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Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tisserant. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased on inoculated seedlings compare to with uninoculated. NPK fertilization of 0.0625 g per seedling and inoculation on teak seedlings showed alkaline phosphatase activity in range 90-201 EU, and in roots indicated in range 14-72%. Gigaspora sp inoculation on teak seedlings was showing the highest of alkaline phosphatase activity. Increasing phosphatase alkaline activity relevant to hyphae growth, and increasing of root infection decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased seedling dry weight.

CORRYANTI

2007-07-01

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Initial growth characteristics of two coffee cultivars under different water regimes and levels of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available The experiment objectified to evaluate the effects of water regimes (irrigation and no irrigation and fertigation, combined with fertilizer doses for N, P and K, during the initial growth phase of two coffee cultivars, Obatã and IAPAR-59, in the north-western region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. The experimental design was the completely randomized in a split-plot arrangement. The main plots were represented by fertilizer doses, corresponding to 15, 30, 45 and 60 g m-1, for N and K, and to 3, 6, 9 and 12 g m-1, for P, which are equivalent, respectively, to percentages of 50%, 100%, 150% and 200% of the dose recommended for each nutrient. The sub-plots were constituted by lines of plants that received the water regimes. Were evaluated stalk diameter, length of the first plagiotropic branch and its number of inter-knots. The treatments were analyzed separately for each cultivar of coffee. Fertigation and irrigation favored the initial growth of both coffee cultivars. For the IAPAR-59 cultivar, the number of inter-knots was upper only with fertigation. The number of inter-knots increased with irrigation and decreased in no irrigation regime, linearly, for IAPAR-59 and Obatã, respectively, in function of the NPK doses increasing. In fertigation, it was observed reduction of stalk diameter at doses higher than the lowest dose tested, for IAPAR-59, while the largest number of inter-knots was obtained with the highest dose used, for Obatã.

Renan Soares de Souza

2013-12-01

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Sweet corn yield on ultisol soil treated with Effective Microorganisms (EM4) and NPK fertilizer  

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An experiment was accomplished to study the effect of EM4, NPK fertilizer and their interaction on sweet corn yield. It was carried out on Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agriculture Haluoleo University, Kendari from December 2006 to May 2007. Split-plot design was employed with NPK fertilizer as main plot, consisting four levels: NPK0 (control), NPK1 (150 kg urea + 50 kg SP36 + 17 kg KCl) per hectare, NPK2 (200 kg urea + 100 kg SP36 + 33 kg KCl) per hectare, NPK3 (300 kg urea ...

La Suere; Sarawa

2011-01-01

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Response of Early Maturity Mutant Lines of Low Land Rice on Several Levels of NPK Fertilizers and Irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A problem which will occur in the IP400 program is the exploitation of nutrient and water. This problem could be overcome by using early maturating having high fertilizer and water use efficiency. For this purpose several mutant lines were tested for their efficiency on using fertilizers and water. The testing of the mutant lines were done in the field at the experimental station of the Agricultural Department Pusakanagara, West Java. Treatments employed were six mutant lines and two rice varieties which four rates of NPK fertilizers (0, 25, 50, and 100%) and three irrigation regimes (continuously sub merging, 10 and 15 days of alternate sub merging). The soil water content was determined by neutron probe at the start of each water regimes. The N total mutant of the plants were carried out at the Plant Nutrition Laboratory, PATIR-BATAN. Results showed that the average yield, in sequence from the highest to the lowest (t/ha) is OBS 1705 (9,3597), Cimelati (8,9631), OBS 1700 (8,9192), Diah Suci (8,7706), OBS 1713 (8,2797), OBS 1703 (8,2733), OBS 1718 (8,2489) and OBS 1704 (8,0019). Statistically highest yield/ha was obtained at all the water regimes and NPK fertilizer rates was shown by OBS 1705 and did not differ significantly from Cimelati variety, but it significantly differ from Diah Suci variety, OBS 1713, OBS 1703, OBS 1718 and OBS 1718. The OBS 1704 was highly responsive to the NPK fertilization, producing and increase any weight at the lowest rate of NPK fertilization (25%). The uptake of total nitrogen (kg N/ha) in the grain of the mutant lines were all higher than that of the parent lines (Cimelati and Diah Suci). (author)

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Growth and Marketable Green Pod Yield Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum L. under Varying Levels of NPK Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available An Experiment to assess the effect of different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK on morphological traits of local pea variety was conducted at Vegetable Seed Farm ARI, Sariab, Quetta during the year 2000-2001. The fertilizer treatments comprised control, 25-0-0, 25-60-0, 25-0-60, 25-60-60, 50-0-0, 50-90-0, 50-0-90, 50-90-90, 75-0-0, 75-120-0, 75-0-120, and 75-120-120, Kg NPK/ 4m2 in a Randomized Complete Block Design. The maximum plant height (46.30 cm, number of branches per plant (5.60, number of pods per plant (33.10, pod length (8.49 cm, seed per pod (6.00, pod yield per plant (188.43 gms, total marketable green pod yield per plot (6.02 kg and per hectare yield (5.01 m.t, were recorded in treatment 75-120-120 or 75-120-0, Kg NPK ha -1, which displayed maximum green pod yield due to increase in pod per plant and pod length. It was further noted that an additional K did not increase the yield. Mean square attributable to treatment differed highly significant for all the quantitative traits showing the importance of fertilizer treatment in influencing morphological characteristics of pea plant.

A. A. Kakar

2002-01-01

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The Performance of Zea mays as Influenced by NPK fertilizer Application  

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Full Text Available Field trials were made to estimate the effect of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize were conducted over a two year period. NPK fertilizer applications significantly increase plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield. The optimum level of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer for successful production of maize grains was 400 (60 kg N + 27.16 kg P + 49.80 kg K kg / ha compound fertilizer based on the fact that it had the greatest dry cob yield (12.44 t / ha, grain yield (7.95 t /ha, relative grain yield (2.26 and 100-seeds weight (11.62g. Keywords: Growth, NPK fertilizer, plant height, stem girth and yield.

Joyce Egberanwen LAW-OGBOMO

2009-12-01

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Diferentes combinações de NPK na produção do feijão-vagem em solo orgânico álico do Vale do Ribeira (SP) / Influence of different levels of NPK fertilizers on the yield of pole snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando-se verificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 e 354-576-558 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O respectivamente) na produção do feijão-vagem, cv. Teresópolis, desenvolveu-se um experimento na Estação Experimental de Pariquera-Açu em solo orgânico álico de alta acidez. [...] Nas condições do experimento, verificou-se apenas resposta linear e positiva altamente significativa para os seguintes caracteres estudados: produtividade total de vagens, produtividade de vagens comerciáveis e número total de vagens. Desse modo, as maiores produtividades em peso e número de vagens, em magnitude, foram obtidas quando se utilizou a dose máxima de NPK. Abstract in english A trial was carried out at the Experimental Station of 'Pariquera-Açu', State of São Paulo, Brazil, on an organic soil, of high acidity (pH = 4.9), to determine the influence of four levels of fertilizers (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 and 354-576-558 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O respectively) on the yield [...] of pole snap beans, cultivar Teresópolis. The results showed that the pod yield increased with the increasing levels of fertilizers applied (linear effect). The highest yield of snap bean pods was obtained at the levels of 354-576-588kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, respectively. The results also showed that the average weight of pods remained constant and the number of pods increased linearly with the fertilizer levels.

Issao, Ishimura; Celi Teixeira, Feitosa; Rogério Salles, Lisbão; Francisco Antonio, Passos; João Baptista, Fornasier; Massaharu, Noda.

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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions. PMID:20527916

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2010-07-14

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Response of Rice Line PB-95 to Different NPK Levels  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the effect of applying N, P and K fertilizers at different rates and combinations on growth and yield of rice line PB-95. The fertilizer treatments comprised the T1 (control, T2 (0-75-75, T3 (60-75-75, T4(120-75-75, T5 (180-75-75, T6 (120-0-75, T7 (120-500-75, T8 (120-100-75, T9 (120-75-0, T10 ((120-75-50 and T11 (120-75-100 NPK kg ha-1. The results showed that application of NPK significantly increased the crop yield and maximum paddy and straw yield were obtained from plot fertilized @ 120-100-75 NPK kg ha-1. Harvest Index was highest at control, N physiological efficiency index and N fertilizer efficiency decreased with increasing N levels. Similarly, P physiological efficiency index decreased while P fertilizer efficiency increased with increasing P levels.

K.H. Awan

2003-01-01

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Management of Striga hermonthica on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Using Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Glomus mosae) and NPK Fertilizer Levels  

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Trials were conducted in the screen house of Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa (09°18’N; 05°04’E) in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during October-December, 2008 and January-March, 2009. The objective was to evaluate the effect of management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and NPK fertilizer levels. The trials were laid out in split-split plot arrangement in a randomized compl...

Atayese, M. O.; Lagoke, S. T. O.; Niranjan Kumar,; Isah, K. M.

2013-01-01

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Use of polysulfone in controlled-release NPK fertilizer formulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Encapsulation of fertilizers in polymeric coatings is a method used to reduce fertilizer losses and to minimize environmental pollution. Polysulfone was used for a coating preparation for soluble NPK granular fertilizer in controlled-release fertilizer formulations. The coatings were formed by the phase inversion technique (wet method). The influence of the polymer concentration in the film-forming solution on the physical properties of the coatings was examined. The coating structure controls the diffusion of the elements from the interior of the fertilizer granule. It was experimentally confirmed that the use of polysulfone as a coating for a soluble fertilizer decreases the release rate of components. Moreover, the release rate of nutrients from coated granules decreases with the decrease of the coating porosity. In the case of coating with 38.5% porosity, prepared from 13.5% polymer solution after 5 h of test, 100% of NH(4)(+) was released, whereas only 19.0% of NH(4)(+) was released after 5 h for the coating with 11% porosity. In addition, coating of fertilizers leads to improvement of handling properties, and the crushing strength of all coated fertilizers was an average 40% higher than that for uncoated NPK fertilizer. PMID:12137488

Tomaszewska, Maria; Jarosiewicz, Anna

2002-07-31

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Radiometric determination of K2O in NPK fertilizer suspensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The optimum conditions of K2O determination in NPK fertilizer suspensions were found to consist in casting hot suspension in mould and detecting 40K gamma radiation using a scintillation detector in the cooled suspension. In monitoring 16 kg samples for over 100 seconds the values of the K2O content were determined with an accuracy of +-1.4%. The disadvantage of the process is its intermittent nature. (M.S.)

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Response of Potato Crop to Various Levels of NPK  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different doses of NPK on growth and yield of potato crop. Five different combinations of NPK with control were studied. Results revealed that the fertilizer application increased the potato yield significantly (29-110% over control (21 t ha-1. The highest % of marketable tubers (87.33 and yield (44.1 t ha-1 was obtained when 200:150:75 NPK kg ha-1 was applied.

Nizamuddin

2003-01-01

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Response of Potato Crop to Various Levels of NPK  

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Field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different doses of NPK on growth and yield of potato crop. Five different combinations of NPK with control were studied. Results revealed that the fertilizer application increased the potato yield significantly (29-110%) over control (21 t ha-1). The highest % of marketable tubers (87.33) and yield (44.1 t ha-1) was obtained when 200:150:75 NPK kg ha-1 was applied.

Nizamuddin; Masud Mahmood, M.; Khalid Farooq; Shahid Riaz

2003-01-01

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Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

2012-01-01

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Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK / NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ? [...] Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP), em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação. Abstract in english The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee p [...] lantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

PAULO BOLLER, GALLO; BERNARDO VAN, RAIJ; JOSÉ ANTONIO, QUAGGIO; LUIS CARLOS ESTEVES, PEREIRA.

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NPK Fertilizers for Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Productivity in Alfisols of Southern Districts of Tamil Nadu  

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To optimize the NPK fertilizers requirements with hybrid rice (CORH 2) and graded levels of NPK during (Pishanam) wet season (September 2000 to January 2001), a field experiment was conducted in Alfisols of Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu. The experiment was laid out with 14 treatments of NPK combinations. The results indicated that among the treatments, application of 150:75:50 kg N: P2O5: K2O ha-1 had registered...

Krishnakumar, S.; Nagarajan, R.; Natarajan, S. K.; Jawahar, D.; Pandian, B. J.

2005-01-01

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Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK / Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93) em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP [...] (clima "Cfa"). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³), com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N), fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5) e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O), aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N) e potássio (K) e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P). As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare. Abstract in english Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27 [...] 'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate). A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³) was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per plot and double border rows. Treatments were composed of four rates of nitrogen (0 to 400 kg N ha-1 year-1), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1) and potassium (0 to 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1), applied in stripes and divided in five annual applications. The fertilizers used were: calcium nitrate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride. Plants were cultivated in a 2 × 1 m array, and periodically evaluated in relation to diameter of main stem, number of offshoots and percentage of plants with offshoots. In this sandy and low fertility soil, peach palm growth responses in relation to N and K amendments were linear and positive. Initial responses were observed three months after fertilizer application. No isolated effects of P fertilization, nor significant interactions among fertilizers were observed. Maximum growth responses were reached with 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1.

Marilene Leão Alves, Bovi; Gentil, Godoy Jr.; Sandra Heiden, Spiering.

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NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on he foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred. (M.A.C.)

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Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

 
 
 
 
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Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

2014-10-01

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Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower as Affected by Various NPK Levels  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine N, P and K requirements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grown under Bahawalpur irrigated conditions on medium heavy loam soil. Four levels of N (0,60,120,180 kg NPK ha-1 four levels of P2O5 (0,30,60,90 kg NPK ha-1 and four levels of K2O ( 0,60,120,180 kg NPK ha-1 in combinations were put to test. Data collected on seed yield and yield components were subjected to standard statistical analysis. The crop indicated positive/significant response to N, P and K application. Significant positive correlation was observed between seed yield and head size. Optimum fertilizer requirement computed was 120-90-60 kg NPK ha-1 for sunflower crop under experimental condition.

Nazakat Nawaz

2003-01-01

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Controlled-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by polymeric membranes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The commercial granular fertilizer NPK6-20-30 was coated using polysulfone (PSF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and cellulose acetate (CA). The coatings were formed from the polymer solutions by the phase inversion technique. Measurements of the thickness and porosity of the prepared coatings and a microphotographic observation of the coatings were performed. The physical properties of the coatings influence the release rate of macronutrients which are present in the core of the coated fertilizer. In the case of PAN coating with 60.45% porosity, prepared from a 16% polymer solution, 100% of NH(4)(+) and P(2)O(5) was released after 4 h of test and 99.7% of K(+) after 5 h of test, whereas in the case of coating with 48.8% porosity, 31.8% of NH(4)(+), 16.7% of P(2)O(5), and 11.6% of K(+) was released after 5 h. In all experiments, different selectivities of the coatings in terms of the release of components were observed. The release of potassium through the coatings made of PSF and PAN was the slowest. The same tendency was observed for the release of nitrogen through a coating of CA. The release of fertilizer active components was the slowest in the case of PSF. The lowest porosity coating was prepared from the 18% PSF solution. PMID:12517104

Jarosiewicz, Anna; Tomaszewska, Maria

2003-01-15

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BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinid [...] ol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity) in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1%) and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0%) and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

G.R, Tortella; O, Rubilar; M, Cea; C, Wulff; O, Martínez; M.C, Diez.

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BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION  

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Full Text Available Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1 using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1 were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75% after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1% and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0% and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

G.R Tortella

2010-01-01

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Parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro Split application of NPK fertilizers on pineapple  

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Um experimento foi desenvolvido em Agudos (SP), num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne'. Foram estudados os seguintes esquemas de fracionamento da adubação NPK: T1 (testemunha) -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 120, em nov/95; 250, em jan/96 e 120, em mar/96); T2 -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 120, em nov...

LUIZ ANTONIO JUNQUEIRA TEIXEIRA; ADEMAR SPIRONELLO; PEDRO ROBERTO FURLANI; JOSÉ MARIA MONTEIRO SIGRIST

2002-01-01

27

Effect of Different Npk Levels on the Growth and Yield of Three Onion (Allium cepa L. Varieties  

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Full Text Available Three different Onion varieties i.e. Faisalabad Early, Phulkara and Shah Alam were compared at different NPK levels. Varieties, NPK levels and their interaction significantly affected plant height, leaf length, number of leaves per plant bulb diameter, marketable yield and total yield per hectare. Shah Alam variety at the fertilizer level of 150:100:50 NPK kg ha-1 gave the best results with regard to number of leaves per plant (17.57, bulb survival (93.53%, bulb diameter (7.40 cm, marketable yield (3.25 kg plot-1, culls percentage (5.24% and total yield (13.20 t ha-1, while Phulkara variety gave the best results with regard to plant height (56.17 cm and leaf length (50.27cm under the same fertilizer level. However, the highest benefit cost ratio of 2.55 was obtained by Shah Alam at the fertilizer level of 120:50:50 NPK kg ha-1 as this treatment was not significantly different from that of 150:100:50 NPK kg ha-1. So the highest net return was obtained at 120:50:50 NPK kg ha-1.

Abdul Ghaffoor

2003-01-01

28

Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil  

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he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to A...

Sulakhudin; Abdul Syukur; Bambang Hendro Sunarminto

2011-01-01

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Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increased (P ? 0.05) the dry weight of nematode-infected wheat plants. Fenamiphos and urea resulted in the best control, followed by the NPK fertilizers. The combined application of urea and fenamiphos resulted in the most significant effect in decreasing (P ? 0.05) the number of cysts/root system and increasing (P ? 0.05) the growth of nematode-infected wheat plants. PMID:24600314

Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S; Dawabah, Ahmed A M

2014-04-01

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Inoculação de Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK na composição química e contaminação fungo-fumonisina de milho / Inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization on chemical composition and fungal-fumonisin contamination of maize  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Propôs,neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da inoculação de sementes com Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio) na composição química e contaminação por fungo-fumonisina de grãos de milho. O delineamento experimental foi bloco casualizado em fatorial 2 x 3, corresponden [...] te à inoculação com P. fluorecens (não inoculada ou inoculada) e níveis de adubação NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1, formulados 08-28-16) com 4 repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram composição química (proteína e cinzas), contaminação fúngica (bolores e leveduras) e fumonisinas B1 (FB1) e B2 (FB2). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey e correlação de Pearson, pelo teste-t (p 0,05). A interação entre fatores, com incremento no nível de adubação NPK e uso de P. Fluorescens, resultou em aumento no teor de cinzas e proteína (p Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the effect of inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) on chemical composition and contamination by fungal-fumonisin of maize grains. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in factorial 2 [...] x 3, corresponding to inoculation with P. fluorescens (non-inoculated or inoculated) and levels of NPK fertilization (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1, formulation 8-28-16), with 4 replications. The parameters evaluated were chemical composition (protein and ash), contamination by fungal (mold and yeast) and fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2). The data were subjected to analysis of variance, comparisons of means by Tukey test and Pearson correlation by test-t (p 0.05). The interaction between factors, increase in NPK level and use of P. fluorescens, resulted in increase in protein content and ash (p

Luciana P., Bernd; Thiago M., Souza; Mariana A. de, Oliveira; Elisabete Y. S., Ono; Claudemir, Zucareli; Elisa Y., Hirooka.

1274-12-01

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Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil  

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Full Text Available he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to August 2009. Experimental design used was a factorial in a completely randomized design. The first factor was hucalci concentration, consisted of 10% (H1, 20% (H2, and 30% (H3. The second factor was zeolite concentration, consisted of 25% (Z1, 50% (Z2, 75% (Z3, and 100% (Z4. NPK fertilizer (without coating used as a control. The results showed that hucalci and zeolite had a capability to increase water adsorption and to retard the release of N, P, K. The coated NPK with hucalci 30% and zeolite 100% had the highest quality in water absorption, water retention and release of nutrients.

Sulakhudin

2011-05-01

32

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC MATERIALS AND NPK FERTILIZER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE  

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Full Text Available The interest in organic materials as soil fertility restorer is increasing due to the high cost and unavailability at the right time of inorganic fertilizer and the problem associated with residue disposal by burning which can further aggravate global warming. The effects of different organic materials and NPK fertilizer on the performance of maize were examined in field experiments carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma in a forest savanna transition zone of Edo State, Nigeria. The investigations were carried out during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons and involved the use of organic materials (wood shavings, rice hulls, kola husks and their combinations and NPK fertilizer. The layout of the experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results indicated that most of the organic materials, especially kola husk and mixtures with kola husk and NPK increased yield and its components. The treatments significantly increased the concentrations of N, P, K and Na in ear leaves and grains.

Samson Uduzei Remison

2014-06-01

33

Effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on total antioxidant capacity of soil and amaranth leaves (Amaranthus cruentus L.  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was set up in 2007 in a split-plot design to investigate the effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of fresh leaf tissue of the Polish amaranth varieties Rawa and Aztek, cultivated for seed, and of the soil they were cultivated on. The experiment was conducted with three replicates. The following combinations of macroelement doses were applied: I: N – 50 , P – 40, K – 40 kg ha-1; II: N – 90, P – 60, K – 60 kg ha-1; and III: N – 130, P – 70, K – 70 kg ha-1. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC of the soil and amaranth leaves was determined using the method described by Rice-Evans and Miller, as modified by Bartosz. Organic carbon content was determined as well. In most of the cases the fertilization (NPK caused an increase in total antioxidant capacity of the soil under amaranth cultivation. The highest total antioxidant capacity in the soil examined (compared with the control was found with combination III of NPK fertilizers for soil under Rawa cultivation, and with combination I for the Aztek soil. The total antioxidant capacity of amaranth per unit fresh leaf mass was dependent on the variety and on the doses of the macroelements applied. The highest total antioxidant capacity in Rawa per unit fresh leaf mass was observed with combination III, while for the Aztek variety the highest TAC was found with combination I. Statistical analysis showed significant dependencies between TAC of the soils and leaves and the level of fertilization, as well as between the TAC of the soil and of amaranth leaves.

2009-03-01

34

NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol / Adubação NPK no crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em Neossolo Quartzarênico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A adubação balanceada é importante para o crescimento das plantas. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) é uma espécie sobre a qual as informações são escassas, sendo muito recentes ensaios com adubação. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em respost [...] a às doses de NPK em casa de vegetação em um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, bem como estimar os níveis críticos de P e K no solo e de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea até 120 dias de avaliação. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema de fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4)½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições, totalizando 96 parcelas experimentais, sendo as doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 300 mg dm-3) na forma de ureia; as de P (0, 45, 90 e 180 mg dm-3), na forma de superfosfato triplo; e as de K (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg dm-3), na forma de cloreto de potássio. Após 120 dias, as plantas foram colhidas e as seguintes variáveis avaliadas: altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, teor de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e atributos químicos do solo. As mudas de pinhão-manso responderam à adubação NPK na fase de inicial de crescimento; a resposta para o N foi negativa, sem a necessidade de aplicação desse nutriente. A dose recomendada foi de 55 mg dm-3 de P e 67 mg dm-3 de K. Os níveis críticos, correspondentes às doses recomendadas, foram de 13 mg dm-3 para P e 74 mg dm-3 para K no solo (Mehlich-1). Os teores de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de pinhão-manso foram de 37,4, 2,1 e 35,3 g kg-1, respectivamente. Abstract in english Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a [...] greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x 4 x 4)½, totalizing 32 treatments with three replicates, 96 experimental plots and N rates (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg dm-3) as urea; P rates (0, 45, 90 and 180 mg dm-3) as triple superphosphate and K rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3) as potassium chloride. After 120 days, the plants were harvested and some variables evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, macro and micronutrient levels in plant shoots, and soil chemical properties. The physic nut seedlings responded to NPK fertilizer in the initial growth phase; the response to N was negative. The recommended P and K rates were 25 and 67 mg dm-3, respectively. The critical levels, corresponding to the recommended P rate were 13 and 74 mg dm-3 for K in soil (Mehlich-1). The N, P and K levels in the shoot dry matter of physic nut were 37.4, 2.1 and 35.7 g kg-1, respectively.

Patrícia Teixeira de, Souza; Enilson de Barros, Silva; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Luiz Arnaldo, Fernandes.

2011-04-01

35

NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol Adubação NPK no crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em Neossolo Quartzarênico  

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Full Text Available Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x 4 x 4½, totalizing 32 treatments with three replicates, 96 experimental plots and N rates (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg dm-3 as urea; P rates (0, 45, 90 and 180 mg dm-3 as triple superphosphate and K rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3 as potassium chloride. After 120 days, the plants were harvested and some variables evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, macro and micronutrient levels in plant shoots, and soil chemical properties. The physic nut seedlings responded to NPK fertilizer in the initial growth phase; the response to N was negative. The recommended P and K rates were 25 and 67 mg dm-3, respectively. The critical levels, corresponding to the recommended P rate were 13 and 74 mg dm-3 for K in soil (Mehlich-1. The N, P and K levels in the shoot dry matter of physic nut were 37.4, 2.1 and 35.7 g kg-1, respectively.A adubação balanceada é importante para o crescimento das plantas. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L. é uma espécie sobre a qual as informações são escassas, sendo muito recentes ensaios com adubação. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em resposta às doses de NPK em casa de vegetação em um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, bem como estimar os níveis críticos de P e K no solo e de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea até 120 dias de avaliação. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema de fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições, totalizando 96 parcelas experimentais, sendo as doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 300 mg dm-3 na forma de ureia; as de P (0, 45, 90 e 180 mg dm-3, na forma de superfosfato triplo; e as de K (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg dm-3, na forma de cloreto de potássio. Após 120 dias, as plantas foram colhidas e as seguintes variáveis avaliadas: altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, teor de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e atributos químicos do solo. As mudas de pinhão-manso responderam à adubação NPK na fase de inicial de crescimento; a resposta para o N foi negativa, sem a necessidade de aplicação desse nutriente. A dose recomendada foi de 55 mg dm-3 de P e 67 mg dm-3 de K. Os níveis críticos, correspondentes às doses recomendadas, foram de 13 mg dm-3 para P e 74 mg dm-3 para K no solo (Mehlich-1. Os teores de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de pinhão-manso foram de 37,4, 2,1 e 35,3 g kg-1, respectivamente.

Patrícia Teixeira de Souza

2011-04-01

36

Growth and Yield Responses of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Genotypes to Nitrogen Fertilizer (NPK Application in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The effects of compound fertilizer (NPK application on growth and yields of cowpea genotypes were investigated in a field study at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin in the Southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. The study was designed as a series of factorial experiments in split-plot arrangements with four replications and were carried out in the late cropping seasons (August to December of 2002 to 2004. Ten cowpea genotypes were evaluated at fertilizer levels ranging from 0 to 300 kg fertilizer (NPK ha-1 (equivalent to 0-0-0 to 60-30-30 kg N-P-K ha-1. Results show that fertilizer application resulted in significant improvement in plant height, number of leaves per plant and reduced days to flowering, but no significant effect on total number of flowers produced. Application of fertilizer resulted in significant decreases in nodule production. Yield components and grain yield were significantly enhanced by the application of fertilizer at 150 kg ha-1 (i.e., 30 kg N, 15 P2O5 and 15 K2O ha-1, but significant fertilizerxgenotype effect indicated differential genotype responses to fertilizer application which may have significant practical implications for field production. It was therefore concluded that the application of fertilizer to cowpea is beneficial although in small quantity and genotype dependent.

Y.A. Abayomi

2008-01-01

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Comparison of Different Methods of Fertilizer (NPK Application  

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Full Text Available To compare the different methods of fertilizer application viz. broadcast, banding and placement, two research trials were conducted the results indicated that in the autumn, 1998 trial, highest yield (18.56 t ha?1 was recorded in T3 (placement followed by 15.94 t ha-1 in T2 (banding and lowest (12.22 t ha?1 in T1 (broadcast. It was noted that 52% yield was increased with placement and 30% with banding over broadcast method of fertilizer application. Similarly in autumn 1999, maximum yield (15.67 t ha?1 was recorded in T3 (placement followed by 13.9 t ha?1 in T2 (banding and minimum (11.56 t ha?1 in T1 (broadcast. Using banding and placement method of fertilizer application, 20.24 and 35.55% increase in potato yield was recorded over broadcasting of fertilizer, respectively. A significant difference was found in the three methods of fertilizer application.

Muhammad Masud Mahmood

2002-01-01

38

Effect of NPK fertilizer on yield of tea  

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An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various dosage of fertilizer on yield of mature tea and to determine the nutrient concentrations in tea soils and leaves under different dosage. The standard clone TV-1 was taken into consideration in three different agro-climatic zones of Assam. Total eight treatments were imposed in the trial along with normal fertilizer dose. Although T6 (50% excess of normal dose ie. 195 kg Nitrogen, 60 kg phosphate and 195 kg Potassium per hectare per ye...

Chowdhury, P.; Mukerjee, S.; Buragohain, D.; Borah, K.; Sadhu, M. K.

2005-01-01

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Effect of different levels of foliar fertilization with NPK micronutrients more in the productivity of winter maize in Dourados Region, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Efeito de diferentes níveis de adubação foliar com NPK mais micronutrientes na produtividade do milho safrinha na Região de Dourados/MS  

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Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of foliar fertilization on the agronomic characteristics of corn plants, irrigated by a system of irrigation by sprinkler. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, from 23 September 2008 to February 20, 2009 using a multinutrient liquid fertilizer NPK plus micronutrients. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine doses of liquid fertilizer (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2.0 L ha –1 and four replications. The corn plants were evaluated during the experiment between growth stages R3 to R6 characterized by the state of the dough and physiological maturity, respectively. The variables studied were plant height, height of ear insertion, number of grains per ear and yield. The foliar provided to increase the height of corn plants, reducing the height of insertion of the ears, increasing the number of grains per ear and yield. The estimated dose of 1.15 L ha-1 provided the best results on the variables analyzed.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar nas características agronômicas de plantas de milho, irrigado por um sistema de irrigação por aspersão convencional. O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD, no período de 23 setembro de 2008 a 20 fevereiro de 2009 utilizando-se um fertilizante líquido multinutriente NPK + micronutrientes. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados, com nove doses do fertilizante líquido (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,5; 1,75 e 2,0 L ha-1 e quatro repetições. As plantas de milho foram avaliadas no decorrer do experimento entre os estádios fenológicos R3 à R6 caracterizados pelo estado de grão farináceo e maturação fisiológica respectivamente. As variáveis analisadas foram altura de plantas, altura de inserção das espigas, número de grãos por espiga e produtividade. A adubação foliar proporcionou aumento da altura das plantas de milho, redução da altura de inserção das espigas, aumento do número de grãos por espiga e da produtividade. A dose estimada de 1,15 L ha-1 proporcionou os melhores resultados sobre as variáveis analisadas.

Guilhereme Augusto Biscaro

2013-10-01

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Acúmulo de NPK e sódio na mamoneira sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada / Accumulation of NPK and sodium in castor bean under saline stress and nitrogen fertilization  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com água de diferentes salinidades e doses de nitrogênio, sobre a acumulação de NPK e sódio na parte aérea da mamoneira, em experimento conduzido em lisímetros. Utilizou-se aleatorização em bloco em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com três rep [...] etições, estudando-se os cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água (CEa), variando de 0,4 a 4,4 dS m-1, associados a cinco doses de nitrogênio (50 a 150% da recomendada). Os teores de NPK e de sódio na cv. BRS Energia foram maiores nas folhas que no caule e entre as épocas de avaliação, aos 120 dias após a semeadura (DAS) em relação aos 46 DAS. Nas folhas os teores acumulados aos 46 DAS, variou na sequência K > Na > N > P e aos 120 DAS K > N > Na > P; enquanto no caule variaram em ambas as épocas, a ordem foi Na > K > P ? N e em função da CEa e K> Na> P ? N em função das doses de N aos 46 DAS níveis crescentes de CEa promoveram aumento no teor de Nfolha e Kfolha assim como o incremento da adubação com N inibiu o teor de Na folha; aos 120 DAS o maior teor de Nfolha foi obtido com a CEa de 4,4 dS m-1 e a dose de N de 150%, já o teor de Kfolha e Kcaule foi obtido na dose de 150% de N enquanto o teor de P não foi influenciado por nenhum fator estudado. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water of different salinities and doses of nitrogen fertilization on accumulation of NPK and sodium in the aerial parts of the castor bean, the experiment was conducted in lysimeters. A randomized block design in 5 x 5 factorial ar [...] rangement with three replications was used, and the effects of electrical conductivity of water (ECw) varying from 0.4 to 4.4 dS m-1 associated with nitrogen dose (50 to 150% of recommended dose) were studied. The NPK and sodium contents in the aerial parts of to plant in the leaves in comparison to stems and evaluation times 120 days after sowing (DAS) > 46 DAS. In leaves the content at 46 DAS varied according to following sequence K > Na > N > P and at 120 DAS K > N > Na > P while in the stem in both study periods it accumulated in the order Na > K > P ? N under water salinity and K > Na > P ? N depending on nitrogen fertilization. At 46 DAS, the increasing levels of ECw caused an increase in the Nleaf and Kleaf and nitrogen dose inhibited Na leaf content. At 120 DAS the highest content of Nleaf was obtained in treatment ECw 4.4 dS m-1 and in dose of 150% N while the contents of Kleaf and Kstem were obtained in the dose of 150% N. The P content was not affected by any of the studied factors.

Reginaldo G., Nobre; Lauriane A. dos A., Soares; Hans R., Gheyi; Geovani S. de, Lima; Givanildo da S., Lourenço; Saulo da S., Soares.

1066-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae / Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria di [...] azotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas as características de crescimento e nutricionais das plantas. O crescimento do milho foi influenciado pela adubação, mas foi reforçado pela combinação com a bactéria, que resultou em aumentos significativos na matéria seca da parte aérea (7 %) e área foliar (9 %), quando comparado com as das plantas não inoculadas. Os resultados indicaram incrementos no acúmulo de N (11 %), P (30 %) e K (17 %), em plantas de milho, em resposta à inoculação bacteriana em conjunto com NPK, quando comparado com os das plantas que apenas receberam adubação. A estabilidade e maior consistência da resposta da planta hospedeira para bacterização, na presença de fertilização química, apontam para uma ferramenta biotecnológica promissora para melhorar o crescimento inicial e adaptação de plantas de milho ao ambiente de cultivo. Abstract in english The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophi [...] c bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7%) and leaf area (9%) when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%), P (30%) and K (17%) of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.

Marihus Altoé, Baldotto; Lílian Estrela Borges, Baldotto; Rogério Batista, Santana; Cláudio Roberto, Marciano.

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Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae / Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria di [...] azotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas as características de crescimento e nutricionais das plantas. O crescimento do milho foi influenciado pela adubação, mas foi reforçado pela combinação com a bactéria, que resultou em aumentos significativos na matéria seca da parte aérea (7 %) e área foliar (9 %), quando comparado com as das plantas não inoculadas. Os resultados indicaram incrementos no acúmulo de N (11 %), P (30 %) e K (17 %), em plantas de milho, em resposta à inoculação bacteriana em conjunto com NPK, quando comparado com os das plantas que apenas receberam adubação. A estabilidade e maior consistência da resposta da planta hospedeira para bacterização, na presença de fertilização química, apontam para uma ferramenta biotecnológica promissora para melhorar o crescimento inicial e adaptação de plantas de milho ao ambiente de cultivo. Abstract in english The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophi [...] c bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7%) and leaf area (9%) when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%), P (30%) and K (17%) of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.

Marihus Altoé, Baldotto; Lílian Estrela Borges, Baldotto; Rogério Batista, Santana; Cláudio Roberto, Marciano.

2012-12-01

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Impact of commercial garden growth substratum and NPK-fertilizer on copper fractionation in a copper-mine tailing  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic amendment and NPK-fertilizer could affect the distribution of copper (Cu) among Cu-mine tailing compounds and hence the availability or phytotoxicity of Cu to plants. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the forms of Cu in a Cu-mine tailing (pH 7.70) amended with a commercial garden growth substratum (GGS) containing peat moss and natural mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) in combination with a commercial NPK-fertilizer (20-20-20), by a sequential extraction method. There were eight treatments after the combination of four rates of GGS (0, 12.4, 50 and 100 g/kg tailing) and two rates of fertilizer (0 and 20 g/kg tailing). At the end of a 52-week incubation period, tailing Cu was sequentially extracted to fractionate Cu into five operationally defined geochemical forms, namely ‘water-soluble' (Cu-sol), ‘exchangeable' (Cu-exc), ‘specifically adsorbed on carbonates or carbonate-bound' (Cu-car), ‘organic-bound' (Cu-org) and ‘residual' (Cu-res) fractions. After treatments, the most labile Cu pool (Cu-sol + Cu-exc) represented about 0.94 % of the total Cu, the Cu-car and Cu-org accounted for 22.7 and 5.0% of total Cu, and the residual Cu accounted for nearly 71.3% of total Cu. Compared with the control, the application of GGS decreased Cu-car and increased CuORG whereas the addition of fertilizer increased Cu-sol + Cu-exc and decreased Cu-carb. Fertilizer-treated tailings had the highest amount of Cu-sol + Cu-exc. High rates of GGS resulted in Cu-org levels in GGS-treated tailings which were more than 2.0-2.8 times those obtained in the untreated tailing (control). The partition of Cu in GGS-treated tailings followed the order: Cu-sol + Cu-exc < Cu-car < Cu-org < Cu-res. This study suggests that NPK-fertilizer promotes the formation of labile Cu forms in the calcite-containing Cu-mine tailing. GGS in the tailing matrix acts as effective sorbent for Cu.

Charles, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

2009-04-01

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Influence of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L. in a volcanic soil of Musanze District in the Northern Province of Rwanda. This was geared upon by many unattended biotic and agronomic factors pertaining to low yields of carrot crop in this area. The treatments were: the control (T0, 10 t ha-1 of chicken manure (T1, 300 kg ha-1 of NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer (T2, and 5 t ha-1 chicken manure + 150 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer (T3 and each treatment was in three repetitions. The soil was tested for some of its physical and chemical properties and the soil reaction was moderately acid (pH 5.97 and the quantities of N, P, K were moderate. The growth and yield parameters were studied along with the effect of treatments and the economic contribution of the intervention was determined by Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BGR approach. Results revealed that the significantly (p < 0.05 highest plant height (45.59 cm and leaf length (45.29 cm were obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer and the lowest were 34.12 and 34.69 cm, respectively, in the absolute control. The sole application of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer recorded plant heights of 43.70 and 39.89 cm and leaf lengths of 43.46 and 39.61 cm, respectively. Results also indicated that marketable root yield was statistically similar between control (5.6 t ha-1 and chicken manure alone (5.7 t ha-1 and between NPK fertilizer alone (8.55 t ha-1 and combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (10.55 t ha-1. The best BCR was obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (2.09 compared with the absolute control (1.12, chicken manure alone (1.75 and NPK fertilizer alone (1.62.

Sylvestre Habimana

2014-10-01

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ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis) / NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis) clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experime [...] nto foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/4)43, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1), 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1) e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1). A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/4)43 fractional factorial of randomiz [...] ed block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1), 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1) and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1). The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

Marcos Roberto, Murbach; Antonio Enedi, Boaretto; Takashi, Muraoka; Ronaldo Ivan, Silveira; Rodrigo Marcel, Boaretto.

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ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES  

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Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

Marcos Roberto Murbach

1999-01-01

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Influence of mineral fertilization (NPK) on the quality of apricot fruit (cv. Canino). The effect of the mode of nitrogen supply  

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Abstract - The effects of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers were evaluated on biochemical markers involved in the quality of apricots (sugars, organic acids and free acidity) and technological qualities (phenolic compounds: substrates of the enzymatic browning reaction). Apricot fruits (cv. Canino) were picked in the Marrakech area (Morocco). An experimental design was carried out with four factors: N, P and K, each one at two levels, and two modes of N ...

Radi, Mohamed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Jaouad, Abderrahime; Amiot, Marie

2003-01-01

48

Evaluation of Bread Wheat on Different Fertilizer Levels  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at Student`s Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam during Rabi 2000-2001. Seven treatments viz.T1(00-00-00 control,T2 (100-50-50 NPK,T3 (120-60-50 NPK,T4 (140-70-50 NPK, T5 (160-80-50 NPK, T6 (180-90-50 NPK and T7 (200-100-50 NPK were tested to assess the effect of fertilizer levels on the yield and yield contributing characters of wheat variety T.J.-83. The fertilizer levels of NPK (T6 recorded significantly maximum weight of 1000 grains (43.19 g, biological yield (10833.3 Kg ha-1 and grain yield (3930 Kg ha-1. Results suggested that the combinations of 160-80-50 and 180-90-50 NPK Kg ha-1 produced satisfactory grain yield of wheat and could be recommended as farmers guideline.

M.I. Rajput

2004-01-01

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Influence of Npk Inorganic Fertilizer Treatment on the Proximate Composition of the Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth  

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Full Text Available The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h-1 treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p<0.05 increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p<0.05 decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant’s leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

G.G.E. Osuagwu

2013-01-01

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Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p < 0.05) decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures. PMID:24494518

Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

2013-04-15

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INFLUENCE OF COMPOST, MICROORGANISMS AND NPK FERTILIZER UPON GROWTH, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L.  

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Full Text Available The performance of compost and microorganisms was compared with standard, commercial rates of NPK fertilizers with respect to the growth, chemical composition and essential oil production of Rosmarinus officinalis L. In two successive seasons, plants treated by a mixture of compost and microorganisms showed a significant increase in vegetative growth, total N, P and carbohydrate content and essential oil production. The findings clearly indicate that compost and microorganisms could replace conventional NPK fertilizers in the cultivation of rosemary, and consequently minimize environmental pollution by these compounds.

Robert POKLUDA

2007-08-01

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Effects of soil moisture contents and rates of NPK fertilizer application on growth and fruit yields of pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes  

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Pot experiments were conducted during the dry periods of 2007 and 2008 in a crop pavilion at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. The experiments evaluated the comparative responses of three pepper genotypes (‘Tatashe’ (Capsicum annum, L); ‘Rodo’ and ‘Shombo’ (C. frutescens, L.) to three soil moisture levels (25, 50 and 100% available moisture) and four rates of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg/ha.) application. The experiments were designed as factorial in RCB and la...

Abayomi et al.

2012-01-01

53

Effect of N and NPK fertilizers on early field performance of narrow-leaved ash, Fraxinus angustifolia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of fertilization in the first growing season on early survival and growth of narrow-leaved ash (NLA) (Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. oxycarpa) was evaluated throughout the first 3 years of growth in Adapazari, Turkey. A randomized complete block design with four replications was established to investigate fertilization effects. Granular N urea [46%, (NH2)2CO, NH2-N] and NPK (15/15/15%; NH3-N, P2O5, K2O) fertilizers were applied in mid-May of the first growing season. Fertilization treatments per tree were control, 67 g NPK (equal to 10/10/10 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 133 g NPK (20/20/20 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 33 g urea N (15 g N tree(-1)) and 54 g urea N (25 g N tree(-1)). After three growing seasons under these fertilizer treatments, 98% of trees were still viable. Compared to the control treatment, fertilization had a large and positive effect on diameter and height growth during the first 3 years of growth. However, since there were no significant differences among the fertilized plots in terms of tree diameter and height growth, addition of P and K to the fertilizer regime was not beneficial. The results show that N fertilization in the first growing season has the potential to improve early field growth of narrow-leaved ash. PMID:20648820

Cicek, Emrah; Yilmaz, Faruk; Yilmaz, Murat

2010-01-01

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Efficiency of a NPK fertilizer with adhered zinc lignosulfonate as a zinc source for maize (Zea mays L.).  

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The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a NPK fertilizer (8:15:15) with a Zn lignosulfonate (ZnLS) adhered as Zn source for maize plants. This product was compared in three experimental designs with the same NPK fertilizer with ZnSO(4) adhered and with no Zn adhered. The first and the second assays were carried out in a growth chamber by using perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate and the third experiment was raised in two calcareous fields. In general, growth chamber experiments showed that plants treated with NPK + ZnLS presented the highest dry weight and Zn concentrations in shoots. Also at field experiments, the Zn concentration in shoots was significantly high in plants treated with NPK + ZnLS. The grain harvested showed that this treatment gave the highest values in one location, but in the other no significant differences were observed. Although further research is required, we can conclude that NPK + ZnLS product could be a suitable source of Zn for maize crops. PMID:19761209

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2009-10-14

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Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications  

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Full Text Available Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1, respectively. Sucrose contents and commercial cane sugar were not affected significantly by fertilizer application. However, variety SPSG-26 gave significantly higher sucrose contents (18.82 % and commercial cane sugar (12.89 % than SPSG-394 and BL-4. The fertilizer application @ 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 was found to be optimum level for achieving maximum cane yield.

M. Ayub

1999-01-01

56

Phosphate solubilizers enhance NPK fertilizer use efficiency in rice and legume cultivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported that phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are the most promising bacteria among the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); which may be used as biofertilizers for plant growth and nutrient use efficiency. Moreover, these soil micro-organisms play a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and other nutrients. Through this study, the management of nutrient use efficiency by the application of PSB was targeted in order to make the applied nutrients more available to the plants in the rice (Oryza sativa) and yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation. Results have shown that the treatments with PSB alone or in the form of consortia of compatible strains with or without the external application of chemical NPK gave more germination index (G. I.) from 2.5 to 5 in rice and 2.7 to 4.8 in bean seeds. They also showed a higher growth in both shoot and root length and a higher biomass as compared to the control. This gives us an idea about the potentiality of these PSB strains and their application in rice and yardlong bean cultivation to get a better harvest index. Their use will also possibly reduce the nutrient runoff or leaching and increase in the use efficiency of the applied fertilizers. Thus, we can conclude that the NPK uptake and management can be improved by the use of PSB in rice and yardlong bean cultivation, and their application may be much more beneficial in the agricultural field. PMID:22558541

Duarah, I; Deka, M; Saikia, N; Deka Boruah, H P

2011-12-01

57

Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol and Lagos state university LASU Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1 control (no fertilizer, (2 pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB 100%, (3 PGB + NPK (75:25, (4 PGB + NPK (50:50, (5 Kola Pod Husk (KPH 100%, (6 KPH + NPK(75:25, (7 KPH + NPK(50:50 and (8 NPK(100% were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were assessed in the second and third planting periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in four replications. Data were analyzed using ANOVA Test. Due to the high N status of the soil in Ikorodu (sandy clay loam its uptake was significantly (p<0.05 higher (87.1% than that of LASU. The KPH and PGB had the highest potential in A. cruentus production. At Ikorodu site, KPH + NPK (75:25 had the nutrient uptake while at LASU, PGB + NPK (75:25 was optimum. KPH + NPK (75:25 gave highest N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake in A. cruentus

E.A. MAKINDE

2011-07-01

58

Efeito da adubação NPK sobre o período de imaturidade da seringueira / Effect of NPK fertilization on the immature phase of rubber tree  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] à adubação NPK visando recomendá-la no período de formação dos seringais. Relata os resultados do experimento em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico no município de M [...] atão (SP). O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O. Até 104 meses de idade das plantas, avaliaram-se o perímetro do caule 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal, efetuando-se análises de solo e folhas em diversas épocas. Observou-se, a partir de 24 meses de idade, pouco mais de um ano depois do início das aplicações efeito linear da adubação potássica sobre o perímetro do caule e, a partir de de 48 meses, com freqüência, a interação NK linear. Usando como indicador de desenvolvimento a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para K e, em algumas poucas épocas, também paraN. O período de imaturidade, apesar de afetado significativamente apenas pela adubação potássica, mostrou-se dependente do equilíbrio dos nutrientes. Adubações desequilibradas podem retardar até em 15 meses o tempo de imaturidade, comparando-se os melhores e os piores tratamentos. Na ausência de adubação potássica, verificou-se um efeito antagônico dos nutrientes N e P. Adubações potássicas foram essenciais para garantir a antecipação do início da fase produtiva. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] to NPK fertilization in order, to improve fertilizer recommendation during the immature phase of this crop. It reports the results obtained from an experiment conducted on [...] a podzolic soil at Matão, State of São Paulo, Brazil. It was a randomized block design in a fractionated factorial experiment 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) using 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 of N, P2O5 e K2O. Fertilizers were applied every year starting eight months after planting. During the experimental period evaluations of trunk girth 1.20 m above the budgrafting union was measured at each four months. The percentage of plants able for tapping and the period of immaturity were calculated from girth measurements. Soil and plant analysis were performed at several ages. Plant responses to potassium fertilizations were observed starting at 24 months of plant age. Linear NK interaction was frequently observed after 48 months of plant age. Considering the percentage of plants able for tapping, responses were linearly and statistically significant for K fertilization, while N responses were observed in some ocasions. The immaturity period of the crop was significantly affected only by K fertilizers. Besides of this observation, the analysis of the response surface showed that the immaturity period was very dependent on equilibrated relations among nutrients. Unbalanced relations of NPK can delay up to 15 months the beginning of tapping, considering differences between the best and worst treatments. In the absence of K fertilization there was an antagonistic effect of N and P. Potassium fertilization was essential to reduce the immaturity period.

ONDINO CLEANTE, BATAGLIA; WAGNER RODRIGUES DOS, SANTOS; PAULO DE SOUZA, GONÇALVES; IVO, SEGNINI JUNIOR; MÁRIO, CARDOSO.

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The effects of NPK fertilization for nine years on boreal forest vegetation in northwestern Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant productivity is limited by mineral nutrient availability in many boreal forest ecosystems. This study is an analysis of the growth responses of components of a boreal plant community, cryptogams, herbaceous and woody perennials, the dominant shrubs Salix glauca (grey willow) and Betula glandulosa (bog birch) and the dominant tree Picea glauca (white spruce), to the addition of an NPK fertilizer over a nine-year period. The study was carried out in a low-nutrient boreal forest ecosystem in the Yukon territory in northwestern Canada. The following predictions were tested: (1) that there would be an overall increase in abundance (measured either as cover, density, or dry mass) of all components of the vegetation, (2) that vegetation composition would change as more competitive species increased in abundance, and (3) that initial community changes in response to fertilization would be transient. In general, all predictions were found to be true. Species composition changed rapidly in response to fertilizer. Graminoids (e.g. Festuca altaica) and some dicots (e.g. Mertensia paniculata and Achillea millefolium) increased in cover, while other dicots (e.g. Anemone parviflora), dwarf shrubs (e.g. Arctostaphylos uvaursi), bryophytes and lichens declined. There was a significant increase in the growth rate of the two dominant shrubs and of Picea, but not in the cone crop or seed production by Picea. Surveys after 1 or 2 years showed responses by the vegetation but more stable patterns of response did not emerge until after 5 or 6 years. There were consistent and directional changes in the percent cover of some of the herbaceous species on control plots. Growth rates of Salix and Betula varied considerably from year to year, independently of treatment. Long-term studies are essential if we are to understand the role of nutrient limitation in this ecosystem 49 refs, 9 figs, 7 tabs

Turkington, R.; John, Elizabeth [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Botany; Krebs, C.J.; Sinclair, A.R.E.; Smith, J.N.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Dale, M.R.T.; Boutin, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Nams, V.O. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Boonstra, R. [Toronto Univ., Scarborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Life Sciences; Martin, K. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences

1998-06-01

60

Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK = Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF, colmos (MSC e total (MST, teor de proteína bruta (PB, N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic RedYellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães Teles

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK / Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distri [...] buídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF), colmos (MSC) e total (MST), teor de proteína bruta (PB), N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan [...] Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic Red Yellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY) evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP) and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães, Teles; Maria Socorro de Souza, Carneiro; Ismail, Soares; Elzania Sales, Pereira; Pedro Zione de, Souza; João Avelar, Magalhães.

62

Slow-released NPK fertilizer encapsulated by NaAlg-g-poly(AA-co-AAm)/MMT superabsorbent nanocomposite.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel slow released NPK fertilizer encapsulated by superabsorbent nanocomposite was prepared via in-situ free radical polymerization of sodium alginate, acrylic acid, acrylamide, and montmorillonite in the presence of fertilizer compounds. Evidence of grafting and component interactions, superabsorbent nanocomposite structure and morphology was obtained by a FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. The water absorbency behavior of superabsorbent nanocomposite was investigated. After those characterizations, the potential application was verified through the study of fertilizer release from prepared formulations. Results indicated that the presence of the montmorillonite caused the system to liberate the nutrient in a more controlled manner than that with the neat superabsorbent. The good slow release fertilizer property as well as good water retention capacity showed that this formulation is potentially viable for application in agriculture as a fertilizer carrier vehicle. PMID:25263891

Rashidzadeh, Azam; Olad, Ali

2014-12-19

63

Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK / Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente [...] em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth), cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa"), durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N), fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 ) e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O), em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação). As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993), quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m) tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE), com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente). A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra) foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente), enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha). Doses crescentes de potássio (K) apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97) na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente). Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK), exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N. Abstract in english The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in per [...] ennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was studied under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5) and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O) doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993), when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing) were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE), with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively). The interaction GE x PO (sample position) was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively), while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³

Marilene L. A., Bovi; Sandra H., Spiering; Antonia Marlene M., Barbosa.

64

Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK / Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente [...] em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth), cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa"), durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N), fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 ) e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O), em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação). As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993), quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m) tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE), com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente). A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra) foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente), enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha). Doses crescentes de potássio (K) apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97) na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente). Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK), exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N. Abstract in english The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in per [...] ennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was studied under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5) and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O) doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993), when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing) were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE), with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively). The interaction GE x PO (sample position) was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively), while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³

Marilene L. A., Bovi; Sandra H., Spiering; Antonia Marlene M., Barbosa.

1999-11-01

65

Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

66

Effects of Rates and Split Application of Compound NPK Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Three Amaranthus Species in Nigeria Guinea Savanna  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field trials were conducted at two sites in Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru-Zaria, Nigeria, to determine the effect of five rates (0, 125, 2501, 2502 and 500 kg ha-1 of compound fertilizer (NPK 27:13:13 on the growth (root and shoot dry weight and grain yield of three Amaranthus species. The Amaranthus species include: A. hybridus, A. spinosus and A. hybridus var. cruentus. The plants were sampled weekly between 4 and 7 Weeks After Planting (WAP and the second dose of the fertilizer (for 125 and 2502 kg ha-1 was applied at 5 WAP. The best growth in the Amaranthus species resulted from 500 kg ha-1 NPK treatment at 4 and 5 WAP and from 2502 kg ha-1 NPK treatment at 6 and 7 WAP. The 2501 kg ha-1 NPK application also produced slightly higher values in growth parameters than 125 kg ha-1 at 4 and 5 WAP, but this situation was reversed at 6 and 7 WAP. The overall data showed that, 2502 kg ha-1 NPK treatment produced higher shoot growth and grain yield than the other treatments. Amaranthus hybridus had the highest shoot growth and total dry weight ha-1 than the other species. Amaranthus hybridus var. cruentus also produced the highest total grain weight per hectare than the other species. This study showed that, the split in contrast to sole application of NPK fertilizer rates can be of greater economic benefit in Amaranthus production.

S.O. Alonge

2007-01-01

67

Manejo da cultura do híbrido de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN : 01 para melhoria na qualidade do fruto com menor aplicação de adubação NPK / Management of the papaya crop of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN : 01 of 'Formosa' group for fruit quality improvement and less NPK fertilizer application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de alguns aspectos do manejo da cultura do mamoeiro como espaçamento e nível de adubação NPK, sobre alguns atributos de qualidade dos frutos do híbrido do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agr [...] ícola S.A., em Linhares-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,70 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão da empresa (PE); A2 = 100% PE; A3 = 120% PE; A4 = 140% PE, e A5 = 160% PE), e três períodos de avaliação (junho, agosto e outubro de 2007). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa (PE) consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P2O5) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K2O), respectivamente. Foram analisados a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a concentração de sólidos solúveis (SS), o pH, a acidez titulável (AT) e a razão SS/AT da polpa. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de médias. Os resultados mostram que, entre as condições de espaçamento e níveis de adubação NPK testados, o melhor desempenho foi obtido pelas combinações E1A1 ou E2A1, os quais devem ser adotadas para o manejo do híbrido UC01. Os tratamentos resultaram em frutos com atributos de qualidade superiores, além de proporcionar redução nos gastos com adubação NPK e menor impacto ambiental em função da aplicação excessiva de adubo no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of some aspects of the management of the crop as spacing and level of NPK fertilizer application on some quality attributes of fruits of the papaya hybrid of 'Formosa' group UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). The experiment was conducted in the farm Caliman [...] Agrícola S.A., in Linhares -E. S. We used the randomized complete block design, with factorial arrangement, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m; E3 = 2,70 m), five levels of conventional NPK (A1 = 80% of the company's standard; A2 = 100% of the standard; A3 = 120% of the standard; A4 = 140% of the standard; and A5 = 160% of the standard) and three evaluation periods (June, August and October 2007). The standard NPK fertilizer company consists of 350, 105 and 660 kg/ha/year of ammonium sulphate (20% of N), superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. We evaluated the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the concentration of soluble solids (SS), pH, acidity (TA) and the ratio SS /TA of the pulp. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and mean test. The results show that among the conditions of spacing and NPK fertilizer levels tested, the best performance was obtained by combinations E1A1 or E2A1, which should be adopted to manage the hybrid UC01. These treatments resulted in fruits with superior quality attributes, in addition to these management practices provide a reduction in spending on NPK fertilizer and a smaller environmental impact according to excessive application of fertilizer in the soil.

Renata Venturim, Fontes; Alexandre Pio, Viana; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Jurandi Gonçalves de, Oliveira; Henrique Duarte, Vieira.

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Manejo da cultura do híbrido de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN : 01 para melhoria na qualidade do fruto com menor aplicação de adubação NPK / Management of the papaya crop of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN : 01 of 'Formosa' group for fruit quality improvement and less NPK fertilizer application  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de alguns aspectos do manejo da cultura do mamoeiro como espaçamento e nível de adubação NPK, sobre alguns atributos de qualidade dos frutos do híbrido do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agr [...] ícola S.A., em Linhares-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,70 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão da empresa (PE); A2 = 100% PE; A3 = 120% PE; A4 = 140% PE, e A5 = 160% PE), e três períodos de avaliação (junho, agosto e outubro de 2007). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa (PE) consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P2O5) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K2O), respectivamente. Foram analisados a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a concentração de sólidos solúveis (SS), o pH, a acidez titulável (AT) e a razão SS/AT da polpa. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de médias. Os resultados mostram que, entre as condições de espaçamento e níveis de adubação NPK testados, o melhor desempenho foi obtido pelas combinações E1A1 ou E2A1, os quais devem ser adotadas para o manejo do híbrido UC01. Os tratamentos resultaram em frutos com atributos de qualidade superiores, além de proporcionar redução nos gastos com adubação NPK e menor impacto ambiental em função da aplicação excessiva de adubo no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of some aspects of the management of the crop as spacing and level of NPK fertilizer application on some quality attributes of fruits of the papaya hybrid of 'Formosa' group UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). The experiment was conducted in the farm Caliman [...] Agrícola S.A., in Linhares -E. S. We used the randomized complete block design, with factorial arrangement, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m; E3 = 2,70 m), five levels of conventional NPK (A1 = 80% of the company's standard; A2 = 100% of the standard; A3 = 120% of the standard; A4 = 140% of the standard; and A5 = 160% of the standard) and three evaluation periods (June, August and October 2007). The standard NPK fertilizer company consists of 350, 105 and 660 kg/ha/year of ammonium sulphate (20% of N), superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. We evaluated the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the concentration of soluble solids (SS), pH, acidity (TA) and the ratio SS /TA of the pulp. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and mean test. The results show that among the conditions of spacing and NPK fertilizer levels tested, the best performance was obtained by combinations E1A1 or E2A1, which should be adopted to manage the hybrid UC01. These treatments resulted in fruits with superior quality attributes, in addition to these management practices provide a reduction in spending on NPK fertilizer and a smaller environmental impact according to excessive application of fertilizer in the soil.

Renata Venturim, Fontes; Alexandre Pio, Viana; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Jurandi Gonçalves de, Oliveira; Henrique Duarte, Vieira.

2012-03-01

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Influência da adubação mineral NPK sobre a qualidade da semente de milho Influence of NPK fertilization on the quality of corn seed  

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Full Text Available Colhendo as sementes de um ensaio permanente de adubação mineral NPK de milho, procurou-se avaliar possíveis efeitos da aplicação de fertilizantes sobre algumas características de qualidade da semente. Foram feitas as determinações seguintes: peso de cem sementes, teor de umidade inicial, porcentagem de germinação e testes de vigor (envelhecimento rápido e primeira contagem. A porcentagem de germinação e a primeira contagem foram realizadas desde o primeiro mês após a colheita e, subseqüentemente, de seis em seis meses, num total de 25 meses de armazenamento em condições de laboratório. A principal observação foi um efeito negativo marcante do fósforo, tanto isolado quanto em interação com um ou mais elementos, sobre a porcentagem de germinação. Pelo teste de vigor (primeira contagem, a qualidade das sementes não foi influenciada pela adubação nas diversas épocas de armazenamento. Na maioria dos casos estudados, as características de produção de grãos e peso de cem sementes correlacionaram-se negativamente com características de qualidade da semente.Evaluation of possible effects of mineral nutrition on seed quality characteristics was made using seed of a permanent corn fertilization trial. The following determinations were made: 100 seeds weight, initial humidity content, germination percentage and vigor test (accelerated aging and first count. The first determination of germination percentage and first count was made after one month following of harvest and later every six months until 25 months of storage under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a main negative effect of phosphorus, either alone or interaction with N or K on the germination percentage. Vigor test (first count did not show influence of fertilization on seed quality at the differents periods of storage. In most of the tests, grain yield and 100 seeds weight were negatively correlated with seed quality characteristics.

Jocely A. Maeda

1979-01-01

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Influência da adubação mineral NPK sobre a qualidade da semente de milho / Influence of NPK fertilization on the quality of corn seed  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Colhendo as sementes de um ensaio permanente de adubação mineral NPK de milho, procurou-se avaliar possíveis efeitos da aplicação de fertilizantes sobre algumas características de qualidade da semente. Foram feitas as determinações seguintes: peso de cem sementes, teor de umidade inicial, porcentage [...] m de germinação e testes de vigor (envelhecimento rápido e primeira contagem). A porcentagem de germinação e a primeira contagem foram realizadas desde o primeiro mês após a colheita e, subseqüentemente, de seis em seis meses, num total de 25 meses de armazenamento em condições de laboratório. A principal observação foi um efeito negativo marcante do fósforo, tanto isolado quanto em interação com um ou mais elementos, sobre a porcentagem de germinação. Pelo teste de vigor (primeira contagem), a qualidade das sementes não foi influenciada pela adubação nas diversas épocas de armazenamento. Na maioria dos casos estudados, as características de produção de grãos e peso de cem sementes correlacionaram-se negativamente com características de qualidade da semente. Abstract in english Evaluation of possible effects of mineral nutrition on seed quality characteristics was made using seed of a permanent corn fertilization trial. The following determinations were made: 100 seeds weight, initial humidity content, germination percentage and vigor test (accelerated aging and first coun [...] t). The first determination of germination percentage and first count was made after one month following of harvest and later every six months until 25 months of storage under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a main negative effect of phosphorus, either alone or interaction with N or K on the germination percentage. Vigor test (first count) did not show influence of fertilization on seed quality at the differents periods of storage. In most of the tests, grain yield and 100 seeds weight were negatively correlated with seed quality characteristics.

Jocely A., Maeda; Eduardo, Sawazaki; Celso Valdevino, Pommer.

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Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil / Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Am [...] arelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribuídos em dois blocos. O P foi aplicado somente no plantio nas doses de 0; 80; 160 e 320 kg/ha de P(2)0(5), como superfosfato. As doses de N e K2O foram 0; 175; 350 e 700 kg/ha, aplicadas como uréia e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente, parceladas em quatro aplicações, durante o período de crescimento da cultura. Ajustaram-se funções de resposta para a produção e características de qualidade dos frutos com o objetivo de estimar as doses de N, P e K para atingir valores máximos. Observou-se resposta quadrática na produção, com um máximo de 72 t/ha de frutos frescos estimado para as doses de 498 e 394 kg/ha de N e K2O, respectivamente. Para a maximização do tamanho do fruto e da porcentagem de frutos de primeira classe (massa maior que 2,6 kg), as doses de N e K foram, respectivamente, 11 e 43% maiores daquelas necessárias para atingir a produção máxima. Não foi observado efeito das doses de P no crescimento ou produção, mesmo com a baixa disponibilidade do nutriente no solo da área experimental. O aumento nas doses de N diminuiu o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, enquanto o oposto ocorreu com as doses de K, que aumentaram também os teores de vitamina C. Produção e tamanho de fruto apresentaram relação positiva com os teores de N e de K nas folhas. Abstract in english There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the [...] State of São Paulo (Agudos county). The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5), as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg), were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.

Ademar, Spironello; José Antonio, Quaggio; Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Pedro Roberto, Furlani; José Maria Monteiro, Sigrist.

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Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution Adubação npk na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva  

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Full Text Available Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized fractional factorial (4 x 4 x 4½, with a total of 32 treatments with three replications. The treatments consisted of four doses of N (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 as urea, P (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg L-1 in the form of phosphoric acid and K (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 in the form of potassium chloride in the nutrient solution. Only the effect of N alone was significant for the number and dry weight of minicuttings per ministump, with a linear decreasing effect with increasing N levels. The highest number of cuttings was obtained at a dose of 50, 7.5 and 50 mg L-1 of N, P and K, respectively.Os níveis adequados de nutrientes na planta podem variar de acordo com a espécie ou clone, a idade e o manejo adotado. Com isso, muitas vezes, ajustes na solução nutritiva são necessários conforme o material que se deseja multiplicar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da adubação NPK na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetação da UFVJM. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro doses dos nutrientes N (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de ureia, P (7,5, 15, 30 e 60 mg L-1 na forma de ácido fosfórico e K (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de cloreto de potássio em solução nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente para número e massa seca das miniestacas por minicepa, com efeito linear decrescente com o aumento das doses de N. O maior número de miniestacas foi obtido nas doses de 50, 7,5 e 50 mg L-1 de NPK, respectivamente.

José Pereira Carvalho Neto

2011-02-01

73

Modification in growth, biomass and yield of radish under supplemental UV-B at different NPK levels.  

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Growth, biomass, yield and quality characteristics of radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Pusa Himani) were investigated under supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 280-320 nm; +7.2 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) radiation at varying levels of soil NPK. Combinations of NPK were recommended, 1.5 times NPK, 1.5 times N and 1.5 times K. sUV-B radiation negatively affected the growth and economic yield with more reductions at 1.5 times recommended NPK, N and K compared to recommended NPK. Total biomass remained unaffected in plants at recommended NPK under sUV-B radiation. At 1.5 times NPK and N more partitioning of biomass to shoot led to reduction in root shoot ratio and consequently yield under sUV-B. Nutrients in edible part declined maximally at 1.5 times recommended K under sUV-B. The study suggests that higher than recommended NPK makes radish plants more sensitive to sUV-B in terms of yield by allocating less photosynthates towards roots compared to shoots. PMID:21251716

Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

2011-05-01

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[Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].  

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Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region. PMID:20879536

Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

2010-07-01

75

Exigências nutricionais da grápia em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico: efeito da adubação NPK no teor de nutrientes nos tecidos / Nutritional demand of grápia in Paleaudalf soil: effect of NPK fertilization on content of nutrients in the tissues  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride) é uma espécie florestal nativa de ampla utilidade na indústria madeireira, motivo pelo qual, atualmente, encontra-se em processo de extinção. Em trabalho prévio, utilizando-se um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, foi demonstrado que o crescimento de [...] plantas jovens de grápia respondeu à adubação de N, P e K com dose de máxima eficiência técnica estimada em, respectivamente, 70, 80 e 80mg kg-1. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar o efeito da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes e micronutrientes dos tecidos de plantas de grápia. Em condições de casa de vegetação, foram realizados 27 tratamentos de adubação em esquema trifatorial completo (3x3x3), representados por três níveis (0, 40 e 80mg kg-1) de N, de P e de K. A parcela experimental foi constituída de um vaso com 3,5kg de Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico e duas plantas. Aos 140 dias após a emergência das plantas, avaliou-se o crescimento e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes da grápia. Os resultados sugerem que os teores adequados de nutrientes nas folhas de plantas jovens de grápia, para se obter de 80 a 100% da produção de biomassa, sejam: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1. Abstract in english Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride) is a Brazilian forest species with great interest for timber-trade, and nowadays due to deforestation, it has been considered in extinction process. In the previous paper, it was shown that the NPK fertilization, respectively at 70, 80 and 80mg kg-1 of a Pa [...] leudalf soil, significantly increased the growth of young plants of grápia. The present work is aimed at characterizing the effects of the NPK fertilization on macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the tissues of grápia. At glasshouse conditions, 27 fertilization treatments were used in a complete trifactorial scheme (3x3x3), represented by the combination of three levels (0, 40 and 80mg kg-1) of N, of P and of K. As experimental unit, pots with 3.5kg of a Paleudalf soil and two plants were used. At 140 days after plant emergence, plant growth and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in leaves, stem and roots were evaluated. The data suggest that the adequate nutrient contents in leaves of young plants of grápia, envision to obtain 80 to 100% of biomass production, were: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.

Fernando Teixeira, Nicoloso; Marco Aurélio de Freitas, Fogaça; Flávio, Zancheti; Roni Paulo, Fortunato; Evandro Luiz, Missio.

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Rendimiento de una plantación comercial de cacao ante diferentes dosis de fertilización con npk en el sureste del estado táchira, venezuela Effect of NPK fertilization on yield of a commercial plantation of cocoa at the southeast of Táchira State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available La carencia de fertilización adecuada es mencionada como una de las causas de los bajos rendimientos del cacao en Venezuela. Para determinar la respuesta de una plantación comercial ubicada en el sureste del estado Táchira fueron realizados dos experimentos. Los tratamientos fueron establecidos a partir de la dosis de laboratorio (DL de NPK según el análisis de suelo. El primer ensayo tuvo una duración de un año y se evaluaron cinco dosis (100 % DL, 50 % DL, 200 % DL, 400 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante. El segundo ensayo se realizó durante tres años y se evaluaron tres dosis (100 % DL, 200 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante. En ambos ensayos se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con seis repeticiones y parcelas experimentales de seis árboles. Sólo en una de las cuatro evaluaciones se detectó efecto del fertilizante sobre el peso de la cosecha. Se concluye que diversos factores, entre los cuales probablemente participe la alta variabilidad existente en las plantaciones de cacao del país, así como la presencia de un alto nivel freático estacional, habrían influido en la escasa respuesta de las plantas a la fertilización con NPK.The low yields in cocoa in Venezuela are associated with lack of fertilization. Two experiments were performed in a commercial plantation in the southeast of Táchira State to determine the response to several doses of fertilization. The treatments were established based on laboratory dose (LD of NPK estimated from soil analysis. The first trial was run for one year and the following five doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 50 % LD, 200 % LD, 400 % LD and a control without fertilization. The second trial lasted three years and three doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 200 % LD, and a non fertilized control. A complete randomized block design, with six replications and six-tree plots, was used in each experiment. Only one out of the four evaluations showed effect of the fertilizer on the crop yield. It is concluded that several factors, among which the high tree variability that usually exists within cocoa plantations in the country, along with the presence of a seasonal shallow water table, probably affected the tree response to the NPK fertilizer.

Luis E. Sánchez F.

2005-04-01

77

Efeito da densidade de plantas e da adubação NPK na produção inicial de palmito de pupunheira / Effect of density and fertilization NPK on heart-of-palm production of peach palm  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos da densidade de plantas e doses de adubação na produção de palmito de pupunheira, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Yuricam, Rio Preto da Eva (AM). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, sendo [...] avaliados os fatores: densidade de plantas (10.000; 5.000 e 3.333 plantas ha-1) e doses de adubação NPK (0-0-0; 112,5-12,5-90; 337,5-38-270; 225-90-180, 225-25-180 em kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente). Os resultados do primeiro ano de produção de palmito, em termos de estipes colhidas, para efeito das doses de adubação NPK, foram: 225-90-180 (66 %); 225-25-180 (57 %); 337,5-38-270 (50 %); 112,5-12,5-90 (26 %); 0-0-0 (1 %) - os números entre parênteses indicam os percentuais de plantas coletadas em relação às plantadas - e para efeitos de densidade: 3.333 plantas ha-1 (58 %); 5.000 plantas ha-1 (28 %); 10.000 plantas ha-1 (40 %). O tempo médio para extração de palmito foi menor na densidade de 3.333 plantas ha-1 (18,4 meses) e na dose de adubação NPK de 225-90-180 (18,1 meses). O efeito simples da adubação NPK dentro da densidade de 10.000 plantas ha-1 com a adubação 225-90-180 e 225-25-180 apresentou maior produção de palmito, com 841 e 779 kg ha-1, e de 1.154 e 1.223 kg ha-1 de estipe tenro, respectivamente, nas duas adubações. Abstract in english The effect of density and fertilization on heart-of-palm yield of peach palm under field conditions was determined at Yuricam farm, in Rio Preto da Eva counnty, state of Amazonia, Brazil. The experiment was installed in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 5 factoria [...] l scheme with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of the planting density (10,000; 5,000 and 3,333 plants ha-1) and N, P2O5 and K2O doses (0-0-0; 112.5-12.5-90; 337.5-38-270; 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1). The results of the first year of production showed that regarding the NPK doses the stem harvest followed the order: 225-90-180 (66 %); 225-25-180 (57 %); 337.5-38-270 (50 %); 112.5-12.5-90 (26 %); 0-0-0 (1 %) - number in parenthesis indicate the percentage of plants harvested in relation to those that were planted - and for the planting density: 3.333 plants ha-1 (58 %); 10.000 plants ha-1 (40 %); 5.000 plants ha-1 (28 %). The shortest average period for extracting the heart-of-palm was obtained with a density of 3.333 plants ha-1 (18.4 months) and at NPK dose of 225-90-180 kg ha-1 (18.1 months). The main NPK effect within the 10.000 plants ha-1 density with a fertilization employing 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1 of NPK allowed to obtain the highest heart-of-palm yield, which reached 841 and 779 kg ha-1 and 1.154 and 1.223 kg ha-1 of soft stem, respectively, for the two fertilizations.

Kaoru, Yuyama; Wanders B., Chávez F.; Bianca G., Pereira; Ildelfonso A., Silva.

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Efeito da densidade de plantas e da adubação NPK na produção inicial de palmito de pupunheira Effect of density and fertilization NPK on heart-of-palm production of peach palm  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da densidade de plantas e doses de adubação na produção de palmito de pupunheira, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Yuricam, Rio Preto da Eva (AM. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, sendo avaliados os fatores: densidade de plantas (10.000; 5.000 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e doses de adubação NPK (0-0-0; 112,5-12,5-90; 337,5-38-270; 225-90-180, 225-25-180 em kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente. Os resultados do primeiro ano de produção de palmito, em termos de estipes colhidas, para efeito das doses de adubação NPK, foram: 225-90-180 (66 %; 225-25-180 (57 %; 337,5-38-270 (50 %; 112,5-12,5-90 (26 %; 0-0-0 (1 % - os números entre parênteses indicam os percentuais de plantas coletadas em relação às plantadas - e para efeitos de densidade: 3.333 plantas ha-1 (58 %; 5.000 plantas ha-1 (28 %; 10.000 plantas ha-1 (40 %. O tempo médio para extração de palmito foi menor na densidade de 3.333 plantas ha-1 (18,4 meses e na dose de adubação NPK de 225-90-180 (18,1 meses. O efeito simples da adubação NPK dentro da densidade de 10.000 plantas ha-1 com a adubação 225-90-180 e 225-25-180 apresentou maior produção de palmito, com 841 e 779 kg ha-1, e de 1.154 e 1.223 kg ha-1 de estipe tenro, respectivamente, nas duas adubações.The effect of density and fertilization on heart-of-palm yield of peach palm under field conditions was determined at Yuricam farm, in Rio Preto da Eva counnty, state of Amazonia, Brazil. The experiment was installed in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of the planting density (10,000; 5,000 and 3,333 plants ha-1 and N, P2O5 and K2O doses (0-0-0; 112.5-12.5-90; 337.5-38-270; 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1. The results of the first year of production showed that regarding the NPK doses the stem harvest followed the order: 225-90-180 (66 %; 225-25-180 (57 %; 337.5-38-270 (50 %; 112.5-12.5-90 (26 %; 0-0-0 (1 % - number in parenthesis indicate the percentage of plants harvested in relation to those that were planted - and for the planting density: 3.333 plants ha-1 (58 %; 10.000 plants ha-1 (40 %; 5.000 plants ha-1 (28 %. The shortest average period for extracting the heart-of-palm was obtained with a density of 3.333 plants ha-1 (18.4 months and at NPK dose of 225-90-180 kg ha-1 (18.1 months. The main NPK effect within the 10.000 plants ha-1 density with a fertilization employing 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1 of NPK allowed to obtain the highest heart-of-palm yield, which reached 841 and 779 kg ha-1 and 1.154 and 1.223 kg ha-1 of soft stem, respectively, for the two fertilizations.

Kaoru Yuyama

2005-06-01

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Rendimiento de una plantación comercial de cacao ante diferentes dosis de fertilización con npk en el sureste del estado táchira, venezuela / Effect of NPK fertilization on yield of a commercial plantation of cocoa at the southeast of Táchira State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La carencia de fertilización adecuada es mencionada como una de las causas de los bajos rendimientos del cacao en Venezuela. Para determinar la respuesta de una plantación comercial ubicada en el sureste del estado Táchira fueron realizados dos experimentos. Los tratamientos fueron establecidos a pa [...] rtir de la dosis de laboratorio (DL) de NPK según el análisis de suelo. El primer ensayo tuvo una duración de un año y se evaluaron cinco dosis (100 % DL, 50 % DL, 200 % DL, 400 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante). El segundo ensayo se realizó durante tres años y se evaluaron tres dosis (100 % DL, 200 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante). En ambos ensayos se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con seis repeticiones y parcelas experimentales de seis árboles. Sólo en una de las cuatro evaluaciones se detectó efecto del fertilizante sobre el peso de la cosecha. Se concluye que diversos factores, entre los cuales probablemente participe la alta variabilidad existente en las plantaciones de cacao del país, así como la presencia de un alto nivel freático estacional, habrían influido en la escasa respuesta de las plantas a la fertilización con NPK. Abstract in english The low yields in cocoa in Venezuela are associated with lack of fertilization. Two experiments were performed in a commercial plantation in the southeast of Táchira State to determine the response to several doses of fertilization. The treatments were established based on laboratory dose (LD) of NP [...] K estimated from soil analysis. The first trial was run for one year and the following five doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 50 % LD, 200 % LD, 400 % LD and a control without fertilization). The second trial lasted three years and three doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 200 % LD, and a non fertilized control). A complete randomized block design, with six replications and six-tree plots, was used in each experiment. Only one out of the four evaluations showed effect of the fertilizer on the crop yield. It is concluded that several factors, among which the high tree variability that usually exists within cocoa plantations in the country, along with the presence of a seasonal shallow water table, probably affected the tree response to the NPK fertilizer.

Luis E., Sánchez F.; Dercy, Parra; Erbert, Gamboa; José, Rincón.

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Respuesta del litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en el norte de Oaxaca, México / Response of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) to NPK fertilization in northern Oaxaca, México  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la respuesta de litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en árboles de la var. 'Brewster' de seis años plantados al norte de Oaxaca, en el periodo 2009 - 2011. Se usaron seis proporciones (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 y 125 %) de la dosis 50-130-50 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 y K2O como tra [...] tamientos; adicionalmente se probaron otros tres tratamientos: dosis 100 % + 3.6 t ha-1 de composta, dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores, y dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores + 720 kg ha-1 de Ca (OH)2. La primera fertilización se aplicó en noviembre de 2009 pero no se encontró respuesta a la fertilización en 2010. En 2010 y 2011 la fertilización se dividió en dos partes. La primera mitad se aplicó el 30 de agosto de 2010, y la otra mitad el 11 de febrero de 2011. Los resultados que aquí se reportan son del periodo 2010 - 2011. Las concentraciones foliares mayores de N, P y K se obtuvieron al inicio de la yema floral con las dosis mas altas de fertilización. La mayor floración y el mayor rendimiento de fruta se lograron con la dosis 100 % de N-P-K + elementos menores que superó (P ? 0.05) al testigo. El mayor contenido de clorofila foliar se obtuvo con el tratamiento 125 %, en comparación con el testigo. Los mayores valores de peso de materia seca de brotes vegetativos y de área foliar se lograron con el tratamiento 100 % + composta. El contenido de N foliar correlacionó con el rendimiento de brotes y con área foliar (r = 0.72 y r = 0.65, respectivamente). Se concluye que los árboles de litchi fertilizados con NPK, composta y elementos menores, aumentaron su concentración foliar de N, P y K, cantidad de flores, rendimiento de fruta, color verde de las hojas, biomasa de nuevos brotes y área foliar. No se encontró respuesta del litchi a la aplicación de hidróxido de calcio. Abstract in english Responses of six years old litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees cv. 'Brewster' to NPK fertilization at north of Oaxaca state were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Six dosage treatments (0, 25, 50 75, 100 and 125 %) of the 50-130-50 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O were used. Additional treatments were: 100 % [...] dosage + 3.6 t ha-1 of compost, 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients, and 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients + 720 kg ha-1 of Ca(OH)2. The first fertilization was applied on November 2009, but no response was obtained in 2010. In 2010 and 2011 the fertilization was divided in two parts. The first half was applied in August 30, 2010, and the other in February 11, 2011. The results reported here correspond to the 2010 - 2011 period. Highest concentrations of N, P and K in the leaves at the flower bud stage were obtained with the highest dosages. The highest amounts of flowers and fruit yield compared to the control were observed with 100 % of NPK + micronutrients. Highest chlorophyll contents were found with the 125 % dosage. The highest values of new shoots dry weight and leaf area were obtained with the 100 % dosage + compost. Positive correlations between foliar nitrogen with new shoots weight and leaf area (r = 0.72 and r = 0.65, respectively), were found. It is concluded that litchi trees fertilized with NPK , compost and micronutrients increased N, P and K concentration in the leaves, amount of flowers, fruit yield, green color of leaves, new shoots weight and leaf area. No response to calcium hydroxide application was observed in litchi trees.

Ramiro, Maldonado Peralta; Antonio, Trinidad Santos; Daniel, Téliz Ortíz; Vicente A., Velasco Velasco; Víctor H., Volke Haller.

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Análise de formulações NPK fiscalizadas pelo mapa, de 2008 a 2010 / Analysis of NPK fertilizers inspected by mapa from 2008 to 2010  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Brasil ocupa o quarto lugar mundial em consumo de fertilizantes; dentre esses, destaca-se o fertilizante mineral misto como o mais consumido no País. Depois da atualização da legislação brasileira de fertilizantes em 2004, muitos produtores desses insumos afirmam que houve aumento excessivo no rig [...] or da legislação em relação à fiscalização dos teores de nutrientes neles contidos. Dentro desse contexto, os objetivos deste trabalho foram aplicar técnicas de análise estatística exploratória e descritiva e de regressão logística aos dados de análises fiscais de fertilizantes realizadas pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA), nos anos de 2008 a 2010, buscando indicadores da contribuição das fontes de variação referentes aos fatores estabelecimento, formulação e laboratório para a variação total dos resultados; e verificar se os níveis de tolerância estabelecidos pelo MAPA estão sendo praticados. Para tanto, esses dados, separados por estabelecimento, formulação, laboratório, especificação granulométrica e período foram submetidos à análise descritiva, seguida de regressão logística. A regressão logística demonstrou que, para N e P analisados pelo laboratório com maior número de observações, as variáveis "estabelecimento" e "formulação" influem no resultado final da análise, dentro ou fora da garantia, enquanto para K, analisado pelo mesmo laboratório, apenas a variável "formulação" influi nesses resultados. Abstract in english Brazil is the fourth largest consumer of fertilizers in the world. Among these, bulk blends fertilizers are the most consumed in the country. After updating of Brazilian legislation in regard to fertilizers in 2004, many producers claim that there was an excessive increase in the strictness of legis [...] lation concerning inspection of nutrient levels in those products. Within this context, the objective of this study was to provide an exploratory and descriptive statistical analysis to the data gathered by MAPA (Ministry of Agriculture) from the inspection of the fertilizer industry from the years 2008 to 2010, looking for the most important source of variation, including producer, formula, and laboratory, and verifying if the minimum requirements established by law are being practiced. These data, separated by producer, formula, laboratory, particle size, and period, were subjected to descriptive analysis, followed by logistic regression. Logistic regression showed that for nitrogen and phosphorus analyzed by the laboratory with the greatest number of observations, the "producer" and "formula" variables affect the final results (not-in-conformity or in-conformity), whereas for potassium analyzed by the same laboratory, only the "formula" variable affected the results.

Mariana Coelho de, Sena; Tairone Paiva, Leão; George Freitas, von Borries; Osiris, Turnes.

1207-12-01

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Análise de formulações NPK fiscalizadas pelo mapa, de 2008 a 2010 / Analysis of NPK fertilizers inspected by mapa from 2008 to 2010  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Brasil ocupa o quarto lugar mundial em consumo de fertilizantes; dentre esses, destaca-se o fertilizante mineral misto como o mais consumido no País. Depois da atualização da legislação brasileira de fertilizantes em 2004, muitos produtores desses insumos afirmam que houve aumento excessivo no rig [...] or da legislação em relação à fiscalização dos teores de nutrientes neles contidos. Dentro desse contexto, os objetivos deste trabalho foram aplicar técnicas de análise estatística exploratória e descritiva e de regressão logística aos dados de análises fiscais de fertilizantes realizadas pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA), nos anos de 2008 a 2010, buscando indicadores da contribuição das fontes de variação referentes aos fatores estabelecimento, formulação e laboratório para a variação total dos resultados; e verificar se os níveis de tolerância estabelecidos pelo MAPA estão sendo praticados. Para tanto, esses dados, separados por estabelecimento, formulação, laboratório, especificação granulométrica e período foram submetidos à análise descritiva, seguida de regressão logística. A regressão logística demonstrou que, para N e P analisados pelo laboratório com maior número de observações, as variáveis "estabelecimento" e "formulação" influem no resultado final da análise, dentro ou fora da garantia, enquanto para K, analisado pelo mesmo laboratório, apenas a variável "formulação" influi nesses resultados. Abstract in english Brazil is the fourth largest consumer of fertilizers in the world. Among these, bulk blends fertilizers are the most consumed in the country. After updating of Brazilian legislation in regard to fertilizers in 2004, many producers claim that there was an excessive increase in the strictness of legis [...] lation concerning inspection of nutrient levels in those products. Within this context, the objective of this study was to provide an exploratory and descriptive statistical analysis to the data gathered by MAPA (Ministry of Agriculture) from the inspection of the fertilizer industry from the years 2008 to 2010, looking for the most important source of variation, including producer, formula, and laboratory, and verifying if the minimum requirements established by law are being practiced. These data, separated by producer, formula, laboratory, particle size, and period, were subjected to descriptive analysis, followed by logistic regression. Logistic regression showed that for nitrogen and phosphorus analyzed by the laboratory with the greatest number of observations, the "producer" and "formula" variables affect the final results (not-in-conformity or in-conformity), whereas for potassium analyzed by the same laboratory, only the "formula" variable affected the results.

Mariana Coelho de, Sena; Tairone Paiva, Leão; George Freitas, von Borries; Osiris, Turnes.

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RESPOSTA DA SERINGUEIRA CLONE RRIM 600 À ADUBAÇÃO NPK EM SOLO PODZÓLICO VERMELHO-AMARELO / RESPONSES OF RUBBER TREE CLONE RRIM 600 TO NPK FERTILIZATION ON RED YELLOW PODZOLIC SOIL  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo, que teve por objetivo determinar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] à adubação NPK durante o período de formação do seringal, relata os resultados de experimento com o clone RRIM 600 em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo de textura ar [...] enosa, no município de Avaí (SP), Brasil. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicados no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das plantas. Avaliou-se o perímetro do caule a 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a cada quatro meses, e calculou-se a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal em cada parcela. Efetuaram-se análises de solo aos 27 e 51 meses de idade das plantas e análises de folhas, anualmente, no verão. A partir de 60 meses de idade das plantas, aproximadamente três anos após o início das adubações, observou-se efeito linear da adubação nitrogenada sobre o perímetro do caule. A adubação fosfatada teve efeito linear a partir da idade de 72 meses e a interação NP linear foi consistente depois de 75 meses. Usando como indicador a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para as adubações nitrogenada e potássica. O período de imaturidade foi abreviado até em oito meses, comparando-se o tratamento sem adubação com os de melhor desempenho. Adubações desequilibradas, como no tratamento 0-80-120, provocaram retardamento até de 12 meses no período de imaturidade em relação ao tratamento de melhor desempenho (120-120-120). Um ano depois da interrupção da aplicação de fertilizantes, no fim do experimento, não se observou efeito residual dos tratamentos sobre os indicadores de crescimento utilizados. Abstract in english The response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss.) Muell.Arg.], clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization during the immature stage was evaluated on a sand soil at Avaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Randomized block, closing with fractionated factorial experiment 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) was [...] used to test 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, applied from the second to the eighth years after planting. Trunk girth at 1.20 m above the budgrafting union was measured every four months. The percentage of plants able for tapping and the immaturity period were calculated from girth measurements. Soil analysis were performed at 27 and 51 months after planting and leaf analysis every year. Responses to nitrogen fertilization started to be observed from 60 months, aproximately three years after the beginning of fertilizer applications. Linear effect of phosphorus and NP interaction started at ages of 72 and 75 months respectively. Responses to K fertilization was not detected for trunk girth. Considering the percentage of plants able for tapping, responses were linearly and statistically significant for N and K fertilization. The immaturity period of the crop was reduced eigth months when non fertilized plots were compared to those with the best relations of NPK. Delay of immaturity period up to twelve months was observed considering the best treatments and those with unbalanced relations of NPK. Fertilizer responses disappeared one year after stopping fertilizer applications.

ONDINO CLEANTE, BATAGLIA; WAGNER RODRIGUES DOS, SANTOS; TOSHIO, IGUE; PAULO DE SOUZA, GONÇALVES.

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The Influence of N-P-K Fertilizer Rates and Cropping Systems on Root Biomass and Some Root Morphological Variables of Sweet Corn and Vegetable Soybean  

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A field experiment using 1.2 x 0.5 x 0.5 m rhizoboxes with 280 kg soil was carried out to investigate the effect of three N-P-K fertilizer rates (50, 00 and 50% of the recommended fertilizer rate) and cropping systems (mono-crop corn or soybean, intercrop corn and soybean without root separation, with plastic and with geotextile root separation) on root biomass, volume surface area and total root length. Mono-crop corn and intercropped corn under plastic sheet root separation had significantl...

Abdulkadir Iman; Zakaria Wahab; Mohd Ridzwan Abd Halim; Syed Omar Syed Rastan

2006-01-01

85

Response of Two Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. Varieties to Sowing Date and NPK Fertilizer Rate in a Semi-Arid Environment: Yield and Yield Attributes  

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Full Text Available In order to determine the optimum sowing date and NPK fertilizer rate for two groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. varieties for best yield performance and to improve their production, field trials were conducted during the 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons at Samaru, Nigeria. The treatments were composed of factorial combinations of three sowing dates (mid-June, end-June and mid-July, three NPK fertilizer rates (10 kg N+13 kg P+13 kg K ha-1, 20 kg N+26 kg P+26 kg K ha-1 and 30 kg N+39 kg P+39 kg K ha-1 and two varieties (SAMNUT-22 and SAMNUT-23. Fertilizer rates x sowing dates constituted the main plot while varieties were assigned to the sub-plot as the experiment was laid out in split-plot design with four replications. Delaying of groundnut sowing till mid-July caused a 27.3% decline in number of pods per plant. When sowing was delayed until end of June or mid-July, pod, seed and haulm yields declined 44.9, 45.2 and 23.5%, respectively relative to sowing in mid-June. However, parameters such as number of pods per plant, pod yield and seed yield were not influenced significantly by fertilizer rate. Variety SAMNUT-23 produced significantly more pods per plant and higher pod, seed and haulm yields than SAMNUT-22. Significant interactions were observed between the treatment factors for most yield attributes. In most cases variety was a function in the response of the parameters to treatments. It was found that when SAMNUT-23 was sown in mid-June it significantly out-performed SAMNUT-22. We conclude that early sowing enhanced positive response of pod yield to NPK fertilizer application while the optimum sowing date for good yield performance in both varieties is mid-June.

B. Tanimu

2011-01-01

86

Effect of tillage methods and fertilizer levels on maize production  

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A field experiment was conducted at National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to observe the emergence and grain yield of maize crop under different fertilizer applications viz. 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and cattle manure 6000, 8000 and 10,000 kg ha/sup -1/ applied in the plots ploughed through tillage practices with deep tillage, conventional tillage and zero-tillage. The non significant interaction between fertilizers and tillage methods as well as between cattle manure and tillage methods each with three levels were found. It indicated that fertilizers and manures should be studied independently using pair wise comparison. Pair wise comparisons indicated that the fertilizer at the rate of 150-75-75 kg ha/sup -1/ (NPK) was suitable for best germination rate and grain yield of maize. Similarly the deep tillage was preferred over conventional and zero tillage, on the other hand, the highest level of manure (10000 kg ha/sup -1/) was recommended for best germination rate and grain yield, where as 8000 kg ha/sup -1/ for grain weight and number of grains per cob. (author)

87

Effects of Decaying Leaf Litter of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray, Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Inorganic Fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 on Growth and Development of Maize (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available The effects of decaying leaf litter of T. diversifolia, V. amygdalina as organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a Screen House. Twenty four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which include: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1, 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2, 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic fertilizer (T3, a mixture of 250 g decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK (15-15-15 fertilizer (T4, a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g NPK (15-15-15 fertilizer (T5 and control (T6. Significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize groups and this was closely followed by T4 seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as organic fertilizer in maize production in a Screen House condition did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.

K.S. Chukwuka

2014-01-01

88

Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels  

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A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

2009-03-15

89

Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

90

Impact of long-term N, P, K, and NPK fertilization on the composition and potential functions of the bacterial community in grassland soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil abiotic and biotic interactions govern important ecosystem processes. However, the mechanisms behind these interactions are complex, and the links between specific environmental factors, microbial community structures, and functions are not well understood. Here, we applied DNA shotgun metagenomic techniques to investigate the effect of inorganic fertilizers N, P, K, and NPK on the bacterial community composition and potential functions in grassland soils in a 54-year experiment. Differences in total and available nutrients were found in the treatment soils; interestingly, Al, As, Mg, and Mn contents were variable in N, P, K, and NPK treatments. Bacterial community compositions shifted and Actinobacteria were overrepresented under the four fertilization treatments compared to the control. Redundancy analysis of the soil parameters and the bacterial community profiles showed that Mg, total N, Cd, and Al were linked to community variation. Using correlation analysis, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were linked similarly to soil parameters, and Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were linked separately to different suites of parameters. Surprisingly, we found no fertilizers effect on microbial functional profiles which supports functional redundancy as a mechanism for stabilization of functions during changes in microbial composition. We suggest that functional profiles are more resistant to environmental changes than community compositions in the grassland ecosystem. PMID:25046442

Pan, Yao; Cassman, Noriko; de Hollander, Mattias; Mendes, Lucas W; Korevaar, Hein; Geerts, Rob H E M; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

2014-10-01

91

Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9392 Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9392  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF, colmos (MSC e total (MST, teor de proteína bruta (PB, N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic Red Yellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

Pedro Zione de Souza

2011-04-01

92

Adubação com NPK em coqueiro-anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L. rendimento e qualidade de frutos NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L. - yield and fruit quality  

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Full Text Available A produção de coco para extração de água no Estado de São Paulo está em expansão. Entretanto, faltam informações básicas sobre o manejo desta cultura. Desse modo, instalou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W, visando ao estudo da resposta do coqueiro à adubação com NPK de set/2000 a fev/2004. Empregou-se o esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4³, sendo os tratamentos formados pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de N, P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha¹ de P2O5 e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de K2O. Como fontes de N, P e K, respectivamente, aplicaram-se NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, fracionadamente, durante a época das chuvas. A aplicação de N causou diminuição no volume de água e massa média dos frutos e na quantidade de frutos por cacho; inversamente, a adubação potássica teve efeito positivo nestas características. Os teores de P e K da água de coco aumentaram com a aplicação de P e K, entretanto não houve efeito dos tratamentos nos resultados da avaliação sensorial. A aplicação de P não teve efeito significativo na produção de frutos.Coconut production aiming water extraction is increasing in São Paulo State, Brazil. Coconut is a new crop in this region, so there is a lack of information about its management. A field experiment was conducted in Pereira Barreto, SP, Brazil (20º47'S; 51º01'W to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality, from September,2000 to February, 2004. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³. The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of N, P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha¹ of P2O5 and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of K2O, applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. The effect of N rates was negative on water volume production on fruits, weight and number of fruits per bunch, and in a different way, K application had a positive effect on them. P and K contents in the coconut water increased with P and K fertilization, otherwise the treatments had no effect on sensory evaluation results. P application had no effect on fruit production.

Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

2005-04-01

93

Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses. PMID:20033737

Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, José A; Colinas, Carlos

2010-06-01

94

Poaceae cespitosa e decumbente adubadas com NPK: efeitos na agregação do solo / Caespitosa and decumbens Poaceae fertilized with NPK: effects on soil aggregation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A desagregação de partículas do solo afeta a sua capacidade produtiva, resultando em processos de compactação, erosão e perdas de nutrientes. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a qualidade e estabilidade dos agregados de um Latossolo Amarelo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, representado por Urochloa dec [...] umbens e Urochloa brizantha, na presença e ausência de adubação mineral, e por duas formas de amostragem (fileiras e entre as fileiras), em três profundidades de amostragem. As amostras indeformadas de solo coletadas foram destorroadas, passadas em peneira de 9,52 mm e, após secagem, em peneiras de 2,00 mm; 1,00 mm; 0,50 mm e 0,25 mm, obedecendo às seguintes classes de diâmetro: 9,52-2,00 mm; 2,00-1,00 mm; 1,00-0,50 mm e 0,50-0,25 mm, por peneiragem seca. Estes agregados foram, também, separados por peneiragem úmida, sendo, ainda, determinada a argila dispersa e a massa seca de raízes. Os agregados maiores que 2,00 mm apresentaram estabilidade elevada, na camada de 0,00-0,05 m, em comparação aos agregados de menores classes, não havendo efeito do local de amostragem e de adubação sobre o tamanho e estabilidade dos agregados. Concluiu-se não haver diferença entre as duas espécies estudadas, forma de coleta das amostras e adubação, na formação e estabilidade de agregados. Abstract in english The disintegration of soil particles affects its productive capacity, resulting in compression, erosion and nutrient losses. This study aimed at evaluating the aggregates quality and stability of a Yellow Latosol, in a randomized blocks design represented by Urochloa decumbens and Urochloa brizantha [...] , with and without mineral fertilization, and two sampling forms (rows and between rows), in three sampling depths. The undeformed soil samples collected were shattered and passed through a 9.52 mm sieve and, after drying, through a 2.00 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.50 mm and 0.25 mm sieves, according to the following diameters classes: 9.52-2.00 mm, 2.00-1.00 mm, 1.00-0.50 mm and 0.50-0.25 mm, by using dry sieving. These aggregates were also separated by wet sieving and the dispersed clay and root dry matter were determined. Aggregates larger than 2.00 mm showed high stability, in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, when compared to the aggregates from smaller classes, with no effect of sampling and fertilization site on the aggregates size and stability. There was no difference for the two species analyzed, sampling method and fertilization on the aggregates formation and stability.

Dácio Jerônimo de, Almeida; Ivandro de França da, Silva; Flávio Pereira da Mota, Silveira; Robeval Diniz, Santiago; José Ronaldo Calado, Costa.

2014-03-01

95

Produtividade e composição bromatológica do capim-Tobiatã com adubação NPK = Productivity and nutritional quality of Tobiatã grass as a function of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1, duas doses de P2O5 (96 e 30 kg ha-1 e duas doses de K2O (170 e 143 kg ha-1, na forrageira Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã irrigada. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Na implantação do experimento foram aplicados fósforo e potássio, com base em doses teóricas para se atingir valor de P de 40 mg dm-3 e K a 5% da CTC. Após três cortes, foi estimada a MS produzida pela forrageira, a fim de obter os valores dos nutrientes exportados pela planta. Somente após este procedimento, realizou-se a aplicação das doses de N. A produção de massa seca e os teores de PB, FDA e FDN foram influenciados pelos cortes; com a elevação da adubação nitrogenada houve aumento na produção de MS e nos teores de PB, além de menores teores de FDA e FDN, proporcionando melhor qualidade da forragem. A adubação fosfatada e potássica podem ser realizadas tanto com base na produção de massa seca produzida, quanto pelos teores dos elementos no solo.The present study had as objective to study five N rates (0, 50,100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1, two P2O5 rates (96 and 30 kg ha-1 as superphosphate triple, and two doses of K2O (170 and 143 kg ha-1 as potassium chloride, in the forage Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã, with irrigation. The experiment was conducted using a randomized blocks design with four replicates. In the implantation of the experiment, P and K were applied based on theoretical doses required to reach values of 40 mg dm-3 of P and K 5% of CTC. After three cuts, dry mass produced by the forage was estimated in order to obtain the values of the nutrients exported by the plant. Only after this procedure did theapplication of the doses of N take place. The production of dry mass - DM, crude protein - CP, neutral-detergent fiber – NDF, and acid-detergent fiber – ADF, were influenced by cuts; increasing N fertilization increased the production of DM, CP and decreased ADFand NDF, providing better forage quality. The fertilization with phosphorus and potassium can be done based on DM production or P and K content in soil.

Juliano Alarcon Fabricio

2010-04-01

96

Produtividade e composição bromatológica do capim-Tobiatã com adubação NPK / Productivity and nutritional quality of Tobiatã grass as a function of NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1), duas doses de P2O5 (96 e 30 kg ha-1) e duas doses de K2O (170 e 143 kg ha-1), na forrageira Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã irrigada. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento em blocos casualizados com qu [...] atro repetições. Na implantação do experimento foram aplicados fósforo e potássio, com base em doses teóricas para se atingir valor de P de 40 mg dm-3 e K a 5% da CTC. Após três cortes, foi estimada a MS produzida pela forrageira, a fim de obter os valores dos nutrientes exportados pela planta. Somente após este procedimento, realizou-se a aplicação das doses de N. A produção de massa seca e os teores de PB, FDA e FDN foram influenciados pelos cortes; com a elevação da adubação nitrogenada houve aumento na produção de MS e nos teores de PB, além de menores teores de FDA e FDN, proporcionando melhor qualidade da forragem. A adubação fosfatada e potássica podem ser realizadas tanto com base na produção de massa seca produzida, quanto pelos teores dos elementos no solo. Abstract in english The present study had as objective to study five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two P2O5 rates (96 and 30 kg ha-1) as superphosphate triple, and two doses of K2O (170 and 143 kg ha-1) as potassium chloride, in the forage Panicum maximum cv. Tobiatã, with irrigation. The experiment was co [...] nducted using a randomized blocks design with four replicates. In the implantation of the experiment, P and K were applied based on theoretical doses required to reach values of 40 mg dm-3 of P and K 5% of CTC. After three cuts, dry mass produced by the forage was estimated in order to obtain the values of the nutrients exported by the plant. Only after this procedure did the application of the doses of N take place. The production of dry mass - DM, crude protein - CP, neutral-detergent fiber - NDF, and acid-detergent fiber - ADF, were influenced by cuts; increasing N fertilization increased the production of DM, CP and decreased ADF and NDF, providing better forage quality. The fertilization with phosphorus and potassium can be done based on DM production or P and K content in soil.

Juliano Alarcon, Fabricio; Salatiér, Buzetti; Antônio Fernando, Bergamaschine; Cleiton Gredson Sabin, Benett.

97

Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn / Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, poi [...] s os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1)x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn), um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro). Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas. Abstract in english Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tiss [...] ues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1)x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn), a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application). Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

Ivair André, Nava; Affonso Celso, Gonçalves Junior; Herbert, Nacke; Valdir Luiz, Guerini; Daniel, Schwantes.

98

Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn / Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, poi [...] s os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1)x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn), um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro). Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas. Abstract in english Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tiss [...] ues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1)x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn), a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application). Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

Ivair André, Nava; Affonso Celso, Gonçalves Junior; Herbert, Nacke; Valdir Luiz, Guerini; Daniel, Schwantes.

2011-10-01

99

Utilization of nitrogen by two rice varieties at various NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our objective was to assess the efficiency of utilization of N by rice, as a basal application or as a top dressing or both, vs. genotype - an important and controversial issue. Nitrogen-15 labelling was adopted. The effects of genotype and N, P, and K levels, with basal and split N dressings, were investigated in pots, in terms of recovery of fertilizer 15N in the straw and grain

100

Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels / Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cult [...] ivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm), siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm), y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja) y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1). La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE), así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE) fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150) que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK. Abstract in english Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical ar [...] rangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1). Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1) than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.

Abdul, Rehman; M, Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad, Ehsan Safdar; Safdar, Hussain; Naeem, Akhtar.

 
 
 
 
101

Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels / Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cult [...] ivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm), siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm), y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja) y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1). La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE), así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE) fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150) que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK. Abstract in english Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical ar [...] rangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1). Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1) than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.

Abdul, Rehman; M, Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad, Ehsan Safdar; Safdar, Hussain; Naeem, Akhtar.

2011-12-01

102

Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

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Full Text Available Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm, ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm, and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip; NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1. Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE and N use efficiency (NUE were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cultivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm, siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm, y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1. La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE, así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150 que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK.

Abdul Rehman

2011-12-01

103

INFLUENCE OF GROWTH AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS WITH RESIDUAL EFFECT UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILITY LEVELS  

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Full Text Available This manuscript focuses on the effect of concentrate organic manure (wellgrow grain and wellgrow soil anddifferent levels of nutrients on growth and yield component of wheat under different levels of fertility. Significantimprovement in terms of growth parameters like plant height, number of tillers, dry matter production andnumber of productive tillers with application of 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow grain/ha and at par withapplication of 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha, 100% NPK + 200 kg wellgrow grain/ha. Treatmentreceiving 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow grain/ha resulted maximum effective tillers/hill (350 m-2, grain yield(41.2 q/ha. Treatment 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha maintained higher straw yield (53.53 q/ha andtest weight (42.20 g due to application of 100 % NPK along with 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha whereas it was at parwith application of 75% and 100% NPK with both levels of wellgrow formulation.

V.S. MEENA

2013-01-01

104

Effects of soil properties, mulch and NPK fertilizer on maize yields and nutrient budgets on ferralitic soils in southern Benin  

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Four on-farm experiments examined whether modest applications of fertilizers in combination with prunings from native agroforestry trees would be an alternative to maintain the fertility of ferralitic soils in Benin. An application of about 1.9tha-1dry matter of mulch of Senna siamea combined with 30kgNha-1, 22kgPha-1 and 25kgKha-1 as compound fertilizer was compared with (1) 60kgNha-1, 43kgPha-1 and 50kgKha-1 as compound fertilizer alone, (2) mulch of S. siamea alone (about 3.2tha-1 dry matt...

Saidou, A.; Janssen, B. H.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.

2003-01-01

105

Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Farmyard Manure on Nut Production of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)  

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During the present studies it was found that coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) had a good response to fertilizers. The maximum yield of 658 nuts was obtained by the application of 700 g Urea+270 g DAP+1600 g MOP. The results also indicated that the application of fertilizers helped to increase nut yield in coconut.

Baloch, P. A.; Moizuddin, M.; Imam, M.; Abro, B. A.; Lund, J. A.; Solangi, A. H.

2004-01-01

106

Assessment of Rice Inbred Lines and Hybrids under Low Fertilizer Levels in Senegal  

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This research was conducted at the Africa Rice Sahel Regional Station (near Saint Louis, Senegal) during two wet seasons (i.e., July to November) in 2010 and 2011 with the aim of assessing the performances of introduced hybrid cultivars along with an inbred check cultivar under low input fertilizer levels. The five treatments used in this study were (a) the control (without any fertilizer application), (b) 37.5–4.4–8.3 kg N–P–K ha?1, (c) half of recommend application in Senegal (75?...

Ghislain Kanfany; Raafat El-Namaky; Kabirou Ndiaye; Karim Traore; Rodomiro Ortiz

2014-01-01

107

Crecimiento y extracción de N-P-K por plantas de pimentón (Capsicum annuum L.) abonadas con estiércol de pollo en Quíbor, estado Lara / Growth and N-P-K removal in chicken manure fertilized bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El crecimiento de los cultivos depende en gran medida de una adecuada nutrición mineral, por lo que la extracción de nutrientes que ellos hacen es la base para establecer los programas de fertilización. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, estado nutricional y los niveles de extra [...] cción de N, P y K en plantas de pimentón abonadas con dosis altas de estiércol de pollo. El ensayo se realizó en el campo experimental del INIA en Quibor, estado Lara, utilizando el híbrido Enterprise, el cual se trasplantó a una distancia de 0,35 m entre plantas y 1,20 m entre hileras. Cada parcela estuvo constituida por 4 hileras de 11 plantas cada una. Las parcelas fueron repetidas seis veces. El crecimiento inicial, expresado como altura y peso seco de las plantas, fue lento y el mismo aumentó rápidamente a partir de los 45 días después de la siembra (dds) mostrando un comportamiento normal en este cultivo. Se detectó una tendencia general al incremento de la concentración de N y K en el tejido vegetal durante el ciclo de crecimiento. A los 90 dds la mayor concentración de N y K existió en las hojas (41,7 y 39,3 mg.g-1), mientras que la mayor concentración de P se encontró en los frutos (3,7 mg.g-1). Cada planta extrajo, en promedio, 1,749 g N, 0,137 g P y 1,725 g K, reflejando similares niveles de extracción para el nitrógeno y el potasio, pero mucho menores para el fósforo. La proporción de extracción fue de 12:1:12 para el N:P:K, respectivamente. Abstract in english Crops growth depends strongly on appropriate mineral nutrition, so plant nutrient removal creates the basis for many fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status, and N-P-K removal of bell pepper plants fertilized with high dose of chicken manure. Th [...] e essay was carried out at the Experimental Station of INIA in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela, by using the Enterprise hybrid, which was transplanted at 0.35 m within and 1.20 m between rows. Six plots were conformed by four rows with 11 plants each. The initial growth, expressed as plant height and dry weight, was low but it increased rapidly since the mid cycle (45 DAS) following a normal trend for this crop. Overall trend of N and K tissue levels increased during the plant cycle. In 90-day old plants the highest N and K levels were found in leaves (41.7 and 39.3 mg.g-1) while the highest P level was found in fruits (3.7 mg.g-1). As an average, each plant removed from the soil 1.749 g N, 0.137 g P and 1.725 g K, showing similar values for nitrogen and potassium, but much lower for phosphorus. The nutrient removal ratio was 12:1:12 for N:P:K, respectively.

A, Escalona; R, Pire.

108

Crecimiento y extracción de N-P-K por plantas de pimentón (Capsicum annuum L. abonadas con estiércol de pollo en Quíbor, estado Lara Growth and N-P-K removal in chicken manure fertilized bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. plants in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available El crecimiento de los cultivos depende en gran medida de una adecuada nutrición mineral, por lo que la extracción de nutrientes que ellos hacen es la base para establecer los programas de fertilización. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, estado nutricional y los niveles de extracción de N, P y K en plantas de pimentón abonadas con dosis altas de estiércol de pollo. El ensayo se realizó en el campo experimental del INIA en Quibor, estado Lara, utilizando el híbrido Enterprise, el cual se trasplantó a una distancia de 0,35 m entre plantas y 1,20 m entre hileras. Cada parcela estuvo constituida por 4 hileras de 11 plantas cada una. Las parcelas fueron repetidas seis veces. El crecimiento inicial, expresado como altura y peso seco de las plantas, fue lento y el mismo aumentó rápidamente a partir de los 45 días después de la siembra (dds mostrando un comportamiento normal en este cultivo. Se detectó una tendencia general al incremento de la concentración de N y K en el tejido vegetal durante el ciclo de crecimiento. A los 90 dds la mayor concentración de N y K existió en las hojas (41,7 y 39,3 mg.g-1, mientras que la mayor concentración de P se encontró en los frutos (3,7 mg.g-1. Cada planta extrajo, en promedio, 1,749 g N, 0,137 g P y 1,725 g K, reflejando similares niveles de extracción para el nitrógeno y el potasio, pero mucho menores para el fósforo. La proporción de extracción fue de 12:1:12 para el N:P:K, respectivamente.Crops growth depends strongly on appropriate mineral nutrition, so plant nutrient removal creates the basis for many fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status, and N-P-K removal of bell pepper plants fertilized with high dose of chicken manure. The essay was carried out at the Experimental Station of INIA in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela, by using the Enterprise hybrid, which was transplanted at 0.35 m within and 1.20 m between rows. Six plots were conformed by four rows with 11 plants each. The initial growth, expressed as plant height and dry weight, was low but it increased rapidly since the mid cycle (45 DAS following a normal trend for this crop. Overall trend of N and K tissue levels increased during the plant cycle. In 90-day old plants the highest N and K levels were found in leaves (41.7 and 39.3 mg.g-1 while the highest P level was found in fruits (3.7 mg.g-1. As an average, each plant removed from the soil 1.749 g N, 0.137 g P and 1.725 g K, showing similar values for nitrogen and potassium, but much lower for phosphorus. The nutrient removal ratio was 12:1:12 for N:P:K, respectively.

A Escalona

2008-06-01

109

Crecimiento y extracción de N-P-K por plantas de pimentón (Capsicum annuum L.) abonadas con estiércol de pollo en Quíbor, estado Lara / Growth and N-P-K removal in chicken manure fertilized bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El crecimiento de los cultivos depende en gran medida de una adecuada nutrición mineral, por lo que la extracción de nutrientes que ellos hacen es la base para establecer los programas de fertilización. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, estado nutricional y los niveles de extra [...] cción de N, P y K en plantas de pimentón abonadas con dosis altas de estiércol de pollo. El ensayo se realizó en el campo experimental del INIA en Quibor, estado Lara, utilizando el híbrido Enterprise, el cual se trasplantó a una distancia de 0,35 m entre plantas y 1,20 m entre hileras. Cada parcela estuvo constituida por 4 hileras de 11 plantas cada una. Las parcelas fueron repetidas seis veces. El crecimiento inicial, expresado como altura y peso seco de las plantas, fue lento y el mismo aumentó rápidamente a partir de los 45 días después de la siembra (dds) mostrando un comportamiento normal en este cultivo. Se detectó una tendencia general al incremento de la concentración de N y K en el tejido vegetal durante el ciclo de crecimiento. A los 90 dds la mayor concentración de N y K existió en las hojas (41,7 y 39,3 mg.g-1), mientras que la mayor concentración de P se encontró en los frutos (3,7 mg.g-1). Cada planta extrajo, en promedio, 1,749 g N, 0,137 g P y 1,725 g K, reflejando similares niveles de extracción para el nitrógeno y el potasio, pero mucho menores para el fósforo. La proporción de extracción fue de 12:1:12 para el N:P:K, respectivamente. Abstract in english Crops growth depends strongly on appropriate mineral nutrition, so plant nutrient removal creates the basis for many fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status, and N-P-K removal of bell pepper plants fertilized with high dose of chicken manure. Th [...] e essay was carried out at the Experimental Station of INIA in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela, by using the Enterprise hybrid, which was transplanted at 0.35 m within and 1.20 m between rows. Six plots were conformed by four rows with 11 plants each. The initial growth, expressed as plant height and dry weight, was low but it increased rapidly since the mid cycle (45 DAS) following a normal trend for this crop. Overall trend of N and K tissue levels increased during the plant cycle. In 90-day old plants the highest N and K levels were found in leaves (41.7 and 39.3 mg.g-1) while the highest P level was found in fruits (3.7 mg.g-1). As an average, each plant removed from the soil 1.749 g N, 0.137 g P and 1.725 g K, showing similar values for nitrogen and potassium, but much lower for phosphorus. The nutrient removal ratio was 12:1:12 for N:P:K, respectively.

A, Escalona; R, Pire.

2008-06-01

110

Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

111

YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF EXTRA-EARLY MAIZE (Zea mays L. AS AFFECTED BY RATES OF NPK FERTILIZER SUCCEEDING CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens SUPPLIED WITH DIFFERENT RATES SHEEP MANURE  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to study response of extra-early maize variety (95TZEE-Y1 to rates of NPK (0, 40:20:20, 80:40:40 and 120:60:60 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 and residual FYM (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 applied to chilli pepper the previous season in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Higher values for soil physical and chemical properties were obtained in plots supplied with manure the previous season with soil from 2006 experiment more fertile than for the first year, hence produced 21% more grain yield. All the applied NPK rates in 2005 and except 40:20:20 ha1 in 2006 had resulted in early maize crop as compared to control. Husked and de-husked cob and 100-grain weights and grain yield/ha were higher at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1. Maize grown in plot supplied with 15 t FYM ha1 the previous year matured earlier. Cobs and 100-grain weights and grain yield were highest in plot supplied with 10 t FYM ha1. The 10t FYM ha-1 had 69% and 68% more grain yield than the control in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Highest maize yield was obtained at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 or 10t FYM ha-1. All the parameters measured significantly and positively related to each other when the two years data were combined.

Bashir Ahmad Babaji

2014-02-01

112

Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo parte: III - Métodos de aplicação de NPK e estêrco Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes: III - Trials on the placement of npk and manure  

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Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatadas nove experiências sôbre a localização de adubos na cultura de batata-doce, realizadas entre 1943-44 e 1946-47, sendo quatro com NPK (60-100-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O e cinco com estêrco. Em dois dos ensaios com NPK, conduzidos em Tupi Paulista (um dêles repetido por três anos no mesmo local, a adubação foi mais eficiente quando misturada com a terra dos camalhões do que aplicada sob eles ou em sulcos feitos em seus cumes. Nos outros dois, realizados em Campinas, a aplicação sob os camalhões se mostrou melhor, em média, mas os resultados variaram muito. Tratando-se de assunto que depende de muitos fatôres, inclusive das condições meteorológicas, os autores encarecem a necessidade de se continuarem as experiências, e, tendo discutido as vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos estudados, sugerem a inclusão, em futuros planos, do aplicação de P e K em sulcos laterais às mudas e de N em cobertura. Nas cinco experiências com estêrco, tôdas anuais e executadas em três localidades, seu espalhamento entre os camalhões se mostrou, em regra, inferior à aplicação sob os camalhões ou de mistura com o solo dêstes. Dos dois últimos métodos, o primeiro foi superior em três ensaios, igual em um e inferior no outro. As observações feitas indicam que, em geral, o estêrco deve ser colocado sob os camalhões.This paper reports the results of nine experiments conducted in the State of Sao Paulo on methods of application of NPK and manure for sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.. In two of the four trails with NPK, better results were obtained where it was broadcast before ridging than where it was placed in o furrow either under or on the top of the ridges. In the other two, the placement under the ridges showed better in the average, but the yearly results varied considerably. As the suitability of different methods of application depends on many factors, especially on the weather, the authors point to the need of farther trials and, after discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied, they suggest for the next project the inclusion of side-placement of the phosphorus, potosh and part of the nitrogen doses, the greater portion of the latter being top-dressed two to four weeks after planting. In the five trials with manure, its application between the ridges was, as a rule, inferior to both the placement under the ridges and broadcasting before ridging. Of the two last methods, the former gave better average results, but there were some indications that the latter would be more suitable either for heavy or for very light soils, in order that the organic matter improves the physical conditions of a larger volume of the soils.

A. Paes de Camargo

1962-01-01

113

Effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols for the Growth and Yield of Caisim  

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Full Text Available The effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on the growth and yield of caisim (Brassica sp. was examined in the greenhouse of Indonesian Soil Research Institute in Bogor. The completely randomized design (CRD was performed to examine the effects of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols. The treatments were consists of 10 combinations between NPK-recommendation (NPK-rec and CBF1, with six replications. The experiment was conducted from August to October 2009. The result showed that CBF I increased the yields of caisim when combining by fertilizer NPK-rec, while giving CBF1 alone did not significantly increases yields compare to control (without fertilizer. Giving ¾ dosage NPK-rec. + CBF1 had RAE value 163%, indicating the effectiveness of CBF1 was optimum, that it reduce the need of NPK fertilizer by 25% by providing the increasing of yield 63% compared to NPK rec. The higher the level of NPK-rec. the lower the efficiency of fertilization. CBF1 had given effectives on yields when it was combined by inorganic fertilizer. However, when it was not combined with inorganic fertilizers, it would harm plants and decreased the soil nutrients. The influence of biofertilizer in plants were predictable unpredictable, while the influent of inorganic fertilizers were predictable.

Ea Kosman Anwar

2011-09-01

114

Evaluation of NPK 8-30-20 with gypsum addition compared to fertilization employed in the region for the production of potato (Solanumtuberosum L. Evaluación de NPK 8-30-20 con yeso en comparación a la fertilización convencional para la producción de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Avaliação da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola em comparação à adubação convencional para produção de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.  

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Different forms of fertilizer management are employed by potato farmers, and from time to time, it appears a receipt to fertilize the crop. However, one should pay special attention to nutrition and fertilization of the potato as the relative demand of fertilizer per unit area in culture is high. The objective was to evaluate the use of NPK 8-30-20 with the addition of gypsum compared to NPK 4-14-8 (regional standard treatment in the production of potato. The study was conducted at the Research Unit in Potato Production and Microclimate on Agriculture, Campus CEDETEG at UNICENTRO in Guarapuava - PR. The treatments were: T1 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8, T2 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum; T3 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20, T4 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum, T5 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of plaster to make up the difference between fertilizer. The cultivation of potato was held on December 23, 2008 and the cultivar used was Agatha. The seed used was Generation 01 and tubers of class II. The density used was 50.000 tubers per hectare. The experimental design was completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated the productivity and classification of tubers of the size and incidence and severity of common scab (Streptomyces spp. and silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani Dur. And Mont. in the tubers. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and mean comparison by Tukey test (5%. Classification of the tubers was performed according to the diameter classes of the Ordinance No. 69 MAP of February 21, 2005. The use of manure at 5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum and 1.75 t ha-1 of 8-30-20 NPK plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum causes the best results of yield of potato tubers and better classification. The application of gypsum was important to reduce the incidence of common scab independent of the formulation and application of NPK without addition of gypsum predisposes the crop to a higher incidence of scabies.

Diferentes formas de manejo da adubação são empregadas pelos bataticultores, sendo que, de tempos em tempos, surge uma fórmula para adubar a cultura. Porém, deve-se dar especial atenção à adubação e nutrição da cultura da batata, pois a demanda relativa de fertilizantes por unidade de área na cultura é elevada. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola comparado a adubação NPK 4-14-8 (tratamento padrão regional na produção da cultura da Batata. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade de Pesquisa em Produção de Batata e Microclima para a Agricultura, no Campus CEDETEG da Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste – UNICENTRO em Guarapuava – PR. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: T1 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8; T2 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T3 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20; T4 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T5 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de gesso para suprir a diferença entre os fertilizantes. O plantio da cultura da batata foi realizado no dia 23 de dezembro de 2008 e a cultivar utilizada foi a Ágata. A semente utilizada foi de Geração 01 e tubérculos de classe II. A densidade de plantio utilizada foi de 50.000 tubérculos por hectare. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e

Douglas Jobim Vieira

2010-04-01

115

Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: II - micronutrients / Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: II - micronutrientes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Sob maior nível tecnológico, cultivares de feijão com maior potencial produtivo possivelmente exigem maior quantidade de micronutrientes. Porém, no Brasil há carência de informações sobre extração e exportação de micronutrientes pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Neste estudo, objetivou-se aval [...] iar a extração e a exportação de micronutrientes (B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn) pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação NPK, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Maiores níveis de adubação NPK aumentaram a extração de micronutrientes pelos dois cultivares; no entanto, 100 % adubação NPK recomendada proporcionou extração média de 167 g de B, 58 g de Cu, 1.405 g de Fe, 1.213 g de Mn e 211 g de Zn por hectare. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, em ambos os cultivares, ocorreu no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), ou seja, de 42 a 55 dias, após a emergência (DAE). A quantidade de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn exportada foi dependente, principalmente, do nível de adubação NPK utilizado, com valores por hectare variando de 38 a 90 g de B, 12 a 26 g de Cu, 222 a 568 g de Fe, 234 a 467 g de Mn e 40 a 96 g de Zn. Abstract in english Where the level of agricultural technology is higher, common bean cultivars with a higher yield potential possibly require greater amounts of micronutrients. In Brazil however, there is a lack of information about the micronutrient extraction and exportation by the main grown cultivars. The objectiv [...] e of this study was to evaluate micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. Higher levels of NPK fertilization increased micronutrient extraction by both cultivars, and treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization extracted on average 167 g B, 58 g Cu, 1,405 g Fe, 1,213 g Mn and 211 g Zn per hectare. Regardless of the treatment, the highest demand period for B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in both cultivars occurred at the R7 stage (pod formation), i.e. 42 to 55 days after emergence (DAE). The amount of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn exported depended mainly on the level of NPK fertilization used, with values per hectare ranging from 38 to 90 g of B, 12 to 26 g of Cu, 222 to 568 g of Fe 234 to 467 g of Mn, and 40 to 96 g of Zn.

Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Rogério Peres, Soratto; Letícia Andriani dos, Santos.

116

INSTALLATION OF FORAGE SPECIES AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL DEPTH AND CONTACT WITH NPK FERTILIZER FORMULATION INSTALAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIE FORRAGEIRA EM RAZÃO DA PROFUNDIDADE NO SOLO E CONTATO COM FERTILIZANTE FORMULADO NPK  

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The sowing association of grass forages and grain producing species increases the soil occupation efficiency and makes possible the crop-livestock rotation. However, limitations do exist, such as sowing the seeds of forage species in unfavorable conditions of germination and emergence. The objective of this research is the evaluation of the emergence and production of Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar MG-5 fitomass, as a function of manuring and sowing depth. Seeds were deposited in soil columns submitted to the absence and presence of manure, equivalent to 300 kg ha-1 of the formulation 08-28-16, in four depths (0. 0 cm; 2.5 cm; 5.0 cm; and 10.0 cm, in a complete blocks design, with four replications, in the 2 x 4 factorial scheme. The maximum emergence of B. brizantha cv. MG-5 was observed when sowing at 2.5 cm depth in the soil. The surface sowing of B. brizantha is not the most appropriate. However, if necessary, seeds should not be mixed with fertilizer. The mixture of fertilizer and seeds harmed the B. brizantha establishment. However, surviving individuals overcame the negative fertilizer effect through higher mass yielding.

KEY-WORDS: Grass forage; saline effect; crop-livestock rotation.

 
 
121

Alterações em atributos químicos de um solo submetido à adubação e cultivado com videira 'Niagara Rosada' / Changes on some soil chemical properties due to npk fertilization for 'Nigara Rosada' grapevine  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar alterações em atributos químicos do solo, causadas pela adubação com NPK em videira 'Niagara Rosada', coletaram-se amostras de solo provenientes de um experimento de campo executado em Louveira (SP), durante quatro ciclos de produção. O delineamento experimental foi em bloc [...] os ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³), com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses de N (0; 65; 130 e 195 kg/ha de N), P (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg/ha de P2O5) e K (0; 45; 90 e 135 kg/ha de K2O) aplicados em cada ciclo de produção. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas em forma fracionada, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. Na implantação do experimento, em agosto de 2005, e após quatro safras, em novembro de 2008, foram coletadas amostras de solo de 0 a 20 cm e de 20 a 40 cm de profundidade, determinando-se valores de pH (CaCl2), o teor de matéria orgânica, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al e calculada a soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases. Avaliaram-se, também, a produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos e das bagas. A adubação nitrogenada em videira determinou incrementos significativos na acidez do solo. Doses baixas de P e K foram suficientes para manter o teor de P e de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial, após quatro ciclos de produção. A produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos não foram influenciadas pela adubação com N, P e K. A adubação com N, P e K em vinhedos com alta disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo, condição comum na região de Louveira e Jundiaí, implica prejuízo econômico ao produtor, eleva os teores de nutrientes no solo acima das necessidades da cultura, podendo, ainda, aumentar o risco de contaminação ambiental. Abstract in english Soil samples were analyzed with the objective of investigating changes on some soil chemical properties due to NPK fertilization of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine. The samples were collected in a field experiment carried out in Louveira, Brazil, during four crop seasons. The experimental design was an i [...] ncomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were rates of N (0, 65, 130, and 195 kg/ha of N as NH4NO3), P (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha of P2O5 as triple superphosphate) and K (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg/ha of K2O as KCl) applied at each crop season. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) availability some chemical properties (organic matter, pH CaCl2, H+Al and base saturation) were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation (August, 2005) and after four production cycles (November, 2008). Soil samples were collected from layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Fruit yield and some physical characteristics of bunches and berries were evaluated. Soil pH decreased with increasing in N rates. Low rates of P and K were sufficient to maintain soil P and K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment. Grapevine production was not affected by NPK fertilization. The application of NPK fertilizers in vineyards with soils with high nutrient availability implies economic losses and environmental contamination risk.

Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Marco Antonio, Tecchio; Mara Fernandes, Moura; Maurilo Monteiro, Terra; Erasmo José Paioli, Pires; José Luiz, Hernandes.

122

Resposta de pinus taeda com diferentes idades à adubação NPK no Planalto Sul Catarinense / Response of one-, five-, and nine-year-old pinus taeda to NPK fertilization in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na região do Planalto Sul-catarinense, a maioria das florestas de Pinus foi implantada sem fertilização do solo na fase de plantio. Atualmente, muitas áreas encontram-se em segunda ou terceira rotação de Pinus e sem nenhuma fertilização, o que pode limitar a produtividade pela baixa fertilidade do s [...] olo. Uma alternativa para a mitigação desse problema seria a adubação em povoamentos já estabelecidos. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação com N, P e K, em diferentes fases de crescimento de Pinus taeda, foram conduzidos experimentos no campo, em plantios de um, cinco e nove anos de idade, todos de segunda rotação, sobre Cambissolos no município de Otacílio Costa, SC. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinações de doses de N (N0 = 0, N1 = 70 e N2 = 140 kg ha-1 de N), P (P0 = 0, P1 = 75 e P2 = 150 kg ha-1 P2O5) e K (K0 = 0, K1 = 60 e K2 = 120 kg ha-1 de K2O), além de uma testemunha, nas seguintes combinações: N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2 e N2P2K1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram avaliados altura e diâmetro no colo ou à altura do peito das árvores e calculado o volume de tronco das plantas e teores de N, P e K nas acículas aos seis e 18 meses, após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Os resultados evidenciaram que nas plantas de um ano de idade houve incremento significativo no volume de madeira com a aplicação de 70 kg ha-1 de P2O5. Para os plantios de cinco e nove anos, a adição de doses a partir de 70, 75 e 60 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, promoveram incrementos significativos no volume de madeira, mostrando que a adubação em florestas já estabelecida é uma estratégia a ser considerada em sítios de baixa fertilidade. Abstract in english In the southern highland (Planalto Sul) region of Santa Catarina, Brazil, most of the pine forests were planted without soil fertilization. Currently, many areas are in the second or third rotation, and their productivity may be limited by low soil fertility. An alternative to mitigate this problem [...] would be fertilization in the established forest. This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of fertilization with N, P, and K at different growth stages of Pinus taeda. Experiments were conducted in one-, five-, and nine-year-old forests, all in the second rotation, in Cambisols located in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Treatments consisted of combinations of fertilization rates of N (N0=0, N1=70, and N2=140 kg ha-1 N), P (P0=0, P1=75, and P2=150 kg ha-1 P2O5), and K (K0=0, K1=60, and K2=120 kg ha-1 K2O), plus a control treatment without fertilization. The combinations used were N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2, and N2P2K1. A completely randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications. The height and diameter at the root collar or at breast height of trees was measured; also the trunk volume of the plants and N, P, and K contents in needles at six and 18 months after fertilization were measured. In one-year-old plants, a significant increase in timber volume was obtained with the application of 70 kg ha-1 of P2O5. For five- and nine-year-old plants, fertilization with 70, 75, and 60 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively, promote significant increase in timber volume, showing that fertilization of established pine forests increase productivity in areas of low fertility.

Letícia, Moro; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Marcia Aparecida, Simonete; Paulo Cezar, Cassol; Djalma Miler, Chaves.

123

Resposta de pinus taeda com diferentes idades à adubação NPK no Planalto Sul Catarinense / Response of one-, five-, and nine-year-old pinus taeda to NPK fertilization in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na região do Planalto Sul-catarinense, a maioria das florestas de Pinus foi implantada sem fertilização do solo na fase de plantio. Atualmente, muitas áreas encontram-se em segunda ou terceira rotação de Pinus e sem nenhuma fertilização, o que pode limitar a produtividade pela baixa fertilidade do s [...] olo. Uma alternativa para a mitigação desse problema seria a adubação em povoamentos já estabelecidos. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação com N, P e K, em diferentes fases de crescimento de Pinus taeda, foram conduzidos experimentos no campo, em plantios de um, cinco e nove anos de idade, todos de segunda rotação, sobre Cambissolos no município de Otacílio Costa, SC. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinações de doses de N (N0 = 0, N1 = 70 e N2 = 140 kg ha-1 de N), P (P0 = 0, P1 = 75 e P2 = 150 kg ha-1 P2O5) e K (K0 = 0, K1 = 60 e K2 = 120 kg ha-1 de K2O), além de uma testemunha, nas seguintes combinações: N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2 e N2P2K1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram avaliados altura e diâmetro no colo ou à altura do peito das árvores e calculado o volume de tronco das plantas e teores de N, P e K nas acículas aos seis e 18 meses, após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Os resultados evidenciaram que nas plantas de um ano de idade houve incremento significativo no volume de madeira com a aplicação de 70 kg ha-1 de P2O5. Para os plantios de cinco e nove anos, a adição de doses a partir de 70, 75 e 60 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, promoveram incrementos significativos no volume de madeira, mostrando que a adubação em florestas já estabelecida é uma estratégia a ser considerada em sítios de baixa fertilidade. Abstract in english In the southern highland (Planalto Sul) region of Santa Catarina, Brazil, most of the pine forests were planted without soil fertilization. Currently, many areas are in the second or third rotation, and their productivity may be limited by low soil fertility. An alternative to mitigate this problem [...] would be fertilization in the established forest. This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of fertilization with N, P, and K at different growth stages of Pinus taeda. Experiments were conducted in one-, five-, and nine-year-old forests, all in the second rotation, in Cambisols located in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Treatments consisted of combinations of fertilization rates of N (N0=0, N1=70, and N2=140 kg ha-1 N), P (P0=0, P1=75, and P2=150 kg ha-1 P2O5), and K (K0=0, K1=60, and K2=120 kg ha-1 K2O), plus a control treatment without fertilization. The combinations used were N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2, and N2P2K1. A completely randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications. The height and diameter at the root collar or at breast height of trees was measured; also the trunk volume of the plants and N, P, and K contents in needles at six and 18 months after fertilization were measured. In one-year-old plants, a significant increase in timber volume was obtained with the application of 70 kg ha-1 of P2O5. For five- and nine-year-old plants, fertilization with 70, 75, and 60 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively, promote significant increase in timber volume, showing that fertilization of established pine forests increase productivity in areas of low fertility.

Letícia, Moro; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Marcia Aparecida, Simonete; Paulo Cezar, Cassol; Djalma Miler, Chaves.

1181-11-01

124

NPK Trial on Onion (Allium cepa L.  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum doze of NPK fertilizers for the onion (Allium cepa L., variety Phulkara on a loamy soil. The bed size was 4.5 x 4.0 m. Six fertilizer treatments were tested in RCBD for the height of plant (cm, number of leaves plant-1, single plant weight, bulb diameter (horizontal and vertical, bulb size (Volume and yield ha-1. Compared to other fertilizer treatments, the application of 80 N + 60 P2O5 + 40 K2O (kg ha-1 produced more leaves and largest bulb size and gave the highest onion yield (kg ha-1.

N.A. Deho

2002-01-01

125

Efeito de diferentes níveis de NPK na infestação de Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae), em tomateiro no Submédio do Vale do São Francisco / Effect of different levels of NPK on the infestation of Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae), on tomato in the São Francisco River region  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de NPK na infestação de Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae) em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), cultivar IPA 5, em condições de campo, na região do Submédio do Vale do São Francisco. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos cas [...] ualizados em arranjo fatorial, com quatro blocos e quatro níveis de N (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg/ha), três níveis de P (0, 80 e 160 kg/ha) e dois níveis de K (0 e 120 kg/ha). As formas ativas de A. lycopersici foram amostradas semanalmente, no período de 53 a 113 dias de idade das plantas, examinando-se 1,76 cm² da página inferior de 25 folíolos com maior infestação, coletados na parte mediana das plantas. Plantas adubadas com 120 kg/ha de K foram mais infestadas por A. lycopersici, em relação a plantas sem K. Determinou-se uma relação direta entre a infestação do ácaro e os níveis de P aplicados ao solo, no entanto, a infestação aumentou com a elevação dos níveis de P na presença de 120 kg/ha de K. A infestação foi maior nos níveis de 60 e 180 kg/ha de N e reduzida a 120 kg/ha, porém nos maiores níveis de N a interação NP exerceu pouco efeito sobre a infestação. Os níveis de N e P aplicados ao solo apresentaram correlação positiva com os teores encontrados nas folhas do tomateiro; em relação ao K não houve correlação. Abstract in english The effect of different levels of NPK on the infestation of Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), cultivar IPA 5, under field conditions was studied. The experimental design of randomized blocks with a factorial arrangement was used, including fo [...] ur blocks and utilizing four levels of N (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha), three levels of P (0, 80, and 160 kg/ha), and two levels of K (0 and 120 kg/ha). The active forms of A. lycopersici were sampled weekly, 53 to 113 days after the tomato plants were sowed. Twenty five leaflets were collected from the intermediate part of the plants and an area of 1,76 cm² of the under side of these leaflets with bigger colonies was examined. The plants fertilized with 120 kg/ha of K were more infested by A. lycopersici. There was a direct relationship between mite infestation and the levels of P applied to the soil; At a K level of 120 kg/ha the infestation increased with P levels. At N levels of 60 and 180 kg/ha the infestation increased, whereas at 120 kg/ha it was reduced. However the NP interaction presented a low effect on the infestation at higher levels of N. The levels of N and P applied to the soil were positive and significantly correlated to the content found in the tomato leaves. No significat correlation was observed with regard to K.

Andréa N., Moreira; José V. de, Oliveira; Francisca N. P., Haji; José R., Pereira.

126

Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK / Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo) e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília), para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòment [...] e o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral. Abstract in english Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minut [...] iflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

Shiro, Miyasaka; E. S., Freire; Toshio, Igue; J., Teófilo Sobrinho; Luiz D' Artagnan de, Almeida.

127

LIMING AND FERTILIZING FOR MAHOGANI (Switenia macrophylla King. SEEDLING FORMATION  

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Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important phases of the cultivation of forest species. Seedlings ofappropriate quality are fundamental in the growth and development of the species. In the production of seedlings, the substratum isfundamental for the good development of the plants. However, the subsoil in general, is acid and it contains low levels of nutritious.The acidity of the soil and the deficiency of nutrients can be corrected through liming and mineral fertilization. The objective of thepresent work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of the fertilization of the soil for the production of mahogany seedlings. Theexperiment was carried out in the period of 120 days, in the Federal University of Amazonas, UFAM. The experimental design wasrandomized complete blocks with statistical analysis in split plot. The plots were composed with eight treatments and four repetitionsand the subplots were eight sampling times of the plants. The treatments were control (natural soil, liming, corrective phosphate,fertilizing with NPK, liming + corrective phosphate, corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK, liming + fertilizing with NPK andliming + corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK. It was concluded that the associated liming and corrective phosphate and withthe fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium promoted the smallest levels of exchangeable aluminum and the largestlevels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in the soil. These levels of nutrients in the soil caused larger levels ofnutrients in the plants, providing larger growth rate. The liming, corrective phosphate and fertilizing are a fundamental practices inthe formation of mahogany seedlings.

Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

2007-09-01

128

Características fisicas e químicas do látex e crescimento da seringueira em função da calagem e da adubação NPK em dois sistemas de explotação / Latex physical and chemistry characteristics and growth of rubber tree as a function of lime and NPK fertilization in two tapping systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de diferentes combinações de NPK, com e sem calagem, sobre as características físicas e químicas do látex e as condições de explotação da seringueira (Hevea sp.), clone RRIM 600, foi conduzido um experimento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas contendo oit [...] o tratamentos: sem adubação e sem calagem (T1), sem adubação e com calagem (T2), N1P1K0 + calagem (T3), N2P2K0 + calagem (T4), N1P1K1 + calagem (T5), N2P2K1 + calagem (T6), N1P1K2 + calagem (T7) e N2P2K2 + calagem (T8). Nas duas subparcelas, foram utilizados os seguintes sistemas de explotação: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y com quatro repetições. As doses utilizadas corresponderam a 0, 40 e 80 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, 0, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o incremento no perímetro do tronco não foi influenciado pelo efeito da interação entre 'adubação+calagem' vs. 'sistemas de explotação'. O aumento da espessura da casca foi afetado pelos tratamentos 'N0P0K0+calagem' e 'calagem+adubação', quando comparado com o tratamento 'N0P0K0 sem calagem'. Plantas submetidas ao tratamento N1P1K0 + calagem e ao sistema ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y apresentam maiores concentrações de sacarose no látex. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluated physiological latex characteristics and the tapping systems of the clone RRIM 600 of rubber tree (Hevea sp.) an experiment was conducted with continuous supply NPK fertilizers with or without lime. The experiment was conducted in a randomized split-plot d [...] esign with eight treatments: without fertilizer and without lime (T1), without fertilizer and with lime (T2), N1P1K0 + lime (T3), N2P2K0 + lime (T4), N1P1K1 + lime (T5), N2P2K1 + lime (T6), N1P1K2 + lime (T7) e N2P2K2 + lime (T8). In the two sub-treatments the following tapping systems were used: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y with four replicates. The rates used were 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 y-1; 0, 17.5 e 35.0 kg ha-1 y-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33.2 e 66.4 kg ha-1 y-1 de K2O. The interaction of fertilizer with or without lime versus tapping system did not affect trunk girth increment. The bark thickness was significantly increased with liming, and N1P1K0 and tapping system ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y increased latex saccharose concentration.

Adonias De Castro, Virgens Filho; Adônis, Moreira; Paulo Roberto de Camargo e, Castro.

129

Características fisicas e químicas do látex e crescimento da seringueira em função da calagem e da adubação NPK em dois sistemas de explotação Latex physical and chemistry characteristics and growth of rubber tree as a function of lime and NPK fertilization in two tapping systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de diferentes combinações de NPK, com e sem calagem, sobre as características físicas e químicas do látex e as condições de explotação da seringueira (Hevea sp., clone RRIM 600, foi conduzido um experimento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas contendo oito tratamentos: sem adubação e sem calagem (T1, sem adubação e com calagem (T2, N1P1K0 + calagem (T3, N2P2K0 + calagem (T4, N1P1K1 + calagem (T5, N2P2K1 + calagem (T6, N1P1K2 + calagem (T7 e N2P2K2 + calagem (T8. Nas duas subparcelas, foram utilizados os seguintes sistemas de explotação: (S1 ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2 ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y com quatro repetições. As doses utilizadas corresponderam a 0, 40 e 80 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, 0, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o incremento no perímetro do tronco não foi influenciado pelo efeito da interação entre 'adubação+calagem' vs. 'sistemas de explotação'. O aumento da espessura da casca foi afetado pelos tratamentos 'N0P0K0+calagem' e 'calagem+adubação', quando comparado com o tratamento 'N0P0K0 sem calagem'. Plantas submetidas ao tratamento N1P1K0 + calagem e ao sistema ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y apresentam maiores concentrações de sacarose no látex.The objective of this study was to evaluated physiological latex characteristics and the tapping systems of the clone RRIM 600 of rubber tree (Hevea sp. an experiment was conducted with continuous supply NPK fertilizers with or without lime. The experiment was conducted in a randomized split-plot design with eight treatments: without fertilizer and without lime (T1, without fertilizer and with lime (T2, N1P1K0 + lime (T3, N2P2K0 + lime (T4, N1P1K1 + lime (T5, N2P2K1 + lime (T6, N1P1K2 + lime (T7 e N2P2K2 + lime (T8. In the two sub-treatments the following tapping systems were used: (S1 ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2 ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y with four replicates. The rates used were 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 y-1; 0, 17.5 e 35.0 kg ha-1 y-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33.2 e 66.4 kg ha-1 y-1 de K2O. The interaction of fertilizer with or without lime versus tapping system did not affect trunk girth increment. The bark thickness was significantly increased with liming, and N1P1K0 and tapping system ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y increased latex saccharose concentration.

Adonias De Castro Virgens Filho

2003-12-01

130

Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol, no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualmente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente.The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually every year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three replicates, being the treatments disposed as an incomplete factorial. The spacing was of 3.0 m between lines and 2.5 m between plants with six useful plants per plot. The results evidenced positive response of nitrogen in relation to black pepper grain yield with the application of 72 and 78 kg ha-1 of N, for cultivars Cingapura and Bragantina, respectively. Only cultivar Guajarina responded to the phosphorus application. Growing levels of K2O, reduced the present potassium content in the foliar tissue of the peppers. The potassium addition favored the increase of the production of grains with the application of 42, 13 and 22 kg ha-1 of K2O, for the Cingapura, Bragantina and Guajarina cultivars, respectively.

Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

2000-06-01

131

Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental / Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol), no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualm [...] ente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N) na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5) na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O) na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente. Abstract in english The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic) in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually eve [...] ry year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N) in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5) in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O) in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three replicates, being the treatments disposed as an incomplete factorial. The spacing was of 3.0 m between lines and 2.5 m between plants with six useful plants per plot. The results evidenced positive response of nitrogen in relation to black pepper grain yield with the application of 72 and 78 kg ha-1 of N, for cultivars Cingapura and Bragantina, respectively. Only cultivar Guajarina responded to the phosphorus application. Growing levels of K2O, reduced the present potassium content in the foliar tissue of the peppers. The potassium addition favored the increase of the production of grains with the application of 42, 13 and 22 kg ha-1 of K2O, for the Cingapura, Bragantina and Guajarina cultivars, respectively.

Carlos Alberto Costa, Veloso; Eduardo Jorge Maklouf, Carvalho; Eurípedes, Malavolta; Takashi, Muraoka.

2000-06-01

132

Efeito de doses de NPK sobre os teores de nutrientes nas folhas e no solo, e na produtividade do maracujazeiro amarelo / Effect of NPK on nutrient levels in leaves and soil, and on yield of yellow passion fruit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a influência das adubações com nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio nos teores de nutrientes das folhas do maracujazeiro amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) e em propriedades químicas do solo, tendo em vista maximizar a produtividade e otimizar a prática da adubação. O expe [...] rimento foi conduzido no período de maio/96 a abril/98, em Latossolo Amarelo do Município de Cruz das Almas (BA). Empregou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial fracionado ½ de 4³, com dois blocos incompletos, avaliando-se quatro doses de N (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg ha-1 ano-1), de P2O5 (0, 80, 160 e 240 kg ha-1 ano-1) e de K2O (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg ha-1 ano-1). Amostragens de solo e folhas foram realizadas aos 12 e 24 meses após o plantio, bem como foi avaliada a produtividade no primeiro e no segundo ano. A adubação nitrogenada não influenciou os teores de N na folha, mas diminuiu os de boro e reduziu o pH do solo no segundo ano de cultivo. A adubação fosfatada aumentou, em média, apenas 12% os teores de P nas folhas e 35 vezes no solo. A adubação potássica elevou os teores do nutriente nas folhas do maracujazeiro, e no solo a valores acima do nível ótimo. A produtividade máxima de 22,1 t ha-1, em dois anos de cultivo, foi obtida com a aplicação de 244 kg de N, 72 kg de P2O5 e 285 kg ha-1 de K2O. Abstract in english This work evaluated the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization on nutrient levels in the leaves of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) and on the chemical properties of the soil, in order to maximize yield and optimize fertilizer applications. The experime [...] nt was carried out from May/96 to April/98, on a Yellow Latosol, in Cruz das Almas city, State of Bahia, Brazil. It was used a randomized block design, in a fractionated factorial arrangement ½ of 4³, with two incompleted blocks. It was evaluated four doses of N (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1), of P2O5 (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1 year-1) and K2O (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg ha-1 year-1). Soil samples and leaves were collected at 12 and 24 months after planting. Yield was evaluated in the first and second production years. Nitrogen fertilization did not affect the N level in the leaves but decreased boron and reduced the soil pH during the second production year. Phosphorus fertilization increased, in average, only 12% of the P levels in the leaves, and 35 times in soil. Potassium fertilization increased nutrient contents in leaves and in soil over the optimum level. Maximum yield of 22 t ha-1, during two years, was obtained with application of 244 kg of N, 72 kg of P2O5 and 285 kg of K2O ha-1.

ANA LÚCIA, BORGES; RANULFO CORREA, CALDAS; ADELISE DE ALMEIDA, LIMA; ISRAEL ELY DE, ALMEIDA.

133

Competição de fórmulas NPK para a batatinha  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com objetivo de eleger a fórmula de adubo mais lucrativa para a cultura da batatinha (Solarium tuberosum, L.), realizaram-se dois experimentos na Alta Sorocabana, uma das regiões bataticultoras do Estado de São Paulo. Entraram em competição cinco fórmulas NPK (6-16-12, 5-13-9, 6-15-6, 5-10hl0 e 3-11 [...] -9). A fórmula 5-10-10 se destacou sôbre as demais nos dois ensaios, tanto na produção de batatas, comerciais como na produção total, proporcionando também, maior renda líquida. Abstract in english This paper deals with two experiments on potato fertilization carried out in a sandy soil of Alta Sorocabana region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Five NPK fertilizers (6-16-12, 3-11-9, 5-10-10, 6-15-6 and 5-13-9) were compared for two periods in a year, applying 1,650 kg per hectare of each one. The res [...] ults showed that the 5-10-10 mixture yielded more than other fertilizers, and it was economically best.

Júlio, Nakagawa; Luiz Carlos, Scoton; A. M. Louis, Neptune.

134

Soil Fertility Problems in Cetnral Rechna Doab  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the fertility status of soil in the central Rechna Doab area. Fertility of the whole Central Rechna Doab area was low, Phosphorus in particular was low in all soils, and some soil samples were Potassium deficient while few were low in nitrogen. The situation can be brought to medium fertility level by using proper amount of NPK on the basis of soil test evaluation. However, a high fertility level can only be achieved by all round efforts on scientific basis.

Muhammad Arshad

1999-01-01

135

Impact of Long-Term Fertilization Practice on Soil Structure Evolution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study characterized soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizer over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm tall) and bulk soil samples were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil properties including texture, organic carbon, soil–water characteristic, air permeability and diffusivity were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Long-term applications of AM and NPK had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 0.015 kg kg? 1 (unfertilized plot) to 0.024 kg kg? 1 (well fertilized plot, 30 T ha? 1 2y? 1 AM with NPK). Total porosity linearly followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.36 to 0.43 m3 m? 3. The water holding capacity of the soil was considerably increased with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Gas diffusivity andair permeability measurements clearly indicated that the level of soil aeration improved with increasing AM and NPK fertilizer amount. The three-dimensional X-ray CT visualizations revealed higher macroporosity and biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized areas when compared to plots without or only a small amount of fertilizer applied. A combined evaluation of the soil water characteristic, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggested that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved with increasing fertilizer amount. Furthermore, the soils fertilized with both AM and NPK showed a more aggregated structure than soils amended with AM only.

Naveed, Muhammad; MØldrup, Per

2014-01-01

136

Pengaruh Kombinasi NPK dan Pupuk Kandang terhadap Sifat Tanah dan Pertumbuhan serta Produksi Tanaman Caisim  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted in Keputran village, Tanggamus District, Lampung Province. The aim of this study was to examine a proper combination of NPK fertilizer and chicken manure for the vegetable crops, especially chinese mustard (Brassica campetris Var. Chinensis L. in order to increase the production. A randomized completely block design was used in this experiment with ten treatments and three replications. The results showed that the application of chicken manure with the dosage of less than 5 Mg ha-1 combined with NPK fertilizer did not effective to affect the increasing of growth and production of chinese mustard. Meanwhile, application of chicken manure more than 5 Mg ha-1 combined with NPK fertilizer was significantly affected the growth, production of chinese mustard and soil properties i.e. total-C, total-N, available P , exchangeable K, and humic and fulvic acid. The application of chicken manure effective to reduce NPK fertilizer. The best yield was found in using 50% of NPK fertilizer and 50% of chicken manure (10 Mg ha-1.

Sarno

2009-09-01

137

Pengaruh Kombinasi Arang Kompos Bioaktif Dan Pupuk NPK Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Suren (Toona sureni Merr) Pada Tanah Pasca Tambang Emas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

LINDRAYANA D. MANIK: Effect of Combination Charcoal Bioactive Compost and NPK Fertilizer Growth Of Seeds Suren (Toona sureni Merr) on Gold Post-Mine Land, Supervised by Deni ELFIATI and DELVIAN. Mining activities resulted in damage to the land either physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Furthermore, soil nutrient deficiency, low pH, pollution, and reduced soil microbial activity. Therefore carried out research which combines charcoal bioactive compost and NPK fertilizer applied to p...

Manik, Lindrayana Dekawati

2012-01-01

138

Multiple Equilibria between Fertility Rates and Pension Levels Based on the Target Level of Government Debt  

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Full Text Available We show that when the government has a target debt level, multiple equilibria exist in the relationship between fertility rates and pension levels. One is associated with a high fertility rate and a high pension level. The other is associated with a low fertility rate and a low pension level. If the government fails to provide adequate security for individuals during their retirement years, it would result in a failure of coordination between the government and individuals.

Hideki Nakamura

2011-11-01

139

Effects of Organic-Chemical Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Rice (Chai Nat 1  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of organic-chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer (NPK 16:16:8 on the growth and yield of rice Chai Nat 1 in Roi-Et province, Northeast Thailand. Organic-chemical fertilizer was developed from organic fertilizer 82+9.0 kg of NPK 46:0:0 + 4.5 kg of NPK 18:46:0 and 4.5 kg of NPK 0:0:60. Five treatments were compared consisting of : T1 (control without fertilizer; T2 (312.5 kg ha-1 organic-chemical fertilizer; T3 (625 kg ha-1 organic-chemical fertilizer; T4 (937.5 kg ha-1 organic-chemical fertilizer and T5 (chemical fertilizer; 312.5 kg ha-1 NPK 16:16:8. Yield of rice grains under all treatments increased between 2-4 times when compared to the control (1.37 t ha-1. In terms of statistical data, growth and yield of rice Chai Nat 1 obtained from organic-chemical and chemical fertilizers were significantly different at a confidence level of 95% to the control. Application of organic-chemical fertilizer alone showed 2-2.5 times (2.66-3.43 t ha-1 increased yield of grains over the control. However, maximum grain yield (5.57 t ha-1 was obtained from T5 (chemical fertilizer which also gave the highest all yield parameters such as number of grain per panicle (108.20, total number panicle per hill (14.82, plant height (62.48 cm and percentage of filled grain (82.17%. Excluding labor costs, even maximum grain yield obtained from chemical fertilizer was higher than those found from organic-chemical fertilizer but taking into account chemical fertilizer cost which is 3.4 times higher than organic-chemical fertilizer. Therefore, the soil amendment with organic-chemical fertilizer may be a practicable alternative for the farmers who are unable to afford the cost of chemical fertilizer. Moreover, organic-chemical fertilizer farming is more economically viable, beneficial for farmers livelihoods and environmentally friendly than those found in chemical fertilizer farming alone.

Sopit Vetayasuporn

2012-01-01

140

Pemupukan Tanaman Padi Sawah Dengan Penggunaan Azolla, Fosfat Alam dan Arang Jerami Padi Sebagai Pupuk Alternatii NPK  

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The experiment of Green House titled rice plant fertilizer in plantation by using azolla, rock phosphate and dried rice stalks as alternative fertilizer of NPK. The design of this experiment used was block randomize design non-factorial with 9 treatment and 3 replicate, so it got 27 units treatment. Each of this treatment was combined between natural fertilizer ( azpla, rock phosphate and dried rice stalks) by made fertilizer ( Urea, TSP and KG )./-\\ The results showed that combination ...

Purba, Siti Rahma

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Prostate specific antigen level in a fertilizer factory workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To find the effect of the fertilizer factory environment on serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels. Subjects and Methods: A total of 205 workers, all male, of Pak Arab Fertilizer Factory, Multan had their prostatic specific antigen (PSA) estimated. The age of the workers varied between 22 to 65 years (mean age= 48.3 plus minus 8.5 years). The people belonged to various working groups and most of them were on normal Pakistani diet. They had been residing/working in the factory area for a period varying from 5 to 30 years. PSA levels were also estimated in 118 normal persons to serve as a control group. The age of these persons varied from 19 to 64 years. These were mostly hospital staff and general public not residing in the factory area and had no history of prostatic disease. Sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay techniques were applied to measure the PSA concentrations in serum. Results: Observed PSA levels in this population were between 0.2 and 11.5 ng/ml. Overall mean PSA level was 1.9 plus minus 0.84 ng PSA/ml. Mean PSA level observed in control group was 0.73 plus minus 0.64 ng/ml (upper 95% limit was 3.2 ng/ml). Comparison of PSA levels of factory workers with values in normal subjects showed that 9 out of 205 male workers (4.3% of total) had significantly elevated levels of PSA. In 2 workers (1 % of total) observed PSA levels were above 10 ng/ml. The levels above this limit are most commonly observed in the cancer patients. Conclusi observed in the cancer patients. Conclusion: A significant proportion of the workers of the fertilizer factory are at risk of malignant and non-malignant disease of the prostate. (author)

142

Efecto de la presión de pastoreo y fertilización NPK en la producción de forraje de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero en el estado Mérida / Grazing pressure and NPK fertilization on the kikuyo-forage peanut association in Merida state. Pasture production  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la Finca Las Mesas (1.850 msnm), Jají, estado Mérida, se condujo un experimento con la finalidad de seleccionar la mejor presión de pastoreo y fertilización para la producción de forraje de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones, en parc [...] elas divididas, donde la parcela principal fue la presión de pastoreo (PPA: 800 y PPB: 1.600 kg MS residual/ha) y la secundaria los niveles de nitrógeno (0 y 200 kg/ha), fósforo (0, 150 y 300 kg P2O5/ha) y potasio (0 y 200 kg K2O/ha). Se evaluaron la oferta y el residuo, los cuales se estimaron con una curva de regresión para esta asociación (Y= -422,66 + 225,11X, donde X= altura del disco, con r² = 0,904). En la presión de pastoreo no se detectaron diferencias significativas en las variables evaluadas. Para el efecto de bloques, los potreros planos tuvieron más consumo acumulado (12.629,6 kg MS/ha), con respecto a los inclinados (5.848,3 kg MS/ha). El nitrógeno influyó significativamente en la oferta, obteniéndose un incremento promedio de 314,9 kg MS/ha/pastoreo y para casi todos los consumos, los incrementos fueron positivos, con una eficiencia de 9,03 kg MS de consumo por kg de nitrógeno aplicado, mientras que para el residuo no hubo diferencias estadísticas. El máximo efecto se encontró cuando se aplicó este macroelemento en los periodos de alta precipitación. El fósforo y el potasio no fueron significativos para las características forrajeras de la asociación; sin embargo, la tendencia de estos nutrientes fueron positivas en la mayoría de los tratamientos. Abstract in english A grazing field trail was carried out in "Las Mesas" farm (1.950 masl), Jají, Mérida state, with the purpose of selecting the best grazing pressure and fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels on the pasture production of the kikuyu-forage peanut association. A complete randomized [...] block design with three replications in a split-plot arrangement was used. Main plots (0.6 ha) were grazing pressures (HGP: 800, and LGP: 1.600 kg residual MS), and as subplots the combinations of fertilizer: nitrogen (0 and 200 kg N/ha), phosphorus (0, 150, and 300 kg P(2)0(5)/ha), and potassium (0 and 200 kg K(2)0/ha). Offered and residual pasture were estimated with an equation for this association (Y = -422,66 + 225,11X, were X = disk height, with r² = 0.904). The experimental period was 280 days. Grazing pressure did not show significant differences for the estimated variables. For blocks in flat areas pastures, more forage was consumed (12.629,6 kg DM/ha) than on the inclined ones (5.848,3 kg DM/ha). Nitrogen affected offered pasture with 314,9 kg DM/ha per grazing, and for almost all forage consumed the increments were positive with an efficiency of 9,03 kg DM consumed/kg N applied. For the residual DM, there were not significant differences. Maximum N influence was obtained when this element was applied during the raining season. The effects of phosphorus and potassium were not significant for the association, but it was a positive tendency on the offered and consumed pasture in almost all the treatments.

Ciro, Dávila; Fernando, Castro; Diannelis, Urbano.

143

Tanggap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Jagung (Zea mays L.) Varietas Pioneer-23 Terhadap Berbagai Komposisi Vermikompos dengan Pupuk Anorganik (N,P,K)  

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EFRIDA SARI NASUTION: The Response of Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) Pioneer 23 Variety on Some Compotition of Vermicompost and Anorganic Fertilizer (N,P,K), supervised by MARIATI SINURAYA and ASIL BARUS. The research has been conducted to investigate the response of growth and yield of maize on some compotition of organic (vermicompost) and anorganic (N,P,K) fertilizer at Bunga Terompet street, Sempakata village chief, Medan Selayang subdistrict head, with a height...

Nasution, Efrida Sari

2013-01-01

144

Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients / Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: I - macronutrientes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O uso de cultivares com maior potencial produtivo e a adoção de maior nível tecnológico têm possibilitado a obtenção de elevadas produtividades de grãos da cultura do feijão, o que provavelmente alterou a demanda por nutrientes dessa cultura. No entanto, quase não existem informações sobre as quanti [...] dades e as épocas do ciclo em que os nutrientes são mais exigidos pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a extração e a exportação de macronutrientes pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1- - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Sob maiores níveis de adubação NPK, ambos os cultivares apresentaram as maiores produtividades de grãos, extração e exportação de macronutrientes, porém sem diferirem entre si. Os tratamentos com 100 % da adubação NPK recomendada apresentaram maior extração de macronutrientes, com quantidades médias por hectare de 140 kg de N; 16,5 kg de P; 120 kg de K; 69 kg de Ca; 17,9 kg de Mg; e 16,3 kg de S. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por N, P, K, Ca e Mg ocorreu dos 45 aos 55 dias após emergência (DAE), ou seja, no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), enquanto as maiores taxas de absorção de S concentraram-se entre os 55 e 65 DAE. Mais de 70 % do P, entre 58 e 69 % do N, 40 e 52 % do S, 40 e 48 % do K e 35 e 45 % do Mg absorvidos ao longo do ciclo foram exportados com os grãos, enquanto menos de 15 % do Ca foi exportado Abstract in english The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most deman [...] ded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S). Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE), i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation), while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than

Rogério Peres, Soratto; Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Letícia Andriani dos, Santos; André Luiz Gomes, Job.

1027-10-01

145

Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients / Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: I - macronutrientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O uso de cultivares com maior potencial produtivo e a adoção de maior nível tecnológico têm possibilitado a obtenção de elevadas produtividades de grãos da cultura do feijão, o que provavelmente alterou a demanda por nutrientes dessa cultura. No entanto, quase não existem informações sobre as quanti [...] dades e as épocas do ciclo em que os nutrientes são mais exigidos pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a extração e a exportação de macronutrientes pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1- - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Sob maiores níveis de adubação NPK, ambos os cultivares apresentaram as maiores produtividades de grãos, extração e exportação de macronutrientes, porém sem diferirem entre si. Os tratamentos com 100 % da adubação NPK recomendada apresentaram maior extração de macronutrientes, com quantidades médias por hectare de 140 kg de N; 16,5 kg de P; 120 kg de K; 69 kg de Ca; 17,9 kg de Mg; e 16,3 kg de S. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por N, P, K, Ca e Mg ocorreu dos 45 aos 55 dias após emergência (DAE), ou seja, no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), enquanto as maiores taxas de absorção de S concentraram-se entre os 55 e 65 DAE. Mais de 70 % do P, entre 58 e 69 % do N, 40 e 52 % do S, 40 e 48 % do K e 35 e 45 % do Mg absorvidos ao longo do ciclo foram exportados com os grãos, enquanto menos de 15 % do Ca foi exportado Abstract in english The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most deman [...] ded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S). Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE), i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation), while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than

Rogério Peres, Soratto; Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Letícia Andriani dos, Santos; André Luiz Gomes, Job.

146

Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor  

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Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron), Aretit (dinoseb acetate), Gesatop 50 (simazine) was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha) on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/...

Anna Sykut; Wies?aw Wójcik

1983-01-01

147

Nitrate leaching during establishment of willow (Salix viminalis) on two soil types and at two fertilization levels  

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The production of willow in short rotation is expected to result in low nitrate leaching losses as is the case with other permanent crops. However, there is a risk of leaching of nitrate during establishment when the plant cover is limited. Nitrate leaching was followed for three years from the establishment in 1993 of willow (Salix viminalis) at two sites, a coarse sand at Jyndevad and a loamy sand at Foulum. Two levels of nitrogen, 0 or 75 kg N/ha in NPK, were applied annually, though only 38 N/ha was applied in the first year. Leaching was calculated from usually weekly measurements of the nitrate concentration in soil solution and relating with the amount of percolation based on measured precipitation and changes in the soil water content over the sampling periods. Mean leaching for the three periods 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-96 amounted to respectively 142, 61 and 0 kg N/ha at Foulum and to 130, 9 and 4 kg N/ha at Jyndevad. The high leaching in the first year was caused by an unusually high content of mineral N in the soil at the start of the experiment. The absence of any leaching 1995-96 at Foulum was due to very low precipitation and a consequent lack of percolation. For the first period (1993-94) the fertilized treatment increased leaching by 32 kg N/ha compared to no fertilizer as a mean of the two sites, while the difference for the following two periods was reduced to 1-2 kg N/ha. It is concluded that application of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of planting of willows, while in the following years 75 kg N/ha can be given without risk of increased leaching. (Author)

Mortensen, Joergen; Nielsen, Keld Hauge; Joergensen, Uffe [Research Centre Foulum, Crop Physiology and Soil Science Dept., Tjele (Denmark)

1998-12-31

148

Nitrate leaching during establishment of willow (Salix viminalis) on two soil types and at two fertilization levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of willow in short rotation is expected to result in low nitrate leaching losses as is the case with other permanent crops. However, there is a risk of leaching of nitrate during establishment when the plant cover is limited. Nitrate leaching was followed for three years from the establishment in 1993 of willow (Salix viminalis) at two sites, a coarse sand at Jyndevad and a loamy sand at Foulum. Two levels of nitrogen, 0 or 75 kg N/ha in NPK, were applied annually, though only 38 N/ha was applied in the first year. Leaching was calculated from usually weekly measurements of the nitrate concentration in soil solution and relating with the amount of percolation based on measured precipitation and changes in the soil water content over the sampling periods. Mean leaching for the three periods 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-96 amounted to respectively 142, 61 and 0 kg N/ha at Foulum and to 130, 9 and 4 kg N/ha at Jyndevad. The high leaching in the first year was caused by an unusually high content of mineral N in the soil at the start of the experiment. The absence of any leaching 1995-96 at Foulum was due to very low precipitation and a consequent lack of percolation. For the first period (1993-94) the fertilized treatment increased leaching by 32 kg N/ha compared to no fertilizer as a mean of the two sites, while the difference for the following two periods was reduced to 1-2 kg N/ha. It is concluded that application of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of planting of willows, while in the following years 75 kg N/ha can be given without risk of increased leaching. (Author)

Mortensen, Joergen; Nielsen, Keld Hauge; Joergensen, Uffe [Research Centre Foulum, Crop Physiology and Soil Science Dept., Tjele (Denmark)

1998-07-01

149

Nitrate leaching during establishment of willow (Salix viminalis) on two soil types and at two fertilization levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of willow in short rotation is expected to result in low nitrate leaching losses as is the case with other permanent crops. However, there is a risk of leaching of nitrate during establishment when the plant cover is limited. Nitrate leaching was followed for three years from the establishment in 1993 of willow (Salix viminalis) at two sites, a coarse sand at Jyndevad and a loamy sand at Foulum. Two levels of nitrogen, 0 or 75 kg N/ha in NPK, were applied annually, though only 38 N/ha was applied in the first year. Leaching was calculated from usually weekly measurements of the nitrate concentration in soil solution and relating with the amount of percolation based on measured precipitation and changes in the soil water content over the sampling periods. Mean leaching for the three periods 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-96 amounted to respectively 142, 61 and 0 kg N/ha at Foulum and to 130, 9 and 4 kg N/ha at Jyndevad. The high leaching in the first year was caused by an unusually high content of mineral N in the soil at the start of the experiment. The absence of any leaching 1995-96 at Foulum was due to very low precipitation and a consequent lack of percolation. For the first period (1993-94) the fertilized treatment increased leaching by 32 kg N/ha compared to no fertilizer as a mean of the two sites, while the difference for the following two periods was reduced to 1-2 kg N/ha. It is concluded that application of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of planting of willows, while in the following years 75 kg N/ha can be given without risk of increased leaching. (Author)

150

The Rule of Organic Fertilizer on Fertilizer Efficiency and Requirement Rate for Vegetable Crop on Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor  

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Full Text Available Utilization of organic fertilizer is an alternative to increase soil health and supply a small amount of plant nutrient. Meanwhile agricultural soil in Indonesia commonly have low organic carbon content (<2% therefore application of organic fertilizer is recommended. Based on that, the aim of the research is to measure the effectiveness of organic fertilizer on caisim (Brassica chinensis L. growth, to measure the release of N-NO3- and N-NH4+, to determine the recommendation of organic fertilizer for caisim on Incentisols Ciherang, Bogor. The research had been conducted at Research and Soil Testing Laboratory and green house of Soil Research Institute, Laladon – Bogor on April to July 2008 using soil sample of Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor. The treatments were: Control (no fertilizer, NPK, NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¾ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ½ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¼ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer 500kg, organic fertilizer 1000 kg, NPK + 750 kg organic fertilizer, and NPK + 250 kg organic fertilizer. The five replications research had been conducted with Completely Randomized Design. The result indicated thats: (1 NPK fertilizer increased with addition of organic fertilizer approved by the evidence of increasing of plant high 2-10%, leaves number 1-2%, and crop production 16-36%. The relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of treatment NPK+various rate of organic fertilizer were higher than NPK alone with value of 136-181%. (2 The release of NH4+-N and NO3--N from anorganic fertilizer (NPK treatment in four weeks incubation period showed balance proportion with N rate. Nitrogen released from organic fertilizer in the same incubation period are 5.39 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 12.39 mg NO3- -N kg-1. (3 The best organic fertilizer rate based on fertilizer curve for Inceptisols Cicadas-Bogor having low C and N-organic is 560 kg organic fertilizer + NPK (300 kg Urea ha-1; 50 kg SP-36 ha-1; 50 kg KCl ha-1 produce caisim 134 g bag-1.

Ladiyani Retno Widowati

2009-09-01

151

Efecto de la presión de pastoreo y fertilización NPK sobre la composición botánica de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero en la zona alta del estado Mérida / Grazing pressure and NPK fertilization effects on botanical composition of kikuyu grass - perennial peanut association in highlands of Mérida state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de determinar la mejor presión de pastoreo y fertilización con nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio que permita mantener un balance en la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero, se condujo un experimento en Jají, estado Mérida, Venezuela. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repetici [...] ones, en un arreglo factorial de los tratamientos en parcelas divididas, donde en la parcela principal se aplicaron dos presiones de pastoreo (PPA: 800 y PPB: 1.600 kg MS residual/ha) y en la secundaria las combinaciones de dos niveles de nitrógeno (0 y 200 kg/ha/año), tres de fósforo (0, 150 y 300 kg P2O5/ha/año) y dos de potasio (0 y 200 kg K2O/ha/año), evaluándose la composición botánica al inicio y al final del experimento. El porcentaje de kikuyo en la mezcla disminuyó un 11%, mientras que el maní forrajero incrementó un 9%. Los componentes de biomasa muerta y del pasto Cynodon sp disminuyeron en 3 y 0,79%, respectivamente. La presión de pastoreo y sus interacciones no influyeron significativamente en los diferentes componentes de la mezcla; sin embargo, la tendencia del kikuyo en la asociación fue a declinar más en la presión de pastoreo baja (13,1%) que en la alta (8,1%), mientras que el porcentaje de maní incrementó en la asociación en ambos sistemas con 12,8 y 6,1%, respectivamente. El porcentaje del kikuyo en la mezcla fue afectado por el nitrógeno (P Abstract in english To obtain the best combination of the grazing pressure and fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium that allow a good balance in the species kikuyu grass-perennial peanut association, a field grazing experiment was conducted in Jají, Mérida state, Venezuela. A complete randomized block [...] design was used, with three replications. The treatments were a factorial in a split plot arrangement. Two grazing pressures were applied to main plots (HGP: 800 and LGP: 1600 kg residual DM/ha) and two levels of nitrogen (0 and 200 kg N/ha), three of phosphorus (0, 150, and 300 kg P2O5), and two of potassium (0 and 200 kg K2O/ha) were applied to sub-plots. Botanical composition was estimated at the beginning and the end of the trial. Percent of kikuyu grass in the mixture decreased 11%, while perennial peanut increased in 9%. Also, dead material and the grass Cynodon sp decreased 3 and 0.79%, respectively. The grazing pressure factor and its interactions were not significant, but the tendency for the components of the association was that kikuyu grass decreased 13.1% in the LGP and 8.1% in HGP, but perennial peanut increased in both systems 12.8% and 6.1%, respectively. Nitrogen application and N x K interaction were significant (P

Diannelis, Urbano; Fernando, Castro; Ciro, Dávila.

152

Impact of Various Combinations of NPK on the Growth, Yield and Quality Parameters of Rose  

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Full Text Available A trial was conducted to observe the effect of various combinations of NPK on the performance of rose, during the year 1996-97. The data was recorded and analyzed for plant growth yield and quality attributes. The data recorded in this trail indicates that days to sprouting, number of branches per bush and days to flowering were non-significant. Whereas, all other parameters remained significant with different doses of NPK fertilizers. Maximum flowers per plant (20 Flowers, longest pedicle length (5.85 cm, largest flower size (8.08 cm and maximum petals per flower (50.38 were recorded in T6 treatment viz. (20-00-12 gm of NPK per plant. Maximum flower duration (4.45 days and flower vase life (3.08 days were also recorded in the same treatment.

Abdul Ghaffoor

2000-01-01

153

Influência da adubação foliar com NPK, na cultura algodoeira (G. hirsutum L. var. IAC-12), sobre a qualidade da fibra e da semente / Effect of foliar fertilization with NPK on the quality of fiber and seed of a cotton crop (G. hirsutum L., IAC-12, var.)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Aplicações de fertilizantes por via foliar e ao solo foram comparados na cultura algodoeira, utilizando-se a variedade IAC-12, com a finalidade de se estudar uma influência sobre alguns caracteres físicos da fibra e da semente. Tanto na adubação ao solo, como na foliar, foram utilizados como fonte d [...] e nitrogênio, a uréia (46%N), como fonte de fósforo, o superfosfato concentrado (45% P2O2) e como fonte de potássio, o cloreto de potássio (60% K2O). Os resultados obtidos mostram que entre as características físicas da análise da fibra, encontrou-se um efeito positivo no comprimento da fibra, resistência da fibra, resistência do fio e maior peso de semente (índice de semente) quando o cloreto de potássio foi aplicado por via foliar. Quanto à uniformidade da fibra e ao índice de finura, não houve influência da adubação foliar com nenhum dos três elementos. Nestes casos, a adubação ao solo, proporcionou melhores resultados. Deve-se ressaltar que com a dose mais alta de fósforo (60 kg de P2O5/ha), o valor do índice de finura foi maior. O adubo nitrogenado na dose de 40 kg de N/ha, influenciou na resistência da fibra (Pressley). Abstract in english Fertilizers treatments, either by foliar spraying or by soil applications were compared in the cotton crop using the IAC-12 variety with the aim of studying the effects of fertilizers on some physical characteristics of the fibre and the seed. The experiment was carried out on a latossol called «Ter [...] ra Roxa Estruturada", at the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz of the University of São Paulo, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Urea (46% Í), concentrated superphosphate (45% P2O5), potassium chloride (60% K2O) have been used as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium sources, respectively. The results showed a positive effect on the fiber lenght, fiber strength, the skein strength of cotton yarns and higher seed weight (seed index), when potassium chloride has been sprayed on the leaves. In respect to the uniformitty of the fibre, and fiber fineness (fineness index), there was no influence of the foliar fertilization with none of the three macronutrients; best results have been obtained with the soil application of fertilizers. It must be pointed ou that with the higher rate of phosphorus (60 kg P2O5/ha) the fineness index value was igher. The rate of nitrogen (40 kg/ha) influenced the fiber-strength index, as determined by from Pressley index.

Julio Pedro Laca, Buendia; A. M. Louis, Neptune.

154

Vegetative Growth, Yield Components and Seed Yield Response of Inoculated and Un-inoculated Soybean Regard to Fertility Regimes  

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Full Text Available Field trials were performed during summer, 1990, 1991 and 1993 at agronomy experimental field, Agriculture Research Institute, Tando Jam. Soybean seed inoculated and with Rhizobium japonicum and un-inoculated were sown and treated with various NPK levels (0-0-0, 50-25-0, 50-50-0, 75-75-0, 75-100-0, and 75-100-50 kg NPK-ha. Days to maturity, branches, pods, seeds/pod, seeds weight, seed index and seed yield-ha affected significantly (p<0.01 by inoculation treatment during all three seasons. Seed inoculation resulted significantly improved growth and yield, the increase in yield was associated with the increase of all yield components. Similarly, fertilizer regimes had pronounced effect on all the characters studied. Application of 75-100-50 kg NPK-ha improved growth and yield attributes which in turn caused more yield-ha in each season. It may be argued that soybean seed may be inoculated and fertilized with 75-100-50 kg NPK-ha to get better yield, assuming that all soils have an equal initial fertility level.

Lubna S. Rajput

2001-01-01

155

Influence of NPK on yield and chemical components of sunflower/ Efeito de NPK na produtividade e componentes químicos do girassol  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the NPK influence on yield and oil, proteins and phytochemical contents in sunflower grain and to explore the potential of mathematical model of marginal contributions of fertilization effects. The field experiment was conducted in 33 incomplete factorial model, in two randomized blocks, with 15 parcels for block. The treatments were zero, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 of N, P and K. The achene yield increased with fertilizer doses until 55 kg of N ha-1, 41 kg ha-1of K2O and 46 kg ha-1of P2O5. The achene oil content answered positively to increased K2O and P2O5. Proteins content decreases as K2O rate increases. No influence of the fertilization was observed in concentrations of chlorogenic acid, total sterols and total phosphorus on achene.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adubação NPK na produtividade e teores de óleo, proteínas e fitoquímicos no girassol e explorar o potencial do modelo matemático nas contribuições marginais dos efeitos da adubação. O ensaio de campo foi conduzido em um modelo fatorial incompleto 33, em dois blocos casualizados, com 15 parcelas por bloco, onde se empregou os níveis zero, 30 e 60 kg ha-1 de N, P e K. Observou-se aumento de produtividade de aquênios com doses estimadas de até 55 kg de N ha-1, 41 kg ha-1 de K2O e 46 kg ha-1de P2O5. O teor de óleo nos aquênios aumentou com incremento de K2O e P2O5 e o teor de proteínas diminuiu com incremento de K2O. Não foram observadas influências da adubação sobre os teores de ácido clorogênio, esterois totais e fósforo total nos aquênios.

Juliane Priscila Diniz Sachs

2006-06-01

156

Parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro  

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Um experimento foi desenvolvido em Agudos (SP), num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne'. Foram estudados os seguintes esquemas de fracionamento da adubação NPK: T1 (testemunha) -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 120, em nov/95; 250, em jan/96 e 120, em mar/96); T2 -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 120, em nov...

TEIXEIRA LUIZ ANTONIO JUNQUEIRA; SPIRONELLO ADEMAR; FURLANI PEDRO ROBERTO; SIGRIST JOSÉ MARIA MONTEIRO

2002-01-01

157

Efecto de la fertilización química, orgánica y combinada sobre el rendimiento de la papa variedad Granola / Effect of the fertilization chemical, organic and combined on the yield of variety Granola  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cultivo de la papa, Solanum tuberosum L., demanda un alto uso de insumos agrícolas entre los que destacan los fertilizantes químicos (FQ) y enmiendas orgánicas (EO), las cuales alcanzan en muchos casos un alto porcentaje en los costos de producción, por lo que se hace necesario buscar estrategias [...] de manejo que disminuya el valor de la fertilización. En la Aldea Pernía, municipio Vargas del estado Táchira, se condujo un experimento en papa, variedad Granola a 1.900 m.s.n.m., precipitación promedio de 900 mm, temperatura entre 12 y 17ºC, zona de vida (B-h-p) según Holdridge, suelo Fa, Orthends, donde se evaluaron dos manejos de fertilización, cinco tipos de FQ: Testigo con cero aplicación; NPK; NPK + Mg; NPK + Mg+B y NPK+B a tres niveles de fertilización orgánica (FO): 0; 5 y 10 t.ha-1 de gallinaza (abono orgánico; AO) con tres repeticiones. Se determinó el efecto de la FQ, EO y combinada sobre el rendimiento de esta variedad. Los resultados indican que el mayor se obtuvo en el tratamiento NPK+Mg (38,39 t.ha-1) seguido del NPK+B (36 t.ha-1) con el nivel 5 t.ha-1 de la AO (P?0,01). No hubo diferencias significativas (P?0,01) al aplicar 5 y 10 t.ha-1 (34,77 y 36,10 t.ha-1, respectivamente). Sin embargo, este nivel de 0 t.ha-1 es menor 22,55 t.ha-1. El mejor resultado se encontró cuando se aplica el FQ y la EO al momento de la siembra Abstract in english In Venezuela, the production of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., normally requires the applications of great amount of mineral fertilizers (OF), and organic amendments (OA) which represent an important part of the production costs of this crop. So it is necessary to develop strategies to decrease its u [...] se. We carried out an experiment in the town of Pernia, Vargas county in Tachira State, to evaluate the response of potato (variety Granola) to the application of 5 treatment of chemical fertilization (testwithout fertilizer; NPK, NPK+Mg; NPK+Mg+B and NPK+B) and 3 levels of organic fertilization (0, 5 and 10 t.ha-1 of chicken manure), with 3 repetitions for each combination. The experimental site is located at 1.900 masl, with a mean annual precipitation of 900 mm, and air temperature between 12 and 17 ºC. The soil is classified as Orthends. The results showed that the greatest yield was found with the application of NPK+Mg (38.39 t.ha-1), followed by the treatment of NPK+B (35.90 t.ha-1) and 5 t.ha-1 of chicken manure (P?0,01). The split of the organic and mineral fertilizer doses does not improve the yield of potato, when compared against the application of the whole dose of fertilizer at the sowing time. Also, there were not significant differences in the potato yield when it was fertilized with five and 10 t of chicken manure (34.77 y 36.10 t.ha-1, respectively), however at the level of 0 t.ha-1 of chicken manure the yield is smaller 22.55 t.ha-1. When placing the chemical fertilizer and the organic amendment were splitted, yield not different from the whole dose application at the time of seedtime

Karen, Arias; Olga, Arnaude de Chacón.

158

[Effects of long-term fertilization on evolution of S forms in a red soil and a black soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur (S) forms in two contrasting soils (a red soil and a black soil) under different long-term fertilization treatments (from 1990 to 2011) from the National Long-term Monitoring Network of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Effects of China were investigated using a fractionation scheme in order to explore the distribution and transportation of S with different forms in the soils. The soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) horizons that were treated with no fertilizers (CK), nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers (NPK), or NPK plus organic manures (MNPK) since 1990. The results indicated that when compared with the CK, total S contents in the topsoil layers treated with NPK and MNPK were increased by 42% and 33% for the red soil, and by 6% and 76% for the black soil, respectively, while the total S in the subsoil layer was less affected by the fertilization treatments and obviously lower than in the topsoil layer except for the red soil treated with NPK. The main forms of inorganic S in the red soil and black soil were found to be available S and HCl-extracted S, respectively. The application of NPK and MNPK increased the available S by 447% and 102% in the topsoil layer of the red soil compared with CK, and facilitated the transportation of available S into the lower depth. In contrast, NPK and MNPK only increased the available S by 54% and 93% in the topsoil layer of the black soil, and showed a slight influence on available S in the subsoil. The organic S forms were predominantly composed of ester S and residual S in the two soils. Under long-term fertilization, the residual S significantly increased over 32% and 55% in the topsoil and subsoil layers, respectively, compared with CK. The ester S and carbon-bonded S, which were relatively active, were less affected by the fertilization treatments, but positively related to the level of organic carbon in each soil (P < 0.05). In addition, the results from the long-term experiments indicated that the contribution of S input from atmospheric deposition was significant and should not be neglected. PMID:25011301

Xu, Chuang; Wang, Song-Shan; Li, Ju-Mei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Sun, Wen-Tao; Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shu-Zhen

2014-04-01

159

Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e níveis de adubação sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato em folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 Different planting spacings and fertilization levels on the activity of nitrate reductase in leaves of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e de níveis de adubação NPK sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato (RN nas folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 , visando a sugerir possível ajuste em seu manejo de adubação nitrogenada, no sentido de maximizar a eficiência do uso do nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., no município de Linhares - ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,8 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,7 m, cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão; A2 = 100% padrão da empresa; A3 = 120% do padrão; A4 = 140% do padrão, e A5 = 160% do padrão e cinco períodos de avaliação (meses de março a julho. O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N, superfosfato simples (18% de P e cloreto de potássio (60% de K, respectivamente. Os dados obtidos para a atividade da RN foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e teste de médias. Dentre os tratamentos testados, o nível A1 (80% do padrão, independentemente do espaçamento, poderia ser indicado no manejo do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01, pois em todos eles a atividade da redutase do nitrato, em praticamente todos os períodos avaliados, apresentou valores adequados, ou até mesmo superiores aos encontrados na literatura em cultivares de mamoeiro. A redução da adubação NPK pôde ser justificada, uma vez que não houve diferença na produtividade das plantas entre os tratamentos avaliados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different planting spacings and levels of NPK manuring on the activity of the nitrate reductase (NR in the leaves of the papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, aiming to suggest possible adjustment in the handling of nitrogen fertilization, in the sense of maximizing the efficiency of the use of the nitrogen. The experiment was driven in the Caliman Agrícola S.A. farm, in the municipal district of Linhares- ES. A complete block design, factorial, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1.8 m, E2 = 2.25 m and E3 = 2.7 m, five levels of NPK conventional manuring (A1 = 80% of the standard, A2 = 100% of the company standard, A3 = 120% of the standard, A4 = 140% of the standard and A5 = 160% of the standard and five evaluation periods ( from March to July was used. The standard of the company NPK manuring consists of 350, 105 and 660 Kg ha-1year -1 of sulfate of ammonium (20% of N, simple superphosphate (18% of P and potassium chloride (60% of K, respectively. The data obtained for the activity of NR were submitted to a variance analysis and average test. Among the tested treatments, A1 (80% of standard, independent of the spacing, could be indicated in the handling of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, because in all of them the activity of the nitrate reductase in, practically, all of the appraised periods, presented appropriate values, or even, superiors to the ones found in the literature for the papaya tree. The reduction of NPK fertilization could be justified, once that did not have difference in the productivity of the plants among the evaluated treatments.

Renata Venturim Fontes

2010-12-01

160

Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation  

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Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i) whithout fertilize...

SUPRIYADI; MUJIYATI

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Growth Response of Cotton Cultivars under Different N P Fertilizer Levels  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted at Cotton research section, Agriculture research institute Tando Jam, The experimental was in RCBD with three Replications. Treatments comprised of three Cotton cultivars (TH- 41/83, TH- 35/83 and Rehmani and 10 fertilizer levels. The result indicated that the plant height was significantly affected by NP fertilizer level. All NP levels increased plant height over control. The sympodial branches were significantly affected by NP fertilizer levels. The combination of NP Levels resulted Greater number of bolls per plant over control.

Z. A. Abbasi

2002-01-01

162

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Crop Fertilization and Soil Fertility in the Loess Plateau in China from the 1970s to the 2000s  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

2014-01-01

163

Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status  

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Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

Alexandra Tragaki

2014-07-01

164

The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

165

Response of Wheat Yield Components to Type of N-Fertilizer, their Levels and Application Time  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of N-type fertilizers on the yielding components of wheat (Triticum aestivm L., applied at sowing, vegetative and boot stage. Spike population and number of grains per spike had a significant linear increased with increase in fertilizer levels. Grain weight remained unaffected by fertilizer levels. Types of fertilizer (Ammonium sulphate and Ammonium nitrate had no significant effect on spike population, number of grain and 1000 grain weight. Split dose (50 kg N ha-1 of fertilizer application at sowing and vegetative stage (S1 + S2 or at vegetative and boot stage (S2 + S3 significantly increased number of productive tillers per unit area. Generally 50 kg N ha-1 applied at boot stage increased grain weight, while number of grains per spike showed no response to split application at any growth stage.

Mohammad Tariq Jan

2000-01-01

166

Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates  

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Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that, from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1, since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1.

Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

2012-06-01

167

Calagem e adubação mineral e orgânica do cafeeiro na região de Campinas / Liming and mineral and organic fertilization of coffee tree at Campinas Region, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Instalou-se um experimento com cafeeiro cultivar Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 em um latossolo roxo transição para latossolo vermelho-amarelo orto, cuja vegetação original era típica de cerrado, na região de Campinas, comparando-se os tratamentos com esterco de curral e adubação mineral NPK, complementados [...] ou não com calcário dolomítico e com os micronutrientes zinco e boro. Aplicaram-se, por ano e por cova, 40 litros de esterco quando na ausência de NPK e 20 litros quando com NPK. A adubação mineral constou da utilização de 120 g de N, 40 g de P2O5 e 120 g de K2O por ano e por cova; quando em presença de esterco, usou-se metade dessas doses. O calcário foi aplicado na quantidade de 1 kg por ano e por cova, e zinco e boro, na quantidade de 20 g de sulfato de zinco e 20 g de bórax, também por cova e por ano. A análise das produções de café beneficiado no período de 1965 a 1970 permitiu constatar que a testemunha e o tratamento com NPK foram significativamente inferiores aos demais. Destacaram-se com as melhores produções os tratamentos que receberam esterco mais NPK, com ou sem calcário. Nas análises de solos, constatou-se aumento nas bases quando foi aplicado o esterco e, em contrapartida, aumento de acidez com o tratamento de NPK. As análises das folhas mostraram efeitos sobre teores de alumínio e manganês coerentes com os dados obtidos nas produções e análises do solo. Abstract in english Experiments with mineral and organic manure were carried out in a Red Latosolic Soil Transition to Orto Red Yellow Latosolic Soil at Campinas region with Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 coffee tree cultivar. The treatments with manure was compared with the treatments with mineral fertilizers of NPK with or wi [...] thout lime or micronutrients zinc and boron. The analyses of coffee production data showed that the treatments with mineral fertilizers and the test treatment with no fertilizer, had the lowest productions. The treatments with manure and NPK with or without lime had better production than other treatments. The soil analyses showed high levels of bases on the manure treatments and high acidity on the NPK treatments. The leaf analyses confirmed the results of the effects of the treatments on the aluminium and manganese contents.

Genésio da Silva, Cervellini; Toshio, Igue; Sérgio Vasco de, Toledo.

168

Calagem e adubação mineral e orgânica do cafeeiro na região de Campinas Liming and mineral and organic fertilization of coffee tree at Campinas Region, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento com cafeeiro cultivar Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 em um latossolo roxo transição para latossolo vermelho-amarelo orto, cuja vegetação original era típica de cerrado, na região de Campinas, comparando-se os tratamentos com esterco de curral e adubação mineral NPK, complementados ou não com calcário dolomítico e com os micronutrientes zinco e boro. Aplicaram-se, por ano e por cova, 40 litros de esterco quando na ausência de NPK e 20 litros quando com NPK. A adubação mineral constou da utilização de 120 g de N, 40 g de P2O5 e 120 g de K2O por ano e por cova; quando em presença de esterco, usou-se metade dessas doses. O calcário foi aplicado na quantidade de 1 kg por ano e por cova, e zinco e boro, na quantidade de 20 g de sulfato de zinco e 20 g de bórax, também por cova e por ano. A análise das produções de café beneficiado no período de 1965 a 1970 permitiu constatar que a testemunha e o tratamento com NPK foram significativamente inferiores aos demais. Destacaram-se com as melhores produções os tratamentos que receberam esterco mais NPK, com ou sem calcário. Nas análises de solos, constatou-se aumento nas bases quando foi aplicado o esterco e, em contrapartida, aumento de acidez com o tratamento de NPK. As análises das folhas mostraram efeitos sobre teores de alumínio e manganês coerentes com os dados obtidos nas produções e análises do solo.Experiments with mineral and organic manure were carried out in a Red Latosolic Soil Transition to Orto Red Yellow Latosolic Soil at Campinas region with Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 coffee tree cultivar. The treatments with manure was compared with the treatments with mineral fertilizers of NPK with or without lime or micronutrients zinc and boron. The analyses of coffee production data showed that the treatments with mineral fertilizers and the test treatment with no fertilizer, had the lowest productions. The treatments with manure and NPK with or without lime had better production than other treatments. The soil analyses showed high levels of bases on the manure treatments and high acidity on the NPK treatments. The leaf analyses confirmed the results of the effects of the treatments on the aluminium and manganese contents.

Genésio da Silva Cervellini

1994-01-01

169

Effect Of Urea, Superphosphate, Potash And Npk On Soil Respiration ( Carbon Dioxide Evolution From Soil  

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Full Text Available Soil microorganisms have been reported for maintaining the soil fertility by breaking down of organic matter and release of carbon dioxide, which is a measure of soil respiration, during their metabolic activities. But due to excessive use of agrochemicals, the populations of these beneficial microorganisms are declining which may decrease the fertility status of soil. Several studies were conducted on the toxic impact of some pesticides on soil respiration.On contrary, few studies were conducted on the effect of fertilizer on soil respiration and no specific result could be found out. So the present experiment was undertaken to find out effect of the most common fertilizer (Urea, Superphosphate, Potash and NPK on soil respiration. The CO evolution reached a highest peak within 15 2days of the experiment and then gradually started decreasing and finally became stabilize when compare with the control sample

Anindita Bhattacharya

2013-11-01

170

ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS  

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Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T. Singh et al. (1974, Singh (1964, Bhattacharya (1986,Pathak (1999 and Khan and Raeside (1998 have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980 considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

S.B.Bhardwaj

2009-01-01

171

Wheat Response to Fertilizer Application Techniques and Nitrogen Levels: II. Crop Growth and Yield Attributes  

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Field experiment was conducted to evaluate difference among various levels of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer, its application techniques and their interaction on the growth, yield components and yield of wheat. Treatments of N fertilizer application techniques, viz., broadcast and side-dressing were allocated to main-plots and nitrogen levels, viz., 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg N/ha were placed in sub-plots. This experiment was repeated for two years with the same treatments. Results revea...

Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Qudrat Ullah Khan; Muhammed Safdar Baloch; Abdul Aziz Khakwani; Muhammed Ayyaz Khan; Inayat Ullah Awan; Ejaz Ahmed Khan; Ghazanfar Ullah; Kashif Wasim; Ghulam Jilani; Muhammad Mohib Ullah

2013-01-01

172

Investigation of NPK in fertilized and unfertilized vegetables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contents of selected minerals and moisture in Ridge Gourd, Gourd and Brinjal vegetables, collected from house and market of different localities, were determined. In house vegetables from kitchen garden of PCSIR colony the moisture contents were high (90%) as compared to market vegetables of Taj Bagh, Railway workshop Mandy and Singpura Lahore Mandy was 87%, 86.5% and 87.5% respectively. Regarding nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sodium and potassium was high in market vegetables as compared to house samples due to the accumulation of nutrients in soil and crop. (author)

173

Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions. PMID:23562689

Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

2013-06-01

174

Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation  

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Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i whithout fertilizer as the control, (ii with manure fertilizer, and (iii with NPK fertilizer. Data was experimentally collected by planting chili in several plots treated by manure, with three replications. The field experiment was conducted in Gathak Village, Karangnongko Sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java. The data collected consist of the total population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, nitrogen content in soil and the chili yield. The primary data of research were analyzed using ANOVA test and followed by LSD test, with the degree of significance by 95% .The results showed that the manure fertilizer can increase the population of bacteria as many as 0.02% (Azotobacter and 0.46% (Azospirillum when they were compared to the control one. So that it can increase the soil fertility when they were used in long time. Therefore increasing the nutrient availability in the soil was occurred. Application of manure fertilizer could increase the total nitrogen content in the soil and it is very useful for the fertilizing of plants.

SUPRIYADI

2009-07-01

175

Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940?1950  

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Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940?1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30?34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59?69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

Jessica Nisén

2014-07-01

176

Estimation of gamma radiation levels in the environs of fertilizer stockyards of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India using thermoluminescence dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate and potash fertilizers are known for having higher concentrations of radionuclides and thus fertilizer stockyard environment might have higher radiation levels than that of outside natural background radiation. An attempt has been made to estimate the gamma radiation levels using thermoluminescence dosimeters and ?R-survey meter in different fertilizer stockyards in Hyderabad, India. (author)

177

Community-level education accelerates the cultural evolution of fertility decline.  

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Explaining why fertility declines as populations modernize is a profound theoretical challenge. It remains unclear whether the fundamental drivers are economic or cultural in nature. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests that community-level characteristics, for example average education, can alter how low-fertility preferences are transmitted and adopted. These assumptions have not been empirically tested. Here, we show that community-level education accelerates fertility decline in a way that is neither predicted by individual characteristics, nor by the level of economic modernization in a population. In 22 high-fertility communities in Poland, fertility converged on a smaller family size as average education in the community increased-indeed community-level education had a larger impact on fertility decline than did individual education. This convergence was not driven by educational levels being more homogeneous, but by less educated women having fewer children than expected, and more highly educated social networks, when living among more highly educated neighbours. The average level of education in a community may influence the social partners women interact with, both within and beyond their immediate social environments, altering the reproductive norms they are exposed to. Given a critical mass of highly educated women, less educated neighbours may adopt their reproductive behaviour, accelerating the pace of demographic transition. Individual characteristics alone cannot capture these dynamics and studies relying solely on them may systematically underestimate the importance of cultural transmission in driving fertility declines. Our results are inconsistent with a purely individualistic, rational-actor model of fertility decline and suggest that optimization of reproduction is partly driven by cultural dynamics beyond the individual. PMID:24500166

Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

2014-03-22

178

Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml) was significantly [...] higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml) (p value

Abasalt Hosseinzadeh, Colagar; Mehdi, Pouramir; Eisa Tahmasbpour, Marzony; Sayed Gholam Ali, Jorsaraei.

1387-13-01

179

Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml) was significantly [...] higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml) (p value

Abasalt Hosseinzadeh, Colagar; Mehdi, Pouramir; Eisa Tahmasbpour, Marzony; Sayed Gholam Ali, Jorsaraei.

180

Effects of fertilization regimes on tea yields, soil fertility, and soil microbial diversity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Fertilization is an important agricultural practice for increasing crop yields and influencing soil properties. A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2006-2011 in southeastern China, to investigate the effects of fertilization regimes on tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) yields, soil c [...] hemical properties, and soil bacterial and fungal communities. The field experiment included six treatments: (1) unfertilized control (CON); (2) chemical fertilizers (NPK); (3) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure (1/2NPKOM); (4) organic manure fertilizers (OM); (5) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure plus legume stover returned (1/2NPKOM+L), and (6) chemical fertilizers plus legume stover returned (NPKL). Results showed that, compared to the control, NPK treatment showed no significant effect on soil organic matter (SOM), total N (TN), total P (TP), total K (TK), available N (AN), available K (AK) and tea yields, but showed the lowest bacterial Shannon index of 1.714 and the lowest value of 2.002 for fungal Shannon index. Organic manure treatment had the richest diversity of soil bacterial community with Shannon index of 2.542, and the highest levels of soil essential nutrients, including SOM (30.03%), TN (2.90 g kg-1), TP (1.35 g kg-1), AN (245.30 mg kg-1), AP (57.00 mg kg-1), and AK (271.80 mg kg-1), followed by 1/2NPKOM+L, which appeared the maximal tea yields of 6772 kg ha-1. Organic manure amendment was a key factor in determining soil properties and productivity. Base on soil quality and tea yields, both OM and 1/2NPKOM+L treatments were recommended as better choices of fertilization practices for tea soils in southeastern China. These findings provided a better understanding of the importance of fertilizations in promoting soil fertility, crop yields, and altering soil microbial diversity, leading to selection of scientific fertilization practices for sustainable development of agroecosystems.

Shan-Lian, Qiu; Li-Min, Wang; Dong-Feng, Huang; Xin-Jian, Lin.

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effects of fertilization regimes on tea yields, soil fertility, and soil microbial diversity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Fertilization is an important agricultural practice for increasing crop yields and influencing soil properties. A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2006-2011 in southeastern China, to investigate the effects of fertilization regimes on tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) yields, soil c [...] hemical properties, and soil bacterial and fungal communities. The field experiment included six treatments: (1) unfertilized control (CON); (2) chemical fertilizers (NPK); (3) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure (1/2NPKOM); (4) organic manure fertilizers (OM); (5) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure plus legume stover returned (1/2NPKOM+L), and (6) chemical fertilizers plus legume stover returned (NPKL). Results showed that, compared to the control, NPK treatment showed no significant effect on soil organic matter (SOM), total N (TN), total P (TP), total K (TK), available N (AN), available K (AK) and tea yields, but showed the lowest bacterial Shannon index of 1.714 and the lowest value of 2.002 for fungal Shannon index. Organic manure treatment had the richest diversity of soil bacterial community with Shannon index of 2.542, and the highest levels of soil essential nutrients, including SOM (30.03%), TN (2.90 g kg-1), TP (1.35 g kg-1), AN (245.30 mg kg-1), AP (57.00 mg kg-1), and AK (271.80 mg kg-1), followed by 1/2NPKOM+L, which appeared the maximal tea yields of 6772 kg ha-1. Organic manure amendment was a key factor in determining soil properties and productivity. Base on soil quality and tea yields, both OM and 1/2NPKOM+L treatments were recommended as better choices of fertilization practices for tea soils in southeastern China. These findings provided a better understanding of the importance of fertilizations in promoting soil fertility, crop yields, and altering soil microbial diversity, leading to selection of scientific fertilization practices for sustainable development of agroecosystems.

Shan-Lian, Qiu; Li-Min, Wang; Dong-Feng, Huang; Xin-Jian, Lin.

182

Yield of Maize Hybrid-3335 as Affected by NP Levels  

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Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to see the effect of different NP levels on maize hybrid "3335". The fertilizer levels were 90-90-90, 90-120-90, 90-150-90, 150-90-90, 150-120-90, 150-150-90, 210-90-90, 210-120-90, and 210-150-90 Kg ha -1 NPK including control having no fertilizer. The results revealed that maximum plant height (175.8 cm, number of cobs/plant (2.067, number of grains/cob (374.3, 1000-grain weight (226.5 g, Biological yield (15.42 t ha -1, and grain yield (48.08 t ha -1 was obtained by the application of NPK @ 210-120-90 kg ha -1. This level proved to be the optimum for maize crop under local conditions of Dera Ismail Khan.

M. Ayyaz Khan

1999-01-01

183

Influence of Various Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90 kg ha -1 and phosphorus (0, 30, 60 kg ha -1 with a constant dose of potash (30 kg ha -1 on the growth and yield of chilli cultivar, sanam. The fertilizers used for nitrogen, phosphorus and potash were urea (46 % N, single super phosphate (18 % P2O5 and potassium sulphate (50 % K2O. The data recorded revealed that there was a significant difference in days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of branches per plant, plant height (cm, number of fruits per plant, length of fruit (cm and total yield (kg ha -1. Minimum days to flowering (42 days and days to fruiting (54 days were recorded in plots fertilized with (30-60-30 kg NPK ha -1 and (30-30-30 kg NPK ha -1 respectively. Maximum number of branches per plant (10.00, plant height (98.27 cm, number of fruits per plant (51.73 and total yield (7679.66 kg ha -1 was recorded in plots fertilized with 90-60-30 kg NPK ha -1. However, maximum length of fruit was recorded at fertilizer level of 60-30-30 kg NPK ha -1. The differences in survival %age and single fruit weight were non significant. It is suggested that chilli cv. sanam should be fertilized with 90-60-30 kg NPK ha -1 under the agroclimatic conditions of Peshawar.

Nisar Naeem

2002-01-01

184

Pengaruh Pemberian Gibberellin (GA3) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Terung (Solanum melongena L.)  

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The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of gibberellin (G As) and NPK compound fertilizer on growth and production of eggplant (Solatium melongena L.), took place in experiment area of Agriculture Department, North Sumatera, Medan, from Mei until September 2004. This experiment was carried out by using a completely randomized design factorial with three replications. The first factor was gibberellin (GA3) (Go = 0 ppm, Gi = 10 ppm, G2 = 20 ppm, G3 = 30 ppm) and the second factor...

Lubis, Amina Febby A.

2012-01-01

185

Amelioration of NPK on Metals Polluted Bare and Vegetated Sites of Trelogan Mine  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Trelogan lead/zinc mine waste in North Wales, England with the amelioration of N, P, K. NP, NK, PK and NPK in bare and vegetated areas. In seven treated plots of bare mine area, the seedlings of three species, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris and Anthoxanthum odoratum differed significantly (p = 0.01. Similarly dry weight of four species, F. rubra, A. capillaris, A. odoratum and Cladonia sp. (a lichen in vegetated treated plots also differed significantly (p = 0.001. Fertilizers did not differed significantly in both bare and vegetated areas.

M. Anwer

2001-01-01

186

Halophytes and Foliar Fertilization as a Useful Technique for Growing Processing Tomatoes in the Saline Affected Soils  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to grow processing tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Heinz in saline-affected soil of Suez, Egypt compared to others grown on non-saline soil. The work was dimensioned to take advantage of the high potentiality of the wild grown halophyte Zygophyllum coccinium in reducing soil salinity to a tolerable level for tomatoes to produce a satisfactory yield. To avoid salinity increase by adding macronutrient fertilizers to soil, tomato plants grown after Zygophyllum harvest were sprayed with NPK as a complementary technique to meet the plant nutritional requirements. Results showed that growing Zygophyllum sown two months before tomato transplanting could reduce 72.2% of the total soluble salts of the surface layer, lowering EC of the soil suspension by 67.3% and Mg++, Na+ and Cl-ion-concentrations by 77.3, 65 and 69.4%, respectively. As the plants received NPK as foliar fertilization, concentrations of K, Ca and Mg in stems and leaves as well as K and Ca in the fruits were increased. Macronutrients foliar feeding could also decrease concentrations of the harmful ions Na+ and Cl- in the tissues of plants grown on saline affected soil compared to those received no fertilization. Plants grown under saline affected soil conditions produced nearly one-half of the yield produced by those grown under the same soil conditions but received NPK foliar treatments or those grown under non-saline soil conditions and received no fertilization. However, the highest yield was obtained by the plants grown on non-saline soil and received NPK-foliar feeding

Mahmoud M. Shaaban

2004-01-01

187

Effects of fertilization on nitrogen mineralization in soils of the Thyrow soil fertility experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ammonification and nitrification in soil from three variants of the Thyrow soil fertility experiment (NPK, NPK + farmyard manure, NPK + 2 x farmyard manure) were investigated using 15N-ammonium sulfate, liquid manure, slurry, and straw is an incubation experiment (100, 150, 20 0C over 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to the 44-year differentiated fertilization, basic ammonification changes and differs in favor of the variants under farmyard manuring. The differences in the carbon contents of the three plots show particularities specific to the fertilizer and have effects on the mineralization of the fertilizer nitrogen. Nitrogen transformation processes are most intensive in the soil supplied with high amounts of farmyard manure. (author)

188

Wheat Response to Fertilizer Application Techniques and Nitrogen Levels: II. Crop Growth and Yield Attributes  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to evaluate difference among various levels of Nitrogen (N fertilizer, its application techniques and their interaction on the growth, yield components and yield of wheat. Treatments of N fertilizer application techniques, viz., broadcast and side-dressing were allocated to main-plots and nitrogen levels, viz., 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg N/ha were placed in sub-plots. This experiment was repeated for two years with the same treatments. Results revealed that nitrogen application techniques had non-significant impact on most of the crop parameters except count of fertile tillers. Various rates of nitrogen showed significant influence on all the parameters under study and showed significantly higher grain yield of wheat with successive increase of dose up to 180 kg N/ha. Maximum plant height and biological yield were obtained under the highest nitrogen level, viz., 210 kg N/ha. However, the highest count of fertile tillers, spike length, number of grains, 1000-grain weight and harvest index were recorded in the treatment receiving 180 kg N/ha. Interactions between fertilizer application techniques and nitrogen levels were non-significant for all the crop parameters studied in this experiment on wheat.

Muhammad Saleem Jilani

2013-01-01

189

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application  

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Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo.The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated with this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control; 2. NPK (control; 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

Raphael Alvarez

1979-01-01

190

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo / Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de am [...] ônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo. Abstract in english The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated wi [...] th this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control); 2. NPK (control); 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

Raphael, Alvarez; Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano Vaz de, Arruda; Gentil, Godoy Júnior.

191

Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

192

Effect of Organic Fertilizer on Growth and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.  

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Full Text Available In order to study the effect of organic fertilizer on growth and yield components in rice, an experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009, in randomized block design based on 4 replications. The chicken manure, cow manure and paddy rice were mixed together in 1:1:0.5 ratio to from organic fertilizer. The treatments of organic fertilizer were given in 5 levels (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 ton/ha. At one level organic fertilizer 1.5 ton/ha was mixed with inorganic fertilizers (N-50, P-25, K-25 kg / ha and recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer-NPK (N=100, P=50, K=50 kg/ha was used as check. The plants without treatments were served as control. Grain yield and its components were significantly increased in all the treatments over control. The maximum grain yield in 2008 (4335.88 kg/ha was noted in plants treated with 2 ton/ha organic fertilizer and it was (4662.71 kg/ha for 2009 for plant treated with combination of chemical fertilizer + 1.5 ton/ha organic fertilizer. An increase in the grain yield at the abovementioned treatments was may be due to the increase of 1000-seed weight, panicle number, number of fertile tiller, flag leaf length, number of spikelet, panicle length and decrease number of hollow spikelet per panicle.

Morteza Siavoshi

2011-09-01

193

Onion Response to Applied N,P and K Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted to study the onion response to various doses of N, P and K fertilizers. Plant height, bulb diameter, single bulb weight and total marketable bulb yield increased significantly by the NPk fertilizer treatments. Plots treated with 90:60:80 kg NPK/ha, displayed significantly maximum marketable bulb yield over other treatments. Onion planted on ridges gave significantly better yield over flat planting. It was suggested that for obtaining maximum marketable bulb yield of onion variety, phulkara, the crop may be planted on ridges and fertilized with N, P and K fertilizers.

Nasir R. Khan

2001-01-01

194

Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife contraception, managers may need to consider the possibility that many species and populations can compensate for reduction in fecundity, and this could minimize any reduction in population growth rate.

Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

2014-01-01

195

Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml was significantly higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml (p value< 0.001, and had negative relationship with sperm count, motility and morphology. Therefore it could be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation was associated with sperm membrane destructed and high level of MDA.

Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar

2009-12-01

196

Level of living and fertility among a rural population of the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the issue of whether the relationship of fertility to measures of economic resources is different at lower income levels than at higher levels. Testing was done in a rural Philippine setting in 1978-79. 3 measures of economic resources were utilized -- income, quality of housing, and provision of schooling for children. The data were drawn from a survey of rural families residing in 5 muncipalities of Iloilo province, on Panay Island in the central Philippines. In the study design, villages (or barangays) were selected from the 5 municipalities to obtain equal numbers of 3 agricultural types -- upland, rainfed lowland, and irrigated lowland farms. Interviews were conducted during a 4-month period in late 1978 and early 1979. Completed interviews of 1077 married women were obtained from 1066 households in 46 villages. These women were under age 50. The number of children ever born was used as the measure of fertility. To derive household income for the families in the survey both farm production and nonfarm income were converted into Philippine pesos. For a measure of housing quality, an index was formed based on 7 household items which could be considered amenities for the family and on the reported construction materials for 5 parts of the dwelling. This sample of households in the rural villages of Iloilo Province exhibited evidence of a threshold in the relationship between housing quality and fertility and between per capita income and fertility. For those families with per capita income less than 200 pesos per year, there was a strong positive relationship between 2 of the economic resource measures and fertility. This threshold for families of very low income showed support for the presence of limiting factors other than contraception. When the contracepting women of low income were removed from the analysis, the slope below the threshold became steeper. The poor nutrition and poor health that are associated with very low income can result in lower fecundity, thus biologically or nonvolitionally limiting fertility from what it could be with conditions of good health and nutrition. Among the families with higher per capita income, there was a negative relationship between per capita income and fertility. Housing quality yielded the strongest evidence of the threshold effect. Education of the children was not related to fertility in this model. Study findings indicate that for about 1/3 of this rural population initial increases in their economic level or living standard could result in increasing fertility up to a threshold level. PMID:12314385

Nelson, M

1985-01-01

197

External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fertilizers containing phosphate have been used worldwide in increasing quantities in order to replenish natural nutrients, which are being continuously depleted from the soil by virtue of farming activities. Phosphate rocks together with potassium ores and nitrogenous compounds are the main raw materials used for industrial fertilizer production. Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphogypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in soil samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were estimated. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and external dose rate due to natural gamma background at various locations around the plant were also measured. (author)

198

Desempenho agronômico do milho sob adubação mineral e inoculação das sementes com rizobactérias / Agronomic performance of maize under mineral fertilizer and seed inoculation with rhizobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para avaliar o desempenho agronômico da cultura do milho (Zea mays) de segunda safra submetido à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens sob níveis de adubação NPK, um experimento em campo foi conduzido utilizando-se a cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35 cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Fora [...] m testados seis tratamentos sob o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados as características fitométricas, os componentes de produção e a produtividade de grãos do milho. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey p Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic performance of second maize (Zea mays) crop, subjected to inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens under different levels of NPK fertilization, a field experiment was conducted using the cultivar of hybrid maize 30F35 grown in Oxisol. Six treatments were tested in a random [...] ized block design in factorial scheme 3 x 2, with three levels of NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculants (with and without), and four replications. The characteristics, yield components and productivity were evaluated. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at p

Mariana A. de, Oliveira; Claudemir, Zucareli; Leandro T., Spolaor; Allan R., Domingues; André S., Ferreira.

1040-10-01

199

Impact of water-fertilizer interaction on yields of crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water-fertilizer interaction was studied on wheat and cotton during crop seasons of 1995 to 1998 in the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia (south), Irrigation and Drainage Project. Irrigation levels applied included 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 times the evapotranspiration (ET), while fertilizer doses were 75, 100 and 125 percent of recommendations of NPK for district Bahawalnagar. The experiment was conducted at four different locations of the project, where soil was medium textured, free from salinity/alkalinity and sufficiently drained, with water table in the range of 2-3m from the soil surface. Wheat variety Inqalab-91 and cotton variety CLM-109 were sown at their recommended time of sowing, seed rate and management practices. Irrigation was applied in consideration of open-pan evaporation and crop co-efficient for the respective crop, when sum total of the products of pan-evaporation and KC values reached 7.5 cm. Irrigation was applied to all the plots according to treatment allowance, i.e. , with 25 percent cut and addition to .75 and 1.25 Et levels, respectively. The results indicated that irrigation levels had non-significant effect on wheat and cotton yields. The results clearly negate the concept of heavy irrigation, generally exercised by our farming community. Light irrigation as a results of 0.75 Et indication were equally effective: rather, these were economical and efficient under the scarce water availability. Fertilizer had somewhat significant response. Irrigation and fertilizer did not exhibit much significant interaction. In case of wheat, the two inputs were independent, while cotton had significant inter-dependence of the two variables. The experiment gave the conclusion that both wheat and cotton crops should be applied lighter irrigation and NPK fertilizer must be applied in compliance to recommendations, for efficient and economical use of the available crop-production resources. (author)

200

Characteristics of N and P Loss in the Soil of Purple Sloping Farmland at Different Fertilization Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using the "Winter Wheat-Summer Maize" model and the plot runoff monitoring method, we studied the characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the soil sediment of purple sloping farmland under five conditions, including control,combined manure / fertilizer application, chemical fertilizer, high intensity chemical fertilizer, and cross ridge farming. The results showed that the nutrient content of the surface soil increased, to some extent. Furthermore, the nutrients were enriched in the sediment for all groups. The degree of sediment nutrient enrichment of cross ridge farming was less great compared to longitudinal farming. For the combined manure / fertilizer application, the ratio of effective nutrients was larger than that of total nutrients; whereas, for the chemical fertilizer group, the ratio of effective nutrients was significantly smaller. At all fertilization levels, sediment loss only accounted for 0. 34% ~ 6. 21%. 78. 80% ~ 84. 83% of the total phosphorus loss occurred in the sediment, and the phosphorus loss was largely in the sediment. The relative loss factor of nitrogen was the largest for the chemical fertilizer group, followed by the cross ridge farming group, the high intensity chemical fertilizer group, and the combined manure / fertilizer application group. The relative loss factor of phosphorus was the largest for the high intensity chemical fertilizer group, followed by the cross ridge farming group, the chemical fertilizer group, and the combined manure / fertilizer application group.

CHEN Yun

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica  

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Full Text Available Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral. The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial. Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral. Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante.

Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

2010-10-01

202

Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml) was significantly higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml) (p value< 0.001), and had negative relationship with sperm count, motility and morphology. Therefore it could be concluded that in...

Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar; Mehdi Pouramir; Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony; Sayed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei

2009-01-01

203

Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida). The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose) recorded the highest plant height, number o...

Moghadam, Mina Zarghami; Shoor, Mahmud

2013-01-01

204

ONION YIELD AS AFFECTED BY FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH AMINO AND HUMIC ACIDS UNDER NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nutrient foliar spraying such as amino and humic acids under nitrogen fertilizer levels on growth, yield and keeping quality of onion bulbs cv. Giza 20. Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The obtained results showed that foliar spraying with humic acid resulted in highest growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as TSS %, dry matter and total weight loss percentages at storage period  compared with the control treatment. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels up to 214.2 kg N/ha significantly increased growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as total weight loss percentages at storage period. In addition, fertilization with 71.4 kg N/ha significantly increased TSS and dry matter percentages. It could be recommended that spraying with humic acid and adding 214.2 kg N/ha maximize onion bulb yield under the environmental conditions of Gharbeia Governorate. The interaction between nutrients spraying and nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly affected foliage fresh weight, total weight loss % after 1, 2, 3 and 5 months.

Ahamed A. Kandil

2013-08-01

205

The historical fertility transition at the micro level: Southern Sweden 1815-1939  

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Full Text Available Background: We know a great deal about the historical fertility transition at the macro level. The dominating focus on the macro level in previous research on the fertility transition means, however, that to a large extent we lack knowledge about details of the decline and empirical tests of the leading explanatory frameworks. Objective: Our aim is to explore socioeconomic fertility differentials in an industrializing community, to gain insight about the details and discuss possible mechanisms. The study starts well before industrialization and finishes at the end of the transition. Methods: We use longitudinal individual-level data from the Scanian Economic-Demographic Database, which contains demographic as well as socioeconomic information, including occupation, landholding, and income. In the analysis we use hazard regressions with shared frailty at the family level. Results: The transition involved not only parity-specific stopping but also spacing. While the upper social strata had higher fertility prior to the transition, they started to control their fertility earlier, by the 1880s, and also more consistently. Farmers, the middle class, and skilled workers followed in the decades after, and unskilled workers with some additional delay. Conclusions: These findings are partly inconsistent with several of the major explanations in the literature, such as mortality decline, increased female labor force participation, and a quantity-quality trade-off, but consistent with an innovation process where new ideas and attitudes about family limitation spread from the elite to other social groups. Comments: Further studies are required to empirically test the innovation-diffusion theory.

Tommy Bengtsson

2014-02-01

206

Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl) detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598- [...] 2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h) after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

Raad Obid, Hussain; Hayder Hamza, Hussain.

2011-08-01

207

Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598-2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

Raad Obid Hussain

2011-08-01

208

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, 226Ra and 232Th series, their decay products and 40K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2–106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6–9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21–607.3±14 Bq kg?1, respectively. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Raeq in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43 Bq kg?1 and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19 Bq kg?1, which are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg?1 adopted from . The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those the limits of those used worldwide. - Highlights: ? Mmeasured activity levels of natural radionuclides in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Saudi Arabia. ? Determined heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents. ? Activity of natural radionuclides in chemical fertilizer higher than in organic fertilizer. ? RAeq in chemical and organic fertilizers ranged between 34.07 and 161.43 Bq kg?1.

209

The Influence of Varieties and Planting Systems on the Peach Tree Growth, Productivity and NPK Uptake  

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Full Text Available The present study presents the effect of two organo-mineral fertilizers: root fertilizer C011 and foliar fertilizer 411 bio-ionic liquids, on some vegetative and productive features of five new peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] varieties introduced in Romania: ‘Earlirich’, ‘Royal Estate’, ‘Rubirich’, ‘October Star’ and ‘Late Luka’, grafted on GF 677 rootstock. The experimental plot located on a reddish preluvosol, have been established in 2008 with four planting systems: Tatura trellis, V planting system, Sibari Y and Vertical axe with different nutrition area/tree. Fertilization was applied on the beggining of June and August, 2010 and 2011 on the soil, locally on the tree rows (C011 and by foliar spraying (411. Trees vegetative growth was compared at the end of the vegetation period by number of fruit buds per unit trunk surface section (CM/TSS with significant differences between types of crowns and the biggest values for ‘Rubirich’; the total shoots length with significant differences between varieties. The influence of fertilization on trees productivity was apreciated by analyzing the yield and some typical productivy indexes. The studied parameters including the NPK uptake, have been significantly influenced by the variety 3.39% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2010 and 2.75% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2011 in Tatura trellis planting system.

Roxana M. MADJAR

2012-11-01

210

Gas exchange in massai grass under five nitrogen fertilization levels during establishment and regrowth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate gas exchange in the massai grass during establishment and regrowth cycles in a greenhouse, using five nitrogen (N) fertilization levels. A completely randomized split-plot design of five nitrogen levels (0; 150; 300; 450 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil) was empl [...] oyed with the N levels as plots, and the cycles (establishment, regrowth 1 and 2) as subplots, evaluated with five replicates. We evaluated leaf transpiration (E), leaf temperature (TFOL), leaf photosynthesis rate (A), leaf carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis/transpiration ratio (A/E), photosynthesis/conductance ratio (A/gs), chlorophyll relative index (CRI), and nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI). Growth cycles influenced all physiological characteristics, except for NSI. N fertilization levels affected TFOL, A, CRI and NSI variables, whereas for gs, E, Ci, A/E and A/gs it did not occur. A increased from 6.38 to 10.33 µmol•m-2.s-1, at levels 0 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil, respectively. Gas exchange in the massai grass was favored by nitrogen fertilization, since the cycles amended these characteristics of the grass.

Marcos Neves, Lopes; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Magno José Duarte, Cândido; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco, Pompeu; Rodrigo Gregório da, Silva; José Wellington Batista, Lopes; Francisco Ronaldo Belém, Fernandes; Francisco Marcus Lima, Bezerra.

211

Doses de NPK em viveiro de Hevea spp. na obtenção de plantas aptas para enxertia em latossolo amarelo textura média, na Ilha do Mosqueiro - PA / Levels of NPK on nursery of Hevea spp on the development of plants ready for grafting in a sandy clay loamy yellow latosol, in Mosqueiro Island - PA, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a finalidade de determinar as doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio mais adequadas para obtenção de plantas aptas para enxertia em viveiro de seringueira, instalou-se um experimento em Latossolo Amarelo textura média na Ilha do Mosqueiro-PA. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso c [...] om duas repetições obedecendo ao arranjo fatorial 33 Foram utilizadas as doses de 0-2,1-4,2 g/planta de N; 0-3,5-7,0 g/planta de P2O5; 0-1,4-2,8 g/planta de K2O e dose constante de 0,8 g/planta de MgO, empregando-se como fontes, respectivamente, sulfato de amônio, superfosfato triplo, cloreto de potássio e sulfato de magnésio. Os resultados foram obtidos duzentos e vinte dias após a instalação do experimento, sendo realizadas as seguintes avaliações: análises químicas do solo e folhas, altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e plantas aptas para a enxertia. Pelos resultados obtidos chega-se à conclusão que as doses mais adequadas foram 330 kg/ha (4,6 g/p) de N, 340 kg/ha (4,8 g/p) de P2O5 e 190 kg/ha (2,7 g/p) de K2O, aliadas a dose constante de 60 kg/ha (0,8 g/p) de MgO, propiciando um índice de aproveitamento de oitenta e sete porcento de plantas aptas para enxertia. Abstract in english With the purpose of determining the most adequate levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for the production of plants ready for grafting in nursery, a trial was carried out in a sandy clay loamy yellow Latosol in Mosqueiro Island-PA, Brazil. It was used a randomized block design with two repli [...] cations following a factorial design of 33. The levels applied were of 0-2.1-4.2 g/plant of N; 0-3-5-7-0 g/plant of P2O5; 0-1.4-2.8 g/plant of K2O and a permanent level of 0.8 g/plant of MgO, the sources applied were, respectively, ammonium sulfate, triple superphosphate, potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate. The results were abtained two-hundred and twenty days after the beginning of the trial, the following evaluations were made: chemical analysis of soil and leaves, plants height, stem diameter, dry matter weight of aerial parts and plant ready for grafting. Based on the overall results od the study it was concluded that the adequate levels were 330 kg/ha (4.6 g/plant) of N; 340 kg/ha (4.8 g/plant) of P2O5 and 190 kg/ha (2.7 g/plant) of K(2)0, together with the permanent level of 60 kg/ha (0.8 g/plant) of MgO, producing a rate of profit of eighty-seven percent of plant ready for grafting.

Ismael de Jesus Matos, Viégas; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

212

Effects of Levels of Sulfur Fertilizer on Growth of Digitaria eriantha Grass  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of sulfur fertilizer application on the quantity and chemical composition of Digitaria eriantha grass. The experiment was conducted at Petchaburi Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Petchaburi, Thailand, during August to October, 2006. Treatments consisted of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai applications in the form of ammonium sulfate and were arranged in randomized complete block with 4 field blocks as replication. Grass was sampled at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of regrowth to determine biomass accumulation over maturation period between and within treatments. The samples of 6-week old grass were subjected to chemical composition evaluation.The results showed that there was a significant linear correlation between levels of S fertilizer application and biomass accumulation of 2-week old grass. Biomass accumulation was significantly increased with the increasing rates of S fertilizer applications (120.56, 176.48 and 200.62 kgDM/rai at 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai, respectively. Sulfur (0.09, 0.17 and 0.18 %DM and crude protein (6.10, 8.22 and 10.25 %DM concentrations and crude protein yield (40.48, 61.35 and 76.00 kg/rai had increased linearly with the increasing levels of sulfur fertilizer application of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai, respectively. The result of this study showed that quality of grass can be improved through S fertilizer application. There is a need for further study on the effect of S application on ruminant performance to improve pasture management. This information can be used to make sensible recommendation for sustainable pasture management for animal production.

Auraiwan Isuwan

2007-12-01

213

Emergence and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Maize under Different Tillage Operations and Fertility Levels  

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Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan to observe the emergence of maize and nitrogen use efficiency of the crop under different fertility regimes (0-0, 90-00, 90-60, 90-90, 90-120, 150-00, 150-60, 150-90 and 150-120 NP kg ha-1 applied in the plots plowed through tillage practices with cultivator, chisel and desi plows. The better emergence was obtained with 90-90 NP kg ha-1. The seedling emergence decreased at higher doses of N and P. The interaction of tillage x fertilizer revealed that fertilizer at the rate of 90-150 kg ha-1 and tillage practices with cultivator exhibited higher seedling emergence, while the plots ploughed with chisel plow and desi plow recorded decreased emergence. However, chisel plowing recorded higher fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency than the plots ploughed by cultivator or desi plough. Nitrogen use efficiency at high levels of nitrogen applications was low than in the low rates of N incorporation. It was concluded that tillage practices should be performed with cultivator and 90 kg N ha-1 is suitable combination for seedling emergence and crop yield of maize.

M.H. Siddiqui

2006-01-01

214

[Effects of applying controlled release fertilizers on N2O emission from a lateritic red soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Static closed chamber technique and contrast method were adopted to study the effects of three coated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 19:8.6:10.5, high N; 14.4:14.4:14.4, balanced NPK; and 12.5:9.6:20.2, high K) on the NO2O emission from a lateritic red soil under the condition of no crop planting, taking uncoated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 20:9:11, high N; 15:15:15, balanced NPK; and 13:10:21, high K) as the contrasts. Different formula of fertilizer NPK induced significant difference in the N2O emission. Under the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, the cumulative N2O emission was in the order of balanced NPK > or = high N > high K. Applying coated compound fertilizers decreased the N2O emission significantly, and the emission amount under the application of high N, balanced NPK, and high K was 34.4%, 30.5%, and 89.3% of the corresponding uncoated compound fertilizers, respectively. Comparing with the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, applying coated compound fertilizers also decreased the daily N2O flux significantly, and delayed and shortened the N2O peak, suggesting that coated fertilizers could reduce soil nitrogen loss and the global warming potential induced by N2O emission. PMID:22126050

Du, Ya-qin; Zheng, Li-xing; Fan, Xiao-lin

2011-09-01

215

Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of 137Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears to be an effective countermeasure (at least in the type of forest used in this study). The reduction of the 137Cs levels in plants and fungi persisted for quite a long period of time

216

Airborne Hyperspectral Images and Ground-Level Optical Sensors As Assessment Tools for Maize Nitrogen Fertilization  

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Full Text Available Estimating crop nitrogen (N status with sensors can be useful to adjust fertilizer levels to crop requirements, reducing farmers’ costs and N losses to the environment. In this study, we evaluated the potential of hyperspectral indices obtained from field data and airborne imagery for developing N fertilizer recommendations in maize (Zea mays L.. Measurements were taken in a randomized field experiment with six N fertilizer rates ranging from zero to 200 kg?N?ha?1 and four replications on two different dates (before the second fertilizer application and at flowering in 2012. Readings at ground level were taken with SPAD®, Dualex® and Multiplex® sensors, and airborne data were acquired by flying a hyperspectral and a thermal sensor 300 m over the experimental site. The hyperspectral imagery was used to calculate greenness, chlorophyll and photochemical indices for each plot. The Pearson coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between sensor readings and agronomic measurements. A statistical procedure based on the N-sufficient index was used to determine the accuracy of each index at distinguishing between N-deficient and N-sufficient plots. Indices based on airborne measurements were found to be as reliable as measurements taken with ground-level equipment at assessing crop N status and predicting yield at flowering. At stem elongation, the reflectance ratio, R750/R710, and fluorescence retrieval (SIF760 were the only indices that yielded significant results when compared to crop yield. Field-level SPAD readings, the airborne R750/R710 index and SIF760 had the lowest error rates when distinguishing N-sufficient from N-deficient treatments, but error reduction is still recommended before commercial field application.

Miguel Quemada

2014-03-01

217

An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

218

Effect of Different NP Fertilizer Levels on the Yield of Cotton Cultivars  

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Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 03 replications. Treatments comprised of 03 cotton cultivars (TH- 41/83, 35/83 and Rehmani and 10 fertilizer levels. It has been observed that cotton cultivar TH- 35/83 gave highest seed cotton yield per plant i.e., 95.13 g, fallowed by TH - 41/83 i.e., 84. 19 g plant-1. While the maximum yield per plant was recorded under fertilizer level 200 -50 kg ha-1 (100.52. Cultivar TH – 41/83 gave highest yield per plot 4.89 kg and 3773.12 kg ha-1. Cultivar Rehmani gave lowest yield i.e. 3.97 kg plot-1 and 3063.25 kg ha-1. It is also investigated that NP, fertilizer level 200-75 kg ha-1, produced maximum cotton yield 4.88 kg plot-1 and 37.65. 40-kg ha-1

Z.A. Abbasi

2001-01-01

219

Distribution of uranium in soil components of agricultural fields after long-term application of phosphate fertilizers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term application of phosphate fertilizers causes accumulation of U in the surface soil of agricultural fields. We investigated the soil constituents that contribute to the accumulation of U by using chemical extraction methods. Surface soil samples were obtained from upland fields, pastures, and paddy fields cultivated without any phosphate fertilizer (control site), with NPK fertilizer (NPK site), and with both NPK fertilizer and compost (NPK+compost site) for more than 20 years. In addition to the total U (Ut) concentration in soil, the concentrations of pyrophosphate- and acid oxalate-extractable U were determined as a measure of U associated with soil organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in soil, respectively. The total, pyrophosphate-extractable, and acid oxalate-extractable U concentrations were higher in the soil obtained from the NPK and NPK+compost sites than in that obtained from the control site. The difference in the U concentrations between the NPK or NPK+compost site and the control site corresponded with the increased U concentration observed after the application of the phosphate fertilizer or both the fertilizer and compost. In the upland field and pasture soil, the increase in pyrophosphate-extractable U was 83-94% of that in Ut. On the other hand, the increase in acid oxalate-extractable U was 44-58% of that in Ut in the upland field and pasture soil, but it was almost equivalent to the increase in Ut in the paddy soil with NPK. In conclusion, most of the phosphate fertilizer-derived U was either incorporated into the soil organic matter or poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in the surface soil of agricultural fields. Thus, soil organic matter is an important pool of U in upland field and pasture soil, whereas poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals are important pools of U in paddy soil experiencing alternating changes in redox conditions. PMID:19033080

Yamaguchi, N; Kawasaki, A; Iiyama, I

2009-02-01

220

[Effects of different long-term fertilization patterns on Fuji apple yield, quality, and soil fertility on Weibei Dryland, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 7-year (2003-2010) located field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different long-term fertilization patterns on the Fuji apple yield, quality, and soil fertility on the Weibei Dryland, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. Seven treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), inorganic P and K fertilization (PK), inorganic N and K fertilization (NK), inorganic N and P fertilization (NP), inorganic N, P, and K fertilization (NPK), swine manure (M), and half inorganic N, P, and K combined with half swine manure (NPKM). Each treatment had three replications. Fertilization increased the apple yield. The average yield in the 7 years under fertilization was increased by 14.4%-63.8%, as compared to the CK. The average yield decreased in the order of NPKM > NPK > or = M > NP > or = NK > PK > CK. In treatments NPKM, M, and NPK, the fruit sugar/acid (S:A) ratio, vitamin C, soluble solid, and hardness tended to be increased with time, with a smaller yearly fluctuation in treatments NPKM and M. In treatment NPKM, the S:A ratio and vitamin C increased by 30.9% and 17.5%, respectively after five years, as compared to the CK. Long-term rational fertilization increased the soil organic matter (SOC) content in 0-20 cm layer, with the largest increment in treatments NPKM and M (28.8% and 29.3%, respectively). The soil available N, P, and K contents in all layers in treatments NPK, NPKM, and M increased significantly, and the soil available N content in 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm layers in treatment NPK was increased by 22.7%, 37.3%, and 53.4%, respectively. As compared to treatment NPK, the soil available P content in treatment NPKM was increased by 18.7%. In all fertilization treatments, the soil available Pcontent was significantly higher in upper layer than in lower layer. PMID:24564136

Zhao, Zuo-Ping; Tong, Yan-An; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ying

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Soil pollution state as affected by different soil fertility regulation measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of 14 chemical elements was measured in the soil of ten long-term field trials located in different climatic zones of Lithuania. Soil samples were taken from the control (untreated) and anthropogenic (fertilized with mineral NPK and/or organic fertilizers, limed) treatment plots. The samples were analyzed by the AAS method and directly analyzed with X-rays upon fine grinding (for Sr). In the western zone of Lithuania the anthropogenic impact (liming with fertilizing) resulted in statistically significant increase in the content of 4 elements (B, Ni, Sr, Zn). In the eastern zone 3 elements (Cu, Co, Sr) showed significant differences. Soil contamination index was exceeded significantly (up to 2 versus the background levels) only for Sr (2.14 times) in the western zone

222

Effects of (Azotobacter and Azosprillium Inoculants and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Productivity of Canola (Brassica napus L.  

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Full Text Available To investigate the effects of inoculants (biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer on the yield, yield components and seed oil content of canola (Brassica napus L., a split-plot experimental design with 20 treatments in 4 replications was carried out during 2004-2005 growing season at the Baiecola Agricultural Research Station in the Mazandaran province, Iran. Canola (cv. Hyola 401 hybrid, a high yielding early maturity variety, was grown in rotation after wheat. In the main plots, the biofertilizer treatments were at two different levels: 1 control (no seed inoculation and 2 seed-inoculation with a combination of three different strains of bacteria Azotobacter chrocooccum and Azosprillium brasilense and Azosprillium lipoferum. In the two sets of 10 sub-plots chemical fertilizers comprising N, P, K and their combinations, NPKS and NPK Zn were applied. The seed yield touched a high of 3741.5 kg h-1 at treatment T20 (Bio + NPK Zn, that corresponded to 257.7 pods per plant and maximum CGR (18.3 g m-2 day-1. The highest weight of 1000 seeds (4.45 g was obtained at treatment no T19 (Bio + NPK S which coincided with the maximum TDM (1155 g-2 and maximum LAI (5.06. The maximum branching (4.43 branches per plant was obtained at treatment T20 (Bio + NPK Zn showing a 46.2% increase over the control. The maximum oil content 47.73% was obtained at T16 (Bio + NK. The application of inoculation with Azotobacter and Azosprillium helped to increase the yield by 21.17% over the control, raised the number of pods per plant (16.05%, number of branches (11.78%, weight of 1000 grain (2.92% and the oil content of seeds (1.73% but decreased (-0.24% the number of seeds per pod.

Esmaeil Yasari

2007-01-01

223

Effect of fertilizer and inoculation on the growth and yield of soybean cv.williams-82 in pot culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pot culture experiment in response to different levels of added N fertilizer on soybean cv.Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of Quetta. Fertilizer treatments were applied at the rate zero (control); 23; 25; 50; 75; 100 and 125 kg N/ha plus a constant dose of 60 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha and 30 kg K/sub 2/O/ha in all treatments (except control). These seven fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated pot culture crop. Results showed that nodules were found to be absent in both set of experiments which could be indirectly attributed to either sufficient level of soil NO/sub 3/ (5.10 mm) or deficient level of total Fe (8.25 ppm) and Cu (below detection limit) or might be directly due to any other edaphic or climatic factor(s). Results also showed that in general petiole length, middle leaflet area,' plant height, yield, 100 seed weight (except inoculated fertilized), total number of pods/plant (except non-inoculated fertilized) and pod both set of experiment are significantly different (P > 0.05) as compared with their respective control treatment. While remaining yield attributes viz., one-seeded, two-seeded and three-seeded pods are found as non-significantly different in response to both fertilizer and inoculum treatments. Results further revealed that pots receiving N fertilizer without inoculum mathematically out-yielded (1718 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 100+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-yielded (1912 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 125+60+30 kg NPK/ha. It was also revealed that all growth parameters and most of the yield attributes exhibited significant positive correlation with yield. However, number of seedless and one-seeded pods also exhibited significant but negative association with yield. (author)

224

Effect of Different Levels of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Protein Content of Wheat  

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Full Text Available An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on the growth, yield and protein content of two wheat varieties. Two varieties of wheat were tested. Aghrani and Kanchan with five levels of chemical and organic fertilizer viz. F1 (control, F2, F3, F4 and F5. Urea was applied in 2 splits in F1 and in 3 splits in F2 to F4 as per recommendation. In F5, it was applied in 4 equal splits. In F1, inorganic fertilizers were applied @ 100 kg N, 36 kg P, 25 kg K and 20 kg S/ha. In F2 to F5, fertilizers were applied @ 120 kg N, 27 kg P, 83 kg K, 30 kg S and 4 kg Zn/ha. Grain Yield and protein content was higher in Kanchan than Aghrani variety. Among the different levels of fertilizer application, F5 had superior performance on all the parameters, whereas, F1 had the most inferior effect on all the parameters including grain and straw yields. The yield, yield contributing characters and protein content of wheat increased with increase in the levels inorganic fertilizers, addition of composts with fertilizer and also by increasing split application of nitrogen.

M. Rafiqul Islam

2002-01-01

225

Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization  

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Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

José Ricardo Mantovani

2014-09-01

226

Effect of Glycerol Levels on the Motility and Fertility of Kampung Chicken Spermatozoa Frozen in Liquid Nitrogen  

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Full Text Available The use of various levels of glycerol as a cryoprotective agent for freezing kampung chicken semen was examined with respect to intravaginal insemination. There was a significant (P<0.05 effect of various levels of glycerol (4, 8, 12 and 16 % on motile spermatozoa, but there was no significant effect on fertility. It was concluded that the use of glycerol for preservation of kampung chicken semen in liquid nitrogen gave satisfactory cryopreservative results on motility of thawed kampung chicken spermatozoa, but failed to produce fertile eggs. (Animal Production 9(1: 45-48 (2007 Key Words: glycerol, kampung chicken, semen, fertility, motility, liquid nitrogen

DM Saleh

2007-01-01

227

Aplikasi Asam Humik dan Pupuk NPK Majemuk Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Suren (Toona sureni Merr) Pada Tanah Marginal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Marginal Land in Indonesia still in very large amount. Meanwhile, the accelerate to rehabilitate the land still very slow. The low of pH, C-Organik, N-Total, P and K-exchangeable become the parameter of marginal land condition. Therefore carried out research which combine acid humic and NPK fertilizer which applied to marginal land and seen its influence to growth of seed of suren. Research has been done in green house at Faculty Of Agriculture of USU on March-May 2012 using completely r...

Marpaung, Ronald Pandapotan

2012-01-01

228

Effects of Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Jatropha curcas L. in an Aeric Tropaquept of Eastern India  

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Full Text Available In recent years Jatropha curcas L. has emerged as a biofuel crop attracting considerable interest of the researchers. The seeds of the plant yield non-edible oil with properties that are well suited for production of biodiesel. However it is still considered a semi-wild plant and systematic crop improvement programmes need to be undertaken to exploit its full yield potential. The present study deals with agronomic trials pertaining to optimum requirements of N:P:K fertilizers for better economic returns. Field experiments were conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the research farm of IMMT, Bhubaneswar, India (20?40? North and 85?50? East to evaluate the effect of N:P:K fertilizers on the yield attributing characters of Jatropha. Five-year-old standing crop plantation was treated with two levels of N (60 and 50 g/plant, P (80 and 100 g/plant and K (75 and 60 g/plant, either alone or in combination. Analysis of the results revealed significant differences in growth as well as yield characteristics due to application of inorganic fertilizers. While maximum seed yield (427.21 kg/ha was recorded in N60 treatment, the seed oil content varied significantly from 32.00% to 35.69% under various regimes of N:P:K applications. Treatment with N50P100K60 and N60 resulted in consistent higher yield of seed oil. Based on the results of growth and yield attributes, application of N fertilizer proved to be beneficial for Jatropha under tropical agroclimatic conditions in an Aeric Tropaquept of eastern India.

Sagar MOHAPATRA

2011-03-01

229

EFFECTS OF MIXED ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND THE GROWTH OF KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L. CULTIVATED ON BRIS SOILS  

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Full Text Available The demand for kenaf in the world increases rapidly by the years. Cultivation of the crop in Malaysia is a challenging task, especially when kenaf is grown on sandy soils with low fertility, such as the BRIS Soils (Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales. A pot study was conducted in a glasshouse at Universiti Putra Malaysia to evaluate the potential of inorganic and organic fertilizers or their combination for growing kenaf on very sandy BRIS Soils, using variety V36. There were altogether sixteen treatments: (T1-control (100% BRIS soil, (T2-NPK (chemical fertilizer, (T3-CM (chicken manure, (T4-B (biochar, (T5-Z (zeolite, (T6-NPK+CM, (T7-NPK+B, (T8-NPK+Z, (T9-CM+B, (T10-CM+Z, (T11-B+Z, (T12-NPK+CM+B, (T13-NPK+CM+Z, (T14-CM+B+Z, (T15-NPK+B+Z and (T16- NPK+CM+B+Z. Results showed that application of inorganic material or organic fertilizer in combination with chemical fertilizer (T2 and T16 improved soil fertility, which are reflected by the increase inexchangeable K, Ca and Mg, CEC, total N, total C and available P. The highest kenaf growth was observed in T15 treatment.Application of biochar, zeolite or chicken manure alone on the soils did not result in better kenaf growth compared to the control. Zeolite and biochar should be applied with other fertilizers or organic substrate to obtain a positive yield of crop and increase the soil properties. In addition, more studies on the application of chicken manure at different ratios should be conducted to obtain the best yield. Combination treatment, T15 (NPK + biochar + zeolite can be suggested to the farmers especially cultivation of kenaf on sandy BRIS soil in order to obtain the best kenaf growth performance and indirectly reduce excessive use of chemical fertilizers.

Mohd Hadi Akbar Basri

2013-01-01

230

Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996  

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Full Text Available EnglishThis study focuses on the fertility levels and trends of Iranian women aged10-49 years during three decades, 1967-1996. Information was collected by interviewing a systematiccluster sample of 13,253 households. The basic date of concern was the date of each live born childfor a sample of women in reproductive age and whether the live born was alive at the time of thestudy. The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to becalculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates werefound for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels areprobably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately afterthe 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 haddropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96. This declinewas probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularlysince 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a babyboom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the comingdecades.FrenchCette étude porte sur les niveaux et les tendances de fertilité chez les Iraniennes âgées de 10 à 49 ans sur une période de trente ans, soit de 1967-1996. L'information a été recueillie en interviewant un échantillon en grappes systématique de 13 253 ménages. La principale date qui nous intéresse est la date de naissance de chaque enfant vivant pour un échantillon de femmes en âge de procréer et le fait que l'enfant soit toujours en vie au moment de l'étude. La nature détaillée des données recueillies pour chaque naissance a permis d'établir les taux de fertilité pour les périodes précises avant le sondage pour les années civiles précises. Les taux de fertilité étaient supérieurs pour les périodes de 10 à 15 ans et de 15 à 20 ans avant le sondage. Ces taux élevés sont sans doute attribuables à des changements socio-économiques favorisant une plus grande fertilité immédiatement après la révolution de 1979. Cependant, les résultats de ce sondage indiquent qu'entre 1967 et 1996, l'ISF est passé de 6,38 à 2.88 (ISF avait été établi à partir du comportement procréateur des années 1992-96. Cette chute avait probablement été causée par le fait que les femmes se mariaient plus tard et à des changements dans la politique favorisant la régulation des populations, surtout depuis 1987. Malgré ce déclin éventuel de la fertilité des dernières années, l'Iran s'attend, au cours des prochaines décennies, à une explosion démographique une fois que les enfants nés entre 1976 et 86 auront atteints l'âge de procréer.

Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi

2002-01-01

231

Crop Coefficient (kc and Water Use Efficiency (WUE of Soybean as Affected by Soil Moisture Stress and Fertility Levels  

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Full Text Available Experiment were conducted to study the crop coefficient (Kc and water use Efficiency (WUE of soybean as affected by soil moisture stress and fertility levels at Malir Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University. Tnadojam, Pakistan on silt loam soil. The results revealed that crop efficient (Kc increased with an increase in the crop age. The Kc was higher proportionate to higher moisture availability. The peak Kc was at 105-125 days after sowing, corresponding with early stage to complete fill stage of soybean crop. Water use efficiency at 5 bar tensions signified the plants under stress and were more efficient in utilizing water for the production of grain. The higher fertility was exhibited through appropriate fertilizer levels which in-turn increased the water use efficiency and compensated water deficiency. Thus, it is recommended that crop coefficient and fertility levels should be identified for obtaining maximum water use efficiency and yield targets.

U.A. Burriro

2002-01-01

232

Response of different combinations of manure and fertilizers to the yield of rape crop  

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Full Text Available This study was an attempt to determine the effect of different combinations of manure and fertilizers on the yield of rape crop so as to improve yield by recommending the best combination of manure and fertilizers to the rape growers in Botswana. Rape crop was planted on farmers field in a complete randomized block design where nine different combinations of manure and fertilizers, namely, chicken manure (Ch; Ch and NPK (2:3:2; Ch and Fe (Iron; Ch, NPK and Fe; Ch and Urea; Ch, NPK and Urea; Ch, Urea and Fe; Ch, NPK, Urea and Fe; and control (No application of manure and fertilizer were considered. Each fertilizer combination was replicated four times in a total of thirty six plots in the layout of the experiment. The data on rape yield was collected. The leaves of rape were harvested three times a month and the rape yield (in kg was recorded in a harvest sheet. A two way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed using the SPSS software. The results indicated that fertilizer combination of chicken manure, NPK and Urea produced the highest yield of rape which was 2.61 times higher than the yield produced by the control plots (where no manure and fertilizer was applied and therefore, a fertilizer combination of chicken manure, NPK and Urea was recommended to the rape growers. Suggested future studies included the comparative profitability of different fertilizer combinations as well as the effects of different doses of the organic and inorganic fertilizers on rape production.

S.P. Baliyan

2012-12-01

233

Poder de mercado na indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08, no período de 1993-2006  

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Full Text Available As barreiras à entrada, a concentração observada e a alta de preços dos fertilizantes induziram à desconfiança de possibilidade de exercício do poder de mercado por parte das empresas representativas da indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08. Esses indícios podem ser condição necessária, porém não suficiente para afirmar a existência e o exercício de fato do poder. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar a conduta das empresas representativas da indústria de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08, por meio da estimação do parâmetro de conduta médio, ?. O período de análise foi fevereiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2006. A análise do comportamento das firmas baseou-se na teoria da Nova Organização Industrial Empírica. O ? foi estimado via interação da equação de demanda e relação de oferta representativa da indústria. Sob o ?, aplicou­-se o teste de hipótese para conhecer a conduta das firmas. Os resultados não permitiram identificar a existência do poder de mercado, exceto quando foram consideradas apenas as quatro maiores empresas. Entretanto, não foi possível fazer inferências sobre o exercício do poder de mercado das quatro maiores empresas, haja visto que a principal preocupação foi em relação à possibilidade de exercício, e não ao seu exercício de poder de fato.Barriers to the entrance, the concentration observed and the increase of prices of fertilizers had conducted to the diffidence of the possibility of the exercise of market power on part of companies which represent the Brazilian industry of the NPK (04-14-08 fertilizer. These indications can be a necessary condition, however not enough to affirm the existence and the exercise, in fact, of the power. The objective was to identify the behavior of the representative companies of the NPK (04-14-08 fertilizer industry, through the estimate of the average parameter of behavior, ?. The period of analysis was February 1993 until December 2006. The analysis of the behavior of the firms was based on the New Empirical Industrial Organization (Neio theory. ? was projected through the interaction of the demand equation and the representative supply ratio of the industry. Under ?, the hypothesis test was applied to know the behavior of the firms. Results did not allow identifying the existence of the market power, except when only the four major companies had been considered. However, it was not possible to make inferences on the exercise of the market power of the four major companies, since that the main concern was regarding the possibility of the exercise, and not the exercise in fact.

Graciela Aparecida Profeta

2011-12-01

234

Effect of Cultivars, Harvesting Time and Level of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Nitrate and Nitrite Content, Yield in Romaine Lettuce  

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In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 60, 120, 180), cultivars (Pich Ahwazi, Pich Varamini) and harvesting time (morning, evening) on yield, nitrate and nitrite accumulation in edible parts of lettuce, a research was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran. This study was arranged in spilt plot experiment on randomized complete block design base, in three replications. Results indicated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer amount on yield were signific...

Maryam Boroujerdnia; Naser Alemzadeh Ansari; Farideh Sedighie Dehcordie

2007-01-01

235

Identification and characterization of microorganisms from earthworm viscera for the conversion of fish wastes into liquid fertilizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five bacteria isolated from earthworm viscera and identified as Brevibacillus agri, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Brevibacillus parabrevis by 16S rRNA sequencing were employed in the conversion of fish wastes generated from a restaurant specializing in sliced raw fish into fertilizer. Within 120h after inoculation of autoclaved fish waste with 5.15 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1) mixed isolates, the amount of dry sludge decreased from 29.4 to 0.2g, the pH changed from 7.05 to 5.70, and the cell number reached 6.45 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1). Analyses of an 84-h culture of inoculated fish waste indicated low phytotoxicity in a seed germination test, an amino acid content of 5.71 g 100 g(-1), a low concentration of heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn), and a N/P/K level of 2.33%. Therefore the converted fish waste has the potential for use as liquid fertilizer, although the low NPK level is a concern. This is the first demonstration of the reutilization of fish wastes as a liquid fertilizer. PMID:20189380

Kim, Joong Kyun; Dao, Van Thingoc; Kong, In Soo; Lee, Hyung Ho

2010-07-01

236

Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. PMID:23726145

Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

2013-09-01

237

Role of PACAP in female fertility and reproduction at gonadal level - recent advances  

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Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides.

DoraReglodi

2012-12-01

238

Role of PACAP in Female Fertility and Reproduction at Gonadal Level - Recent Advances  

Science.gov (United States)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development, and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization, and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides. PMID:23248616

Reglodi, Dora; Tamas, Andrea; Koppan, Miklos; Szogyi, Donat; Welke, Laura

2012-01-01

239

Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia  

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Full Text Available The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida. The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose recorded the highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes such as number of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plot, flower yield/plant, flower yield/plot. The early flower bud initiation, 50 percent flowering and more flowering duration was achieved in the treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose. Application of Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose registered significantly higher quality parameters such as flower diameter.

Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM

2013-05-01

240

MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE  

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Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM + NPK amendments showed lower accumulation of heavy metals and higher yield. Plants grown in NPK and N amended soil showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and lower yield compared to the control. Higher uptake of heavy metals in plants under NPK and N amendments, led to increase in the antioxidants enzymes, but reductions in photosynthesis rate, growth and yield. The results suggest that the application of FYM alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers may be recommended as cost effective technique for reducing the availability of heavy metals in waste water irrigated soil.

Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Impact of Nitrogen Fertilizer, Their Levels, Application Time and Weeding Methods on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of nitrogen fertilizer (80, 100 and 120 kg N ha -1 to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. applied at sowing, early and boot stage and weed control methods (no weeding, hand weeding, chemical applied once and twice. A basal dose of 40 kg N ha -1 was given to all treatments at sowing. Grain weight showed no response to fertilizer, Spike population and number of grains per spike had a positive linear relationship with fertilizer levels. Weed control methods significantly influenced grain weight and number of grains spike -1. Highest grain yield was achieved from single application of Isoproturon and fertilizer applied at the rate of 120 kg N ha -1 in three equal split doses.

Mujtaba Masood

2002-01-01

242

Adubação mineral e orgânica e a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae em cebola Mineral and organic fertilization and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae population density  

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Full Text Available O efeito da adubação mineral e orgânica sobre a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola, Allium cepa L., foi avaliado na Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina, entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram níveis de adubação mineral com N, P2O5 e K2O em dose recomendada e três vezes a recomendada, adubação orgânica e a testemunha foi a ausência de adubação. Os tratamentos foram as seguintes doses de nutrientes: 1 30 + 120 + 60kg ha-1 de NPK; 2 90 + 360 + 180kg ha-1 de NPK; 3 75kg ha-1 de N; 4 225kg ha-1 de N; 5 80kg ha-1 de P2O5; 6 240kg ha-1 de P2O5; 7 60kg ha-1 de K2O; 8 180kg ha-1 de K2O; 9 75kg ha-1 de N + 80kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 10 225kg ha-1 de N + 240kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 11 37,5kg ha-1 de N + 40kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; testemunha sem adubação. Nenhuma das fontes e níveis de adubação apresentaram nível populacional de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo.The effect of the mineral and organic fertilization on onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind., population density was evaluated at Ituporanga Experiment Station, EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between August and December 1998. The treatments were different levels of mineral fertilization with N, P2O5 and K2O at recommended rate and three times recommended rate, the organic fertilization and without fertilization was check. The treatments in nutrient rate were: 30 + 120 + 60kg NPK ha-1; 90 + 360 + 180kg NPK ha-1; 75kg N ha-1; 225kg N ha-1; 80kg P2O5 ha-1; 240kg P2O5 ha-1; 60kg K2O ha-1; 180kg K2O ha-1; 75kg N ha-1 + 80kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 225kg N + 240kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 37,5kg N + 40kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; check without fertilizer. The onion thrips population density was similar among treatments with fertilizer and the check without fertilization. The mineral fertilization didn’t increase significantly onion thrips incidence.

Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

2004-08-01

243

Influence of education levels on dissemination of soil fertility management information in the central highlands of Kenya  

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Full Text Available Inadequate links between researchers and farmers has resulted in low uptake of research advances recommended to improve food security in the central highlands of Kenya. Access to timely and accurate information by extension agents and farmers is paramount in dissemination of soil fertility management practices. Hence, the study sought to investigate the effect of education levels on communication channels used to disseminate soil fertility technologies in the Central highlands of Kenya. Questionnaires were used to elicit information from 105 extension agents and 240 farmers. About 50.5% of the extension officers were certificate holders while 29.5% were diploma holders from agricultural institutes. Majority of the farmers had attained primary education (59.6% while 25.8% and 9.2% had attained secondary and post secondary education, respectively. Research institutions were the most accessible sources of information on soil fertility management practices by extension agents while internet and scientific conferences were the least scored as accessible sources of soil fertility management information by extension agents. Education levels significantly influenced preference of individual approach methods by farmers. There was a significant positive relationship between education and accessibility of internet as a source of information on green manure. The implication of the study was that education levels influenced the mode of communication used in the transfer of soil fertility research outputs to the end users. Consequently, it is extremely important to consider education levels in selection of dissemination pathways used in agriculture.

Daniel Njiru

2012-01-01

244

Efficiency of soil and fertilizer nitrogen in relation to rice variety and application time, using 15N labelled fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the investigation of efficient use of fertilizer nitrogen NPK simple trials were carried out using newly bred Tongil line(japonica indica hybrid selection) and the leading local varieties with sulfur coated urea in fields for two years. The yield of Tongil line was higher than that of leading local varieties by 16% in the cool year and 23% in warm year with high solar radiation from NPK simple trials including SCU and 2-split application which were carried in 130 fields at 32 locations. Warm year increased yield by 9% in Tongil but only 3% in the local than the cool year did. Optimum nitrogen level was higher in Tongil by 3.8kg in the cool year and 5.5kg in warm year than for the local. Yearly variation of optimum nitrogen in the same variety was greater than varietal variation in the same year. Two-split application resulted in 1 to 2% of inconsistent yield variation. Sulfur coated urea increased yield by average 2 to 4% even at 20% reduced rate of nitrogen. It was remarkablly effective in saline (27-39%), virgin (20%) and unmatured (10%)soils. (Author)

245

Influence of Both Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Productivity of Barley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influences of gamma irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) as well as nitrogen fertilizer levels (zero, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/fad) on growth, yield and yield components of barley cultivar Giza 123 were studied during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. The study was conducted in an extension field at Belbees District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Irradiation with the lowest gamma does gave the highest value for each of emergence/m2, plant height at heading (cm), flag leaf area at heading (cm2), spike length (cm), number of grains/spike and weight of grains/spike. Nitrogen application significantly increased emergence/m2, plant height, flag leaf area (cm2), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2 as well as grain, straw and biological yields (kg/fad). Accepted September 2013.

246

Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

2014-09-01

247

Study on the effect of temperature and the level of nitrogenase fertilizer on formation dynamics of nitrate in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of temperature and application level of nitrogenase fertilizer on the formation dynamics of nitrate in soil were studied with the isotope tracer CO(15NH2)2 by planting spinages in pot culture. the dynamics model of nitrate in soil after applying urea was established as: C = A(e-ket-e-kat). With temperature of 10 degree C, the model was as follows: C = 1-e-kat. The results showed that temperature had an obvious effect on the formation and degradation velocity of nitrate in soil but the application level of nitrogenase fertilizer had no significant effect on them

248

Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

2011-01-01

249

Testing the Fertilizer Effect of Compost Produced by Anaerobic Fermentation of Sewage Sludge  

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Full Text Available The compost tested in this study resulted from the anaerobic fermentation process of sewage sludge with cereal straw. Processing and post-treatment were made by Biotechnological Research Centre within INCD ECOIND from Bucharest. Experimental program included testing the effect of fertilizer in quantities of 25 t, 50 t and 100 t compost / ha on the production of soya beans. It was also investigated the influence of the combination of fertilization with compost and inorganic fertilization with levels of 200 kg, respectively, 400 kg NPK / ha. Was analyzed the following productivity indicators: plant density, number of floors of pods, number and weight of pods and total beans production, in full ripening stage. In the case of fertilization only with composted sludge, production of peas and beans was higher in variants with 50 t / ha and 100 t / ha (2095 kg and 1990 kg grain / ha. Therefore, doubling the amount of compost does not provide corresponding increase yields of soybeans. Combining organic and inorganic fertilization determine a proportional production increase only for the total biomass production. The tested compost is a good organic fertilizer and the amount that provides the greatest soybeans production is 50 t / ha.

Benoni Lixandru

2010-10-01

250

Influência de lâminas de água e adubação mineral na nutrição e produtividade de arroz de terras altas Influence of water levels and mineral fertilization on nutrition and yield of upland rice  

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Full Text Available Para recomendações de adubação mais racionais, é fundamental o conhecimento das exigências nutricionais da cultura do arroz, nos diversos sistemas de cultivo. Objetivando estudar a influência de lâminas de água na nutrição e exportação de nutrientes pelo arroz de terras altas, cultivar IAC 201, sob dois níveis de adubação, foram instalados experimentos em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em Selvíria (MS, nos anos agrícolas de 1994/95 e 1995/96. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da precipitação natural e de quatro lâminas de água fornecidas por aspersão. A lâmina L2 foi baseada no coeficiente de cultura (Kc do arroz de terras altas. As lâminas L1 e L3 foram definidas como 0,5 e 1,5 vez os Kcs utilizados em L2, respectivamente, e na lâmina L4 foi adotado Kc = 1,95 durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Em 1995/96, foram utilizados os mesmos tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as subparcelas constituídas por duas doses de adubação (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 de N, 90 de P2O5 e 30 de K2O, e AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 de N, 180 de P2O5 e 60 de K2O. A menor disponibilidade de água durante a fase vegetativa e reprodutiva proporcionou redução na produção de matéria seca, nos teores e quantidades de nutrientes acumuladas na parte aérea. O sistema irrigado por aspersão, independentemente da lâmina utilizada, proporcionou maior produtividade de grãos e exportação de nutrientes. Em solos com teores adequados de nutrientes para o sistema de sequeiro, não há resposta ao aumento da adubação mineral pelo arroz no sistema irrigado por aspersão, apesar da maior extração de nutrientes.In order to achieve more sound fertilizer recommendations, knowledge about nutritional requirements of rice in different growing systems is fundamental. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of water levels on nutrition and nutrient exportation by upland rice (cultivar IAC 201 under two levels of mineral fertilizer. Experiments were conducted in the growing seasons of 1994/95 and 1995/96 on a Typic Haplustox, in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments were five water levels: natural rain and four water levels provided by sprinkler irrigation. Water level 2 (L2 was based on the crop coefficient (Kc for upland rice. L1 and L3 were then defined as 0.5 and 1.5 times the Kcs used in L2, respectively. For water level 4 (L4, Kc = 1.95 was used during the entire plant cycle. The same treatments were applied in 1995/96 in a split-plot scheme. The subplots consisted in two NPK-fertilization levels (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 of N, 90 of P2O5, and 30 of K2O; and AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 of N, 180 of P2O5, and 60 of K2O. Low water availability during the vegetative and reproductive phases decreased the dry matter yield, nutrient contents, and nutrient uptake. Sprinkler irrigation increased grain yield and nutrient exportation, independent of the water level. In soils with appropriate nutrient levels for the dryland system, the irrigated rice did not respond to increased mineral fertilization, despite the larger nutrient uptake.

C. A. C. Crusciol

2003-08-01

251

Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

Sun Mei

2011-01-01

252

Heterogeneidade do solo sob diferentes adubações na cultura do milho Soil heterogeneity under different fertilizer levels in maize crop  

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Full Text Available A partir dos dados de um experimento bifatorial em parcelas subdivididas no delineamento inteiramente casualidade, com três formas de adubação nas parcelas principais, e com duas cultivares de milho, com 10 repetições (20 subparcelas, foram estudados: a variabilidade entre as subparcelas agrupadas em diferentes tamanhos, após subtrair-se o efeito da causa de variação cultivar; e o índice de heterogeneidade do solo para cada repetição das formas de adubação. Estas consistiram em: FA1 - adubação recomendada para rendimento de grãos menor do que 3,0t/ha; FA2 - adubação recomendada para rendimento maior do que 6,0t/ha e tratamento das sementes com Zn; e FA3 - igual a FA2, mais a incorporação ao solo de um composto orgânico. Analisando a variância dos diferentes tamanhos de parcela, observou-se uma relação entre o tamanho da parcela e a forma de adubação, sendo que, para o menor tamanho (5m² a FA1 apresentou a menor variância, e para o maior tamanho (25m² , não houve diferença significativa entre as adubações. Pela estimativa do índice de heterogeneidade do solo das formas de adubação, conclui-se que a inclusão do adubo orgânico intensifica a variabilidade existente no solo, quando comparado com adubos químicos.This experiment was based on data obtained from a factorial experiment with a split-plot design in which three sou fertility levels (FL were assigned as main plots, and two maize varieties as 20 sub-plots. The study was conducted to evaluate the variability among sub-plots grouped with different sizes after subtraction of the variety effect, as well as the soil heterogeneity index for each replication of the soil fertility level. The soil fertility levels were: FL1 - fertilization recommended for grain yields up to 3.0 t ha-1 ; FL2 - fertilization for up to 6.0 t ha-1 plus Zn treated seeds; and FL3 - equal to FL2 plus incorporation of an organic compost into the soil. Comparing the the variance between different plot sizes was observed interaction between plot size and fertility level. The smallest plot size (5m² and FL1 showed the smallest variance. However, for fertilitv level no statistic difference was observed when 25m² plot size was used. The estimation of the soil heterogeneity index due to soil fertilization level indicates that the addition of organic mather increases the variability as compared to the addition of mineral fertilizers.

Sidinei José Lopes

1998-09-01

253

Interactive Effects of Soil Moisture Content and Fertilizer Level on Growth and Achene Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.  

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Full Text Available A greenhouse study was conducted at the crop pavilion of the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Nigeria to investigate the interactive effects of soil moisture content and fertilizer level on growth and achene (seed yield of sunflower. Four irrigation amounts (900, 1800, 2700 and 3600 cm3, equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% of field capacity and four fertilizer levels (equivalent to 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 were evaluated in a factorial randomized complete block design in split-plot arrangements with four replications. Plant growth parameters of plant height and number of leaves per plant were significantly (p<0.01 reduced by low soil moisture contents, but were not appreciably affected by fertilizer application (p>0.05. However, yield components and seed yield were significantly (p<0.001 better with 75 and 100% soil moisture and 60 kg N ha-1 fertilizer. Significant interactions of soil moisturexfertilizer level (p<0.01 showed that application of fertilizer has no significant effects at 25 and 50% soil moisture content, while it significantly increased yield components and seed yield at 100% soil moisture content. Results of simple linear regressions show that all yield components significantly (p<0.001 contributed to achene yield variation in sunflower, with the number of achenes per head being the best predictor (R2 = 86.8% of achene yield. Conclusively, results of this study showed that factorial combination of 60 kg N ha-1 fertilizer level at 75% soil moisture content are optimum for profitable achene yield of sunflower in the study area.

Y.A. Abayomi

2008-01-01

254

Distribution of natural radioactivity through use of phosphate containing fertilizers in agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of the natural radionuclides Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in a number of phosphate fertilizers used in Sweden have been measured. An estimation of the gonad dose to different groups of the population have been done. The average gonad dose from external radiation from phosphate fertilization was 0.0002 mrad/year, with a maximum of 0.005 mrad/year from last 75 years the average was 0.05 mrad/year with a maximum of 0.08 mrad/year assuming total accumulation of radium. The annual consumption of fertilizers increases. In spite of this soil will probably not increase as the use of NP- and NPK-fertilizers increase. NP- and NPK-fertilizers contain less activity than older fertilizers like superphosphate. The result of the investigation is that the extra radiation hazard caused by phosphate fertilizer is very small today

255

EFFECTS OF FERTILIZER TYPE (CHICKEN LITTER VS. INORGANIC FERTILIZER) AND CATTLE GRAZING ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Pasture plots included unharvested, hayed, light and heavy cattle grazing pressure, fertilized with either inorganic N-P-K or broiler litter. Total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) followed a seasonal trend and were higher in grazed plots than hayed & unharvested plots. Fungi a...

256

Experiências de adubação do amendoim em campos da região de Botucatu / Fertilizer experiments with peanuts on two «campo» soils of the botucatu region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para estudar a viabilidade da cultura do amendoim nos campos limpos e campos cerrados da região de Botucatu (SP), instalaram-se, em 1960-61, áreas de observação nas glebas Estrada (solo argilo-arenoso) e Rincão (solo arenoso) da fazenda Morrinhos. A área utilizada em cada gleba foi dividida em parce [...] las, que receberam os seguintes tratamentos: a) sem adubo; b) 2 t/ha de calcário; c) 30-60-30 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O; d) calcário + NPK. Em 1961-62, as parcelas diversamente tratadas no ano anterior foram subdivididas para a aplicação, ou não, de novas doses de calcário e de NPK (com diferentes níveis de cada elemento), bem como de uma mistura de micronutrientes. Em 1960-61, as respostas a NPK foram elevadas nas duas glebas, mas o efeito imediato da calagem só foi satisfatório na gleba Estrada. Todavia, os efeitos residuais da calagem e da adubação, observados em 1961-62, foram grandes nas duas glebas. Nesse ano, os resultados obtidos nos canteiros que não receberam calcário ou NPK no ano anterior, mostraram que a calagem e a adubação fosfatada foram os principais fatores do aumento de produção. Para evidenciar a pobreza dos solos estudados e a facilidade com que pôde ser corrigida, basta dizer que, na gleba Estrada, a produção de vagens, de 476 kg/ha nos canteiros que ficaram sempre sem calcário e sem adubo, elevou-se a 1.655 kg/ha, naqueles que só tinham resíduos de calcário e NPK aplicados no ano anterior, e atingiu 2.096 kg/lia, naqueles que receberam, sôbre êsses resíduos, nova adubação com 30-45-30 kg/ha de N-P2O5_K2O. Na gleba Rincão, a produção foi de apenas 333 kg/ha, nos canteiros sem qualquer tratamento, mas alcançou 2.065 e 2.224 kg/ha, respectivamente, nos que só tinham os citados resíduos e nos readubados com NPK. A influência do calcário e da adubação com NPK sôbre a qualidade das vagens também foi muito grande. Enquanto a proporção de sementes nas vagens variou, nas duas glelias, entre 70 e 73% nos tratamentos que receberam calcário + NPK, nos canteiros sem corretivo e sem adubo da gleba Estrada baixou a 34% e, nos da gleba Rincão, a tão somente 10% . Os fatôres mencionados contribuiram, ainda, para aumentar o teor de óleo nas sementes. Abstract in english Two trials were conducted for two years on virgin areas of poor «campo» soils (a dark red latosol and a red-yellow latosol) of the Botucatu region, State of São Paulo, to study the possibility of using them for the peanut production with the aid of fertilizers. Of the compared treatments, phosphorus [...] (ordinary superphosphate) and limestone were the principal yield increasing factors. The low fertility level of the soils and the ease of its correction can be evidenced by showing that, in the second year of the experiment on the dark red latosol, the «no lime, no fertilizer>> plots yielded 476 kg/ha (kilograms per hectare) of pods, the plots treated with lime + NPK only in the previous year, 1,655 kg/ha, and those additionally fertilized with NPK in the second year, 2,096 kg/ha. On the red-yellow latosol, the yields were, respectively, 333, 2,065, and 2,224 kg/ha. The rate of application of limestone was 2 metric tons per hectare; in the first and second years the NPK treatments corresponded to 30-60-30 and 30-45-30 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, respectively. The lime and NPK treatments influenced considerably the quality of the pods. The shelling percentages varied between 70 and 73 in the lime + NPK plots of both soils, but decreased, respectively, to 34 and 10 in the «no treatment>> plots of the dark red latosol and the red-yellow latosol. Even the oil content of the seeds was appreciably increased by the mentioned treatments.

José Luiz V., Rocha; Romeu de, Tella; V., Canecchio Filho; E. S., Freire.

257

Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

258

STUDIES OF SHADING LEVELS AND NUTRITION SOURCES ON GROWTH, YIELD  

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Full Text Available Growth and biochemical content of medicinal crops are influenced by agroecosystems characteristics . The objective of this research was to determine the optimum shading level and type of fertilizer as sources of nutrition on the growth, yield, and andrographolide content of sambiloto. The experiment used Split Plot Design with basic design of Randomized Complete Block Design arranged with two treatment factors, with three replications. The first factor as the main plot was shading levels, namely without shading, 25% shading, 50% shading, and 75% shading. The second factor as the sub plot was sources of nutrition reprented by type of fertilizer, namely NPK fertilizer, cow stable fertilizer, and compost fertilizer. The result of research indicated that shading level and the kind of nutrition influenced some growth and yield variables such as number of leaves, number of branches, plant height, plant dry weight and simplisia weight, and andrographolide content. Interaction of shading level at 25% and straw compost fertilizer performed best in growth characteristics, while the highest andrographolide content resulted from the treatment combination of 50% shading level and straw compost fertilizer.

Edi Purwanto

2011-10-01

259

Effects of decaying leaf litter and inorganic fertilizer on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available The effects of decaying leaf litter of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina as organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a screen house. Twenty-four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which included: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1, 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2, 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic fertilizer (T3, a mixture of 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T4, a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T5 and control (T6. The significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize seedlings, and this was closely followed by T4 treated seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as an organic fertilizer in maize production in a screen house conditions did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.

Chukwuka Kanayo S.

2014-01-01

260

Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench to Different Levels of N, P and K Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available The fertilizers were applied @ 50, 75, 100, or 125 kg ha-1 N, 60, 80 or 100 kg ha -1 P2O5 and 60 or 80 kg ha-1 K2O in different combinations to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. Results divulged that seed germination was not affected statistically by the fertilizer application while plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and green pod yield were affected significantly and were highest at the highest dose of fertilizers.

Muhammad Akbar Anjum

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The effect of fertilization levels and genetic deployment on soil organic matter chemistry and turnover in managed loblolly pine forests  

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Soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics were examined for two managed loblolly pine forests (Pinus taeda L.) located in north-central Florida on sandy Spodosols. The study designs were split-plots with the whole plots designated as fertilization levels, and the split-plots full-sib families of loblolly pine. The forests were aged 9 and 10 years at sampling. Roots, wood, and charcoal were hand-picked from SOM and density fractionation (1.6 g/ml) used to further separate SOM into a light (LF) and heavy fraction (HF). LF turnover rates were estimated using radiocarbon and LF chemistry determined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Family or fertilization level effects on the mass of SOM components were not significant at both sites. The largest proportions of SOM were in the LF (83% and 85%) and wood (6% and 9%). Varying in relative contributions were charcoal (2% and 3%) and the HF (4% and 1%) while fine dead roots were between 1-2% of total SOM. Higher fertilization levels generally depressed fine root (treatments. This treatment also had a greater proportion of lignin, and given the slow turnover, the results suggest this lignin derived from the previous stand. At the other site lignin and lipids differed significantly (p<0.05) between families. These results suggest that tree genetics in forests can influence SOM chemistry, but that family and the degree of fertilization have little net effect on SOM chemistry and turnover.

Vogel, J. G.; Jokela, E. J.; He, D.; Hockaday, W. C.; Schuur, E. A.

2013-12-01

262

Dynamics of clay mineralogy with profile depth in relation to long term potassium fertilizer application to sugar cane crop  

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The experiment consisted of treatment of sugar cane crop with N, NP, NPK and farmyard manure and determination of its effect on soil mica, vermiculite and montmorillonite over a period of 18 years. The NPK treatment had greater mica in coarse clay, but less in fine clay than NP and control treatments. Vermiculite in coarse clay fraction, in NPK treatment, increased with the depth as compared to other treatments. The fertilizer treatment effect on smectite content was obvious only in AP horizon in fine clay fraction. (author)

263

Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascolonicum Production  

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Full Text Available A block experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of biological and chemical (NPK 15:15:15 fertilizers on the growth and yield of shallot cultivation in Mahasakham University, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand. Six biological fertilizers were developed from BBF (basically biological fertilizer: 45 g cattle manure + 45 g rice bran + 20 mL of molasses + 10 mL of EM + 10 L of dechlorinated water and used in this experiment. Chemical and biological fertilizers showed insignificant at a confidence level of 95% on the growth and yield of shallots. Increasing biological and chemical fertilizers concentration in this experiment had no significant effect on shallot growth and yield. Except control (without fertilizer, average shallot total weight with leaves and number of leaves per plant in all treatments were ranged between 9.885-12.024 g and 19.095-21.840 leaves, respectively. Average shallot total weight with leaves and number of leaves per plant obtained in this experimental were coincided to the Thai market standard. Growth and yield of these shallots showed significant different to the control (5.525 g of weight and 15.625 leaves per plant. Supplemented golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculat into BBF provided higher NO3? contents (4.28-4.68%. However, the high content of nitrate in biological fertilizer did not show significant effects in promoting shallot growth and yield. Under taking into account chemical fertilizer cost, which is ten times higher than biological fertilizer, the soil amendment with biological fertilizer may be a practicable alternative for the poor farmers who own degraded farmlands may be unable to afford the cost of chemical fertilizer.

Sopit Vetayasuporn

2006-01-01

264

Vermicomposting Leachate (Worm Tea as Liquid Fertilizer for Maize (Zea mays L. Forage Production  

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Full Text Available We investigated how dilution of vermicompost Leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected maize plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m-1, contained 834 mg K+ L-1, 247 mg NO3-1 L-1 and 168 mg PO43– L-1, was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65% germination index. Vermicompost Leachate diluted to 50% and mixed with 170 g L-1 NPK resulted in the best maize plant development while the dispersant and adherent had no significant effect. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development when diluted, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth.

Garcia-Gomez Roberto Carlos

2008-01-01

265

Age-associated differential microRNA levels in human follicular fluid reveal pathways potentially determining fertility and success of in vitro fertilization.  

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Reproductive life span and fertility have been shown to depend on successful early folliculogenesis, which involves cell-to-cell communication and the concerted regulation of gene expression at both the oocyte and granulosa cell levels. Recently, micro RNAs (miRNAs) were identified as fine-tuners of gene expression. Here, we report that miRNAs can readily be detected within membrane-enclosed vesicles of human follicular fluid. MiRNA expression profiling of the follicular fluid of younger (38 years) women revealed a set of four differentially expressed miRNAs. The predicted targets of these miRNAs are clearly enriched in genes involved in heparan-sulfate biosynthesis, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, carbohydrate digestion and absorption, p53 signaling, and cytokine-cytokine-receptor interaction. Several of these pathways have been reported to be determinants of fertility, suggesting that this set of miRNAs and their respective targets should be evaluated in relation to reproductive aging and assisted reproduction. PMID:24684237

Diez-Fraile, Araceli; Lammens, Tim; Tilleman, Kelly; Witkowski, Wojciech; Verhasselt, Bruno; De Sutter, Petra; Benoit, Yves; Espeel, Marc; D'Herde, Katharina

2014-06-01

266

Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol  

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Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

2011-11-01

267

The Effect of Crop Rotation, Mineral Fertilizer Application and Herbicide on Weed Control in Winter Rye  

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Full Text Available The recent years' problems of herbicide use have led a growing number of researchers to seek alternative methods that are less reliant on herbicides. This research was conducted to determine the effect of long-term crop rotation, mineral fertilizer and herbicide on the weed infestation and grain yield of winter rye during 2004 and 2005 at the long-term experimental site of the University of Timiriazev, Moscow. Treatments were control (no weed control, herbicide, combined fertilizer (NPK and NPK plus herbicide in field winter rye cultivated in continuous and crop rotation with other crops since 1912. Crop rotation significantly decreased weed density and dry mass. Long-term NPK application significantly decreased weed density, but had not any effect on weed dry mass. Crop rotation, NPK application and herbicide increased ground crop cover and decreased ground weed cover. In continuous crop, weed ground cover was 10 % in control plot and 3.33 % in plots where NPK was applied. Data showed that long-term crop rotation and NPK application can reduce weed infestation and increase grain yield of winter rye.

H Mohamad Dost CHamanabad

2009-04-01

268

Anti-Mullerian hormone levels decline under hormonal suppression: a prospective analysis in fertile women after delivery  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background AMH's reported stability during periods of hormonal change makes it a practical tool in assessing ovarian reserve. However, AMH declines with age and age-specific cut-offs remain to be established in women with proven fertility. This study aims to determine age-specific ranges of AMH in women with proven fertility. Methods Two hundred-ten fertile women, aged 18-40 years, were prospectively recruited for AMH measurements within 14 days after delivery and age stratified into 3 groups (18-30, 31-36 and 37-40 years. Eligibility required spontaneous conception within a maximal period of six months. Autoimmune diseases, chemotherapy, radiation, ovarian surgery and polycystic ovary syndrome precluded inclusion. Results 95% confidence intervals of AMH declined with advancing female age from 0.9-1.1 to 0.6-0.9 and 0.2-0.4 ng/mL (P Conclusions Like infertile populations, fertile women demonstrate declining AMH with advancing age. Uniformly lower levels than in infertile women suggest that AMH levels do not appear as stable under all hormonal influences as previously reported.

Ortner Iris

2011-07-01

269

Effect of Irrigation Regimes and Fertilizer Combinations on Yield of Two Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivars in Freidan  

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Full Text Available In order to determine the potato cultivars responses to irrigation regimes and fertilizer combinations, an experiment was conducted on Fereidan Research Farm, Isfahan Province in 2003. The trial was designed as split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The cultivars (Arinda and Navita were planted as main plots, and irrigated after 70, 140, 210 mm water evaporation from standard A pan surface that provided optimal watering, mild drought, and severe drought, respectively, as sub plots. Fertilizer combinations including of NPK + Zn, NPK+ Mn, NPK +Zn + Mn and NPK+ Manure were used as sub-sub plots. Results showed that the cultivar Arinda produced higher yield, mean tuber weight and total tuber number. By decreasing the amount of irrigation, the total yield and mean tuber weight were decreased. The highest amount of seed tubers (35-55 mm diameter and marketable tuber sizes (diameter>35mm and lowest amount of small size tuber numbers (diameter <35 were obtained in moderate drought. The use of NPK + Zn + Mn and NPK+ Manure produced the highest yield and mean tuber weight. Planting the cultivar Arinda with efficient irrigation is suggested in Isfahan province. Moderate drought is recommended for production of higher amount of seedy tubers. A combination of manure, Mn and Zn fertilizers are also suggested for potato farms of this district.

KH Penahi Kord aghari

2009-01-01

270

Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N2-fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

271

Nutrient Composition of Selected Sweet Potato [Ipomea batatas (L Lam] Varieties as Influenced by Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application  

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Full Text Available Total ß-carotene content of four varieties of Sweet potatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L Lam] as influenced by different levels of nitrogen fertilizer were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC The proximate composition and mineral contents were also determined. The nitrogen fertilizer treatments were combinations of four levels of 0kgN/ha(control, 40 kgN/ha, 80 kg/Nha, 120 kgN/ha on the four varieties of Sweet potato; white-fleshed TIS87/0087 and TIS8164, orange-fleshed Ex-Igbariam and CIP Tanzania. Nitrogen fertilizer significantly (p<0.05 increased the total ß-carotene and crude protein with increase in nitrogen fertilizer application up to 120 kgN/ha. Generally there was a trend in the total ß-carotene increase from 0-80 kgN/ha for all the varieties except CIP Tanzania which showed no such trend. On the average, TIS87/0087 and Ex-Igbariam varieties gave the highest total ß-carotene content at 40-80 kgN/ha when compared with the control. The highest yield for the crude fiber was observed at the control (0 kgN/ha for all the varieties except TIS8164 which highest value was observed at 40 kgN/ha. Application of nitrogen above 80 kgN/ha did not increase the yield of most nutrient (namely, ß-carotene and protein. Generally, application of nitrogen fertilizer increased the mineral contents of most Sweet potato varieties significantly (p<0.05 from 0-120 kgN/ha with the exception of phosphorus which showed significant decrease. The overall results indicate increased bioavailability of ß-carotene (Provitamin A and crude protein for good nutrition and health particularly at 40-80 kgN/ha.

A.N. Ukom

2009-01-01

272

Response of Achillea santolina L. To Fertilizers under Different Irrigation Intervals  

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Full Text Available Most of promising lands in El-Arish are situated near the Mediterranean Sea, as insufficient available water irrigation with high concentration of salinity from wells water is generally used for irrigation. Production of medicinal and aromatic plants using microorganisms in biofertilization to reduce or replace the chemical fertilizers became an essential process to ensure safety for human and environment. The effect of three irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days and half or full dose of recommended rate inorganic NPK fertilizer as compared with control ones (recommended rate of inorganic NPK fertilizer without microbial inoculation on vegetative growth, chemical composition and essential oil productivity of Achillea santolina L. Plants was studies at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Environmental Agriculture Science, El-Arish, during two seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012. Results showed that the moderate irrigation interval every 14-days was the prior for producing higher percentage and yield of volatile than the intervals every 7 and 21 days. The growth and yield parameters of the plants increased as a result of inoculation of symbiotic N2-fixers+phosphobacteria with inorganic fertilizer followed by the same mixture given half dose NPK fertilizer and then control. The interaction between the two factors of study, it could be noticed that growth and yield parameters considerably improved as a result of watering interval at 14 days and inoculation with biofertilizeres and supplemented with half or full dose of inorganic NPK-fertilizer in the two seasons.

M.A.M. El-Mekawy

2013-01-01

273

Growth index in massai grass under different levels of nitrogen fertilization  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth index of massai grass during two regrowth cycles in a greenhouse under five levels of nitrogen (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg N/dm³ of soil and eight growth ages (5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26 days in a split-plot design with five replications. The following variables were evaluated: net assimilation rate, herbage growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio and specific leaf area. The effect of nitrogen was detected on the variables net assimilation rate (regrowths 1 and 2, leaf area ratio (regrowth 1, leaf weight ratio (regrowths 1 and 2, specific leaf area (regrowths 1 and 2 and herbage growth rate (regrowths 1 and 2. The growth ages influenced the relative growth rate (regrowth 2 and the net assimilation rate (regrowth 2. The net assimilation rate presented linear effect, estimated in 0.70 and 2.86 g/m² leaf.day-1 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively (regrowth 1. For each milligram of N/dm³ added, the leaf area ratio was reduced in 0.0000258 m² leaf/g plant (regrowth 1. The herbage growth rate was estimated in 1.38 and 37.02 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 1, and 4.37 and 32.20 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 2 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively. The massai grass' growth is favored by nitrogen fertilization, and little do the growth ages affect the growth index of the plants.

Marcos Neves Lopes

2011-12-01

274

PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS  

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Full Text Available A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da correção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus, cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and 128 for the 50, 100 and 150% recommended fertilizer rates. The NPK fertilizer levels, keeping c

Enio Marchezan

2002-04-01

275

The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria  

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Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha), four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P), NPK (20 : 10 : 10), and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N)] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS). Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP) and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm), density (plants/m2) and spread (cm) were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. ...

Onifade, Os; Omokanye, At; Amodu, Jt

2001-01-01

276

Some Aspects of NPK Nutrition for Improved Yield and Oil Contents of Canola  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of NPK on canola (cv. Dunkeld. Sole dose of N proved superior to split dose and produced significantly taller plants. Nitrogen application methods had no influence on grain yield and oil contents. Grain yield increased with increase in P level. Oil contents significantly increased by P up to 50 kg ha -1, but further increase in P decreased the oil contents. Potassium showed no influence on any observation other than oil contents. A combination of 100 kg N, 75 kg P and 30 kg K ha -1 seems to be the optimum dose in terms of higher canola grain production. While highest oil contents can be obtained with 100 kg N, 50 kg P and 60 kg K ha -1.

Muhammad Zahir Afridi

2002-01-01

277

Agronomic Traits of Mungbean and Subsequent Rice Crop as Affected by Seed Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Level  

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Full Text Available Effect of seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels on the yield and yield components of mungbean and subsequent rice crop was studied. Results showed that seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels significantly affected yield and yield components of mungbean and rice crops. Treatment (T6 exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential of mungbean crop (954.8 kg ha-1 grains, which was 50% more than that of control. Whereas T7 gave maximum residual effect (4075 kg ha-1 paddy yield, however statistically it was at par with T3, T4, T5 and T6. In conclusion, T6 proved better for getting maximum mungbean yield while T7 produced highest paddy yield.

Aasrar Mahboob

2003-01-01

278

Influence of simple, complex and leaf feed fertilizers on red beet crop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2001-2003 the experiments were carried out at the research station of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture and Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of medium and high rates of NPK fertilization in the forms of simple and complex fertilizers as well as the influence of leaf feed fertilizers on the red beet crop yield, quality, nutrient balance, energy efficiency and profitability. Red beet crop was cultivated on well-tamed soil...

Staugaitis, Gediminas; Dalangauskiene?, Asta

2005-01-01

279

Social class and net fertility before, during, and after the demographic transition: A micro-level analysis of Sweden 1880-1970  

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Full Text Available Background: Although demographers have long been interested in studying the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns. Identifying these patterns could help us to better understand the mechanisms behind the transition. Objective: The aim of this paper is to explore social class differentials in fertility before, during, and after the fertility decline, in order to test hypotheses regarding a reversal of class differences during the transition. Methods: We use micro-level census data for Sweden 1880, 1890, 1900, 1960, and 1970 with individual-level information on occupation, which is used to measure class. Poisson regressions with parish-level fixed effects enable us to carefully control spatial heterogeneity in measuring class differences in net fertility (child-woman ratios. Results: The relative differences were about as large in the early phases of the transition as they were in the 1960s. The fertility levels of the high-fertility classes were about 40Š higher than those of the low-fertility classes. In the early phases of the decline, the upper and middle classes had much lower net fertility than lower skilled workers, who had the highest fertility levels. However, there was no clear gradient from the highest to the lowest socioeconomic status. Instead, it appears that the upper and middle classes had low fertility levels, while the fertility levels of the remaining groups were unchanged, and therefore remained relatively high. In the 1960s, members of the middle class had the lowest fertility levels, while farmers and rural laborers had the highest fertility levels. Conclusions: The results only partly confirm the assumption that there was a reversal in class differences in the demographic transition. Class was found to be important, but the pattern was not characterized by a simple gradient. Moreover, spatial heterogeneity was shown to explain about half of the observed differences between classes. The observed pattern suggests that the fertility transition can be attributed to both innovation-diffusion and the adjustment to new socioeconomic conditions.

Martin Dribe

2014-02-01

280

Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

Piotr Kraska

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effects of Different Fertilizer Application Level on Growth and Physiology of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on BRIS Soil  

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Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is one of the most potential annual crop planted throughout the world. Being fastgrowing and multipurpose, it has been utilized as a substitute of jute and, more recently, as raw product for the productionof pulp and paper. With strong and long fiber yield, mass production of Kenaf throughout Malaysia is critical. Theutilization of less fertile soils such as BRIS soils is important to increase the Kenaf production throughout Malaysia. Thus,the objective of this study was to determine the effects of different level fertilizer application on growth and physiology ofKenaf planted on BRIS soils. V36 variety was used and planted in three different plots by treatments with fertilizersnamely high (1960 kg/ plot, medium (1260 kg/ plot and low (700 kg/ plot respectively. Each plot comprises 106,000trees where trees were planted on 20 lines. There were contrasting results on the effects of fertilizer on growth andphysiology of Kenaf in the dry (41 days and wet season (64 days. Significant effects were only observed for diameter,height, leaf number and area during the wet season. Similar results were also found for biomass. The increasing trendswith increasing the rates of fertilizer were observed in the wet season for growth and biomass parameters. The correlationanalyses between total aboveground biomass with diameter and height were more pronounced in the wet season. AGR,RGR and EG calculated from the differences between the dry and wet season readings for aboveground biomass showedthat the higher rate of fertilizer recorded the higher values of AGR and RGR. However, no trend was observed for EG.

Hazandy Abdul-Hamid

2009-05-01

282

Bacterial diversity in Greenlandic soils as affected by potato cropping and inorganic versus organic fertilization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems will in the near future be exposed to severe environmental stresses due to global warming. For example, the microbial community structure and function may change as a result of increased temperatures. In Greenland, agriculture is carried out in the Subarctic regions with only limited pest management, despite the presence of plant pathogenic fungi. The microbial community composition in agricultural soils, which plays an important role for soil and plant health and for crop yield, may be affected by the use of different fertilizer treatments. Currently, only limited research has been performed on the effects of these treatments on bacterial communities in Arctic and Subarctic agricultural soils. The major objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of conventional (NPK) and organic (sheep manure supplemented with nitrogen) fertilizer treatments on bacterial diversity, nutrient composition and crop yield in two Greenlandic agricultural soils. An effect of fertilizer was found on soil and plant nutrient levels and on crop yields. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences did not reveal any major changes in the overall bacterial community composition as a result of different fertilizer treatments, indicating a robust microbial community in these soils. In addition, differences in nutrient levels, crop yields and bacterial abundances were found between the two field sites and the two experimental growth seasons, which likely reflect differences in physical–chemical soil parameters.

Frydenlund Michelsen, Charlotte; Pedas, Pai

2013-01-01

283

A Quantitative Study of Enzyme Levels in the Fluids of Sterile and Fertile Echinococcus Granulosuscysts in Sheep  

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Full Text Available Hydatodosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases that has a global distribution and seems more prevalent in some Asian and European countries. Until now, our knowledge of the parasites biology and metabolism and host-parasite relationships has remained scanty. The main purpose of this study was a comparison between levels of lactate de-hydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate amino transferase (AST and alanine amino transferase (ALT in fertile and sterile hydatid fluids.Liver and lung tissues of infected sheep were gathered and enzyme concentrations in each cyst plus its fertility status and location (liver or lung were determined by an auto-analyzing method.Results showed a significant difference between enzyme levels in fertile and sterile hydatid cysts. There seems to be an equilibrium between hydatid fluid and serum concentrations of hepatic transaminases, while for LDH and ALP the relationship takes the form of an active interchange.ALP is one of the most important enzymes in parasite metabolism and it is considered as an immunogenic protein in host serum.

S Rohani

2003-07-01

284

Nitric oxide level in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile males and its correlation with sperm parameters  

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Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a free radical molecule, produced by most cells and tissues in the body. The effect of NO on cells is concentration dependent. Low concentration of NO is essential in biology and physiology of most of cells, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has detrimental effects on cells. The role of NO in biology of male and female genital systems is under investigation. In the present study, the nitric oxide concentration was measured in the seminal plasma of both fertile and infertile males and compared with spermatogram parameters. For this purpose, semen samples were collected from 45 patients and 70 healthy donors. After analysis of samples, the stable metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate were measured by Griess assay. The results indicated that the nitric oxide concentration in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly higher than controls. There was a significant negative correlation between the nitric oxide concentration and sperm motility and viability in infertile males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the level of nitric oxide in seminal plasma of infertile men was higher than that of fertile men. The increasing level of nitric oxide concentration in seminal plasma leads to the decrease in sperm motility and viability and affects fertility.

Amiri I.

2006-07-01

285

Effect of Potassium and Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Biomass of Some Halophytes Grown under High Levels of Salinity  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Nahshala Farm, about 50 km from Al-Ain, UAE during the 2001/2002 growing seasons, using five halophyte species; Spartina sp., Distichlis palmeri., Paspalum vaginatum, Juncus roemerianus and Batis maritima, under six levels of N and K fertilizer combinations irrigated with salinity water of 20 g L-1. The objectives of the experiment were twofold; 1 to find out the optimum rate of potassium and nitrogen under such high salinity stress and 2 to study the response (growth and biomass production of such halophytes to different levels of K and N as an anti-salinity nutrients. The experiment was conducted in triplicate with a split-plot design arranged in randomized complete block. Results indicate that controlling soil fertility especially N and K under saline soils condition is considered one of the most important factors in order to conduct reliable study on the evaluation of tolerance of plants to salinity stress. Nitrogen and potassium proved to increase plant salt tolerance to produce high biomass. This study also supports the idea of using high saline water of about 20 g L-1 salt concentration in agriculture along with N and K fertilizers accompanied with increasing leaching fraction to maintain satisfactory yield production of such halophytes

Maher N. Noaman

2004-01-01

286

Effects of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level on clinical pregnancy rate via In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) procedure  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism may adversely affect In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcomes. However the cutoff of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for diagnosis and treatment is controversal. The aim of this study was to find the association of clinical pregnancy rate with regard to TSH levels in women undergoing IVF. Methods: A historical cohort study of 816 infertile patients who underwent IVF in 2011 and 2012 was conducted. The study subjects were categorized in two groups according to their baseline TSH level; one with 0.5 ?TSHIVF outcomes. It seems that lowering the upper limit of normal TSH should be still considered as a scientific debate.

Aghahosseini, Marziyeh; Asgharifard, Homa; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Tehrani Banihashemi, Arash

2014-01-01

287

Long-term effects of fertilization on the forms and availability of soil phosphorus in rice paddy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The changes in total P accumulation and P compounds with time in the plough layer in a paddy soil in southern Korea were investigated in relation to the continuous application of chemical fertilizers (NPK), straw based compost (Compost), combination these two (NPK+Compost) for 31 years. Continuous fertilization increased the total and inorganic P contents in plough layers. In NPK, inorganic P fraction did not change with time, but organic P content increased significantly. Long-term application of chemical fertilizer together with compost accelerated the decrease in the organic P fraction, presumably due to promoting microbial activity in the plow layer, and then increased significantly inorganic P fraction. Compost application decreased the residual P and Fe-P fractions and then increased inorganic P fraction, in spite of continuous compost application. Increase in total, inorganic and extractable P with time may be closely related to the increase in the availability of accumulated P for rice growth. PMID:15172602

Lee, Chang Hoon; Park, Chang Young; Park, Ki Do; Jeon, Weon Tae; Kim, Pil Joo

2004-07-01

288

[Nutrient spatial variability of tobacco soil restoration area and fertility suitability level evaluation].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using geographic information system technology (GIS) and geostatistics methods, this paper studied the spatial variability of soil properties and available nutrients in the new regulation area units located in Qingjiangyuan modern tobacco agriculture science and technology park (Enshi, Hubei), suburb of Enshi City and the Baiyang base of Lichuan City, and further evaluation of the soil fertility suitability index (SFI) was carried out by use fuzzy mathematics. The results indicated that the effects of land restoration on the soil available phosphorus content variability and spatial distribution were very obvious, possibly due to the landform characteristics and restoration extent. The effect of land restoration on soil pH was small, however, serious soil acidification was detected in the soil sampled from Baiyang (pH soils taken from the suburb, Baiyang and Qingjiangyuan, respectively. In conclusion, attentions should be paid on soil acidification in Baiyang, soil fertility and equalization in the suburb, and soil fertility in the region of Qingjiangyuan with low SFI. PMID:24984498

Xu, Da-Bing; Deng, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Bi; Si, Guo-Han; Peng, Cheng-Lin; Yuan, Jia-Fu; Zhao, Shu-Jun; Wang, Rui

2014-03-01

289

Effects of Early Maturation on Growth, Fertility and Testosterone Levels in Broiler Breeder Males  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted determine the feasibility of rearing broiler breeder males to an earlier age of sexual maturation. Three hundred Ross males were divided at 3 weeks of age into three treatments and four reps. Control birds (CD were fed a normal 15% grower diet and an increased photoperiod began at 22 weeks of age. The fast growth (FG birds were divided into 2 treatments; high protein (HP birds were fed a 20% grower diet and normal protein (NP birds were fed the control diet. FG males were raised to the breeder guideline recommend 22 wk target body weight by the age of 16 weeks, at which time photoperiod was increased to promote sexual maturity. CD males were photostimulated (PS at 22 weeks. The second part of the trial was a fertility study. Following PS, 16 cockerels from each treatment were divided into 2 replicates and placed with 80 hens/ replicate. Eggs were collected and set weekly to determine fertility. Results indicated no differences between the NP and CD birds in performance. NP males performed better with respect to uniformity and growth. The HP males had the lowest fertility but the highest uniformity. It was concluded that early maturation is feasible in male broiler breeders and extra protein is unnecessary for an accelerated growth program.

C. Pietsch

2008-01-01

290

L-Carnitine Level in Seminal Plasma of Fertile and Infertile Men  

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Full Text Available

Background: To determine any correlation between infertility and semen quality with concentrations of L-carnitine in human seminal plasma.

Methods: This case-control study performed in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Seminal plasma of 72 infertile men and 80 men with proved fertility as a control group was investigated and L-carnitine level was determined using UV enzymatic test at 340 nm.

Results: The concentration of L-carnitine was significantly lower in the infertile group compared with control group (80.59±56.43 mg/l versus 108.43±42.26 mg/l; P= 0.0009. There was also a statistically significant positive correlation between seminal plasma L-carnitine concentration, total sperm count, and the percentage of motile sperm (P= 0.0009, and P= 0.0000, respectively.

Conclusion: These finding suggest that the determination of seminal plasma L-carnitine level may be a useful test in evaluation of male infertility.

N Sheikh

2011-06-01

291

Effects of fertilizer and plant density on yield and quality of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.  

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Full Text Available In order to understand the effect of organic fertilizer on yield of anise, an experiment was conducted in the form of split-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad, Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center. Four treatments of fertilization: the control, vermicompost - 5 t/ha, cow manure - 25 t/ha, and mineral fertilizer (NPK - 60 kg/ha (the same rate of each nutrient were applied as the main factor. The second factor was plant density, applied at three levels: 17, 25, and 50 plants/m2. The results showed a significant effect of fertilizer on the number of umbels per plant, number of umbellets per umbel and canopy cover. Plant density had a significant effect on grain yield, biological yield, the number of lateral branches, essential oil percentage and yield of essential oil. Seed and essential oil yield were the highest in the case of the application of vermicompost and plant densities of 50 and 25 plants/m2 respectively.

Faravani Mahdi

2013-01-01

292

Effect of different fertilizer application on the soil fertility of paddy soils in red soil region of southern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (Papplication of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (Pfertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region. PMID:23028550

Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

2012-01-01

293

Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

Ehsan Karimi

2013-09-01

294

Effect of Seed Inoculation and Different Nitrogen Levels on the Grain Yield of Mungbean  

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Full Text Available Effect of seed inoculation and different nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of mungbean was studied at Agronomic Research Station, Farooqabad during the year 2000 and 2001. Results showed that various yield components like No. of pods plant -1, No. of grain pods -1, 1000 grain weight, biological and grain yield were affected significantly by seed inoculation and fertilizer application. Seed inoculation + 50-50-0 NPK kg ha -1, exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential (955 kg ha -1 of mungbean grains.

Asrar Mahboob

2002-01-01

295

ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS EFFECTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SWEET MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. SACCHARATA STRUT. IN SOUTH EASTERN RAINFOREST ZONE OF NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Growth and yield response of sweet maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Strut. to rates of poultry manure(PM and NPK 20-10-10 fertilizer was studied under field condition in 2010 late growing season in Calabar, ahumid forest agro ecology of south eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised of three rates of PM (0, 5 and 10t/ha,factorially combined with four rates of NPK (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg/ha and arranged into a randomized completeblock design with three replications. Application of PM at the highest rate significantly increased plant height,number of leaves/plant, number of cobs/plant, unhusked and dehusked green cob yields and also hastened daysto 50% tasselling. The highest rates of PM and NPK maximized leaf area index (LAI, number of grains/cob andharvest index (HI whereas total dry matter (TDM, weight of grains/cob, cob yield/ha and total grain yield peakedat 10t/ha PM and 400kg/ha NPK fertilizer. The 10t/ha PM rate and 400kg/ha NPK increased TDM by 43 and 91%and total grain yield by 101 and 34% respectively, compared with the control. Poultry manure at 10t/ha incombination with 400kg/ha NPK fertilizer out-yielded other treatments in terms of biomass yield, cob yield/ha,harvest index and total grain yield.

UWAH DF, ENEJI AE, ESHIET UJ

2011-06-01

296

Influence of cimetidine and bromocriptine on prolactin levels in rat fertility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was designed to see the effects of parenterally administered drugs cimetidine and bromocriptine affecting serum prolactin upon the fertility of adult male albino rats. Ninety adult young male albino rats between the ages of 60 to 120 days were selected. The animals were divided into three groups. Cimetidine was administered in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight to group B intramuscularly and in addition to cimetidine, bromocriptine in a dose of 2.5 mg/day intramuscularly was gi...

Hamid, Qamar; Hamid, Sadaf; Minhas, Liaqat Ali; Gul, Anjuman

2009-01-01

297

Dynamics of the level and ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus in carp ponds water: the effect of mineral fertilizers upon its quality  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation is to establish the dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus level variation and of their ratio after mineral fertilizers application in water. After mineral fertilizers application into the ponds, the real biogenic quantities in water have increased by 2.8-10 times for nitrogen, and by 2-28 times for phosphates, at scheduled nitrogen levels of 5-7 mg L-1 and nitrogen/phosphorus ratio of 10:1, 16:1 and 20:1, respectively. During the period 1st – 3rd day after fertilizer application, optimum nitrogen levels have been preserved of 2.60 – 5.79 mg L-1. A tendency of residual biogenic quantities decrease in the water has been observed from the 10th to the 30th day after fertilizer application.

Liliana Hadjinikolova

2009-04-01

298

Long-term fertilization effects on soil organic carbon fractions in a red soil of southern China  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a study of long-term (17 years) fertilization effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions in a typical red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) under intensive cropping with maize-wheat with various fertilizations in Hunan, China. The fertilization treatments include non-fertilization (Control), mineral nitrogen (N), mineral nitrogen-phosphorus (NP), nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium combination (NPK), and mineral NPK combined with organic amendments (e.g., pig manure and straw). Two sets of soil samples were used: (1) collected in 1990, and (2) collected in 2007. Soil samples were separated to measure free particulate organic C (fPOC), intra-microaggregate particulate organic C (iPOC), and mineral associated organic C (MOC) with physical fractionation. The percentage of SOC fractions in all treatments follows an order: MOC (45-89%) >fPOC (7-35%) >iPOC (11-20%), suggesting that MOC is the primary organic carbon pool in the red soil. Compared with the control, there is no increase in iPOC and MOC under imbalanced mineral fertilizer applications (i.e., N, NP). However, all SOC fractions show a significant increase under balanced mineral fertilizer application (NPK), and mineral NPK applied with organic amendments. Particularly, manure application results in an increase of 290.6-408.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 for fPOC, 162.0-179.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for iPOC and 322.9-514.5 kg ha-1 yr-1 for MOC.

Tong, X.; Xu, M.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.; Cong, R.

2010-12-01

299

Studies on the Comparative Efficiency of EM-Biokasht and Chemical Fertilizers in Improving the Yield Attributes of Wheat.  

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The results revealed that maximum grain yield (5.56 t ha -1) was obtained with the application of standard recommended dose of chemical fertilizer. However, it was followed by the treatment where 1000 kg ha -1 of EM-Biokasht was applied at sowing. It can thus be concluded that although use of EM-Biokasht did not produce comparable results with that of NPK application, but keeping in view the high cost of NPK fertilization, the use of EM-Biokasht at the rate of 1000 kg ha...

Asghar Ali; Asghar Malik, M.; Adil Choudhry, M.; Tanveer, A.; Khalid, M.

1999-01-01

300

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana.In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replications, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1 NPK (control, 2 NPK + Fe, 3 NPK + B, 4 NPK + Cu, 5 NPK + Mn, 6 NPK + Zn, 7 NPK + Mo, 8 NPK + Mg and 9 NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

R. Alvarez

1963-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes / Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetrabor [...] ato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana. Abstract in english In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replication [...] s, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1) NPK (control), 2) NPK + Fe, 3) NPK + B, 4) NPK + Cu, 5) NPK + Mn, 6) NPK + Zn, 7) NPK + Mo, 8) NPK + Mg and 9) NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo). The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

R., Alvarez; A. C. P., Wutke.

302

Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK / Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por [...] 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1) ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z) e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK), e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP). Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura. Abstract in english The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibb [...] le tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1) with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant) of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70%) and KNO3 - zeolite (30%). Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

Alberto Carlos de Campos, Bernardi; Carlos Guarino, Werneck; Patrick Gesualdi, Haim; Nélio das Graças de Andrade da Mata, Rezende; Paulo Renato Perdigão, Paiva; Marisa Bezerra de Mello, Monte.

2008-09-01

303

Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70% and KNO3 - zeolite (30%. Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

2008-09-01

304

Radionuclide, Metal and Non-metal Levels in Percolated Water from Soils Fertilized with Phosphogypsum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, which is produced by precipitation during the wet process of phosphate rocks. While commercial uses, in agriculture and in manufacturing gypsum board and Portland cement, consume less than a few percent of this by-product, the vast majority is disposed of on land in gypsum. In Brazil, three main industries are responsible for the production and storage of about 5.5 x 106 tons per year. PG may contain trace metals, non-metals, fluorides and natural radionuclides. Since, in Brazil, PG has been used for many years as soil amendment, it is important to know its availability, mainly in aquatic environments used for human consumption. In this case, more restrictive limits must be adopted. This work aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals in sand and clayey soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements and radionuclides from soils fertilized with PG to crops. In general, it was observed that elemental concentrations were below the actual detection limit of the equipment for all conditions of interest, indicating a low mobility of the analyzed elements in the soil. (author)

305

Yield of Soybean as Affected by Water Stress and Phosphours Levels  

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Full Text Available Field experiments on soybean variety Hampton-266A were carried out for three years at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam on silt loam soil. Factorial experiments in Randomized Complete Block with four replications were carried out with three soil moisture stress levels (3, 5 and 8 bar tension and two fertility levels (NPK 50-60-30 and 50-90-30 kg ha-1. The data demonstrated that seed yield was highly significantly affected by moisture stress and fertility levels. The seed yield reduced by 28 and 20% at 8 and 15 bars respectively as compared to 3 bar soil moisture stress. The seed yield was about 10% more in 90 kg P2O5 Per hectare as compared to 60 kg P2O5 per hectare. It is therefore suggested that soybean crop should be irrigated when soil moisture reaches at the level of 3 bar, where satisfactory yield could be obtained.

B,R.Kazi

2002-01-01

306

Growth of chamaecyparis lawsoniana nursery trees with different levels of covering and substrate mineral fertilization / Crescimento de mudas de chamaecyparis lawsoniana em diferentes níveis de adubação mineral do substrato e em cobertura  

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Full Text Available Two simultaneous experiments were accomplished in the Nursery of Ornamental Plants of the Federal University of Paraná State with the objective of evaluating the effect of mineral fertilization on the growth of nursery trees of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana planted directly in the field and in individual packings. The experimental design was the completely randomized with five combinations of NPK 4-30-10 + urea, in grams (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 and 120 + 40 for the field and 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 and 40 + 16 for the packings and four replications. The growth of the plants was observed during one year and the height of plants and the diameter of the trunks were evaluated each two months. The fertilization in covering in the field did not stimulate the growth of the plants. The substrate fertilization promoted significantly higher growth of plants in height and diameter of trunks in the period from September to May. The trunk diameter was more influenced, demonstrating that the secondary growth of the plant is more stimulated by the fertilization. The plant growth in the field was greater than the plant growth in individual packings.Foram realizados dois experimentos simultâneos no Viveiro de Plantas Ornamentais da Universidade Federal do Paraná com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral sobre o crescimento de mudas de Chamaecyparis lawsoniana plantadas diretamente no campo e em recipientes individuais. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado com cinco combinações de NPK (4-30-10 mais uréia, em gramas, (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 e 120 + 40, respectivamente para o campo e 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 e 40 + 16, respectivamente para os recipientes e quatro repetições. O crescimento das plantas foi observado durante um ano, realizando-se avaliações de altura da muda e diâmetro do tronco a cada dois meses. A adubação em cobertura a campo não estimulou o crescimento das mudas. A adubação de substrato promoveu maior crescimento de mudas em recipiente em altura e em diâmetro de tronco mais significativamente no período de setembro a maio. O crescimento em diâmetro do tronco da muda foi mais influenciado, demonstrando que o crescimento secundário da planta foi mais estimulado pela adubação. O crescimento das mudas a campo foi maior que o ocorrido em recipientes.

Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

2009-03-01

307

Composição química dos grãos de milho em resposta à adubação mineral e inoculação com rizobactérias / Chemical composition of corn grains in response to mineral fertilization and inoculation with rhizobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para o aumento da produtividade agrícola no País, são necessários estudos para melhor aproveitamento da adubação mineral, a fim de uma produção de grãos com melhor qualidade nutricional. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor e o acúmulo de proteína, de cinzas e de nutrientes em grãos de mi [...] lho provenientes de plantas submetidas à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens e cultivadas em diferentes níveis de adubação NPK no solo. Foram testados seis tratamentos, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0,125 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições, sendo instalado em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, utilizando o cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35. Determinaram-se os teores e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, proteína e cinzas dos grãos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english To increase agricultural productivity in the country, studies are needed to improve the utilization of mineral fertilizers in order to produce grains with improved nutritional quality. The study aimed to evaluate the content and accumulation of protein, ash and nutrients in corn grains from plants i [...] noculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens and grown under different levels of NPK fertilizer in the soil. We tested six treatments in a randomized complete block design in a factorial 3 x 2, three levels of chemical fertilizer NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculation using P. fluorecens (with and without), with four replicates, in a Oxisol, using the maize hybrid 30F35. The content and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, protein and ash content of the grains were evaluated. The data were submitted to Anova and means compared by the Tukey test p

Mariana Alves de, Oliveira; Claudemir, Zucareli; Leandro Teodoski, Spolaor; Allan Ricardo, Domingues; André Sampaio, Ferreira.

2012-10-01

308

Acute toxicity levels and ethological responses of Channa striatus to fertilizer industrial wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper deals with the toxicity of fertilizer's industrial wastewater on snake head fish Channa striatus (Bloch) previously named as Ophiocephalus sp., at different concentrations viz., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent on the behavioural changes and mortality. The exposed fish showed hyperactivity viz., jumping, operculum movement, distance travelling, somersaulting at higher concentration such as 60, 80, and 100 percent within 48 hr. At lower concentrations such as 20 and 40 percent exposed fish showed hyperactivities viz., linear movement and eye movement within 48 hr. The LC50 values of industrial wastewater were also determined viz. 89, 75, 70 and 69 percent at different duration of exposure time i.e. 48, 72, 96 and 120 hr respectively. The obtained data revealed that LC50 value decreased with increase of exposure. PMID:17915742

Yadav, A; Neraliya, S; Gopesh, A

2007-04-01

309

Recovery of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Growth of Cotton as Affected by Various Levels of Flooding  

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Full Text Available A glasshouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of temporary water logging on the growth and development of cotton and the recovery of nitrogen applied as urea fertilizer, with 3 water treatments i.e. control (W1, moderate flooding (W2, and severe flooding (W3. The studies concluded that flooding greatly reduced the growth characteristics of the cotton plant such as height, number of leaves, fruiting points and plant dry matter. Recovery of nitrogen applied as urea was significantly decreased with the increase in severity of flooding. Nitrogen losses during temporary flooding appears mainly to higher loss of nitrogen by denitrification, although other mechanisms may be significant. The wider implications of the results in terms of field practice with irrigated cotton are discussed.

A. W. Soomro

1999-01-01

310

Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas  

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Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are now reporting the effects of ocean acidification on a broad range of marine species, processes and systems. Many of these are investigating the sensitive early life-history stages that several major reviews have highlighted as being potentially most susceptible to ocean acidification. Nonetheless there remain few investigations of the effects of ocean acidification on the very earliest, and critical, process of fertilization, and still fewer that have investigated levels of ocean acidification relevant for the coming century. Here we report the effects of near-future levels of ocean acidification (??0.35 pH unit change on sperm swimming speed, sperm motility, and fertilization kinetics in a population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from western Sweden. We found no significant effect of ocean acidification – a result that was well supported by power analysis. Similar findings from Japan suggest that this may be a globally robust result, and we emphasise the need for experiments on multiple populations from throughout a species' range. We also discuss the importance of sound experimental design and power analysis in accurate interpretation of non-significant results.

P. Schlegel

2009-04-01