content and quality of gluten. Among the soil fertilization treatments, the best production results and quality parameters of winter wheat were obtained after the application of the dose with magnesium lime. The foliar fertilizers had a greater impact on yield and gluten content than on the mineral composition of winter wheat grain and straw.

  13. [Effects of long-term fertilization on organic carbon functional groups in black soil as revealed by synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qing-He; Dong, Pei-Bo; Li, Cui-Lan; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2012-10-01

    A 20 years (1984-2004) stationary field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers (N or NPK) alone or in combination with low (0.125 kg x hm(-2)) or high dose of corn stalk (0.25 kg x hm(-2)) on organic carbon functional groups in black soil using synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (C-1s NEXAFS). Compared with the control (CK) treatment, the aromatic C and the carboxyl C of soil increased, whereas the aliphatic C, the carbonyl C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio decreased after the application of chemical fertilizer alone. After the application of chemical fertilizations in combined with corn stalk, the aromatic C decreased while the aliphatic C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio increased as compared to N or NPK fertilizer treatment. And the change tendency was more obvious with the increase in the dose of corn stalk applied. Regardless of corn stalk application, the aromatic C, the aliphatic C, and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio were all higher for NPK than for N fertilizer treatment. The above results indicated that, compared with the no-fertilizer control treatment, the application of chemical fertilizers alone resulted in the relative proportion of aromatic compounds increased whereas that of aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds decreased. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds was higher after the application of chemical fertilizers with than without corn stalk, with high than with low dose of corn stalk, and with NPK than with N fertilization. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy could characterize in situ the changes of organic carbon functional groups in soil under long-term stationary fertilization. PMID:23285902

  14. Influence of Various Types of Organic Manures and Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Biomass Yield and Nutrient Content of Napier-Bajra Hybrid Grass

    OpenAIRE

    C Bandeswaran, L. Radhakrishnan And M. Murugan

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the response of Napier-bajra hybrid grass that was subjected to treatment with 3 different types of organic manures and 3 different levels of inorganic nitrogen (20kgN/acre, 40kgN/acre and 60kgN/acre) as fertilizer. Organic manure (farm yard manure, bio digested slurry and poultry manure) @ 4 tons/acre as basal manure increased the fodder biomass in a dose-dependent manner when used in combination with a nitrogen-containing fertilizer. We estimated biomass yield ...

  15. [Effects of long-term fertilization on paddy soils organic nitrogen, microbial biomass, and microbial functional diversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Rong-Gui; Wu, Jin-Shui; Tang, Shui-Rong; Luo, Xi-Qian

    2010-06-01

    Soil samples were collected from the plow layers at two long-term experiment sites in Xinhua and Ningxiang counties of Hunan Province, China to study the effects of long-term fertilization on organic nitrogen, microbial biomass, and microbial functional diversity of paddy soils. Long-term fertilization showed great effects on the soil N content. Compared with CK, treatments NPK plus manure or straw increased the contents of soil total acid-hydrolysable N and its fractions amino sugar N, amino acid N, and ammonium N. Treatment NPK had no significant effects on soil microbial biomass C and N, but treatments NPK plus manure increased the contents of soil microbial biomass C and N significantly. BIOLOG test showed that treatments NPK plus manure enhanced the carbon utilization efficiency of soil microbes, and improved the functional diversity of soil microbial communities, compared with CK. Long-term different fertilizer treatments resulted in the differences of carbon substrate utilization patterns of soil microbial communities. PMID:20873623

  16. Nitrogen fixed by wheat plants as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels and Non-symbiotic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic nitrogen is required for all egyptian soils for wheat. Free living and N 2-fixing microorganisms are able associate closely related with the roots of geraminacae. Pot experiment studies were carried out to examine the response of wheat plants to inoculation with Azospirillum Brasilense and Azotobacter Chroococcum, single or in combination, under various levels of ammonium sulfate interaction between both the inoculants increased straw or grain yield as well as N-uptake by wheat plants with increasing N levels. Results showed that grains of wheat plants derived over 19,24 and 15% of its N content from the atmospheric - N 2 (Ndfa) with application of 25,50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil in the presence of + Azospirillum + azotobacter. The final amount of N 2-fixers. The highest values of N 2-fixed were observed with mixed inoculants followed by inoculation with Azospirillum and then azotobacter. The recovery of applied ammonium sulfate-N was markedly increased by inoculation with combined inoculants, but less in uninoculated treatments. Seeds inoculated with non-symbiotic fixing bacteria could be saved about 25 kg N without much affecting the grain yield. i fig., 4 tabs

  17. Híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cultivados sob níveis crescentes de adubação: características agronômicas, carboidratos solúveis e estruturais da planta Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench hybrids cultivated under increasing fertilization levels: agronomic characteristics, soluble and structural carbohydrates of the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas características agronômicas, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e carboidratos solúveis e estruturais de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AGX-202, AGX-213 e AGX-215, cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, com quatro repetições. As médias dos fatores qualitativos foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5 e 1% de probabilidade. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diferentes proporções de colmos (29,01 a 53,38%, de folhas (16,70 a 22,64% e de panículas (29,91 a 52,43%, sendo colmos e panículas fortemente correlacionadas com altura, 0,79** e -0,82**, respectivamente. O teor de matéria seca (MS da planta inteira foi fortemente influenciado pelas proporções de colmos e panículas, tendo as panículas apresentado os maiores teores de MS (48,79 a 56,80% e colmos as menores (18,86 a 22,54%. O aumento nos níveis de adubação proporcionou acréscimo na produção de panículas, que refletiu na diminuição da relação colmo + folha/panícula, no acréscimo da proporção de panículas e no teor de MS da planta inteira. Os teores de carboidratos solúveis totais, com base na matéria seca, variaram entre os híbridos avaliados (12,24 a 19,80% e apresentaram aumento com a elevação dos níveis de adubação. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (57,38 a 62,30%, fibra em detergente ácido (25,29 a 31,56%, hemicelulose (28,56 a 33,87%, celulose (19,20 a 24,34% e lignina (6,04 a 6,51%. O avanço nos níveis de adubação resultou em queda nos teores de FDN e hemicelulose.The agronomic characteristics, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and total soluble and structural carbohydrates contents of five hybrid sorghum (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AGX-212, AGX-213 e AGX-215, cultivated under different fertilization levels, were evaluated. A randomized blocks design, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The qualitative factors means were analyzed by means of Tukey test at 5 and 1% of probability. The evaluated hybrids showed different proportions of stem (29.01 to 53.38%, leaves (16.70 to 22.64% and panicle (29.91 to 52.43%, where stem and panicle were highly correlated with height, 0.79** and -0,82**, respectively. Dry matter content of whole plant was strongly affected by stem and panicle proportion, where the panicle showed higher DM contents (48.79 to 56,80% and stem, the smaller (18.86 to 22.54%. The increase in the fertilization levels provided increment in the panicle production, that decreased stem+leaves/panicle proportions and increased panicle proportion and DM content of whole plant. The total soluble carbohydrates contents, in dry matter basis, varied among evaluated hybrids (12.24 to 19.80% and increased as the fertilization levels increased. The evaluated hybrids showed significant differences among the NDF (57.38 to 62.30, ADF (25.29 to 31.56%, hemicellulose (28.56 to 33.87%, cellulose (19.20 to 24.34% and lignin (6.04 a 6.51% contents. The NDF and hemicellulose contents decreased as the fertilization levels increased.

  18. Híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivados sob níveis crescentes de adubação: características agronômicas, carboidratos solúveis e estruturais da planta / Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) hybrids cultivated under increasing fertilization levels: agronomic characteristics, soluble and structural carbohydrates of the plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel Marques, Gontijo Neto; José Antônio, Obeid; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Paulo Roberto, Cecon; Augusto César de, Queiroz; Cláudio Prates, Zago; Magno José Duarte, Cândido; Lídia Ferreira, Miranda.

    1975-19-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliadas características agronômicas, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA) e carboidratos solúveis e estruturais de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AGX-202, AGX-213 e AGX-215), cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o deli [...] neamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, com quatro repetições. As médias dos fatores qualitativos foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5 e 1% de probabilidade. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diferentes proporções de colmos (29,01 a 53,38%), de folhas (16,70 a 22,64%) e de panículas (29,91 a 52,43%), sendo colmos e panículas fortemente correlacionadas com altura, 0,79** e -0,82**, respectivamente. O teor de matéria seca (MS) da planta inteira foi fortemente influenciado pelas proporções de colmos e panículas, tendo as panículas apresentado os maiores teores de MS (48,79 a 56,80%) e colmos as menores (18,86 a 22,54%). O aumento nos níveis de adubação proporcionou acréscimo na produção de panículas, que refletiu na diminuição da relação colmo + folha/panícula, no acréscimo da proporção de panículas e no teor de MS da planta inteira. Os teores de carboidratos solúveis totais, com base na matéria seca, variaram entre os híbridos avaliados (12,24 a 19,80%) e apresentaram aumento com a elevação dos níveis de adubação. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (57,38 a 62,30%), fibra em detergente ácido (25,29 a 31,56%), hemicelulose (28,56 a 33,87%), celulose (19,20 a 24,34%) e lignina (6,04 a 6,51%). O avanço nos níveis de adubação resultou em queda nos teores de FDN e hemicelulose. Abstract in english The agronomic characteristics, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and total soluble and structural carbohydrates contents of five hybrid sorghum (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AGX-212, AGX-213 e AGX-215), cultivated under different fertilization levels, were evaluated. A randomized block [...] s design, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The qualitative factors means were analyzed by means of Tukey test at 5 and 1% of probability. The evaluated hybrids showed different proportions of stem (29.01 to 53.38%), leaves (16.70 to 22.64%) and panicle (29.91 to 52.43%), where stem and panicle were highly correlated with height, 0.79** and -0,82**, respectively. Dry matter content of whole plant was strongly affected by stem and panicle proportion, where the panicle showed higher DM contents (48.79 to 56,80%) and stem, the smaller (18.86 to 22.54%). The increase in the fertilization levels provided increment in the panicle production, that decreased stem+leaves/panicle proportions and increased panicle proportion and DM content of whole plant. The total soluble carbohydrates contents, in dry matter basis, varied among evaluated hybrids (12.24 to 19.80%) and increased as the fertilization levels increased. The evaluated hybrids showed significant differences among the NDF (57.38 to 62.30), ADF (25.29 to 31.56%), hemicellulose (28.56 to 33.87%), cellulose (19.20 to 24.34%) and lignin (6.04 a 6.51%) contents. The NDF and hemicellulose contents decreased as the fertilization levels increased.

  19. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  20. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camilla Bof; Knupp, Eliana Aparecida Nonato; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano, E-mail: cgbs@cdtn.b [Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena; Ciqueira, Maria Celia [Pocos de Caldas Lab., (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  1. [Degradation dynamics of POPs atrazine in soils under long-term located fertilization conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Xie, Hui; Song, Yan; Sun, Rui-lian; Zhang, Fu-dao

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the difference of POPs atrazine degradation dynamics in soils under different fertilization conditions, we set up an analysis method of the atrazine residue in soils and studied residue dynamics of atrazine in soils under a long-term located fertilization conditions. After extracted by surging with acetone, liquid-liquid partition and eluted through florisil, the residue of atrazine in soils was detected by gas chromatogram with 63Ni-ECD. The minimum detectable quantity of atrazine is 6.4 x 10(-12) g and the minimum detectable concentration is 6.4 x 10(-9) g x kg(-1) in the soil. The spiked recoveries of atrazine with the three concentration of 0.11, 1.1, 11.0 mg x kg(-1) in soils are 91.41% +/- 4.36%, 93.58% +/- 4.54%, 90.35% +/- 3.59%, according with the request of pesticide residue analysis. The degradation of atrazine in soil under a long-term located fertilization conditions was studied. The results show the degradation of atrazine follows stair dynamic equation, and the degradation half-life of atrazine in soils fertilized with CK, NPK, NPK + M, NPK + S are 20.6, 23.0, 28.5, 33.2 d, respectively. Subjected to analysis of LSR, NPK and organic fertilizers are obviously propitious to the degradation of atrazine. The separate regression and stepwise regression analysis prove the degradation half-life of atrazine in soils is well related with the content of alkaline nitrogen, organic matter and total nitrogen, and the coefficients are 0.9983, 0.9826 and 0.9521, respectively. Maybe the reason is that these soil nutrient substance offers enough the element carbon and nitrogen for action of microbe, and the higher action of microbe quickens the degradation of atrazine in soils. PMID:18290444

  2. Fertilizante mineral e resíduo orgânico sobre características agronômicas da soja e nutrientes no solo / Mineral fertilizer and organic waste on soybean crop and soil nutrients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Everson Reis, Carvalho; Pedro Milanez de, Rezende; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Alexandre Martins Abdão dos, Passos; João Almir, Oliveira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do fertilizante mineral NPK associado ao resíduo orgânico "cama de frango", sobre as características agronômicas da soja bem como os teores de nutrientes em um Cambissolo. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Itutinga, sul de Minas Gerais, no delineamento em bloc [...] os casualizados, com três repetições em esquema de parcela subdividida. A cultivar utilizada no experimento foi a BRS Favorita RR. Os tratamentos aplicados às parcelas foram constituídos por quatro doses de "cama de frango" (0; 3; 6 e 9 Mg ha-1), aplicados em área total. As subparcelas constituíram as cinco doses do fertilizante mineral formulado NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 kg ha-1), aplicados ao sulco de semeadura. A adubação com o fertilizante mineral proporciona aumento na altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, número de legumes por planta e na produtividade de grãos da cultura da soja. A adubação com o resíduo orgânico "cama de frango" eleva a altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, massa de 100 grãos, número de legumes por planta e o rendimento de grãos de soja, porém em doses mais elevadas favorece o acamamento das plantas. A utilização da cama de frango é viável em termos agronômicos e econômicos na cultura da soja. A adição de cama de frango eleva os teores de potássio e enxofre no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral fertilizer NPK associated with the organic waste "poultry litter" on the agronomic characteristics of soybean as well as nutrient levels in the Cambisol. The experiment was carried out in Itutinga, southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, [...] in a randomized blocks experimental design with three replications in split-plot. The cultivar used was BRS Favorita RR. The treatments applied to plots consisted on four doses of "poultry litter" (0; 3; 6 and 9 Mg ha-1), applied in the total area. The subplots were the five doses of mineral fertilizer NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 kg ha-1), applied to the groove seeding. Fertilization with mineral fertilizers provides an increase in plant and first pod height, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean. Fertilization with organic waste "poultry litter" increases the plant and first pod height, weight of 100 grains, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean, however at higher doses favors the lodging of plants. The use of poultry litter is viable in agronomic and economic terms in the soybean crop. The addition of poultry litter increases the contents of potassium and sulfur in the soil.

  3. Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) to Different Levels of N, P and K Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Akbar Anjum; Muhammad Amjad

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizers were applied @ 50, 75, 100, or 125 kg ha-1 N, 60, 80 or 100 kg ha -1 P2O5 and 60 or 80 kg ha-1 K2O in different combinations to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. Results divulged that seed germination was not affected statistically by the fertilizer application while plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and green pod yield were affected significantly and were highest at the highest dose of fertilizers.

  4. Effect of long-term application of manure and fertilizer on biological and biochemical activities in soil during crop development stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asit; Patra, Ashok K; Singh, Dhyan; Swarup, Anand; Ebhin Masto, R

    2007-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of six long-term (34-year) fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) treatments (Control, N, NP, NPK, NPK+S, NPK+FYM) and three physiological stages of wheat growth on the microbial biomass carbon (MBC), nitrogen (MBN) and dehydrogenase, mineralizable N and phosphatase activities in soil. It was found that a balanced application of NPK+FYM gave the highest values for the measured parameters and lowest at the control. Values were generally highest at tillering, followed by the flowering and dough stages. A significant positive interaction between fertilizer treatments and physiological stages of wheat growth was observed, being highest at maximum tillering due to application of NPK+FYM. Stepwise regressions have revealed that grain yield of wheat was significantly associated with mineralizable N at tillering (R(2)=0.80), MBC at flowering (R(2)=0.90) and alkaline phosphatase activity (R(2)=0.70) at dough stages of wheat growth. PMID:17207997

  5. Effect of Mineral Fertilization and Sowing Rate on Chemical Composition of Two Linseed Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek-Kopyra A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of two levels of mineral fertilization (90 and 180 kg NPK/ha and three sowing rates (300, 600 and 900 germinating seeds per 1 m2 on chemical composition of two linseed cultivars (Opal and Hungarian Gold differing in seed colour. Basic chemical composition, fatty acid profile, amino acid composition and yields of the seeds were determined. The yields of protein and fat were also estimated. Seeds of these two studied cultivars did not show any significant differences in chemical composition after the application of different agro-technologies. Regardless of the cultivation factors, cv. Opal had higher NDF and ADF contents and over twice higher content of ADL (40.3 vs. 19.9 g/kg DM; P<0.05. Increased mineral fertilization caused an increase in the content of amino acids, especially glutamine, arginine and asparagine, in seeds. Fatty acid profile in seed oil did not show significant changes as a result of the cultivation factors applied.

  6. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation and different levels of phosphorus fertilizer on P content of leaves and lent properties of cotton crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted during seasons 1984-1985 and 1985-1986 at the research station of ASCAD in Deir-Ezzor district using 15N technique on irrigated variety of wheat (ACSAD-65) to study the effect of nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, 200 kg N/ha as urea) and placement methods (Broadcast and band) on yield, Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (NDFF) and Nitrogen fertilizer use Efficiency (NFUE). The experiment performed (Laid out) in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 6 treatment combinations in addition to the control and four replications. The results revealed that a combination of 200 Gk N/ha and broadcast application method proved to be the best for obtaining higher yield in the seasons. The rate of nitrogen were more effective on yeld, NDFF and NFUE than of placement method. In general, the higher levels of nitrogen application, the better response of yield and NDFF could be achieved, whereas for nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (NFUE) the best response was at N2 rate (100 kg N/ha) regardless the method of application used. The final results illustrate that placement method of urea fertilizer has no significant differences on yield, NDFF and NFUE in the most cases. (Author)

  7. A Study on the Radioactivity Level in Raw Materials, Final Products and Wastes of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiyan, Md Mahbubur R.; Debasish Paul; Md. Idris Ali; Md. Abu Haydar; Md. Abdus Samad; Islam, Sheikh Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    A study on the detection of probable radionuclides and their activity concentrations in the raw material (phosphate rock), final product (fertilizer) and waste samples collected from all the phosphate fertilizer factories (total two factories—A Diammonium Phosphate, DAP and a Triple Super Phosphate, TSP factory) in Bangladesh were carried out. A total of seven types of samples (grossly divided into solid and liquid types); liquid waste, waste-mixed river water, normal river water, phosphate...

  8. Reconsidering the relation between fertility and key fertility-related demographic behaviour across space and time

    OpenAIRE

    Prskawetz, Alexia; Mamolo, Marija; Engelhardt, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies on fertility in Europe indicate the changing cross-country correlation between fertility and key fertility-related indicators. Fertility now tends to be lowest in countries that are traditional, catholic and family oriented, while fertility is highest in countries with high divorce rates, high rates of cohabitation and high levels of extra-marital fertility. In this paper we provide support to the argument that the change in the crosscountry correlation between fertility and fe...

  9. Agronomic performance of wheat cultivars in response to nitrogen fertilization levels=Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de trigo em resposta a doses de adubação nitrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lemes da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of wheat cultivars with different nutritional demands and yield potential hinders generalized recommendations for nitrogen fertilization. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N on the agronomic performance of six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. in two harvests. A randomized block factorial design with three replications was used. The response to fertilization levels was evaluated through AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction and GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction biplot graphic methodologies and polynomial regression. There was genetic variability in response to nitrogen fertilization in the cultivars studied. The biggest increases in yield were observed under a more suitable water regime. The higher performance of yield components was associated with higher nitrogen fertilization levels.O lançamento de cultivares, com diferentes exigências nutricionais e potencial produtivo inviabilizam recomendações generalizadas de adubação nitrogenada para a cultura do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi de avaliar os efeitos de doses de adubação nitrogenada (ausência de fertilização, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N sobre o desempenho agronômico de seis cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., em duas safras agrícolas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. A resposta às doses empregadas foi avaliada através das metodologias em gráfico biplot AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction e GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction e regressão polinomial. Há variabilidade genética quanto à resposta a adubação nitrogenada, no conjunto de cultivares avaliados. Os maiores incrementos em produtividade ocorreram em condições mais adequadas de precipitação pluvial. O maior desempenho dos componentes do rendimento foram associados às maiores doses de adubação nitrogenada.

  10. Agronomic performance of wheat cultivars in response to nitrogen fertilization levels / Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de trigo em resposta a doses de adubação nitrogenada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovani, Benin; Elesandro, Bornhofen; Eduardo, Beche; Eduardo Stefani, Pagliosa; Cristiano Lemes da, Silva; Cilas, Pinnow.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O lançamento de cultivares, com diferentes exigências nutricionais e potencial produtivo inviabilizam recomendações generalizadas de adubação nitrogenada para a cultura do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi de avaliar os efeitos de doses de adubação nitrogenada (ausência de fertilização, 60, [...] 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N) sobre o desempenho agronômico de seis cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.), em duas safras agrícolas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. A resposta às doses empregadas foi avaliada através das metodologias em gráfico biplot AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction) e GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction) e regressão polinomial. Há variabilidade genética quanto à resposta a adubação nitrogenada, no conjunto de cultivares avaliados. Os maiores incrementos em produtividade ocorreram em condições mais adequadas de precipitação pluvial. O maior desempenho dos componentes do rendimento foram associados às maiores doses de adubação nitrogenada. Abstract in english The release of wheat cultivars with different nutritional demands and yield potential hinders generalized recommendations for nitrogen fertilization. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N) on the agronomic performa [...] nce of six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) in two harvests. A randomized block factorial design with three replications was used. The response to fertilization levels was evaluated through AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction) and GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction) biplot graphic methodologies and polynomial regression. There was genetic variability in response to nitrogen fertilization in the cultivars studied. The biggest increases in yield were observed under a more suitable water regime. The higher performance of yield components was associated with higher nitrogen fertilization levels.

  11. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Alessandra A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3 of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  12. The Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yassini

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 10% of Iranian couples wishing to have a child experience some types of infertility which may impose a considerable psychological burden on them. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the level of anxiety and depression among infertile couples undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment cycles in Iran. Methods: Fifty infertile couples that who undergoing IVF (n=25 or ICSI (n=25 cycles were considered for this descriptive cross-sectional study. Also, 25 married couples (18-40 years old with history of fertility served as control subjects. All husbands and wives were examined by means of Beck Depression and Spielberger Anxiety Inventories. Results: Comparing with controls, the highest rates of moderate and severe anxiety, were observed in women undergoing IVF (76% and 12%, respectively; P<0.05. However, the rate of depression among women in IVF group was comparable to women undergoing ICSI. Also, the highest rates of severe depression and anxiety were demonstrated among housewives (23.9% and 11%, respectively. The lowest rates of severe anxiety and depression were observed in husbands participated in either IVF or ICSI cycles. In addition, illiterates, compared with educated couples, undergoing IVF or ICSI program were shown to have the highest rates of both depression and anxiety. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of anxiety and depression were higher in women, especially housewives, undergoing IVF or ICSI cycles than control subjects. Also, men showed lower rates of anxiety and depression than women undergoing IVF or ICSI. Therefore, this can provide useful information and guidance for health professionals working with infertile patients. KeyWords: anxiety, depression, infertility, IVF, ICSI, Iran

  13. Produtividade e qualidade nutricional de cultivares de feijão em diferentes adubações / Nutritional quality and yield of bean cultivars under different fertilization levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto de Bastos, Andrade; Sandra Magda Sanches, Patroni; Edmar, Clemente; Carlos Alberto, Scapim.

    1077-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O fornecimento adequado e equilibrado de nutrientes para o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) por meio da calagem e adubação pode contribuir para o aumento da produtividade e o valor nutricional dos grãos. Portanto, avaliou-se o efeito da adubação na produtividade, componentes da produção, nos teores [...] de macro e micronutrientes, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de três cultivares de feijão (Aporé, Pérola e Rudá). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela subdividida, sendo locados nas parcelas as diferentes adubações (N1 - não adubado; N2 - adubação para produtividade esperada de até 1.200 kg ha-1, N3 - adubação para produtividade esperada acima de 2.500 kg ha-1). As subparcelas constaram das três cultivares. As adubações utilizadas foram suficientes para alcançar os níveis de produtividade esperados. A cultivar Rudá destacou-se das demais, com os maiores teores de Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn e B. A cultivar Aporé apresentou os maiores teores de K, N, proteína e triptofano. A cultivar Pérola obteve os maiores teores de Ca e P. A recomendação de adubação para atingir produtividade superior a 2.500 kg ha-1 de grãos proporcionou as maiores produtividades, os maiores teores de K, N, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de feijão. Abstract in english The appropriate and balanced supply of nutrients of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) achieved by liming and fertilization can contribute towards increasing the grain yield and nutritional value. It was evaluated the effect of the levels of fertilization on the productivity, components of the p [...] roduction, composition of macro and micronutrients, protein and tryptophan in the grains of three bean cultivars (Aporé, Pérola and Rudá). The experimental design was composed of random blocks, with four replicates, in split-plot design, considering the different levels of fertilization (N1 - no fertilized; N2 - fertilization level for an expected grain yield of 1,200 kg ha-1, N3 - fertilization for expected grain yield above 2,500 kg ha-1). The split-plot random blocks design consisted of the three cultivars. The fertilizers used were adequate to reach the expected levels of productivity. The higher productivity was obtained when all cultivars were fertilized N3. Rudá cultivar showed the largest levels of Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and B. Aporé cultivar presented the largest levels of K, N, protein and tryptophan, while the cultivar Pérola showed the largest levels of Ca and P. The fertilizing recommendation to obtain productivity superior to 2,500 kg ha-1, produced the largest levels of K, N, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, protein and tryptophan in the bean grains.

  14. Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120). The most active development of denitrifiers was in the fallow soil. It is known that cultivated forms comprise only about 1 to 10% of the total number of soil microorganisms. Quantitative analysis by the methods of molecular biology makes it possible to consider the full range of microorganisms. The concentration of extracted DNA can serve as an indicator of the total "biogenity" of the soil, as we isolated the genetic material of all organisms living in the soil. The highest concentration of DNA found in the samples from the fallow soil. Much lower values were found in the soils treated with mineral fertilizers: 38.9% in trial NPK-60 and 53.3% in trials NPK-120 and NPK-0. Thus, to sustain biota in cultivated chernozems and to improve the ecological state of the fields, the rates of mineral fertilizers have to be properly controlled. Moderate rates can be recommended. Features of the soil microbiome can serve as universal and sensitive indicators of the state of the soils under different farming systems. The quantitative analysis of isolated total DNA is an efficient tool to control the ecological state of the soils, especially those involved in agriculture.

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from rape field as affected by nitrogen fertilizer management: A case study in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Jinshui; Zhao, Jinsong; Ruan, Leilei; Malghani, Saadatullah

    2011-03-01

    Agricultural soils are one of the major sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2O) emission. Red soil, one of the typical agricultural soils in sub-tropical China, plays an important role in the global N 2O flux emissions. To determine its N mineralization potential, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a rape field under red soil at the experimental station of Heshengqiao at Xianning, Hubei, China. To estimate N-induced N 2O flux, we examined N 2O flux during the growth stages of the rape field including four treatments: fertilizer PK (N0), fertilizer NPK (60 kg N ha -1) (N1), fertilizer NPK (120 kg N ha -1) (N2), fertilizer NPK (240 kg N ha -1) (N3). There were distinct variations in soil N 2O fluxes (from 0.16 to 0.90 kg N ha -1), with higher values being observed during the spring and autumn while low values were observed during winter season. Among different treatments, N fertilization significantly increased the N 2O fluxes, with highest fluxes from N3 while lowest values being observed from N0 treatment. This suggested increased microbial activity in response to increased N fertilizer application. It was interesting to note that fertilizer-induced emissions decreased as the applied fertilizer amount was increased. During the whole growing season, N 2O flux did not correlate with soil temperature, but it significantly correlated to other environmental variables; water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NO 3--N and NH 4+-N contents, which suggests the need for efficient water use and low inorganic nitrogen fertilizer management practices.

  16. Response of Sweet Potato to Integrated Effect of Chemical and Natural Phosphorus Fertilizer and Their Levels in Combination with Mycorrhizal Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abd El-Fattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices based on combinations of biofertilizer and inorganic or natural sources of fertilizer would produce vigor growth and more sustainable yield than either using biofertilizer or inorganic fertilizer alone. In this respect, two field trials were performed in 2007 and 2008 summer seasons to determine the growth, root quantity and quality response of sweet potato to chemical and natural Phosphorus (P fertilizer (superphosphate and rock phosphate under four levels of P in combination with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM fungi inoculation treatment and their integrated effects. The obtained results showed superior growth, increased total and marketable yield, in addition improved root quality (total sugars, total carotene, total soluble solids and carbohydrates with superphosphate comparing with natural rock phosphate. Application of the highest level of P (100% P2O5 enhanced vine length, leaves number and vine fresh weight. Also, increased root quantity and quality traits. Inoculation plants with VAM-fungi significantly increased productivity and improved root organic composition. Integrated effects between either superphosphate under the recommended level (100% P2O5 or between VAM-fungi inoculation under the same level exhibited improving in plant growth and yield production. Sweet potato plants tended to reveal their best quality performance when superphosphate is applied combined with VAM-fungi inoculation treatment. In general, the obtained results indicated that for increasing sweet potato root production and quality, a combination between superphosphate at the recommended P level and VAM-fungi inoculation treatment was the best. The integrated effect between superphosphate and VAM-fungi was better than either using inorganic or bio-phosphate fertilizer alone.

  17. El riego y fertilización en la calidad postcosecha del zapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn]. / The irrigation and fertilization on postharvest quality of sapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn].

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. R., Vallejo-Pérez; D., Nieto-Ángel; M. T., Martínez-Damián; J. A., Mora-Aguilera; D., Téliz-Ortiz; C., Nava-Díaz.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del riego y fertilización sobre la calidad en postcosecha del zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota). Árboles de 20 años de edad provenientes de semilla fueron sometidos a dos frecuencias de riego por gravedad: tradicional (cada 10 días) y controlado a 20 milibares (cada 3 días); además, [...] se evaluaron cuatro mezclas de nitrógeno (N), fósforo (P) y potasio (K): 0, 1, 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK al año, divididas en seis aplicaciones bimestrales. Las variables evaluadas en pulpa de frutos en madurez fisiológica (MF) y madurez comercial (MC) fueron: acidez, sólidos solubles totales (SST), firmeza, color (L,a,b), fenoles y carotenoides totales, pérdida de peso (PP) y concentración de NPK. El riego controlado a 20 mb mejoró la apariencia física de la pulpa (aumento del brillo) en MC e incrementó la concentración de carotenoides. La fertilización, también aumentó la concentración de carotenoides en frutos, mejorando su calidad y además, la pérdida de peso por transpiración fue menor respecto a los frutos de árboles no fertilizados. 2 kg de NPK causó mayor luminosidad en MC y 1.5 kg de NPK produjeron frutos con pulpa más roja. La disminución de la firmeza en frutos con MF causado por la fertilización con 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK, condiciona a un manejo cuidadoso del producto durante su cosecha y evitar heridas y golpes que afecten el proceso normal de maduración. Abstract in english The effect of irrigation and fertilization on post harvest quality of zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota) was evaluated. Twenty year-old trees developed from seed were irrigated at two frequencies: traditional (every 10 days) and 20-millibares controlled (every 3 days). Irrigation was combined with four [...] fertilization rates 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg of NPK per tree. Evaluated variables on fruits at physiological (MF) and commercial maturity (MC) were the followings: acidity, total soluble solids (SST), firmness, color (L, a, b), phenols and total carotenoids, weight loss (WL) and NPK concentration. The 20 mb-controlled irrigation improved pulp appearance (brightness) during MC and increased carotenoid concentration. Fertilization improved fruit quality, increasing carotenoid concentration and reducing weight loss by transpiration. In addition, 2 kg NPK treatment resulted in higher brightness of fruits at MC and 1.5 kg NPK produced fruits with dark red pulp. The fact that firmness of fruits on MF was reduced by applying 1.5 and 2.0 kg NPK requires careful handling of sapote fruit during harvest season avoiding lesions and buises that may affect the normal ripening process.

  18. Effect of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Moisture Stress During Milky and Dough Stages on Grain Yield, Yield Components and water Use Efficiency of Corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghadiri

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer levels and water stress during milky and dough stages on grain yield, yield components and water use efficiency of corn hybrid SC 704 (late maturing, non prolific and dent type, a field study was conducted. The factorial design of the study comprised of a randomized complete block with four replications. Four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 92, 184 and 276 kg/ha nitrogen along with three levels of irrigation (water stress imposed at milky stage, dough stage and a season-long optimum irrigation were used as treatments. Results showed that water stress during milky and dough stages significantly decreased grain yield and thousand kernel weight. Also, effect of nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield, kernel number per ear, kernel weight per ear and thousand kernel weight was significant. Maximum grain yield was produced with 276 kg/ha nitrogen, although no significant differences were found among 92, 184 and 276 kg/ha nitrogen levels. Regarding water use efficiency during water stress, maximum efficiency was observed at milky stage but, as water stress declined with optimum irrigation, water use efficiency decreased.

  19. Effect of Processed Green Organic Fertilizer on the Yield of Sugar cane

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Z. A.; Abro, M. B.; Buriro, S. A.; Maitlo, S. A.; Sario, M. M.; Jilliani, A. N.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was carried out in randomized complete block design. With four replication on sugar cane variety BL-4 at sugar cane section Tando Jam. It has been observes that maximum yield per plot and per hectare was obtained as 525 kg/plot and 139 M. tons/ha. Respectively from 275-112-180 kg NPK/ha with adding 30 bags of green organic fertilizer.

  20. Converging strategies by farmers and scientists to improve soil fertility and enhance crop production in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Saidou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Farmer perception, indigenous knowledge, extensive cassava, earthworm casts, arbuscular mycorrhiza, crop rotation, nutrient uptake, soil fertility, co-research, land tenure.Farmers in the transitional zone of Benin claim that extensive cassava cropping and prior cotton fertiliser enhance yield of subsequent maize. To cope with labour shortage, farmers have adapted fertiliser practices by mixing NPK-SB and urea. We agreed with farmers through a Stakeholder Learning Group to study the...

  1. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO / ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enio, Marchezan; Vandro Rogério, Vizzotto; Marta Gomes da, Rocha; Eduardo Londero, Moojen; José Henrique Souza da, Silva.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da corre [...] ção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum), trevo branco (Trifolium repens) e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus), cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS) ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare. Abstract in english The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction [...] associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), white clover (Trifolium repens) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 12

  2. Determination of Optimum Level of NP Fertilizer for Dry Land Wheat Production in the Rainfed Areas of Kohat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hassan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The farmers of the rainfed areas are usually reluctant to use the recommended dose of fertilizers. This study was undertaken on the farmers field as adaptive research trials with the idea, whether the economic risk which is the main hindrance in adapting the recommended dose of fertilizers, is possible to be minimized by using its smaller doses. Fertilizers doses significantly affected biological, bhoosa yield and grain yield kg ha-1. Highest bundle weight and bhoosa kg ha-1 were recorded with the application of 2.5 bag of each Urea and DAP ha-1, and also with the application of 1.25 bag Urea and 2.5 bag DAP ha-1. Maximum grain yield of (2405-2500 kg ha-1 were obtained in T1, T2 and T3 respectively.

  3. Climate Change: Natural Water and Fertilization Effects on Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.) Yield in Monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Interaction of rainfall on crop fertilization factors, such as macronutrients and yield, were studied during a long-term field experiment on a calcareous sandy soil with a low humus content in north Hungary at Örbottyán Experimental Station of RISSAC-HAS from 1961 to 2004. When the experiment was commenced (1959) the plowed portion of experimental soil (top soil) had a pH (H2O) 7.5-7.8, pH(KCl) 6.9-7.1, humus content of 0.6-1.0%, clay content about 5%, CaCO3 content 3-7%, AL (ammonium-lactate) soluble P2O5 content 40-60 mg . kg-1 and AL soluble K2O content 50-100 mg . kg-1. The experiment consisted of ten treatments in five replications, giving a total of 50 plots arranged in a Latin square design. The gross plot size was 35 m2. From the 1st to the 25th year the fertilization rates were 0, 50, 100 kg . ha-1 . year-1 nitrogen, 0, 54 kg . ha-1 . year-1 P2O5 and 0, 80 kg . ha-1 . year-1 K2O and their combinations. From the 26th year onwards these rates were 0, 120 kg . ha-1 . year-1 nitrogen, 0, 60, 120 kg . ha-1 . year-1 P2O5 and 0, 60, 120 kg . ha-1 . year-1 K2O. The major results were as follows: i., In average years the yield in the control plots stabilised at around 0.8 t . ha-1. The yield doubled (1.8-1.9 t . ha-1) in the N, NP and NK treatments, while the full NPK doses gave the maximum yield of 2.1 t . ha-1. ii., In dry years yields of 0.7 t . ha-1 could be harvested in the control plots. These was a yield reduction of 13% compared with the many years' mean. Yield depressions of 33, 16, 21 and 20% were caused by drought in the N, NP, NK and NPK treatments. iii., In wet years the yield was little more than 0.5 t . ha-1 (0.6 t . ha-1) in the control plots, representing a yield loss of 25% compared with average years. The N, NP, NK and NPK treatments led to yield depressions of 28, 26, 26 and 26%. Rye grown in a monoculture has approx. 5% less tolerance of wet years than of drought. iv., Depending on the nutrient supplies, significant quadratic correlations were observed between the rainfall quantity and the yield (0: R=0.7489***, N: R=0.8974***, NP: R=0.8020***, NK: R=0.7370***, NPK: R=0.9047***, mean R2=0.8180; 66.9%) during the vegetation period. v., The increase in grain yield per mm rainfall ranged from 3.0 to 6.4 kg . ha-1 in the case of optimum rainfall supplies, while the quantity of rainfall during the vegetation period required for the production of 1 kg air-dry yield ranged from 1529 to 3360 liters in the case of maximum yield. vi., Based on the meteorological database for the 44 years of the long-term experiment (1961-2004) the frequency of years in which the rainfall was optimum for various levels of nutrient supply was as follows: control: 2%, N: 7%, NP: 7%, NK: 9%, NPK: 7%, giving an average of 6% over the treatments. This suggests that the occurrence of optimum rainfall supplies and the possibility of achieving optimum yields in a rye monoculture will be decline in the future. vii., The yield average of rye grown in a monoculture on calcareous sandy soil (?rbottyán) was 86% less than that achieved in a biculture on acidic sandy soil (Nyírlugos) under the similar fertilization and rainfall conditions. viii., The results show rye production is totally (66.9%) dependent on rainfall and fertilization changes. Key words: rye, monoculture, rainfall, artificial fertilization, yield Introduction: Climate change is recognized as a serious environmental issue (Easterling et al., 1999; Johnston, 2000; Harnos, 2005). It has repeatedly affected much or all of the earth (Láng, 2005). Available evidence suggests that such changes are not only possible but likely in the future, potentially with large impacts on ecosystems and societies (Barrow et al., 2000; NRC, 2002; Hulme et al., 2002; Rajendra, 2004; Márton, 2004; 2005ab). During the 20th Century green house gases, especially CO2, in the atmosphere increased markedly (Szász, 2005). Nearly concurrently with this, relative global temperatures of the 19th Century increased 0.6 0C (Hulme et al., 2002; Láng et al., 2004; Jolánkai, 2005; Várallyay, 2005). In th

  4. Efeito da adubação NPK sobre o período de imaturidade da seringueira

    OpenAIRE

    BATAGLIA ONDINO CLEANTE; SANTOS WAGNER RODRIGUES DOS; GONÇALVES PAULO DE SOUZA; SEGNINI JUNIOR IVO; CARDOSO MÁRIO

    1999-01-01

    O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] à adubação NPK visando recomendá-la no período de formação dos seringais. Relata os resultados do experimento em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico no município de Matão (SP). O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O. Até 104 meses de idade das...

  5. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization of Boreal Forest Land on Greenhouse Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, L.; Sathre, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Forest growth on mineral soils in boreal regions is often limited by a low availability of nitrogen (N), and fertilization has shown particular promise in increasing yields in productive boreal forests. In this study we analyze the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing forest biomass production through N fertilization and using the increased production for bioenergy and biomaterials in place of non-renewable fuels and materials. We begin with a stand-level analysis of the radiative forcing implications of forest fertilization and biomass substitution, with explicit consideration of the temporal patterns of GHG emissions to and removals from the atmosphere. We model and compare the production and use of biomass from a hectare of fertilized and non-fertilized forest land in northern Sweden. We calculate the annual net emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 for each system, over a 225-year period with 1-year time steps. We calculate the annual atmospheric concentration decay of each of these emissions, and calculate the resulting annual changes in instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing. We find that forest fertilization can significantly increase biomass production, which increases the potential for material and energy substitution. The average carbon stock in tree biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase when fertilization is used. The additional GHG emissions due to fertilizer production and application are small compared to increases in carbon stock and substitution benefits. By the end of the 225-year simulation period, the cumulative radiative forcing reduction of the fertilized stand is over twice that of the non-fertilized stand. We then consider a steady-state landscape-level scenario where 10% of Swedish forest land is fertilized. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual usable biomass production of 8.3 million t dry matter, of which 37% is large-diameter stemwood. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 12.7 million or 19.5 million tCO2e if the avoided fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 19% or 30% of the total Swedish GHG emission in 2007. An average annual application of 21 kg N per ha results in an average annual production increase of about 4 t oven-dry biomass per ha, leading to a total annual emission reduction of up to 8.5 t CO2e per ha. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results show that relatively small quantities of N can leverage large changes in GHG flows, suggesting that forest fertilization and biomass substitution may be effective options for climate change mitigation.

  6. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether an additional foliar calcium application influenced the same parameters. Subsequently, the effect of the various treatments on the germination of the obtained seeds was explored. Two identical experiments (A and B) were carried out with five concentrations of nutrient solutions corresponding to an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.25 mS·cmL1, 2.50 mS·cmL1, 3.75 mS·cmL1, 5.00 mS·cmL1, and 6.25 mS·cmL1. Additionally, plants were sprayed with a 0.5% foliar-applied calcium solution or deionized water (control) three times during the experimental period. In Expt. A, the concentration of fertilizer significantly affected seed production. Number of flower heads and seed weight were not influenced by the dose of fertilizer, but plant biomass and number of seeds were significantly reduced at the highest concentration (6.25 mS·cmL1). In Expt. B, the fertilizer concentration did not affect number of flower heads and seed number, but seed weight and plant biomass were significantly reduced at the highest fertilizer concentration. In both experiments, the seeds germinated slower and less seeds germinated when plants had received the largest amount of fertilizer (6.25 mS·cmL1). In none of the experiments did applied calcium affect the number of flowers, seed production, seed weight, or the total biomass. Our data indicate that seed producers of G. hybrida should not apply standard fertilizer in a concentration higher than corresponding to an EC of ’1.25 mS·cmL1. It would have been valuable if we also had included a treatment with a lower EC value like 0.75 mS·cmL1 to improve the estimate of the optimal EC level from a curved function for the seed production and quality parameters.

  7. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felippe Ratke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 (agricultural urea, 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®,3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N® and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®. Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola, 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®,3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N® e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®, e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas, matéria seca de folhas e os teores de nitrogênio foliar. As doses de diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta mostraram regressões polinomiais significativas para a produção de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula e teores de nitrogênio foliar, sendo que neste ultimo parâmetro avaliado, o Entec 26® não obteve regressão polinomial significativa. A produção de matéria seca de folhas de rúcula mostrou regressões lineares não significativas. As máximas produções de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula foram obtidas com as doses de 600 kg ha-1; 490 kg ha-1; 765 kg ha-1 e 462 kg ha-1 de N com o uso de uréia, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® e Super N®, respectivamente.

  8. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea / Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Felippe, Ratke; Adriana, Verginassi; Débora de C, Basto; Hélber S, Morgado; Milena RF de, Souza; Eliana Paula, Fernandes.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lent [...] a e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola), 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®)),3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N®)) e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®)), e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas, matéria seca de folhas e os teores de nitrogênio foliar. As doses de diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta mostraram regressões polinomiais significativas para a produção de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula e teores de nitrogênio foliar, sendo que neste ultimo parâmetro avaliado, o Entec 26® não obteve regressão polinomial significativa. A produção de matéria seca de folhas de rúcula mostrou regressões lineares não significativas. As máximas produções de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula foram obtidas com as doses de 600 kg ha-1; 490 kg ha-1; 765 kg ha-1 e 462 kg ha-1 de N com o uso de uréia, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® e Super N®, respectivamente. Abstract in english Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 ( [...] agricultural urea), 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®)),3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N®)) and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®)). Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.

  9. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabzadeh Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed. Results: Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001 and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01, respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS. In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032 and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05. Conclusion: Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients.

  10. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed.Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001) and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01), respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS). In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032) and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafoll305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients (Author).

  11. Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to soils were all increased after the long-term fertilization. Compared with Treatment NK, soil OC in Treatment NPK was increased by 45.4%. Compared with Treatment CK (low chemical fertilizer), organic fertilizer addition increased soil OC. The OC in the different particle of water-stable aggregates were all significantly increased after long-term fertilization. OC mainly existed in the macroaggregate (> 0.25 mm) of red soils after the long-term fertilization, and the organic matter was the most important colloid material for macroaggregates. We conclude that the long-term, appropriate application of chemical fertilizer and the combination with organic manure were the most effective measures to improve soil structure and organic carbon contents in red soil regions.

  12. High fertility among Indochinese refugees.

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, J. R.; Rumbaut, R. G.; Brindis, C.; Korenbrot, C. C.; Minkler, D.

    1989-01-01

    From 1975 to 1988, nearly 900,000 Indochinese refugees were resettled in the United States. This paper examines patterns of fertility among these refugees from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who have exhibited high levels of reproduction since their arrival. Data are drawn from sample surveys in San Diego and San Francisco, CA. Fertility levels were found to exceed five children per ever-married woman, a level that is consistent with perceptions of ideal family size in the homeland. Fertility le...

  13. Influence of solar irradiance, watering frequency and inorganic fertilizer on incidence of dieback disease and growth of Ceiba pentendra (L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts at raising seedlings of Ceiba pentandra in nurseries have been hampered by damping-off, leaf spots and stem anthracnose causing stem dieback disease by fungal attack. Managing the disease by fungicides retarded growth of the seedlings; hence a method of controlling the dieback disease and boosting growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings based on environmental factors was investigated. Using a randomised complete block design in a factorial split-plot experiment, the dependence of survival and growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings on solar irradiance, watering frequency and NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer was studied to improve the survival rate of seedlings by preventing dieback disease in large-scale plantation development in Ghana. Solar irradiance, daily watering of 4.5 L per plot and inorganic fertilizer application of 1.0 g per seedling had the strongest effect in minimizing the incidence of dieback disease and ensuring 90 % survival and improved collar diameter growth. The levels of irradiance, watering regime and optimum fertilizer application required to control dieback disease and promote growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings were set, and could be adopted by tree growers. (au)

  14. Demand and supply of N in seed production of soybean (Glycine max) at different N fertilization levels after flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Toshihiko; Sato, Takashi; Oikawa, Shimpei; Hirose, Tadaki

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) has been suggested as a determinant of seed production especially in species with high seed N content. Assuming that seed yield was determined as the balance between N demand and supply for seed production, we studied the effect of N fertilization after flowering on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) yield. Seed N concentration was nearly constant irrespective of N fertilization, indicating that seed production was proportional to the amount of N available for seed growth. N demand for seed production was analyzed as the product of seed number, the rate of N filling in individual seeds, and the length of the reproductive period. N fertilization increased seed number and the reproductive period, but did not influence the N filling rate. Seed number was positively correlated with dry mass productivity after flowering. Three N sources were distinguished: mineral N uptake, symbiotic N(2) fixation and N remobilization from vegetative body. N fertilization increased N uptake and N remobilization, but lowered N(2) fixation. We concluded that N availability in the reproductive period determined seed yield directly through increasing N supply for seed growth and indirectly through increasing seed N demand with enhanced plant dry mass productivity. PMID:21671022

  15. Mixed fertilizers incorporated in organic polimer matrix and pressed in tablets as means of enhancing the nutrients productive use in increased crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of increasing productive use of fertilizer nutrients in crops an admixture of brown coal dust containing up to 40 % carbon ammonia lignosulfonate with 50 % lignoles dry matter as binding agent were used to press water soluble fertilizer sources with a total of N+P2O5+K2O content of up to 26 % in tablets. These may be manufactured at different N:P2O5:K2O ratios as for instance 1:1:1; 1:0.75:0.50 etc. Brown coal and coal refuse dust were used as matrix for inclusion while lignosulfonates served for binding the ingredients when pressing them in tablets of 15-20 g dry mass each. These were tested in accurate field experiments to compare the agronomic effectiveness of equal amounts of NPK in tablets with equivalent rates of powdered sources of nutrients in the same chemical forms. NPK pressed in tablets were applied locally along the plant row, while the powdered mixed fertilizer have been thoroughly mixed in the ploughed layer. Accurate field experiments have pointed out the higher agronomical effectiveness of NPK pressed in tablets as compared to equal amounts of NPK powdered and thoroughly mixed into the ploughed layer of soil. Indicators were higher yield increases per nutrient unit and higher degrees of apparent productive use of nutrients in crops. Refs. 4 (author)

  16. DETERMINACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES NIVELES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN PAPA (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA) DIACOL CAPIRO EN UN SUELO CON PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA / DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA) DIACOL CAPIRO IN A SOIL WITH PROPERTIES ANDICAS OF SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jairo Yovani, Rios Quinchoa; Sonia del Carmen, Jaramillo Villegas; Luis Hernán, González Santamaría; José Miguel, Cotes Torres.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La fertilización es una labor que cumple con la necesidad de suplementar a la planta, los nutrientes no satisfechos por el suelo en su condición de fertilidad natural. Por muchas décadas se han utilizado dosis deficientes que conducen a bajas producciones, y en ocasiones dosis excesivas de fertiliza [...] ntes químicos que pueden generar problemas ambientales. La fertilización con nutrientes secundarios (Ca, Mg, S) y el micronutriente B, han sido poco estudiadas en el cultivo de papa, razón por la cual se evaluó, en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín), el efecto de diferentes dosis de estos nutrientes en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena) de la variedad DIACOL Capiro en un suelo con propiedades ándicas de Santa Rosa de Osos. Se utilizaron dosis bajas, moderadas y altas de NPK, Ca, Mg, B y S, y se encontró una respuesta positiva en rendimiento a las aplicaciones crecientes de NPK (500, 1.500 y 3000 kg ha-1), también se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso de los tubérculos de primera y segunda categoría, mientras que los tubérculos de tercera y cuarta categoría no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las interacciones entre Ca, Mg, B y S no tuvieron efecto apreciable sobre el rendimiento de los tubérculos, ya que en la mayoría de los casos solo se observaron los efectos simples de dichos elementos. Abstract in english The fertilization is a work that fulfills the supplementary to the plant nutritional necessities that are not satisfied by the soil, in its condition of natural fertility. For many decades faulty doses has been used that take to low productions, and in occasions excessive doses of chemical fertilize [...] rs that lead to environmental problems. The fertilization with nutritious secondary (Ca, Mg, S) and the micronutrient B, has been little studied in potato crop in Colombia; for this reason, we evaluated, in the Centro de Investigacion e Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal Paysandú of the La Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín), the effect of different doses of these nutrients, in a cultivation of potato of the variety DIACOL Capiro in a soil with andics properties of Santa Rosa de Osos. Low, moderate and high doses of NPK, Ca, Mg, B and S, was used, and it was a positive result in yield to the growing applications of NPK (500, 1.500 and 3000 kg ha-1), significant differences were also presented in weight in the tubers of first and second category, while the tubers of third and quarter category did not present significant differences. The interactions among Ca, Mg, B and S didn’t have appreciable effect on the yield of the tubers, since in most of the alone cases one observes the simple effects of this elements.

  17. Effect of phosphorus availability on the selection of species with different ploidy levels and genome sizes in a long-term grassland fertilization experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmarda, Petr; Hejcman, Michal; B?ezinová, Alexandra; Horová, Lucie; Steigerová, Helena; Zedek, František; Bureš, Petr; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    Polyploidy and increased genome size are hypothesized to increase organismal nutrient demands, namely of phosphorus (P), which is an essential and abundant component of nucleic acids. Therefore, polyploids and plants with larger genomes are expected to be selectively disadvantaged in P-limited environments. However, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally tested. We measured the somatic DNA content and ploidy level in 74 vascular plant species in a long-term fertilization experiment. The differences between the fertilizer treatments regarding the DNA content and ploidy level of the established species were tested using phylogeny-based statistics. The percentage and biomass of polyploid species clearly increased with soil P in particular fertilizer treatments, and a similar but weaker trend was observed for the DNA content. These increases were associated with the dominance of competitive life strategy (particularly advantageous in the P-treated plots) in polyploids and the enhanced competitive ability of dominant polyploid grasses at high soil P concentrations, indicating their increased P limitation. Our results verify the hypothesized effect of P availability on the selection of polyploids and plants with increased genome sizes, although the relative contribution of increased P demands vs increased competitiveness as causes of the observed pattern requires further evaluation. PMID:23819630

  18. Recovery of plant species richness during long-term fertilization of a species-rich grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierik, Marleen; van Ruijven, Jasper; Bezemer, T Martijn; Geerts, Rob H E M; Berendse, Frank

    2011-07-01

    Nutrient enrichment of habitats (eutrophication) is considered to be one of the main causes of plant diversity decline worldwide. Several experiments have shown a rapid loss of species in the first years after fertilization started. However, little is known about changes in species richness in the long term. Here, we use a 50-year-old field experiment with a range of fertilization treatments in grasslands that were mown twice each year in the center of The Netherlands. We show that species richness in all plots initially declined but started to recover after approximately 25 years of continued fertilization. This was also true for the heavily fertilized treatment (NPK). In NPK-fertilized plots, the decline was strongest and associated with a strong divergence of plant trait composition from the control, reflecting a shift to a plant community adapted to nutrient-rich conditions. During the subsequent period of increase in species richness, the trait composition remained stable. These results show that plant species richness can, at least partially, recover after an initial diversity decline caused by fertilization. PMID:21870612

  19. Response of Seed Yield and its Components of Safflower to Sowing Dates, Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Times of Foliar Application with Milagrow

    OpenAIRE

    El-hety, S. M. S.; Badawi, M. A.; Attia, A. N. E.; Seadh, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    The high productivity of safflower is outcome of many agronomical practices such as sowing dates, N-levels and times of foliar fertilization. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing dates (1st Sept., 1st Oct. and 1st Nov.), N-levels (40, 60 and 80 kg N fed-1) and times of foliar application with Milagrow (without, one and two times) on seed yield of safflower. Each sowing date was practiced in separate experiment. Every experiment was carried out in strip...

  20. Effects of growth patterns and dietary protein levels during rearing of broiler breeders on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and offspring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; van den Brand, H; Hendriks, W H

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growth patterns and dietary crude protein levels during rearing in broiler breeder females on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and offspring performance. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used, with 2 growth patterns to reach a target body weight at 20?wk of age of 2,200 g (standard = standard growth pattern) or 2,400 g (high = high growth pattern), and 3 dietary protein levels (high = crude protein, high), (medium = crude protein, medium), and low = crude protein, low). Fresh egg composition and organ development in hatchlings were determined. Offspring of the different groups were reared until an age of 34 d and feed intake, body weight gain, mortality, and carcass composition were determined. In 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders compared to standard growth pattern breeders, fertility and hatchability of set eggs were increased; embryonic mortality between d 1 and 9 was decreased whereas hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected. Breeders fed the medium crude protein diet showed a decreased hatchability of fertile eggs caused by an increased embryonic mortality between d 18 and 21 compared to breeders fed the high crude protein and low crude protein diets. Offspring of 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders tended (P = 0.059) to have a higher body weight at d 34 than offspring of standard growth pattern breeders, which was achieved by a tendency to a higher body weight gain (P = 0.057). Offspring of breeders fed the medium and low crude protein diet showed a higher feed intake between d 18 and 27 and during the total growth period, as compared to offspring of high crude protein breeders. Male broilers of low crude protein breeders had higher breast meat yield than male broilers of high crude protein breeders, while breast meat yield of female broilers was not affected by dietary protein levels. This experiment showed that a higher growth pattern during the rearing period increased fertility, decreased embryonic mortality, and improved offspring performance in young breeders, whereas decreased dietary protein level had no or less pronounced effects on these traits. PMID:25681474

  1. Vascularização das glândulas adrenais em galinhas da linhagem NPK (Gallus gallus domesticus) / Vascularization of chickens adrenal glands in NPK lineage (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Coutinho do, Amaral; Marcelo Ismar, Santana; Pedro Primo, Bombonato; Frederico Ozanan, Carneiro e Silva; Hildebrando Gomes, Benedicto.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares viscerais, que freqüentemente mostram suficientes variações para diferenciação entre famílias e ordens, utilizamos 34 galinhas da linhagem NPK, com idade aproximada de 10 semanas, eutanasiadas com dose de gás anestésic [...] o, tendo marcado seus contingentes arteriais com solução aquosa de Neoprene Látex ¨450¨ a 50 %, corada com corante específico e fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10 %, para estudar a vascularização das glândulas adrenais. Assim, os resultados indicam que as glândulas adrenais são órgãos pares, dispostos um em cada antímero, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e médio-cranialmente aos rins. Nos dois antímeros, as glândulas adrenais receberam vasos oriundos das artérias adrenais homólogas provenientes da artéria renal cranial e da aorta descendente (ramos diretos). Independentemente da origem, o número de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variou de acordo com o antímero, sendo de 1 a 4 para o antímero esquerdo, e de 1 e 3 para o direito. Quanto maior o número de artérias totais e ramos emitidos pelas artérias adrenais contralaterais destinados a um antímero, maior será o número de ramos destinados pelas mesmas ao antímero oposto. Abstract in english Aiming at knowing the visceral vascular arrangements which frequently show huge variation to be differentiated in families and orders, we used 34 NPK chickens, aged at approximately 10 weeks, euthanized with a dose of anaesthetic gas, with arterial contingents marked with an aqueous 50 % Neoprene La [...] tex ¨450¨ solution, colored with a specific coloring agent and fixed in an aqueous 10% formaldehyde solution, to study adrenal gland vascularization. The results indicated that the adrenal glands are paired organs, positioned in each antimer, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs and medio-cranially to the kidneys. In the two antimers, the adrenal glands receive vessels originating from the homologous adrenal arteries that come from the cranial renal artery and from the descending aorta (right branches). Regardless of their origin, the number of branches destined to the adrenal glands varied according to the antimer, totaling 1 to 4 for the left antimer, and 1 to 3 for the right one. The higher the number of total arteries and branches emitted by the contralateral adrenal arteries destined to an antimer, the higher the number of branches they destine to the opposite antimer.

  2. Liming and fertilization to restore degraded Brachiaria decumbens pastures grown on an entisol Calagem e adubação na recuperação de pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens em neossolo quartzarênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Perondi Anchão Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The reconstitution of soil fertility is essential in the process of pasture restoring, liming being the first action to be taken in this direction. The liming recommendation for pastures needs more technical information as the application method and rate. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the liming and fertilization practices to restore a degraded Brachiaria decumbens pasture. The following factors were studied: liming method (incorporated in soil by disking or not; level of base saturation (40, 50 or 80% and lime type (55, 70 or 90 of ECC. Liming and fertilization (NPK and micronutrients increased both the forage yield and its root system, these being more evident in the second year, even using the same rates of lime and fertilizer used during the first year. After two years the levels of base saturation aimed for the 0 to 0.20 m soil layer were not achieved, neither was the neutralization of the Al. The disking impaired the development of the root system of B. decumbens and promoted the decrease of soil organic matter. The lime with the lowest ECC increased root growth and led to higher concentrations of Ca and Mg in the soil. Studies in other conditions are necessary to define liming requirements in established and degraded pastures.Na recuperação de pastagens é fundamental a reconstituição da fertilidade do solo, sendo a calagem a primeira ação nessa direção. A recomendação de calagem para pastagens necessita de maiores subsídios técnicos, como a forma de aplicação e a dose e o tipo de calcário a ser empregado. Um experimento de campo foi instalado para avaliar a calagem e a adubação como práticas para a recuperação de pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens degradadas. Os seguintes fatores foram estudados: a forma de aplicação do calcário (incorporado no solo com gradagem ou não incorporado, os níveis de saturação por bases de 40, 60 ou 80% e tipos de calcário (PRNT de 55, 70 ou 90. A calagem e a fertilização (NPK e micronutrientes aumentaram as produções da forragem e do seu sistema radicular, sendo os efeitos mais acentuados no segundo ano, apesar do uso de mesmas doses de corretivos e fertilizantes do primeiro ano. Após dois anos não se conseguiu atingir os níveis de saturação por bases pretendidos na camada de 0 - 0,20 m, bem como a neutralização do Al. A gradagem prejudicou o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular da forrageira e promoveu queda nos teores da matéria orgânica no solo. O calcário de PRNT mais baixo aumentou a produção de raízes e proporcionou as maiores concentrações de Ca e Mg no solo. Estudos em outras condições são necessários para se aprimorar a recomendação de calagem para pastagens estabelecidas e degradadas.

  3. Fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada na atividade microbiana e fertilidade do solo cultivado com Brachiaria brizantha / Sources and levels of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and fertility in soil cropped with Brachiaria brizantha

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavia Cristina, Delbem; Márcia Helena, Scabora; Cecílio Viega, Soares Filho; Reges, Heinrichs; Carlos Alberto, Crociolli; Ana Maria Rodrigues, Cassiolato.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As pastagens geralmente perdem seu potencial produtivo e vigor de rebrota nos primeiros anos, frequentemente associada à falta de adubação nitrogenada. O objetivo deste foi verificar o efeito de fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada na atividade microbiana (carbono da biomassa microbiana e carbono [...] do CO2 liberado) e na fertilidade do solo cultivado com Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 4, envolvendo três fontes de nitrogênio (uréia, sulfato de amônio e Ajifer-L40) e quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1), nas profundidades 0 - 0,10 e 0,10 - 0,20 m, com três repetições. O aumento nas doses de nitrogênio, na camada 0,0 a 0,10 m de profundidade, reduziu os valores de pH, MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB e V%. O Ajifer e a uréia elevaram os valores de Ca2+ na camada 0,10 - 0,20 m, e as doses de 100 e 200 kg ha-1 aumentaram os valores de Mg2+ e SB. Em doses elevadas o sulfato de amônio acidificou o solo. A perda de carbono pela elevada atividade microbiana pode estar relacionado ao estresse metabólico devido à acidificação do solo. A aplicação de 100 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio acarretou as menores perdas de carbono pela atividade microbiana. Abstract in english Pastures usually lose their yield potential and re-growth energy in a few years, most often due to the lack of nitrogen fertilization. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of sources and levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, under microbial activity (carbon of microbial biomass and c [...] arbon released as CO2) and fertility of soil cropped with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés. The experimental design was randomized, organized under a 3 x 4 factorial scheme, with three nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate and Ajifer-L40) and four nitrogen levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg ha-1), analyzed on two depths (0 - 0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m), with 3 replications. The higher levels of N doses, the 0 - 0.10 m depths, reduced the values of pH, MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB and V%. Ajifer and urea resulted in higher values of Ca2+, in the depths of 0.10 - 0.20 m, and the values of Mg2+ and SB exhibited high values with the doses of 100 and 200 kg ha-1 levels of N. The higher levels of ammonium sulfate resulted in soil acidification. Soil carbon loss, due to the high microbial activity, could be the result of metabolic stress caused by soil acidification. The application of 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen was the best fertilizing level, considering the smaller loss of soil carbon by microbial activity.

  4. Influence of Various Types of Organic Manures and Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Biomass Yield and Nutrient Content of Napier-Bajra Hybrid Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bandeswaran*, L. Radhakrishnan and M. Murugan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to test the response of Napier-bajra hybrid grass that was subjected to treatment with 3 different types of organic manures and 3 different levels of inorganic nitrogen (20kgN/acre, 40kgN/acre and 60kgN/acre as fertilizer. Organic manure (farm yard manure, bio digested slurry and poultry manure @ 4 tons/acre as basal manure increased the fodder biomass in a dose-dependent manner when used in combination with a nitrogen-containing fertilizer. We estimated biomass yield in terms of fresh matter yield and dry matter yield. We estimated the nutrient content in terms of percentages of crude protein and crude fibre in the grass that was subjected to different treatments. Our results show that biomass yield was significantly higher when organic manures were used in combination with maximum level (60 kg/acre of inorganic nitrogen application. The crude protein content was comparable between the 3 types of organic manures and increased in a dose dependent manner to the level of inorganic nitrogen used. The crude fibre content was significantly (P<0.05 higher when poultry manure was used as organic manure and was not influenced by the level of inorganic nitrogen application. There was no significant difference in the palatability of grass fed to the sheep. The cost of production of the grass decreased at higher levels of nitrogen application. From this study, was conclude that inorganic nitrogen @ 60 kg/acre and organic manure @ 4 tons/acre yields significantly higher fodder biomass and that nitrogen- containing fertilizer is a critical component required for economical production of Napier- bajra hybrid grass.

  5. The Fertile Grounds Initiative: A new way to close nutrient flows at regional level resulting in better agricultural productivity and less environmental losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Christy; van Duivenbooden, Niek; Noij, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    The threat of declining soil fertility levels is well known. Yet, and despite numerous efforts, we seem incapable of changing the current situation of sink areas in developed countries and depletion areas in developing countries. With negative consequences (i.e. loss in productive capacity and loss in environmental quality) in both areas. Moreover, due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows become increasingly disconnected. Soil nutrient depletion cannot simply be compensated for with mineral fertilisers, for the following reasons: • mineral fertilisers are often not affordable for smallholders and fertiliser subsidy systems are not always successful • mineral fertilisers do not contain organic matter and therefore do not halt the degradation of the soil • mineral fertilisers work best in combination with organic sources of nutrients (compost, farm yard manure, etc.) • To halt soil degradation an integrated approach is needed, including reducing losses of nutrients and organic matter from soils at risk. Presently, more actors are getting involved in reallocation of nutrients, especially in the energy and waste sector. Time has come for a new approach to bring together demands and supplies for nutrients. We therefore present the Fertile Grounds Initiative: a broker for nutrient supply and demand in the region. The Fertile Grounds Initiative is based on the findings that: • Organic ánd mineral nutrients are required for increased and sustainable production; • Nutrients have a value and should be treated as such; • Due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows are ever more polarized between depletion and concentration areas; • The demand for energy poses new threats and opportunities for nutrient management. In the Fertile Grounds Initiative nutrient suppliers from the energy sector, waste management, fertilizer companies, etc. and demands for nutrients from farmers are brought together in a dynamic platform. This platform acts as a nutrient bank and integrates different sources of nutrients into high quality crop nutrition products. A capacity building programme ensures proper application of the nutrients and optimal use of on-farm nutrients. To further shape our ideas of the Fertile Grounds Initiative you are cordially invited to become involved.

  6. [On adolescent fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongracz, T

    1987-10-01

    A comparative analysis of adolescent fertility in Hungary is presented. It is noted that, in comparison to 29 other developed countries, the fertility rate of Hungarian women under age 18 is exceeded only by that of black Americans. Factors related to the high rate of adolescent fertility in Hungary include the high proportion of married women aged 15-19, induced abortion, agricultural employment, conservative attitudes toward sexuality, pronatalist policies, high rates of adolescent economic activity, high alcohol consumption levels, and lack of contraceptive knowledge among the young. PMID:12268786

  7. Resposta do cafeeiro à aplicação de níveis de irrigação e adubação com Alfertil / Response of coffee crop to irrigation levels and fertilization with Alfertil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adão W. P., Evangelista; José, Alves Júnior; Paulo C. de, Melo.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Propôs, neste trabalho, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação e a aplicação do fertilizante Alfertil® sobre a produtividade e rendimento do cafeeiro. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas contendo quatro repetições. As parcelas receberam tratamentos c [...] onstituídos de quatro lâminas de irrigação calculadas com base em percentagens de evaporação do tanque Classe A (ECA) ou seja: L0 = 0 (Testemunha); L40 = 40%ECA; L80 = 80%ECA e L120 = 120%ECA e as subparcelas receberam os tratamentos de adubação constituídos de três formas de aplicação de Alfertil®, sendo: A0 = Testemunha (S/Alfertil®); Af = via foliar (Alfertil® na forma líquida na concentração de 5% peso/peso) e As = via solo (100 g cova-1 planta-1 na forma pó). Verificou-se que a produtividade do cafeeiro foi influenciada pelos tratamentos de irrigação e formas de aplicação de Alfertil® enquanto somente as diferentes lâminas de irrigação influenciaram o rendimento do cafeeiro. As lâminas de irrigação que maximizam a produtividade e o rendimento do cafeeiro foram as estimadas em 60,08 e 70,20% da ECA, respectivamente, e as plantas adubadas com Alfertil® via foliar ou solo promoveram aumento na produtividade do cafeeiro. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the irrigation and fertilization with Alfertil® on the yield of coffee crop. The statistical design used was in randomized blocks, with subdivided plots and four replications. The coffee plants received four irrigation levels: L0 = 0 (not irr [...] igated); L40 = 40% Evaporation of Class A Pan (ECA); L80 = 80% ECA; and L120 = 120% ECA. Coffee plants were fertilized with: A0 = 0 kg ha-1 (no fertilizer); Af = Alfertil® applied by foliar application by a 5% solution; and As = Alfertil® applied in the soil surface with 100 g plant-1. The results show that the coffee productivity was influenced by irrigation and Alfertil® fertilization. However, only the different irrigation levels influenced significantly the yield of coffee crop. Irrigation levels that maximized productivity and yield of the plant was estimated at 60.08 and 70.20% ECA, respectively, and the plants fertilized with Alfertil® either foliar or soil application enhanced the productivity of coffee crop.

  8. Nutrição e produtividade da nogueira-macadâmia em razão do parcelamento da adubação mineral / Nutrition and yield of macadamia nut tree as a result of split application of mineral fertilizer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos José, Perdoná; Adriana Novais, Martins; Eduardo, Suguino; Sally Ferreira, Blat; Rogério Peres, Soratto.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de nutrientes durante o ano pode influenciar o desempenho da nogueira-macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia). Contudo, não existem informações sobre a resposta dessa cultura ao parcelamento da adubação nas condições brasileiras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do par [...] celamento da adubação mineral na nutrição, produtividade e qualidade de frutos da nogueira-macadâmia. O experimento foi conduzido, durante três anos agrícolas, num Latossolo Vermelho, em Jaboticabal, SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. O experimento foi constituído por quatro formas de parcelamento da adubação NPK (T1 - uma única aplicação, em outubro; T2 - duas aplicações, em outubro e dezembro; T3 - três aplicações, em outubro, dezembro e fevereiro; e T4 - quatro aplicações, em outubro, dezembro, fevereiro e abril). O parcelamento da adubação NPK proporcionou maiores teores de N nas folhas que a aplicação em dose única, mas não interferiu nos teores dos demais nutrientes. A produtividade da nogueira-macadâmia foi incrementada de forma similar com o parcelamento da adubação NPK em duas, três ou quatro vezes, entre outubro e abril, em comparação à aplicação única em outubro. A taxa de recuperação de amêndoas não foi interferida pelo parcelamento da adubação NPK. Abstract in english Nutrient availability during the year can affect the performance of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia). However, there is no information about this crop responses to split application of fertilizer under Brazilian conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of splitting the appli [...] cation of chemical fertilizers on the nutrition, yield, and quality of nuts of the macadamia nut tree. The experiment was conducted over three growing seasons on an Oxisol in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A randomized complete block design with five replications was used. The NPK fertilization treatments were T1 - a single application in October; T2 - two applications, in October and December; T3 - three applications in October, December, and February; and T4 - four applications, in October, December, February, and April. Split application of a chemical source of NPK fertilizer resulted in higher N concentration in the leaves than single application, but it did not affect the concentration of other nutrients. The nut yield was increased when NPK application was split into two, three, or four times from October to April, as compared to single application in October. The recovery rate of nut kernels was not affected by splitting the application of NPK fertilizer.

  9. Use of slow-release fertilizer on the production of sweet potatoes plantlets in tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of plantlets in containers generally requires the use of fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of sweet potato in styrofoam trays using slow-release fertilizer. The experiment was carried out, under a screen-protected nursery, in a factorial scheme 5x5, with five doses of slow-release fertilizer NPK 19-06-10 (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 g per 25 kg de substrate and five times of plantlets permanence in tray (14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting the cuttings. The number and dry matter of roots and leaves were evaluated. The number of roots was not influenced by fertilizer addition. In general, there is not damage to plantlets growth until the highest dose used. Therefore, the fertilizer addition increases the sweet potato plants growth and the dose of 200 g per 25 kg of substrate is responsible for the best results.

  10. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gorecka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with sulfuric acid, which transformed keratinous nitrogen of poultry feathers into ammonia nitrogen, hydroxyapatite phosphorus to bioavailable orthophosphate. Also, mineralization of organic content of the materials was achieved. The method of production and the composition of NPKS fertilizer, the content of which was adjusted to the requirements of oil seed rape was provided. The fertilization properties were checked in germination tests.

  11. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra A., Souza; Raquel L., Boscariol; David H., Moon; Luis E.A., Camargo; Siu M., Tsai.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Marcadores moleculares foram utilizados para estudar os efeitos do nitrogênio mineral na expressão fenotípica de QTLs associados ao número de nódulos (NN) e à resistência a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli em feijoeiro. Linhagens recombinantes obtidas do cruzamento BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 foram aval [...] iadas em casa-de-vegetação, sob dois níveis de adubação nitrogenada (0 e 5 mM de NH4NO3). A resistência ao patógeno foi avaliada pela medição da área foliar lesionada (DLA) e o NN por meio de contagem direta. Análises de variância foram empregadas para detectar associações significativas entre características quantitativas e genótipos das linhagens em 85 loci marcadores distribuídos em 12 grupos de ligação (LG). Sob a condição de ausência de N mineral, foram encontradas associações significativas entre 15 marcadores distribuídos em 7 LG para NN e 11 marcadores em 5 LG para DLA, explicando 34 e 42% da variação fenotípica destas características, respectivamente. Na presença de N, foram detectadas somente cinco associações significativas para NN e oito para DLA, explicando 28 e 26% da variação fenotípica de cada respectiva característica. Alguns QTLs foram detectados somente na ausência de N, evidenciando o efeito deste elemento na expressão destes QTLs. Entretanto, em alguns QTLs associados a NN, a contribuição dos alelos parentais foi dependente da concentração de N utilizada. Quatro QTLs foram encontrados associados tanto a número de nódulos como resistência a Xanthomonas, sugerindo um controle genético comum do feijoeiro à infecções bacterianas. Por outro lado, a expressão fenotípica de alguns QTLs não foi significativamente afetada pelo nível de nitrogênio utilizado. A estabilidade destes QTLs é interessante do ponto de vista de um programa de melhoramento voltado para o desenvolvimento de cultivares adaptadas a condições variáveis de fertilidade de solo. Abstract in english Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN) and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT- [...] 93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3) of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA) and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG) and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  12. Effects of Different Fertilizer Application Level on Growth and Physiology of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf) Planted on BRIS Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Hazandy Abdul-Hamid; Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff; Nor-Aini Ab-Shukor; Baharom Zainal; Mohamed-Hanafi Musa

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is one of the most potential annual crop planted throughout the world. Being fastgrowing and multipurpose, it has been utilized as a substitute of jute and, more recently, as raw product for the productionof pulp and paper. With strong and long fiber yield, mass production of Kenaf throughout Malaysia is critical. Theutilization of less fertile soils such as BRIS soils is important to increase the Kenaf production throughout Malaysia. Thus,the objective of this...

  13. Long-Term Fertilization Modifies the Structures of Soil Fulvic Acids and Their Binding Capability with Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Wu, Minjie; Li, Chunping; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The binding characteristics of organic ligands and minerals in fulvic acids (FAs) with Al are essential for understanding soil C sequestration, remain poorly understood. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) analysis was applied for the first time to explore the binding of Al with organic ligands and minerals in soil FAs. For these analyses, two contrasting treatments were selected from a long-term (i.e., 22-year) fertilization experiment: chemical (NPK) fertilization and swine manure (SM) fertilization. The results showed that the long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to soils had little effect on the compositions of the fluorescent substances and organic ligands in the soil FAs. However, long-term SM fertilization increased the weathered Al and Si concentrations in the soil FAs compared with long-term chemical fertilization. Furthermore, organic ligands in the soil FAs were mainly bound with Al in the NPK treatment, whereas both organic ligands and minerals (Al-O-Si, Si-O) were bound with Al under the M fertilization conditions. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrated that amorphous and short-range-ordered nanominerals were abundant in the soil FAs from the SM plot in contrast to the soil FAs from the NPK plot. This result illustrates the role nanominerals play in the preservation of soil FAs by during long-term organic fertilization. In summary, the combination of FTIR and 2D correlation spectroscopy is a promising approach for the characterization of the binding capability between soil FAs and Al, and a better understanding FA-Al binding capability will greatly contribute to global C cycling. PMID:25137372

  14. Selenium fortification of an Italian rice cultivar via foliar fertilization with sodium selenate and its effects on human serum selenium levels and on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Faliva, Milena Anna; Perna, Simone; Minoia, Claudio; Ronchi, Anna; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2014-01-01

    Selenium food fortification could be a cost-effective strategy to counteract the inadequacy of selenium intake among the Italian population. In this study, the effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate of an Italian rice cultivar and the increase of serum selenium and of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity after intake of fortified rice, have been evaluated. The effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate (50 g Se/ha) vs. water was studied. Moreover, in a randomized, double-blind study, 10 healthy women supplemented their usual diet with a daily dose of 80 g of Se-enriched-rice and 10 matched-women with 80 g of regular rice. Before, after 5 and 20 days of supplementation, serum Se and GPx-activity were evaluated. The mean selenium content in Se-enriched-rice was 1.64 ± 0.28 ?g/g, while in regular rice it was 0.36 ± 0.15 ?g/g (p < 0.001). A significant increase of serum Se and GPx-activity was observed only in the intervention group and only after 20 days. The results show that selenium fortification of rice can be achieved with foliar fertilization with sodium selenate and that the 20 days intake of this Se-enriched-rice increases the serum selenium levels and GPx-activity. PMID:24667132

  15. Selenium Fortification of an Italian Rice Cultivar via Foliar Fertilization with Sodium Selenate and Its Effects on Human Serum Selenium Levels and on Erythrocyte Glutathione Peroxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Giacosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium food fortification could be a cost-effective strategy to counteract the inadequacy of selenium intake among the Italian population. In this study, the effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate of an Italian rice cultivar and the increase of serum selenium and of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity after intake of fortified rice, have been evaluated. The effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate (50 g Se/ha vs. water was studied. Moreover, in a randomized, double-blind study, 10 healthy women supplemented their usual diet with a daily dose of 80 g of Se-enriched-rice and 10 matched-women with 80 g of regular rice. Before, after 5 and 20 days of supplementation, serum Se and GPx-activity were evaluated. The mean selenium content in Se-enriched-rice was 1.64 ± 0.28 ?g/g, while in regular rice it was 0.36 ± 0.15 ?g/g (p < 0.001. A significant increase of serum Se and GPx-activity was observed only in the intervention group and only after 20 days. The results show that selenium fortification of rice can be achieved with foliar fertilization with sodium selenate and that the 20 days intake of this Se-enriched-rice increases the serum selenium levels and GPx-activity.

  16. Effect of Fertilizer and Inoculation on Mineral Nitrogen Contents of Pot Culture Mature Soybean Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Kabir Khan Achakzai; Safdar Ali Kayani

    2003-01-01

    One year Pot culture experiment on Soybean in Soil + FYM (3:1) was conducted in medium textured and salt free soil of Quetta, Balochistan. Seven different treatments (T) of fertilizer were applied to both non-inoculated (non-inoc) and inoculated (inoc) set of experiment. T1 was kept control; T2 contained 23 + 60 + 30 kg NPK ha-1 and from T3 to T7 N fertilizer in the form of urea was added @ 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 along with combination of the same constant dose of P2O5 and K2...

  17. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  18. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group increased by about 7.5% between 1953-72. The major increase occurred during the post war years. All of these occurred during the time period when the Philippines underwent major socioeconomic changes. Data on changes in socioeconomic indicators during the time period under observation were presented. For example, between 1948-70, the literacy rate increased from 62.8%-84.6% for males and from 56.9%-82.2% for females. The infant mortality rate declined from 125.5-67.3 between 1948-70, and breastfeeding declined from 64.2%-26.5% between 1958-74. The increase in the natural fertility level tapered off during the last few years, and in the future the impact of fertility control on the fertility rate should become stronger. PMID:12339819

  19. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C

    2003-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. This study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with a placebo. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that Maca has no effect on serum reproductive hormone levels in apparently healthy men when administered in doses used for aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. Men aged between 21 and 56 Years received 1500 mg or 3000 mg Maca. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol were measured before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with placebo or Maca (1.5 g or 3.0 g per day). Data showed that compared with placebo Maca had no effect on any of the hormones studied nor did the hormones show any changes over time. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum testosterone levels were not affected by treatment with Maca at any of the times studied (P, not significant). In conclusion, treatment with Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels. PMID:12525260

  20. A study on the effects of foliar feeding under different soil fertilization conditions on the yield structure and quality of common oat (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis?aw Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted based on a field experiment established on very acidic medium soil (silt loam. The experimental design included 4 soil fertilization treatments: O, NPK, NPK + MgSO4. 7H2O, NPK + CaO + MgO, and 3 foliar feeding treatments: O(H2O, Insol PK + 5% urea solution, Ekosol U. The test plant was the oat cultivar ‘Kwant’. The aim of this study was to characterize in detail the response of oats to foliar feeding under the conditions of different soil fertilization with calcium and magnesium compounds. The experimental factors applied increased the yield parameters and differentiated the nutrient content in oat grain and straw. Soil fertilization had a greater effect on the quality parameters of primary yield than the foliar fertilizers used in the study. The best production and quality effects in growing oats were obtained after the application of MgSO4 and magnesium lime. Foliar feeding also affected beneficially the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the yield. Among the fertilizers used, Insol PK showed a better effect than Ekosol U, in particular on the yield structure and the amino acid composition of proteins.

  1. PRODUCCIÓN DE ABONOS ORGÁNICOS CON LA UTILIZACIÓN DE ELODEA (Egeria densa) PRESENTE EN LA LAGUNA DE FÚQUENE / PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS WITH ELODEA (Egeria densa) PRESENT ON THE FUQUENE LAGOON

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iveth, Caro Lara; Zulma, Romero Otálora; Rodrigo, Lora Silva.

    2009-06-30

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La elodea (Egeria densa), un problema para lagos y lagunas en Colombia, puede ser materia prima para la producción de abonos orgánicos de bajo costo y de buena calidad. Para emplearla en la obtención de abonos orgánicos, se elaboraron fertilizantes a partir de seis formulaciones, así: 1) Elodea 50% [...] cal dolomítica 20% levadura 5% melaza 5% gallinaza 20%. 2) Elodea 60% cal dolomítica10% levadura 3% melaza 8% gallinaza 19%. 3) Elodea 70% cal dolomítica 15% levadura 2% melaza 3% gallinaza 10%. 4) Formulación 1 + lombricompuesto; 5) Formulación 2 + lombricompuesto y 6) Formulación 3 + lombricompuesto. Para cada uno de los abonos, se determinó el contenido total de N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, carbón oxidable total, coliformes y relación C:N. Bajo condiciones de invernadero, se evaluó el efecto de los abonos en un Andisol sobre el cultivo de lechuga e igualmente, se monitoreó la temperatura y el pH a través del periodo de producción de los abonos. En general, el contenido de los elementos analizados y la relación C:N cumplen los requisitos para estos abonos. Hubo efecto significativo del contenido entre formulaciones y en el bioensayo para rendimiento entre formulaciones y dosis, siendo la formulación tres la de más alto rendimiento. De igual manera hubo efecto significativo de fuentes y de dosis en el contenido de N-P-K en la lechuga. El pH de los seis abonos fue de 7,00 a 7,30, considerado apropiado. Se demostró la factibilidad de producción de abonos orgánicos de buena calidad a partir de elodea. Abstract in english Elodea (Egeria densa), a problem in lakes and lagoons of Colombia, could be a raw material to produce cheap and good quality organic fertilizers. To evaluate the elodea for organic compost production, fertilizers were elaborated with six formulations: 1) Elodea 50% dolomitic lime 20% yeast 5% melass [...] e 5% hene manure 20%. 2) Elodea 60% dolomitic lime 10% yeast 3% melasse 8% hene manure 19%. 3) Elodea 70% dolomitic lime 15% yeast 2% melasse 3% hene manure 10%. 4) Formulation 1 + earthworm fertilizer. 5) Formulation 2 + earthworm fertilizer. Formulation y 6) Formulation 3 + earthworm fertilizer. For each fertilizer the total content of N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, total oxidised carbon, coliforms and C:N were analyzed. Under greenhouse conditions the effect of the fertilizers were evaluated in an Andisol and with lettuce as indicator. During production of the fertilizer temperature and pH were observed. The results showed significant effect of the elements among organic fertilizer. The composition of these fertilizers was according to the requisites for Colombian Organic Fertilizers. The greenhouse experiment showed significant effect of sources and levels on yield and N-P-K content of the lettuce. In general, the formulation three was the best. The pH of the fertilizers varied from 7.0 to7.3, considered adequate. The feasibility to produce good quality organic fertilizers from elodea was demonstrated.

  2. PRODUCCIÓN DE ABONOS ORGÁNICOS CON LA UTILIZACIÓN DE ELODEA (Egeria densa PRESENTE EN LA LAGUNA DE FÚQUENE PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS WITH ELODEA (Egeria densa PRESENT ON THE FUQUENE LAGOON

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    Iveth Caro Lara

    Full Text Available La elodea (Egeria densa, un problema para lagos y lagunas en Colombia, puede ser materia prima para la producción de abonos orgánicos de bajo costo y de buena calidad. Para emplearla en la obtención de abonos orgánicos, se elaboraron fertilizantes a partir de seis formulaciones, así: 1 Elodea 50% cal dolomítica 20% levadura 5% melaza 5% gallinaza 20%. 2 Elodea 60% cal dolomítica10% levadura 3% melaza 8% gallinaza 19%. 3 Elodea 70% cal dolomítica 15% levadura 2% melaza 3% gallinaza 10%. 4 Formulación 1 + lombricompuesto; 5 Formulación 2 + lombricompuesto y 6 Formulación 3 + lombricompuesto. Para cada uno de los abonos, se determinó el contenido total de N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, carbón oxidable total, coliformes y relación C:N. Bajo condiciones de invernadero, se evaluó el efecto de los abonos en un Andisol sobre el cultivo de lechuga e igualmente, se monitoreó la temperatura y el pH a través del periodo de producción de los abonos. En general, el contenido de los elementos analizados y la relación C:N cumplen los requisitos para estos abonos. Hubo efecto significativo del contenido entre formulaciones y en el bioensayo para rendimiento entre formulaciones y dosis, siendo la formulación tres la de más alto rendimiento. De igual manera hubo efecto significativo de fuentes y de dosis en el contenido de N-P-K en la lechuga. El pH de los seis abonos fue de 7,00 a 7,30, considerado apropiado. Se demostró la factibilidad de producción de abonos orgánicos de buena calidad a partir de elodea.Elodea (Egeria densa, a problem in lakes and lagoons of Colombia, could be a raw material to produce cheap and good quality organic fertilizers. To evaluate the elodea for organic compost production, fertilizers were elaborated with six formulations: 1 Elodea 50% dolomitic lime 20% yeast 5% melasse 5% hene manure 20%. 2 Elodea 60% dolomitic lime 10% yeast 3% melasse 8% hene manure 19%. 3 Elodea 70% dolomitic lime 15% yeast 2% melasse 3% hene manure 10%. 4 Formulation 1 + earthworm fertilizer. 5 Formulation 2 + earthworm fertilizer. Formulation y 6 Formulation 3 + earthworm fertilizer. For each fertilizer the total content of N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, total oxidised carbon, coliforms and C:N were analyzed. Under greenhouse conditions the effect of the fertilizers were evaluated in an Andisol and with lettuce as indicator. During production of the fertilizer temperature and pH were observed. The results showed significant effect of the elements among organic fertilizer. The composition of these fertilizers was according to the requisites for Colombian Organic Fertilizers. The greenhouse experiment showed significant effect of sources and levels on yield and N-P-K content of the lettuce. In general, the formulation three was the best. The pH of the fertilizers varied from 7.0 to7.3, considered adequate. The feasibility to produce good quality organic fertilizers from elodea was demonstrated.

  3. Adubação e produção de Paspalum em dois níveis de fertilidade de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo: estabelecimento e manutenção / Paspalum fertilizer response and yield in two fertility level of an oxisol (Hapludox): establishment and maintenance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Odo, Primavesi; Ana Cândida, Primavesi; Luiz Alberto Rocha, Batista; Rodolfo, Godoy.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram determinadas as doses de N, P2O5 e K2O necessárias para a obtenção da máxima produção de forragem de Paspalum regnellii, em dois níveis de fertilidade do solo, quanto a P e K. Os experimentos foram instalados em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico típico, em São Carlos, SP. Utilizou-se fator [...] ial fracionado (1/2)4³ com dois blocos ao acaso, total de 32 parcelas, sem repetição. Os tratamentos foram quatro doses de N e de K2O (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg ha-1 no primeiro e segundo ano), como uréia e cloreto de potássio respectivamente, e quatro doses de P2O5 (0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1 no primeiro ano e 0, 70, 140 e 210 kg ha-1 no segundo ano), como superfosfato triplo. No período das chuvas, foram realizados cortes a cada 35 dias de descanso em média. As doses de N, P e K para a máxima produção de forragem de Paspalum regnellii, no primeiro ano foram, em kg ha-1: N = 210, P2O5 = 240, K2O = 190, no solo com fertilidade baixa e N = 250, P2O5 = 240, K2O = 180 no solo com fertilidade média, e no segundo ano: N = 300, P2O5 = 210, K2O = 300, no solo com fertilidade baixa e N = 300, P2O5 = 190, K2O = 290 no solo com fertilidade média, com produções de matéria seca de, respectivamente, 5.428 kg ha-1 e 7.789 kg ha-1 no primeiro ano, e no segundo ano de 13.084 e 10.468 kg ha-1. Abstract in english The goal of this work was to determine the best rates of N, P2O5, and K2O to get maximum forage yield of Paspalum regnellii Bra 019186 grown in two soil fertility levels: low and medium in P and K. The experiments were set up in a typical Red-yellow latosol (Hapludox), in São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Exp [...] erimental design was an incomplete (1/2)4³ factorial with a total of 32 plots, in two randomized blocks, without replication. Treatments were four rates of N and K2O (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 in the first and second year), using urea and potassium chloride, and four rates of P2O5 ( 0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1 in the first year and 70, 140, 210 kg ha-1 in the second year), using triple superphosphate. Cuttings were done, mainly each 35 days, in the rain season. The N, P, K rates for maximum yield in the first year were, in kg ha-1 with low fertility: N = 210, P2O5 = 240 , K2O = 190; and with medium fertility: N = 250 , P2O5 = 240, K2O = 180, and in the second year: N = 300, P2O5 = 210, K2O = 300, in soil with low fertility, and N = 300 , P2O5 = 190, K2O = 290 in soil with medium fertility, resulting in forage yields of, respectively, 5,428 and 7,789 kg ha-1 of dry matter in the first year, and of 13,084 e 10,468 kg ha-1 in the second year.

  4. Adubação e produção de Paspalum em dois níveis de fertilidade de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo: estabelecimento e manutenção Paspalum fertilizer response and yield in two fertility level of an oxisol (Hapludox: establishment and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odo Primavesi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinadas as doses de N, P2O5 e K2O necessárias para a obtenção da máxima produção de forragem de Paspalum regnellii, em dois níveis de fertilidade do solo, quanto a P e K. Os experimentos foram instalados em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico típico, em São Carlos, SP. Utilizou-se fatorial fracionado (1/24³ com dois blocos ao acaso, total de 32 parcelas, sem repetição. Os tratamentos foram quatro doses de N e de K2O (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg ha-1 no primeiro e segundo ano, como uréia e cloreto de potássio respectivamente, e quatro doses de P2O5 (0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1 no primeiro ano e 0, 70, 140 e 210 kg ha-1 no segundo ano, como superfosfato triplo. No período das chuvas, foram realizados cortes a cada 35 dias de descanso em média. As doses de N, P e K para a máxima produção de forragem de Paspalum regnellii, no primeiro ano foram, em kg ha-1: N = 210, P2O5 = 240, K2O = 190, no solo com fertilidade baixa e N = 250, P2O5 = 240, K2O = 180 no solo com fertilidade média, e no segundo ano: N = 300, P2O5 = 210, K2O = 300, no solo com fertilidade baixa e N = 300, P2O5 = 190, K2O = 290 no solo com fertilidade média, com produções de matéria seca de, respectivamente, 5.428 kg ha-1 e 7.789 kg ha-1 no primeiro ano, e no segundo ano de 13.084 e 10.468 kg ha-1.The goal of this work was to determine the best rates of N, P2O5, and K2O to get maximum forage yield of Paspalum regnellii Bra 019186 grown in two soil fertility levels: low and medium in P and K. The experiments were set up in a typical Red-yellow latosol (Hapludox, in São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Experimental design was an incomplete (1/24³ factorial with a total of 32 plots, in two randomized blocks, without replication. Treatments were four rates of N and K2O (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 in the first and second year, using urea and potassium chloride, and four rates of P2O5 ( 0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1 in the first year and 70, 140, 210 kg ha-1 in the second year, using triple superphosphate. Cuttings were done, mainly each 35 days, in the rain season. The N, P, K rates for maximum yield in the first year were, in kg ha-1 with low fertility: N = 210, P2O5 = 240 , K2O = 190; and with medium fertility: N = 250 , P2O5 = 240, K2O = 180, and in the second year: N = 300, P2O5 = 210, K2O = 300, in soil with low fertility, and N = 300 , P2O5 = 190, K2O = 290 in soil with medium fertility, resulting in forage yields of, respectively, 5,428 and 7,789 kg ha-1 of dry matter in the first year, and of 13,084 e 10,468 kg ha-1 in the second year.

  5. APPLICATION OF FERTILIZER CONTAINING NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR AND MICRONUTRIENTS IN MAIZE

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    REGINA MARIA QUINTÃO LANA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of nitrogen (N as fertilizer is important in order to obtain high yields of maize. The management of nitrogen application, as well as the fertilizer manufacturing technology takes part in the efficiency of the nitrogen fertilizing. The objective of this experiment was to compare the effect of fertilizer containing nitrification inhibitor (sulfonitrate ammonium + DMPP and urea (conventional fertilization; and, also to evaluate the effect of application of zinc (Zn and manganese (Mn in foliar and/or seed treatment. The experiment was carried out in the experimental area of the Capim Branco´s farm, located in Uberlândia, MG. The experimental layout was randomized blocks design, with six treatments and four replications. Pioneer 30F53 hybrid was sowed with 500 kg ha-1 NPK (08-28-16 as sowing fertilization. The urea was applied at sowing in a dose of 40 kg ha-1 and two topdressings of 60 kg ha-1, at 25 and 35 days after emergency, totaling 160 Kg N ha-1. Treatments involving fertilizer containing nitrification inhibitor (sulfonitrate ammonium + DMPP received 160 Kg N ha-1, in a single application at sowing, mixed to 80 kg K2O ha-1 and 140 kg P2O5 ha-1, using chloride potassium and super phosphate triple fertilizers, respectively. The fertilizer with nitrification inhibitor (sulfonitrate ammonium + DMPP significantly increased maize yields comparing to conventional fertilization with urea, in the absence of the micronutrients Zn and Mn. The use of Zn and Mn contributed to increase yields when applied via seeds, compared to conventional fertilization with urea in the lack of micronutrients.

  6. Soil organic carbon dynamics and its response to organic amendments under long-term fertilization in intensive rice systems in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, X.; Xu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Paddy soil makes a major rice contribution to the global food supply, but only little is known about the soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamic and its relationship with management practices. This paper presents a study of four long-term experiment sites in subtropical China, which have had a double-rice system since 1980’s with various fertilization treatments. The main fertilization treatments are non-fertilization (Control), mineral nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium combination (NPK), and mineral NPK combined with organic amendments (e.g., livestock’s manure, green manure and straw). There are two types of treatments for the combined treatments: (1) the same rate (S-N) of mineral N fertilizer application, and (2) the same amount of total N (i.e., the sum of mineral N and organic-N) application with the reduced rate (R-N) of mineral N fertilizer application. Our study indicates that all fertilization treatments significantly increase above-ground carbon biomass and SOC. Compared with the NPK treatment, the S-N treatment showed significant effect on carbon biomass whereas the R-N treatment showed no effects on carbon biomass. The soil carbon sequestration rates at the four sites were 0.08-0.17 t ha-1 yr-1 for the NPK treatment and 0.17-0.82 t ha-1 yr-1 for the S-N and R-N combined treatments. Our analyses show that annual carbon sequestration responds positively, but non-linearly to annual carbon input at all sites, suggesting that these paddy fields may be getting close to carbon saturation.

  7. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

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    M. J. Fernández-Sanjurjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16 were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first percolates, reaching a steady state when 1426 mm water have percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in the geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K, Ca and Mg were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with composition 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident.

  8. Reduced intrafollicular androstenedione and estradiol levels in early-treated prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys receiving follicle-stimulating hormone therapy for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Schramm, R Dee; Bird, Ian M; Peterson, Eric; Paprocki, Ann Marie; Zhou, Rao; Abbott, David H

    2003-10-01

    Five early-treated and four late-treated prenatally androgenized and five normal female rhesus monkeys were studied to determine whether prenatal testosterone propionate exposure beginning Gestational Days 40-44 (early-treated) or 100-115 (late-treated) affects follicular steroidogenesis during recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) treatment. All monkeys underwent rhFSH injections, without human chorionic gonadotropin administration, followed by oocyte retrieval. Serum FSH, LH, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 OHP), androstenedione (A4), testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone were measured basally during rhFSH therapy and at oocyte retrieval. Follicle fluid (FF) sex steroids, oocyte fertilization, and embryo development were analyzed. Circulating FSH, E2, 17 OHP, A4, and dihydrotestosterone levels increased similarly in all females. Serum LH levels decreased from basal levels in normal and late-treated prenatally androgenized females but were unchanged in early-treated prenatally androgenized females. Serum P levels at oocyte retrieval were comparable with those before FSH treatment in all females. All prenatally androgenized females showed reduced FF levels of A4 and E2 but not P or dihydrotestosterone. Intrafollicular T concentrations also were significantly lower in late-treated compared with early-treated prenatally androgenized females or normal females. In early-treated prenatally androgenized females, but not the other female groups, intrafollicular A4 and E2 levels were reduced in follicles containing oocytes that failed fertilization or produced zygotes with cleavage arrest before or at the five- to eight-cell embryo stage. Therefore, in monkeys receiving rhFSH therapy alone without human chorionic gonadotropin administration, early prenatal androgenization reduced FF concentrations of E2 and A4 in association with abnormal oocyte development, without having an effect on P, testosterone, or dihydrotestosterone concentrations. PMID:12801996

  9. Comparative performance and profitability of two corn hybrids with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of NPK and organic manures on growth and yield of two maize hybrids. Experiment comprised of two factors (H) hybrids (H/sub 1/: FHY-421 and H/sub 2/: FHY-434) and (F) four fertilizer types, viz. F/sub 1/: inorganic fertilizer (control) NPK at the rate 120:60:50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/, F/sub 2/ poultry manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/, F/sub 3/: FYM at the rate 20 t ha/sup -1/ and F/sub 4/: bio-fertilizer at the rate 30 g kg/sup -1/ seed So, the treatments comprised of T/sub 1/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 1/), T/sub 2/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 3/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 1/), T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 5/ (F/sub 3/ + H/sub 1/, T/sub 6/ (F/sub 3/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 7/ (F/sub 4/ + H/sub 1/), and T/sub 8/ (F/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/). As the experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement, it was observed that although FHY-434 with inorganic fertilizer NPK at the rate 120:60:50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ i.e. T/sub 2/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 2/) produced maximum plant height (212.30 cm), number of grains cob/sup -1/ (606.60), 1000-grain weight (310.90 g ), grain yield (8.44 t ha/sup -1/) and net profit (As. 85803 ha/sup -1/), followed by FHY -434 with poultry manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/ i.e. T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/) in the same parameters, yet T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/) with net profit As. 83764 ha/sup -1/ is being advocated for organic cultivation for long term and sustainable producttion for long term and sustainable production keeping in WTO scenario, as it produced grain yield 8.91 t ha/sup -1/. (author)

  10. Yield Responses of Maize to Organic and Mineral Fertilizers at Different Inclinations in Tropical Smallholder Farming Systems

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    W. C. P. Egodawatta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted on the potential of Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp. to enhance productivity of degraded soils. Maize was cropped in a hilly region of Sri Lanka with and without the recommended mineral fertilization, in two major seasons, October-January in 2007/8 (Year 1 and in 2008/9 (Year 2 on 92 farms at two inclinations: Flat (0-10% and Moderate (10-30%. On half the farms, green manure (Gliricidia leaves was added (3 tonnes per hectare per season. NPK boosted production to a very respectable mean grain yield of 4.2 t/ha on Flat farms. At ZERO, the yield was lower by 60%, irrespective of the inclination. Gliricidia failed to replace the required nitrogen, even with an adequate supply of phosphorous and potassium (PK. In contrast, together with NPK, Gliricidia increased yields by 15-20% compared to NPK alone, while the gain was 35% at ZERO. Fields in the Moderate category were more responsive to green manure and mineral fertilizers. The high response to mineral fertilizers indicated that the degradation of the soils resulted to a greater extent in chemical rather than in physical deficits. But intensive cropping reduced the soil organic matter within two years, to some extent slowed down by Gliricidia green manure. Therefore an intense cropping for the sake of food security must be accompanied by soil conserving cropping systems.

  11. Crecimiento de vara perlilla (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) en respuesta a fertilización y altura de corte / Growth of "vara perlilla" (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) in response to fertilization and clipping height

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Concepción, Mendoza-Bautista; Miguel Á., López-López; Dante A., Rodríguez-Trejo; Alejandro, Velásquez-Martínez; Fortino, García-Moreno.

    2012-11-15

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Vara perlilla (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) se emplea para elaborar escobas rústicas y artesanías navideñas. Actualmente se aprovechan sus poblaciones naturales y se cultiva. Sin embargo, se carece de información suficiente del manejo de la especie. Con el objetivo de determinar los efectos [...] de tres niveles de fertilización y dos alturas de corte se realizó este estudio en una plantación de tres años. El diagnóstico nutrimental se hizo con la metodología Tendencias de Concentración y se usó para diseñar la fórmula de fertilización. Se aplicaron los nutrimentos que resultaron limitativos. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con seis tratamientos derivados de la combinación de las alturas de corte (6 y 12 cm) y las fórmulas de fertilización (testigo, Mn-Zn y NPK+Mn-Zn). Se evaluaron número de rebrotes, diámetro y longitud de rebrotes, diámetro promedio de rebrotes por arbusto, longitud promedio de rebrotes por arbusto y biomasa aérea, antes y seis meses después de la fertilización. La biomasa y la longitud de rebrotes mostraron efecto de la fertilización (p Abstract in english 'Vara perlilla' (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) is used to elaborate rustic brooms and Christmas handcrafts. Currently, its natural populations are used and it is cultivated. However, there is a lack of sufficient information regarding species management. With the objective of determining the [...] effects of three levels of fertilization and two clipping heights, this study was carried out in a three-year plantation. The nutritional diagnosis was performed by using the Trends in Concentration method which was used to design a fertilization formula. Nutrients that turned out to be limiting were applied. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with six treatments derived from the combination of clipping heights (6 and 12 cm) and fertilization formulas (control, Mn-Zn and NPK+Mn-Zn). The number of resprouts, diameter and length of resprouts, average diameter of resprouts per shrub, average length of resprouts per shrub and aerial biomass were evaluated, before and six months after fertilization. The biomass and the length of resprouts showed an effect from fertilization (p

  12. The influence of N-fertilization regimes on N2O emissions and denitrification in rain-fed cropland during the rainy season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhixin; Zhu, Bo; Zeng, Zebin

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization regimes on N2O emissions and denitrification rates were evaluated by in situ field incubation experiments with intact soil cores and the acetylene block technique. Intact soil cores were collected from long-term field experiments involving several N fertilization regimes, including single synthetic N fertilizer (N), organic manure (OM), synthetic N, P, K fertilizer (NPK), organic manure with synthetic fertilizer (OMNPK), crop straw residue with synthetic fertilizer (SRNPK) and no nitrogen fertilizer (NF). N2O was sampled from the head space of the cylinders to determine the daily N2O emission and denitrification rate. The results showed that the N2O emissions were greatly influenced by the specific fertilization regime even when the same nitrogen rate was applied. The mean N2O emissions and denitrification rates from the N, OM, NPK, OMNPK and SRNPK treatment were 2.22, 2.66, 1.94, 2.53, 1.67 and 4.63, 5.96, 4.15, 5.41, 3.65 mg per m(2) per day, respectively. The application of OM significantly increased the N2O emission and denitrification compared to the application of NPK because of the high soil organic carbon (SOC) content of OM. However, SRNPK increased the SOC content and decreased the N2O emissions significantly compared to the OM and OMNPK treatments because the addition of crop straw with a high C/N ratio to soil with a low inorganic N content induced N immobilization. The contents of soil nitrate and ammonium were the main limiting factors for N2O emissions in a positive regression as follows: Ln (N2O) = 2.511 + 1.258 × Ln ([NH4(+)] + [NO3(-)]). Crop straw residue combined with synthetic fertilizer is recommended as an optimal strategy for mitigating N2O emissions and denitrification-induced N loss in rain-fed croplands. PMID:25220444

  13. Predicting pregnancy in women undergoing in-vitro fertilization with basal serum follicle stimulating hormone levels between 10.0 and 11.9 IU/L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Dan; Jun, Sunny H.; Dahan, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the results of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcomes in women whose borderline basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were between 10.0 and 11.9 IU/L and to analyze the predictors of pregnancy in this population. Material and Methods A prospective cohort study was performed at an academic teaching hospital; participants were infertile couples in which the women were undergoing IVF treatment and had borderline basal highest FSH levels between 10.0 and 11.9 IU/L. Statistical modeling was performed to determine risk factors for pregnancy and clinical pregnancy. Results A clinical pregnancy rate of 26.5% per cycle and 35% per patient was found in the study population. Among all subjects and non-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) subjects, younger age, higher gravidity, higher number of mature follicles on day of Human Chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) triggering, higher number of oocytes retrieved, and number of embryos produced were significant discriminators between individuals who conceived and those who did not. However, only the number of embryos predicted those who had a clinical pregnancy when compared with those who did not. Higher gravidity, and basal estradiol (E2) levels, and lower maximum basal FSH levels predicted clinical pregnancy in non-ICSI patients. Among ICSI patients, the only predictor of pregnancy was a thicker endometrium. A trend towards higher pregnancy rates was noted in ICSI patients. Conclusion We showed that pregnancy rates per cycle and per patient in this population were not significantly different than those in patients with a basal FSH level below 10.0 IU/L. Preliminary evidence suggests that ICSI is the fertilization method of choice in these patients. PMID:25788842

  14. Sistema de blocos prensados e doses de adubo de liberação lenta na formação de porta-enxerto cítrico Pressed blocks system and slow release fertilizer levels for citrus rootstock formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à restrição que os tubetes impõem ao crescimento lateral do sistema radicular, o uso de materiais orgânicos prensados está sendo utilizado para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção do porta-enxerto cítrico limoeiro 'Cravo' no sistema de blocos prensados até a repicagem, e o efeito deste sistema e de doses de um fertilizante de liberação lenta sobre o crescimento desse porta-enxerto até o ponto de enxertia. Avaliaram-se três sistemas de produção até a repicagem: em tubetes preenchidos com substrato comercial composto por casca de pínus; em tubetes preenchidos com substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v; e em "blocos prensados" constituídos pela prensagem do substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v. Da repicagem à enxertia, foram empregadas cinco doses de Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14: 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g planta-1. As mudas provenientes do sistema de blocos prensados atingiram o ponto de repicagem e o de enxertia mais rapidamente que as produzidas em tubetes. No ponto de enxertia, estas apresentaram maiores médias de diâmetro de caule e massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. O sistema utilizado na produção do porta-enxerto também interferiu na resposta das mudas à adubação empregada.Due to the restriction that the stiff plastic tubes impose to the lateral growth of the root system, the use of pressed organic materials has been proposed for the production of forests species seedlings. The research was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the production of rootstock 'Rangpur' lime tree in pressed blocks until the transplant, and the effect of those systems were evaluated and doses of slow release fertilizer on the growth of that rootstock until the grafting point. Three production systems were evaluated: in stiff plastic tubes filled up with commercial substrate composed by pinus bark; in stiff plastic tubes filled up with substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse and industrial sugarcane plant residues, (3:2;v:v; and production in "pressed blocks" constituted by the press of the substrate used in the system 2. From transplant at the grafting point, five doses of Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14 were used: 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g plant-1. Compared to the seedlings grown in tubes, seedlings coming of the system of pressed blocks reached the transplant and the grafting point more quickly. In the grafting point they resulted in rootstocks with larger stem diameter, larger root and aerial part dry matter. The system used in the production of the rootstock also interfered in the answer of the plants to the employed manuring.

  15. Sistema de blocos prensados e doses de adubo de liberação lenta na formação de porta-enxerto cítrico / Pressed blocks system and slow release fertilizer levels for citrus rootstock formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes, Serrano; Cláudia Sales, Marinho; Deborah Guerra, Barroso; Almy Júnior Cordeiro de, Carvalho.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Devido à restrição que os tubetes impõem ao crescimento lateral do sistema radicular, o uso de materiais orgânicos prensados está sendo utilizado para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção do porta-enxerto cítrico limoeiro 'Cravo' no sistema de blo [...] cos prensados até a repicagem, e o efeito deste sistema e de doses de um fertilizante de liberação lenta sobre o crescimento desse porta-enxerto até o ponto de enxertia. Avaliaram-se três sistemas de produção até a repicagem: em tubetes preenchidos com substrato comercial composto por casca de pínus; em tubetes preenchidos com substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v); e em "blocos prensados" constituídos pela prensagem do substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v). Da repicagem à enxertia, foram empregadas cinco doses de Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14): 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g planta-1. As mudas provenientes do sistema de blocos prensados atingiram o ponto de repicagem e o de enxertia mais rapidamente que as produzidas em tubetes. No ponto de enxertia, estas apresentaram maiores médias de diâmetro de caule e massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. O sistema utilizado na produção do porta-enxerto também interferiu na resposta das mudas à adubação empregada. Abstract in english Due to the restriction that the stiff plastic tubes impose to the lateral growth of the root system, the use of pressed organic materials has been proposed for the production of forests species seedlings. The research was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the production of rootstock 'Ran [...] gpur' lime tree in pressed blocks until the transplant, and the effect of those systems were evaluated and doses of slow release fertilizer on the growth of that rootstock until the grafting point. Three production systems were evaluated: in stiff plastic tubes filled up with commercial substrate composed by pinus bark; in stiff plastic tubes filled up with substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse and industrial sugarcane plant residues, (3:2;v:v); and production in "pressed blocks" constituted by the press of the substrate used in the system 2. From transplant at the grafting point, five doses of Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14) were used: 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g plant-1. Compared to the seedlings grown in tubes, seedlings coming of the system of pressed blocks reached the transplant and the grafting point more quickly. In the grafting point they resulted in rootstocks with larger stem diameter, larger root and aerial part dry matter. The system used in the production of the rootstock also interfered in the answer of the plants to the employed manuring.

  16. Abortamento de frutos da nogueira macadâmia sob influência da adubação mineral / Macadamia nut abortion as affected by mineral fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos José, Perdoná; Eduardo, Suguino; Adriana Novais, Martins; Rogério Peres, Soratto.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A nogueira macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia) apresenta elevada taxa de abortamento de frutos. A nutrição desequilibrada pode ser um dos fatores que contribui para isso. Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar a influência de doses de N e do parcelamento da adubação NPK, de cobertura, na redução do [...] abortamento de frutos da nogueira macadâmia. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, durante três anos agrícolas, num Latossolo Vermelho, em Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo. O primeiro experimento foi constituído por cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1) e quatro repetições. O segundo experimento foi constituído por quatro formas de parcelamento da adubação NPK (T1: outubro T2: outubro + dezembro, T3: outubro + dezembro + fevereiro e T4: outubro+dezembro + fevereiro + abril) e cinco repetições. A maior parte dos frutos (77,7 %) foi abortada no início de seu desenvolvimento. A aplicação de N, bem como o parcelamento da adubação NPK de cobertura, pelo menos em duas vezes (outubro e dezembro), não alteraram o número de frutos abortados por planta de macadâmia, mas, por aumentarem o número total de frutos emitidos e reduzirem a percentagem de abortamento, proporcionaram maior produtividade de nozes. Abstract in english Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) has a high nut abortion rate. Unbalanced nutrition may be one of the factors that contributes to this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of N doses and the split application of NPK fertilizers on fruit abortion of macadamia nut. Two experi [...] ments were conducted during three growing seasons on an Oxisol, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The first experiment consisted of five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 yr-1) and four replications. The second experiment consisted of four splitting modes of NPK fertilizers (T1: October, T2: October + December, T3: October + December + February and T4: October + December + February + April) and five replications. Most fruits (77.7%) aborted earlier in their development. The N application and the split fertilization of NPK as topdress for at least twice (October and December), did not affect the number of aborted fruits per macadamia tree, but, by increasing the total number of set fruits and reducing the percentage of abortion, provided higher nut productivity.

  17. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) is a primary nutrient necessary for plant growth. When soil P level is below what is needed for plant needs, P is supplied to the soil by the addition of P fertilizer or organic residuals (i.e., manure). Because of P fertilizer use in the past few decades or application of manure, a g...

  18. Response of Seed Yield and its Components of Safflower to Sowing Dates, Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Times of Foliar Application with Milagrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.S. El-Hety

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high productivity of safflower is outcome of many agronomical practices such as sowing dates, N-levels and times of foliar fertilization. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing dates (1st Sept., 1st Oct. and 1st Nov., N-levels (40, 60 and 80 kg N fed-1 and times of foliar application with Milagrow (without, one and two times on seed yield of safflower. Each sowing date was practiced in separate experiment. Every experiment was carried out in strip plot design with three replications. Sowing safflower at 1st October gave the highest values of seed yield and its components in both seasons. The lowest means of seed yield and its components were resulted from sowing at 1st September in both seasons. Raising N-levels markedly accompanied with obvious increase in all studied characters in both seasons. Application of 80 kg N fed-1 significantly resulted in the highest values of all studied characters of safflower. Spraying safflower plants with Milagrow two times after 30 and 70 days from sowing produced the highest values of seed yield and its components in both seasons. On the other wise, control treatment gave the lowest values of these characters in both seasons. From the obtained data, it can be concluded that sowing safflower on 1st October and mineral fertilizing with 80 kg N fed-1 beside twice foliar application with Milagrow as a natural growth promoter in order to maximizing its seed yield and its components under the environmental conditions of Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

  19. Association between fertilin beta, protamines 1 and 2 and spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein mRNA levels, fertilization ability of human spermatozoa, and quality of preimplantation embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kempisty

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization involves a series of cellular interactions culminating in the fusion of gamete membranes, creating a zygote and then an embryo. During the process of human fertilization in vivo or in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF, sperm must be capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction, binding to the zona pellucida (ZP, and penetrating the ZP to fuse with the oolema. The key role in this process is played by fertilin beta. Protamines and histones are the proteins that bind to sperm chromatin and contribute in chromatin remodeling during early spermiogenesis. It has been suggested that these proteins may also participate in successful fertilization and embryo development. Using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR reaction (QR-PCR methods and zygote and embryo scoring, we compared fertilin beta, protamine 1 (PRM1, protamine 2 (PRM2, spermatid-specific linker histone 1 (HILS1 mRNAs levels, in vitro fertilization ability of mature spermatozoa, and quality of embryos obtained from in vitro fertilization (IVF. We found significantly lower contents of fertilin beta transcript in spermatozoa from patients in which IVF fertilization failed (p<0.001. We also noticed a correlation between high levels of fertilin beta and increased quality of embryos (p<0.05. We observed an increase in PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels in spermatozoa obtained from patients with successful in vitro fertilization versus compared to the number of these transcripts isolated from spermatozoa of patients in which in vitro fertilization failed (P<0.001, (P<0.001, respectively. We found direct correlation between PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels to the quality of embryos (r=0.31, P=0.012, (r=0.31, P=0.011, respectively. The differences in HILS1 mRNA contents between these two groups were not statistically significant (P>0,05. We did not observe an association between HILS1 transcript contents and quality of embryos (r=0.22, P=0.076. We suggest that fertilin beta and protamines contribute not only to successful fertilization, but may have an important impact in development of preimplantation embryos.

  20. Efeito de diferentes substratos e duas formas de adubação na produção de mudas de mamoeiro / Different growth medium and fertilizer effects on papaya seedlings growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvaldo Kiyohi, Yamanishi; Geni Rodrigues, Fagundes; José Altino, Machado Filho; Gustavo de Vincenzo, Valone.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se o comportamento de plantas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cvs. Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1) crescidas em bandejas de poliestireno (72 células) com substrato (Plantmax Hortaliças® = casca de pínus + vermiculita + turfa), adicionado de 4% de adubo orgânico (húmus; esterco de gado e Nutriplanta® [...] ) combinado com 0,05% de adubo químico (Osmocote® NPK 14-14-14 de liberação lenta e NPK 14-14-14 de liberação normal). A germinação das sementes do híbrido Tainung 1 iniciou-se aos 12 dias após a semeadura em todos os tratamentos, e da cultivar Sunrise Solo, aos 14 dias. A cultivar Sunrise Solo e o híbrido Tainung 1 apresentaram maior taxa de germinação nos substratos adubados com Osmocote® e fonte orgânica de húmus e esterco bovino, respectivamente. As mudas de mamoeiros Tainung 1 e Sunrise Solo crescidas nos substratos contendo Osmocote® apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento do que nos substratos com formulado NPK (14-14-14) de liberação normal. Apesar dos bons resultados apresentados pelas mudas de Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1 nos tratamentos constituídos de Nutriplanta®, não foi verificada diferença significativa entre os substratos contendo adubos orgânicos. As mudas desenvolvidas em substrato contendo esterco de curral + NPK de liberação normal tiveram os piores resultados para a maioria das características analisadas (altura, diâmetro do caule, peso seco da parte aérea, caule e raiz, e área foliar total). Os teores de nutrientes (NPK) encontrados na análise foliar das amostras foram superiores nos tratamentos com Osmocote® em relação aos demais, cerca de 20% para o híbrido Tainung 1 e 10% para o Sunrise Solo. Abstract in english The behavior of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Tainung 1') seedlings grown in polystyrene trays (72 cells) in the growth medium (Plantmax® = pine bark + vermiculite + peat) amended with 4% of organic fertilizer (Humus; composted cattle manure and Nutriplanta®) combined with 0.05% o [...] f inorganic fertilizer (Osmocote® - slow release - NPK 14-14-14 and normal release NPK 14-14-14) was evaluated in this study. Germination in cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and hybrid 'Tainung 1' occurred 12 and 14 days after sowing, respectively. Higher germination rate in both materials was obtained in the growth medium fertilized with Osmocote plus humus and composted cattle manure, respectively. The seedlings fertilized with slow release type hastened growth compared with normal one. Growth medium amended with Nutriplanta® gave good results but there was no significant difference with others organic fertilizers. The seedlings grown in growth medium amended with composted cattle manure + normal release NPK showed the poorest results in almost all analyzed parameters such as height, stem diameter, dry weight - root and top - and total leaf area. The nutrient contents (NPK) found in the leaf analyses samples were higher in treatments using slow release fertilizer (~20% for hybrid Tainung 1 and ~+10% for cv. Sunrise Solo) compared with the normal one.

  1. Efeito de diferentes substratos e duas formas de adubação na produção de mudas de mamoeiro Different growth medium and fertilizer effects on papaya seedlings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Kiyohi Yamanishi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de plantas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cvs. Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1 crescidas em bandejas de poliestireno (72 células com substrato (Plantmax Hortaliças® = casca de pínus + vermiculita + turfa, adicionado de 4% de adubo orgânico (húmus; esterco de gado e Nutriplanta® combinado com 0,05% de adubo químico (Osmocote® NPK 14-14-14 de liberação lenta e NPK 14-14-14 de liberação normal. A germinação das sementes do híbrido Tainung 1 iniciou-se aos 12 dias após a semeadura em todos os tratamentos, e da cultivar Sunrise Solo, aos 14 dias. A cultivar Sunrise Solo e o híbrido Tainung 1 apresentaram maior taxa de germinação nos substratos adubados com Osmocote® e fonte orgânica de húmus e esterco bovino, respectivamente. As mudas de mamoeiros Tainung 1 e Sunrise Solo crescidas nos substratos contendo Osmocote® apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento do que nos substratos com formulado NPK (14-14-14 de liberação normal. Apesar dos bons resultados apresentados pelas mudas de Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1 nos tratamentos constituídos de Nutriplanta®, não foi verificada diferença significativa entre os substratos contendo adubos orgânicos. As mudas desenvolvidas em substrato contendo esterco de curral + NPK de liberação normal tiveram os piores resultados para a maioria das características analisadas (altura, diâmetro do caule, peso seco da parte aérea, caule e raiz, e área foliar total. Os teores de nutrientes (NPK encontrados na análise foliar das amostras foram superiores nos tratamentos com Osmocote® em relação aos demais, cerca de 20% para o híbrido Tainung 1 e 10% para o Sunrise Solo.The behavior of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Tainung 1' seedlings grown in polystyrene trays (72 cells in the growth medium (Plantmax® = pine bark + vermiculite + peat amended with 4% of organic fertilizer (Humus; composted cattle manure and Nutriplanta® combined with 0.05% of inorganic fertilizer (Osmocote® - slow release - NPK 14-14-14 and normal release NPK 14-14-14 was evaluated in this study. Germination in cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and hybrid 'Tainung 1' occurred 12 and 14 days after sowing, respectively. Higher germination rate in both materials was obtained in the growth medium fertilized with Osmocote plus humus and composted cattle manure, respectively. The seedlings fertilized with slow release type hastened growth compared with normal one. Growth medium amended with Nutriplanta® gave good results but there was no significant difference with others organic fertilizers. The seedlings grown in growth medium amended with composted cattle manure + normal release NPK showed the poorest results in almost all analyzed parameters such as height, stem diameter, dry weight - root and top - and total leaf area. The nutrient contents (NPK found in the leaf analyses samples were higher in treatments using slow release fertilizer (~20% for hybrid Tainung 1 and ~+10% for cv. Sunrise Solo compared with the normal one.

  2. The influence of long-term fertilization on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soil and its uptake by crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhao, Bingzi; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi; Zhang, Hailin

    2014-09-01

    Continuous application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can affect soil and food quality with respect to heavy metal concentrations. The risk of cadmium (Cd) contamination in a long-term (over 20 years) experimental field in North China with an annual crop rotation of winter wheat and summer maize was investigated. The long-term experiment had a complete randomized block design with seven fertilizer treatments and four replications. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1) organic compost (OM), (2) half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (OM + NPK), (3) NPK fertilizer (NPK), (4-6) chemical fertilizers without one of the major nutrients (NP, PK, and NK), and (7) an unamended control (CK). Soil samples from 0 to 20 cm were collected in 1989, 1999, and 2009 to characterize Cd and other soil properties. During the past 20 years, various extents of Cd accumulation were observed in the soil, and the accumulation was mainly affected by atmospheric dry and wet deposition and fertilization. In 2009, the average Cd concentration in the soil was 148 ± 15 ?g kg(-1) and decreased in the order of NPK?? OM + NKP ? PK > NP ? NK > OM ? CK. Sequential extraction of Cd showed that the acid-soluble fraction (F1, 32 ± 7 %) and the residual fraction (F4, 31 ± 5 %) were the dominant fractions of Cd in the soil, followed by the reducible fraction (F2, 22 ± 5 %) and oxidizable fraction (F3, 15 ± 6 %). The acid-soluble Cd fraction in the soil and Cd accumulation in the crops increased with soil plant available K. Fraction F3 was increased by soil organic C (SOC) and crop yields, but SOC reduced the uptake of soil Cd by crops. The long-term P fertilization resulted in more Cd buildup in the soil than other treatments, but the uptake of Cd by crops was inhibited by the precipitation of Cd with phosphate in the soil. Although soil Cd was slightly increased over the 20 years of intensive crop production, both soil and grain/kernel Cd concentrations were still below the national standards for environmental and food safety. PMID:24793068

  3. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  4. INFLUENCE OF NPK AND LIME APLICATION ON ERVA-MATE GROWTH, ROOT-ROT SEVERITY AND SOIL FUNGI POPULATION1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the influence of the application of NPK and liming doses in the soil, on the growth of Erva-mate, the severity of rot-root and the fungi population of the soil. To do so, an experiment was installed at the green house, in the Forest Nursery of UFSM, using an experimental design completely randomized factorial 4x3x4 (Factor F: Fusarium spp. inoculation; Factor C: soil limestone; Factor A: NPK doses , totaling 48 treatments. The seedlings were cultivated in vases containing 2 kg of soil, classified as ‘Red-Yellow Argisoil’ (clay soil. At the end of the experiment was measured the stem diameter, height of the aerial part, leaves number, aerial dry biomass, root dry biomass and total dry biomass of the seedlings. Also, the soil was collected, from each treatment, for the chemical analysis and the counting of the fungi population. It was observed that the association among application of NPK and liming in the soil hampered the development of Erva-mate seedlings. The analysis of some variables suggests that the limestone absence provided greater resistance of seedlings to the attack of Fusarium spp. or the severity of Fusarium spp. was reduced in lower pH. The fungi population of the soil presented varied behavior depending on the applied treatments.

  5. Relation of zinc levels and water soluble phosphorus in suphala [fertilizer] on uptake of phosphorus and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under pot culture, four levels of Zn 0, 2, 4 and 6 ppm, were studied in relation to 30, 50 and 100 % water soluble levels of phosphorus in suphala for the dry matter production and uptake of P and Zn by maize on acidic soil of Goa and black cotton soil of Maharashtra. 32P and 65Zn tracers were used for this investigation. The results revealed that application of Zn has increased the dry matter and uptake of phosphorus upto 4 ppm of Zn application and it has decreased at 6 ppm Zn level. This inhibition of P uptake was observed at all water soluble levels of P and in both the soils studied. Zn uptake by maize in both the soils under study was increased with increasing level of Zn, irrespective of water soluble level of P in suphala. (author)

  6. Phycological Effects of Eutrophication with Fertilizers in Nike Lake, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechinyere Onyekwere Nweze

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture around Nike lake uses fertilizers. Fertilizers are known to cause eutrophication of water bodies and associated algal blooms whose consequences may be deleterious to the environment and man. We investigated ex situ to assess the effect of the nutrients on the algal flora and show the impact of farm land runoffs on aquatic environment. The lake water was analysed for initial nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; and algal content using standard methods. The fertilizer sources used by the farmers—NPK (20:10:10 and 15:15:15; urea and poultry drops, were used in the study to enrich the lake water in concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 1.0 and 2.0 g/L in three replicates respectively. A control was set up without the fertilizer sources and the set up was left on a laboratory bench and monitored for 36 days. Cyanobacteria (blue green algae, Chlorophyta (green algae and Bacillariophyta (diatoms were encountered and their population increased with time and increase in concentration of fertilizers. The following taxa were encountered—Gloeocapsa, Anabaena, Oscillatoria (blue-green algae; Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Closterium, Pediastrum, Ankistrodesmus, Selenastrum, Scenedesmus, Staurastrum (green algae; Pinnularia and Navicula (diatoms some of which are notable bloom forming species.

  7. Effect of Different Levels of Fertilizer Nano_Iron Chelates on Growth and Yield Characteristics of Two Varieties of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.: Varamin 88 and Viroflay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlirezaLadan Moghadam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate effect of different concentrations of iron chelate Nano fertilizer on growth and performance of two kinds of Spinach, an experiment was performed as a plan of completely random plot in three alternations and in study field of Khazra Company in 2012. First studied factor was different types of Spinach including Varamin 88 and Viroflayand second studied factor was different concentrations of fertilizer (0, 2 and 4 ppt, respectively. Nano fertilizer solution injection was performed in early morning when plant had 8-13 leaves. Results show that wet weight and maximum leaf area index is influenced by concentration of iron chelate Nano fertilizer and dry weight is influenced by both type of Spinach and concentration of Nano fertilizer. Using 4 kg/ha Nano fertilizer causes 58 and 47% increase inwet weight and maximum leaf surface index, respectively comparing to use of no fertilizer. Using 4 kg/ha Nano fertilized leaded to maximum value of aerial organs dry weight for Sugar beet type and minimum value was obtained for treating both types of Spinach without using fertilizer. Studying leaf area index trend and growth rate diagrams indicate that Nano fertilizer has a positive effect on all plant growth steps.

  8. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE CENOURA EM SOLO DE MINERAÇÃO DE CALCÁRIO SOB DIFERENTES INTENSIDADES LUMINOSAS E ADUBAÇÕES / GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF CARROT SEEDS IN LIMESTONE MINING SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES AND FERTILIZATIONS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo, C. Cavatte; João, B. Zonta; José, C. Lopes; Leandro, T. de Souza; João, H. Zonta; Rithiely P, Q. Cavatte.

    Full Text Available Dentre as condições ideais para germinação, o tipo de solo é muito importante, pois, interfere não apenas na germinação das sementes mas, também, no desenvolvimento pós-seminal. Além da adubação, outro fator importante na emergência e crescimento das mudas é a luminosidade devido sua influência em p [...] rocessos como a fotossíntese. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adubação com esterco bovino, torta de filtro e vinhaça, bem como da luminosidade na germinação e vigor de sementes de cenoura, em solo de mineração de calcário. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em 2005, em Alegre-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 13 x 3 (adubações x luminosidades) e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de solo de mineração de calcário enriquecido ou não com adubação e 3 níveis de luminosidade. A adubação teve influência direta nas plântulas, pois, as menores intensidades (13.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1) aumentaram a germinação e altura destas, enquanto as maiores intensidades (1192.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1) aumentaram a velocidade de germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca. A adubação com os 3 materiais orgânicos e NPK proporcionou maior altura e matéria seca às plantas. Abstract in english The ideal conditions for germination such as the soil type are very important in agriculture. Besides interfering into germination of the seeds they also affect their development after germination. Another important factor in emergency and growth of the seedlings is the brightness, due to its influe [...] nce on the photosynthesis processes. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fertilization with cattle manure, sugarcane powder and vinase, as well as from the brightness on both germination and vigor of carrot seeds in limestone mining soil. The experiment was conducted during the year 2005, under greenhouse conditions, in Alegre county-ES. The entirely randomized design with a factorial scheme 13 x 3 (fertilizations x brightness) and four replicates was used. The treatments consisted of limestone mining soil either enriched or unenriched with fertilization and subjected to three brightness levels. The brightness directly affected the germination and the development of the carrot plantlets, whereas the lower bright intensities (13.8 µmol photons m-2s-1) increased either germination and plantlet heights and the higher ones (1192.8 µmol photons m-2s-1) increased the germination speed and the dry matter accumulation. The fertilization with those organic materials and NPK provided better results for height and dry matter of the plantlets.

  9. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE CENOURA EM SOLO DE MINERAÇÃO DE CALCÁRIO SOB DIFERENTES INTENSIDADES LUMINOSAS E ADUBAÇÕES GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF CARROT SEEDS IN LIMESTONE MINING SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES AND FERTILIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Cavatte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as condições ideais para germinação, o tipo de solo é muito importante, pois, interfere não apenas na germinação das sementes mas, também, no desenvolvimento pós-seminal. Além da adubação, outro fator importante na emergência e crescimento das mudas é a luminosidade devido sua influência em processos como a fotossíntese. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adubação com esterco bovino, torta de filtro e vinhaça, bem como da luminosidade na germinação e vigor de sementes de cenoura, em solo de mineração de calcário. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em 2005, em Alegre-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 13 x 3 (adubações x luminosidades e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de solo de mineração de calcário enriquecido ou não com adubação e 3 níveis de luminosidade. A adubação teve influência direta nas plântulas, pois, as menores intensidades (13.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1 aumentaram a germinação e altura destas, enquanto as maiores intensidades (1192.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1 aumentaram a velocidade de germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca. A adubação com os 3 materiais orgânicos e NPK proporcionou maior altura e matéria seca às plantas.The ideal conditions for germination such as the soil type are very important in agriculture. Besides interfering into germination of the seeds they also affect their development after germination. Another important factor in emergency and growth of the seedlings is the brightness, due to its influence on the photosynthesis processes. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fertilization with cattle manure, sugarcane powder and vinase, as well as from the brightness on both germination and vigor of carrot seeds in limestone mining soil. The experiment was conducted during the year 2005, under greenhouse conditions, in Alegre county-ES. The entirely randomized design with a factorial scheme 13 x 3 (fertilizations x brightness and four replicates was used. The treatments consisted of limestone mining soil either enriched or unenriched with fertilization and subjected to three brightness levels. The brightness directly affected the germination and the development of the carrot plantlets, whereas the lower bright intensities (13.8 µmol photons m-2s-1 increased either germination and plantlet heights and the higher ones (1192.8 µmol photons m-2s-1 increased the germination speed and the dry matter accumulation. The fertilization with those organic materials and NPK provided better results for height and dry matter of the plantlets.

  10. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Sewage sludge and wood ashes could be used as fertilizers in order to increase forest tree production. In southern Sweden forest growth normally increases with approximately 10 % after ash recycling due to increased N and/or P availability. P is added with the ashes and the pH-increasing effect of the wood ash can lead to increased N net mineralization. Other positive effects of wood ash recycling are improved nutrient sustainability and less acid run-off water. Possible negative effects are heavy metal accumulation, if the content of one or more heavy metals of the recycled ash exceeds the heavy metal content of the harvested biomass, and nitrate leaching if the vegetation cannot take up nitrified N. It is important to evaluate the sustainability of fertilization systems based on residues such as sludge and wood ash. Wood ash does not contain N and the P concentration often is too low for the ashes to function as an NP fertilizer. Thus N and sometimes P must be added. Sludge is an interesting alternative. The main purpose of the project is to study sustainable production of forest bio energy in intensively cultivated birch and hybrid aspen stands. Another purpose is to establish experiments that can be used for long term studies and as demonstration objects. In the first few years the goal is to study the short term effects of residue based fertilization compared to conventional NPK fertilization on tree nutrient uptake, nutrient leaching, sustainability and economy. In the long term the goal is to design appropriate fertilization strategies in a residue based fertilization system for the intensive cultivation of birch and hybrid aspen without negative side effects such as large scale nutrient leaching. Four field experiments were established in 2008 and one additional experiment in hybrid aspen will be established in the spring of 2009. Elevated bud N and P concentrations after fertilization with both Ashes+N and NPK means good possibilities for future growth increases. But, tree growth response should be studied before any conclusions can be drawn regarding biomass production in the experiments. The similarities in plant response to Ashes+N and NPK suggests that Ashes+N can be used as a P and K resource in the fertilization of young stands of birch and hybrid aspen. If the Ashes+N treatment results in increased N availability due to the pH increase, possibly the N dose could be lowered in order to decrease the risks for N leaching without negative effects on tree N uptake. Tools for the prediction of N mineralization need to be developed. The energy harvest for fertilized birch and hybrid aspen appear to be at least as high as for fertilized Norway spruce. Intensive cultivation including fertilization of young stands appears to be energy efficient: the energy input is a small fraction of the increase in energy harvest. Residue based fertilization appears to be more energy efficient than fertilization with NPK. If production systems other than the ones currently applied are more efficient in terms of sustainable energy production it is important to review the funding of research and development within the field. Which species or species mixtures are most efficient under which soil and climatic condition? Management programs and harvesting techniques need to be developed. More studies on fertilization response and energy harvest in deciduous species with and without the use of residue based fertilizers are needed in order to develop guidelines for the sustainable production of forest bio energy. Empirical studies should be combined with modeling studies in order to improve the understanding of the systems and predictability of management measures. Residue based fertilization appears to be attractive both environmentally and economically, but it is important that such systems are evaluated closely in terms of growth response, nutrient leaching, carbon and metal balances, etc. in comparison with conventional fertilization

  11. Níveis de vibração e choques em diferentes estradas durante o transporte de ovos férteis / Levels of vibration and shock on different roads during transportation of fertile eggs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aérica C., Nazareno; Iran J. O. da, Silva; Afrânio M. C., Vieira; Frederico M. C., Vieira; Késia O. S., Miranda.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis de vibração e choques podem, devido ao transporte, afetar a qualidade dos ovos férteis. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi caracterizar e avaliar a influência das estradas sobre os níveis de vibração e choques no transporte dos ovos férteis. A pesquisa foi conduzida na empresa integradora avíco [...] la no estado de São Paulo, por meio do acompanhamento de três carregamentos em diferentes estações do ano (primavera, verão e outono). Um caminhão climatizado do tipo baú foi utilizado, com capacidade para 592 caixas de ovos, totalizando em média 90.840 ovos. As avaliações dos níveis de vibração (m s-2) e choques nas estradas de terra e asfalto foram registradas por meio de quatro acelerômetros da marca Hobo. Para o nível de vibração o delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente aleatorizado com esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 4. Para o número de choques o delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente aleatorizado com esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Os piores níveis de vibração e choques da carga ocorreram no sentido vertical. A estrada de asfalto ofereceu as piores condições para o transporte de ovos. As perdas no transporte ultrapassaram 1% e são atribuídas às trincas e quebra dos ovos. Abstract in english The levels of vibration and shock due to transport can affect the quality of fertile eggs. The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the influence of roads on the levels of vibration and shock in the transport of fertile eggs. The survey was conducted in the poultry integrator compan [...] y in the State of São Paulo, by tracking shipments in three different seasons (spring, summer and autumn). An air-conditioned trunk was used, with a capacity of 592 boxes of eggs, totaling an average of 90,840 eggs. The evaluation of vibration levels (m s-2) and shocks on unpaved and asphalt roads were recorded by four accelerometers brand Hobo. For the vibration level, the experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 x 2 x 4 factorial. For the number of shocks the experimental design was completely randomized with a factorial 3 x 2. The worst levels of vibration and shock load occurred in the vertical direction. The asphalt road provided the worst conditions for the transport of eggs. The transport losses exceeded 1%, which are attributed to cracks and breakage of eggs.

  12. Influence of nitrate fertilization on Cd uptake and oxidative stress parameters in alfalfa plants cultivated in presence of Cd

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Hattab; S, Hattab; H, Boussetta; M, Banni.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant nutrients might affect the activity and bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil -plant environment thus their accumulation in the plant. Little is known about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on cadmium (Cd) uptake by alfalfa "Medicago sativa". This work aims to characterize the oxidat [...] ive status, the physiological stress parameters and the Cd uptake in alfalfa + Medicago sativa ; exposed to Cd and supplied with nitrogen fertilizers. The experiment was carried out in a green house with alfalfa grown in Cd-polluted soil (3.6 ppm) and amended with two different fertilizers: without NO3- (PK) or with NO3- (NPK) in a sand:peat (v:v) mixture. The following parameters were monitored: Chlorophyll content, Photosynthesis rate, Catalase (CAT) activity, Thiobarbutiric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS) content and Cd bioaccumulation. It was found that NPK fertilization increased mean Cd uptake as well as plant biomass in Cd-exposed plants. Nitrogen supply was also effective in reduction Cd-induces phytotoxicity (Photosynthetic pigments and rate) and oxidative stress alterations. Our results suggest that nitrogen supply may improve the uptake rate of Cd by alfalfa and provide new insights on the importance of nitrogen fertilization towards future phytoremediation applications using alfalfa.

  13. Efeito da solarização, adubação química e orgânica no controle de nematóides em alface sob cultivo protegido Effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on the control of nematode on greenhouse lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene G da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da solarização do solo associados à adubação no controle de nematóides e na produtividade da alface cultivar "Verônica" foram avaliados em solo naturalmente infestado. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, um com e outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica mais NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com filme plástico transparente. A população de nematóides foi avaliada em duas camadas (0-10 cm e 10-20 cm, e as coletas de solo foram feitas em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento; após a solarização; após a colheita. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com medidas no espaço e no tempo (5 adubações x 2 camadas x 3 épocas, e a comparação entre experimentos foi feita pela análise conjunta. O efeito da solarização sobre o controle de nematóides dependeu da adubação e camada do solo. A solarização reduziu a população de nematóides na camada de 0-10 cm em todos os tratamentos de adubação. A solarização associada ao NH4 reduziu a diversidade na camada de 10-20 cm. A solarização combinada às adubações orgânica, N-NH4, NPK e orgânica mais NPK reduziu de maneira eficiente o número de galhas, o número de massas de ovos e a população de nematóides fitoparasitas nas raízes, em especial de Meloidogyne spp. Solarização combinada à adubação orgânica apresenta potencial para controle de nematóides e redução do uso de agrotóxicos.The effect of soil solarization and fertilization was evaluated for nematode control in 'Veronica' lettuce in naturally infested soil. The two greenhouse experiments consisted of five fertilization treatments: organic fertilization; ammoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; NPK fertilization; organic and NPK fertilization; control (without fertilization, in solarized and non-solarized soils. In the solarized plot the soil was covered during 132 days with transparent plastic film. The nematode populations were evaluated in two layers (010 cm and 10-20 cm with soil collections done at three times (before solarization; after solarization; and after harvest. The experimental design was of sub-subdivided blocks plots with assessments in space and time (5 fertilization x 2 depths x 3 times. The effect of solarization on nematode control was dependent on fertilization and soil depth. Solarization reduced nematodes population at 0-10 cm depth in all the fertilization treatments. Solarization associated to ammoniacal nitrogen reduced nematode diversity at 10-20 cm depth. Solarization associated to organic, ammoniacal nitrogen, NPK and organic + NPK fertilization reduced efficiently gall numbers, egg masses number and phytoparasitic nematodes, specially Meloidogyne spp., in lettuce roots. Solarization associated to organic fertilization has a potential to be used in nematode control and to reduce pesticides application.

  14. Preliminary studies on morphological diversity of coconut (cocos nucifera L.) seedlings by organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments at Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers amendments on the growth parameters of coconut seedlings in field at the Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Karachi. The seedling height and number of leaves were significantly high in treatment T7 (Neem seed powder) (27.62 +- 8.74) and treatment T5 (NPK) (27.18 +- 8.60). The maximum number of the roots was observed in T1 (NPK + Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (2.26 +- 0.71) and T3 (NPK + Gliricidia sepium) (1.69 +- 0.53), where as minimum roots was recorded in T8 (Control) (0.94 +- 0.29). The maximum number of leaves was observed in T4 (Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (1.49 +- 0.47) and T1 (1.31+- 0.41). The results showed the beneficial effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on seedlings. The work indicated morphological diversity of seedlings at the nursery stage to help the growers in choosing planting materials for their gardens in coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan. (author)

  15. Social class and net fertility before, during, and after the demographic transition: A micro-level analysis of Sweden 1880-1970

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Dribe; Francesco Scalone

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although demographers have long been interested in studying the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns. Identifying these patterns could help us to better understand the mechanisms behind the transition. Objective: The aim of this paper is to explore social class differentials in fertility before, during, and after the fertility decline, in order to test hypotheses regarding a reversal of class differences during the tra...

  16. Effect of Different Levels of Fertilizer Nano_Iron Chelates on Growth and Yield Characteristics of Two Varieties of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Varamin 88 and Viroflay

    OpenAIRE

    AlirezaLadan Moghadam; Hesam Vattani; Nasim Baghaei; Narges Keshavarz

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate effect of different concentrations of iron chelate Nano fertilizer on growth and performance of two kinds of Spinach, an experiment was performed as a plan of completely random plot in three alternations and in study field of Khazra Company in 2012. First studied factor was different types of Spinach including Varamin 88 and Viroflayand second studied factor was different concentrations of fertilizer (0, 2 and 4 ppt, respectively). Nano fertilizer solution injection wa...

  17. Topdressing fertilization with nitrogen and potassium levels in sweet-potatoAdubação de cobertura na batata-doce com doses combinadas de nitrogênio e potássio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced fertilizations with N and K often increase the performance of crops, however, when there is absence of one of these nutrients in poor soils, can reduce crop response to fertilization with the other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of sweet-potato, the amount of sweetpotato without quality, and leaf nutrients analysis, of sweet-potato crop fertilized with N and K. The trial was conducted in farming for commercial production, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, during February-June 2007, in a dystrophic Ultisol of medium texture. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with four replications, on factorial 4 x 4: levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 (urea source combined with levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg K2O ha-1 (KCl source, applied to 39 days after planting of the crop. The sweet-potato is responsive to topdressing application with nitrogen and potassium, however, the greatest increases in productivity occur when doses of N and K are combined. Fertilization with N and K not increase the amount of sweet-potato without quality marketing. The highest increase in productivity of sweet-potato is reached with topdressing combined with 100 kg N ha-1 plus 120 kg K2O ha-1. A adubação balanceada de N e K frequentemente aumenta o desempenho das lavouras, contudo, a falta de um desses nutrientes em solos deficientes pode levar a decréscimos na resposta ao outro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de batata-doce comercializável, a quantidade de raízes tuberosas para descarte e a diagnose foliar de lavoura de batata-doce adubada com N e K. O experimento foi realizado em lavoura comercial, em Presidente Prudente-SP, de fevereiro a junho de 2007, em um Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com 0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 de N (uréia, em interação com 0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 de K2O (KCl, aplicados em cobertura aos 39 dias após o plantio. A cultura da batata-doce é responsiva à adubação nitrogenada e potássica de cobertura, porém, os maiores incrementos de produtividade são alcançados com as doses de N e K combinadas. A adubação de cobertura com N e K não acarreta em aumento da quantidade de raízes tuberosas impróprias para a comercialização. O maior incremento de produtividade da batata-doce é alcançado com a adubação de cobertura combinada com 100 kg de N ha-1 mais 120 kg de K2O ha-1.

  18. "Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.

    2012-12-01

    Chinese farmers have a very long history of using manures in their fields. Owing to the long-term addition of manures, an anthropogenic layer was formed on the top of original soil profile (drab soil) in Guanzhong Plains on the south edge of the Loess Plateau, North China. This soil is named the Manural Loessial soil (or Lou soil, "Lou" means the different stories of a building in Chinese). The depth of anthropogenic layer is in range of about 30 to 100 cm depth, which has a close relationship with the soil productivity. This fertile agricultural soil has sustained the agriculture in the region for millenniums. We had determined the organic carbon (SOC) in 7 soil profiles, and found that the depths of anthropogenic layer of were in range of 40 to 71 cm (averaging 59 cm). And the anthropogenic layer became shallower as the profile was far from the village due to less manure application. The organic C stocks in this layer accounted for 69% of organic C stocks in 0-100 cm soil profiles. Organic C stocks in Lou soil was higher than that in the newly cultivated soil developed from loess parent materials. Our 30-day incubation experiment found that addition of synthetic N fertilizer significantly increased the decomposition of SOC in the soils. However, The decomposition rate of SOC in the soil added with manure and inorganic fertilizers for 18-yr (MNPK soil) was significantly lower than in the soils added without fertilizer or inorganic fertilizers (NF soil, and NPK soils). The half-life of the organic C in MNPK soils was also slower than the NF soil, and NPK soil. It indicates that long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves the stabilization of soil organic C. Long-term cultivation has not only increased organic C stocks, but also stabilization of organic C in soil profile. It provides us a unique sample to study the mechanism of accumulation and stabilization of organic C in soil to balance agricultural production and C sequestration in a warming earth. Our micro-plot experiment with 15N-labeled fertilizer in the long-term fertilizer trial found that the use efficiency of N fertilizer (NUE) in MNPK soil was higher than the NPK soil and NF soil in both wheat-summer fallow and winter wheat and summer corn rotation system. However, the N fertilizer losses in MNPK soil was lower than the NPK soil and NF soil in the two systems. We concluded that the long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves N synchrony between the supply and crop demand, and reduces its loss. Since the 1980s, however, the application of manure to arable fields has declined in Guanzhong Plain, and in other parts of China, due to the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers, and labor costs to apply manure. The nutrient input of the arable fields are heavily dependent on inorganic fertilizers. It changes the biogeochemical cycling of the ecosystem, and results in a series of problems, including eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission, and nitrate leaching. Therefore, we need to find the alternatives to solve the problems, to conserve this old anthropogenic soil while producing enough food to feed the growing population.

  19. Leaching versus input of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in different fertilizer regimens in Christmas tree stands of Abies nordmanniana in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram

    2006-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) fertilization and deposition on nutrient leaching were assessed in four Danish Nordmarm fir Christmas tree stands on former arable land. NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer type was applied in doses between 0 and 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Deposition of N, K and Mg varied between 16 and 21 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), 2 and 10 kg K ha(-1) year(-1), and 2 and 3 kg Mg ha(-1) year(-1). The concentration of NO3-N in the soil water on the sandy sites was characterized by notable pulses contrasting the mitigated peaks on the clayey site. In general, the soil water concentrations and leaching reflected the fertilization, except for K at one clayey site. Mean annual leaching of NO3-N ranged from approximately 6 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the control treatment to 235 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1) fertilizer treatment. In the treatment with the commonly used 300 kg NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer NO3-N leaching was estimated to be approximately 46 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Annual leaching of N was described in a general model based on the fertilizer input. K and Mg leaching were distinctly more site specific than was N leaching. The magnitude of NO3-N leaching caused by application of 300 kg NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer was between the leaching amounts observed in traditional Danish forestry and Danish agriculture.

  20. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when education and training of children increases. Quality is substituted for quantity. The neoclassical model that "the capital-labor ratio and the degree of capital deepening" is affected by population growth is examined as well as the modern approach, and the implications are expressed, i.e., intergenerational transfers and parental altruism. PMID:12285413

  1. Comportamento da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus sob diferentes níveis de adubação fosfatada e de sombreamento Study of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus under levels of phosphoric fertilization and shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C.M. Nemoto

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho, instalado e conduzido em casa de vegetação da FCAV, campus de Jaboticabal, UNESP, teve por objetivos estudar os efeitos de diferentes doses de adubação fosfatada (0, 33,5, 67,0 e 100,5 ppm de P2O5 e níveis de sombreamento (0, 30, 50 e 70% sobre parâmetros de crescimento de tiririca (Cyperrus rotundus. Quatro tubérculos previamente brotados foram colocados em cada vaso com capacidade para três litros de solo. Utilizou-se Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro textura média, moderado, distrófico, peneirado. Para efeito de análise estatística, os vasos (parcelas foram dispostos num esquema inteiramente casualisado, com quatro repetições. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o efeito prejudicial do sombreamento sobre o desenvolvimento da tiririca. Já ao nível de 30%, o sombreamento causou redução na densidade das plantas , principalmente por reduzir o número de bulbos + tubérculos. Em conseqüência, houve redução no acúmulo de matéria seca nas diferentes partes da planta, redução esta mais acentuada no sistema subterrâneo (bulbos + tubérculos + raízes, causando incremento nas relações PA/B+T+R e B+T/R. A adubação fosfatada, no entanto, incrementou os parâmetros de crescimento da espécie, principalmente no desenvolvimento das manifestações epígeas, refletido tanto pelo aumento em número quanto em acúmulo de matéria seca.This research was carried out under greenhouse conditions at the College of Agriculture, campus of Jaboticabal, UNESP, with the objective of studying the effects of different levels of phosphoric fertilization (0, 33.5, 67.0 and 100.5 ppm P2O5 and shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 70% of light interception on some growth parameters of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus. The tubers emerged were placed (in numbers of 4 in plastic pots containing three liters of dark Red Latossoil (soil, medium texture, being previously screened. The experiment was land out in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed the detrimental effect of shading on purple nutsedge development; at a level of 30% shading there was a reduction in plant density, mainly due to a reduction in the number of bulds and tubers. As a consequence there was a reduction in the dry matter accumulation in the subterranean parts (bulbs, tubers and roots, causing na increase in the ratios PA/B+T+R and B+T/R. Phosphoric fertilization, however, increased the growth parameters of the species, mainly in the development of the PA by na increase in the number and dry matter accumulation.

  2. Comportamento da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus) sob diferentes níveis de adubação fosfatada e de sombreamento / Study of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) under levels of phosphoric fertilization and shading

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta C.M., Nemoto; Pedro L.C.A., Alves; Robinson A., Pitelli; Luiz R.P., Nemoto.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho, instalado e conduzido em casa de vegetação da FCAV, campus de Jaboticabal, UNESP, teve por objetivos estudar os efeitos de diferentes doses de adubação fosfatada (0, 33,5, 67,0 e 100,5 ppm de P2O5) e níveis de sombreamento (0, 30, 50 e 70%) sobre parâmetros de crescimento de tiririca (Cy [...] perrus rotundus). Quatro tubérculos previamente brotados foram colocados em cada vaso com capacidade para três litros de solo. Utilizou-se Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro textura média, moderado, distrófico, peneirado. Para efeito de análise estatística, os vasos (parcelas) foram dispostos num esquema inteiramente casualisado, com quatro repetições. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o efeito prejudicial do sombreamento sobre o desenvolvimento da tiririca. Já ao nível de 30%, o sombreamento causou redução na densidade das plantas , principalmente por reduzir o número de bulbos + tubérculos. Em conseqüência, houve redução no acúmulo de matéria seca nas diferentes partes da planta, redução esta mais acentuada no sistema subterrâneo (bulbos + tubérculos + raízes), causando incremento nas relações PA/B+T+R e B+T/R. A adubação fosfatada, no entanto, incrementou os parâmetros de crescimento da espécie, principalmente no desenvolvimento das manifestações epígeas, refletido tanto pelo aumento em número quanto em acúmulo de matéria seca. Abstract in english This research was carried out under greenhouse conditions at the College of Agriculture, campus of Jaboticabal, UNESP, with the objective of studying the effects of different levels of phosphoric fertilization (0, 33.5, 67.0 and 100.5 ppm P2O5) and shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 70% of light intercep [...] tion) on some growth parameters of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). The tubers emerged were placed (in numbers of 4) in plastic pots containing three liters of dark Red Latossoil (soil), medium texture, being previously screened. The experiment was land out in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed the detrimental effect of shading on purple nutsedge development; at a level of 30% shading there was a reduction in plant density, mainly due to a reduction in the number of bulds and tubers. As a consequence there was a reduction in the dry matter accumulation in the subterranean parts (bulbs, tubers and roots), causing na increase in the ratios PA/B+T+R and B+T/R. Phosphoric fertilization, however, increased the growth parameters of the species, mainly in the development of the PA by na increase in the number and dry matter accumulation.

  3. Evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in Central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Nájera; Y, Tapia; C, Baginsky; V, Figueroa; R, Cabeza; O, Salazar.

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to carry out an evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in central Chile. Soil samples were collected from 31 maize fields for macro- and micronutrient analysis; additionally a crop manag [...] ement survey was carried out in each field. These data were used to identify the range of critical soil-test concentrations of nutrients and the relationships among these soil fertility parameters; to assess the relationship between maize yields and nutrient status of soils; to evaluate the current fertiliser practices of farmers comparing them with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertiliser model calculations; and to analyse whether The results showed that there was a dominance of neutral-alkaline soils with low organic matter and N levels, and high P, cations and micronutrient levels. Regression analysis explained at least 59% of the variation in maize yields, when soil pH and available zinc (Zn) content were identified as the most important variables controlling maize yield. Results suggest that in neutral-alkaline soils cultivated with maize and high inputs of N-P-K, there may be a maize yield response to Zn applications. It was found that most farmers over-fertilised with N (from 60 to 360 kg N ha-1) and P (from10 to 120 kg P2O5 ha-1), converting maize fields in an important non-point source of pollution of water bodies in Central Chile.

  4. Efeito da adubação NPK sobre o período de imaturidade da seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATAGLIA ONDINO CLEANTE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] à adubação NPK visando recomend?-la no período de formação dos seringais. Relata os resultados do experimento em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico no município de Matão (SP. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4 com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O. Até 104 meses de idade das plantas, avaliaram-se o perímetro do caule 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal, efetuando-se análises de solo e folhas em diversas épocas. Observou-se, a partir de 24 meses de idade, pouco mais de um ano depois do início das aplicações efeito linear da adubação potássica sobre o perímetro do caule e, a partir de de 48 meses, com freqüência, a interação NK linear. Usando como indicador de desenvolvimento a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para K e, em algumas poucas épocas, também paraN. O período de imaturidade, apesar de afetado significativamente apenas pela adubação potássica, mostrou-se dependente do equilíbrio dos nutrientes. Adubações desequilibradas podem retardar até em 15 meses o tempo de imaturidade, comparando-se os melhores e os piores tratamentos. Na ausência de adubação potássica, verificou-se um efeito antagônico dos nutrientes N e P. Adubações potássicas foram essenciais para garantir a antecipação do início da fase produtiva.

  5. Long-term effects of single potassium fertilization on 137Cs levels in plants and fungi in a boreal forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Nikolova, I; Johanson, K

    2011-02-01

    We examined the long-term effects of a single application of potassium (K) fertilizer (100 kg K ha(-1)) in 1992 on (137)Cs uptake in a forest ecosystem in central Sweden. (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined in three low-growing perennial shrubs, heather (Calluna vulgaris), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and in four wild fungal species (Cortinarius semisanguineus, Lactarius rufus, Rozites caperata and Suillus variegatus). Uptake of (137)Cs by plants and fungi growing on K-fertilized plots 17 years after application of the K fertilizer was significantly lower than in corresponding species growing in a non-fertilized control area. The (137)Cs activity concentration was 21-58% lower in fungal sporocarps and 40-61% lower in plants in the K-fertilized area compared with the control. Over the study period, this decrease in (137)Cs activity concentration was more consistent in plants than in fungi, although the effect was statistically significant and strongly pronounced in all species. The effect of K fertilization in reducing (137)Cs activity concentration in fungi and plants decreased over time but was still significant in 2009, 17 years after fertilization. This suggests that application of K fertilizer to forests is an appropriate and effective long-term measure to decrease radiocaesium accumulation in plants and fungi. PMID:21144627

  6. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer level on the grain yield, some qualitative and technological indices of Triticum aestivum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Foto Kashta

    2014-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels on five bread wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design, having four replications, plot size of 10 m2. N doses used were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha. The grain production of each variant was analyzed for the following traits: grain yield, thousand kernels weight, test weight, protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation (SDS), as indirect indices ...

  7. The Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Yassini, M.; Ma, Khalili; Hashemian, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Approximately 10% of Iranian couples wishing to have a child experience some types of infertility which may impose a considerable psychological burden on them. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the level of anxiety and depression among infertile couples undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment cycles in Iran. Methods: Fifty infertile couples that who undergoing IVF (n=25) or ICSI (n=25) cycles were considered for this descriptive cross-sectional study. A...

  8. Efecto de labranza, humedad y fertilización en el rendimiento de frijol y la patogenicidad de Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid / Effects of tillage, moisture and fertilization on the yield of the common bean and the pathogenicity of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Krystal, Lira-Méndez; Jaime Roel, Salinas-García; Arturo, Díaz-Franco; Netzahualcóyotl, Mayek-Pérez.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. causa la 'pudrición carbonosa' en frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y otros cultivos y afecta el crecimiento y el rendimiento de grano. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de cuatro niveles de labranza (barbecho, destronque-bordeo, subsuelo-bordeo [...] , cero), dos de humedad (temporal, riego) y dos de fertilización (química, 40-20-00 NPK; biológica con la micorriza Glomus intraradices) en el rendimiento de grano de la variedad Negro INIFAP en 2006 y 2007 en Río Bravo, México y en la patogenicidad de M. phaseolina. Los experimentos se establecieron en arreglo de tratamientos en parcelas subdivididas con tres repeticiones. Un aislamiento de M. phaseolina se obtuvo de plantas colectadas en cada unidad experimental y su patogenicidad se midió en semillas de cinco variedades de frijol (Azufrado Tapatío, Bayo Madero, Flor de Mayo Bajío, Negro Altiplano y Negro INIFAP). El riego y G. intraradices incrementaron el rendimiento de grano 144% y 12% respecto al temporal y la fertilización química, respectivamente. Los aislamientos de M. phaseolina de parcelas con riego, fertilización química, subsuelo-bordeo y barbecho fueron más agresivos en frijol. La aplicación de micorrizas y la labranza de conservación promueven la sostenibilidad del suelo y también podrían constituirse en medidas de manejo integrado de M. phaseolina en frijol. Abstract in english The fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid causes the 'charcoal rot' disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other crops and reduces plant growth and grain yield. In this work we determined the effects of four tillage levels (moldboard plow, shred-bedding, subsoil-bedding, no or zer [...] o tillage); two levels of soil moisture (rainfed, irrigated) and two of fertilization (chemical, using the formula 40-20-00 NPK; biological, using the mycorrhiza Glomus intraradices) in grain yield of the variety Negro INIFAP during 2006 and 2007 in Río Bravo, Mexico as well as the pathogenicity of M. phaseolina. Experiments were established in a subdivided plot treatment arrangement with three replications. One isolate of M. phaseolina was obtained from plants collected in each experimental unit and the pathogenicity was determined in seeds of five common bean cultivars (Azufrado Tapatío, Bayo Madero, Flor de Mayo Bajío, Negro Altiplano, and Negro INIFAP). Irrigation and G. intraradices increased grain yield by 144% and 12%, in comparison to with rainfed conditions and chemical fertilization, respectively. The M. phaseolina isolates from irrigated, chemically fertilized and with subsoil-bedding or moldboard plow tillage were more aggressive in bean seeds. The application of mycorrhiza and conservative tillage promote soil sustainability and they could be used as integrated management measures of M. phaseolina in common beans.

  9. Efecto de labranza, humedad y fertilización en el rendimiento de frijol y la patogenicidad de Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid Effects of tillage, moisture and fertilization on the yield of the common bean and the pathogenicity of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Lira-Méndez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. causa la 'pudrición carbonosa' en frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y otros cultivos y afecta el crecimiento y el rendimiento de grano. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de cuatro niveles de labranza (barbecho, destronque-bordeo, subsuelo-bordeo, cero, dos de humedad (temporal, riego y dos de fertilización (química, 40-20-00 NPK; biológica con la micorriza Glomus intraradices en el rendimiento de grano de la variedad Negro INIFAP en 2006 y 2007 en Río Bravo, México y en la patogenicidad de M. phaseolina. Los experimentos se establecieron en arreglo de tratamientos en parcelas subdivididas con tres repeticiones. Un aislamiento de M. phaseolina se obtuvo de plantas colectadas en cada unidad experimental y su patogenicidad se midió en semillas de cinco variedades de frijol (Azufrado Tapatío, Bayo Madero, Flor de Mayo Bajío, Negro Altiplano y Negro INIFAP. El riego y G. intraradices incrementaron el rendimiento de grano 144% y 12% respecto al temporal y la fertilización química, respectivamente. Los aislamientos de M. phaseolina de parcelas con riego, fertilización química, subsuelo-bordeo y barbecho fueron más agresivos en frijol. La aplicación de micorrizas y la labranza de conservación promueven la sostenibilidad del suelo y también podrían constituirse en medidas de manejo integrado de M. phaseolina en frijol.The fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid causes the 'charcoal rot' disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and other crops and reduces plant growth and grain yield. In this work we determined the effects of four tillage levels (moldboard plow, shred-bedding, subsoil-bedding, no or zero tillage; two levels of soil moisture (rainfed, irrigated and two of fertilization (chemical, using the formula 40-20-00 NPK; biological, using the mycorrhiza Glomus intraradices in grain yield of the variety Negro INIFAP during 2006 and 2007 in Río Bravo, Mexico as well as the pathogenicity of M. phaseolina. Experiments were established in a subdivided plot treatment arrangement with three replications. One isolate of M. phaseolina was obtained from plants collected in each experimental unit and the pathogenicity was determined in seeds of five common bean cultivars (Azufrado Tapatío, Bayo Madero, Flor de Mayo Bajío, Negro Altiplano, and Negro INIFAP. Irrigation and G. intraradices increased grain yield by 144% and 12%, in comparison to with rainfed conditions and chemical fertilization, respectively. The M. phaseolina isolates from irrigated, chemically fertilized and with subsoil-bedding or moldboard plow tillage were more aggressive in bean seeds. The application of mycorrhiza and conservative tillage promote soil sustainability and they could be used as integrated management measures of M. phaseolina in common beans.

  10. Fertility, education and development: further evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Dreze, Jean; Murthi, Mamta

    2000-01-01

    There has been a significant decline in fertility in many parts of India since the early 1980s. This paper reexamines the determinants of fertility levels and fertility decline, using panel data on Indian districts for 1981 and 1991. We find that women's education is the most important factor explaining fertility differences across the country and over time. Low levels of child mortality and son preferences also contribute to lower fertility. By contrast, general indicators of modernization a...

  11. Growth and Yield of Okra with Rock-Phosphate – Amended Organic Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Makinde, Eyitayo A.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorous supply from organic manures for okra production can be insufficient for optimal fruit yield. The growth and yield of okra (Variety: NHAe 47-4) were assessed in field experiments with an organic fertilizer made from cowdung (CD), fortified with Ogun Rock Phosphate (ORP). The ORP was applied sole at 100 kg ha-1 and also with each of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 t ha-1 cowdung. There was a standard check of NPK 20-10-10 applied 2 weeks after planting at 400 kg ha-1 and an unfertilized cont...

  12. Effect of neem cake/fertilizers on symbiotic and non-symbiotic N2 fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neem cake amendment in soil at 1.3% no adverse effect on the population of four symbiotic Rhizobium species viz., japonicum, R. leguminosarum, R. Phaseoli and R. Fredii and three non-symbiotic free living nitrogen fixers bacteria viz., Pseudomonas diazotrophicus, Klebsiella planticola and Enterobacter cloacae. Neem cake extracted with n-hexane stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species in vitro, whereas Neem cake expeller extracted neither inhibited nor stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species except for R. Fredii, whose was slightly retarded. The fertilizers (urea, NPK and DAP) had no adverse effect on these bacteria even at the dosage ten times higher the recommended dose. (author)

  13. Effect of organic fertilization of soil, differentiated over many years, on the utilization of 15N-labelled urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topsoil from samples with different organic fertilization of a soil fertility experiment started in 1936 at the Thyrow experimental site of the Berlin Humboldt University Crop Production Department was used for a pot experiment to study the N utilization of equal amounts of mineral fertilizer N (1.380 mg N/pot in the form of 15N-labelled urea with an N frequency of 50 +- 0.5 atom per cent). The results showed that combined application of mineral NPK fertilization and high amounts of farmyard manure over a period of about 40 years on deep-loam fallow soil-sandy-rusty soil (diluvial sand to loamy-sandy soil) will lead to better utilization of the applied urea N as well as to higher N availability from the N pool of the soil. (author)

  14. Fertility and family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, N B

    1983-01-01

    This article presents a review of theoretical considerations in studies related to the research on fertility decline. The paper argues that in spite of the large expenditure of professional and material resources on research related to the problems of fertility behavior, there has been little advance in understanding of the relationship between the human variables related to fertility control. The most important reason for the lack of success is the disproportionate emphasis placed on the problem of explanation at the individual level whereas the institutional setting which always and everywhere conditions individual decisions and behavior has been consigned to residual neglect. It is argued that a theory of fertility decline is but 1 element in a theory of social change. The conceptualization required for that differs categorically from the designs of most current demographic enquiry. A theory of social change is concerned with the transformation of institutional structures, whereas the centerpiece of most demographic studies has been the individual decision maker. Although no claim is made to provide the necessary alternative conceptualization, this article does provide a set of suggestions for ways in which we may learn something important by pointing our investigations in other directions. The article studies those aspects of modernization which have the most direct implications for family structure--the way mortality decline affects the quantitative and temporal equilibrium within the traditional family. Because of an increase in the ratio of sons to fathers and a delay in the time of transfer of status and rights from the senior to the junior generations, fertility decline accompanied with increased life expectancy is disrupting the quantitative as well as temporal equilibrium within the family. The account of modernization as a force for demographic change is focussed not so much on fertility itself, but on the system of family mortality. The pursuit of family interests yields consequences which are unsatisfactory for society in the aggregate because some of the costs incurred by the senior generation are displaced onto the junior generation, necessitating some policy decisions. An acceptable theory of fertility decline is probably inaccessible within the confines of mechanistic micro-analytic models; the admission is required that social scientists are only beginning to define the macro-analytic problem in such a way to suggest appropriate research and methodologies. Fertility decline may need to be a subsidiary by-product rather than the focus of analytic strategy. PMID:12265832

  15. Adubação NPK e tamanho da batata-semente no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade de plantas de batata NPK fertilization and potato tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Luiz Raphael M.; Jackson Kawakami; Ml, Marcelo Muller; Oliari, Ires Cristina R.; Umburanas, Renan C.; Vlandiney Eschemback

    2013-01-01

    A cultura da batata demanda alto investimento para a sua implantação. Dentre os insumos responsáveis pelo alto custo da lavoura, destacam-se os fertilizantes e a semente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-sementes no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade da cultura da batata. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura comercial de batata em Guarapuava-PR, a partir de dezembro de 2010. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de...

  16. Long-term effects of single potassium fertilization on 137Cs levels in plants and fungi in a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the long-term effects of a single application of potassium (K) fertilizer (100 kg K ha-1) in 1992 on 137Cs uptake in a forest ecosystem in central Sweden. 137Cs activity concentrations were determined in three low-growing perennial shrubs, heather (Calluna vulgaris), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and in four wild fungal species (Cortinarius semisanguineus, Lactarius rufus, Rozites caperata and Suillus variegatus). Uptake of 137Cs by plants and fungi growing on K-fertilized plots 17 years after application of the K fertilizer was significantly lower than in corresponding species growing in a non-fertilized control area. The 137Cs activity concentration was 21-58% lower in fungal sporocarps and 40-61% lower in plants in the K-fertilized area compared with the con