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Sample records for npk fertility levels

  1. Management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosae) and NPK fertilizer levels.

    Isah, K M; Kumar, Niranjan; Lagoke, S T O; Atayese, M O

    2013-11-15

    Trials were conducted in the screen house of Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa (09 degrees 18'N; 05 degrees 04'E) in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during October-December, 2008 and January-March, 2009. The objective was to evaluate the effect of management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and NPK fertilizer levels. The trials were laid out in split-split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. The main-plot treatments consisted of three sorghum varieties; SAMSORG 3, ICSVIII and SAMSORG 14 while the sub-plot treatments consisted of inoculations; Striga mixed with Glomus, Striga only and Glomus only as well as no inoculation control. The sub-sub-plot treatments were made up of NPK fertilizer levels; (100 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)), (50 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)) and (0 kg N, 0 kg P2O5, 0 kg K2O ha(-1)). The result obtained showed that sorghum variety SAMSORG 3 were taller, having more vigour and lower reaction to Striga parasitism which resulted in the crop producing higher dry matter compared to the other two varieties. The plots inoculated with Striga only supported shorter plants of sorghum varieties, higher vigour and lower reaction score to Striga compared to Striga mixed with Glomus. It is obvious in this study that the crop performance increases with increase in the rates of NPK fertilizer applied. PMID:24511701

  2. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization

    CORRYANTI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tisserant. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased on inoculated seedlings compare to with uninoculated. NPK fertilization of 0.0625 g per seedling and inoculation on teak seedlings showed alkaline phosphatase activity in range 90-201 EU, and in roots indicated in range 14-72%. Gigaspora sp inoculation on teak seedlings was showing the highest of alkaline phosphatase activity. Increasing phosphatase alkaline activity relevant to hyphae growth, and increasing of root infection decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased seedling dry weight.

  3. Response of Early Maturity Mutant Lines of Low Land Rice on Several Levels of NPK Fertilizers and Irrigation

    A problem which will occur in the IP400 program is the exploitation of nutrient and water. This problem could be overcome by using early maturating having high fertilizer and water use efficiency. For this purpose several mutant lines were tested for their efficiency on using fertilizers and water. The testing of the mutant lines were done in the field at the experimental station of the Agricultural Department Pusakanagara, West Java. Treatments employed were six mutant lines and two rice varieties which four rates of NPK fertilizers (0, 25, 50, and 100%) and three irrigation regimes (continuously sub merging, 10 and 15 days of alternate sub merging). The soil water content was determined by neutron probe at the start of each water regimes. The N total mutant of the plants were carried out at the Plant Nutrition Laboratory, PATIR-BATAN. Results showed that the average yield, in sequence from the highest to the lowest (t/ha) is OBS 1705 (9,3597), Cimelati (8,9631), OBS 1700 (8,9192), Diah Suci (8,7706), OBS 1713 (8,2797), OBS 1703 (8,2733), OBS 1718 (8,2489) and OBS 1704 (8,0019). Statistically highest yield/ha was obtained at all the water regimes and NPK fertilizer rates was shown by OBS 1705 and did not differ significantly from Cimelati variety, but it significantly differ from Diah Suci variety, OBS 1713, OBS 1703, OBS 1718 and OBS 1718. The OBS 1704 was highly responsive to the NPK fertilization, producing and increase any weight at the lowest rate of NPK fertilization (25%). The uptake of total nitrogen (kg N/ha) in the grain of the mutant lines were all higher than that of the parent lines (Cimelati and Diah Suci). (author)

  4. The Performance of Zea mays as Influenced by NPK fertilizer Application

    Kolawole Edomwonyi LAW-OGBOMO; Joyce Egberanwen LAW-OGBOMO

    2009-01-01

    Field trials were made to estimate the effect of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize were conducted over a two year period. NPK fertilizer applications significantly increase plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield. The optimum level of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer for successful production of maize grains was 400 (60 kg N + 27.16 kg P + 49.80 kg K) kg / ha compound fertilizer based on the fact that it had the g...

  5. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia

    Jelena Milinović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20 exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

  6. NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol

    Patrícia Teixeira de Souza; Enilson de Barros Silva; Paulo Henrique Grazziotti; Luiz Arnaldo Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x...

  7. GROWTH OF Eucalyptus globulus SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO NPK FERTILIZATION

    Raul Vicente Pezzutti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study has had as its objectives to evaluate the seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus subspecies maidenii, in response to different NPK originated from the combination of slow release and quick release fertilizers. The study was conducted in a climatized green house ata the Technological Center of Forestry, in the Forest Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria-RS, from September to December of 1997. The plants were cultivated in a compost of pine bark substrate, in a completely randomized design, consisting of 4 treatments which consisted of Phosphorus dosages (60% of Super Simple (0-18-0 and a slow release NPK fertilizer (14-14-14, known as Osmocote, which derived from ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, calcium phosphate and potassium sulfate. The treatments, resulting from the combination of 60% super simple and 40% osmocote were 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 and 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate. There were  4 repetitions of 11 plants for each treatment. After 100 days the height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were evaluated. The results indicate that the E. globulus subsp. maidenii seedlings growth responded positively to NPK fertilization  [60% of Super Simple (0-18-0+40% of slow release fertilizer (14-14-14]; when the fertilizer was not applied the seedlings did not grow as much while the maximum increment in height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were obtained in the  dosage range of 6,7 Kg m-3 to 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate.

  8. Physiology, phenology and yield of sunflower (autumn) as affected by NPK fertilizer and hybrids

    The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn, 2000 and 2001. The response of sunflower hybrids (SF-187 and Parsun-1) were studied using low medium and high rate of NPK (0, 50, 100,150 kg ha/sup -1/) in factorial design with split plot arrangements. Days to R1 (button stage), R4 (inflorescence begins to open), R5.8 (80% anthesis) and R9 (physiological maturity) stages significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Among the hybrids, Parsun-1 matured 4-5 days later than SF-187. Similarly, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), and dry matter accumulation (DMA) also significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Maximum LAI, CGR, DMA and seed yield was produced by fertilizer treatments of 150:100:100 kg ha/sup -1/ during both the seasons. Oil content also varied with different combinations of NPK fertilizers which ranged from 37 to 39% during both the seasons. (author)

  9. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (bitter gourd. PMID:24897796

  10. Controlled-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by polymeric membranes.

    Jarosiewicz, Anna; Tomaszewska, Maria

    2003-01-15

    The commercial granular fertilizer NPK6-20-30 was coated using polysulfone (PSF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and cellulose acetate (CA). The coatings were formed from the polymer solutions by the phase inversion technique. Measurements of the thickness and porosity of the prepared coatings and a microphotographic observation of the coatings were performed. The physical properties of the coatings influence the release rate of macronutrients which are present in the core of the coated fertilizer. In the case of PAN coating with 60.45% porosity, prepared from a 16% polymer solution, 100% of NH(4)(+) and P(2)O(5) was released after 4 h of test and 99.7% of K(+) after 5 h of test, whereas in the case of coating with 48.8% porosity, 31.8% of NH(4)(+), 16.7% of P(2)O(5), and 11.6% of K(+) was released after 5 h. In all experiments, different selectivities of the coatings in terms of the release of components were observed. The release of potassium through the coatings made of PSF and PAN was the slowest. The same tendency was observed for the release of nitrogen through a coating of CA. The release of fertilizer active components was the slowest in the case of PSF. The lowest porosity coating was prepared from the 18% PSF solution. PMID:12517104

  11. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    Basso, C. (Empresa Catarinense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria S/A (Brazil)); Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia)

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on the foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred.

  12. Economic Evaluation of Foliar NPK Fertilizer on Tea Yields in Kenya

    Rachael Njeri E. Njogu; David K. Kariuki; David M. Kamau; Wachira, Francis N.

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluation analysis of foliar (NPK) fertilizer on tea yields was investigated on three varieties of tea grown in the Kenyan Highlands. Foliar fertilizers trial was setup on three sites, Meru, Kirinyaga and Kericho, comprising of 36 plots per site. Two foliar fertilizer types, Foliar Fertilizer 1 (FF1) and Foliar Fertilizer 2 (FF2), a positive control of Soil Fertilizer (SF) and a blank (FF0) were used to standardize the method. Yield analysis in Meru site showed significant increase ...

  13. Mistura de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha com fertilizante NPK Mixture of Brachiaria brizantha seeds with NPK fertilizer

    Eduardo do Valle Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As informações são contraditórias quanto ao tempo em que as sementes de Brachiaria brizantha podem ficar misturadas ao fertilizante NPK sem diminuir o poder germinativo das sementes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de tempos de contato do adubo granulado NPK 04-14-08, com sementes dessa forrageira, na qualidade fisiológica (germinação e vigor. Empregou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas análise de variância e comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Também foram realizadas análises de regressão polinomial. Observou-se efeito significativo em todas as variáveis. Além disso, com o transcorrer do tempo de contato com o fertilizante, o teor de água e a condutividade elétrica das sementes aumentaram, enquanto observou-se diminuição da percentagem de germinação, da primeira contagem, da emergência e do índice de velocidade de emergência. Destaca-se que, para essas variáveis, o comportamento foi linear. Assim, é permitida a mistura das sementes com o fertilizante NPK, desde que a semeadura seja imediata, reduzindo-se os danos à qualidade fisiológica das sementes da forrageira (germinação e vigor. Na prática, recomenda-se fazer a mistura de sementes de B. brizantha com NPK somente da quantidade que poderá ser semeada até 12h após a mistura.Information is contradictory as to the time Brachiaria brizantha seeds can remain mixed with the NPK fertilizer without causing poorly formed stands. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the effect of contact times of NPK granular fertilizer (04-14-08 rate with seeds of this forage on physiological quality (germination and vigor. A completely randomized design with four replicates was employed. An analysis of variance was conducted and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. Polynomial regression analyses were also performed, and equations were fitted. A significant effect was observed in all variables. The water content and electric conductivity of seeds increased as contact time with the fertilizer increased, while decreases were observed in germination percentage, first count, emergence, and emergence velocity index. A linear behavior was observed for the variables. Consequently, seeds can be mixed with NPK fertilizer as long as seeding is performed immediately afterwards, thus reducing damages to the physiological quality of the forage seeds (germination and vigor. In practice, it is recommended that B. brizantha seeds should be mixed with NPK at quantities that can be seeded within 12 hours from mixing, at most.

  14. Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.

    R. Jagadeeswaran

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient use efficiencies of newly formulated slow release NPK sources in turmeric during 2001-2002. These are recent introduction which are in the form of tablets, mixtures and coated ammonium phosphate, which contains all the three major nutrients in them, which were tested in comparison with conventional or standard fertilizer materials at three NPK levels viz., 75, 100 and 125% of recommended dose. The results indicated that nutrient use efficiencies viz., agronomic efficiency, apparent recovery and partial factor productivity were significantly enhanced by the application of tablet forms of NPK sources than other slow release forms as well as standard fertilizer materials.

  15. Flower Synchrony, Growth and Yield Enhancement of Small Type Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L. Through Plant Growth Regulators and NPK Fertilization

    Md. Yunus Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU. In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (?0.05 influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

  16. The influence of Avadex BW on the yield and chemical composition of spring barley variety 'Aramir', with different NPK fertilization

    Micha? P?oszy?ski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The combined influence of two doses of herbicide Avadex BW (3 and 6 l/ha and three levels of NPK fertilization on spring barley variety 'Aramir' was studied in a pot experiment. Only with the highest NPK dose, and only during the initial stage of vegetation the herbicide showed the phytotoxicity toward barley. Avadex BW manifested no significant effect on the yields of ,grain and straw. Increasing doses of N~P brought about significant yield increases of above-ground parts during shooting stage, and of the grain and straw in the final yield. Fertilization gave much more evident qualitative changes in barley than the herbicide. The latter increased Ca content in the straw and decreased that of potassium in the straw and grain.

  17. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

    F.M Oloyede

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

  18. Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil

    Sulakhudin; Abdul Syukur; Bambang Hendro Sunarminto

    2011-01-01

    he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to A...

  19. Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations

    PAULO BOLLER GALLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ‘Catuaí’, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP, em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ‘Mundo Novo’, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ‘Catuaí’ tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação.The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee plantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4 factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

  20. Effect of urea and certain NPK fertilizers on the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat.

    Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S; Dawabah, Ahmed A M

    2014-04-01

    Two outdoor pot experiments were conducted in two consecutive years under outdoor conditions during the wheat growing season in Saudi Arabia to determine the effects of urea and certain compound fertilizers (NPK), compared to the effects of the nematicide fenamiphos on the cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae, and wheat growth. The results showed that all of the treatments, except the fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP), reduced the number of nematode cysts/root system and increased (P?0.05) the dry weight of nematode-infected wheat plants. Fenamiphos and urea resulted in the best control, followed by the NPK fertilizers. The combined application of urea and fenamiphos resulted in the most significant effect in decreasing (P?0.05) the number of cysts/root system and increasing (P?0.05) the growth of nematode-infected wheat plants. PMID:24600314

  1. Inoculao de Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubao NPK na composio qumica e contaminao fungo-fumonisina de milho / Inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization on chemical composition and fungal-fumonisin contamination of maize

    Luciana P., Bernd; Thiago M., Souza; Mariana A. de, Oliveira; Elisabete Y. S., Ono; Claudemir, Zucareli; Elisa Y., Hirooka.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Props,neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da inoculao de sementes com Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubao NPK (nitrognio, fsforo e potssio) na composio qumica e contaminao por fungo-fumonisina de gros de milho. O delineamento experimental foi bloco casualizado em fatorial 2 x 3, corresponden [...] te inoculao com P. fluorecens (no inoculada ou inoculada) e nveis de adubao NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1, formulados 08-28-16) com 4 repeties. Os parmetros avaliados foram composio qumica (protena e cinzas), contaminao fngica (bolores e leveduras) e fumonisinas B1 (FB1) e B2 (FB2). Os dados foram submetidos anlise de varincia, comparao de mdias pelo teste de Tukey e correlao de Pearson, pelo teste-t (p 0,05). A interao entre fatores, com incremento no nvel de adubao NPK e uso de P. Fluorescens, resultou em aumento no teor de cinzas e protena (p Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the effect of inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) on chemical composition and contamination by fungal-fumonisin of maize grains. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in factorial 2 [...] x 3, corresponding to inoculation with P. fluorescens (non-inoculated or inoculated) and levels of NPK fertilization (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1, formulation 8-28-16), with 4 replications. The parameters evaluated were chemical composition (protein and ash), contamination by fungal (mold and yeast) and fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2). The data were subjected to analysis of variance, comparisons of means by Tukey test and Pearson correlation by test-t (p 0.05). The interaction between factors, increase in NPK level and use of P. fluorescens, resulted in increase in protein content and ash (p

  2. Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil

    Sulakhudin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to August 2009. Experimental design used was a factorial in a completely randomized design. The first factor was hucalci concentration, consisted of 10% (H1, 20% (H2, and 30% (H3. The second factor was zeolite concentration, consisted of 25% (Z1, 50% (Z2, 75% (Z3, and 100% (Z4. NPK fertilizer (without coating used as a control. The results showed that hucalci and zeolite had a capability to increase water adsorption and to retard the release of N, P, K. The coated NPK with hucalci 30% and zeolite 100% had the highest quality in water absorption, water retention and release of nutrients.

  3. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC MATERIALS AND NPK FERTILIZER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE

    Samson Uduzei Remison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in organic materials as soil fertility restorer is increasing due to the high cost and unavailability at the right time of inorganic fertilizer and the problem associated with residue disposal by burning which can further aggravate global warming. The effects of different organic materials and NPK fertilizer on the performance of maize were examined in field experiments carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma in a forest savanna transition zone of Edo State, Nigeria. The investigations were carried out during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons and involved the use of organic materials (wood shavings, rice hulls, kola husks and their combinations and NPK fertilizer. The layout of the experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results indicated that most of the organic materials, especially kola husk and mixtures with kola husk and NPK increased yield and its components. The treatments significantly increased the concentrations of N, P, K and Na in ear leaves and grains.

  4. Bioremediation in Mangrove Sediments Impacted by Oil Using Two Types of Fertilizers NPK and OSMOCOTE, Brazil

    Danusia Ferreira Lima; Olvia Maria Cordeiro Oliveira; Manoel Jeronimo Moreira Cruz; Jorge Alberto Triguis; Antonio Fernando de S. Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation is a technique applied to several environmental impacts, among which the ones generated by petroleum derivatives, through the introduction of microorganisms into the environment, or creating optimal conditions for them to develop. The present study aimed to evaluate the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons through the biostimulation technique in the mangrove sediment impacted by petroliferous activities, testing the potentiality of two fertilizers (NPK and OSMOCOTE) as acceler...

  5. Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution

    José Pereira Carvalho Neto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized fractional factorial (4 x 4 x 4½, with a total of 32 treatments with three replications. The treatments consisted of four doses of N (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 as urea, P (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg L-1 in the form of phosphoric acid and K (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 in the form of potassium chloride in the nutrient solution. Only the effect of N alone was significant for the number and dry weight of minicuttings per ministump, with a linear decreasing effect with increasing N levels. The highest number of cuttings was obtained at a dose of 50, 7.5 and 50 mg L-1 of N, P and K, respectively.

  6. Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Spacing on the Yield of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceratia M

    Nek Dara Jan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trail was conducted to assess the effect of different plant spacing (S1=50 cm, S2=75 cm and S3=100 cm and NPK doses (T1= control, T2=104-54-104, T3=124-74-124, T4=144-94-144 and T5=164-114-164 kg per hectare on the growth and yield of bottle gourd. The NPK fertilizer doses has significant effect on days to germination, fruit weight (gm, fruit volume (ml, number of fruits per vine, vine length (cm and yield per hectare (tones. Increasing NPK fertilizer doses also increased the above mentioned parameters. Maximum yield (20.403 t ha-1 was obtained from T5 (164-114-164. Plant spacing had significant influence on days to germination, fruit weight (gm, fruit volume (ml, number of fruits per vine, vine length (cm and yield per hectare. Increasing plant spacing increased all the above mentioned parameters, except yield per hectare. Maximum yield (19.709 t ha-1 was obtained from S1 (50 cm.

  7. Efeito da combinao de trs nveis de espaamento, trs de adubao com NPK e trs de tratamento com inseticida, sbre a produo de amendoim Combined effects of spacings, NPK fertilizers and insecticide treatments in peanut production

    Romeu de Tella

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Experincias fatoriais de amendoim com trs nveis de espaamento, trs de adubao com NPK e trs de pulverizao com inseticida foram conduzidas em 1960-61 no Estado de So Paulo. Em mdia de seis experincias, a adubao proporcionou o maior aumento de produo. A reduo do espaamento tambm teve efeito satisfatrio, ao passo que a pulverizao com inseticida pouco aumentou a produo mdia, pois s apareceram insetos nocivos em duas das experincias. Observaes em trs experincias mostraram a inconvenincia de aplicar o fsforo e o potssio segundo o mtodo tradicional - nos sulcos de plantio.A series of factorial experiments was performed in 1960-61 in State of So Paulo to compare the effects of three levels of spacing, three of NPK fertilizer and three of insecticide treatment in the production of peanuts (Arachis hypogaeaL. As an average of six experiments, the best yield increase was obtained with NPK fertilizers. Increasing plant population also induced satisfactory increase, whereas the average response to the insecticide treatment was small. A reduction in the stand of three experiments was observed and was associated to application of fertilizers in contact with the peanut seed.

  8. A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release systems. However, there are no attempts to explore the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as controlled release for NPK fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of NPK fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and zeta-potential. The FTIR results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements N, P and K. The stability of the CS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of nitrogen and potassium than with the addition of phosphorus, due to the higher anion charge from the calcium phosphate than the anion charges from the potassium chloride and urea. The mean diameter increase of the CS-PMAA nanoparticles in suspension with the addition of different compounds indicated that the elements are being aggregated on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles.

  9. Mistura de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha com fertilizante NPK Mixture of Brachiaria brizantha seeds with NPK fertilizer

    Eduardo do Valle Lima; José Cláudio de Sousa Tavares; Valéria Rodrigues Azevedo; Patrícia da Silva Leitão-Lima

    2010-01-01

    As informações são contraditórias quanto ao tempo em que as sementes de Brachiaria brizantha podem ficar misturadas ao fertilizante NPK sem diminuir o poder germinativo das sementes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de tempos de contato do adubo granulado NPK 04-14-08, com sementes dessa forrageira, na qualidade fisiológica (germinação e vigor). Empregou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas análise de variância e comparação das médias pelo te...

  10. Influence of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot

    Sylvestre Habimana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L. in a volcanic soil of Musanze District in the Northern Province of Rwanda. This was geared upon by many unattended biotic and agronomic factors pertaining to low yields of carrot crop in this area. The treatments were: the control (T0, 10 t ha-1 of chicken manure (T1, 300 kg ha-1 of NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer (T2, and 5 t ha-1 chicken manure + 150 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer (T3 and each treatment was in three repetitions. The soil was tested for some of its physical and chemical properties and the soil reaction was moderately acid (pH 5.97 and the quantities of N, P, K were moderate. The growth and yield parameters were studied along with the effect of treatments and the economic contribution of the intervention was determined by Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BGR approach. Results revealed that the significantly (p < 0.05 highest plant height (45.59 cm and leaf length (45.29 cm were obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer and the lowest were 34.12 and 34.69 cm, respectively, in the absolute control. The sole application of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer recorded plant heights of 43.70 and 39.89 cm and leaf lengths of 43.46 and 39.61 cm, respectively. Results also indicated that marketable root yield was statistically similar between control (5.6 t ha-1 and chicken manure alone (5.7 t ha-1 and between NPK fertilizer alone (8.55 t ha-1 and combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (10.55 t ha-1. The best BCR was obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (2.09 compared with the absolute control (1.12, chicken manure alone (1.75 and NPK fertilizer alone (1.62.

  11. Use of textile waste water along with liquid NPK fertilizer for production of wheat on saline sodic soils.

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Jafar, Abdul Aleem; Naveed, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    A field experiment in collaboration with a private textile industry (Noor Fatima Fabrics Private (Ltd.), Faisalabad) was conducted to evaluate the effect of disposed water from bleaching unit, printing unit and end drain for improving growth and yield of wheat under saline sodic soil. Textile waste water along with canal water (control) was applied with and without liquid NPK fertilizer. The application of liquid NPK fertilizer with end drain waste water increased plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, root length, number of tillers (m(-2)), number of fertile tillers (m(-2)), 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield up to 21, 20, 20, 44, 17, 20, 14, 44, 40 and 41%, respectively compared to canal water (control). Similarly, the NPK uptake in grain was increased up to 15, 30 and 28%, respectively by liquid fertilizer treated end drain water as compare to canal water with liquid fertilizer. Moreover, concentration of different heavy metals particularly Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was decreased in grains by application of waste water along with liquid NPK. The result may imply that waste water application along with liquid-NPK could be a novel approach for improving growth and yield of wheat in saline sodic soils. PMID:26515426

  12. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  13. Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    Jagadeeswaran, R; V. Murugappan; M. Govindaswamy

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient use efficiencies of newly formulated slow release NPK sources in turm...

  14. Influence of Npk Inorganic Fertilizer Treatment on the Proximate Composition of the Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth

    G.G.E. Osuagwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h-1 treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p<0.05 increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p<0.05 decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plants leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  15. Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil

    Mohammed N. A. Hasaneen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing. Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials.

  16. Desenvolvimento de mudas de citros cultivadas em vaso em resposta adubao NPK Development of citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubao NPK sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de laranjeira 'Valncia' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionrio (1/55 com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e o K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Avaliaram-se a produo de material seco das folhas, razes, caule, parte area e total; rea foliar, relao razes/parte area; altura de plantas; volume radicular, relao rea foliar/material seco para os porta-enxertos e as mudas, e o dimetro do caule para os porta-enxertos. Funes de resposta foram ajustadas e os nveis de nutrientes foram calculados. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de fertilizantes que levaram s melhores respostas para produo de mudas de laranjeira 'Valncia'/'Cravo' sobre o porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' foram: N, 9,85; P, 2,86; K, 7,99 g por plantas.The objective of this research was to evaluate the NPK fertilizer effect on 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery tree (Citrus sinensis development, budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia in a protected environment using containers with Pinus bark, vermiculite and perlite substrates. The experiment consisted of a complete (1/5 5 factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Leaf, root, stem, shoot and total dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, leaf area, plant height, root system volume; leaf area dry matter ratio stem diameter were evaluated. Response functions were adjusted and nutrient rates for maximum yield are presented. Results showed that fertilizer level that lead to the best 'Valencia' sweet orange on Rangpur lime nursery tree response was (g per plant: N, 9.85; P, 2.86; K, 7.99.

  17. Comparative Effect of City Finished Compost and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Availability of Phosphorus to Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Khan Towhid Osman; Md. Abul Kashem; Ashoka Sarker

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the comparative effect of city finished compost and NPK fertilizer on the growth and availability of phosphorus to radish (Raphanus sativus L.). An air dried sandy loam soil was mixed with five rates of city finished compost (CFC) equivalent to 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 ton ha–1 and three rates of NPK fertilizer equivalent to 50% (N-P-K = 69-16-35 kg ha–1), 100% (N-P-K = 137-32-70 kg ha–1

  18. NPK, protein content and yield of broccoli as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and phosphorus fertilizer rates

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre sowing-seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and different phosphorus fertilizer application rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 k P2O5 /fed) on NPK content of leaves and spear, and protein content in spears at maturity, spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant and total spear yield. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by exposing broccoli seeds to 3 Gy. There were non-significant differences between 3 and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on the studied parameters, increasing phosphorus application rates up to 90 kg P2O5/fed increased the above mentioned parameters. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by applying 90 kg P2O5/fed. The interaction, gamma ray and P level showed phosphorus there were significant differences in main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear yield and spear diameter in first season. The highest value was obtained by 3 Gy and 90 kg P2O5/fed. Also there were significant effects on NPK content in broccoli leaves at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) except P in second season and nonsignificant values of broccoli spear at harvest except N, K in first season. The highest protein content of broccoli spears at harvest was obtained with 2 Gy and 30 kg P25/fed

  19. Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7% and leaf area (9% when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%, P (30% and K (17% of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria diazotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas as características de crescimento e nutricionais das plantas. O crescimento do milho foi influenciado pela adubação, mas foi reforçado pela combinação com a bactéria, que resultou em aumentos significativos na matéria seca da parte aérea (7 % e área foliar (9 %, quando comparado com as das plantas não inoculadas. Os resultados indicaram incrementos no acúmulo de N (11 %, P (30 % e K (17 %, em plantas de milho, em resposta à inoculação bacteriana em conjunto com NPK, quando comparado com os das plantas que apenas receberam adubação. A estabilidade e maior consistência da resposta da planta hospedeira para bacterização, na presença de fertilização química, apontam para uma ferramenta biotecnológica promissora para melhorar o crescimento inicial e adaptação de plantas de milho ao ambiente de cultivo.

  20. Comparative economics, monetary and yield advantages from NPK fertilization to onion

    An onion variety Swat-l was raised with different combinations of N (50 to 125 kg/ha) and K/sub 2/O (25 to 75 kg/ha) with constant rate of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (75 kg/ha). The bulb yield increased to the maximum of 20.0 and 34.3 t/ha during 2000-01 and 2001-02, respectively with NPK at the rate 100-75-50 kg/ha giving 87 and 94% increase over control. Further increase in nitrogen and potash levels did not significantly increase bulb yield. Maximum cost benefit ratio (1: 7.07 and 1: 7.98) was observed with NPK application at the rate100-75-50 kg/ha during2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. The corresponding per hectare yield and net return were also maximum of 20.0 and 34.3 tonnes and Rs. 42609 and Rs. 48112, respectively. (author)

  1. Macronutrientes em mudas de citros cultivadas em vasos em resposta à adubação NPK Macronutrients in citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita com o objetivo de avaliar-se os efeitos do fornecimento de N, P e K sobre os teores de macronutrientes do porta-enxerto e das mudas. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/55³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Determinaram-se os teores totais de N, P e K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas novas e velhas, raízes e caule e a extração de N, P e K. Os teores de N relacionaram-se diretamente e os de P e K inversamente com a adubação nitrogenada. Os teores de Ca, Mg e S relacionaram-se positivamente até as doses intermediárias de N utilizadas. Houve efeito inibitório do fertilizante potássico sobre a absorção de Ca e Mg. A acumulação de NPK pelos porta-enxertos foi em torno de 30% pelas raízes e 70% pela parte aérea.'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees (Citrus sinensis budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia were grown in containers using pine bark, vermiculite and perlite as substracts with the objective of evaluating the NPK fertilization effect on macronutrient levels. The experiment was a complete (1/5 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Young and old leaves, root and stem total nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and NPK accumulation were evaluated. Tissue N concentration was directly and P and K concentrations were inversely related to nitrogen fertilization. Calcium, Mg and S concentrations increased up to the intermediate N fertilization rates. K fertilizer inhibited Ca and Mg absorption by plants. Rootstock NPK accumulated as 30% in roots and 70% in shoot.

  2. A comparative study of distillery spent wash with NPK (standard chemical fertilizers at seedling stage of sorghum (sorghum bicolor l.

    Aijaz Ahmed Soomro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The price of commercial chemical fertilizers is beyond the purchasing power of farming community of world’s developing countries. Therefore, to find out the substitute of these commercial chemical fertilizers a comparative study was conducted at seedling stage of sorghum variety named Sarokartuho in seed testing laboratory. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design (CRD with three replications and three treatments, i.e. only drinking water (as check, recommended dose of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK commercial fertilizer, 30%+70% of distillery spent wash + water, 50%+50% distillery spent wash + water respectively. The results for spent wash (T2 were at seed germination% (95.33%, shoot length (6.62 cm, root length (5.49 cm, shoot fresh weight (0.18 mg, root fresh weight (0.019 mg, shoot dry weight (0.017 mg and root-dry weight (0.005 mg of sorghum. However, the maximum values for these all traits of observations except seed germination were recorded at recommended dose of NPK (chemical fertilizers.

  3. Adubao com NPK e irrigao do girassol em Luvissolo: Comportamento vegetativo / NPK fertilization and irrigation of sunflowers in Luvisol: Vegetative behavior

    Vincius Batista, Campos; Lcia Helena Garfalo, Chaves; Hugo Orlando Carvallo, Guerra.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre as culturas utilizadas para a produo de biocombustveis, o girassol um das mais importantes. Apesar de existir informaes na literatura, as necessidades hdricas e de nutrientes do girassol ainda no esto perfeitamente definidas. Com o objetiv [...] o de verificar os efeitos da adubao nitrogenada, fosfatada, potssica e o contedo de gua disponvel no solo (AD) sobre o comportamento vegetativo do girassol Embrapa 122 V2000, na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande-PB, foi conduzido um experimento com quarenta e quatro tratamentos constitudos pela combinao de doses (kg ha-1) de N, P e K de acordo com uma matriz baconiana, sendo 1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 e quatro contedos de gua disponvel (55, 70, 85 e 100% da AD). O tratamento nove o de referncia, correspondendo s doses adotadas pelos produtores de girassol do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em triplicata. Avaliou-se a altura de plantas, dimetro do caule, nmero de folhas e rea foliar, aos 40 e 60 dias aps a semeadura. Os resultados indicaram que os efeitos da gua disponvel e adubao com NPK sobre a cultura do girassol ocorreram de forma independente, excetuando-se o nmero de folhas. Todas as variveis apresentaram comportamento linear crescente em funo da gua disponvel do solo, exceto a rea foliar. Para as condies estudadas, as doses 100, 80 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, proporcionaram os maiores ndices de crescimento. Abstract in english The sunflower is one of the most important crops used for the production of biofuels. While the literature does contain some information, the hydric and nutritional requirements of sunflowers are still not completely defined. In order to correct this defi [...] ciency, an experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Paraba State, Brazil, with the aim of evaluating the effect of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium fertilization and available soil water (AW) on the behavior of Sunflower cv. Embrapa 122 V2000. The experiment consisted of 44 treatments with compound fertilizers using a Baconian Matrix (1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 kg ha-1 of N, P and K, respectively, and four difference quantities of available soil water (55, 70, 85 and 100%). The 9th compound fertilizer treatment was considered the reference since its doses are those used by the region's sunflower growers in Rio Grande do Norte State. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area of the plants were evaluated at 40 and 60 days after sowing. The results showed that the effects of available soil water and NPK fertilization on sunflower crop occurred independently for all variables except for the number of leaves. All variables increased linearly as a function of available soil water, except for leaf area. For the conditions studied, the doses 100, 80 and 80 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O resulted in the highest growth rates, respectively.

  4. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  5. Effecte of NPK Fertigation Rate and Starter Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber Grown in Greenhouse

    Mostafa Nabawy Fleafel; Zohair Mahmoud Mirdad; Abdishakur Sheikh Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Hada-Alsham, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. To study the effects of the four NPK fertigation rates (50%, 75%, 100% and 125% of recommended; 220, 150, 150kg N, P2O5, K2O /ha, respectively) and three starter fertilizers (SF); SF0 (control), SF2: 7-14-7 and SF3: 7-28-7 kg N- P2O5, K2O /ha, on the growth, yield, and minerals contents of cucumber plants, cv. Alrased 92 F1. The results indicated that application o...

  6. Efeito da adubação NPK na cultura da crotalária Influence of NPK fertilization in sunnhemp crop

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em oito experimentos em que se procurou determinar os efeitos de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, na produção de massa verde e sementes de Crotalaria juncea L. No estudo dos três principais elementos, empregou-se um delineamento fatorial 3ª com duas repetições. Foram estudadas as dosagens de 0, 30 e 60 de N; 0, 60 e 120 de P2O5 e 0, 30 e 60 de K2O, em quilograma/hectare, empregados sob a forma de salitre-do-chile, superfosfato simples e cloreto de potássio respectivamente. Os experimentos foram realizados nos anos agrícolas 1967/68 e 1968/69, nas Estações Experimentais de Campinas, Tietê, Tatuí e Ribeirão Preto e, segundo a Comissão de Solos do Ministério da Agricultura, respectivamente, em solo: Latassolo roxo, série Chapadão; Podzólico vermelho-amarelo variação Piracicaba; Latossolo roxo e Latossolo roxo. Os resultados mostram que, na maioria dos experimentos, o emprego do fósforo aumentou significativamente a produção de massa verde e sementes. O nitrogênio apresentou efeito significativo em alguns deles, ao passo que o efeito do potássio foi praticamente nulo, só apresentando significância quando em presença do fósforo ou do fósforo e nitrogênio juntos.In this paper the influence of NPK fertilization in the production of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. regarding fibers and seeds was studied. The experiments were conducted dining two years in four different regions of São Paulo State. The data showed that the best results were obtained with the application of phosphorus.

  7. Growth of Tea Seedlings Affected by Different Levels and Application Methods of NPK and Urea

    Waheed, A.; Jamal, A; F.S.Hamid; N. AHMAD

    2001-01-01

    In this very experiment to find out the effect of NPK & Urea with different levels (4 & 8 2.gm/sqm.) and application methods i.e., broadcast & foliar spray on tea (Camellia sinensis L) seedlings in the nursery of National Tea Research Inst. Shinkiari during March to December 1999. Seedling for their plant height (cm), number of leaves, root length & root weight (gms) were observed. In the treatments of T4 & T5 Urea @ 8 & 4 gm/sq.m (foliar spray) was found significant a...

  8. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition. The study was aimed to analyze the effects of different types of media, fertilizer concentration, and frequency of fertilizer application on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings. The expe...

  9. Continuous water determination in NPK fertilizer liquor by controlling neutron moisture gage

    The principle is described of the neutron method for measuring fertilizer liquor moisture. The method is based on the slowing-down of fast neutrons in their transport through matter. The experimental neutron moisture gage system consists of a measuring sensor and an electronic evaluation unit. The sensor consists of an 241Am-Be fast neutron source having an activity of 11.1x109 Bq and of a proportional thermal neutron detector containing boron fluoride. The detector current signal is amplified by a preamplifier and is supplied by means of a coaxial cable to the input of the electronic evaluation unit. The variation is graphically shown of pulse rate with changes in fertilizer liquor moisture. (J.B.)

  10. Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization

    Marilene L. A. Bovi

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa", durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N, fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O, em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação. As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993, quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE, com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente. A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente, enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha. Doses crescentes de potássio (K apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97 na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente. Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK, exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N.The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in perennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth was studied under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N, phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5 and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993, when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE, with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively. The interaction GE x PO (sample position was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively, while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³ in the within row, and 6.84 g/dm³ between rows. There was a positive linear response to applied potassium (R² =0.93 to 0.97, with increments between minimum and maximum doses varying from 18 to 28%. There was no isolated significant effect of P, while increasing doses of N provided a positive and significant linear effect, more evident in progeny 1 (averages of 2.26, 2.39, 2.62 and 3.16 g/dm³ for the doses 0, 100, 200 and 400 kg/ha/year of N, respectively. There was no significant interaction between GE and fertilizers (NPK, except for GE x N x P. Although the responses varied with progeny, higher root density was always found at high nitrogen doses.

  11. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  12. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  13. Impact of long-term N, P, K, and NPK fertilization on the composition and potential functions of the bacterial community in grassland soil.

    Pan, Yao; Cassman, Noriko; de Hollander, Mattias; Mendes, Lucas W; Korevaar, Hein; Geerts, Rob H E M; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2014-10-01

    Soil abiotic and biotic interactions govern important ecosystem processes. However, the mechanisms behind these interactions are complex, and the links between specific environmental factors, microbial community structures, and functions are not well understood. Here, we applied DNA shotgun metagenomic techniques to investigate the effect of inorganic fertilizers N, P, K, and NPK on the bacterial community composition and potential functions in grassland soils in a 54-year experiment. Differences in total and available nutrients were found in the treatment soils; interestingly, Al, As, Mg, and Mn contents were variable in N, P, K, and NPK treatments. Bacterial community compositions shifted and Actinobacteria were overrepresented under the four fertilization treatments compared to the control. Redundancy analysis of the soil parameters and the bacterial community profiles showed that Mg, total N, Cd, and Al were linked to community variation. Using correlation analysis, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were linked similarly to soil parameters, and Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were linked separately to different suites of parameters. Surprisingly, we found no fertilizers effect on microbial functional profiles which supports functional redundancy as a mechanism for stabilization of functions during changes in microbial composition. We suggest that functional profiles are more resistant to environmental changes than community compositions in the grassland ecosystem. PMID:25046442

  14. Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?

    Suz, Laura M; Martn, Mara P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, Jos A; Colinas, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses. PMID:20033737

  15. Evaluation of radioactivity levels in fertilizers commonly used in the Southern USA

    A study was performed to evaluate radioactive concentrations in three categories of fertilizers, phosphate (0-46-0); potash (0-0-60); and NPK (13-13-13) using gamma spectroscopic techniques. The experimental analyses indicated mean concentrations of 697 15, 8.9 1.0 and 47 12 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively, in phosphate fertilizers. Potash fertilizers had the average levels of 1.1 0.10, 0.40 0.05, and 15,162 1017 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The NPK fertilizers contained 7.45 2.76, 2.63 0.29, 3581 601 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological health hazard parameters are assessed and compared with the U.S. acceptable dose limits. (author)

  16. Disponibilidade dos metais pesados txicos cdmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn

    Ivair Andr Nava

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados txicos em sua composio que podem proporcionar severas consequncias ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presena de determinadas concentraes de elementos txicos podem oferecer risco de contaminao, pois os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilizao dos metais pesados txicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1x2], com trs repeties. Os tratamentos foram constitudos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn, um tratamento sem adubao e duas doses de adubao (uma vez e o seu dobro. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concludo que a aplicao dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubao utilizadas.Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tissues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn, a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application. Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

  17. Mobility and retention of micronutrients in soil : Part III. Investigation on the influence of various external factors, NPK-fertilizers and soil amending agents on the mobility and retention of manganese

    Investigations on the mobility and retention of manganese through Sindri red sandy clay loam of pH 7.4 and Ranchi clay loam of pH 5.6 have been carried out using the radiotracer 54Mn. The vertical distribution of manganese in these soils showed almost sharp fall upto a depth of 12 to 14 cm and thereafter it tended to attain the saturation. Variations have been marked in the degrees of manganese retention at the top surface layers of the concerned soils. Influence of various NPK fertilizers and soil amending agents, at various application levels, have been studied on the mobility, retention and leaching loss of manganese in the prementioned soils. Marked variations have been recorded and discussed. (author)

  18. Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK = Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization

    Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães Teles

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF, colmos (MSC e total (MST, teor de proteína bruta (PB, N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic RedYellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

  19. Effete of Gamma Radiation and N.P.K on Lettuce yield

    Two field experiment were carried out during 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experiment at farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt – The experiments were conducted to study the effect of irradiated sowing seeds with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation and / or the effect of different levels of NPK fertilizer 0, (NPK)1, (NPK)2, (NPK)3, (NPK)4 and (NPK)5 on the morphological and chemical parameters of the lettuce yield. The fresh weight of the plant in the line, length of the plant in the line, the number of leaves in the line, the number of plants in the line and the fresh weight in Fadden per ton were studied. There were significant effects of NPK contents on the lettuce leaves at (NPK) 4 in the dose level 6 Gy and on Calcium and Vitamins. We found that the most effective doses on leaf lettuce is 6 Gy dose of gamma radiation which gives strong and early seedlings in maturity upwards in the production of seedlings dose of 4 Gy. While the dose 8 Gray did not occur any increase at dose level 6 Gy. The Level (NPK) 4 increase the production of fresh per acre more upwards for all levels with 6 Gray and fourth level was the best in the natural qualities and characteristics of chemical terms of delay growth harvest lettuce, as well as influence on the plant content of calcium, nitrogen, protein and all the natural qualities among the first season and the second season.

  20. Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK

    Ademar Spironello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the State of São Paulo (Agudos county. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5, as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg, were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribuídos em dois blocos. O P foi aplicado somente no plantio nas doses de 0; 80; 160 e 320 kg/ha de P(20(5, como superfosfato. As doses de N e K2O foram 0; 175; 350 e 700 kg/ha, aplicadas como uréia e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente, parceladas em quatro aplicações, durante o período de crescimento da cultura. Ajustaram-se funções de resposta para a produção e características de qualidade dos frutos com o objetivo de estimar as doses de N, P e K para atingir valores máximos. Observou-se resposta quadrática na produção, com um máximo de 72 t/ha de frutos frescos estimado para as doses de 498 e 394 kg/ha de N e K2O, respectivamente. Para a maximização do tamanho do fruto e da porcentagem de frutos de primeira classe (massa maior que 2,6 kg, as doses de N e K foram, respectivamente, 11 e 43% maiores daquelas necessárias para atingir a produção máxima. Não foi observado efeito das doses de P no crescimento ou produção, mesmo com a baixa disponibilidade do nutriente no solo da área experimental. O aumento nas doses de N diminuiu o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, enquanto o oposto ocorreu com as doses de K, que aumentaram também os teores de vitamina C. Produção e tamanho de fruto apresentaram relação positiva com os teores de N e de K nas folhas.

  1. Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops

    Ademar Espironelo

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%.Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

  2. Differential response of radish plants to supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation under varying NPK levels: chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidants.

    Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2012-07-01

    Current and projected increases in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation may alter crop growth and yield by modifying the physiological and biochemical functions. This study was conducted to assess the possibility of alleviating the negative effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 7.2 kJ m⁻² day⁻¹; 280-315 nm) on radish (Raphanus sativus var Pusa Himani) by modifying soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels. The N, P and K treatments were recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N and 1.5 times recommended dose of K. Plants showed variations in their response to UV-B radiation under varying soil NPK levels. The minimum damaging effects of sUV-B on photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance coupled with minimum reduction in chlorophyll content were recorded for plants grown at recommended dose of NPK. Flavonoids increased under sUV-B except in plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of N. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) also increased in response to sUV-B at all NPK levels with maximum at 1.5 times recommended dose of K and minimum at recommended dose of NPK. This study revealed that sUV-B radiation negatively affected the radish plants by reducing the photosynthetic efficiency and increasing LPO. The plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of NPK/N/K could not enhance antioxidative potential to the extent as recorded at recommended dose of NPK and hence showed more sensitivity to sUV-B. PMID:22304244

  3. Crecimiento y extraccin de N-P-K por plantas de pimentn (Capsicum annuum L. abonadas con estircol de pollo en Qubor, estado Lara Growth and N-P-K removal in chicken manure fertilized bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. plants in Qubor, Lara State, Venezuela

    A Escalona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de los cultivos depende en gran medida de una adecuada nutricin mineral, por lo que la extraccin de nutrientes que ellos hacen es la base para establecer los programas de fertilizacin. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, estado nutricional y los niveles de extraccin de N, P y K en plantas de pimentn abonadas con dosis altas de estircol de pollo. El ensayo se realiz en el campo experimental del INIA en Quibor, estado Lara, utilizando el hbrido Enterprise, el cual se trasplant a una distancia de 0,35 m entre plantas y 1,20 m entre hileras. Cada parcela estuvo constituida por 4 hileras de 11 plantas cada una. Las parcelas fueron repetidas seis veces. El crecimiento inicial, expresado como altura y peso seco de las plantas, fue lento y el mismo aument rpidamente a partir de los 45 das despus de la siembra (dds mostrando un comportamiento normal en este cultivo. Se detect una tendencia general al incremento de la concentracin de N y K en el tejido vegetal durante el ciclo de crecimiento. A los 90 dds la mayor concentracin de N y K existi en las hojas (41,7 y 39,3 mg.g-1, mientras que la mayor concentracin de P se encontr en los frutos (3,7 mg.g-1. Cada planta extrajo, en promedio, 1,749 g N, 0,137 g P y 1,725 g K, reflejando similares niveles de extraccin para el nitrgeno y el potasio, pero mucho menores para el fsforo. La proporcin de extraccin fue de 12:1:12 para el N:P:K, respectivamente.Crops growth depends strongly on appropriate mineral nutrition, so plant nutrient removal creates the basis for many fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status, and N-P-K removal of bell pepper plants fertilized with high dose of chicken manure. The essay was carried out at the Experimental Station of INIA in Qubor, Lara State, Venezuela, by using the Enterprise hybrid, which was transplanted at 0.35 m within and 1.20 m between rows. Six plots were conformed by four rows with 11 plants each. The initial growth, expressed as plant height and dry weight, was low but it increased rapidly since the mid cycle (45 DAS following a normal trend for this crop. Overall trend of N and K tissue levels increased during the plant cycle. In 90-day old plants the highest N and K levels were found in leaves (41.7 and 39.3 mg.g-1 while the highest P level was found in fruits (3.7 mg.g-1. As an average, each plant removed from the soil 1.749 g N, 0.137 g P and 1.725 g K, showing similar values for nitrogen and potassium, but much lower for phosphorus. The nutrient removal ratio was 12:1:12 for N:P:K, respectively.

  4. INFLUENCE OF GROWTH AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS WITH RESIDUAL EFFECT UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILITY LEVELS

    V.S. MEENA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript focuses on the effect of concentrate organic manure (wellgrow grain and wellgrow soil anddifferent levels of nutrients on growth and yield component of wheat under different levels of fertility. Significantimprovement in terms of growth parameters like plant height, number of tillers, dry matter production andnumber of productive tillers with application of 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow grain/ha and at par withapplication of 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha, 100% NPK + 200 kg wellgrow grain/ha. Treatmentreceiving 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow grain/ha resulted maximum effective tillers/hill (350 m-2, grain yield(41.2 q/ha. Treatment 100% NPK + 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha maintained higher straw yield (53.53 q/ha andtest weight (42.20 g due to application of 100 % NPK along with 300 kg wellgrow soil/ha whereas it was at parwith application of 75% and 100% NPK with both levels of wellgrow formulation.

  5. Response of four cultivars of pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) to different levels of N. P. K. fertilizer in rainforest agroecological zone

    Obidiebube et al.

    2012-01-01

    The response of four cultivars (Red hot pepper, 52 Zugande, 40 FNHVIA and 41 FNHVIG) of pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) to different rates (0, 260, 310 and 360 kg/ha) of N.P.K fertilizer was investigated in rainforest agroecological zone. The parameters collected were, number of fruits, size of fruits, number of seeds, total yield (g), fresh (g) and dry weight (g). The results of showed that the plants treated with 360kg/ha level of N.P.K. fertilizer performed better than other levels both i...

  6. Rendimiento de una plantación comercial de cacao ante diferentes dosis de fertilización con npk en el sureste del estado táchira, venezuela Effect of NPK fertilization on yield of a commercial plantation of cocoa at the southeast of Táchira State, Venezuela

    Luis E. Sánchez F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La carencia de fertilización adecuada es mencionada como una de las causas de los bajos rendimientos del cacao en Venezuela. Para determinar la respuesta de una plantación comercial ubicada en el sureste del estado Táchira fueron realizados dos experimentos. Los tratamientos fueron establecidos a partir de la dosis de laboratorio (DL de NPK según el análisis de suelo. El primer ensayo tuvo una duración de un año y se evaluaron cinco dosis (100 % DL, 50 % DL, 200 % DL, 400 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante. El segundo ensayo se realizó durante tres años y se evaluaron tres dosis (100 % DL, 200 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante. En ambos ensayos se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con seis repeticiones y parcelas experimentales de seis árboles. Sólo en una de las cuatro evaluaciones se detectó efecto del fertilizante sobre el peso de la cosecha. Se concluye que diversos factores, entre los cuales probablemente participe la alta variabilidad existente en las plantaciones de cacao del país, así como la presencia de un alto nivel freático estacional, habrían influido en la escasa respuesta de las plantas a la fertilización con NPK.The low yields in cocoa in Venezuela are associated with lack of fertilization. Two experiments were performed in a commercial plantation in the southeast of Táchira State to determine the response to several doses of fertilization. The treatments were established based on laboratory dose (LD of NPK estimated from soil analysis. The first trial was run for one year and the following five doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 50 % LD, 200 % LD, 400 % LD and a control without fertilization. The second trial lasted three years and three doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 200 % LD, and a non fertilized control. A complete randomized block design, with six replications and six-tree plots, was used in each experiment. Only one out of the four evaluations showed effect of the fertilizer on the crop yield. It is concluded that several factors, among which the high tree variability that usually exists within cocoa plantations in the country, along with the presence of a seasonal shallow water table, probably affected the tree response to the NPK fertilizer.

  7. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most demanded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S. Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE, i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation, while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 40 and 48 % of K, and 35 and 45 % of Mg absorbed during the cycle was exported with grains, whereas less than 15 % of Ca was exported.

  8. Produtividade do milho em resposta a adubação com NPK e Zn em argissolo vermelho-amarelo eutrófico e latossolo vermelho eutroférrico Corn productivity as an answer to fertilization with NPK and Zn on eutrophic red-yellow argissol and red eutroferric latossol

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar os componentes de produção e a produtividade da cultura do milho em função da adubação, com diferentes doses de Zn (Zinco, e NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, realizou-se este trabalho nos municípios de Palotina - PR, em Argissolo Vermelho - Amarelo eutrófico e Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 3x3 constituindo três doses de adubação NPK: sem adubação; uma vez (30-100-50 kg ha-1, e duas vezes a recomendação de adubação (60-200-100 kg ha-1, com base na análise do solo. Outro fator em estudo foi o Zn, em diferentes doses: 0,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg dm-3. As parcelas corresponderam a 3,6 m de largura por 6 m de comprimento. Foram semeadas 4 linhas espaçadas com 0,9 m, utilizando-se como parcela útil as 2 linhas centrais, descartando-se 1,5 m de bordadura. A população de plantas foi de 6,5 sementes, por metro linear. Com relação à adubação de NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, obteve-se aumento significativo para os componentes: número de grãos, massa de 1000 grãos e a produtividade, sendo a dose 60-200-100 kg ha-1 a que proporcionou os melhores resultados no Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico e no Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico, proporcionou aumento significativo na massa de 1000 grãos e na produtividade. Em relação à adubação com o Zn, não obteve-se aumento significativo, nos dois solos, entre os tratamentos para os componentes avaliados e a produtividade. Com este trabalho, pode-se concluir que a adubação com NPK aumentou a produtividade da cultura nos dois solos e na adubação com Zn não se obteve diferenças de produtividade, para a cultura do milho.It's with the purpose of evaluating the production components and the corn crop productivity due fertilization with different doses of Zn (Zinc an NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, this research has been done over the municipalities of Palotina-PR, on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol and Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, on Red Eutroferric Latossol. The treatments were arranged on a factorial scheme 3x3 constituting three doses of fertilization NPK: no fertilization, once (30-100-50 kg ha-1 and twice the fertilization recommended (60-200-100 kg ha-1, based on the soil analysis. Another factor under studying was the Zn in different doses: 0,0; 5,0 and 10,0 mg dm-3. Such parcels were corresponded to 3,6 m width by 6 m length. It were sowed 4 spaced lines with 0,9 m, using as a useful parcel the 2 central lines discarding 1,5 m of edging. The plant population was about 6,5 seeds by linear meter. Considering the NPK fertilization it was gotten a considerably increase for the components of seeds number, 1000 seeds mass and the productivity, being the dose 60 - 200 - 100 kg ha-1 the one that has given the best results on Red Eutroferric Latossol and on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol that has given a considerably increase on the 1000 seeds and productivity. According to the fertilization with Zn, it has not given a considerably increase on both soils among the treatments for the evaluated components and productivity. With this word it can be concluded that the fertilization with NPK increased the crop productivity on both soils while the fertilization with Zn differences were not gotten over corn crop productivity.

  9. Exigências nutricionais da grápia em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico: efeito da adubação NPK no teor de nutrientes nos tecidos Nutritional demand of grápia in Paleaudalf soil: effect of NPK fertilization on content of nutrients in the tissues

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride é uma espécie florestal nativa de ampla utilidade na indústria madeireira, motivo pelo qual, atualmente, encontra-se em processo de extinção. Em trabalho prévio, utilizando-se um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, foi demonstrado que o crescimento de plantas jovens de grápia respondeu à adubação de N, P e K com dose de máxima eficiência técnica estimada em, respectivamente, 70, 80 e 80mg kg-1. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar o efeito da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes e micronutrientes dos tecidos de plantas de grápia. Em condições de casa de vegetação, foram realizados 27 tratamentos de adubação em esquema trifatorial completo (3x3x3, representados por três níveis (0, 40 e 80mg kg-1 de N, de P e de K. A parcela experimental foi constituída de um vaso com 3,5kg de Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico e duas plantas. Aos 140 dias após a emergência das plantas, avaliou-se o crescimento e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes da grápia. Os resultados sugerem que os teores adequados de nutrientes nas folhas de plantas jovens de grápia, para se obter de 80 a 100% da produção de biomassa, sejam: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride is a Brazilian forest species with great interest for timber-trade, and nowadays due to deforestation, it has been considered in extinction process. In the previous paper, it was shown that the NPK fertilization, respectively at 70, 80 and 80mg kg-1 of a Paleudalf soil, significantly increased the growth of young plants of grápia. The present work is aimed at characterizing the effects of the NPK fertilization on macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the tissues of grápia. At glasshouse conditions, 27 fertilization treatments were used in a complete trifactorial scheme (3x3x3, represented by the combination of three levels (0, 40 and 80mg kg-1 of N, of P and of K. As experimental unit, pots with 3.5kg of a Paleudalf soil and two plants were used. At 140 days after plant emergence, plant growth and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in leaves, stem and roots were evaluated. The data suggest that the adequate nutrient contents in leaves of young plants of grápia, envision to obtain 80 to 100% of biomass production, were: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.

  10. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    Abdul Rehman; M Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad Ehsan Safdar; Safdar Hussain; Naeem Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in fou...

  11. Effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols for the Growth and Yield of Caisim

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on the growth and yield of caisim (Brassica sp. was examined in the greenhouse of Indonesian Soil Research Institute in Bogor. The completely randomized design (CRD was performed to examine the effects of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1 on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols. The treatments were consists of 10 combinations between NPK-recommendation (NPK-rec and CBF1, with six replications. The experiment was conducted from August to October 2009. The result showed that CBF I increased the yields of caisim when combining by fertilizer NPK-rec, while giving CBF1 alone did not significantly increases yields compare to control (without fertilizer. Giving ¾ dosage NPK-rec. + CBF1 had RAE value 163%, indicating the effectiveness of CBF1 was optimum, that it reduce the need of NPK fertilizer by 25% by providing the increasing of yield 63% compared to NPK rec. The higher the level of NPK-rec. the lower the efficiency of fertilization. CBF1 had given effectives on yields when it was combined by inorganic fertilizer. However, when it was not combined with inorganic fertilizers, it would harm plants and decreased the soil nutrients. The influence of biofertilizer in plants were predictable unpredictable, while the influent of inorganic fertilizers were predictable.

  12. Effect of different levels of NPK (15:15:15) on the growth and yield of maize in rainforest agro-ecological zone

    Obidiebube et al.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different levels of NPK (15:15:15) to the growth and yield of maize was carried out in rainforest agroecological zone. The data collected at weekly intervals were plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight, ear length and 100 seeds weight. The initial soil test value showed that the location fell within the pH range (pH 6.0 – 6.5) at which maize cultivation is suitable. There were significant differences among treatments for plant height, number of leaves and leaf a...

  13. Resposta de pinus taeda com diferentes idades adubao NPK no Planalto Sul Catarinense / Response of one-, five-, and nine-year-old pinus taeda to NPK fertilization in southern Brazil

    Letcia, Moro; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Marcia Aparecida, Simonete; Paulo Cezar, Cassol; Djalma Miler, Chaves.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Na regio do Planalto Sul-catarinense, a maioria das florestas de Pinus foi implantada sem fertilizao do solo na fase de plantio. Atualmente, muitas reas encontram-se em segunda ou terceira rotao de Pinus e sem nenhuma fertilizao, o que pode limitar a produtividade pela baixa fertilidade do s [...] olo. Uma alternativa para a mitigao desse problema seria a adubao em povoamentos j estabelecidos. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubao com N, P e K, em diferentes fases de crescimento de Pinus taeda, foram conduzidos experimentos no campo, em plantios de um, cinco e nove anos de idade, todos de segunda rotao, sobre Cambissolos no municpio de Otaclio Costa, SC. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinaes de doses de N (N0 = 0, N1 = 70 e N2 = 140 kg ha-1 de N), P (P0 = 0, P1 = 75 e P2 = 150 kg ha-1 P2O5) e K (K0 = 0, K1 = 60 e K2 = 120 kg ha-1 de K2O), alm de uma testemunha, nas seguintes combinaes: N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2 e N2P2K1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com trs repeties. Foram avaliados altura e dimetro no colo ou altura do peito das rvores e calculado o volume de tronco das plantas e teores de N, P e K nas acculas aos seis e 18 meses, aps a aplicao dos tratamentos. Os resultados evidenciaram que nas plantas de um ano de idade houve incremento significativo no volume de madeira com a aplicao de 70 kg ha-1 de P2O5. Para os plantios de cinco e nove anos, a adio de doses a partir de 70, 75 e 60 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, promoveram incrementos significativos no volume de madeira, mostrando que a adubao em florestas j estabelecida uma estratgia a ser considerada em stios de baixa fertilidade. Abstract in english In the southern highland (Planalto Sul) region of Santa Catarina, Brazil, most of the pine forests were planted without soil fertilization. Currently, many areas are in the second or third rotation, and their productivity may be limited by low soil fertility. An alternative to mitigate this problem [...] would be fertilization in the established forest. This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of fertilization with N, P, and K at different growth stages of Pinus taeda. Experiments were conducted in one-, five-, and nine-year-old forests, all in the second rotation, in Cambisols located in the municipality of Otaclio Costa, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Treatments consisted of combinations of fertilization rates of N (N0=0, N1=70, and N2=140 kg ha-1 N), P (P0=0, P1=75, and P2=150 kg ha-1 P2O5), and K (K0=0, K1=60, and K2=120 kg ha-1 K2O), plus a control treatment without fertilization. The combinations used were N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2, and N2P2K1. A completely randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications. The height and diameter at the root collar or at breast height of trees was measured; also the trunk volume of the plants and N, P, and K contents in needles at six and 18 months after fertilization were measured. In one-year-old plants, a significant increase in timber volume was obtained with the application of 70 kg ha-1 of P2O5. For five- and nine-year-old plants, fertilization with 70, 75, and 60 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively, promote significant increase in timber volume, showing that fertilization of established pine forests increase productivity in areas of low fertility.

  14. Adubao NPK e calagem na produo de massa verde e sementes de crotalria Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available So relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrognio, fsforo e potssio na presena e na ausncia de calcrio, na produo de massa verde e de sementes de crotalria. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estao Experimental de Tatu, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrcola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilizao do fsforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcrio na localidade de Tatu.Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronmico of State of So Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatu, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatu.

  15. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average height of residue of 30 cm. A complete randomized block design was used with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial with three field replications. The fertilization doses corresponded to the reduction of 30 % and the increase of 30 and 60% in relation to a standard dose of 145; 21.6; and 180 kg/ha of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively (assuming the contents of 1.2, 0.08, and 1.2% of N, P, and K in DM, to reach an estimated DM production of 12000 kg/ha. There was a linear effect of fertilization doses on green DM (GDM before and after grazing. The cv. Mombaça exhibited higher herbage mass before and after grazing (9183 and 5279 kg/ha of GDM, respectively than the cv. Tanzania (6275 and 3808 kg/ha of GDM, respectively. The proportion of leaf blade in the GDM available was lower in the cv. Tanzania (51% than in the cv. Mombaça (54 %. The tiller density was not affected by the fertilization doses. However, the increase in tiller weight due to fertilizer doses was responsible for the higher GDM production. The senesced DM did not vary between cultivars, with a mean value of 3108 kg/ha. In general, higher rates of fertilization resulted in greater GDM accumulation rate and higher losses of GDM by trampling. The cv. Mombaça showed a greater response potential to fertilization than the cv. Tanzania with stocking rates of 6.2 and 4.0 UA/ha, respectively.

  16. Influence of mineral fertilization (NPK) on the quality of apricot fruit (cv. Canino). The effect of the mode of nitrogen supply

    Radi, Mohamed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Jaouad, Abderrahime; Amiot, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Influence de la fertilisation minérale (NPK) sur la qualité de l'Abricot (cv. Canino). Effet du mode de fractionnement d'azote. La qualité de l'abricot, destiné notamment à subir une transformation industrielle, est fortement liée à la teneur en certains composés tels les polyphénols, principaux marqueurs de notre étude, les sucres et les acides organiques. À cet effet l'objectif du présent travail consiste à étudier l'incidence de la fertilisation minérale sur l'évolution de ces réponses dit...

  17. Crescimento, ndices fisiolgicos e produtividade de cultivares de feijoeiro sob diferentes nveis de adubao / Growth, physiological indices and yield of common bean cultivars under different levels of fertilization

    Letcia Andriani dos, Santos; Rogrio Peres, Soratto; Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Jaqueline Regiani, Gonsales.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conhecimentos sobre o acmulo e a distribuio da fitomassa do feijoeiro comum, sob diferentes nveis de adubao, podem auxiliar no manejo da cultura. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento, os ndices fisiolgicos e a produtividade de cultivares de feijo, sob diferentes nveis de adubao [...] NPK. O experimento foi conduzido em um Nitossolo Vermelho distrofrrico, no municpio de Botucatu, SP, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repeties. As parcelas foram constitudas por seis tratamentos ('Prola', sem adubao; 'Prola', com 50% da adubao recomendada; 'Prola', com 100% da adubao recomendada; 'IAC Alvorada', sem adubao; 'IAC Alvorada', com 50% da adubao recomendada e 'IAC Alvorada', com 100% da adubao recomendada) e, as subparcelas, por sete pocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. A adubao NPK aumentou os acmulos de matria seca, os componentes da produo e a produtividade de gros dos cultivares Prola e IAC Alvorada de forma semelhante. O cultivar IAC Alvorada apresentou maiores ndices de rea foliar e matria seca de folhas, quando comparados com os de Prola, sob adubao NPK recomendada, porm, sem esses ndices refletirem-se em maior produtividade de gros. O mximo acmulo de matria seca foi alcanado aos 80 DAE e a maior taxa de crescimento da cultura ocorreu aos 55 DAE, independentemente do tratamento. Abstract in english Knowledge of the accumulation and distribution of phytomass in common bean plants under different levels of fertilization can improve crop management. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, physiological indices and yield of common bean cultivars under different levels of NPK fertilizat [...] ion. The experiment was carried out on a dystroferric Red Nitosol , in Botucatu, State of So Paulo, in a split plot randomized block design, with four replications. Plots were constituted of six treatments (Prola without fertilization, Prola with 50% of recommended fertilization, Prola with 100% of recommended fertilization, IAC Alvorada without fertilization, IAC Alvorada with 50% of recommended fertilization, and IAC Alvorada with 100% of the recommended fertilization) and subplots were made up by seven harvest times during the growth cycle. The NPK fertilization increased similarly the dry matter accumulation, yield components, and grains yield of cultivars of Prola and IAC Alvorada. Under recommended fertilization, IAC Alvorada cultivar showed higher leaf area index and leaf dry matter accumulation than Prola; however, with no effects on the increase of grain yield. Regardless of treatment, the maximum dry matter accumulation was achieved at 80 DAE and the highest crop growth rate occurred at 55 DAE.

  18. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PRODUKSI BEBERAPA AKSESI TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L.

    Danny Pratikta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH] The experiment was conducted in the Field Research, in Kumendung village, Muncar, Banyuwangi from November 2012 until February 2013. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect of NPK fertilizer in some accession of maize on it’s growth and production. It’s also evaluate the protein content of the accession under different fertilizer treatment. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replications. Main plot were NPK aplication rates (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 and the sub-plots were accesion number ( V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah ; V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning ; V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma ; and V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. An split plot statistical analysis of varience (ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5 % level of probability according to Hanafiah, (2005 was realized using the excel program. Growth and yield parameters recorded at different stages of crop growth and development. There were plant height, leaves number above the ear, leaves number under the ear, tassel emergence, silk emergence, physiologically ripe age, ear lenghth, ear weight, ear circumference, ear weight per plot, kernel weight, kernel weight per plot, 100-grain weight, and protein content. The result showed that no significant different affected by the defferent NPK application rates on these accession. Base on the character selection, the yielding of all accession were higher than Bisma variety. Content of the accession were 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; and 10,10 mg g-1 for V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively. Keywords: NPK Fertilizer; Maize accession; Production [INDONESIAN] Penelitian dilakukan di lahan Desa Kumendung Kecamatan Muncar Kabupaten Banyuwangi pada bulan November 2012 hingga Febuari 2013. Tujuan dari percobaan ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pupuk NPK terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi beberapa Aksesi jagung, dan mengevaluasi kadar protein yang terkandung didalamnya. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Split Plot dengan tiga ulangan. Petak utama adalah Pupuk NPK (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 dan sub-plot adalah aksesi jagung (V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah, V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning, V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma, dan V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. Hasil percobaan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis varian (ANOVA dan Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT pada taraf α 5% (Hanafiah, 2005 dengan menggunakan program excel. Parameter pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun atas dan dibawah tongkol jagung, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbungan betina, umur masak fisiologis, berat tongkol per petak (kg, berat pipilan per petak (kg, berat tongkol per tanaman (g, panjang tongkol isi (cm, lingkar tongkol (cm, berat 100 biji per tanaman (g, dan kandungan protein biji jagung (mg g-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang nyata antar perlakuan yang dicobakan pada parameter yang diamati. Perlakuan penambahan pupuk NPK tidak menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata pada semua parameter. Berdasarkan pemilihan karakter, semua aksesi terpilih lebih tinggi dibanding varietas Bisma. Kandungan protein rata-rata aksesi yang diuji yaitu 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; dan 10,10 mg g-1 masing-masing untuk V1, V2, V3, dan V4. Kata Kunci: Pupuk NPK; Aksesi Jagung; Produksi How to citate: Pratikta D, S Hartatik, KA Wijaya. 2013. Pengaruh penambahan pupuk NPK terhadap produksi beberapa aksesi tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian 1(2: 19-21.

  19. Pengaruh Kitosan Sebagai Bahan Penyalut Pada Pupuk Npk Untuk Memperlambat Larut Dalam Air

    Sinaga, Aulia Rahman

    2012-01-01

    NPK compound fertilizers given by plants Not all could be absorbed, while others are being degradated or leached by ground water so they will cause inefficient fertilizing and environmental pollution. Because of that problem, slow release fertilizer was needed. Slow-release NPK fertilizer nutrition was released gradually and continuously so that it could reduce nutrition losses by leaching. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer compound and have abilty for coating. Therefore, on this research c...

  20. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    Abdul Rehman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm, ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm, and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip; NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1. Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE and N use efficiency (NUE were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cultivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm, siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm, y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1. La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE, así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150 que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK.

  1. Adubação com NPK em coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.: atributos químicos do solo e nutrição da planta NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de informações sobre adubação de coqueiro para o Estado de São Paulo, realizou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W, visando a estudar os efeitos da aplicação de NPK em alguns atributos do solo e nutrição da planta, de set/2000 a fev/2004. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³, com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de N, P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de K2O. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas fracionadamente durante a estação das chuvas, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. A aplicação de N em doses superiores a 240 kg ha-1 ano-1 causou excessiva acidificação do solo, sendo que 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 foi suficiente para manter o teor de N foliar na faixa de suficiência. A adubação com P e K nas doses mais elevadas resultou em perdas por lixiviação. A adubação com 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O foi suficiente para manter o teor de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial e as plantas com teores de K foliar acima da faixa de suficiência. O P foliar manteve-se sempre acima da faixa de suficiência, independentemente da adubação fosfatada.There are very few information about fertilization of coconut grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with 'Dwarf Green' coconut was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on some soil chemical properties and plant nutrition, from September, 2000 to February, 2004. The trial was located on an Oxisol in the west part of the State of São Paulo (20º47'S; 51º01'W. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³. The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of N, P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of K2O, applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. Rates of N higher than 240 kg ha-1year-1 caused excessive soil acidification, whereas 120 kg ha-1year-1 was enough to achieve sufficiency range on leaves. Application of higher rates of P and K caused losses by leaching. It was necessary 120 kg of K2O ha-1year-1 to maintain soil exchangeable K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment, the same rate kept leaf K concentration above sufficiency range. Foliar P contents were always higher than sufficiency range despite of P fertilization.

  2. Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol, no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualmente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente.The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually every year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three replicates, being the treatments disposed as an incomplete factorial. The spacing was of 3.0 m between lines and 2.5 m between plants with six useful plants per plot. The results evidenced positive response of nitrogen in relation to black pepper grain yield with the application of 72 and 78 kg ha-1 of N, for cultivars Cingapura and Bragantina, respectively. Only cultivar Guajarina responded to the phosphorus application. Growing levels of K2O, reduced the present potassium content in the foliar tissue of the peppers. The potassium addition favored the increase of the production of grains with the application of 42, 13 and 22 kg ha-1 of K2O, for the Cingapura, Bragantina and Guajarina cultivars, respectively.

  3. NPK macronutrients and microRNA homeostasis

    Kulcheski, Franceli R.; Crrea, Rgis; Gomes, Igor A.; de Lima, Jlio C.; Margis, Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    Macronutrients are essential elements for plant growth and development. In natural, non-cultivated systems, the availability of macronutrients is not a limiting factor of growth, due to fast recycling mechanisms. However, their availability might be an issue in modern agricultural practices, since soil has been frequently over exploited. From a crop management perspective, the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are three important limiting factors and therefore frequently added as fertilizers. NPK are among the nutrients that have been reported to alter post-embryonic root developmental processes and consequently, impairs crop yield. To cope with nutrients scarcity, plants have evolved several mechanisms involved in metabolic, physiological, and developmental adaptations. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as additional key regulators of nutrients uptake and assimilation. Some studies have demonstrated the intrinsic relation between miRNAs and their targets, and how they can modulate plants to deal with the NPK availability. In this review, we focus on miRNAs and their regulation of targets involved in NPK metabolism. In general, NPK starvation is related with miRNAs that are involved in root-architectural changes and uptake activity modulation. We further show that several miRNAs were discovered to be involved in plantmicrobe symbiosis during N and P uptake, and in this way we present a global view of some studies that were conducted in the last years. The integration of current knowledge about miRNA-NPK signaling may help future studies to focus in good candidates genes for the development of important tools for plant nutritional breeding. PMID:26136763

  4. Effects of different regimes of fertilization on soil organic matter under conventional tillage

    Zhibin Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the effects of different fertilization regimes on soil organic matter (SOM sequestration in a winter-soybean/corn rotation, a long-term field experiment was conducted in Anhui, China, from 1982 to 2011. There were six treatments, as follows: (1 no fertilizer input (CK; (2 mineral fertilizers input (NPK; (3 mineral fertilizers + 3,750 kg ha-1 wheat straw (WS/2-NPK; (4 mineral fertilizers + 7,500 kg ha-1 wheat straw (WS-NPK; (5 mineral fertilizers + 15,000 kg ha-1 composted farmyard manure (CNPK; and (6 mineral fertilizers + 30,000 kg ha-1 composted farmyard manure (DNPK. Mineral fertilizer applications combined with organic amendments improved soil physical properties. For the WS/2-NPK, WS-NPK, CNPK and DNPK treatments, the soil bulk density decreased more than 10%, while the air porosity and field water content increased more than 90% and 15%, compared with the values at the start of the experiment in 1982. Our results indicate that about two decades are needed for SOM to reach its saturation point in all treatments. The SOM sequestration rate was related to the fertilization regime. The average SOM sequestration rate in 1982-2005 was 0.27 g kg-1 yr-1 with NPK, 0.45 g kg-1 yr-1 with WS/2-NPK, 0.56 g kg-1 yr-1 with WS-NPK, 0.60 g kg-1 yr-1 with CNPK and 1.02 g kg-1 yr-1 with DNPK. Therefore, both the quantity and the quality of the organic amendment determine the SOM sequestration rate and SOM saturation level.

  5. LIMING AND FERTILIZING FOR MAHOGANI (Switenia macrophylla King. SEEDLING FORMATION

    Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important phases of the cultivation of forest species. Seedlings ofappropriate quality are fundamental in the growth and development of the species. In the production of seedlings, the substratum isfundamental for the good development of the plants. However, the subsoil in general, is acid and it contains low levels of nutritious.The acidity of the soil and the deficiency of nutrients can be corrected through liming and mineral fertilization. The objective of thepresent work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of the fertilization of the soil for the production of mahogany seedlings. Theexperiment was carried out in the period of 120 days, in the Federal University of Amazonas, UFAM. The experimental design wasrandomized complete blocks with statistical analysis in split plot. The plots were composed with eight treatments and four repetitionsand the subplots were eight sampling times of the plants. The treatments were control (natural soil, liming, corrective phosphate,fertilizing with NPK, liming + corrective phosphate, corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK, liming + fertilizing with NPK andliming + corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK. It was concluded that the associated liming and corrective phosphate and withthe fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium promoted the smallest levels of exchangeable aluminum and the largestlevels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in the soil. These levels of nutrients in the soil caused larger levels ofnutrients in the plants, providing larger growth rate. The liming, corrective phosphate and fertilizing are a fundamental practices inthe formation of mahogany seedlings.

  6. Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on -carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor

    Wies?aw Wjcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron, Aretit (dinoseb acetate, Gesatop 50 (simazine was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha on the -carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v. An increase of -carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

  7. Evaluation of NPK 8-30-20 with gypsum addition compared to fertilization employed in the region for the production of potato (Solanumtuberosum L. Evaluación de NPK 8-30-20 con yeso en comparación a la fertilización convencional para la producción de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Avaliação da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola em comparação à adubação convencional para produção de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Douglas Jobim Vieira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Different forms of fertilizer management are employed by potato farmers, and from time to time, it appears a receipt to fertilize the crop. However, one should pay special attention to nutrition and fertilization of the potato as the relative demand of fertilizer per unit area in culture is high. The objective was to evaluate the use of NPK 8-30-20 with the addition of gypsum compared to NPK 4-14-8 (regional standard treatment in the production of potato. The study was conducted at the Research Unit in Potato Production and Microclimate on Agriculture, Campus CEDETEG at UNICENTRO in Guarapuava - PR. The treatments were: T1 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8, T2 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum; T3 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20, T4 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum, T5 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of plaster to make up the difference between fertilizer. The cultivation of potato was held on December 23, 2008 and the cultivar used was Agatha. The seed used was Generation 01 and tubers of class II. The density used was 50.000 tubers per hectare. The experimental design was completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated the productivity and classification of tubers of the size and incidence and severity of common scab (Streptomyces spp. and silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani Dur. And Mont. in the tubers. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and mean comparison by Tukey test (5%. Classification of the tubers was performed according to the diameter classes of the Ordinance No. 69 MAP of February 21, 2005. The use of manure at 5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum and 1.75 t ha-1 of 8-30-20 NPK plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum causes the best results of yield of potato tubers and better classification. The application of gypsum was important to reduce the incidence of common scab independent of the formulation and application of NPK without addition of gypsum predisposes the crop to a higher incidence of scabies.

    Diferentes formas de manejo da adubação são empregadas pelos bataticultores, sendo que, de tempos em tempos, surge uma fórmula para adubar a cultura. Porém, deve-se dar especial atenção à adubação e nutrição da cultura da batata, pois a demanda relativa de fertilizantes por unidade de área na cultura é elevada. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola comparado a adubação NPK 4-14-8 (tratamento padrão regional na produção da cultura da Batata. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade de Pesquisa em Produção de Batata e Microclima para a Agricultura, no Campus CEDETEG da Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste – UNICENTRO em Guarapuava – PR. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: T1 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8; T2 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T3 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20; T4 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T5 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de gesso para suprir a diferença entre os fertilizantes. O plantio da cultura da batata foi realizado no dia 23 de dezembro de 2008 e a cultivar utilizada foi a Ágata. A semente utilizada foi de Geração 01 e tubérculos de classe II. A densidade de plantio utilizada foi de 50.000 tubérculos por hectare. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Avaliou-se a produtividade e a classificação dos tubérculos de acordo com o tamanho e incidência e severidade da Sarna Comum (Streptomyces spp. e Sarna Prateada (Helminthosporium solani Dur. e Mont., sobre os tubérculos. A análise estatística foi realizada por análise de variância e teste de comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey (5%. A Classificação dos tubérculos foi realizada de acordo com as classes de diâmetro da portaria nº 69 do MAPA de 21 de fevereiro de 2005. O uso de adubação com 5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso e 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso ocasionam os melhores resultados de produtividade da cultura da batata e melhor classificação dos tubérculos. A aplicação de gesso foi importante para redução da incidência de sarna comum independente da formulação NPK e a aplicação da formulação NPK sem adição de gesso predispõe a cultura a uma maior ocorrência de sarna.

    Diferentes formas de gestión de los fertilizantes son empleados por productores de papa, y de vez en cuando se presenta una nueva fórmula para fertilizar los cultivos. Sin embargo, se debe prestar especial atención a la nutrición y fertilización del cultivo de la papa debido a que la demanda relativa de fertilizantes por unidad de área en la cultura es alta. El objetivo fue evaluar el uso de NPK 8-30-20 con yeso agrícola en comparación con NPK 4-14-8 (tratamiento estándar regional en el rendimiento de las papas. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la Unidad de Investigación en Producción de Papa y el microclima de Agricultura, Campus CEDETEG de la Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste - UNICENTRO en Guarapuava - PR. Los tratamientos fueron: T1 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8, T2 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 más la aplicación de 3 t ha-1 de yeso; T3 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20, T4 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 más la aplicación de 3 t ha-1 de yeso, T5 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 más la aplicación de yeso para cubrir la diferencia entre los fertilizantes. La siembra de la papa se celebró el 23 de diciembre de 2008 con el cultivar Ágata. La semilla utilizada fue de tubérculos de la segunda generación con tamaño de la clase II. La densidad utilizada fue de 50.000 tubérculos por hectárea. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorizado con cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento de los tubérculos y la clasificación según el tamaño y la incidencia y la gravedad de la sarna común (Streptomyces spp. y Sarna Plata (Helminthosporium solani Dur. Y Mont. En los tubérculos. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante análisis de varianza y comparación de medias con la prueba de Tukey (5%. Clasificación de los tubérculos se realizó de acuerdo a las clases de diámetro de la Ordenanza N º 69 MAPA, 21 de febrero de 2005. El uso de fertilizantes con 5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 sobre la aplicación de 3 t ha-1 de yeso y 1,75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 más la aplicación de 3 t ha-1 de yeso causa los mejores resultados de rendimiento y una mejor clasificación de tubérculos de papa. La aplicación de yeso fue importante para reducir la incidencia de la sarna común independiente de la formulación y aplicación de formulación NPK sin la adición de yeso predispone la cultura a una mayor incidencia de la sarna.

  8. Effects of manure and mineral fertilization strategies on soil antibiotic resistance gene levels and microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system.

    Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Zhang, Zulin; Chapman, Stephen J; Freitag, Thomas E; Fu, Jianrong; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Junwei

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the responses of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the soil microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system to mineral fertilizer (NPK) and different application dosages of manure combined with NPK. The occurrence of five tetracycline ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetW), two sulfonamide ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and one genetic element (IntI1) was quantified. NPK application showed only slight or no impact on soil ARGs abundances compared with the control without fertilizer. Soil ARGs abundances could be increased by manure-NPK application but was related to manure dosage (2250-9000 kg ha(-1)). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the soil ARG profile of the treatment with 9000 kg ha(-1) manure separated clearly from the other treatments; the ARGs that contributed most to the discrimination of this treatment were tetA, tetG, tetW, sul1, sul2 and IntI1. Community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis showed that increasing manure dosage from 4500 kg ha(-1) to 9000 kg ha(-1) induced a sharp increase in almost all of the detected ARGs but would not change the microbial community at large. However, 9000 kg ha(-1) manure application produced a decline in soil microbial activity. Determination of antibiotics and heavy metals in soils suggested that the observed bloom of soil ARGs might associate closely with the accumulation of copper and zinc in soil. PMID:26774780

  9. Radionuclides uptake and mineral fertilization in a grassland of Carnic Alps (NE Italy)

    The uptake of radionuclides in a mountain mown grassland (elevation 800 m) of NE Italy has been carried out by considering different levels of NPK chemical fertilization. The grassland, belonging to the order Arrhenatheretalia, was subjected to factorial experimental design of fertilizers application with three levels of each fertilizer supplied. Two mowings were made every year; at the end of June and the beginning of September. This paper shows the effect of fertilizers on Cs-137 vegetation uptake after the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  10. [Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2. PMID:24558863

  11. Plant density and levels of NPK on the production components of vegetable soybean in the Savannah of the state of Roraima=Densidade de plantas e doses de NPK nos componentes de produção de soja-hortaliça na Savana de Roraima

    Alynny Neftaly Lopes Monteiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sowing densities and levels of NPK (02-24- 12 on the production components of the JLM 08 strain of vegetable soybean, in the Savannah of Boa Vista, in the state of Roraima, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in the experimental area of the Centre for Agrarian Sciences at the Cauamé Campus of the Federal University of Roraima in Boa Vista. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 5 with three replications. The two densities (40,000 and 80,000 plants per hectare comprised the first factor, while five levels of NPK (02-24-12 made up the second (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 kg ha-1. The following were evaluated: height of insertion of the first and last pod; stem diameter; number of pods per plant having 1, 2, and 3 grains; total number of pods per plant; 100 grain weight and estimated grain yield. The height of insertion of the first and last pod in the JLM 08 genotype of the vegetable soybean is not influenced by the planting densities or levels of formulated fertiliser. At a density of 80,000 plants per hectare, the number of pods per plant is influenced by the levels of fertiliser, demonstrating a positive quadratic response. The level of fertiliser with the maximum technical efficiency (492.86 kg ha-1 gives an 18% increase in grain yield at the highest planting density. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de duas densidades de semeadura e doses de NPK (02-24-12 nos componentes de produção da soja hortaliça linhagem JLM 08, na Savana de Boa Vista, Roraima. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2013 a março de 2014, na área experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrária da Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus Cauamé, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (2 x 5, com três repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu a duas densidades (40.000 e 80.000 plantas por hectare, enquanto o segundo a cinco doses de NPK (02-24-12 (0, 200, 400, 600 e 800 kg ha-1. Avaliaram-se a altura de inserção da primeira e da última vagem, diâmetro do caule, número de vagens por planta com 1, 2 e 3 grãos, número de vagens totais por planta, massa de 100 grãos, bem como a estimativa da produtividade de grãos. A altura de inserção da primeira e da última vagem do genótipo de soja-hortaliça JLM 08 não é influenciada pelas densidades de plantio nem pelas doses do adubo formulado. Na densidade de 80.000 plantas por hectare, o número de vagem por planta é influenciado pelas doses do adubo, apresentando resposta quadrática positiva. A dose de máxima eficiência técnica (492,86 kg ha-1 do adubo determina aumento de 18% na produtividade de grãos para a maior densidade de plantio.

  12. Npk mediated improvement in biomass production, photosynthesis and na+ regulation in panicum antidotale under saline conditions

    Panicum antidotale is a promising grass species for use as fodder and forage using non-conventional agricultural practices. It was therefore grown using brackish water irrigation to determine the optimal spacing and fertilizer treatment required for sustainable growth, ion relations and photosynthesis. Planting distance of 1.5 ft2 resulted in higher biomass yield. Composite NPK fertilizer (NPK120) at the rate 120 kg ha-1 supported better plant growth rather than N, P, K individually or their various combinations (NP, NK, PK, NPK). Addition of fermented farmyard manure (NPK120+FM) improved ion regulation (lower Na+ uptake, higher K+/Na+ ratio), photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency but did not improve biomass production compared to NPK120. However, higher Na+ uptake with NPK120 would result in lower ion accumulation in the root zone and delayed soil degradation. We conclude that NPK120 could support sustainable growth of Panicum antidotale in our cropping system by keeping leaf Na+ within safe limits for CO/sub 2/ assimilation and reducing the need for frequent re-planting of salinized root stock. (author)

  13. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo. Parte II - Efeito do calcário e de vários adubos Effect of lime, manure, green manure, and NPK-fertilizers on the yields of sweet potatoes

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1945 e 1950 foram conduzidas quatro experiências em solos ácidos, duas em Campinas (terra-roxa e duas em Tupi Paulista (solo do Glacial, para estudar os efeitos, sôbre a batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam., das aplicações de 3 t/ha de calcário, 50 t/ha de estêrco e duas adubações com 60-1 00-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O, sendo uma exclusivamente mineral e outra organomineral. Além dêsses tratamentos, que constituiram um esquema fatorial 4X2, tôdas as experiências tiveram um tratamento extra, com adubação verde na ausência do calcário. Isolada, a calagem não trouxe aumentos de produção; no presença do estêrco, porém, ela provocou, em quatro experiências, aumentos correspondentes a 5, 12, 20 e 84%. Sòmente três das experiências permitiram estudar as respostas ao corretivo na presença das adubações NPK, mineral e organomineral: no primeiro caso elas foram -26, +26 e +34%; no segundo, -29, -20 e +21%. Os efeitos do estêrco foram sempre elevados, principalmente na presença do calcário, quando alcançaram +104, +148, +158 e +254%. Embora menores que as do estêrco, as respostas às adubações com NPK (em três experiências também foram muito boas, mas nem sempre a presença do calcário lhes foi favorável: as da adubaçâo mineral, de +62, +62 e +88% na ausência do calcário, passaram, na sua presença, respectivamente para +94, +34 e +144%; as da adubação organomineral, de +148, +94 e +74 % na ausência, passaram para +67, +73 e + 104% na presença do corretivo. Quanto à adubação verde, no conjunto, das quatro experiências seu efeito foi quase igual ao do estêrco. Na dose empregada, o estêrco levou ao solo muito maiores quantidades de nutrientes que as adubações com NPK. O método de aplicação destas, que foi o usado naprática - ou seja, colocando-as, no momento do plantio, em contacto com as mudas - parece também ter concorrido para reduzir-lhes o efeito. As depressões causadas pela colagem são atribuídos à conhecido influência nociva da "overliming". Em duas experiências cujos solos foram analisados opas a colheita, verificou-se que a calagem elevou o pH de 5,6 o 6,7, em média, mas reduziu opreciàvelmente as disponibilidades de fósforo assimilável, sobretudo nos tratamentos adubados com NPK.This paper reports the results of four experiments with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam. to study the effects of liming, two different NPK-fertilizers, manure and green-manuring on different areas of two localities of the State of São Paulo. Liming alone did not increase the yields. In the presence of manure, its effects corresponded to +5, +12, +20, and +48%, but in the presence of the NPK-fertilizers they varied from satisfactory to negative. The responses to manure were always very high, principally in the presence of lime. Although not sa large, the effects the NPK-fertilizers were also very good, bul the presence of lime, which enhanced them in some cases, in other coses depressed them considerably. The results of green-manuring were almost equal to those of manure. In the dosage used, manure supplied the soil with much larger quantities of nutrients than the NPK-fertilizers. The method of application of the latter - at planting time and in contact with the cuttings - contributed also to reduce their effectiveness. Regarding the yield reduction caused by liming, they are attributed to the so-called overliming injury. The study of the soils of two trials showed that in the limed the pH averaged only 6.7, ut the quantities of available phosphorus were appreciably reduced, especially in the treatments with the NPK-fertilizers.

  14. Assessment Of NPK In Human Male And Female Urine For Its Fertilising Potential In Agriculture

    Alfred L.K. Kuwornu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study evaluated concentrations of Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium in male and female urine stored over six months and its potential as a fertilizing agent in agriculture. Urinals were constructed to allow for easy collection of male and female urine and then stored in transparent bottles for six months in a greenhouse. Monthly triplicate analysis of male and female urine was done for nitrogen phosphorus potassium temperature pH and colour change. Bray P1 and Flame photometry methods were used in the determination of phosphorus and potassium contents and Kjedahl digestion and non-digestion direct methods for nitrogen content. Temperature pH and colour were determined using mercury thermometer temperaturepH meter and a colour chart. Results showed that nitrogen in female urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in male urine after 2 to 5 months of storage. However there were no significant differences p0.05 with respect to the direct method. Contrastingly phosphorus in male urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in female urine after 2 to 3 months of storage but there were no significant differences in potassium content for all male and female urine samples. Generally NPK yields in both urine sources peaked four months after storage. There was a moderate positive correlation between the direct female urine Nitrogen and storage time. The phosphorus levels also correlated positively with storage time and temperature but weakly negative with pH. Generally urine nitrogen strongly correlated positively with potassium but moderately with temperature and pH. Colour of matured urine after six months storage was yellow for females and brown for males. NPK contents in both male 30.43.4-1-43.7 and female 34.46.5-1-62.8 urine were comparable to those of chemical fertilizers such as 21 N ammonia. However the nitrogen content of digested female urine was significantly higher than that of male urine. Phosphorus concentration was higher in male urine than in female urine during the 2nd and 3rd months of storage. Ecosan urinals a designed urinal that seeks to separately collect urine to optimize its usefulness should be designed to separately collect urine for specific NPK requirements for crop production. Results of this study suggest that concentration of NPK in human urine is comparable to commercial chemical fertilizers. Human urine in agriculture should progressively be promoted by governments and other agencies.

  15. Measurement of NPK, Temperature, Moisture, Humidity using WSN

    Mr. Gaikwad S.V,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In India, where the economy is mainly base on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic and are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. The main reason is the lack of rains and scarifies of land reservoir water and overused of fertilizers so we need to control these parameters. This system made wireless sensor network for monitoringagricultural environments for various factors such as NPK, temperature and humidity along with other factors can be of significance.By using pH sensors we get the information about the soil and analyze the acid level of the soil. By which we can apply fertilizer to the place where it needs, also we can avoid over fertilization of the crops. We used humidity sensor to sense the weather. By this the farmer can get idea about the climate. If there is any chance for rainfall; the farmer need not irrigate the crop field. This Seminar reports the design and development of a smart wireless sensor network (WSN for an agricultural environment. Monitoring agricultural environments for various factors such as Nitrates, Zink, Potassium, Phosphorus, Humidity and Temperature along with other factors can be of significance. The ability to document and detail changes in parameters of interest has become increasingly valuable. Investigations were performed for a remote monitoring system using WiFi, where the wireless sensor nodes are based on WSN802G modules. These nodes send data wirelessly to a central server, which collects the data, stores it and allows it to be analyzed and displayed as needed.

  16. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo parte: III - Métodos de aplicação de NPK e estêrco Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes: III - Trials on the placement of npk and manure

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatadas nove experiências sôbre a localização de adubos na cultura de batata-doce, realizadas entre 1943-44 e 1946-47, sendo quatro com NPK (60-100-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O e cinco com estêrco. Em dois dos ensaios com NPK, conduzidos em Tupi Paulista (um dêles repetido por três anos no mesmo local, a adubação foi mais eficiente quando misturada com a terra dos camalhões do que aplicada sob eles ou em sulcos feitos em seus cumes. Nos outros dois, realizados em Campinas, a aplicação sob os camalhões se mostrou melhor, em média, mas os resultados variaram muito. Tratando-se de assunto que depende de muitos fatôres, inclusive das condições meteorológicas, os autores encarecem a necessidade de se continuarem as experiências, e, tendo discutido as vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos estudados, sugerem a inclusão, em futuros planos, do aplicação de P e K em sulcos laterais às mudas e de N em cobertura. Nas cinco experiências com estêrco, tôdas anuais e executadas em três localidades, seu espalhamento entre os camalhões se mostrou, em regra, inferior à aplicação sob os camalhões ou de mistura com o solo dêstes. Dos dois últimos métodos, o primeiro foi superior em três ensaios, igual em um e inferior no outro. As observações feitas indicam que, em geral, o estêrco deve ser colocado sob os camalhões.This paper reports the results of nine experiments conducted in the State of Sao Paulo on methods of application of NPK and manure for sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.. In two of the four trails with NPK, better results were obtained where it was broadcast before ridging than where it was placed in o furrow either under or on the top of the ridges. In the other two, the placement under the ridges showed better in the average, but the yearly results varied considerably. As the suitability of different methods of application depends on many factors, especially on the weather, the authors point to the need of farther trials and, after discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied, they suggest for the next project the inclusion of side-placement of the phosphorus, potosh and part of the nitrogen doses, the greater portion of the latter being top-dressed two to four weeks after planting. In the five trials with manure, its application between the ridges was, as a rule, inferior to both the placement under the ridges and broadcasting before ridging. Of the two last methods, the former gave better average results, but there were some indications that the latter would be more suitable either for heavy or for very light soils, in order that the organic matter improves the physical conditions of a larger volume of the soils.

  17. Effect of Foliar Application of NPK on Some Growth Characters of Two Cultivars of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

    Ali Sabah Ali; Majeed K Abbas

    2011-01-01

    -1 of this fertilizer on some growth characters, yield component and chemical constituents of calyces of two cultivars of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.); red and lined. The results show that plant height, number of branches per plant, total number of fruits and dry calyces yield were increased due to foliar application of NPK. Also, all chemical constituents were positively affected by NPK application. The higher rate of NPK, 2 g L-1, was more effective than the lower rate. In addition, red...

  18. Effect of mulch application in combination with NPK fertilizer in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.; Leg.) on two key pests, M. vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and M. sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and their respective parasitoids

    Zenz, Nikolaus

    1999-01-01

    Afrikanische Bauern verwenden Pflanzenmulch zur Erhaltung der Bodenfruchtbarkeit. Es konnte bisher nicht geklärt werden, ob sich Mulch auch zur Schädlingskontrolle eignet. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Beschreibung der Effekte von Mulch und NPK-Dünger auf die Kuhbohne Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Leguminosae) und zwei Schlüsselschädlinge, den Hülsenbohrer Maruca vitrata F. und den Blütenthrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom, sowie deren Parasitoide. In drei Regionen Benins wurden Versuche von ...

  19. Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília, para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòmente o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral.Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL. Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minutiflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

  20. Effect of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on the growth performance and quality of cucumber fruits

    OKOLI PSO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of poultry manure and organic fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10 on the growth and quality of cucumber fruits was studied at the experimental site of the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam campus. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four levels of treatments consisting of 4tha-1 poultry manure (PM, 900 kgha-1 NPK in a ratio of 20:10:10 (NPK, 2 tha-1 poultry manure + 450 kgha-1 NPK fertilizer (PM + NPK and 0 tha-1 control (CO, where no treatment was applied. Data collected were tested using analysis of variance and significant differences among treatment means were separated using LSD at 0.05 probability level. The results obtained from the study indicated that the numbers of leaves of cucumber increased as weeks after planting (WAP increased. The highest leaves numbers was observed in the plots treated by PM. The order of leaves increases from 2 to 6 weeks were PM > PM+NPK > NPK > CO. The length of fruits, number of fruits, the quality of marketable fruits and weight of fruits increased proportionately in PM treated plots and were significantly (P=0.05 different among the other treatments except for quality of marketable fruits. The highest value of 171.25cm (length of fruits, 10.75 (number of fruits and 2.38kgha- 1 (weight of fruits were obtained in PM treated plots. Based on the results obtained it is evident that poultry manure as organic manure and its mixture (PM + NPK is a good source of soil amendment, since it influenced the growth and yield components of cucumber.

  1. Growth response of Clarias gariepinus fry to organic and inorganic fertilizers

    M.A. Anetekhai; Oweidede, F.G.; Ogbe, F.G

    1999-01-01

    The growth response of Clarias gariepinus was investigated in various types of fertilizers. Fertilizer type was found to influence plankton abundance which in turn determine the growth and well being of C. gariepinus. The best weight increase recorded was in cow dung /NPK (1.37~c1.01g) followed by poultry (0.49~c0.31g), NPK/poultry (0.05~c0.25g) and NPK(0.03~c0.57g) The survival rate in these treatments were cow dung/NPK (100%), poultry (100%), NPK/cow/poultry (33%) and NPK (8%)

  2. Nutrição do cafeeiro arábica em função da densidade de plantas e da fertilização com NPK Coffee nutrition as a function of plant density and NPK fertilization

    Luiz Carlos Prezotti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora aumente a produtividade por área, o adensamento reduz a produção por planta, eleva sua eficiência de recuperação de nutrientes, o que contribui para a redução da quantidade de fertilizantes a ser aplicada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do cafeeiro arábica à aplicação de N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de N, P (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg.ha-1 de P2O5 e K (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de K2O, cultivados em diferentes densidades de plantio (3.333, 5.000, 10.000 e 20.000 plantas por hectare. Com base em informações obtidas em cinco produções, não foram observadas diferenças significativas de produtividade em função da densidade de plantas. A resposta em produtividade do café arábica às doses de N, P e K foi variável nos diversos espaçamentos, com maior freqüência de resultados positivos a N e P e menos expressivos para K. Os teores foliares de N e P foram pouco influenciados pelas doses de N e P2O5. Os teores foliares de K foram fortemente influenciados pelas doses de K2O. Cafeeiros submetidos ao sistema de cultivo adensado apresentaram maiores teores foliares de P e K, quando comparados àqueles cultivados em espaçamento mais largo. Os solos sob cultivo adensado, quando comparados a solos sob cultivos mais largos, apresentaram variações em suas características químicas, sendo mais evidente a redução do teor de H + Al.Although increasing in productivity, high-density tree planting provides reduction of the production per plant, increases the efficiency of recovery of nutrients by plants, and can contributes to the reduction of the amount of fertilizers to be applied per plant. Due to evaluate the answer of coffee tree plants (Coffea arabica L. to N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 of N; P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1 of P2O5 and K (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg.ha-1 of K2O application, on work was carried out in a coffee cultivated at four densities (3,333; 5,000; 10,000 and 20,000 plants/ha. Database obtained at five harvests showed no significant differences of productivity as function of planting densities. Answers in productivity were obtained more strongly related to N and P doses. Answers to K application were less expressive. N and P foliar levels were little influenced by the doses of N and P2O5 applied by soil each year. K foliar levels were strongly influenced by the doses of K2O. Foliar levels of N and K were highest in coffee high-density tree when compared with those cultivated in wider spacing. The major variation on chemical soil characteristics was the highest levels of reduction on H+Al observed in coffee high-density tree coffee.

  3. Effects of Organic-Chemical Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Rice (Chai Nat 1)

    Sopit Vetayasuporn

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of organic-chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer (NPK 16:16:8) on the growth and yield of rice Chai Nat 1 in Roi-Et province, Northeast Thailand. Organic-chemical fertilizer was developed from organic fertilizer 82+9.0 kg of NPK 46:0:0 + 4.5 kg of NPK 18:46:0 and 4.5 kg of NPK 0:0:60. Five treatments were compared consisting of : T1 (control without fertilizer); T2 (312.5 kg ha-1 organic-chemical fertilizer); T3 (625 kg h...

  4. Working levels in the phosphate fertilizer plant in Croatia

    Phosphate rocks used for production of phosphate fertilizers contain various concentrations of radioactive elements. The principal radionuclides are from the 238U and 3Th decay series and 40K. In classic phosphoric acid process, concentrations of uranium and radium were disrupted, with uranium appearing primarily in the finished product (fertilizer) and radium favoring the gypsum. Since the activity mass concentrations of uranium and radium in phosphate fertilizers are several times higher than in average soil, they constitute an additional source of radiation exposure for workers and members of public. One of the source of exposure to the population in the vicinity of phosphate fertilizer plant (PFP) results from inhalation of radon daughters. For the reason the investigations of the hazards were undertaken in the fertilizer plant in Croatia, and the radon daughter concentrations in different atmospheres are discussed in this paper. Working levels were measured as 'grab samples' at several stations on-site and off-site of the PFP. The average mean values of working levels are presented. (author)

  5. Bio-economics of autumn planted sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under different NPK applications

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the response of autumn planted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to different levels of N, P and K fertilizers at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during, 2004 and 2005. Treatments comprised five N levels (0, 60. 90, 120 and 150 kg ha/sup -1/), five P levels (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/), four K levels (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/) in different combinations and two hybrids viz. FH-314 (standard height) and FH-245 (semi dwarf). Hybrid FH-314 produced significantly higher achene yield (2725.41 kg ha/sup -1/) than that of FH-245. There was a progressive increase in achene yield and yield components With increasing levels of N, P and K. The highest achene yield (3023 kg ha/sup -1/) and highest net benefit (Rs.19743) was obtained when the crop was fertilized at the rate 120:90:60 kg NPK ha/sub -1/. (author)

  6. [Effects of long-term different fertilizations on biomass and nutrient content of maize root].

    Cai, Miao; Meng, Yan; Mohammad Amin, Ahmadzai; Zhou, Jian-bin

    2015-08-01

    Taking two long-term local field trials at the south edge of the Loess Plateau, which were found in 1990 and 2003, respectively, as test subjects, the effects of different fertilization practices on the maize root biomass and nutrient content were investigated in this paper. Maize roots in the 0-20 cm top soil post-maize harvest from the different fertilization practices were collected by hand in October 2011. The results showed that compared with control without fertilization and N, NK, or PK treatments, the NP, NPK, fertilizers plus manure (M1NPK and M2NPK) or plus straw return (SNPK) treatments significantly increased the dry mass of maize root. The C, N, P and K contents in maize roots in the NP, NPK, M1 NPK, M2NPK and SNPK treatments were also significantly higher than those of control, especially in the NPK plus organic manure treatments (M1 NPK and M2NPK) in the trial. Compared with the N fertilizer free treatment (N0), root biomass in the 120 kg N hm(-2) (N120) and 240 kg N hm(-2) ( N240) fertilization treatments increased by 38% and 45%, respectively, but there was no significant difference between N120 and N240 treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer application (N120 and N240) also improved the C, N, P and K contents in maize root. The water soluble organic C and total soluble N contents of maize root in the NP, NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK, SNPK and the N120 and N240 treatments were greater than those of control and other treatments. Otherwise, the cellulose and lignin contents in maize roots declined in the NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK, and SNPK treatments compared with other treatments. So the root C/N and lignin/N ratios in the control, PK and N0 treatments were significantly higher than those in the NP, NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK and SNPK treatments. We concluded that the optimum fertilization (e. g., NP, NPK, MNPK and SNPK treatments) could increase maize root growth and nutrient content and improve soil fertility and carbon sequestration through root residue into soil. PMID:26685602

  7. Mineral fertilizers as a source of radioactive contamination of the soil

    Agrotechnical measures necessary to enhance crop yields markedly contribute to the radioactivity level of the environment. Mineral fertilizers contain various radionuclides, depending on the source of the raw material used for their production. Among them, uranium ( 235U and 238U) and descendants of its radioactive decay are considered to be the most dangerous for human health. The content of some natural radionuclides was determined in seven kinds of mineral fertilizers: ammonium-nitrate (AN), urea, calcareous ammonium-nitrate (KAN), monoammonium-phosphate (MAP), NPK, potassium-chloride (KCl) and superphosphate (SP). Activities of 40K and 137Cs were also determined. Samples were analysed on gamma spectrometers with NaI (8192 and 4096 channels) and semiconductor (germanium) detectors. Considerable activity levels of 40K were found especially in NPK and KCl, while SP contained the highest level of uranium. Activity levels of 137Cs were well below the prescribed limits. (author)

  8. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation

    SUPRIYADI; MUJIYATI

    2009-01-01

    Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i) whithout fertilize...

  9. Chromium accumulation potential of Zea mays grown under four different fertilizers.

    Dheeba, B; Sampathkumar, P; Kannan, K

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. We performed pot experiment with chromium (30 mg/soil) to assess the accumulation potential of Zea mays and study the influence of four fertilizers, viz. Farm Yard Manure (FYM), NPK, Panchakavya (PK) and Vermicompost (VC) with respect to Cr accumulation. The oxidative stress and pigment (chlorophyll) levels were also examined. The results showed increased accumulation of chromium in both shoots and roots of Zea mays under FYM and NPK supply, and reduced with PK and VC. While the protein and pigment contents decreased in Cr treated plants, the fertilizers substantiated the loss to overcome the stress. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) indicating the enhanced damage control activity. However, these levels were relatively low in plants supplemented with fertilizers. Our results confirm that the maize can play an effective role in bioremediation of soils polluted with chromium, particularly in supplementation with fertilizers such as farm yard manure and NPK. PMID:25651615

  10. To evaluate the efficacy of zinc sulphate mixed with phosphate and potash fertilizer on the grain yield of wheat (tritium aestivum L.)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate yield response of wheat cv, BK-2002 at various fertilizer levels, at farmer, fields of District Mianwali during consecutive years 2006-07 and 2007-08. Six levels of ZnSo/sub 4/ mixed with NPK were evaluated in farmer's fields in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. All doses of znSo/sub 4/ along with Departmental recommended dose of NPK (114-84- 62 kg ha/sup-l/) revealed a linear increase in, plant height, number of tillers/m/sup 2/, number of spikelets /spike. number of grains/spike, 1000 grains weight (g) and yield (kg ha/sup-1/) of wheat variety BK-2002 were recorded. Maximum yield of wheat was recorded when it was subjected to 22.5 kg ho/sub -1/ 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ Departmental recommended dose of NPK fertilizer. The study indicated the potential role of ZnSo/sub 4/ in enhancing the growth and yield of wheat in arid climate and that 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ (22.5 kg ha/sub -1/) + Departmental recommended dose of NPK, (fertilizer might be the optimum level (T5) for the production of wheat in arid climate. (author)

  11. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and C storage, averaging 76.87% of SOC storage. Overall, application of N and NPK fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m2) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM.

  12. Agronomic factors affecting polonium-210 and lead-210 levels in tobacco. I. Soil and fertilizer

    An examination of soils from tobacco-producing areas and fertilizers commercially available for tobacco production revealed that a wide variation in the levels of Ra226, Pb210 and Po210 exists in those samples. Cultural practices and source of fertilizer may contribute to these variations. Radioelements from fertilizer used for one growing season may not affect the level of these elements in the immediate crop, but will contribute to the buildup of the radioisotope level in the soil

  13. Integrated Effects of Rhizobial Inoculum and Inorganic Fertilizers on Wheat Yield and Yield Components

    Muhammad Adnan; Zahir Shah; Asif Khan; Muzamil shah; Gohar Ali Khan; Azaz Ali; Nisar Ali Khan; Nouman Saleem; Shah Nawaz; Saba Akbar; Sonia Samreen; Kanwal Zaib

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in pots under natural condition with two factor factorial completely randomized design (CRD) (CRD) to investigate the integrated effect of rhizobia inoculums and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of wheat crop at The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2012-2013. The experiment was comprised of four inoculums (no, lentil, peas and chickpeas) and two NPK levels (recommended 120:90:60 kg·ha-1 & 20% less of recommended). It was...

  14. Investigation of NPK in fertilized and unfertilized vegetables

    Contents of selected minerals and moisture in Ridge Gourd, Gourd and Brinjal vegetables, collected from house and market of different localities, were determined. In house vegetables from kitchen garden of PCSIR colony the moisture contents were high (90%) as compared to market vegetables of Taj Bagh, Railway workshop Mandy and Singpura Lahore Mandy was 87%, 86.5% and 87.5% respectively. Regarding nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sodium and potassium was high in market vegetables as compared to house samples due to the accumulation of nutrients in soil and crop. (author)

  15. Low-level nuclear waste tested for fertilizer value

    The nuclear power industry keeps coming up with proposals for getting rid of radioactive waste - burying it deep in the ground, sinking it at sea and even sending it into space reports Common Cause magazine under a headline, The Latest in Recycling. At its Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, Kerr-McGee manufactures fuel for nuclear power plants, generating a low-level radioactive liquid waste product called raphinate. After processing to remove radioactive substances, Kerr-McGee has gotten approval from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to use the nitrogen-rich residue as a fertilizer - but not to market it. As a result, Kerr-McGee is reported to be buying up thousands of acres of land on which to spread raphinate. The acreage is used to grow hay, which the company has gotten an okay to sell. The recycling effort hasn't exactly won neighborhood friends for the company, noted Common Cause. According to Kerr-McGee's corporate communications direct, When you say to somebody, Sequoyah Fuels is putting nuclear waste (on farmland), people jump up a wall

  16. Fertility Transition in Karnataka: Levels, Trends and Implications

    Sekher, T. V.; K N M Raju; M N Sivakumar

    2001-01-01

    Using data from official statistics, census and surveys, this paper traces fertility transition of Karnataka and explains factors responsible for slow pace in comparison to other South Indian States. There exist considerable regional disparities with regard to health and demographic indicators. Fertility decline has been faster in southern and coastal regions, and at a tardy pace in backward northern districts characterised by low literacy, low female age at marriage, poor health infrastructu...

  17. Badania wp?ywu herbicydw i nawo?enia mineralnego na zawarto?? kwasw t?uszczowych w nasionach bobiku (Vicia faba [Influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the fatty acids content in the seeds of the field bean (Vicia faba

    Anna Sykut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the herbicides Afalon (active substance Linuron. Gesatop 50 (active substance simazine, Aretit (active substance dinoseb acetate was tested concomitantly with two NPK fertilization levels on the crude lipid content and the fatty acids composition of field bean seeds.

  18. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation

    SUPRIYADI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i whithout fertilizer as the control, (ii with manure fertilizer, and (iii with NPK fertilizer. Data was experimentally collected by planting chili in several plots treated by manure, with three replications. The field experiment was conducted in Gathak Village, Karangnongko Sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java. The data collected consist of the total population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, nitrogen content in soil and the chili yield. The primary data of research were analyzed using ANOVA test and followed by LSD test, with the degree of significance by 95% .The results showed that the manure fertilizer can increase the population of bacteria as many as 0.02% (Azotobacter and 0.46% (Azospirillum when they were compared to the control one. So that it can increase the soil fertility when they were used in long time. Therefore increasing the nutrient availability in the soil was occurred. Application of manure fertilizer could increase the total nitrogen content in the soil and it is very useful for the fertilizing of plants.

  19. Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK

    Ademar P. de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em funo do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presena e ausncia de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribudos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1 com e sem NPK, com quatro repeties. Os nmeros mximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsveis pelas mximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores mximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, mdia de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presena da adubao com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1.

  20. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  1. The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

  2. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that, from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1, since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1.

  3. ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS

    S.B.Bhardwaj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T. Singh et al. (1974, Singh (1964, Bhattacharya (1986,Pathak (1999 and Khan and Raeside (1998 have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980 considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

  4. Impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels and heritability on spineless performance in safflower genotypes

    The present study was conducted to study the impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels on spineless percentages, meanwhile, heritability and genetic gain were determind for further selection for eight safflower genotype, during 1998/1999-1999/2000 seasons, at nuclear research center-inshas. Concerning irrigation intervals, results showed that spineless percentages of safflower genotypes were markedly increased with the increasing of irrigation intervals, this eans that increase of drought conditions leds to increase the spineless percentages in all the genotypes. Regarding nitrogen fertilizer levels, results exhibited that spineless percentages were increased with the increasing of nitrogen fertilizer levels for all the studied genotypes. Combined analysis of variance chowed highly significant effect for irrigation intervals, fertilizer levels, years and genotypes for spineles trait. The first order interaction, second order interaction and third order interaction were highly significant suggesting that spineless trait was affected the environmental factors

  5. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions. PMID:23562689

  6. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940‒1950

    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  7. Effects of fertilization on nitrogen mineralization in soils of the Thyrow soil fertility experiment

    Ammonification and nitrification in soil from three variants of the Thyrow soil fertility experiment (NPK, NPK + farmyard manure, NPK + 2 x farmyard manure) were investigated using 15N-ammonium sulfate, liquid manure, slurry, and straw is an incubation experiment (100, 150, 20 0C over 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to the 44-year differentiated fertilization, basic ammonification changes and differs in favor of the variants under farmyard manuring. The differences in the carbon contents of the three plots show particularities specific to the fertilizer and have effects on the mineralization of the fertilizer nitrogen. Nitrogen transformation processes are most intensive in the soil supplied with high amounts of farmyard manure. (author)

  8. Follicular development and steroid concentrations in cows with different levels of fertility raised under nutritional stress.

    Oliveira, J F C; Neves, J P; Moraes, J C F; Gonçalves, P B D; Bahr, J M; Hernandez, A G; Costa, L F S

    2002-09-16

    The aim of the present study was to characterize ovarian follicular development and steroid concentrations during postpartum and the estrous cycle of Brangus Ibagé cows (3/8 Nelore + 5/8 Aberdeen Angus) with different levels of fertility. Cows were classified as having high or low fertility according to the calving interval (CI). The average CI of the herd from which cows used in this study were selected was 404.6+/-5.44 and 711.2+/-20.89 days for the high and low fertility groups, respectively. Four cows of high fertility and five cows of low fertility had calves removed between 70 and 100 days after parturition. Ovarian activity was monitored daily by ultrasound for 16 days after calf removal. Days to emergency of the first follicular wave after calf removal, number of follicles with diameter >9 mm, growth rate of largest follicle, maximum diameter of largest follicle, length (days) and number of follicular waves were recorded. During this period, blood was collected daily for measurements of serum progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol (E(2)) concentrations. In another experiment, ovarian activity and P(4) and E(2) concentrations were examined during estrous cycle in five cows of high fertility and four cows of low fertility. Ovarian activity and steroid concentrations were assessed from the day prior to estrus to the 15th day of the estrous cycle (estrus = day 0). In postpartum cows of high fertility, the total number of follicles >5mm and the maximum diameter of the largest follicle were higher than in cows of low fertility (P 5mm, but the day effect was significant (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of P(4) and E(2) were similar in both groups. These data suggest that cows, from a population raised in the same environment have different fertility as a consequence of individual physiological characteristics. PMID:12220814

  9. Halophytes and Foliar Fertilization as a Useful Technique for Growing Processing Tomatoes in the Saline Affected Soils

    Mahmoud M. Shaaban

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to grow processing tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Heinz in saline-affected soil of Suez, Egypt compared to others grown on non-saline soil. The work was dimensioned to take advantage of the high potentiality of the wild grown halophyte Zygophyllum coccinium in reducing soil salinity to a tolerable level for tomatoes to produce a satisfactory yield. To avoid salinity increase by adding macronutrient fertilizers to soil, tomato plants grown after Zygophyllum harvest were sprayed with NPK as a complementary technique to meet the plant nutritional requirements. Results showed that growing Zygophyllum sown two months before tomato transplanting could reduce 72.2% of the total soluble salts of the surface layer, lowering EC of the soil suspension by 67.3% and Mg++, Na+ and Cl-ion-concentrations by 77.3, 65 and 69.4%, respectively. As the plants received NPK as foliar fertilization, concentrations of K, Ca and Mg in stems and leaves as well as K and Ca in the fruits were increased. Macronutrients foliar feeding could also decrease concentrations of the harmful ions Na+ and Cl- in the tissues of plants grown on saline affected soil compared to those received no fertilization. Plants grown under saline affected soil conditions produced nearly one-half of the yield produced by those grown under the same soil conditions but received NPK foliar treatments or those grown under non-saline soil conditions and received no fertilization. However, the highest yield was obtained by the plants grown on non-saline soil and received NPK-foliar feeding

  10. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  11. Response of different combinations of manure and fertilizers to the yield of rape crop

    S.P. Baliyan

    2012-01-01

    This study was an attempt to determine the effect of different combinations of manure and fertilizers on the yield of rape crop so as to improve yield by recommending the best combination of manure and fertilizers to the rape growers in Botswana. Rape crop was planted on farmers field in a complete randomized block design where nine different combinations of manure and fertilizers, namely, chicken manure (Ch); Ch and NPK (2:3:2); Ch and Fe (Iron); Ch, NPK and Fe; Ch and Urea; Ch, NPK and Urea...

  12. MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE

    Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK) amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM ...

  13. Influence Organic Fertilizer and Gamma Ray on the Quality and Yield of Carrot

    In this study, Two field experiment were carried out in the experimental farm belonging at Inshas, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, during the two growing season 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 to study the effect of pre sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays and/or organic and NPK fertilizers on carrot yield and quality. The doses 20 and 30 Gy of gamma rays increased significantly one carrot weight per gm., number of carrot/line, weight of carrot ton/feddan in comparison with the control. The same trend was seen in weight of carbohydrate and nitrogen (mg/100 gm) in the two seasons. As for organic and NPK fertilizer at was found that both fertilizers increased significantly yield characters in comparison with control but the increase of NPK was more than organic fertilizer. The interaction (30 Gy × NPK fertilizer) produced the highest mean values of most characters.

  14. Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize

    A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

  15. The Influence of Varieties and Planting Systems on the Peach Tree Growth, Productivity and NPK Uptake

    Traian G. MATEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the effect of two organo-mineral fertilizers: root fertilizer C011 and foliar fertilizer 411 bio-ionic liquids, on some vegetative and productive features of five new peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] varieties introduced in Romania: ‘Earlirich’, ‘Royal Estate’, ‘Rubirich’, ‘October Star’ and ‘Late Luka’, grafted on GF 677 rootstock. The experimental plot located on a reddish preluvosol, have been established in 2008 with four planting systems: Tatura trellis, V planting system, Sibari Y and Vertical axe with different nutrition area/tree. Fertilization was applied on the beggining of June and August, 2010 and 2011 on the soil, locally on the tree rows (C011 and by foliar spraying (411. Trees vegetative growth was compared at the end of the vegetation period by number of fruit buds per unit trunk surface section (CM/TSS with significant differences between types of crowns and the biggest values for ‘Rubirich’; the total shoots length with significant differences between varieties. The influence of fertilization on trees productivity was apreciated by analyzing the yield and some typical productivy indexes. The studied parameters including the NPK uptake, have been significantly influenced by the variety 3.39% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2010 and 2.75% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2011 in Tatura trellis planting system.

  16. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  17. Determinants of fertility decisions at a household level in the Alaje District of Southern Tigray-Ethiopia.

    Woldesenbet, Abeba K.

    2011-01-01

    High fertility has the potential to affect the health and well being of mothers and the survival of their children. Even though fertility in Ethiopia shows a declining trend at the national level, the onset of fertility decline is yet to come in rural areas. The main objective of this research is to identify major factors affecting the observed high fertility in rural Ethiopia. The study area was selected based on the Ethiopian demographic and health survey made by the Central Statistical Age...

  18. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  19. Impact of water-fertilizer interaction on yields of crops

    Water-fertilizer interaction was studied on wheat and cotton during crop seasons of 1995 to 1998 in the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia (south), Irrigation and Drainage Project. Irrigation levels applied included 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 times the evapotranspiration (ET), while fertilizer doses were 75, 100 and 125 percent of recommendations of NPK for district Bahawalnagar. The experiment was conducted at four different locations of the project, where soil was medium textured, free from salinity/alkalinity and sufficiently drained, with water table in the range of 2-3m from the soil surface. Wheat variety Inqalab-91 and cotton variety CLM-109 were sown at their recommended time of sowing, seed rate and management practices. Irrigation was applied in consideration of open-pan evaporation and crop co-efficient for the respective crop, when sum total of the products of pan-evaporation and KC values reached 7.5 cm. Irrigation was applied to all the plots according to treatment allowance, i.e. , with 25 percent cut and addition to .75 and 1.25 Et levels, respectively. The results indicated that irrigation levels had non-significant effect on wheat and cotton yields. The results clearly negate the concept of heavy irrigation, generally exercised by our farming community. Light irrigation as a results of 0.75 Et indication were equally effective: rather, these were economical and efficient under the scarce water availability. Fertilizer had somewhat significant response. Irrigation and fertilizer did not exhibit much significant interaction. In case of wheat, the two inputs were independent, while cotton had significant inter-dependence of the two variables. The experiment gave the conclusion that both wheat and cotton crops should be applied lighter irrigation and NPK fertilizer must be applied in compliance to recommendations, for efficient and economical use of the available crop-production resources. (author)

  20. Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia

    Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM; Mahmud SHOOR

    2013-01-01

    The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida). The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose) recorded the highest plant height, number o...

  1. External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai

    Fertilizers containing phosphate have been used worldwide in increasing quantities in order to replenish natural nutrients, which are being continuously depleted from the soil by virtue of farming activities. Phosphate rocks together with potassium ores and nitrogenous compounds are the main raw materials used for industrial fertilizer production. Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphogypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in soil samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were estimated. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and external dose rate due to natural gamma background at various locations around the plant were also measured. (author)

  2. External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai

    Fertilizers containing phosphate have been used worldwide in increasing quantities in order to replenish natural nutrients, which are being continuously taken off from the soil for farming activities. Phosphate rocks together with potassium ores and nitrogenous compounds are the main raw materials used for industrial fertilizer production. Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphor-gypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in soil samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were estimated. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and external dose rate due to natural gamma background at various locations around the plant were also measured. (author)

  3. Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers

    Raad Obid Hussain

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598-2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

  4. Effect of fertilizer and inoculation on the growth and yield of soybean cv.williams-82 in pot culture

    A pot culture experiment in response to different levels of added N fertilizer on soybean cv.Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of Quetta. Fertilizer treatments were applied at the rate zero (control); 23; 25; 50; 75; 100 and 125 kg N/ha plus a constant dose of 60 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha and 30 kg K/sub 2/O/ha in all treatments (except control). These seven fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated pot culture crop. Results showed that nodules were found to be absent in both set of experiments which could be indirectly attributed to either sufficient level of soil NO/sub 3/ (5.10 mm) or deficient level of total Fe (8.25 ppm) and Cu (below detection limit) or might be directly due to any other edaphic or climatic factor(s). Results also showed that in general petiole length, middle leaflet area,' plant height, yield, 100 seed weight (except inoculated fertilized), total number of pods/plant (except non-inoculated fertilized) and pod both set of experiment are significantly different (P > 0.05) as compared with their respective control treatment. While remaining yield attributes viz., one-seeded, two-seeded and three-seeded pods are found as non-significantly different in response to both fertilizer and inoculum treatments. Results further revealed that pots receiving N fertilizer without inoculum mathematically out-yielded (1718 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 100+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-yielded (1912 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 125+60+30 kg NPK/ha. It was also revealed that all growth parameters and most of the yield attributes exhibited significant positive correlation with yield. However, number of seedless and one-seeded pods also exhibited significant but negative association with yield. (author)

  5. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers / Crescimento e nutrio de orqudea em resposta fertilizao mineral e orgnica

    Donizetti Tomaz, Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira, Novais; Vctor Hugo, Alvarez V.; Jos Maria Moreira, Dias; Ecila Mercs de Albuquerque, Villani.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A fertilizao de orqudeas fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatrios tanto em orquidrios comerciais quanto em colees. Essa fertilizao pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgnicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgnico [...] s e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrio e crescimento de mudas de orqudeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') em casa de vegetao. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de clcio; e dois fertilizantes orgnicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse ltimo adquirido no comrcio (comercial). Os fertilizantes orgnicos foram distribudos sobre a superfcie dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alquotas de 25 mL de uma soluo contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgnico, apresentando maior produo de matria seca das plantas em relao ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgnico ou mineral). Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de clcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK no apresentaram diferenas significativas em comparao ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficincia de S, evidenciada na anlise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgnico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante. Abstract in english Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fe [...] rtilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral). The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.

  6. Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996)

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; RAHGOZAR, Mehdi; Farahani, Mahmood Mahmoodi; MOHAMMAD, Kazem

    2002-01-01

    EnglishThis study focuses on the fertility levels and trends of Iranian women aged10-49 years during three decades, 1967-1996. Information was collected by interviewing a systematiccluster sample of 13,253 households. The basic date of concern was the date of each live born childfor a sample of women in reproductive age and whether the live born was alive at the time of thestudy. The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to becalculated for exact perio...

  7. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  8. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in winter wheat under different water and nitrogen levels

    N uptake and the fate of fertilizer N were studied in the field under different water and nitrogen levels with 15N technique. Results showed that (1) the total N uptake of economical N treatment under saving irrigation was higher than that under conventional irrigation. Under saving irrigation the total N uptake of conventional N was higher than that of economical N treatment, yet the NHI decreased; (2) compared with saving irrigation, the N loss of conventional irrigation increased and NUE and soil residue decreased. On the same water condition the NUE and soil residue of conventional N treatment was lower than that of economical treatment, and N loss increased; (3) for the same fertilizer amount, the loss of N applied all as basal fertilizer is lower than that of part as basal and part as top-dressing treatment

  9. Tomato response to starter fertilizer, polyethylene mulch, and level of soil phosphorus

    Grubinger, V.P.; Minotti, P.L.; Wien, H.C.; Turner, A.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-03-01

    Unmulched and polyethylene-mulched tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown with and without starter fertilizer (SF) in four field experiments. The field varied as to residual P level and the amount of P incorporated before planting. No benefits from SF were obtained on a soil with high residual P that was moderately fertilized with P before transplanting or on a soil with low residual P that was heavily fertilized with P. A positive effect from SF was observed only when residual P was low and no P was broadcast, and this was true in mulched and unmulched plots. No significant SF by mulch interaction was obtained in these experiments even though mulching consistently increased shoot P concentrations and fruit yield. The mulch was beneficial even under conditions where unmulched tomato leaves contained 0.4% P 3 weeks after transplanting, indicating that factors in addition to improved P nutrition are also involved in the mulch effect.

  10. EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Asaad DERBALA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

  11. Nitrogen and Crude Proteins in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva under Different Fertilization Treatments

    Marko PETEK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the influence of different organic and mineral fertilization treatments and post-harvest treatments on the content of nitrogen and crude proteins in the edible part of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva. A field trial (2003-2005 was set up in a hilly part of Croatia according to the Latin square method with four types of fertilization (control, 50 t ha-1 stable manure, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30, while treatments involved harvested fresh beetroot and stored fresh beetroot. The highest dry weight (DW content was determined in climatologically favourable 2004 (average 14.8% DW and in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (15.6% DW in harvested beetroot. In 2004 and 2005, the highest levels of nitrogen and crude proteins in harvested beetroot were determined in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (2.41 and 2.43 g N kg-1 in fresh weight and 15.07 and 15.21 g crude proteins kg-1 in fresh weight, respectively. Regardless of fertilization treatment or studied year, nitrogen and crude protein contents were higher in stored than in harvested beetroot, by 12% on average. The lowest crude protein content was determined in treatment with stable manure what confirmed that protein content decreased by organic fertilization. It can be concluded that beetroot lost some water during the storage period, which increased its content of nitrogen and crude proteins in fresh weight and thus increased the nutritional quality of beetroot as a functional food.

  12. ONION YIELD AS AFFECTED BY FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH AMINO AND HUMIC ACIDS UNDER NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS

    Ahamed A. Kandil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nutrient foliar spraying such as amino and humic acids under nitrogen fertilizer levels on growth, yield and keeping quality of onion bulbs cv. Giza 20. Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The obtained results showed that foliar spraying with humic acid resulted in highest growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as TSS %, dry matter and total weight loss percentages at storage period  compared with the control treatment. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels up to 214.2 kg N/ha significantly increased growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as total weight loss percentages at storage period. In addition, fertilization with 71.4 kg N/ha significantly increased TSS and dry matter percentages. It could be recommended that spraying with humic acid and adding 214.2 kg N/ha maximize onion bulb yield under the environmental conditions of Gharbeia Governorate. The interaction between nutrients spraying and nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly affected foliage fresh weight, total weight loss % after 1, 2, 3 and 5 months.

  13. Ensaio de adubao N-P-K em amendoim N-P-K fertilizer test with peanuts

    H. Gargantini

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich contendo terra-roxa-misturada, foi instalado com a finalidade de se determinar o efeito dos elementos fertilizantes nitrognio, fsforo e potssio, na produo do amendoim. Empregou-se para ste estudo o delineamento fatorial 3x4x3, contendo cada tratamento trs repeties. Foram colhidos separadamente a parte area e os frutos e sbre stes dois fatres foi estudada a ao daqueles elementos fertilizantes. Os dados coletados mostram haver semelhana entre os resultados com a produo da parte area e a dos frutos. O elemento responsvel pela maior produo foi o fsforo, vindo a seguir o nitrognio; o potssio no teve influncia no aumento de produo. Pelos dados obtidos neste experimento deduz-se que a frmula de adubao que melhores resultados apresentou foi a N1P3, ou sejam, 30 e 240 quilos de N e P2O5 por hectare, respectivamente.The present test was carried out with peanut plants grown in Mitscherlich pots filled with the "terra-roxa-misturada" type of soil. Its objective was to determine the influence of the three major elements, viz. nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the yield. A 3 x 4 x 3 factorial design was employed, each treatment being replicated 3 times. Both the aerial parts of the plants and the fruit were harvested separately and used for statistical analysis. Fruit yield and weight of aerial parts showed similar responses to the treatments. Phosphorus increased the yield the most, followed by nitrogen; potash had no influence on yield. According to the results obtained the best formula was N1P3, corresponding to 30 and 240 kg of N and P2O5 per hectare, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of the Performance of Lowland Rice-ratooned Rice-vegetable as Influenced by Fertilizer Rates in Sawah Rice Systems

    Adigbo, S. O.; Wakatsuki, T.; Fabusoro, E.; C. I. Alarima; O. A. Alao; J. N. Odedina; O. R. Adeyemi; T. O. Fabunmi

    2012-01-01

    The trial was conducted at the Federal University of Agriculture; Abeokuta, Nigeria in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 cropping season to evaluate the performance of lowland rice-ratooned rice-okra as influenced by fertilizer rates in sawah rice based system. Field was manually cleared and bunded but power tilled, puddled and leveled with inlet and outlet connections for irrigation and drainage. Fertilizer treatments evaluated on lowland rice were 90:45:45, 60:30:30, 45:22.5:22.5 and 30:15:15 NPK kg ...

  15. The historical fertility transition at the micro level: Southern Sweden 1815-1939

    Tommy Bengtsson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We know a great deal about the historical fertility transition at the macro level. The dominating focus on the macro level in previous research on the fertility transition means, however, that to a large extent we lack knowledge about details of the decline and empirical tests of the leading explanatory frameworks. Objective: Our aim is to explore socioeconomic fertility differentials in an industrializing community, to gain insight about the details and discuss possible mechanisms. The study starts well before industrialization and finishes at the end of the transition. Methods: We use longitudinal individual-level data from the Scanian Economic-Demographic Database, which contains demographic as well as socioeconomic information, including occupation, landholding, and income. In the analysis we use hazard regressions with shared frailty at the family level. Results: The transition involved not only parity-specific stopping but also spacing. While the upper social strata had higher fertility prior to the transition, they started to control their fertility earlier, by the 1880s, and also more consistently. Farmers, the middle class, and skilled workers followed in the decades after, and unskilled workers with some additional delay. Conclusions: These findings are partly inconsistent with several of the major explanations in the literature, such as mortality decline, increased female labor force participation, and a quantity-quality trade-off, but consistent with an innovation process where new ideas and attitudes about family limitation spread from the elite to other social groups. Comments: Further studies are required to empirically test the innovation-diffusion theory.

  16. Determining optimum fertilizer rates for cotton in Northern Ghana

    The soils of the major cotton growing zones in Northern Ghana are characterised by low levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sometimes potassium (K). The response of cotton to NPK fertilizer was studied at Nyankpala and Wa in 1991, 1993 and 1994 to determine economic rates for cultivation of the crop. Cotton responded to N, P and K except for K at both locations in 1991 where K was applied alone. The 1993 and 1994 response data at Nyanpkala and Wa were fitted with second order regression functions to generate response curves for the various nutrient elements. The economic optimum for each element was determined from a combination of the first differential of the quadratic functions and the price ratios of cotton and fertilizer materials. At Nyanpkala, the economic optimum across years for N, P and K were 53, 30 and 30 kg ha-1, respectively. The respective values at Wa were 73, 38 and 37 kg ha-1 NPK. Further multilocational on-farm testing is required to establish reliable response curves and economic optimum for each element (au)

  17. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    Wang, Shao-Xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; CHEN Ying-Xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-Nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC conte...

  18. Fertilization optimization in the case of the Luiza potato variety through the refinement of the romanian chemical fertilizers in the Tg. Secuiesc Depression (Romania

    Anca BACIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Profitable potato cultures cannot be developed without chemical and/or organic fertilization. The fertilization must assure the best possible valorization of the intensive varieties’ production potential under the ecological conditions existing in the cultivation region.The experiments took place at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Tg. Secuiesc in the period 2005-2007.Our research proposed this approach to the aspects of potato fertilization in the case of the Luiza variety, created at the PotatoResearch and Cultivation Station Tg. Secuiesc.To achieve a higher production level, 7 levels of fertilization and 3 types of fertilizers were studied, representing NPK rates of 1:0:0 (ammonium nitrate, 1:1:0 (Complex 20:20:0, respectively 1:1:1 (Complex 15:15:15.The highest and most stable productions are achieved by adding nitrogen in doses of 150-200 kg active substance / ha, and the presence of phosphorus and potassium up to these levels provides a maximum production at the application of the binary fertilizer, Complex 20:20:0, as well as at the application of the fertilizer Complex 15:15:15.

  19. Fertilization optimization in the case of the Productiv potato variety through the refinement of the romanian chemical fertilizers in the Targu Secuiesc depression

    Zsuzsanna NEMES

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Profitable potato cultures cannot be developed without chemical and/or organic fertilization. The fertilization must assure the best possible valorization of the intensive varieties’ production potential under the ecological conditions existing in the cultivation region. The experiments took place at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Targu Secuiesc in the period 2005-2007. Our research proposed this approach to the aspects of potato fertilization in the case of the Productiv variety, created at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Targu Secuiesc. To achieve a higher production level, 7 levels of fertilization and 3 types of fertilizers were studied, representing N:P:K rates of 1:0:0 (ammonium nitrate, 1:1:0 (Complex 20:20:0, respectively 1:1:1 (Complex 15:15:15. The highest and most stable productions are achieved by adding nitrogen in doses of 150-200 kg active substance / ha, and the presence of phosphorus and potassium up to these levels provides a maximum production at the application of the binary fertilizer, Complex 20:20:0, as well as at the application of the fertilizer Complex 15:15:15.

  20. Formas de adição de zinco a um formulado NPK e seu efeito sobre a produção de milho Zn rates and sources, added to a NPK granule formulation, and their effect on corn production

    G.H. Korndörfer

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de fontes, doses e formas de adição de zinco a um formulado NPK sobre a produção de grãos e matéria seca de milho em um solo de cerrado da região de Uberlândia, MG. Quatro doses de zinco foram aplicadas ao solo (0, 1, 2 e 4 kg de Zn ha-1, através de três formas (ZnO-incorporado, FTE BR-12-incorporado e FTE BR-12-gramilado adicionadas a um formulado NPK (4-30-10. O ZnO e as Fritas em pó foram incorporados ao formulado durante a fabricação, antes da granulação. Um tratamento adicional de FTE previamente granulado e depois misturado ao formulado, também foi testado. Os resultados mostraram que o zinco agregado ao adubo NPK não teve efeito sobre a produção de grãos de milho, nem tampouco sobre a produção de matéria seca, independentemente da dose ou da fonte empregada. Os teores de Zn na folha do milho aumentaram significativamente com as doses de Zn aplicada, sendo o ZnO incorporado ao granulo do formulado NPK, o tratamento que apresentou os mais altos teores. Por sua vez, o FTE em pó incorporado no granulo do formulado e o FTE previamente granulado e posteriormente misturado ao formulado não diferiram entre si quanto aos teores de Zn na folha.Zinc rates and sources added to a NPK granulated fertilizer was observed on corn crop cultivated on a soil originally under "cerrado" vegetation from Uberlândia, MG region. Four zinc rates (0, 1 , 2 e 4 kg ha-1 derived from three types of zinc sources (ZnO-incorporated, FTE BR-12-incorporated and granule FTE BR-12 were used. The ZnO and the "Fritted Trace Elements" (FTE BR-12 were incorporated to the fertilizer before granulation. An additional treatment with granule FTE and later blended to the NPK fertilizer was also tested. The results showed that Zn incorporated to the NPK fertilizer did not increase grain yield and dry matter yield. Zinc in the leaf tissue increased with the applied Zn rates, and the ZnO incorporated into de NPK fertilizer showed the highest Zn concentration. The FTE incorporated into the NPK granules and the granulated FTE blended with NPK were similar with respect to Zn availability to the corn crop, evaluated by the Zn concentration in the leaves.

  1. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000??m, 2000250??m, 25053??m, and fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5?g C m2) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250??m aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250??m aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM. PMID:26898121

  2. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  3. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (020, 2040?cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, ?13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (020?cm?=?1492.4?gC m2 and 2040?cm?=?1770.6?gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C. PMID:26750143

  4. Effect of different salinity levels on the fertilization and hatching of Heterobranchus bidorsalis

    Orji, R.C.A.; Nnadi, C.N.; Onyike, G.; Ogbona, J.

    1997-01-01

    The success of induced spawning for the production of fish seed depends on many factors which affect hatchery conditions. This paper discusses the results of an investigation on the effects of six different levels of salinity on the fertilization and hatching of Heterobranchus bidorsalis eggs. The results indicate that spermatozoa of H. bidorsalis can survive under a wide range of saline concentrations, with survival increasing with an increase in salinity from 0 to 0.4% and then decreasing a...

  5. Investigation of high level of AsAb, EmAb in fertility female serum infected by chlamydia trachomatis

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of chlamydia trachomatis. AsAb, EmAb in female fertility. Methods: LPS antigen of chlamydia in reproduction tract of fertility female was detected by monoclonal antibody and immunology chromatography; the content of AsAb, EmAb in serum of fertility female was detected by ELISA. Results: Infections rate of chlamydia trachomatis in fertility female was higher than that in the control AsAb, EmAb in serum of the fertility patients who were infected with chlamydia trachomatis showed a significant difference from that in the control group. Conclusion: The level of AsAb, EmAb increases in patients who have been infected with chlamydia trachomatis and these cytokines is involved in the course of female fertility

  6. Soil pollution state as affected by different soil fertility regulation measures

    The content of 14 chemical elements was measured in the soil of ten long-term field trials located in different climatic zones of Lithuania. Soil samples were taken from the control (untreated) and anthropogenic (fertilized with mineral NPK and/or organic fertilizers, limed) treatment plots. The samples were analyzed by the AAS method and directly analyzed with X-rays upon fine grinding (for Sr). In the western zone of Lithuania the anthropogenic impact (liming with fertilizing) resulted in statistically significant increase in the content of 4 elements (B, Ni, Sr, Zn). In the eastern zone 3 elements (Cu, Co, Sr) showed significant differences. Soil contamination index was exceeded significantly (up to 2 versus the background levels) only for Sr (2.14 times) in the western zone

  7. Evaluation of Proper Fertilizer Application for Higher Cotton Production in Sindh

    A. W. Soomro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were laid out to assess the yield performance of cotton for four successive years i.e. 1997 to 2000 crop seasons by the application of NPK fertilizers each having three levels (50, 100 and 150. On an average, highest seedcotton yield of 2413 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was fertilized with 150, 50 and 50 kg ha-1f N, P and K respectively. The lowest yield of 1039 kg ha-1 was produced from the control plot where no chemical fertilization was applied. The seedcotton yield was further significantly increased with the application of boron and zinc when applied alone or in combination. The results revealed that balance use of macro as well as micro nutrient elements are essential for harvesting better yields.

  8. Response Of Sesame To Gamma Irradiation And Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels On Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils

    The present study was conducted in an Extension field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate during 2009 and 2010 seasons to investigate the influence of four gamma-irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) and five N fertilizer levels (zero, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Kg N/fad.), on yield and it's attributes of sesame cultivar Giza 32. Gamma irradiation doses were arranged randomly in the main plots, while the five N fertilizer levels were assigned to the sub-plots. Decreasing gamma irradiation doses from 30 to 20 and 10 Gy, consistently and significantly increased plant height (cm), height to the first fruiting branch (cm), fruiting zone length (cm), number of branches and capsules/plant, 1000-seeds weight (g), seed weight(g /capsule), seed weight(g /plant), seed yield (kg/fad.) seed oil content (%) as well as oil yield (kg/fad.). Increasing N fertilizer level up 100 Kg/fad., significantly increased plant height (cm), height to the first fruiting branch (cm) fruiting zone length (cm), number of branches and capsules/plant. 1000-seeds weight (g), seed weight (g/capsule), seed weight/ plant (g), seed yield (kg/fad.) and oil yield (kg/fad.)

  9. An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey

    In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

  10. Effects of Long Term Application of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Soil Organic Carbon and Physical Properties in Maize–Wheat Rotation

    Babbu Singh Brar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Balanced and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers may enhance the accumulation of soil organic matter and improves soil physical properties. A field experiment having randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted for 36 years at Punjab Agricultural University (PAU, Ludhiana, India to assess the effects of inorganic fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM on soil organic carbon (SOC, soil physical properties and crop yields in a maize (Zea mays–wheat (Triticum aestivum rotation. Soil fertility management treatments included were non-treated control, 100% N, 50% NPK, 100% NP, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + Zn, 100% NPK + W, 100% NPK (-S and 100% NPK + FYM. Soil pH, bulk density (BD, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity, aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD and infiltration were measured 36 years after the initiation of experiment. Cumulative infiltration, infiltration rate and aggregate MWD were greater with integrated use of FYM along with 100% NPK compared to non-treated control. No significant differences were obtained among fertilizer treatments for BD and EC. The SOC pool was the lowest in control at 7.3 Mg ha−1 and increased to 11.6 Mg ha−1 with 100%NPK+FYM. Improved soil physical conditions and increase in SOC resulted in higher maize and wheat yields. Infiltration rate, aggregate MWD and crop yields were positively correlated with SOC. Continuous cropping and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased soil C sequestration and crop yields. Balanced application of NPK fertilizers with FYM was best option for higher crop yields in maize–wheat rotation.

  11. Evaluation of some lupin mutants under different irrigation intervals and nitrogen fertilizer levels

    This investigation was carried out during the two seasons of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 at the experimental farm belonging to the plant research department, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority in Inshas to evaluate four lupin mutant lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4) along with their original mother varieties giza 1 and giza 2 under different levels and nitrogen fertilizer levels. The results indicated that seed yield/ plant and its effective components number and weight of pods/plant were significantly higher in all the mutant lines as compared to their parents either in the first or second seasons. Concerning the effect of irrigation intervals on yield and its components for developed mutants and their mother varieties as well as the results gave an evidence that the wider interval showed the lesser values for yield and most of yield components. Obtained data also revealed that yield attributes of lupin mutants and their parents were affected by applying nitrogen fertilizer. However, the application of 20 or 40 kg N/fad. Mostly increased yield and yield components of the different genotypes for both growing seasons. The third interaction of genotypes x irrigation x N fertilizer was significant for all studied characters in the two growing seasons

  12. A search for aggregate-level effects of education on fertility, using data from Zimbabwe

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis was based on the 1994 ZDHS combined with aggregate data from the 1992 census. Discrete-time hazard models for first and higher-order births were estimated for 1990-94. The average length of education in the district and the proportion who are literate were found to have no impact on a woman's birth rate above and beyond that of her own education, when it was controlled for urbanization. This was the case for women who themselves had little or no education as well as for the better-educated. So far, no significant influence of aggregate education on fertility has been well documented in the literature either. However, in this study, aggregate-level effects appeared in models for fertility desires and contraceptive use among married women with at least one child.

  13. Natural radioactivity in phosphate rock, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers in Brazil

    Phosphate deposits are generally characterized by enhanced radionuclide concentrations compared to natural levels. The mining and processing of this phosphate ore redistribute radionuclides throughout the environment and introduce them into phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), NPK fertilizers and di-calcium phosphate (DCP). Contents of natural radionuclides from thorium and uranium series, 226Ra, 210Pb and 228Ra, were measured in Brazilian igneous phosphate rock, phosphoric acid, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizer samples, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of U and Th in the same samples. The fertilizers samples which are derived directly from phosphoric acid, MAP and DAP, presented activity concentrations around the detection limits of the counting system for 226Ra (-1), for 228Ra (-1) and for 210Pb (-1). As for U and Th, the concentrations found in MAP and DAP are more significant, up to 374 and 250 Bq x kg-1, respectively. SSP, TSP and NPK, which are obtained by mixing phosphoric acid with different amounts of phosphate rock and NH3, presented higher concentrations of radionuclides, up to 871 Bq x kg-1 for 226Ra, 283 Bq x kg-1 for 228Ra, 1255 Bq x kg-1 for 210Pb, 413 Bq x kg-1 for U and 538 Bq x kg-1 for Th. (author)

  14. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  15. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that...... utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels...

  16. Effect of levels P and K fertilizer on growth and yield of oil palm

    Tongkum, P.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Nilnond, C.; Eksomtramage, T.; Sangkaew, S.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of P and K levels on growth and yield of oil palm were studied at the Agricultural and Technology College Plantation in Trang province in October, 1993 using eight-year-old palms planted on the Natham soil series (fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults) at the spacing of 8.5 x 8.5 x 8.5 m. A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The four treatments consisted of the combinations of two fertilizers: P (2 levels; 0.4,...

  17. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K and magnesium (Mg sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1: two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis, applied based on its nitrogen (N content and the N requirement for the crop and an additional treatment with NPK. The castor bean grain yield fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from conventional fertilization, with the maximum value achieved at a dose of 7.5 t ha-1 of sewage sludge. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased zinc and copper levels in the soil to values close to or higher than those in conventional fertilization, without any influence on the concentrations in the leaf. Fertilization with K and Mg sulphate increased the levels of these cations in the soil without affecting the concentrations in the leaves. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased the contents of organic matter, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and boron in the soil, and manganese and boron in castor bean leaves.

  18. County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Commercial Fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987-2006

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer, for both farm and nonfarm uses, for the conterminous United States, for...

  19. Effect of Different Levels of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Protein Content of Wheat

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on the growth, yield and protein content of two wheat varieties. Two varieties of wheat were tested. Aghrani and Kanchan with five levels of chemical and organic fertilizer viz. F1 (control), F2, F3, F4 and F5. Urea was applied in 2 splits in F1 and in 3 splits in F2 to F4 as per recommendation. In F5, it was applied in 4 equal splits. In F1, inorganic fertilizers were applied @ 100 kg ...

  20. Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis study focuses on the fertility levels and trends of Iranian women aged10-49 years during three decades, 1967-1996. Information was collected by interviewing a systematiccluster sample of 13,253 households. The basic date of concern was the date of each live born childfor a sample of women in reproductive age and whether the live born was alive at the time of thestudy. The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to becalculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates werefound for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels areprobably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately afterthe 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 haddropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96. This declinewas probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularlysince 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a babyboom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the comingdecades.FrenchCette étude porte sur les niveaux et les tendances de fertilité chez les Iraniennes âgées de 10 à 49 ans sur une période de trente ans, soit de 1967-1996. L'information a été recueillie en interviewant un échantillon en grappes systématique de 13 253 ménages. La principale date qui nous intéresse est la date de naissance de chaque enfant vivant pour un échantillon de femmes en âge de procréer et le fait que l'enfant soit toujours en vie au moment de l'étude. La nature détaillée des données recueillies pour chaque naissance a permis d'établir les taux de fertilité pour les périodes précises avant le sondage pour les années civiles précises. Les taux de fertilité étaient supérieurs pour les périodes de 10 à 15 ans et de 15 à 20 ans avant le sondage. Ces taux élevés sont sans doute attribuables à des changements socio-économiques favorisant une plus grande fertilité immédiatement après la révolution de 1979. Cependant, les résultats de ce sondage indiquent qu'entre 1967 et 1996, l'ISF est passé de 6,38 à 2.88 (ISF avait été établi à partir du comportement procréateur des années 1992-96. Cette chute avait probablement été causée par le fait que les femmes se mariaient plus tard et à des changements dans la politique favorisant la régulation des populations, surtout depuis 1987. Malgré ce déclin éventuel de la fertilité des dernières années, l'Iran s'attend, au cours des prochaines décennies, à une explosion démographique une fois que les enfants nés entre 1976 et 86 auront atteints l'âge de procréer.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE

    Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM + NPK amendments showed lower accumulation of heavy metals and higher yield. Plants grown in NPK and N amended soil showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and lower yield compared to the control. Higher uptake of heavy metals in plants under NPK and N amendments, led to increase in the antioxidants enzymes, but reductions in photosynthesis rate, growth and yield. The results suggest that the application of FYM alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers may be recommended as cost effective technique for reducing the availability of heavy metals in waste water irrigated soil.

  2. Identification and characterization of microorganisms from earthworm viscera for the conversion of fish wastes into liquid fertilizer.

    Kim, Joong Kyun; Dao, Van Thingoc; Kong, In Soo; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2010-07-01

    Five bacteria isolated from earthworm viscera and identified as Brevibacillus agri, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Brevibacillus parabrevis by 16S rRNA sequencing were employed in the conversion of fish wastes generated from a restaurant specializing in sliced raw fish into fertilizer. Within 120h after inoculation of autoclaved fish waste with 5.15 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1) mixed isolates, the amount of dry sludge decreased from 29.4 to 0.2g, the pH changed from 7.05 to 5.70, and the cell number reached 6.45 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1). Analyses of an 84-h culture of inoculated fish waste indicated low phytotoxicity in a seed germination test, an amino acid content of 5.71 g 100 g(-1), a low concentration of heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn), and a N/P/K level of 2.33%. Therefore the converted fish waste has the potential for use as liquid fertilizer, although the low NPK level is a concern. This is the first demonstration of the reutilization of fish wastes as a liquid fertilizer. PMID:20189380

  3. Effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on sweet corn (Zea maYs L.)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on emergence m/sup -2/ growth and grain yield of sweet corn. The fertilizer and interaction of fertilizer x seed density had significant negative effect with increasing level while seed density had a positive effect with increased density on emergence per m/sup 2/. Increased seed density significantly reduced plant growth which increased with application of higher fertilizer dose. The grain yield was improves by ridge planting methods, increased seed density and increased fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (3,553.50 kg ha/sup-1/) of sweet corn plants was recorded in ridge planting method with highest NP fertilizer level of 300:150 kg ha/sup 1/ and 4 seeds hill/sup -1/. The lowest grain yield (3,493.75 kg ha/sup -1/) of sweet corn was observed in flat sowing planting method with 120:75 NP level and 2 seeds hill/sup -1/ seed density. The ridge planting rank first then furrow and flat planting methods on basis of grain yield per hectare. The sweet corn plant yield was high with 4 seeds hill/sup -1/ compared with 2 seeds hill/sup -1/. (author)

  4. Effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols for the Growth and Yield of Caisim

    Ea Kosman Anwar; Subowo Gitosuwondo

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1) on the growth and yield of caisim (Brassica sp.) was examined in the greenhouse of Indonesian Soil Research Institute in Bogor. The completely randomized design (CRD) was performed to examine the effects of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1) on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols. The treatments were consists of 10 combinations between NPK-recommendation (NPK-rec) and CBF1, with six replications. The experiment was conducted from August t...

  5. Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

  6. EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON PLANT HEIGHT, SPREAD AND FLOWER DIAMETER OF GAILLARDIA (GAILLARDIA PULCHELLA

    B. V. Sowmyamala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on plant height, plant spread and flower diameter of Gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella. In Gaillardia the plant maximum height was recorded in the plot treated with 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 tones ha-1 followed by 75 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 at 45 days and 75 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 5 tones ha-1 at 15, 30 and 60 days. Highest plant spread was obtained at 30 and 45 days after planting in the treatments which involved 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 and at 60 days no significant differences were recorded. The combination of recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 produced maximum diameter of flower.

  7. The Response of Sorghum, Groundnut, Sesame, and Cowpea to Seed Priming and Fertilizer Micro-Dosing in South Kordofan State, Sudan

    Elgailani A. Abdalla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating micro-dosing of mineral fertilizer combined with seed priming in sorghum, groundnut, sesame, and cowpea. On-station and on-farm trials were conducted for two consecutive seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011 at Al-Tukma village (12°00′57.60′′ N and 29°46′12.15′′ E in South Kordofan State, 15 km southeast of Dilling city. Heavy cracking clay soil is the dominant soil type in the region with low fertility. The experiments for each crop consisted of two priming levels (primed seeds vs. non-primed and four micro-doses of NPK mineral fertilizer (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g per planting pocket or hole. On-farm trials in 15 fields consisted of control, seed priming, and seed priming + micro fertilizer (0.3 g/planting hole. Data collected included plant vigor, stand count, plant height, grain and straw yield, seed weight, and other relevant agronomic traits. This study shows that it is possible to increase productivity of sorghum, sesame, groundnut, and cowpea in the semi-arid cracking clay of South Kordofan State at a low cost and with a moderate risk for farmers through seed priming and micro-dosing of fertilizers. Seed priming combined with micro-dosing NPK mineral fertilizer of 0.9 g was the best treatment for plant establishment, seedling vigor, grain yield, and hay yield in sorghum and groundnut, whereas the combination of seed priming and 0.3 g micro-doing of fertilizer was the best in sesame. Seed priming and micro-dosing of fertilizer of 0.6 g was the best combination for cowpea. On-farm trial results indicated that priming alone and priming combined with fertilizer application significantly increased the yields of sorghum, groundnut, and cowpea over the control (P = 0.01. Of the crops tested, groundnut responded most favorably to micro-dosing and seed priming, with a value to cost ratio (VCR of 26.6, while the highest VCR for sorghum, sesame, and cowpea was 12.5, 8.0 and 4.4, respectively. For the best productivity and profitability, we recommend using seed priming in combination with the micro-dosing of 0.9 g/hole of 15:15:15 NPK fertilizer for sorghum and groundnut, of 0.3 g/hole for sesame, and of 0.6 g/hole for cowpea grown in the semiarid South Kordofan State of Sudan.

  8. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  9. Deterministic modeling of nutrients (NPK 15-15-15) transport in unsaturated homogeneous sandy-loam soil

    The use of inorganic fertilizers to increase crop yield on the same piece of land is being practiced in most part of the world in recent times as a result of population growth and urbanization. Inorganic fertilizers readily supply plants with the required nutrients in a very short time after application. Application of inorganic fertilizers on the field, if not managed properly can have devastating effects on the environment. When nutrient does not get to plants roots at the right time or travels beyond the reach of plant roots, it causes groundwater pollution and financial loss to farmers as plants do not fully use the nutrients applied. The need to understand how nutrients from inorganic fertilizers are transported in soil is essential to ensure maximum utilization of these nutrients and minimize the harmful effects that can result from their application on the field. Mathematical modeling and simulation techniques are very important in any attempt to understand and predict the transport of nutrients in soils. This research presents mathematical models of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer nutrients transport in an unsaturated homogeneous sandy loam soil. In the thesis, a convection dispersion equation (CDE) was developed (as the governing equation) for the nutrient transport and analytical solution based on Laplace transform technique and numerical solution based on implicit finite difference method were obtained to determine the concentration distribution of nitrate, potassium and phosphorous from inorganic NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer. Solution algorithms for Matlab programming were developed and implemented for generating results for analysis. The analytical and the numerical solution gave similar results for the concentration distribution of the nutrients in soil with respect to both depth and time. The results that were obtained indicated that for analytical or numerical solutions nitrate was the most mobile nutrient in soil among the three nutrients considered in the work, but none of the three nutrients leached beyond the depth of interest (100 cm from the soil surface), since no concentration of the three nutrients was recorded at the 100 cm depth. (au)

  10. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 19872006

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Surveys National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintainedthe periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also, states with higher nonfarm-to-total fertilizer ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus tended to have higher urban land-use percentages.

  11. Influence of Both Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Productivity of Barley

    Influences of gamma irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) as well as nitrogen fertilizer levels (zero, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/fad) on growth, yield and yield components of barley cultivar Giza 123 were studied during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. The study was conducted in an extension field at Belbees District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Irradiation with the lowest gamma does gave the highest value for each of emergence/m2, plant height at heading (cm), flag leaf area at heading (cm2), spike length (cm), number of grains/spike and weight of grains/spike. Nitrogen application significantly increased emergence/m2, plant height, flag leaf area (cm2), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2 as well as grain, straw and biological yields (kg/fad). Accepted September 2013.

  12. Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil

    Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

  13. Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2

    Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhances P acquisition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a sandy loam soil with long-term inorganic fertilization regime.

    Hu, Junli; Lin, Xiangui; Wang, Junhua; Cui, Xiangchao; Dai, Jue; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2010-10-01

    The P efficiency, crop yield, and response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledonium were tested in an experimental field with long-term (19 years) fertilizer management. The experiment included five fertilizer treatments: organic amendment (OA), half organic amendment plus half mineral fertilizer (1/2 OM), mineral fertilizer NPK, mineral fertilizer NK, and the control (without fertilization). AMF inoculation responsiveness (MIR) of wheat plants at acquiring P were estimated by comparing plants grown in unsterilized soil inoculated with G. caledonium and in untreated soil containing indigenous AMF. Without AMF inoculation, higher crop yields but lower colonization rates were observed in the NPK and two OA-inputted treatments, and NPK had significantly (P amendments by improving P-acquisition efficiency in arable soils. PMID:20683717

  15. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g−1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg−1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g−1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

  16. Effects of decaying leaf litter and inorganic fertilizer on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.

    Chukwuka Kanayo S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of decaying leaf litter of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina as organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a screen house. Twenty-four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which included: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1, 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2, 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic fertilizer (T3, a mixture of 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T4, a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T5 and control (T6. The significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize seedlings, and this was closely followed by T4 treated seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as an organic fertilizer in maize production in a screen house conditions did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.

  17. EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON PLANT HEIGHT, SPREAD AND FLOWER DIAMETER OF GAILLARDIA (GAILLARDIA PULCHELLA)

    B. V. Sowmyamala; R. Vasantha Kumar; H.T. Nagaraj; Balaji S. Kulkarni; Jayalakshmi B. Hiremath; Ramesh M. Turamari

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on plant height, plant spread and flower diameter of Gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella). In Gaillardia the plant maximum height was recorded in the plot treated with 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 tones ha-1 followed by 75 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 at 45 days and 75 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 5 tones ha-1 at 15, 30 and 60 days. Highes...

  18. Dynamics of clay mineralogy with profile depth in relation to long term potassium fertilizer application to sugar cane crop

    The experiment consisted of treatment of sugar cane crop with N, NP, NPK and farmyard manure and determination of its effect on soil mica, vermiculite and montmorillonite over a period of 18 years. The NPK treatment had greater mica in coarse clay, but less in fine clay than NP and control treatments. Vermiculite in coarse clay fraction, in NPK treatment, increased with the depth as compared to other treatments. The fertilizer treatment effect on smectite content was obvious only in AP horizon in fine clay fraction. (author)

  19. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  20. The influence of tillage systems, fertilization and plant protection levels on weed infestation in winter rye cultivated on light soil

    Piotr Kraska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional and ploughless tillage systems upon infestation in two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on light soil. Before harvest winter rye there was determined weed infestation of square-frame method. There were estimated weed species composition and air dry matter of weeds in two randomly selected place. Number of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds and dry matter of weeds was higher on the objects with ploughless tillage system compared with conventional tillage. Intensive fertilization and plant protection decreased number of dicotyledonous weeds in canopy of winter rye. Conventional tillage system decreased Apera spica-venti occurrence in a canopy of winter rye and increased number of Plantago major plants. Intensive level of fertilization and plant protection decreased weed infestation first of all through Matricaria maritima.

  1. Alternate Nitrogen Amendments for Organic Fertilizers

    M K.C Sridhar; G.O. Adeoye; O.O. AdeOluwa

    2001-01-01

    The use of compost or manure in agriculture as an organic source of nutrients is common in many tropical, developing countries like Nigeria. One of the drawbacks of such materials is their low nitrogen (N) content (=1% N). Farmers commonly use chemical N fertilizers such as urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and NPK formulations to obtain better crop growth and yield. These chemical supplements may have a negative impact on the environment through nitrate leaching into water, leading to eu...

  2. Organochlorine compound levels in fertile and infertile women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Ana Marcia Xavier Bastos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was quantify organochlorine compounds in women seeking for infertility treatment (n = 15 and in spontaneously pregnant ones (n = 21. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was applied regarding lifestyle, occupational and reproductive history. Blood samples were collected from both groups. RESULTS: From the pesticides studied, pp'DDE was detected in 100% of infertile women, at higher mean levels than in pregnant women (3.02 mcg/L vs. 0.88 mcg/L; p = 0.001; power of 69%, without correlation with the etiology of infertility. Levels of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were low, with positive samples in 100% in the infertile women for PCBs 138, 153, 180, while in pregnant women, they were 85.7% for congeners 138 and 153. Only PCB180 showed significance, with frequency of 71.4% (p = 0.019. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for female infertility were: age, consumption of untreated water and of canned foods. Exposure to the most prevalent organochlorine compounds described in literature was confirmed in the study, indicating that pp'DDE may adversely influence female fertility.

  3. Production of annual winter forage sown before and after soybean harvest under different nitrogen fertilization levels

    Francisco Migliorini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect on forage yield of sowing winter forage species before and after soybean harvest, at different nitrogen application levels. The experiment was set out in a randomized block design with a strip-split plot arrangement, and three replicates. Sowing methods (18 days before soybean harvest and six days after soybean harvest were allocated in the main plots, and the combination among forage species (Avena strigosa cv. IAPAR 61 + Lolium multiflorum; A. strigosa cv. Comum + L. multiflorum; A. strigosa cv. Comum + L. multiflorum + Vicia villosa; A. strigosa cv. Comum + L. multiflorum + Raphanus sativus; and L. multiflorum and nitrogen levels (0, 140, 280 and 420 kg ha-1 in the plots and subplots, respectively. Forage sowing before the soybean harvest made it possible to anticipate first grazing by 14 days, with satisfactory establishment of forage species without affecting forage production. This method permitted a longer grazing period, preventing the need for soil disking, besides allowing the use of no-tillage system. The mixture of forage species enables higher forage yield for pasture in relation to single species pastures, with response to nitrogen fertilization up to 360 kg ha-1.

  4. The Effect of Crop Rotation, Mineral Fertilizer Application and Herbicide on Weed Control in Winter Rye

    H Mohamad Dost CHamanabad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent years' problems of herbicide use have led a growing number of researchers to seek alternative methods that are less reliant on herbicides. This research was conducted to determine the effect of long-term crop rotation, mineral fertilizer and herbicide on the weed infestation and grain yield of winter rye during 2004 and 2005 at the long-term experimental site of the University of Timiriazev, Moscow. Treatments were control (no weed control, herbicide, combined fertilizer (NPK and NPK plus herbicide in field winter rye cultivated in continuous and crop rotation with other crops since 1912. Crop rotation significantly decreased weed density and dry mass. Long-term NPK application significantly decreased weed density, but had not any effect on weed dry mass. Crop rotation, NPK application and herbicide increased ground crop cover and decreased ground weed cover. In continuous crop, weed ground cover was 10 % in control plot and 3.33 % in plots where NPK was applied. Data showed that long-term crop rotation and NPK application can reduce weed infestation and increase grain yield of winter rye.

  5. Evaluation Of Compost Fertilizer "Zarkhez" In Conjunction With Chemical Fertilizers For Rice And Wheat Production

    Aslam John; Muhammad Khalid; Farooq Javed

    1998-01-01

    Experiments conducted to evaluate a compost fertilizer "Zarkhez" showed that effect of compost alone (2000 kg/ha and 4000 kg/ha) on number of tillers, 1000-grain weight, yield and NPK uptake by rice and wheat was almost similar to control, whereas, significant improvements were observed when combination of compost and chemical fertilizers were applied. Maximum yield of paddy (4.25 t ha-1) and wheat (2.61 t ha-1) were obtained with 4000 kg ha-1 compost + chemical fertilizers (150-75-0 kg ha-1,...

  6. Distinguishing nitrogen fertilization levels in field corn (Zea mays L.) with actively induced fluorescence and passive reflectance measurements

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is an active sensing technique capable of capturing immediate and specific indications of changes in plant physiology and metabolism as they relate to the concentration and photosynthetic activity of the plant pigments. Reflectance is a passive sensing technique that can capture differences in the concentration of the primary plant pigments. Fluorescence and reflectance were compared for their ability to measure levels of plant stress that are of agronomic importance in corn (Zea mays L.) crops. Laboratory LIF and reflectance spectra were made on excised leaves from field grown corn. Changes in the visible region of the spectrum were compared between groups of plants fertilized with seven different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. A pulsed nitrogen laser emitting photons at a wavelength of 337 nm was used as a fluorescence excitation source. Differences in maximum intensity of fluorescence occurred at 440 nm, 525 nm, 685 nm, and 740 nm. Significant separations were found between levels of N fertilization at several LIF wavelength ratios. Several reflectance algorithms also produced significant separations between certain levels of N fertilization

  7. PRODUO ANIMAL EM VRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NVEIS DE ADUBAO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Enio Marchezan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilizao das reas de vrzea na Depresso Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido deficincia de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida atravs do nivelamento da rea, da correo do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produo animal em rea de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espcies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes nveis de adubao. O experimento foi conduzido na rea experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMRFICO Eutrfico arnico, unidade de mapeamento Vacaca. A rea foi sistematizada em desnvel de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espcies forrageiras foram: azevm (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornicho (Lotus corniculatus, cultivadas em consorciao. Adotaram-se como tratamentos trs nveis de adubao: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendao oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repeties, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contnuo, com carga inicial mdia de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variveis avaliadas foram: ganho mdio dirio de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, protena bruta, composio botnica e taxa mdia de acmulo de matria seca das forrageiras. O resduo de matria seca (MS ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa mdia de acmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho mdio dirio foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga mdia de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O nmero de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendao oficial, respectivamente. Os nveis de adubao NPK, mantendo constante a adubao nitrogenada, no afetaram o ganho mdio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacaca mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and 128 for the 50, 100 and 150% recommended fertilizer rates. The NPK fertilizer levels, keeping constant the nitrogen fertilization, didnt affect the average daily weight gain, animal load and weight gain per area.

  8. Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  9. Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascolonicum Production

    Sopit Vetayasuporn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A block experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of biological and chemical (NPK 15:15:15 fertilizers on the growth and yield of shallot cultivation in Mahasakham University, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand. Six biological fertilizers were developed from BBF (basically biological fertilizer: 45 g cattle manure + 45 g rice bran + 20 mL of molasses + 10 mL of EM + 10 L of dechlorinated water and used in this experiment. Chemical and biological fertilizers showed insignificant at a confidence level of 95% on the growth and yield of shallots. Increasing biological and chemical fertilizers concentration in this experiment had no significant effect on shallot growth and yield. Except control (without fertilizer, average shallot total weight with leaves and number of leaves per plant in all treatments were ranged between 9.885-12.024 g and 19.095-21.840 leaves, respectively. Average shallot total weight with leaves and number of leaves per plant obtained in this experimental were coincided to the Thai market standard. Growth and yield of these shallots showed significant different to the control (5.525 g of weight and 15.625 leaves per plant. Supplemented golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculat into BBF provided higher NO3? contents (4.28-4.68%. However, the high content of nitrate in biological fertilizer did not show significant effects in promoting shallot growth and yield. Under taking into account chemical fertilizer cost, which is ten times higher than biological fertilizer, the soil amendment with biological fertilizer may be a practicable alternative for the poor farmers who own degraded farmlands may be unable to afford the cost of chemical fertilizer.

  10. Effect of biochar on the properties of loamy sand Spodosol soil samples with different fertility levels: A laboratory experiment

    Rizhiya, E. Ya.; Buchkina, N. P.; Mukhina, I. M.; Belinets, A. S.; Balashov, E. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of biochar on the properties of a loamy sand Spodosol with different fertility level in the ploughed horizon has been studied in a 60-day laboratory experiment. It has been found that the application of biochar resulted in a significant increase of the soil water content in the range of soil-water potential from -5 to -50 kPa, a significant decrease of the total shrinkage of the soil with high level of fertility after three wetting-drying cycles, and the accumulation of a significantly higher content of nitrates in the soil. At a water content of 21%, less favorable conditions for the denitrification development were formed in the soil with high level of fertility than in the medium-fertile soil, which resulted in lower cumulative N2O emission from the former. The addition of biochar resulted in no significant changes in the cumulative emission of CO2 from the studied soil but significantly reduced the emission of N2O from the soil at the simultaneous addition of biochar and clover residues.

  11. The effect of fertilization levels and genetic deployment on soil organic matter chemistry and turnover in managed loblolly pine forests

    Vogel, J. G.; Jokela, E. J.; He, D.; Hockaday, W. C.; Schuur, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics were examined for two managed loblolly pine forests (Pinus taeda L.) located in north-central Florida on sandy Spodosols. The study designs were split-plots with the whole plots designated as fertilization levels, and the split-plots full-sib families of loblolly pine. The forests were aged 9 and 10 years at sampling. Roots, wood, and charcoal were hand-picked from SOM and density fractionation (1.6 g/ml) used to further separate SOM into a light (LF) and heavy fraction (HF). LF turnover rates were estimated using radiocarbon and LF chemistry determined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Family or fertilization level effects on the mass of SOM components were not significant at both sites. The largest proportions of SOM were in the LF (83% and 85%) and wood (6% and 9%). Varying in relative contributions were charcoal (2% and 3%) and the HF (4% and 1%) while fine dead roots were between 1-2% of total SOM. Higher fertilization levels generally depressed fine root (families. These results suggest that tree genetics in forests can influence SOM chemistry, but that family and the degree of fertilization have little net effect on SOM chemistry and turnover.

  12. Mycorrhizal effectiveness on physic nut as influenced by phosphate fertilization levels

    Elcio Liborio Balota; Oswaldo Machineski; Alexandra Scherer

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) has attracted attention because of its potential for biofuel production. Although it is adapted to low-fertility soils, physic nut requires soil acidity corrections and addition of a considerable amount of fertilizer for high productivity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (control without AMF inoculation, Gigaspora margarita inoculation or Glomus clarum inoculation) on increa...

  13. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N2-fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  14. Calagem e adubação mineral e orgânica do cafeeiro na região de Campinas Liming and mineral and organic fertilization of coffee tree at Campinas Region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Genésio da Silva Cervellini

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento com cafeeiro cultivar Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 em um latossolo roxo transição para latossolo vermelho-amarelo orto, cuja vegetação original era típica de cerrado, na região de Campinas, comparando-se os tratamentos com esterco de curral e adubação mineral NPK, complementados ou não com calcário dolomítico e com os micronutrientes zinco e boro. Aplicaram-se, por ano e por cova, 40 litros de esterco quando na ausência de NPK e 20 litros quando com NPK. A adubação mineral constou da utilização de 120 g de N, 40 g de P2O5 e 120 g de K2O por ano e por cova; quando em presença de esterco, usou-se metade dessas doses. O calcário foi aplicado na quantidade de 1 kg por ano e por cova, e zinco e boro, na quantidade de 20 g de sulfato de zinco e 20 g de bórax, também por cova e por ano. A análise das produções de café beneficiado no período de 1965 a 1970 permitiu constatar que a testemunha e o tratamento com NPK foram significativamente inferiores aos demais. Destacaram-se com as melhores produções os tratamentos que receberam esterco mais NPK, com ou sem calcário. Nas análises de solos, constatou-se aumento nas bases quando foi aplicado o esterco e, em contrapartida, aumento de acidez com o tratamento de NPK. As análises das folhas mostraram efeitos sobre teores de alumínio e manganês coerentes com os dados obtidos nas produções e análises do solo.Experiments with mineral and organic manure were carried out in a Red Latosolic Soil Transition to Orto Red Yellow Latosolic Soil at Campinas region with Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 coffee tree cultivar. The treatments with manure was compared with the treatments with mineral fertilizers of NPK with or without lime or micronutrients zinc and boron. The analyses of coffee production data showed that the treatments with mineral fertilizers and the test treatment with no fertilizer, had the lowest productions. The treatments with manure and NPK with or without lime had better production than other treatments. The soil analyses showed high levels of bases on the manure treatments and high acidity on the NPK treatments. The leaf analyses confirmed the results of the effects of the treatments on the aluminium and manganese contents.

  15. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  16. New complex fertilizer 'Suprodit' to obtain safe agricultural productions on contaminated lands.

    Nikolaevich Ratnikov, Alexander; Sergeevich Anisimov, Vyacheslav; Nikoaevna Anisimova, Lidiya; Georgievich Sviridenko, Dmitry; Jurievna Balanova, Olesya

    2015-04-01

    One of the reclamation techniques to reduce the accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in the crop is the use of natural sorbents, industrial deposits of which are located in the contaminated areas or at distances that allows one to organize cheap their delivery to the application site. More promising reclamation technique is the use of new types of complex fertilizers, the main components of which are special sorbents of natural or artificial origin. New complex fertilizer of prolonged action - "SUPRODIT", containing in addition to nutrients highly efficient mineral and organic sorbents, was developed by specialists of the RIRAE. The feedstock for mineral sorbent was Tripoli (finely porous siliceous mineral) from local field (Kaluga region), organic sorbent - peat. The "SUPRODIT"composition: N - 8-11%; P2O5 - 11-13 %; K2O - 11-17%, organic matter and 30-40%, respectively. The effect of a single application of complex fertilizer will be maintained for two or more growing seasons. Received RF patent for the invention "Method of production of complex fertilizer of prolonged action". In a series of field experiments on sod-podzolic sandy loam soil it was shown that the application of "SUPRODIT" at dose of 800 kg/ha to soil contaminated with dehydrated sewage sludge (DSS), significantly reduces heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) content in a crop of oats and barley due to the sorption properties of this fertilizers. Thus, Cd accumulation in the oats grain decreased 1.3 times, barley grain - 1.5 times, Ni - 1.5 times for barley and oats; Pb - 1.8 and 1.7 times respectively opposite to variant where the DSS was applied only. "SUPRODIT" reduces the negative effects of HM on the growth and development of plants, and limits the accumulation of 137Cs and HM in biomass. The 137Cs content in the biomass of barley in the variant of jointly added to soil of 137Cs and "SUPRODIT" decreased by 8.9 times in comparison with control and 4.4 times compared with standard fertilizers (NPK). The Cd accumulation by barley grain in sod-podzolic soil, contaminated with Cd6, Zn600, Cu390 mg/kg, when applying "SUPRODIT" was 2.5 times less than after industrial fertilizers (NPK and nitrophoska) application; the accumulation of Zn - 1.5 and 1.9 times less; the accumulation of Cu - 1.6 and 1.5 times less in comparison with NPK and nitrophoska, respectively. Applying of "SUPRODIT" constrain the accumulation of 137Cs in barley grain 1.2-1.3 times more efficiently than NPK and nitrophoska. Use "SUPRODIT" in technologies of cultivation of fodder crops on contaminated land in the districts of the Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation allow us to get a feed corresponding to acceptable levels on the content of 137Cs at a density of contamination 500-920 kBq/m2, which ensures that the milk will fit to corresponding maximum permissible concentration.

  17. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.

  18. Impact of fertilization and granular insecticides on the incidence of tobacco aphid, myzus persicae (sulz)

    Field studies were conducted on the control of tobacco aphid, Myzus persicase (Sulz) with four granular insecticides, viz, Furadan 3% G, Diazinon 5% g, Thiodan 5% g and Larsban 5% g, with and without NPK fertilization. The aphid population was significantly higher in the fertilized plots compared to the non-fertilized ones. All the four insecticides significantly reduced the aphids density compared to the check. Furada 3% gave best results for the control of this pest. (author)

  19. Long-term effects of cropping systems and fertilization on crop production, soil characteristics and nitrogen cycling in the Guinean and Sudanian savannah zones of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    The long-term effects of annual fallow and two grain legumes, namely groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on soil N, fertilizer N recovery and yield of subsequent non-fixing crops were investigated in two ecological savannah zones of West Africa. The effects of fallow and groundnut on sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and cotton (Gossypium sp) were studied using a 10-year (1993-2003) field experiment at the agronomic research station of Farako-Ba (4 deg. 20' West, 11 deg. 6' North and 405 m altitude) in Guinean savannah zone Burkina Faso. A factorial 3x8 design in a split plot arrangement was used. Three crop rotations (cotton-groundnut-Sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) were used as first factor and 8 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+crop residues, NPK+dolomite, PK+crop residues, PK+manure, PK+compost, PK and control) were applied as second factor. In the Sudanian savannah zone, a 5-year (1995-1999) field experiment was laid down at the research station of Kouare (11 deg 59' North, 0 deg. 19' West and 850 m altitude). A factorial of three cropping systems (cowpea-sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) as a first factor and 4 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+dolomite, PK+manure and a control) as a second factor in a split plot design was used. In the Guinean savannah zone, grain yields of succeeding sorghum increased from 547 kg ha-1 in continuous sorghum to 912 and 1021 kg ha-1 in fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations respectively. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N at sowing. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 19% for the continuous sorghum to 32 and 51% for the fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum respectively. Soil organic carbon increased from 0.36% in continuous sorghum to 0.39 and 0.54% in cotton-groundnut-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, continuous sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations decreased soil organic carbon. Only fallow-sorghum rotation maintained soil organic carbon, exchange acidity and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Manure applications increased soil organic carbon, total N and available P. Except for the fallow-sorghum rotation, other rotations increased aluminum saturation and decreased soil pH compared to original soil. Manure or dolomite applications decreased exchange acidity and maintained soil pH and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotation was the most efficient for the Guinea savannah zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer plus one t ha-1 of dolomite can be recommended for cotton and sorghum. Alternatively mineral PK fertilizer combined with 3 t ha-1 cattle manure can be applied to sorghum. Only mineral NPK fertilizer can be used on groundnut. In the Sudanian savannah zone, sorghum grain yields increased by 75 and 100% when sorghum was rotated with fallow or cowpea respectively, compared to mono cropping of sorghum. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cowpea-sorghum rotations supplied 17 and 90% more N to succeeding sorghum compared to the mono cropping system of sorghum. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 17% for the continuous sorghum to 22 and 26% for the cowpea-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, all cropping systems decreased soil organic carbon and increased aluminum saturation. All cropping systems decreased soil pH and increased aluminum saturation compared to original soil. Cowpea-sorghum rotation was the most efficient cropping system in the Sudanian zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer associated with one t ha-1 of dolomite or 3 t ha-1 of manure must be applied to sorghum. But only recommended mineral NPK fertilizer can be applied for cowpea. (author)

  20. High levels of inorganic nutrients affect fertilization kinetics, early development and settlement of the scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta

    Lam, E. K. Y.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Kwok, C. K.; Ip, A. H. P.; Chan, S. W.; Leung, H. N.; Yeung, L. C.; Ang, P. O.

    2015-09-01

    Dose-response experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ammonia nitrogen (NH3/NH4 +) and orthophosphate (PO4 3-) on four stages of larval development in Platygyra acuta, including fertilization, embryonic development and the survival, motility, and settlement of planula larvae. Fertilization success was reduced significantly under 200 ?M NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. These high doses of NH3/NH4 + and PO4 - affected egg viability (or sperm viability and polyspermic block simultaneously) and polyspermic block, respectively. These results provide the first evidence to indicate the mechanisms of how inorganic nutrients might affect coral fertilization processes. For embryonic development, NH3/NH4 + at 25-200 ?M caused delay in cell division after 2-h exposure and NH3/NH4 + at 100-200 ?M resulted in larval death after 72 h. However, no significant differences were observed in the mobility and survivorship of either planula or competent larvae under different levels of NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. There was a significant (~30 %) drop in the settlement of competent larvae under the combined effect of 100 ?M NH3/NH4 + and PO4 3-. The effects of elevated nutrients appeared to become more significant only on gametes or larvae undergoing active cellular activities at fertilization, early development, and settlement.

  1. Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans

    Gorzelany J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force causing bean damage and bean deformation up to crack.

  2. Social class and net fertility before, during, and after the demographic transition: A micro-level analysis of Sweden 1880-1970

    Martin Dribe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although demographers have long been interested in studying the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns. Identifying these patterns could help us to better understand the mechanisms behind the transition. Objective: The aim of this paper is to explore social class differentials in fertility before, during, and after the fertility decline, in order to test hypotheses regarding a reversal of class differences during the transition. Methods: We use micro-level census data for Sweden 1880, 1890, 1900, 1960, and 1970 with individual-level information on occupation, which is used to measure class. Poisson regressions with parish-level fixed effects enable us to carefully control spatial heterogeneity in measuring class differences in net fertility (child-woman ratios. Results: The relative differences were about as large in the early phases of the transition as they were in the 1960s. The fertility levels of the high-fertility classes were about 40Š higher than those of the low-fertility classes. In the early phases of the decline, the upper and middle classes had much lower net fertility than lower skilled workers, who had the highest fertility levels. However, there was no clear gradient from the highest to the lowest socioeconomic status. Instead, it appears that the upper and middle classes had low fertility levels, while the fertility levels of the remaining groups were unchanged, and therefore remained relatively high. In the 1960s, members of the middle class had the lowest fertility levels, while farmers and rural laborers had the highest fertility levels. Conclusions: The results only partly confirm the assumption that there was a reversal in class differences in the demographic transition. Class was found to be important, but the pattern was not characterized by a simple gradient. Moreover, spatial heterogeneity was shown to explain about half of the observed differences between classes. The observed pattern suggests that the fertility transition can be attributed to both innovation-diffusion and the adjustment to new socioeconomic conditions.

  3. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  4. The effects of income level, income distribution, education and urbanization on fertility rates among 28 administrative regions of China.

    Lee, B S

    1990-07-01

    Conflicting empirical evidence on the role of income distribution on fertility rates is the impetus for this 1982 study of providence-specific Chinese Census data, excluding Tibet. The findings support the prior thesis of Repetto but utilize the micromethods and per household income measures of the competing findings of Boulier. It is cautioned that in the Chinese analysis equal income distribution depresses fertility, but China may not reflect world wide patterns. China did not have until recently a market incentive system, and there are income measurement problems. The data are per capita economic output not per capita income, and those high output areas which did not produce low fertility may actually have had households with low incomes. The importance of this research is in establishing that cross-province data are a useful tool in understanding the influence of income distribution on fertility. As with most developing countries, women's education, for instance, at least junior high education explained the largest variation of fertility differences among the 28 provinces. The urbanization variable when controlling for income was positive, unlike the other developing countries. The 1949 Chinese government's spatial industrial policy encouraged urbanization and industrialization in rural areas and family planning programs such that highly urbanized provinces have low population density. A variety of variables on income level, income distribution, education, and urbanization are discussed. OLSQ regressions were generated utilizing such independent variables as output per capita in yuan (YOUTHPC80), the square of YOUTHPC80 (YOUTHPC802), YOUTHPC80 multiplied by the average family size in each province (YOUTHPH80), and the squared value of YOUTHPH80. PMID:12283836

  5. Role of phosphogypsum and NPK amendments on the retention or leaching of metals in different soils.

    Ammar, Rawaa; Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Kazpard, Véronique; Wazne, Mahmoud; El Samrani, Antoine G; Amacha, Nabil; Saad, Zeinab; Chou, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the effects of soil physicochemical characteristics on metal mobility in the subsurface. The metals investigated originated from disposed industrial waste byproducts and from agrochemicals spread over the farmlands. Soil column tests can provide insights into leaching of metals to underlying water compartments. The findings of this study can be used for prevention strategies and for setting risk assessment approaches to land-use and management, and soil and water quality and sustainability. Soils collected from an industrial (IS) watershed and an agricultural (AQ) hydrographic basin were used in soil column leaching experiments. The soil samples were characterized for mineralogy, functional groups, grain size, surface charge, soil type, porosity, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) along with elemental composition. Varying concentrations of phosphogypsum industrial waste or agrochemical (NPK fertilizer) was then added to the surface of the packed columns (n = 28). The columns were subjected to artificial rain over a period of 65 days. Leachates were collected and analyzed for dissolved Na(+), K(+), and Cd(2+) throughout the experimental period, whereas residual Cd content in the subsurface soil was measured at the end of the experiment. Physicochemical characterization indicated that the AQ soil has a higher potential for metal retention due to its fine clay texture, calcareous pH, high organic matter content and CEC. Metal release was more prominent in the IS soil indicating potential contamination of the surrounding soil and water compartments. The higher metal release is attributed to soil physicochemical characteristics. High calcium concentrations of phosphogypsum origin is expected to compete for adsorbed bivalent elements, such as Cd, resulting in their release. The physicochemical characteristics of the receiving media should be taken into consideration when planning land-use in order to achieve sustainable development. Soil physiochemical characteristics play a key role in determining the behavior and fate of elements upon application of amendments. Sandy soils should not be assigned to industrial zones or landfills due to their high permeability, unlike fine clay soils. Furthermore, application of fertilizers on sandy soils can threaten groundwater quality, whereas their extensive use on clayey soil can cause soil salinisation. PMID:27131954

  6. Basal serum testosterone levels correlate with ovarian reserve and ovarian response in cycling women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Xiao, Shan; Li, Yubin; Long, Lingli; Luo, Canqiao; Mai, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between basal serum testosterone levels and in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters in cycling women. A retrospective cohort study was performed at a clinical IVF center, and 495 women with regular menstruation were enrolled. Serum testosterone levels were measured before the start of IVF treatment cycle. We found that basal serum testosterone levels were negatively associated with female age and FSH/LH ratios. In contrast, we found a positive correlation between serum testosterone levels and the number of oocytes and available embryos. However, there was no significant association between testosterone levels and pregnancy outcome. Our results suggest that basal serum testosterone levels were significantly related to certain classic indicators of ovarian reserve, such as age and FSH/LH ratios. Increased testosterone levels improved ovarian response in cycling women, but they fail to predict pregnancy and miscarriage rate. PMID:26299634

  7. Effect of Various Nitrogen Fertilizers and Their Levels on Big-Arch Shelter Cucumber Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    Zhaopeng Ou Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are mainly cultivated through facility in early spring and late autumn in Northern of China. In the case of a serious shortage of water resources, water use efficiency of greenhouse vegetable is of an important scientific significance in both water and fertilizer management. On the basis of pan Evaporation (Ep and real-time monitoring of soil moisture content, the amount of water irrigation adequate to big-arch shelter cucumber growth, water dissipation, yield and water use efficiency were determined through the combination of three nitrogen fertilizers including urea, urea containing nitrification inhibitors (5:1 with urea and nitrification inhibitor and coated urea (slow fertilizer and their various levels with 0 kg/ha, 350 kg/ha, 550 kg/ha, 750 kg/ha. The results showed that the most 10,9000 kg/ha production was gained by the treatment of 550 kg/ha urea containing inhibitors, which could increase 41.5% of a yield, 15.2% of a cumulative water consumption that was at 462.0mm and 44.7% of a water use efficiency that is at 14.11kg (dry matter/(mm• ha, compared with that of control, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the application of moderate levels of urea containing nitrification inhibitor in greenhouse cucumber can gain higher yields and water use efficiency.

  8. Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphate fertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan, Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphate fertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) (about 80 hectares), 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF) farm and Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI) (about 100 hectares). These all soils were situated in the urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimation was gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farms result the presence of Potassium (40K), Cesium (137Cs), and Uranium (238U). The average amount of radioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6

  9. Cs-134 transfer factor in spinach at different levels of potassium fertilizing and soil properties

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out using five types soils representative for different regions, with different chemical and physical properties. The coefficients of Cs-134 uptake by the leaves were established at two variants of K-fertilization. The Cs-uptake in varying degrees depends on plant organ type and soil type. The introduction of K-fertilizers reduces the Cs-134 uptake by 21-59% in leaves and by 3-13% in roots. The clay type soils as well as these with high humus content have high sorption coefficients and transmit less Cs-134 in comparison to brown forest soil. Radiometric measurements show that the plants prefer potassium to caesium to extract and the coefficients of disrimination were determined. 1 ref., 1 tab., 2 figs. (author)

  10. [Nutrient spatial variability of tobacco soil restoration area and fertility suitability level evaluation].

    Xu, Da-Bing; Deng, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Bi; Si, Guo-Han; Peng, Cheng-Lin; Yuan, Jia-Fu; Zhao, Shu-Jun; Wang, Rui

    2014-03-01

    By using geographic information system technology (GIS) and geostatistics methods, this paper studied the spatial variability of soil properties and available nutrients in the new regulation area units located in Qingjiangyuan modern tobacco agriculture science and technology park (Enshi, Hubei), suburb of Enshi City and the Baiyang base of Lichuan City, and further evaluation of the soil fertility suitability index (SFI) was carried out by use fuzzy mathematics. The results indicated that the effects of land restoration on the soil available phosphorus content variability and spatial distribution were very obvious, possibly due to the landform characteristics and restoration extent. The effect of land restoration on soil pH was small, however, serious soil acidification was detected in the soil sampled from Baiyang (pH < 5.5). Low SFI was found in 77.6%, 17.1% and 31.4% of the soils taken from the suburb, Baiyang and Qingjiangyuan, respectively. In conclusion, attentions should be paid on soil acidification in Baiyang, soil fertility and equalization in the suburb, and soil fertility in the region of Qingjiangyuan with low SFI. PMID:24984498

  11. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Víctor Hugo Alvarez V; José Maria Moreira Dias; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque Villani

    2010-01-01

    Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrien...

  12. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 47530 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as: soil pH< available phosphorus < humus content < exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ < exchangeable K+. Inorganic fertilizers in high and temperate rates decrease 137Cs transfer to crops in 2.3-5.5 times. Organic fertilizers are less efficient, but its application can decrease 137Cs accumulation by farm crops during 2-3 years. Correlation analysis shows inversely proportional dependence between organic matter content and exchangeable form of 137Cs in soil (r2 = 0.81). A linear relation between 137Cs transfer factors (TF) to plants and exchangeable radionuclide content has been found (r2=0.68). Inversely proportional relation between the mobility level of potassium, its mobile form content and TF 137Cs was detected (r2 = 0.78).

  13. Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascolonicum) Production

    Sopit Vetayasuporn

    2006-01-01

    A block experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of biological and chemical (NPK 15:15:15) fertilizers on the growth and yield of shallot cultivation in Mahasakham University, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand. Six biological fertilizers were developed from BBF (basically biological fertilizer: 45 g cattle manure + 45 g rice bran + 20 mL of molasses + 10 mL of EM + 10 L of dechlorinated water) and used in this experiment. Chemical and biological fertilizers showed insignific...

  14. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  15. THE FERTILIZATION EFFECT OF PERMANENT MEADOWS WITH SPENT MUSHROM SUBSTRATE ON THE UPTAKING OF MANGANESE, COPPER AND ZINC BY THE MEADOW SWARD

    Beata Wi?niewska-Kad?ajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the years 19992001 in a meadow with the following fertilizer combinations: control object (without fertilizer, NPK mineral fertilization, fertilizing with manure, manure with NPK fertilization, fertilizing with spent mushroom substrate; spent mushroom substrate with NPK fertilization. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of permanent grassland fertilization both with spent mushroom substrate and the one supplemented with NPK on the uptaking of manganese, copper and zinc by the meadow sward. After the cultivation of mushrooms, in comparison to the standard manure, the substrate used in the experiment was characterized by more than twice higher amount of manganese and zinc. However, the amount of copper in the organic materials was similar. In spite of having supplied lager amount of manganese, zinc and similar amount of copper to the mushrooms substrate, it caused the reduction of the uptake of the elements in the meadow sward. In spite of supplying larger amounts of manganese, zinc and copper the reduction of their uptaking by meadow sward was observed in comparison to manure mushroom substrate. This may be connected with a slightly alkaline reaction of the soil environment, thus limiting the uptake of the studied micronutrients.

  16. Survivel, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings fertilized at planting on Andisol soils in Iceland

    Oskarsson, Hreinn; Sigurgeirsson, Adalsteinn; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    A field trial was carried out in 1995 to study the effect of fertilization at planting on the survival, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings planted on Andisol soils at two sites in South Iceland. Nine fertilizer treatments were tested on three tree species Betula pubescens Ehrh., Larix sibirica...... survival and growth. Larger amounts of N increased mortality during the first year. Fertilized trees were less subject to frost heaving than untreated trees. In the year following application of NPK fertilizer the effect was insignificant on the foliar concentration of macronutrients of the fertilized...

  17. Effect of inorganic fertilizers and municipal solid waste manure on some soil physical properties in cotton-wheat cropping system

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil for three consecutive years (2002-2005) to study the effects of combined use of chemical fertilizers (NPK) and organic manure (municipal solid waste manure-MSWM) on soil organic matter, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, and yields of crops in cotton (Desi)-wheat cropping system. After three years, organic matter content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil increased (42-68%)to 7.1-8.4 g kg from an initial level of 5.0 g kg with out any significant interaction between two fertilizer doses, three management techniques and six seasons except for dose x season interaction where higher organic matter contents were found after each cotton harvest by site-specific fertilizer application. In general, the bulk density of the surface soil increased un-impressively with the time by unique use of fertilizers and decreased gradually by application of integrated plant nutrients management (IPNM) technique using MSWM with or without pesticides/herbicides use. Porosity of soil increased (2.5 %) by applying IPNM technique compared to unique use of chemical fertilizers. Penetration resistance was increased with unique use of fertilizers to a level of 0.80 M Pa from initial value of 0.74 MPa. Presumably due to higher intrinsic bulk density of the soil. Over the three years, on an average, the MSW manured and fertilized plots (IPNM with pesticides/herbicides use ) produced higher i.e. 2% and 11% increase in seed cotton and wheat grain yields respectively than did the plots receiving chemical fertilizers. Neglecting herbicides/pesticides application decreased (4-5%) seed cotton yield. (author)

  18. Bacterial diversity in Greenlandic soils as affected by potato cropping and inorganic versus organic fertilization

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund; Pedas, Pai Rosager; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Stougaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    limited research has been performed on the effects of these treatments on bacterial communities in Arctic and Subarctic agricultural soils. The major objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of conventional (NPK) and organic (sheep manure supplemented with nitrogen) fertilizer...

  19. Phytometric Assessment of Fertility of Roadside Soils and Its Relationship with Major Nutrients

    Akbar, K. F.; Hale, W.H.G.; Šerá, Božena; Ashraf, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2012), s. 1141-1145. ISSN 1230-1485 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11040 Keywords : roadside verges * soil fertility * phytometric assessment * NPK analyses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2012

  20. NPK NMR Sensor: Online Monitoring of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Animal Slurry.

    Srensen, Morten K; Jensen, Ole; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nyord, Tavs; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the actual content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) in animal slurry is highly important to optimize crop production and avoid environmental pollution when slurry is spread on agricultural fields. Here, we present a mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor suitable for online monitoring of the NPK content in animal slurry as an alternative to crude estimates or tedious nonspecific, off-site laboratory analysis. The sensor is based on (14)N, (17)O, (31)P, and (39)K NMR in a digital NMR instrument equipped with a 1.5 T Halbach magnet for direct detection of ammonium N, total P, and K and indirect evaluation of the organic N content, covering all practical components of NPK in animal slurry. In correlation studies, the obtained NMR measurements show good agreement with reference measurements from commercial laboratories. PMID:26020811

  1. Comparative study of organic and inorganic fertilizers on forage corn (Zea mays l.) Grown on two soil types

    El Amin, A. E [الامين عبد الماجد الأمين; Elagib, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted in 1995/96 and 1996/97 to investigate the interactive effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers applied to two soil types on the performance of corn (Zea mays L.). The soil types were Vertisols from Gezira scheme and Aridisols from West of Omdurman. The organic fertilizers were green manure and chicken manure; the inorganic fertilizers were: urea (N), superphosphate (P), potassium sulphate (K) and combination of NPK. The treatments were replicated thrice ...

  2. Negative biomarker based male fertility evaluation: Sperm phenotypes associated with molecular-level anomalies

    Peter Sutovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker-based sperm analysis elevates the treatment of human infertility and ameliorates reproductive performance in livestock. The negative biomarker-based approach focuses on proteins and ligands unique to defective spermatozoa, regardless of their morphological phenotype, lending itself to analysis by flow cytometry (FC. A prime example is the spermatid specific thioredoxin SPTRX3/TXNDC8, retained in the nuclear vacuoles and superfluous cytoplasm of defective human spermatozoa. Infertile couples with high semen SPTRX3 are less likely to conceive by assisted reproductive therapies (ART and more prone to recurrent miscarriage while low SPTRX3 has been associated with multiple ART births. Ubiquitin, a small, proteolysis-promoting covalent posttranslational protein modifier is found on the surface of defective posttesticular spermatozoa and in the damaged protein aggregates, the aggresomes of spermiogenic origin. Semen ubiquitin content correlates negatively with fertility and conventional semen parameters, and with sperm binding of lectins LCA (Lens culinaris agglutinin; reveals altered sperm surface and PNA (Arachis hypogaea/peanut agglutinin; reveals acrosomal malformation or damage. The Postacrosomal Sheath WWI Domain Binding Protein (PAWP, implicated in oocyte activation during fertilization, is ectopic or absent from defective human and animal spermatozoa. Consequently, FC-parameters of PAWP correlate with ART outcomes in infertile couples and with fertility in bulls. Assays based on the above biomarkers have been combined into multiplex FC semen screening protocols, and the surface expression of lectins and ubiquitin has been utilized to develop nanoparticle-based bull semen purification method validated by field artificial insemination trials. These advances go hand-in-hand with the innovation of FC-technology and genomics/proteomics-based biomarker discovery.

  3. FARM-LEVEL INCENTIVES FOR FERTILIZER USE IN RWANDA'S KIGALI RURAL PROVINCE: A FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

    Mugabo, Josaphat R.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of the main food crops in the context of the current government policy of promoting the use by farmers of improved inputs. This study tried to estimate the magnitudes of costs associated with the use of chemical fertilizer on climbing beans, maize, sorghum and soybeans grown in the province of Kigali rural and the benefits farmers would get by investing their labor and money in these crops. In less detail, this study analyzed some ...

  4. Agrotecnólogical characteristics of cane sugar at different times of suppression of irrigation and fertilizer levels

    Franklin Meireles de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Agrotechnological two varieties of cane sugar influenced by different times of deletions irrigation and fertilization levels. The characteristics evaluated were: plant height (m, stem diameter (mm, number of tillers m- 1, Brix broth, sugar cane Pol, Pol broth, Sugar reducer, and overall productivity. The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm area Unimontes in Janaúba in northern Minas Gerais. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications in a split plot (2 x 3 x 6 , two varieties of cane sugar, RB85 and 5453 SP80 1816, three different times suppression of irrigation (DIAP and six different levels of NK fertilization. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when significant differences were the F test was performed to compare the means by Scott Knott (p<0.05 for all variables, using the software program SISVAR. The varieties showed different behavior at maturity, having variety RB85 5453 higher values in technological quality and productivity at lower rates. The varieties obtained overall average of 24.3 ° Brix, Pol 17.6 % of sugarcane, 21 % Pol broth, 0.6 % AR, 3:08 meters in height, 29.2 mm in diameter, 18.9 tillers m-1, 11.1 stems m-1, t ha-1 159.8 productivity. The varieties responded to different eras of suppression irrigation (DIAP. 6 The level of fertilization provided better performance in terms of this work. The RB85 - 5453 and SP80 -1816 varieties are promising for Nortemineira region.

  5. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicum annum)

    MUJIYATI; SUPRIYADI

    2009-01-01

    Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasibakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicumannum). Bioteknologi 6: 63-69. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui peningkatan populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum akibat pemberian pupuk kandang. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan perlakuan: (i) tanpa pupuk sebagai kontrol, (ii) dengan pupuk kandang, (iii) dengan pupuk NPK. Data dikumpulkan se...

  6. Effect of various levels of nitrogen fertilizer on some vegetative growth attributes of pea ( pisum sativum L.) cultivars

    A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive growing years on few growth characteristics of four pea cultivars viz., Arkel, Climax, Green Feast and Olympia in response to different levels of N fertilizer under the climatic conditions of district Mastung, Balochistan. Six N fertilizer levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha/sup -1/) plus a constant dose of 60+40 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/ O ha/sub -1/ were prepared, and designated as T/sub 1/ to T/sub 7/, respectively. These N levels were applied to each sub-plot (except T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) in two split doses first at the time of flowering and second at the time of pod formation to quantify how much N fertiliser's required by different pea cultivars to realize the highest growth and yield. Results exhibited that in response to various levels of added N fertilizer, all mentioned growth attributes were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). However, cultivars response was found significant only for secondary branches plant/sub -1/, plant height and shoot moisture contents. A maximum number of primary branches plant/sup -1/ (6.94), secondary branches plant/sub -1/ (10.72), plant height (69.77 cm), number of leaves plant/sup -1/ (19.75), leaf length (11.81 cm) and shoot moisture contents (571.0 g kg/sup -1/) was recorded with application of 100 kg N ha/sup -1/. The interaction between fertilizer and pea cultivars was found non-significant for all mentioned attributes in the trial. Results further revealed that all growth parameters were slightly to highly significant and positively correlated among themselves as well as with their fresh pod yields. These attributes could be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the fresh pod yield and also for breeding purposes in peas. (author)

  7. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4.05) and grain yield (768.5 g/m/sup 2/) which were significantly higher than them under N level of 75 kg/ha. According to the results, the treatment of optimum irrigation with minimum N level of 150 kg/ha is recommended for realizing high maize yield in Gonabad, Iran. (author)

  8. Growth of chamaecyparis lawsoniana nursery trees with different levels of covering and substrate mineral fertilization / Crescimento de mudas de chamaecyparis lawsoniana em diferentes níveis de adubação mineral do substrato e em cobertura

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simultaneous experiments were accomplished in the Nursery of Ornamental Plants of the Federal University of Paraná State with the objective of evaluating the effect of mineral fertilization on the growth of nursery trees of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana planted directly in the field and in individual packings. The experimental design was the completely randomized with five combinations of NPK 4-30-10 + urea, in grams (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 and 120 + 40 for the field and 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 and 40 + 16 for the packings and four replications. The growth of the plants was observed during one year and the height of plants and the diameter of the trunks were evaluated each two months. The fertilization in covering in the field did not stimulate the growth of the plants. The substrate fertilization promoted significantly higher growth of plants in height and diameter of trunks in the period from September to May. The trunk diameter was more influenced, demonstrating that the secondary growth of the plant is more stimulated by the fertilization. The plant growth in the field was greater than the plant growth in individual packings.Foram realizados dois experimentos simultâneos no Viveiro de Plantas Ornamentais da Universidade Federal do Paraná com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral sobre o crescimento de mudas de Chamaecyparis lawsoniana plantadas diretamente no campo e em recipientes individuais. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado com cinco combinações de NPK (4-30-10 mais uréia, em gramas, (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 e 120 + 40, respectivamente para o campo e 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 e 40 + 16, respectivamente para os recipientes e quatro repetições. O crescimento das plantas foi observado durante um ano, realizando-se avaliações de altura da muda e diâmetro do tronco a cada dois meses. A adubação em cobertura a campo não estimulou o crescimento das mudas. A adubação de substrato promoveu maior crescimento de mudas em recipiente em altura e em diâmetro de tronco mais significativamente no período de setembro a maio. O crescimento em diâmetro do tronco da muda foi mais influenciado, demonstrando que o crescimento secundário da planta foi mais estimulado pela adubação. O crescimento das mudas a campo foi maior que o ocorrido em recipientes.

  9. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  10. Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas

    P. Schlegel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are now reporting the effects of ocean acidification on a broad range of marine species, processes and systems. Many of these are investigating the sensitive early life-history stages that several major reviews have highlighted as being potentially most susceptible to ocean acidification. Nonetheless there remain few investigations of the effects of ocean acidification on the very earliest, and critical, process of fertilization, and still fewer that have investigated levels of ocean acidification relevant for the coming century. Here we report the effects of near-future levels of ocean acidification (≈−0.35 pH unit change on sperm swimming speed, sperm motility, and fertilization kinetics in a population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from western Sweden. We found no significant effect of ocean acidification – a result that was well supported by power analysis. Similar findings from Japan suggest that this may be a globally robust result, and we emphasise the need for experiments on multiple populations from throughout a species' range. We also discuss the importance of sound experimental design and power analysis in accurate interpretation of non-significant results.

  11. Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas

    P. Schlegel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are now reporting the effects of ocean acidification on a broad range of marine species, processes and systems. Many of these are investigating the sensitive early life-history stages that several major reviews have highlighted as being potentially most susceptible to ocean acidification. Nonetheless there remain few investigations of the effects of ocean acidification on the very earliest, and critical, process of fertilization, and still fewer that have investigated levels of ocean acidification relevant for the coming century. Here we report the effects of near-future levels of ocean acidification (≈−0.35 pH unit change on sperm swimming speed, sperm motility, and fertilization kinetics in a population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from western Sweden. We found no significant effect of ocean acidification – a result that was well-supported by power analysis. Similar findings from Japan suggest that this may be a globally robust result, and we emphasise the need for experiments on multiple populations from throughout a species' range. We also discuss the importance of sound experimental design and power analysis in meaningful interpretation of non-significant results.

  12. LMRV report of the NPK exercise for the nuclear power pant Borssele, Netherlands, 3 December 1996

    On December 3, 1996, an exercise took place to test the function of the Technical Data Group (TIG) of the Nuclear Emergency Organization (NPK. In this report the results of this cooperative work between the National Agricultural Measuring Network and the RIKILT-DLO emergency section are discussed. 7 refs

  13. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

    Aleksandra Jurišić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  14. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

    Aleksandra Jurišić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  15. Honey and Vitamin E Restore the Plasma Level of Gonadal Hormones and Improve the Fertilization Capacity in Noise-Stressed Rats

    Rajabzadeh Asghar; Sagha Mohsen; Gholami Mohammad Reza; Hemmati Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Noise as a natural teratogenic factor affects the body systems including the reproductive organ to reduce the fertility rate and fetus health. Honey and vitamin E as natural antioxidants protects the sperm released from the reproductive system. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity in noise-exposed rats by assessing plasma sexual hormones levels i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), ...

  16. Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm−2 (750 μm spot size), 2.0 μs delay time and 5.0 μs integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg−1 Cd, 2 mg kg−1 Cr and 15 mg kg−1 Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers. - Highlights: • First LIBS application for quantitative Cd, Cr and Pb determination in fertilizers. • LIBS method was validated for analysis of phosphate fertilizers pressed pellets. • LIBS sample throughput is remarkably better than already existing methods

  17. Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  18. Effects of Sulphur, Zinc and Boron Supplied from Chemical Fertilizers and Poultry Manure to Wetland Rice (Cv. BRRI Dhan 30

    M. K. Uddin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of S, Zn and B supplied from chemical fertilizers and poultry manure on yield and nutrient uptake by rice (cv. BRRI Dhan-30. There were ten treatments:- T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8 and T9. The rate of different nutrients were 100 kg N ha?1 from urea, 30 kg P ha?1 from TSP, 60 kg K ha?1 from MP, 20 kg S ha?1 from gypsum, 2 kg Zn ha?1 from zinc oxide, 1 kg B ha?1 from borax and 4 t poultry manure ha?1. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The different nutrients significantly increased plant height, effective tillers hill?1, filled grains panicle?1, 1000-grain weight, grain and straw yields of rice. The highest grain yield of 4850 kg ha?1 was obtained when S, Zn and B were applied together with NPK fertilizers (T8 which was comparable to the yields obtained when S, Zn or B were applied singly or in combination of two with NPK fertilizers (T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 and also with the application of poultry manure with reduced NPK application (T9. The concentrations and uptake of N, P, K and S by grain and straw were higher when poultry manure was used as a source of S, Zn and B with reduced amount of NPK(T9. It appears that application of S, Zn and B along with NPK is essential in this soil to get maximum yield of BRRI Dhan-30. If poultry manure can be applied @ 4 t ha?1 the use of NPK can be reduced and S, Zn and B fertilizers may not be needed.

  19. Radiological study of soil, fertilizers and foodstuffs in some selected farming communities in the Greater Accra Region

    Radioactivity concentrations of natural radionuclides, namely 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, in fertilized and non-fertilized soils and vegetables from some agricultural areas were investigated using gamma spectrometry in order to assess the radiological implications of the extended use of phosphate fertilizers in agriculture. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the fertilized soils were 23.84±2.52Bqkg-1, 43.64±2.19Bqkg-1 and 199.69±3.67Bqkg-1 respectively. For the non-fertilized soils, mean activity concentrations were found to be 14.01 ± 5.90Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, 29.40 ± 2.03Bqkg-1 for 232Th and 120.92 ± 4.67Bqkg-1 for 40K. The study has shown that fertilized soils contain slightly higher concentrations of the three radionuclides than non-fertilized soils. The measured activity concentrations of the five most frequently utilized agricultural fertilizers showed highest levels of 226Ra (139.37±11.15kg-1) and 232Th (47.58±3.81kg-1) were measured in NPK 151515 and the highest level of 40K (8383.47±6.70) was measured in Super master. It was also found that Sulphate of Ammonia recorded the lowest levels of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The average value of 226Racq was 93.32 Bqkg-1 for fertilized soils and 63.30 Bqkg-1 for non-fertilized soil. The calculated mean values of the internal hazard index (HIN) and external hazard index (HEX) for all samples were less than unity. The average absorbed dose rate (Dγ) values were 37.55nGyh-1 for fertilized soil and 31.64 nGyh-1 for non -fertilized soils. The calculated mean annual effective dose due to ingestion of vegetables by the general public was 0.67 mSv/y for 226Ra, 0.28 mSv/y for 232Th and 3.9mSv/y for 40K. The result from the study indicates that radiation exposure from consumption of vegetables from the selected farming communities does not pose significant radiological hazard with the exception of 40K which was above the permissible limit of 1mSv for the general public. (au)

  20. Declines in fertility levels evident in Africa, notes UN Population Fund.

    Ofosu-amaah, V

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) African regional meeting that was held in November 1997. The meeting was attended by an assortment of UNFPA representatives and program staff. This meeting followed up the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and 1995 regional meetings on the 1994 Plan of Action. These prior meetings emphasized the link between population and development and the urgency of meeting the needs of individual women and men in a people-centered approach to development, rather than a target oriented one. The 1997 meeting reviewed the progress made toward achieving the goals of the 1994 plan of action by the UNFPA. UNFPA aims to decentralize operations, to play a role in emergency situations, to encourage South-to-South cooperation, to advocate for reproductive rights, and to promote gender equity and women's empowerment. The meeting discussed UNFPA's role in reproductive health, population and development strategies, and advocacy in detail. Participants agreed that there were signs of fertility decline in Africa. Countries are beginning to adopt a reproductive health and rights approach and to address female genital mutilation as a human and reproductive right's issue. Population policies are being changed to include ICPD goals. 32 countries adopted new programs in 1996 and 1997, that integrated the 1994 strategies and selectively focused on issues of concern. Partnerships confirm that population issues are becoming an agenda for all. The major challenge ahead is the mobilization of resources, while dealing with civil strife and political instability. PMID:12348639

  1. Role of bio-fertilizers in phosphorus utilization by wheat with various levels of N, P and FYM

    An experiment was conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study P utilization by wheat with various combinations of N, P, FYM and bio-fertilizers. The grain and straw yield of wheat increased with increasing levels of nitrogen along with P and FYM. The highest yield was obtained with 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 and 20 t FYM under no inoculation. However, it was highest with 80 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM under both the inoculation treatments. Almost similar trend was followed for the total P uptake. The values for per cent P derived from fertilizer (% Pdff) and P utilization were higher with 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM than the other treatments under no inoculation as well as Azospirillum inoculation. However, highest Pdff and P utilization were observed with 80 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM under the Azotobacter inoculation. The Azotobacter was superior to uninoculation and Azospirillum inoculation with respect to yield, total P uptake, percent Pdff and per cent P utilization by wheat. (author)

  2. The effect of fertilizer applications on 137Cs uptake by different plant species and vegetation types

    A trial carried out in a greenhouse over a two-year period is discussed. The effects on 137Cs concentration in plants, roots and soil have been investigated versus the grassland species composition (legume, grass and mixture) and eight combinations of mineral fertilizers (NPK). The results indicate: (a) the effect of K fertilizer in reducing 137Cs plant absorption; (b) the effect of N fertilizer in favouring grass growth and radiocaesium absorption; (c) for all fertilizer combinations, a higher 137Cs storage in the root system of the legumes and a lower 137Cs absorption in the plants. (author)

  3. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation

    Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

  4. Effect of combined N applied at low level on the nitrogen fixation by grasses and contribution to nitrogen fertility in soil

    This paper reports the study on the effect of combined N applied at low level on teh nitrogen fixation by alfalfa in monoculture and mixed culture with meadow fescue, and the effect on the absorption and utilization of indigenous soil nitrogen and nitrogen fertilizer. Amount of nitrogen fixed by alfalfa could be raised and duration of high peak of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity could be extended when nitrogen fertilizer was applied reasonably. It was especially important for the early pastures or pastures with low supporting nitrogen capacity. Transfer of nitrogen fixed by alfalfa to meadow fescue occured in mixed culture. Nitrogen fixed from alfalfa was uptaken more easily than indigenous nitrogen in soil. Planting alfalfa could raise soil fertility significantly. Meadow fescue may be able to fix nitrogen from the air in some way. When combined N was appropriately applied to soil, on which alfalfa and meadow fescue had been planted, it could promote increasing nitrogen fertility in soil

  5. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on morphological and biochemical traits of some Apiaceae crops under arid region conditions in Egypt

    KHALID ALI KHALID

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Khalid KA. 2013. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on morphological and biochemical traits of some Apiaceae crops under arid region conditions in Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 15-20. Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients content and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise, coriander and sweet fennel. So the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of N, namely 0 (control, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 used as ammonium sulphate [(NH42SO4] (20% N, on selected morphological and biochemical characteristics of anise, coriander and sweet fennel plants cultivated under arid regions conditions during two successive seasons. The most effective dose of nitrogen was 200 kg ha-1 of N, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters and content of essential oil, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars, protein and nutrients (NPK.

  6. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or for shrinkage, which presented: ¦b = 650kg/cm2, E = 59.877kg/cm2, ¦c = 296kg/cm2 e ¦n = 131kg/cm2. Control treatment showed highest values for shear strength and compression parallel to grain. Too many branches in all trees and also too many knots in lumber were observed. Pruning is recommended for homogeneous planting of Sclerolobium paniculatum to avoid knots in order to be produced wood of superior quality.

  7. Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization

    Thingstrup, I.; Kahiluoto, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of P fertilisation on the function of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) measured as P transport to flax. Two methods were applied to soil from a long-term field experiment with NaHCO3-extractable soil P levels of 24 and 50 mg kg......(-1) in an experiment under controlled conditions: i) Measurement of plant growth and P uptake in the presence or absence of the fungicide benomyl and ii) measurement of hyphal P transport from a root-free compartment labelled with P-32. Benomyl successfully prevented mycorrhizal function. The...... was largely similar in both fertilization treatments, indicating that the capacity for P uptake and transport by hyphae of the two AMF communities was similar....

  8. Short Communication: Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Nasim-Akhtar*, M. Tufail, Muhammad Yousuf Hussain and Muhammad Akram

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphatefertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan,Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphatefertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture andBiology (NIAB (about 80 hectares, 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF farmand Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI (about 100 hectares. These all soils were situated inthe urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimationwas gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farmsresult the presence of Potassium (40K, Cesium (137Cs, and Uranium (238U. The average amount ofradioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6 and 659.50 Bqkg-1, respectively. For 232Th contamination, the averaged values found were 57.52, 55.80 and 63.0 Bqkg-1 for AARI, NIAB and UAF farms, respectively. For 238U, the average values were 36.51, 30.60 and39.8 Bq kg-1 for all the above farms, respectively. For 137Cs (nuclear fall the averaged value in all theinvestigated farms was 2.50, 2.43 and 2.60 Bq kg-1, respectively. The existence of 137Cs in the soilsamples of the investigated farms shows that these farms might have received the nuclear fall from manmade sources. Its absorbed dose in air for NIAB, AARI and UAF farms amounted to 49.52, 47.55 and52.99 nGy kg-1, respectively. The values of Radium equivalent activity were 159.74, 145.01 and 163.67Bqkg-1, respectively. The calculated annual effective doses for the selected agricultural farms were0.96, 0.95 and 0.98 mSvy-1, respectively. External and Internal radioactive radiation hazard index forall the investigated farms were also calculated, which were less than one. This result leads to theinformation that the existing radiation contamination in the soils of the investigated farms is not animmediate hazard to the labourers/general public who are in contact with these farms. However, if thecultivation of these farms with the use of artificial fertilizers goes on then with time, in future the soilsof these farms may pose a risk for the general public.

  9. Eficiency and wastewater used as fertilizer on sugar beet crop

    João Paulo Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Some researchs about wastewater treatment have been show efficiency on DQO removal, however Nitrogen and Phosphorus removal are smaller than other nutrients. The use of wastewater as nutrient source can be interesting due high nutrients amount. This trial was carried out on Suggar beet plants at Horticulture Department of Centro Regional Universitário de Espírito Santo do Pinhal – UNIPINHAL, by using wastewater associated or no with fertilizer at different rates comparing with normal water. The results obtained showed that wastewater has higher amount of nutrients than normal water and increased the sugar beet root weight when associated or no with fertilizer NPK.

  10. Fungal population levels in soils of cotton fields fertilized with poultry litter and their relationships to soil nutrient concentrations and plant growth parameters

    Fungal population levels in soil and their relationships to nutrient concentrations and plant growth were evaluated in plots on two cotton farms in Mississippi where poultry litter (PL) was applied as a fertilizer to promote its safe disposal. Fungal population levels were estimated by dilution pla...

  11. The Nitrate and Nitrite Levels of the Tubers of Potato Plant Fertilized with Different Doses

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; TÜREL, İdris

    1998-01-01

    In this research, ,This study was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen forms (ammonyum nitrate, ammonyum sulphate and urea) and nitrogen doses (0. 7, 14, 21 and 28 g/m2) on nitrate and nitrite levels in potato cultivars (Caspar and Kondor). It was found that the levels of nitrate and nitrite obtained from the experiment did not exceed the accepted tolerance limits of 300 mg/g. However, differences among cultivars and nitrogen doses were found to be significant (p

  12. EFFECT OF BALANCED NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN FOUR- YEAR ROTATION ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY

    Witold SZCZEPANIAK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased nitrogen use efficiency, NUE, in crop plant production is the main challenge for agriculture in this century. Any success in this objective achievement requires to take into account not only phosphorus and potassium but also secondary nutrients, such as magnesium and sulfur, at least. In order to check this hypothesis a series of annual field experiments were conducted in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2006, testing in the four course rotation response of following crops: maize ? spring barley ? winter oil-seed rape ? winter wheat to increasing level of nitrogen nutritional balance imposed by set of treatments comprised potassium and magnesium. The obtained results clearly indicated on maize as the most productive crop, irrespective of the imposed fertilizing system. The highest yields of the tested crops were harvested on plots fertilized with NPK and Kieserite, provide that potassium was applied as Korn-Kali. Effects of the imposed systems of fertilizer N balancing have been assessed by means of two NUE indices, such as: (i partial factor productivity of fertilizer nitrogen (PFPN and agronomic net efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen (AEN. Both indices were useful in making a reliable evaluation of tested treatments, but the AEN was more conspicuous as a NUE index. The most pronounced effect of the applied nutrients on yield development was through improvement of kernel/grain number per plant. This fact indirectly stresses on the importance of the period extending from the stage of ear growth to the stage of kernel/grain growth as decisive for final grain yield establishment. The net balance of plant available potassium and phosphorus showed that their net surplus with respect to yield response was negative, in turn indicating on magnesium as a nutrient required to reach nutritional balance of N, P, K in high-yielding crops.

  13. The effect of mineral fertilization on fungi colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers after harvest and after storage

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact experiment conducted in Bałcyny, in which a late potato cultivar, Jasia, was grown. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization: A (N 80 kg × ha-1 P 80 kg × ha-1 K120 kg × ha-1 and B (N 120 kg × ha-1 P 144 kg × ha-1 K156 kg × ha-1, and foliar fertilization (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn and Solubor DF on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungal populations colonizing potato tubers. Fungi were isolated immediately after harvest and after a five-month storage period. After seven days of incubation, fungal colonies were transferred onto agar slants for microscopic identification. Over the entire experimental period, more pathogenic fungi were obtained from potato tubers analyzed after storage (62.9% of the total fungal population after storage than from those analyzed immediately after harvest (39.1%, and the greatest number of fungi was reported in 2004. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated most frequently, followed by Colletotrichum coccodes and Alternaria alternata. Pathogens of the genus Fusarium and the species Helminthosporium solani were not numerous. In the treatment A with soil mineral fertilization with lower NPK rates, larger numbers of pathogenic fungi were noted in 2004 after harvest and after five-month storage, and in 2005 after harvest. At the remaining dates of analysis, pathogens were more frequently isolated from potato tubers in experimental variant B with higher NPK rates. Immediately after harvest, the highest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated in the treatment with foliar application of ADOB Mn and Basfoliar 12-4-6. After five-month storage, pathogens most often colonized potato tubers in experimental variant B with foliar application of Solubor DF, Solubor DF and ADOB Mn, and in experimental variant A with a combination of fertilizers. In the other fertilization variants, including in the control treatment, the population size of pathogenic agents remained at a similar level.

  14. Valor nutritivo dos capins Tanznia e Mombaa adubados com nitrognio e sob lotao rotacionada = Nutritive value of Tanzania and Mombaa grasses fertilized with nitrogen under rotational stocking

    Danilo Gusmo de Quadros

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A adubao de pastagens aumenta a produo de forragem e a taxa de lotao, mas o alimento deve conter nutrientes necessrios produo por animal satisfatria . O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses crescentes de N (101,5; 145; 188,5 e 232 kg ha-1, mantendo relao de N-P-K de 1-0,07-1, sobre a composio qumica e adigestibilidade dos capins Tanznia e Mombaa, sob lotao rotacionada. O experimento foi realizado na Faculdade de Cincias Agrrias e Veterinrias da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, Estado de So Paulo, segundo delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 3 repeties. A composio qumica e a digestibilidade dos capins Tanznia e Mombaa pouco variaram, exceto o contedo de FDN nas folhas e a digestibilidade dos colmos, maiores no capim-Tanznia, antes do pastejo. A adubao nitrogenada aumentou os contedos de PB ea digestibilidade, sem alterar as fraes fibrosas , atestando que a adubao requisito bsico para a intensificao da produo animal em pastagens.Pasture fertilization increase s forage production and stocking rate. However, forage should contain enough nutrients to animal production . The aim of this work was to evaluate increas ing doses of N (101.5; 145.0; 188.5, and 232.0 kg ha-1, keeping N-P-K relation 1-0.07-1, on chemical composition and digestibility of Tanzania and Mombaa grasses under rotational stocking . The experiment was conducted atFaculdade of Cincias Agrrias and Veterinrias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, So Paulo State, Brazil, following a randomized block design with three replications. Both chemical composition and digestibility presented low variation between Tanzania and Mombaa grasses, except for NDF content of leaves and digestibility of stems, which were found higher levels as to Tanzaniagr ass, before grazing. Nitrogen fertilization increasedprotein content and digestibility without affecting fiber, testifying that fertilization is an essential operation to animal production on pastures.

  15. Influence of the levels of application of nitric and potash fertilizers on Cs 137 accumulation in plants and the efficiency of grain crops

    In research on sod-podsolic sandy soil with the pollution density of Cs 137 500 - 660 kBq/m2 it is established that the application of potash fertilizers in a dose of 90 kg/ha leads to the receipt reduction of Cs 137 in plants of barley and winter rye. Higher levels of potash food (K120 and K150) did not promote a further essential decrease in Cs 137 accumulation. Nitric fertilizers led to the migration strengthening of Cs 137 in the 'soil-plant' system. Its more intensive receipt in plants was observed at fractional application of nitricfertilizers. A negative influence of increasing doses of nitrogen decreased against raised (K120) and high (K150) levels of application of potash fertilizers. (authors)

  16. The Effects of Weed-Crop Competition on Nutrient Uptake as Affected by Crop Rotation and Fertilizers

    Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad; Ali Asghari; Aleksander Mikhailovic Tulikov

    2007-01-01

    A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation ...

  17. Influence des engrais de type NPK sur l’oviposition d’Aedes aegypti

    Darriet F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les engrais sont des associations de minéraux destinées à apporter aux plantes des compléments nutritifs nécessaires à leur croissance. Les engrais modernes de type NPK combinent les trois éléments de base que sont l’azote (N, le phosphore (P et le potassium (K. Dans cette étude de laboratoire réalisée dans des tunnels expérimentaux, nous avons étudié l’influence de solutions aqueuses contenant différentes concentrations en engrais NPK sur l’oviposition de femelles d’Aedes aegypti. Les résultats ont montré que les solutions contenant les concentrations en NK = 17-33 mg/l et P = 23-47 mg/l attiraient significativement plus de femelles gravides que l’eau osmosée seule (P 0,05. Ces résultats suggèrent que certaines teneurs en engrais NPK peuvent influencer le comportement de ponte du moustique Ae. aegypti.

  18. Nitrogen fixed by wheat plants as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels and Non-symbiotic bacteria

    Inorganic nitrogen is required for all egyptian soils for wheat. Free living and N 2-fixing microorganisms are able associate closely related with the roots of geraminacae. Pot experiment studies were carried out to examine the response of wheat plants to inoculation with Azospirillum Brasilense and Azotobacter Chroococcum, single or in combination, under various levels of ammonium sulfate interaction between both the inoculants increased straw or grain yield as well as N-uptake by wheat plants with increasing N levels. Results showed that grains of wheat plants derived over 19,24 and 15% of its N content from the atmospheric - N 2 (Ndfa) with application of 25,50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil in the presence of + Azospirillum + azotobacter. The final amount of N 2-fixers. The highest values of N 2-fixed were observed with mixed inoculants followed by inoculation with Azospirillum and then azotobacter. The recovery of applied ammonium sulfate-N was markedly increased by inoculation with combined inoculants, but less in uninoculated treatments. Seeds inoculated with non-symbiotic fixing bacteria could be saved about 25 kg N without much affecting the grain yield. i fig., 4 tabs

  19. Adubação mineral e orgânica e a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae em cebola Mineral and organic fertilization and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae population density

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adubação mineral e orgânica sobre a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola, Allium cepa L., foi avaliado na Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina, entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram níveis de adubação mineral com N, P2O5 e K2O em dose recomendada e três vezes a recomendada, adubação orgânica e a testemunha foi a ausência de adubação. Os tratamentos foram as seguintes doses de nutrientes: 1 30 + 120 + 60kg ha-1 de NPK; 2 90 + 360 + 180kg ha-1 de NPK; 3 75kg ha-1 de N; 4 225kg ha-1 de N; 5 80kg ha-1 de P2O5; 6 240kg ha-1 de P2O5; 7 60kg ha-1 de K2O; 8 180kg ha-1 de K2O; 9 75kg ha-1 de N + 80kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 10 225kg ha-1 de N + 240kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 11 37,5kg ha-1 de N + 40kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; testemunha sem adubação. Nenhuma das fontes e níveis de adubação apresentaram nível populacional de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo.The effect of the mineral and organic fertilization on onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind., population density was evaluated at Ituporanga Experiment Station, EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between August and December 1998. The treatments were different levels of mineral fertilization with N, P2O5 and K2O at recommended rate and three times recommended rate, the organic fertilization and without fertilization was check. The treatments in nutrient rate were: 30 + 120 + 60kg NPK ha-1; 90 + 360 + 180kg NPK ha-1; 75kg N ha-1; 225kg N ha-1; 80kg P2O5 ha-1; 240kg P2O5 ha-1; 60kg K2O ha-1; 180kg K2O ha-1; 75kg N ha-1 + 80kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 225kg N + 240kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 37,5kg N + 40kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; check without fertilizer. The onion thrips population density was similar among treatments with fertilizer and the check without fertilization. The mineral fertilization didn’t increase significantly onion thrips incidence.

  20. Long-term balanced fertilization increases the soil microbial functional diversity in a phosphorus-limited paddy soil.

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Ding, Long-Jun; Xue, Kai; Yao, Huai-Ying; Quensen, John; Bai, Shi-Jie; Wei, Wen-Xue; Wu, Jin-Shui; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of long-term chemical fertilization on soil microbial communities has been one of the frontier topics of agricultural and environmental sciences and is critical for linking soil microbial flora with soil functions. In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and a functional gene array, geochip 4.0, were used to investigate the shifts in microbial composition and functional gene structure in paddy soils with different fertilization treatments over a 22-year period. These included a control without fertilizers; chemical nitrogen fertilizer (N); N and phosphate (NP); N and potassium (NK); and N, P and K (NPK). Based on 16S rRNA gene data, both species evenness and key genera were affected by P fertilization. Functional gene array-based analysis revealed that long-term fertilization significantly changed the overall microbial functional structures. Chemical fertilization significantly increased the diversity and abundance of most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling, especially for the treatments NK and NPK. Significant correlations were found among functional gene structure and abundance, related soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, suggesting that a fertilizer-induced shift in the microbial community may accelerate the nutrient turnover in soil, which in turn influenced rice growth. The effect of N fertilization on soil microbial functional genes was mitigated by the addition of P fertilizer in this P-limited paddy soil, suggesting that balanced chemical fertilization is beneficial to the soil microbial community and its functions. PMID:25410123

  1. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  2. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    Silva, Camilla Bof; Knupp, Eliana Aparecida Nonato; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano, E-mail: cgbs@cdtn.b [Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena; Ciqueira, Maria Celia [Pocos de Caldas Lab., (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  3. Fertility in four regions spanning large contrasts in serum levels of widespread persistent organochlorines: a cross-sectional study

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen Eva C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs may interfere with reproductive function but direct evidence in humans is very limited. Methods Fertility was examined in four regions with contrasting blood levels of POPs. Pregnant women and their partners in Warsaw (Poland, Kharkiv (Ukraine and Greenland were consecutively enrolled during antenatal visits. Swedish fishermen and their spouses were recruited separately and independently of current pregnancy. Lipid adjusted serum concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153 and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl-ethylene (DDE were available for both partners. Time to pregnancy interviews were obtained among 2269 women and 798 men provided a semen sample. Results Inuits had high levels of both POP markers, Swedish fishermen were high in CB-153 but low in DDE, men from Kharkiv were high in DDE and low in CB-153 while men from Warsaw were low in CB-153 and had intermediate DDE levels. Compared to Warsaw couples, fecundability was reduced among couples from Kharkiv [adjusted fecundability ratio (FR 0.64 (95% CI 0.5–0.8] and elevated in Swedish fishermen families [FR 1.26 (95% CI 1.0–1.6]. Adjusted geometric means of sperm counts and morphology did not differ between regions while sperm motility was higher in men living in Warsaw. Conclusion We observed regional differences in time to pregnancy and sperm motility that may be related to regional differences in POP blood levels, but other interpretations are also plausible. In particular, differences in access to safe contraception and in the prevalence of contraceptive failures are most likely to bias comparisons of time to pregnancy.

  4. Mitigation of cadmium and arsenic in rice grain by applying different silicon fertilizers in contaminated fields.

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Wen, Shi-Lin; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lu; Cen, Kuang; Sun, Guo-Xin

    2016-02-01

    A field experiment was established to support the hypothesis that application of different silicon (Si) fertilizers can simultaneously reduce cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) concentration in rice grain. The "semi-finished product of Si-potash fertilizer" treatment at the high application of 9000kg/ha (NP+S-KSi9000) significantly reduced the As concentration in rice grain by up to 20.1%, compared with the control. Si fertilization reduces the Cd concentration in rice considerably more than the As concentration. All Si fertilizers apart from sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3) exhibited a high ability to reduce Cd concentration in rice grain. The Si-calcium (CaSi) fertilizer is the most effective in the mitigation of Cd concentration in rice grain. The CaSi fertilizer applied at 9000kg/ha (NPK+CaSi9000) and 900kg/ha (NPK+CaSi900) reduced the Cd concentration in rice grain about 71.5 and 48.0%, respectively, while the Si-potash fertilizer at 900kg/ha (NP+KSi900), the semi-finished product of Si-potash fertilizer at both 900kg/ha (NP+S-KSi900) and 9000kg/ha (NP+S-KSi9000), and the rice straw (NPK+RS) treatments reduced the Cd concentration in rice grain about 42, 26.5, 40.7, and 23.1%, respectively. The results of this investigation demonstrated the potential effects of Si fertilizers in reducing Cd and As concentrations in rice grain. PMID:26498817

  5. Effects of tillage methods, corn residue mulch and n fertilizer levels on the wheat crop productivity under the rain fed condition of loess plateau china

    A 2 years study was conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods (Chisel plough tillage, Zero-tillage, Rotary tillage and Mould board plough tillage), two mulch levels (M0 i.e. No corn residue mulch and M1 i.e. Corn residue mulch) and 5 N fertilizer levels (0, 80, 160, 240 and 320 kg N/ha) on the wheat crop productivity under the rain fed condition of Loess Plateau, China. Factorial experiment with three replications, having strip, split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in sub- plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots was used for this study. Due to variations in rainfalls, during the year, 2010-11, maximum grain yields i.e. 6.58 t/ha and 6.72 t/ha were recorded in case of Zero tillage planting method and similarly in case of 80 kg N/ha, while during the cropping year 2011-12 equal grain yields were recorded in case of all tillage methods, however maximum grain yield (7.46 t /ha) was recorded in case of 320 kg N/ha, N fertilizer level. On two years average basis, maximum grain yields i.e. 6.75 t/ha and 6.80 t/ha were recorded in case of Zero tillage planting method and similarly in case of 80 kg N/ha as compared with the other tillage methods or N fertilizer levels. Use of mulch reduced > 40% weeds infestation. Economic analysis shows that Zero tillage and minimum use of N fertilizer according to the projected rainfalls along with the use of mulch are both economic and environmental friendly. (author)

  6. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    M. J. Fernández-Sanjurjo; E. Alvarez-Rodríguez; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; A. Romar-Gasalla

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutrients release from two compressed nitrogen–potassium–phosphorous (NPK) fertilizers. In the Lourizán Forest Center, tablet-type controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) were prepared by compressing various mixtures of fertilizers without covers or binders. We used soil columns (50 cm long and 7.3 cm inner diameter) that were filled with soil from the surface layer (0–20 cm) of an A horizon corresponding to a Cambic Umbrisol. Tablets of ...

  7. Influence of Gamma Irradiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Gemmeiza-9 Wheat Cultivar Yield and its Attributes

    The present study was conducted in an Extension field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate during two winter successive seasons, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 to investigate the influence of four gamma irradiation doses (0,10,20 and 30Gy) and 6 nitrogen fertilizer levels (0,25,50,75,100 and 125 KgN/fad,) , on yield and it's attributes of bread wheat cultivar Gemmeiza-9 The obtained results indicated that, wheat grains irradiated with low dose (10Gy) of Gamma radiation surpassed the other tow irradiation doses (20 and 30 Gy) and the control in each of plant height(cm), spike length (cm), Flag leaf area(cm2)at heading ,number of spikes /m2 , number of spikelets /spike, number of grains / spikelet, grain weight/spike(g) , grain weight/spikelet (mg), 1000- grains weight(g), grain, straw and biological yields/fad. Each increment in nitrogen supply caused significant increase in each above mentioned yield and yield components studied

  8. The influence of fertilizer level and spore density on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of transgenic Bt 11 maize (Zea mays) in experimental microcosms.

    Cheeke, Tanya E; Pace, Brian A; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Cruzan, Mitchell B

    2011-02-01

    Crop plants genetically modified for the expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins have broad appeal for reducing insect damage in agricultural systems, yet questions remain about the impact of Bt plants on symbiotic soil organisms. Here, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization of transgenic maize isoline Bt 11 (expressing Cry1Ab) and its non-Bt parental line (Providence) was evaluated under different fertilizer level and spore density scenarios. In a three-way factorial design, Bt 11 and non-Bt maize were inoculated with 0, 40, or 80 spores of Glomus mosseae and treated weekly with 'No' (0 g L(-1) ), 'Low' (0.23 g L(-1) ), or 'High' (1.87 g L(-1) ) levels of a complete fertilizer and grown for 60 days in a greenhouse. While no difference in AMF colonization was detected between the Bt 11 and Providence maize cultivars in the lower spore/higher fertilizer treatments, microcosm experiments demonstrated a significant reduction in AMF colonization in Bt 11 maize roots in the 80 spore treatments when fertilizer was limited. These results confirm previous work indicating an altered relationship between this Bt 11 maize isoline and AMF and demonstrate that the magnitude of this response is strongly dependent on both nutrient supply and AMF spore inoculation level. PMID:21198682

  9. Honey and Vitamin E Restore the Plasma Level of Gonadal Hormones and Improve the Fertilization Capacity in Noise-Stressed Rats

    Rajabzadeh Asghar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noise as a natural teratogenic factor affects the body systems including the reproductive organ to reduce the fertility rate and fetus health. Honey and vitamin E as natural antioxidants protects the sperm released from the reproductive system. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity in noise-exposed rats by assessing plasma sexual hormones levels i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and testosterone, altered in relation with noise stress. Materials and Methods: This study was targeted the 24 male rats that randomly were divided into four equal groups including one control group (unexposed to noise stress and three experimental groups pre-induced with noise stress for 50 days and then divided as: no treated, honey and vitamin E treated groups, respectively. Then, the blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken, and the serum level of the sexual hormones was analyzed. Finally, to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with the female ones. Results: Our results showed that FSH and LH level in noise stressed male rats raised, and the testosterone secretion decreased compared to the control group. Moreover, noise stress injury could reduce weight and the survival rate of the fetus. However, the honey and vitamin E improved the testosterone concentration, declined the plasma FSH and LH level in noise - exposed rats and enhanced the fertility rate. Conclusion: These findings may also spell out a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize of neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, i.e., noise and enhance the male fertility capacity.

  10. The Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    M Yassini

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 10% of Iranian couples wishing to have a child experience some types of infertility which may impose a considerable psychological burden on them. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the level of anxiety and depression among infertile couples undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment cycles in Iran. Methods: Fifty infertile couples that who undergoing IVF (n=25 or ICSI (n=25 cycles were considered for this descriptive cross-sectional study. Also, 25 married couples (18-40 years old with history of fertility served as control subjects. All husbands and wives were examined by means of Beck Depression and Spielberger Anxiety Inventories. Results: Comparing with controls, the highest rates of moderate and severe anxiety, were observed in women undergoing IVF (76% and 12%, respectively; P<0.05. However, the rate of depression among women in IVF group was comparable to women undergoing ICSI. Also, the highest rates of severe depression and anxiety were demonstrated among housewives (23.9% and 11%, respectively. The lowest rates of severe anxiety and depression were observed in husbands participated in either IVF or ICSI cycles. In addition, illiterates, compared with educated couples, undergoing IVF or ICSI program were shown to have the highest rates of both depression and anxiety. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of anxiety and depression were higher in women, especially housewives, undergoing IVF or ICSI cycles than control subjects. Also, men showed lower rates of anxiety and depression than women undergoing IVF or ICSI. Therefore, this can provide useful information and guidance for health professionals working with infertile patients. KeyWords: anxiety, depression, infertility, IVF, ICSI, Iran

  11. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Souza Alessandra A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3 of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  12. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years...

  13. Influence of fertilizer levels on phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soils with the tropical pasture grass Brachiaria brizantha (hochst. ex a. rich.) stapf.

    Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Arias, Marianela

    2005-01-01

    Determination of fertilizer levels in phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons is a complex issue, since nutrient demands of the plant and of degrading microorganisms in the rhizosphere have to be considered In the present work, three fertilizer levels were tested in a greenhouse experiment with the aim of optimizing growth of the tropical pasture grass Brachiaria brizantha and enhance microbial degradation of heavy crude oil in soil Fertilizer was applied twice in a concentration of 200, 300, and 400 mg each of N, P, and K per kg soil before and after the first sampling (14 wk). The medium fertilizer concentration resulted in best root growth and highest absolute oil dissipation (18.4%) after 22 wk The highest concentration produced best shoot growth and highest relative oil dissipation after 14 wk (10.5% less than unplanted control). In general, degradation of total oil and grease was higher in planted than in unplanted soil, but differences diminished toward the end of the experiment. Next to fertiizer quantity, its composition is an important factor to be further studied, including the form of available nitrogen (N-NO3- vs. N-NH4+). Field trials are considered indispensable for further phytoremediation studies, since greenhouse experiments produce particular water and nutrient conditions. PMID:16285412

  14. Comparison of digestion methods to determine heavy metals in fertilizers

    Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard method to regulate heavy metal determination in Brazilian fertilizers and the subsequent use of several digestion methods have produced variations in the results, hampering interpretation. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three digestion methods for determination of metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in fertilizers. Samples of 45 fertilizers marketed in northeastern Brazil were used. A fertilizer sample with heavy metal contents certified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST was used as control. The following fertilizers were tested: rock phosphate; organo-mineral fertilizer with rock phosphate; single superphosphate; triple superphosphate; mixed N-P-K fertilizer; and fertilizer with micronutrients. The substances were digested according to the method recommended by the Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil (MAPA and by the two methods 3051A and 3052 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. By the USEPA method 3052, higher portions of the less soluble metals such as Ni and Pb were recovered, indicating that the conventional digestion methods for fertilizers underestimate the total amount of these elements. The results of the USEPA method 3051A were very similar to those of the method currently used in Brazil (Brasil, 2006. The latter is preferable, in view of the lower cost requirement for acids, a shorter digestion period and greater reproducibility.

  15. Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils

    Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120). The most active development of denitrifiers was in the fallow soil. It is known that cultivated forms comprise only about 1 to 10% of the total number of soil microorganisms. Quantitative analysis by the methods of molecular biology makes it possible to consider the full range of microorganisms. The concentration of extracted DNA can serve as an indicator of the total "biogenity" of the soil, as we isolated the genetic material of all organisms living in the soil. The highest concentration of DNA found in the samples from the fallow soil. Much lower values were found in the soils treated with mineral fertilizers: 38.9% in trial NPK-60 and 53.3% in trials NPK-120 and NPK-0. Thus, to sustain biota in cultivated chernozems and to improve the ecological state of the fields, the rates of mineral fertilizers have to be properly controlled. Moderate rates can be recommended. Features of the soil microbiome can serve as universal and sensitive indicators of the state of the soils under different farming systems. The quantitative analysis of isolated total DNA is an efficient tool to control the ecological state of the soils, especially those involved in agriculture.

  16. The Effects of Weed-Crop Competition on Nutrient Uptake as Affected by Crop Rotation and Fertilizers

    Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad Mohammaddoust-e-Chamanabad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation has greater dry mass than spring barley grown in continuous. While dry weed mass markedly decreased in crop rotation. Decrease dry weeds mass was greater when NPK had applied. The statistical analyses show that when spring barley grew in competition with weeds in the no fertilizer plots, crop rotation significantly increased nutrient content in spring barley, but when fertilizer applied the content of N, P2O5 and K2O in barley did not change. Lowest weeds nutrient content observed where soil fertility was increased by crop rotation and NPK application. Crop rotation significantly increased total nutrient uptake of soils by spring barley, but decreased total nutrient uptake by weeds.

  17. The effects of weed-crop competition on nutrient uptake as affected by crop rotation and fertilizers.

    Mohammaddoust-E-Chamanabad, Hamid Reza; Asghari, Ali; Tulikov, Aleksander Mikhailovic

    2007-11-15

    A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation has greater dry mass than spring barley grown in continuous. While dry weed mass markedly decreased in crop rotation. Decrease dry weeds mass was greater when NPK had applied. The statistical analyses show that when spring barley grew in competition with weeds in the no fertilizer plots, crop rotation significantly increased nutrient content in spring barley, but when fertilizer applied the content of N, P2O5 and K2O in barley did not change. Lowest weeds nutrient content observed where soil fertility was increased by crop rotation and NPK application. Crop rotation significantly increased total nutrient uptake of soils by spring barley, but decreased total nutrient uptake by weeds. PMID:19090292

  18. Efeito da calagem e adubao da seringueira no estado nutricional e produo de borracha seca Effect of liming and fertilization on nutritional state and dry rubber production of rubber-tree

    Adonias de Castro Virgens Filho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da calagem e da adubao NPK no estado nutricional e na produo de borracha seca do clone RRIM 600. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repeties, em parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram testados duas testemunhas (sem adubao e sem calagem; sem adubao e com calagem, e seis tratamentos com calagem e adubao (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 e N2P2K2. Os nveis anuais de NPK utilizados corresponderam a 40 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 de K2O. Nas subparcelas foram utilizados os sistemas de explotao S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre os teores de N, P, S, Cu e Zn nas folhas. A aplicao de N, nas duas doses, no elevou o seu teor nas folhas. O aumento nas doses de K2O na presena de N2P2 promoveu decrscimo no teor de zinco. A maior produo de borracha seca (1.778,9 kg ha-1, na mdia dos trs anos, foi obtida no tratamento N2P2K1 + calagem nos dois sistemas de explotao.The effects of lime and NPK application on nutritional state and dry rubber production of clone RRIM 600 were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized split-plot with four replicates. In the plots were tested two controls (without fertilizer and without lime; without fertilizer and with lime and six treatments with lime and NPK fertilization (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 and N2P2K2. The two sub-treatments were the following tapping systems: S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S1 and S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S2. The NPK levels used, in kg ha-1 y-1, were represented by 40 and 80 of N; 17.5 and 35.0 of P2O5 and 0, 33.2 and 66.4 of K2O. There was a significant effect of treatments on the N, P, S, Cu and Zn content in leaves. The N applied to soil up to the second dosage was not enough to increase the N level in leaves. Increasing the application of K2O, in the presence of N2P2, promoted a linear decreasing effect on the Zn level. The highest rubber yield (1,778.9 kg ha-1, as an average of the three years, was obtained with the treatment N2P2K1 plus liming, under both tapping systems.

  19. UTJECAJ RAZLIČITIH ORGANSKIH TVARI I NPK GNOJIVA NA PERFORMANCE KUKURUZA

    Remison, Samson Uduzei; Eifediy, Ehiokhilen Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Interes za organskim tvarima koje poboljšavaju plodnost tla povećava se zbog visoke cijene i pravovremene nedostupnosti anorganskoga gnojiva, a taj je problem povezan sa zbrinjavanjem ostataka koji se spaljuju, što može dodatno pogoršati globalno zagrijavanje. Utjecaj raznih organskih tvari i NPK gnojiva na performanse kukuruza ispitan je u poljskim pokusima provedenim na farmi za istraživanje Sveučilišta Ambroze Alli, Ekpoma u području prelaska šume u savanu u državi Edo, Nigerija. Istraživa...

  20. Determination of Optimum Level of NP Fertilizer for Dry Land Wheat Production in the Rainfed Areas of Kohat

    Mirza Hassan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The farmers of the rainfed areas are usually reluctant to use the recommended dose of fertilizers. This study was undertaken on the farmers field as adaptive research trials with the idea, whether the economic risk which is the main hindrance in adapting the recommended dose of fertilizers, is possible to be minimized by using its smaller doses. Fertilizers doses significantly affected biological, bhoosa yield and grain yield kg ha-1. Highest bundle weight and bhoosa kg ha-1 were recorded with the application of 2.5 bag of each Urea and DAP ha-1, and also with the application of 1.25 bag Urea and 2.5 bag DAP ha-1. Maximum grain yield of (2405-2500 kg ha-1 were obtained in T1, T2 and T3 respectively.

  1. Fertility of populations as a function of the attained level of life expectancy in the course of human evolution.

    Langner, G

    1996-01-01

    "Aging societies' with increasing life expectancies of the average of all their members are facts in modern history that are disputed by nobody. What is disputed by the most renowned names in demography, however, is that aging populations are a consequence of the fall in mortality and thus the increase in life expectancy. It is claimed that the [principal] reason for aging' is to be found in a drop in fertility. In this sense today's demographers regard as a standard result: Variations in fertility are of more significance for the age structure of populations than variations in mortality'. In the following paper this thesis, which is based on a neo-Malthusian interpretation of the role of fertility in the demographic process, will be questioned." PMID:12178162

  2. Soil fertility dynamics in a semiarid basin: impact of scale level in weighing the effect of the landscape variables

    Arid and semi-arid Mediterranean soils are particularly sensitive to degradation processes, and soil fertility could play important role in restoration/conservation practices. Our objective was to study the relationships between soil and landscape at different scales in order to understand the main drivers of soil fertility on a semiarid catchment. A stratified sampling plan was carried out to take soil and landscape representative variability. Multivariate statistic techniques were used to elucidate the relationship between both. The results showed that soil fertility are positively related with density of vegetation and topographical conditions favourable to soil moisture at small scale, while negatively with topographical factors that contributed erosion dynamic on ero debility lithologies at medium and large scale. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from rape field as affected by nitrogen fertilizer management: A case study in Central China

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Jinshui; Zhao, Jinsong; Ruan, Leilei; Malghani, Saadatullah

    2011-03-01

    Agricultural soils are one of the major sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2O) emission. Red soil, one of the typical agricultural soils in sub-tropical China, plays an important role in the global N 2O flux emissions. To determine its N mineralization potential, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a rape field under red soil at the experimental station of Heshengqiao at Xianning, Hubei, China. To estimate N-induced N 2O flux, we examined N 2O flux during the growth stages of the rape field including four treatments: fertilizer PK (N0), fertilizer NPK (60 kg N ha -1) (N1), fertilizer NPK (120 kg N ha -1) (N2), fertilizer NPK (240 kg N ha -1) (N3). There were distinct variations in soil N 2O fluxes (from 0.16 to 0.90 kg N ha -1), with higher values being observed during the spring and autumn while low values were observed during winter season. Among different treatments, N fertilization significantly increased the N 2O fluxes, with highest fluxes from N3 while lowest values being observed from N0 treatment. This suggested increased microbial activity in response to increased N fertilizer application. It was interesting to note that fertilizer-induced emissions decreased as the applied fertilizer amount was increased. During the whole growing season, N 2O flux did not correlate with soil temperature, but it significantly correlated to other environmental variables; water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NO 3--N and NH 4+-N contents, which suggests the need for efficient water use and low inorganic nitrogen fertilizer management practices.

  4. Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Bałcyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘Ślęza’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

  5. Amelioration of Indian urban air pollution phytotoxicity in Beta vulgaris L. by modifying NPK nutrients

    Air pollution levels are increasing at an alarming rate in many developing countries, including India and causing a potential threat to crop production. Field experiments were conducted to examine the impact of urban air pollutants on biomass (yield) and some physiological and biochemical parameters of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var. All Green) that grew from germination to maturity at seven periurban sites of Allahabad city having different concentrations of air pollutants under different levels of nutrients. The 6 h daily mean NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations varied from 2.5 to 42.5, 10.6 to 65 and 3.5 to 30.8 μg m-3, respectively at different locations. Levels of air pollution showed significant negative correlations with photosynthetic pigments, protein, ascorbic acid and starch contents and catalase activity of palak leaves. A significant negative correlation was found for total biomass with SO2 (r = -0.92), NO2 (r = -0.85) and O3 (r = -0.91) concentrations. The increased fertilizer application (N, P and K) over the recommended dose resulted in a positive response by reducing losses in photosynthetic pigments and total biomass. This study proved that ambient air pollution of Allahabad city is influencing negatively to the growth and yield of palak plants. - Air pollution caused adverse impact on growth and biomass accumulation of Beta vulgaris L. plants while higher fertility levels showed reduced yield losses

  6. Presentation of a model simulating the response of lakes to fertilizations to reduce radiocesium levels in fish

    Lake fertilization is a potential remedy for toxic contamination in lakes with low productivity, which are known to be sensitive to, e.g. radionuclides, metals and organic toxins. This study presents a model to plan the duration and predict the outcome of fertilization in lakes. Several methods of lake fertilization have been used in field experiments: (1) Lake and wetland liming using 'mixed' lime with added phosphorus; (2) treatment with commercial fertilizers; and (3) using effluents (containing phosphorus) from fish farms. This model is basically a dynamic model using differential equations to handle fluxes, amounts and concentrations. It also includes several empirical relationships, because the model is meant to be used in practice and the driving variables should be few and readily available, like catchment and lake morphometric data. The model is primarily intended to be used as a sub-model predicting realistic changes in phosphorus and potassium concentrations and in lake pH caused by these remedial measures within the framework of a more extensive lake model for radiocesium. It is, however, meant to be based on the fundamental processes regulating phosphorus fluxes in lakes, and could be of interest also in contexts other than radioecology. It is driven by the amount of fertilizer added to the lake and the month of treatment. The consequences for the spread, biological uptake and concentrations of radiocesium are also discussed and simulated. The phosphorus model is, and must be, easy to handle since all the input data should be derived either from maps or from regular monitoring programs. In this paper, the model is presented and calibrations are examined. The results of the calibrations indicate that the model should be useful for managers to optimise lake fertilization, e.g. in contexts of lake radioecology where the benefits and drawbacks of different remedial strategies are evaluated (multi-attribute analysis). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Effect of Processed Green Organic Fertilizer on the Yield of Sugar cane

    Z. A. Abbasi; M. B. Abro; S.A. Buriro; S.A.Maitlo; M.M. Sario; A. N Jilliani

    2002-01-01

    The present study was carried out in randomized complete block design. With four replication on sugar cane variety BL-4 at sugar cane section Tando Jam. It has been observes that maximum yield per plot and per hectare was obtained as 525 kg/plot and 139 M. tons/ha. Respectively from 275-112-180 kg NPK/ha with adding 30 bags of green organic fertilizer.

  8. Effect of Processed Green Organic Fertilizer on the Yield of Sugar cane

    Z.A.Abbasi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in randomized complete block design. With four replication on sugar cane variety BL-4 at sugar cane section Tando Jam. It has been observes that maximum yield per plot and per hectare was obtained as 525 kg/plot and 139 M. tons/ha. Respectively from 275-112-180 kg NPK/ha with adding 30 bags of green organic fertilizer.

  9. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging Studies of Fertilized Fish Eggs: In Vivo Monitoring of Egg Growth at the Molecular Level.

    Ishigaki, Mika; Kawasaki, Shoya; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the growth of fertilized Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) eggs was monitored in vivo at the molecular level using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and NIR imaging. NIR spectra were recorded noninvasively for three major parts of a fertilized medaka egg, the embryonic body, the oil droplets, and the yolk, from the first day after fertilization to the day before hatching. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that water, protein, and lipid contents in the egg yolk and oil droplets changed significantly just before hatching. The ratio of the characteristic peaks due to proteins and lipids in the second derivative spectra suggested that the relative concentration of proteins to lipids was constant in the egg yolk, while it dramatically increased just before hatching in the oil droplets. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) predicted the hatching possibility on the next day with 100% and 99.3% accuracy for yolk and oil droplets data, respectively. Two types of NIR images were developed in situ using the band intensities of the lipids and proteins in the second derivative spectra. The egg's protein and lipid content was successfully visualized noninvasively. This technique should enable noninvasive quality testing of fertilized eggs in the future. PMID:26818027

  10. Evaluation of interspecific hybrids and cultivars of Brachiaria spp. submitted to sourcers and levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Mrcia Atauri Cardelli Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of nitrogen supply (N is a very important issue concerned to plant growth and the environment healthy. For farmers, to know how much N the plant requires enables the application of appropriate amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, maximizing the use of this material. The availability of N has been identified as one of the main limiting factors, but also a management tool in the production of grasses. The nitrogen in the soil either, as a constituent of organic matter or in the mineral form (ammonium and nitrate, has a limited supply and can be depleted rapidly in a few crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sources and nitrogen levels in four genotypes of Brachiaria (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata and two interspecific hybrids of Brachiaria spp on the total and the leaf dry matter production, leaf percentage and leaf: stem ratio. The soil was an Psament-Entisol, coming from a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with low organic matter content. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, in Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo, from October 2009 to April 2010. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks and the treatments were arranged in a factorial 4 x 2 x 4, four genotypes of Brachiaria , two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate and four nitrogen rates (0, 75, 150 or 225 mg dm-3 with five replicates, totaling 160 pots with a capacity of 3.34 dm3 of soil. Two cuts were performed in the plants. After the second cut a soil sample was collected from each experimental unit. Two evaluations were performed on plants. The first one 52 days after sowing, and the second 56 days after the first cut. Data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2; average qualitative factors were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The degrees of freedom related to N rates (quantitative factor were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials; to obtain the best equation fits the data. The variables evaluated were positively influenced by N fertilization, which can alter growth patterns and canopy structure. The hybrids H69 and H12 showed structural features in relation to all variables evaluated that positively validate as options for pasture. The ammonium nitrate was more effective than urea for dry matter production in hybrids H69 and H12 in the first cut, and for regrowth of cultivars Piata and Marandu. The results showed that nitrogen is a good tool which in turn contributes positively to increases the growth-related variables, such as dry matter (total, leaves and pseudostems. The hybrids H69 and H12 showed morphological, structural features and production of dry matter that validate them as positive options for pasture use.

  11. The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria

    Onifade, OS.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha, four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P, NPK (20 : 10 : 10, and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS. Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm, density (plants/m2 and spread (cm were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Sampling for yield estimation in each plot was done at 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Mean plant height with respect to seed rate, fertilizer type and growth stage significantly (P 2000 kg DM/ha. Application of SSP, NPK and CAN gave more total DM yields than the unfertilized control plot respectively by about 69, 75 and 75 %. Total DM yield varied from 1024 kg DM/ha when T. procumbens was harvested at an earlier stage (6 WPS to 2130 kg DM/ha at a later harvest (12 WPS. The main CP of leaf was significantly (P <0.05 affected by ail the treatments imposed.

  12. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70% and KNO3 - zeolite (30%. Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

  13. Socioeconomic fertility differentials in a late transition setting: A micro-level analysis of the Saguenay region in Quebec

    Hélène Vézina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, the French Canadian population of Quebec, Canada, is known for its high fertility, which lasted well into the 20th century, and for its late fertility transition. Within Quebec, regions such as Saguenay are known for having experienced an even more delayed fertility transition. Objective: In Quebec, as elsewhere, various factors modulated the transition, and differential behaviors and timing can be observed across socioeconomic groups. These factors are studied here in the context of the Saguenay region, where particularly rich data are available. The region was mostly rural at first, but industrialization and urbanization occurring since the beginning of the 20th century allow us to study socioeconomic reproductive differentials before and during the transition. Methods: To do so, we rely on the BALSAC database, which contains all church and civil records from the onset of colonization around 1840 up to 1971. In addition to the usual descriptive statistics, we use Cox models to analyze the probability of having a first birth and higher order births among four socioeconomic groups defined with HISCLASS coding. Results: The results demonstrate the late timing of the transition and a clear progression from the non-manual and skilled workers, who show the first signs of declining fertility during the 1930s, to the farmers, who do the same only at the end of the 1950s. As a result, socioeconomic fertility differentials widened during the transition period. Conclusions: Even in a context where the transition was significantly delayed compared to most other regions studied in this issue, some socioeconomic differentials were observed prior to the transition, and they widened during the transition due to the differential progression of contraceptive practices among couples.

  14. Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to improve the distribution of aggregates in the 5-2 mm, 2-1 mm and 1-0.25 mm classes. The organic carbon (OC) contents in red soils were all increased after the long-term fertilization. Compared with Treatment NK, soil OC in Treatment NPK was increased by 45.4%. Compared with Treatment CK (low chemical fertilizer), organic fertilizer addition increased soil OC. The OC in the different particle of water-stable aggregates were all significantly increased after long-term fertilization. OC mainly existed in the macroaggregate (> 0.25 mm) of red soils after the long-term fertilization, and the organic matter was the most important colloid material for macroaggregates. We conclude that the long-term, appropriate application of chemical fertilizer and the combination with organic manure were the most effective measures to improve soil structure and organic carbon contents in red soil regions.

  15. Energy Analysis of Evaporator System in Fertilizer Production

    Ingebrigtsen, Vegard Byre

    2012-01-01

    Yara Glomfjord is the north most production facility of compound fertilizer in the world and produces annually about 500 000 tons NPK and 200 000 tons CN. The general energy system of the process plant utilizes steam as the main energy carrier for the entire production site. Yara Glomfjord has today a general lack of steam, and steam is produced in EGA boilers approximately 75% of operational time to cover all heating tasks. The main objective of this Master thesis is to analyze energy flow i...

  16. DETERMINACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES NIVELES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN PAPA (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO EN UN SUELO CON PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO IN A SOIL WITH PROPERTIES ANDICAS OF SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA

    Jairo Yovani Rios Quinchoa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La fertilización es una labor que cumple con la necesidad de suplementar a la planta, los nutrientes no satisfechos por el suelo en su condición de fertilidad natural. Por muchas décadas se han utilizado dosis deficientes que conducen a bajas producciones, y en ocasiones dosis excesivas de fertilizantes químicos que pueden generar problemas ambientales. La fertilización con nutrientes secundarios (Ca, Mg, S y el micronutriente B, han sido poco estudiadas en el cultivo de papa, razón por la cual se evaluó, en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín, el efecto de diferentes dosis de estos nutrientes en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena de la variedad DIACOL Capiro en un suelo con propiedades ándicas de Santa Rosa de Osos. Se utilizaron dosis bajas, moderadas y altas de NPK, Ca, Mg, B y S, y se encontró una respuesta positiva en rendimiento a las aplicaciones crecientes de NPK (500, 1.500 y 3000 kg ha-1, también se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso de los tubérculos de primera y segunda categoría, mientras que los tubérculos de tercera y cuarta categoría no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las interacciones entre Ca, Mg, B y S no tuvieron efecto apreciable sobre el rendimiento de los tubérculos, ya que en la mayoría de los casos solo se observaron los efectos simples de dichos elementos.The fertilization is a work that fulfills the supplementary to the plant nutritional necessities that are not satisfied by the soil, in its condition of natural fertility. For many decades faulty doses has been used that take to low productions, and in occasions excessive doses of chemical fertilizers that lead to environmental problems. The fertilization with nutritious secondary (Ca, Mg, S and the micronutrient B, has been little studied in potato crop in Colombia; for this reason, we evaluated, in the Centro de Investigacion e Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal Paysandú of the La Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín, the effect of different doses of these nutrients, in a cultivation of potato of the variety DIACOL Capiro in a soil with andics properties of Santa Rosa de Osos. Low, moderate and high doses of NPK, Ca, Mg, B and S, was used, and it was a positive result in yield to the growing applications of NPK (500, 1.500 and 3000 kg ha-1, significant differences were also presented in weight in the tubers of first and second category, while the tubers of third and quarter category did not present significant differences. The interactions among Ca, Mg, B and S didn’t have appreciable effect on the yield of the tubers, since in most of the alone cases one observes the simple effects of this elements.

  17. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed.Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001) and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01), respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS). In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032) and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients (Author).

  18. Mixed fertilizers incorporated in organic polimer matrix and pressed in tablets as means of enhancing the nutrients productive use in increased crop yields

    In view of increasing productive use of fertilizer nutrients in crops an admixture of brown coal dust containing up to 40 % carbon ammonia lignosulfonate with 50 % lignoles dry matter as binding agent were used to press water soluble fertilizer sources with a total of N+P2O5+K2O content of up to 26 % in tablets. These may be manufactured at different N:P2O5:K2O ratios as for instance 1:1:1; 1:0.75:0.50 etc. Brown coal and coal refuse dust were used as matrix for inclusion while lignosulfonates served for binding the ingredients when pressing them in tablets of 15-20 g dry mass each. These were tested in accurate field experiments to compare the agronomic effectiveness of equal amounts of NPK in tablets with equivalent rates of powdered sources of nutrients in the same chemical forms. NPK pressed in tablets were applied locally along the plant row, while the powdered mixed fertilizer have been thoroughly mixed in the ploughed layer. Accurate field experiments have pointed out the higher agronomical effectiveness of NPK pressed in tablets as compared to equal amounts of NPK powdered and thoroughly mixed into the ploughed layer of soil. Indicators were higher yield increases per nutrient unit and higher degrees of apparent productive use of nutrients in crops. Refs. 4 (author)

  19. Acumulación de NPK por el girasol (Helianthus annuus L. en un Mollisol del Valle del Cauca

    Ortiz R. Gloria

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A field experiment was conducted to determine macronutrient concentration and amount of NPK absorbed by the different parts of the sunflower plant. The soil used was of the Palmira Serie (PL classified as Pachic Haplustol of clay-loam texture, pH 6.4, 3.0% O.M., 63.9 ppm of P and 0.43 meq of K/100g of soil. The comercial hybrid DO- 664 was used, leaf, stem, bud, capitulum and seed samples wer taken 20, 40, 60 and 80 days post-emergence, chemicaly analized and N, P, K concentration determined. Results indicated more nitrogen concentration (3.19% in leaves and potassium (5.4% in the stems 40 days after emergence, while  phosphorus (0.96% was greatest in seed at 80 days. The order of absortion of the elements at 80 days in kg/ha was: K, 166.2; N, 69.2 and P, 16.7. This indicates that N and P fertilization should be fractionated up to day 40, while for K up to day 60.

    El estudio se realizó en un suelo de la serie Palmira (PL, clasificado como Pachic Haplustol, de textura francoarcillosa, pH 6.4, 3.0% de materia orgánica, 63.9 ppm de P y 0.43 meq de K/l00 g de suelo. Se utilizó el híbrido comercial DO-664 adelantando muestreos de hojas, tallos, botones, capítulos y semillas a los 20, 40, 60 Y 80 días después de la emergencia, analizándose químicamente y determinándose la concentración de N, P y K. Los resultados indicaron mayor concentración de nitrógeno (3.19% en hojas y de potasio (5.4% en tallos a los 40 días de emergencia, mientras que el fósforo (0.96% fué en la semilla a los 80 días. La  secuencia de absorción de elementos a los 80 días en kg/ha fue de 166.2 para potasio, 69.2 para nitrógeno y 16.7 para fósforo, indicando que para fertilizar con N y P se debe fraccionar el producto hasta los 40 días, mientras que para K hasta los 60 días.

  20. Influence of solar irradiance, watering frequency and inorganic fertilizer on incidence of dieback disease and growth of Ceiba pentendra (L.) seedlings

    Efforts at raising seedlings of Ceiba pentandra in nurseries have been hampered by damping-off, leaf spots and stem anthracnose causing stem dieback disease by fungal attack. Managing the disease by fungicides retarded growth of the seedlings; hence a method of controlling the dieback disease and boosting growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings based on environmental factors was investigated. Using a randomised complete block design in a factorial split-plot experiment, the dependence of survival and growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings on solar irradiance, watering frequency and NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer was studied to improve the survival rate of seedlings by preventing dieback disease in large-scale plantation development in Ghana. Solar irradiance, daily watering of 4.5 L per plot and inorganic fertilizer application of 1.0 g per seedling had the strongest effect in minimizing the incidence of dieback disease and ensuring 90 % survival and improved collar diameter growth. The levels of irradiance, watering regime and optimum fertilizer application required to control dieback disease and promote growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings were set, and could be adopted by tree growers. (au)

  1. Effects of Different Fertilizer Application Level on Growth and Physiology of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf) Planted on BRIS Soil

    Hazandy Abdul-Hamid; Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff; Nor-Aini Ab-Shukor; Baharom Zainal; Mohamed-Hanafi Musa

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is one of the most potential annual crop planted throughout the world. Being fastgrowing and multipurpose, it has been utilized as a substitute of jute and, more recently, as raw product for the productionof pulp and paper. With strong and long fiber yield, mass production of Kenaf throughout Malaysia is critical. Theutilization of less fertile soils such as BRIS soils is important to increase the Kenaf production throughout Malaysia. Thus,the objective of this...

  2. Effect of Various Nitrogen Fertilizers and Their Levels on Big-Arch Shelter Cucumber Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    Zhaopeng Ou Yang; Xurong Mei; Yuzhong Li; Jiaxuan Guo

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are mainly cultivated through facility in early spring and late autumn in Northern of China. In the case of a serious shortage of water resources, water use efficiency of greenhouse vegetable is of an important scientific significance in both water and fertilizer management. On the basis of pan Evaporation (Ep) and real-time monitoring of soil moisture content, the amount of water irrigation adequate to big-arch shelter cucumber growth, water dissipation, yield and water use effici...

  3. Effects of growth patterns and dietary protein levels during rearing of broiler breeders on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and offspring performance.

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; van den Brand, H; Hendriks, W H

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growth patterns and dietary crude protein levels during rearing in broiler breeder females on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and offspring performance. A 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used, with 2 growth patterns to reach a target body weight at 20 wk of age of 2,200 g (standard=standard growth pattern) or 2,400 g (high=high growth pattern), and 3 dietary protein levels (high=crude protein, high), (medium=crude protein, medium), and low=crude protein, low). Fresh egg composition and organ development in hatchlings were determined. Offspring of the different groups were reared until an age of 34 d and feed intake, body weight gain, mortality, and carcass composition were determined. In 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders compared to standard growth pattern breeders, fertility and hatchability of set eggs were increased; embryonic mortality between d 1 and 9 was decreased whereas hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected. Breeders fed the medium crude protein diet showed a decreased hatchability of fertile eggs caused by an increased embryonic mortality between d 18 and 21 compared to breeders fed the high crude protein and low crude protein diets. Offspring of 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders tended (P=0.059) to have a higher body weight at d 34 than offspring of standard growth pattern breeders, which was achieved by a tendency to a higher body weight gain (P=0.057). Offspring of breeders fed the medium and low crude protein diet showed a higher feed intake between d 18 and 27 and during the total growth period, as compared to offspring of high crude protein breeders. Male broilers of low crude protein breeders had higher breast meat yield than male broilers of high crude protein breeders, while breast meat yield of female broilers was not affected by dietary protein levels. This experiment showed that a higher growth pattern during the rearing period increased fertility, decreased embryonic mortality, and improved offspring performance in young breeders, whereas decreased dietary protein level had no or less pronounced effects on these traits. PMID:25681474

  4. Fontes e doses de adubao nitrogenada na atividade microbiana e fertilidade do solo cultivado com Brachiaria brizantha / Sources and levels of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and fertility in soil cropped with Brachiaria brizantha

    Flavia Cristina, Delbem; Mrcia Helena, Scabora; Ceclio Viega, Soares Filho; Reges, Heinrichs; Carlos Alberto, Crociolli; Ana Maria Rodrigues, Cassiolato.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens geralmente perdem seu potencial produtivo e vigor de rebrota nos primeiros anos, frequentemente associada falta de adubao nitrogenada. O objetivo deste foi verificar o efeito de fontes e doses de adubao nitrogenada na atividade microbiana (carbono da biomassa microbiana e carbono [...] do CO2 liberado) e na fertilidade do solo cultivado com Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaras. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 4, envolvendo trs fontes de nitrognio (uria, sulfato de amnio e Ajifer-L40) e quatro doses de nitrognio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1), nas profundidades 0 - 0,10 e 0,10 - 0,20 m, com trs repeties. O aumento nas doses de nitrognio, na camada 0,0 a 0,10 m de profundidade, reduziu os valores de pH, MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB e V%. O Ajifer e a uria elevaram os valores de Ca2+ na camada 0,10 - 0,20 m, e as doses de 100 e 200 kg ha-1 aumentaram os valores de Mg2+ e SB. Em doses elevadas o sulfato de amnio acidificou o solo. A perda de carbono pela elevada atividade microbiana pode estar relacionado ao estresse metablico devido acidificao do solo. A aplicao de 100 kg ha-1 de nitrognio acarretou as menores perdas de carbono pela atividade microbiana. Abstract in english Pastures usually lose their yield potential and re-growth energy in a few years, most often due to the lack of nitrogen fertilization. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of sources and levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, under microbial activity (carbon of microbial biomass and c [...] arbon released as CO2) and fertility of soil cropped with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaras. The experimental design was randomized, organized under a 3 x 4 factorial scheme, with three nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate and Ajifer-L40) and four nitrogen levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg ha-1), analyzed on two depths (0 - 0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m), with 3 replications. The higher levels of N doses, the 0 - 0.10 m depths, reduced the values of pH, MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB and V%. Ajifer and urea resulted in higher values of Ca2+, in the depths of 0.10 - 0.20 m, and the values of Mg2+ and SB exhibited high values with the doses of 100 and 200 kg ha-1 levels of N. The higher levels of ammonium sulfate resulted in soil acidification. Soil carbon loss, due to the high microbial activity, could be the result of metabolic stress caused by soil acidification. The application of 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen was the best fertilizing level, considering the smaller loss of soil carbon by microbial activity.

  5. Social mobility and fertility.

    Kasarda, J D; Billy, J O

    1985-01-01

    This review examines 4 possible causal links between social mobility and fertility: 1) fertility affects social mobility; 2) social mobility affects fertility; 3) fertility and social mobility simultaneously affect each other; and 4) social mobility and fertility are unrelated. Due to the lack of systematic theory guiding the research, conceptualizations and measures of social mobility and fertility vary markedly from study to study, leading to inconsistent findings. The review focuses on theoretical perspectives underpinning the research, causal operators proposed to interpret observed associations, and analytical methods used. The selectivity perspective is based on the contention that a family must be small in order to rise on the social scale. This has found little support, however. In fact, studies suggest that children induce slightly higher levels of status achievement and family responsibilities may stimulate the energy and ambition of some so that they achieve more than they would have done without a family. Most studies have concerned the hypothesis that social mobility affects fertility. 4 theoretical perspectives have emerged: status enhancement; relative economic status; social isolation; and stress and disorientation. At any time in a couple's reproductive life cycle the decision or actual experience of either social mobility or fertility may influence the decision or actual experience of the other variable. Mobility-fertility research has defined an individual's or couple's position in terms of income, education, or occupation with occupation used most often as a single index of social class and indexes of social mobility developed by comparing persons' changes in occupational position. A common theme in much of the research literature is that the existence of an effect of social mobility on fertility depends on the societal conditions of a given population. Most studies through the mid-60s used a common measurement method to assess whether a mobility effect existed. This method compared the reproductive behavior of the upwardly and/or downwardly mobile with that of the nonmobile at origin and/or destination. PMID:12313951

  6. Maduracin y calidad de frutos de mango 'Kent' con tres niveles de fertilizacin / Ripening and fruit quality of mango 'Kent' with three levels of fertilization

    Ren, Garca Martnez; Alfredo, Lpez Jimnez; Crecenciano, Saucedo Veloz; Samuel, Salazar-Garca; Javier, Surez Espinosa.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El programa anual de fertilizacin juega un papel importante en el manejo del huerto y de su eficiencia dependen, en gran medida, la produccin y calidad de los frutos. Una fertilizacin balanceada considera la cantidad de nutrientes disponibles en el suelo, incluyendo los que utiliza el rbol para [...] su desarrollo y los que son removidos por la produccin de fruto, lo que asegura el suministro adecuado de macro y micro elementos. El objetivo de esta investigacin fue evaluar el efecto del programa de fertilizacin sobre los cambios en las variables relacionadas con la maduracin y calidad de frutos de mango 'Kent', a partir de un experimento instalado en un huerto de comercial en Acaponeta, Nayarit, Mxico, donde se aplicaron tres niveles de fertilizacin ((g rbol-1): normal (381 de N, 367 de P2O5, 296 de K2O, 688 de Ca, 84 de Mg, 14 de Fe, 9 de Mn, 5 de Zn y 45 de B), alta (50% ms de cada elemento de la dosis normal) y control (sin fertilizacin). Las dosis de fertilizacin afectaron la concentracin nutrimental del fruto. Se presentaron diferencias en los perfiles de la intensidad respiratoria, firmeza, slidos solubles totales (SST), cido ctrico, cido ascrbico y relacin azcar/cido, asimismo, la presencia de nitrgeno en los niveles de fertilizacin normal y alta, aument la tonalidad verde del color de fondo de los frutos. Se concluy que, la calidad y vida de anaquel de los frutos fue afectada por los niveles de fertilizacin aplicados. Abstract in english The annual fertilization program plays an important role in the management of the garden and its efficiency depend largely, production and fruit quality. A balanced fertilization consider the amount of nutrients available in the soil, including those used by the tree for their development and they a [...] re removed by the production of fruit, ensuring adequate supply of macro and micro elements. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fertilization program on changes in the variables related to the maturation and fruit quality of mango 'Kent' from an experiment installed in a commercial orchard in Acaponeta, Nayarit, Mexico, where three levels of fertilization were applied (g tree-1): regular (381 de N, 367 de P2O5, 296 de K2O, 296, 688 Ca, 84 Mg, Fe 14, 9 Mn, 5 Zn and 45 B), high (50% more of each element of the regular dose) and control (without fertilization). The fertilization affected the nutrient concentration of fruit. Differences were presented in profiles the total respiratory rate, firmness, soluble solids (TSS), citric acid, ascorbic acid and sugar/acid ratio also the presence of nitrogen in levels of regular and high fertilization increased the green hue of the background colour of the fruits. It was concluded that the quality and shelf life of fruits was affected by fertilization levels applied.

  7. The Fertile Grounds Initiative: A new way to close nutrient flows at regional level resulting in better agricultural productivity and less environmental losses

    van Beek, Christy; van Duivenbooden, Niek; Noij, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    The threat of declining soil fertility levels is well known. Yet, and despite numerous efforts, we seem incapable of changing the current situation of sink areas in developed countries and depletion areas in developing countries. With negative consequences (i.e. loss in productive capacity and loss in environmental quality) in both areas. Moreover, due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows become increasingly disconnected. Soil nutrient depletion cannot simply be compensated for with mineral fertilisers, for the following reasons: • mineral fertilisers are often not affordable for smallholders and fertiliser subsidy systems are not always successful • mineral fertilisers do not contain organic matter and therefore do not halt the degradation of the soil • mineral fertilisers work best in combination with organic sources of nutrients (compost, farm yard manure, etc.) • To halt soil degradation an integrated approach is needed, including reducing losses of nutrients and organic matter from soils at risk. Presently, more actors are getting involved in reallocation of nutrients, especially in the energy and waste sector. Time has come for a new approach to bring together demands and supplies for nutrients. We therefore present the Fertile Grounds Initiative: a broker for nutrient supply and demand in the region. The Fertile Grounds Initiative is based on the findings that: • Organic ánd mineral nutrients are required for increased and sustainable production; • Nutrients have a value and should be treated as such; • Due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows are ever more polarized between depletion and concentration areas; • The demand for energy poses new threats and opportunities for nutrient management. In the Fertile Grounds Initiative nutrient suppliers from the energy sector, waste management, fertilizer companies, etc. and demands for nutrients from farmers are brought together in a dynamic platform. This platform acts as a nutrient bank and integrates different sources of nutrients into high quality crop nutrition products. A capacity building programme ensures proper application of the nutrients and optimal use of on-farm nutrients. To further shape our ideas of the Fertile Grounds Initiative you are cordially invited to become involved.

  8. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    Tsozu, D.; Nghonda, J. P.; Mekem, D. L.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), direct seeding (DS) and tillage seeding (TS) on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK + 25 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK + 50 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK + 100 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC) were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC), resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea) and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F3. pH values were 5.2-5.7 under DMC, 4.9-5.3 under DS and TS and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were higher in the control sample and DMC than in the other systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low pH values.

  9. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    Helena Gorecka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with sulfuric acid, which transformed keratinous nitrogen of poultry feathers into ammonia nitrogen, hydroxyapatite phosphorus to bioavailable orthophosphate. Also, mineralization of organic content of the materials was achieved. The method of production and the composition of NPKS fertilizer, the content of which was adjusted to the requirements of oil seed rape was provided. The fertilization properties were checked in germination tests.

  10. Use of slow-release fertilizer on the production of sweet potatoes plantlets in tray

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of plantlets in containers generally requires the use of fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of sweet potato in styrofoam trays using slow-release fertilizer. The experiment was carried out, under a screen-protected nursery, in a factorial scheme 5x5, with five doses of slow-release fertilizer NPK 19-06-10 (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 g per 25 kg de substrate and five times of plantlets permanence in tray (14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting the cuttings. The number and dry matter of roots and leaves were evaluated. The number of roots was not influenced by fertilizer addition. In general, there is not damage to plantlets growth until the highest dose used. Therefore, the fertilizer addition increases the sweet potato plants growth and the dose of 200 g per 25 kg of substrate is responsible for the best results.

  11. Liming and fertilization to restore degraded Brachiaria decumbens pastures grown on an entisol Calagem e adubao na recuperao de pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens em neossolo quartzarnico

    Patrcia Perondi Ancho Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The reconstitution of soil fertility is essential in the process of pasture restoring, liming being the first action to be taken in this direction. The liming recommendation for pastures needs more technical information as the application method and rate. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the liming and fertilization practices to restore a degraded Brachiaria decumbens pasture. The following factors were studied: liming method (incorporated in soil by disking or not; level of base saturation (40, 50 or 80% and lime type (55, 70 or 90 of ECC. Liming and fertilization (NPK and micronutrients increased both the forage yield and its root system, these being more evident in the second year, even using the same rates of lime and fertilizer used during the first year. After two years the levels of base saturation aimed for the 0 to 0.20 m soil layer were not achieved, neither was the neutralization of the Al. The disking impaired the development of the root system of B. decumbens and promoted the decrease of soil organic matter. The lime with the lowest ECC increased root growth and led to higher concentrations of Ca and Mg in the soil. Studies in other conditions are necessary to define liming requirements in established and degraded pastures.Na recuperao de pastagens fundamental a reconstituio da fertilidade do solo, sendo a calagem a primeira ao nessa direo. A recomendao de calagem para pastagens necessita de maiores subsdios tcnicos, como a forma de aplicao e a dose e o tipo de calcrio a ser empregado. Um experimento de campo foi instalado para avaliar a calagem e a adubao como prticas para a recuperao de pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens degradadas. Os seguintes fatores foram estudados: a forma de aplicao do calcrio (incorporado no solo com gradagem ou no incorporado, os nveis de saturao por bases de 40, 60 ou 80% e tipos de calcrio (PRNT de 55, 70 ou 90. A calagem e a fertilizao (NPK e micronutrientes aumentaram as produes da forragem e do seu sistema radicular, sendo os efeitos mais acentuados no segundo ano, apesar do uso de mesmas doses de corretivos e fertilizantes do primeiro ano. Aps dois anos no se conseguiu atingir os nveis de saturao por bases pretendidos na camada de 0 - 0,20 m, bem como a neutralizao do Al. A gradagem prejudicou o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular da forrageira e promoveu queda nos teores da matria orgnica no solo. O calcrio de PRNT mais baixo aumentou a produo de razes e proporcionou as maiores concentraes de Ca e Mg no solo. Estudos em outras condies so necessrios para se aprimorar a recomendao de calagem para pastagens estabelecidas e degradadas.

  12. Relative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    Uka Ufere N.; Chukwuka Kanayo S.; Iwuagwu Mary

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the relative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). The experiment consisted of four treatments. Cow dung and poultry droppings were applied at the rates of 2.5 kg per 10 kg of soil one week before sowing, while NPK fertilizer (15:15:15) was applied at the rate of 6 g per 10 kg of soil three weeks after sowing. The treatments were laid in a completely randomi...

  13. Effects of added fertilizers and carbon source on the persistence of carbaryl in soils

    The effect of added fertilizers and carbon source on the persistence of carbaryl in two types of soils was investigated using the technique of liquid scintillation counting. In both soils, the addition of fertilzers (NPK) had little effect on the rate of degradation of carbaryl. In contrast, the addition of sucrose, with or without fertilizer increases degradation of carboryl in a yellow red latosol soil poor in organic matter but has little effect on the degradation in a humic gley soil rich in organic mutter. (Author)

  14. A Rapid Technique for Prediction of Nutrient Release from Polymer Coated Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Shengsen Wang; Ashok K. Alva; Yuncong Li; Min Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Controlled release fertilizers (CRF) are produced with different rates and durations of nutrient release to cater to different crops with wide ranges of nutrient requirements. A rapid technique is needed to verify the label specifications of nutrient release rate and duration. Polymer-coated urea (PCU) (43% nitrogen [N]) and polymer-coated N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K) (PC_NPK; 14-14-14) fertilizer products were used in this study. Soil incubation of the above CRF products at 25℃ showed th...

  15. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  16. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group increased by about 7.5% between 1953-72. The major increase occurred during the post war years. All of these occurred during the time period when the Philippines underwent major socioeconomic changes. Data on changes in socioeconomic indicators during the time period under observation were presented. For example, between 1948-70, the literacy rate increased from 62.8%-84.6% for males and from 56.9%-82.2% for females. The infant mortality rate declined from 125.5-67.3 between 1948-70, and breastfeeding declined from 64.2%-26.5% between 1958-74. The increase in the natural fertility level tapered off during the last few years, and in the future the impact of fertility control on the fertility rate should become stronger. PMID:12339819

  17. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the atmospheric dispersion model NPK-PUFF

    In the early repression phase of a large-scale nuclear accident real-time air dispersion modelling is an integral part of the quantitative risk estimate on which a countermeasure strategy is based. Due to the stochastic and chaotic nature of the atmosphere the calculation of air dispersion is complicated and the accuracy of the spatial and temporal distributions is limited due to uncertainties in the algorithms, model parameters, and atmospheric input. A lack of knowledge of the magnitude and composition of the radioactive release into the environment will further add significantly to the uncertainty in the overall result of the calculation. A clear understanding of uncertainties in the model and the model parameters is of key importance in the decision process. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of uncertainties in the Dutch atmospheric dispersion model, NPK-PUFF. Uncertainties due to the meteorological fields are not all taken into account in this study. (orig.)

  18. Incorporation of mineral phosphorus and potassium on leather waste (collagen): A new NcollagenPK-fertilizer with slow liberation

    The feasibility of using a solid waste (rich in nitrogen) from the leather industry, after chromium extraction, as adsorbent for P and K, for possible utilization as NPK fertilizer was evaluated. The materials, with and without the addition of P and K, were characterized by chemical analyses, infrared spectroscopy, EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and SEM (scanning electronic microscopy). Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used for analyzing the experimental data, which showed a better fit to the Freundlich model, thus suggesting a multilayer adsorption process on the surface of the adsorbent. A preliminary test in greenhouse demonstrates that the P and K incorporation on the matrix rich in nitrogen (collagen) is a interesting alternative to use such material as NPK fertilizer. The application of NcollagenPK formulations, as a source of nutrients for the growth of rice plants, showed promising agronomic results.

  19. Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil); Santos, Dario [Federal University of São Paulo, R. Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270, Diadema SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José, E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm{sup −2} (750 μm spot size), 2.0 μs delay time and 5.0 μs integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg{sup −1} Cd, 2 mg kg{sup −1} Cr and 15 mg kg{sup −1} Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers. - Highlights: • First LIBS application for quantitative Cd, Cr and Pb determination in fertilizers. • LIBS method was validated for analysis of phosphate fertilizers pressed pellets. • LIBS sample throughput is remarkably better than already existing methods.

  20. Fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada na atividade microbiana e fertilidade do solo cultivado com Brachiaria brizantha = Sources and levels of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and fertility in soil cropped with Brachiaria brizantha

    Flavia Cristina Delbem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens geralmente perdem seu potencial produtivo e vigor de rebrota nos primeiros anos, frequentemente associada à falta de adubação nitrogenada. O objetivo deste foi verificar o efeito de fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada na atividade microbiana (carbono da biomassa microbiana e carbono do CO2 liberado e na fertilidade do solo cultivado com Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 4, envolvendo três fontes de nitrogênio (uréia, sulfato de amônio e Ajifer-L40 e quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1, nas profundidades 0 - 0,10 e 0,10 - 0,20 m, com trêsrepetições. O aumento nas doses de nitrogênio, na camada 0,0 a 0,10 m de profundidade, reduziu os valores de pH, MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB e V%. O Ajifer e a uréia elevaram os valores de Ca2+ na camada 0,10 - 0,20 m, e as doses de 100 e 200 kg ha-1 aumentaram os valores de Mg2+ e SB. Em doses elevadas o sulfato de amônio acidificou o solo. A perda de carbono pela elevada atividade microbiana pode estar relacionado ao estresse metabólico devido à acidificação do solo.A aplicação de 100 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio acarretou as menores perdas de carbono pela atividade microbiana.Pastures usually lose their yield potential and re-growth energy in a few years, most often due to the lack of nitrogen fertilization. Theobjective of this study was to verify the effect of sources and levels of nitrogen (N fertilization, under microbial activity (carbon of microbial biomass and carbon released as CO2 and fertilityof soil cropped with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés. The experimental design was randomized, organized under a 3 x 4 factorial scheme, with three nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate and Ajifer-L40 and four nitrogen levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg ha-1, analyzed on two depths (0 - 0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, with 3 replications. The higher levels of N doses, the 0 - 0.10 m depths, reduced the values of pH, MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB and V%. Ajifer and urea resulted in higher values of Ca2+, in the depths of 0.10 – 0.20 m, and the values of Mg2+ and SB exhibited high values with the doses of 100 and 200 kg ha-1 levels of N. The higher levels of ammonium sulfate resulted in soil acidification. Soil carbon loss, due to the high microbial activity, could be the result of metabolic stress caused by soil acidification. The application of 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen was the best fertilizing level, considering the smaller loss of soil carbon by microbial activity.

  1. Impact of long-term fertilization practice on soil structure evolution

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Lamandé, Mathieu; Wildenschild, Dorthe; Tuller, Markus; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    The study characterized soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animalmanure (AM) and NPK fertilizer over a period of 106 years in a long-termfertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm...... tall) and bulk soil samples were extracted froma depth between 5 and 15-cmfromeach plot. Soil properties including texture, organic carbon, soil–water characteristic, air permeability and diffusivity were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Long-termapplications of...... AMand NPK had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 0.015 kg kg−1 (unfertilized plot) to 0.024 kg kg−1 (well fertilized plot, 30 T ha−1 2y−1 AM with NPK). Total porosity linearly followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.36 to 0.43 m3 m−3. The water holding...

  2. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan seedlings

    Ezequiel Gasparin; Maristela Machado Araujo; Cleber Witt Saldanha; Caira Viñas Tolfo

    2015-01-01

    Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate) of CRF (18-5-9 NPK) and three different container volumes...

  3. Comparison of the Phenolic Compounds, Carotenoids and Tocochromanols Content in Wheat Grain under Organic and Mineral Fertilization Regimes

    Katarzyna Wojtkowiak; Arkadiusz Stępień; Alicja Faron; Małgorzata Tańska; Iwona Konopka

    2012-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the effect of mineral (NPK) and organic-based fertilizers such as compost (C), manure (FYM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) on the appearance (dimensions and color) of spring wheat kernels and on the total content in grain of main its phytochemicals (polyphenols, carotenoids and tocochromanols) and phenolic acids composition. Total phenolic compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay after alkaline hydrolysis of grain and carotenoids were ana...

  4. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    M. J. Fernández-Sanjurjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16 were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first percolates, reaching a steady state when 1426 mm water have percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in the geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K, Ca and Mg were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with composition 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident.

  5. A simple and fast method for assessment of the nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium rating of fertilizers using high-resolution continuum source atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry

    The determination of N, P, and K in fertilizers by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry is proposed. Under optimized conditions, measurements of the diatomic molecules NO and PO at 215.360 and 247.620 nm, respectively, and K using the wing of the alternative line at 404.722 nm allowed calibration curves to be constructed in the ranges 500–5000 mg L−1 N (r = 0.9994), 100–2000 mg L−1 P (r = 0.9946), and 100–2500 mg L−1 K (r = 0.9995). Commercial fertilizers were analyzed by the proposed method and the concentrations of N, P, and K were found to be in agreement with those obtained by Kjeldahl, spectrophotometric, and flame atomic emission spectrometry methods, respectively, at a 95% confidence level (paired t-test). A phosphate rock certified reference material (CRM) was analyzed and the results for P and K were in agreement with the reference values. Recoveries from spiked CRM were in the ranges 97–105% (NO3−-N), 95–103% (NH4+-N), 93–103% (urea-N), 99–108% (P), and 99–102% (K). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) for N, P, and K were 6, 4, and 2%, respectively. - Highlights: • A single technique is proposed to analyze NPK fertilizer. • HR-CS FAAS is proposed for the first time for N, P and K determination in fertilizers. • The method employs the same sample preparation and dilution for the three analytes. • Addition of H2O2 allows analysis of fertilizers with different nitrogen species. • Proposal provides advantages over traditional methods in terms of cost and time

  6. A simple and fast method for assessment of the nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium rating of fertilizers using high-resolution continuum source atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry

    Bechlin, Marcos André; Fortunato, Felipe Manfroi; Moutinho da Silva, Ricardo; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta, E-mail: anchieta@iq.unesp.br

    2014-11-01

    The determination of N, P, and K in fertilizers by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry is proposed. Under optimized conditions, measurements of the diatomic molecules NO and PO at 215.360 and 247.620 nm, respectively, and K using the wing of the alternative line at 404.722 nm allowed calibration curves to be constructed in the ranges 500–5000 mg L{sup −1} N (r = 0.9994), 100–2000 mg L{sup −1} P (r = 0.9946), and 100–2500 mg L{sup −1} K (r = 0.9995). Commercial fertilizers were analyzed by the proposed method and the concentrations of N, P, and K were found to be in agreement with those obtained by Kjeldahl, spectrophotometric, and flame atomic emission spectrometry methods, respectively, at a 95% confidence level (paired t-test). A phosphate rock certified reference material (CRM) was analyzed and the results for P and K were in agreement with the reference values. Recoveries from spiked CRM were in the ranges 97–105% (NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N), 95–103% (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N), 93–103% (urea-N), 99–108% (P), and 99–102% (K). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) for N, P, and K were 6, 4, and 2%, respectively. - Highlights: • A single technique is proposed to analyze NPK fertilizer. • HR-CS FAAS is proposed for the first time for N, P and K determination in fertilizers. • The method employs the same sample preparation and dilution for the three analytes. • Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} allows analysis of fertilizers with different nitrogen species. • Proposal provides advantages over traditional methods in terms of cost and time.

  7. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association between traffic related air pollution and fertility rates in humans in Barcelona, Spain (2011-2012). We hypothesized that higher air pollution levels would be associated with lower fertility rates....

  8. Use of organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer in a modern planting system to increase the productivity of vanilla plant

    Vanilla is a plant belonging to the orchid family and native to Mexico. In Malaysia, research and cultivation of vanilla plants are becoming more popular and intensive because the plant has a high commercial value. Fertilizing of vanilla plants is important to enhance the nutrients needed by the plants for growth and vanilla pod production. In 1999, research in MARDI showed that the use of chemical fertilizer NPK (15:15:15) was suitable for vanilla plants. For plants that have not produced vanilla pods foliar fertilizer must be sprayed and foliar fertilizer application must be reduced at pod production stage. The fertilizer programme is almost similar to those of other vanilla producing countries such as Indonesia and Mexico. In Indonesia, studies on organic farming of vanilla have been conducted. They have produced chemical-free vanilla fertilizer products such as Bio-Fob, Bio-TRIBA and Organo TRIBA Compost. We in Malaysian Nuclear Agency conducted a study on the effects of organic and bio fertilizers on vanilla at the vanilla experimental plot. This plot adopts the modern system of vanilla planting. The study involved the use of organic and bio fertilizer products produced in Nuclear Malaysia such as Organik NF, plant growth promoter and phosphate solubiliser and imported commercial orchid mycorrhizal bio fertilizer from Korea. The application of these fertilizers is by placing the fertilizers on the planting media in poly bags with replications according to the treatments. Observations were made weekly for 15 weeks by measuring of parameters including the bud growth and leaf number. These data are plotted in graphical form for evaluation.(author)

  9. PRODUCCIN DE ABONOS ORGNICOS CON LA UTILIZACIN DE ELODEA (Egeria densa PRESENTE EN LA LAGUNA DE FQUENE PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS WITH ELODEA (Egeria densa PRESENT ON THE FUQUENE LAGOON

    Iveth Caro Lara

    Full Text Available La elodea (Egeria densa, un problema para lagos y lagunas en Colombia, puede ser materia prima para la produccin de abonos orgnicos de bajo costo y de buena calidad. Para emplearla en la obtencin de abonos orgnicos, se elaboraron fertilizantes a partir de seis formulaciones, as: 1 Elodea 50% cal dolomtica 20% levadura 5% melaza 5% gallinaza 20%. 2 Elodea 60% cal dolomtica10% levadura 3% melaza 8% gallinaza 19%. 3 Elodea 70% cal dolomtica 15% levadura 2% melaza 3% gallinaza 10%. 4 Formulacin 1 + lombricompuesto; 5 Formulacin 2 + lombricompuesto y 6 Formulacin 3 + lombricompuesto. Para cada uno de los abonos, se determin el contenido total de N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, carbn oxidable total, coliformes y relacin C:N. Bajo condiciones de invernadero, se evalu el efecto de los abonos en un Andisol sobre el cultivo de lechuga e igualmente, se monitore la temperatura y el pH a travs del periodo de produccin de los abonos. En general, el contenido de los elementos analizados y la relacin C:N cumplen los requisitos para estos abonos. Hubo efecto significativo del contenido entre formulaciones y en el bioensayo para rendimiento entre formulaciones y dosis, siendo la formulacin tres la de ms alto rendimiento. De igual manera hubo efecto significativo de fuentes y de dosis en el contenido de N-P-K en la lechuga. El pH de los seis abonos fue de 7,00 a 7,30, considerado apropiado. Se demostr la factibilidad de produccin de abonos orgnicos de buena calidad a partir de elodea.Elodea (Egeria densa, a problem in lakes and lagoons of Colombia, could be a raw material to produce cheap and good quality organic fertilizers. To evaluate the elodea for organic compost production, fertilizers were elaborated with six formulations: 1 Elodea 50% dolomitic lime 20% yeast 5% melasse 5% hene manure 20%. 2 Elodea 60% dolomitic lime 10% yeast 3% melasse 8% hene manure 19%. 3 Elodea 70% dolomitic lime 15% yeast 2% melasse 3% hene manure 10%. 4 Formulation 1 + earthworm fertilizer. 5 Formulation 2 + earthworm fertilizer. Formulation y 6 Formulation 3 + earthworm fertilizer. For each fertilizer the total content of N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, total oxidised carbon, coliforms and C:N were analyzed. Under greenhouse conditions the effect of the fertilizers were evaluated in an Andisol and with lettuce as indicator. During production of the fertilizer temperature and pH were observed. The results showed significant effect of the elements among organic fertilizer. The composition of these fertilizers was according to the requisites for Colombian Organic Fertilizers. The greenhouse experiment showed significant effect of sources and levels on yield and N-P-K content of the lettuce. In general, the formulation three was the best. The pH of the fertilizers varied from 7.0 to7.3, considered adequate. The feasibility to produce good quality organic fertilizers from elodea was demonstrated.

  10. [Effect of long-term fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in black soil].

    Liu, Jing-xin; Chi, Feng-qin; Xu, Xiu-hong; Kuang, En-jun; Zhang, Jiu-ming; Su, Qing-rui; Zhou, Bao-ku

    2015-10-01

    In order to study the effects of long-term different fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in arable black. soil, we examined microbial metabolic activities in two soil la- yers (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm) under four treatments (CK, NPK, M, MNPK) from a 35-year continuous fertilization field at the Ministry of Agriculture Key Field Observation Station of Harbin Black Soil Ecology Environment using Biolog-ECO method. The results showed that: in the 0-20 cm soil layer, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer(MNPK) increased the rate of soil microbial carbon source utilization and community metabolism richness, diversity and dominance; In the 20-40 cm layer, these indices of the MNPK treatment was lower than that of the NPK treat- ment; while NPK treatment decreased soil microbial community metabolism evenness in both layers. Six groups of carbon sources used by soil microbes of all the treatments were different between the two soil layers, and the difference was significant among all treatments in each soil layer (P < 0.05) , while the variations among treatments were different in the two soil layers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that soil microbial community metabolic function of all the treatments was different between the two soil layers, and there was difference among all treatments in each soil layer, while the influences of soil nutrients on soil microbial community metabolic function of all treatments were similar in each soil layer. It was concluded that long-term different fertilization affected soil microbial community functional diversity in both tillage soil layer and down soil layers, and chemical fertilization alone had a larger influence on the microbial community functional diversity in the 20-40 cm layer. PMID:26995915

  11. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils. PMID:24997950

  12. Comparative performance and profitability of two corn hybrids with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of NPK and organic manures on growth and yield of two maize hybrids. Experiment comprised of two factors (H) hybrids (H/sub 1/: FHY-421 and H/sub 2/: FHY-434) and (F) four fertilizer types, viz. F/sub 1/: inorganic fertilizer (control) NPK at the rate 120:60:50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/, F/sub 2/ poultry manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/, F/sub 3/: FYM at the rate 20 t ha/sup -1/ and F/sub 4/: bio-fertilizer at the rate 30 g kg/sup -1/ seed So, the treatments comprised of T/sub 1/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 1/), T/sub 2/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 3/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 1/), T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 5/ (F/sub 3/ + H/sub 1/, T/sub 6/ (F/sub 3/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 7/ (F/sub 4/ + H/sub 1/), and T/sub 8/ (F/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/). As the experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement, it was observed that although FHY-434 with inorganic fertilizer NPK at the rate 120:60:50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ i.e. T/sub 2/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 2/) produced maximum plant height (212.30 cm), number of grains cob/sup -1/ (606.60), 1000-grain weight (310.90 g ), grain yield (8.44 t ha/sup -1/) and net profit (As. 85803 ha/sup -1/), followed by FHY -434 with poultry manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/ i.e. T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/) in the same parameters, yet T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/) with net profit As. 83764 ha/sup -1/ is being advocated for organic cultivation for long term and sustainable production keeping in WTO scenario, as it produced grain yield 8.91 t ha/sup -1/. (author)

  13. FORMAS DE APLICAO DO FERTILIZANTE E NVEIS DE IRRIGAO NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO (Zea mays FERTILIZER APPLICATION METHODS AND IRRIGATION LEVELS ON EARLY (Zea mays L. DEVELOPMENT

    Jos Xavier de Almeida Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O desenvolvimento inicial da cultura do milho (Zea mays L. foi avaliado atravs da produo de matria seca das razes (MR e da parte area (MA em um experimento conduzido em vasos, abrigado sob uma estufa do tipo tnel baixo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 4, com os seguintes tratamentos: dois tipos de solo (Latossolo Vermelho Escuro, textura arenosa - LE e Latossolo Roxo, textura argilosa - LR; duas formas de aplicao do adubo (misturado ao solo - A1, e localizado no sulco de plantio - A2; e quatro nveis de irrigao (0%, 15%, 30% e 45% de dficit em relao gua evapotranspirada, com trs repeties. Houve um efeito significativo da forma de aplicao do adubo e dos nveis de irrigao sobre a MA, com uma produo 89,6% maior para a forma A2 de aplicao do adubo, bem como uma reduo da MA em funo do aumento do estresse hdrico. Verificou-se uma interao significativa entre os fatores solo e forma de aplicao do adubo sobre a MA, com uma MA maior no LE para a forma A1, enquanto a MA foi maior no LR para a forma A2. Quanto MR, houve efeito significativo do tipo de solo e forma de aplicao do adubo com uma maior produo no LR e na forma A2. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importncia de um suprimento adequado de gua no solo para os processos de absoro de nutrientes, o que resulta em um melhor desenvolvimento das plantas. A forma localizada de aplicao do adubo a mais recomendada para o caso dos solos de cerrado, onde a capacidade de fixao do fsforo elevada, principalmente nos mais argilosos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fertilizao; nveis de irrigao; arroz.

    Early corn development (Zea mays L. was evaluated through roots (MR and tops (MA dry matter in a low tunnel greenhouse pot experiment, in a 2x2x4 factorial completely randomized design with three replications, comparing the following treatments: two Oxisols (a sandy Latossolo Vermelho Escuro LE and a clay Latossolo Roxo - LR; two methods of fertilizer application (soil mixed - A1, and furrow planting line - A2, and four irrigation levels (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% deficit in relation to the evapotranspired water. Significant effects were observed for fertilizer application methods and irrigation levels on MA, with 89,6% higher yield for A2, and MA reduction for increased water stress. There was a significant interaction between soil types and fertilizer application methods on MA, with a larger MA in the LE soil for A1 method, while MA was larger in the LR soil for A2 method. For MR, it was observed a significant effect of soil type and fertilizer application methods, with a larger yield in the LR soil under the A2 form. The findings confirm the importance of adequate soil water supply for nutrient absorption processes, resulting in better plant development. The localized fertilizer application is recommended for Oxisols with higher clay contents and larger phosphorus fixation capacity.

    KEY-WORDS: Fertilizer; irrigation levels; Zea mays.

  14. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Priskorn, Lrke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than the...... 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  15. Follicular size is associated with the levels of transcripts and proteins of selected molecules responsible for the fertilization ability of oocytes of puberal gilts.

    Antosik, Pawel; Kempisty, Bartosz; Bukowska, Dorota; Jackowska, Marta; W?odarczyk, Renata; Budna, Joanna; Brssow, Klaus-Peter; Lianeri, Margarita; Jagodzi?ski, Pawel P; Ja?kowski, Jedrzej M

    2009-12-01

    The maturation and developmental competence of the oocyte is acquired during folliculogenesis. It is still unclear whether follicle size is associated with the levels of transcript and protein encoding molecules contributing to the fertilization ability of the porcine oocyte. Follicles were dissected from porcine ovaries after slaughter and classified as small (5 mm), aspirated cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in standard porcine IVM culture medium (TCM 199) for 44 h. In developmentally competent oocytes, assessed by determining the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) using a brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test, real-time quantitative PCR reaction methods, western-blot and confocal microscopy analysis were applied to determine the transcript levels of porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins pZP1, pZP2, pZP3, pZP3 alpha and integrins beta 1 and beta 2, as well as the levels of pZP3 and integrin beta 2 proteins. We observed significantly higher levels of pZP1, pZP3 and integrin beta1 and beta2 transcripts in oocytes collected from medium follicles as compared with small follicles (P<0.001). Moreover, we found an increased content of all investigated mRNAs in oocytes isolated from large follicles as compared with small follicles (P<0.001). Western-blot analysis demonstrated a higher level of pZP3 protein in oocytes isolated from large and medium follicles as compared with small follicles (P<0.001). Our results suggest that the levels of transcripts and proteins for selected molecules contributing to the fertilization ability of oocytes are associated with follicular size in puberal gilts. PMID:19672040

  16. ncreasing of Keprok Citrus Production in the Andisols of Karo by a Local Compound Fertilizers

    Enggis Tuherkih

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of keprok citrus production in term of quantity and quality depends on soil properties and fertilization. Many factors affected efectiveness and efficiency of fertilizers i.e. soil, climate, plant species, growth period of plant, plant productivity, and type and rate of fertilizers. Study on the effect of SUMUT-1 and SUMUT-2 compound fertilizers on keprok citrus production was carried out in Sukadame Village, Tanah Karo District from January to December 2008. The purpose of the research were to evaluate the effectiveness of new compound fertilizer SUMUT-1 and SUMUT-2 on leaf nutrient content, quality and quantity production of keprok citrus as well as to determine the optimum rate of SUMUT-1 dan SUMUT-2. Ten treatments were tested and arranged into a randomized completely block design with three replications. The fertilizer application rates of SUMUT 1 and SUMUT 2 were 400, 550, 700, dan 850 kg-1ha-1year-1, meanwhile dosages of fertilizer recomended application of NPK originated from single fertiliser namely urea, SP-36, and KCl and farmer practice were used as control. The results indicated that application of SUMUT-1 and SUMUT-2 were more effective than fertilizers coming from single NPK fertilizer with RAE value >100%. Furthermore, SUMUT-1 was better than SUMUT-2 in improving N, P, K contents in citrus leaf. The optimum application rate of SUMUT-1 was 700 kg-1ha-1year-1 reaching the citrus production of 36,29 Mg-1 ha-1 year-1 with fruit grade of about 51% AB and 49% CD. These matched with the SPO (Standard Procedure Operation for citrus of about 20 Mg-1 ha-1 year-1.

  17. Natural Radioactivity in Produced and Imported Phosphate Fertilizers in Tunisia

    Tunisia is the fifth phosphate producer in the world. Many types of phosphate fertilizers are produced in the country and many others are imported and used in agriculture. It is known that natural radioactivity content (NORM), due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K isotopes in phosphate industry can be elevated. This work consists on a study of the concentration of these radionuclides in some produced phosphate fertilizers in Tunisia and sum exported ones. The study concerns the most used fertilizers in the country. It was found that generally the Tunisian fertilizers contain the highest activity concentrations of radium and thorium isotopes with the exceptions for 40K. TSP contains the highest concentration of 226Ra (186.2 ± 14.5 Bq/kg) and of 232Th (33.7 ± 3.5 Bq/kg). The highest amount of 40K was found in one type of NPK (9969.5 ± 123.6 Bq/kg). The radium equivalent index was calculated for all the analysed fertilizers and was found to be the highest in imported NPKs samples (the maximum value was about 775 Bq/kg) because of their high content of 40K. For the Tunisian fertilizers the maximum radium equivalent index was about 238 Bq/kg in TSP. (author)

  18. The influence of N-fertilization regimes on N2O emissions and denitrification in rain-fed cropland during the rainy season.

    Dong, Zhixin; Zhu, Bo; Zeng, Zebin

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization regimes on N2O emissions and denitrification rates were evaluated by in situ field incubation experiments with intact soil cores and the acetylene block technique. Intact soil cores were collected from long-term field experiments involving several N fertilization regimes, including single synthetic N fertilizer (N), organic manure (OM), synthetic N, P, K fertilizer (NPK), organic manure with synthetic fertilizer (OMNPK), crop straw residue with synthetic fertilizer (SRNPK) and no nitrogen fertilizer (NF). N2O was sampled from the head space of the cylinders to determine the daily N2O emission and denitrification rate. The results showed that the N2O emissions were greatly influenced by the specific fertilization regime even when the same nitrogen rate was applied. The mean N2O emissions and denitrification rates from the N, OM, NPK, OMNPK and SRNPK treatment were 2.22, 2.66, 1.94, 2.53, 1.67 and 4.63, 5.96, 4.15, 5.41, 3.65 mg per m(2) per day, respectively. The application of OM significantly increased the N2O emission and denitrification compared to the application of NPK because of the high soil organic carbon (SOC) content of OM. However, SRNPK increased the SOC content and decreased the N2O emissions significantly compared to the OM and OMNPK treatments because the addition of crop straw with a high C/N ratio to soil with a low inorganic N content induced N immobilization. The contents of soil nitrate and ammonium were the main limiting factors for N2O emissions in a positive regression as follows: Ln (N2O) = 2.511 + 1.258 × Ln ([NH4(+)] + [NO3(-)]). Crop straw residue combined with synthetic fertilizer is recommended as an optimal strategy for mitigating N2O emissions and denitrification-induced N loss in rain-fed croplands. PMID:25220444

  19. Respuesta del papayo al riego y a la fertilización N-P-K en un Vertisol

    Adriana Mellado-V\\u00E1zquez; V\\u00EDctor Volke-Haller; Mario Tapia-Vargas; Prometeo S\\u00E1nchez-Garc\\u00EDa; Abel Quevedo-Nolasco

    2005-01-01

    Se evaluó la respuesta del papayo (Caricapapaya L.), variedad Maradol, en términos de rendimiento, eficiencia del uso del agua y productividad económica, a sistemas de riego y fertilización N-P-K en fertirriego, y convencional por surcos y fertilización N-P-K al suelo, en un Vertisol del Valle de Apatzingán, Michoacán, México. Los niveles estudiados fueron: para riego por goteo, con una y dos cintillas; y para fertilización con fertirriego, 220-30-160, 250-40-180 y 280-50-200 kg ha-1 de N-P2...

  20. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen; Müller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether an a...... treatment with a lower EC value like 0.75 mS·cm-1 to improve the estimate of the optimal EC level from a curved function for the seed production and quality parameters....... additional foliar calcium application influenced the same parameters. Subsequently, the effect of the various treatments on the germination of the obtained seeds was explored. Two identical experiments (A and B) were carried out with five concentrations of nutrient solutions corresponding to an electrical...... conductivity (EC) of 1.25 mS·cm-1, 2.50 mS·cm-1, 3.75 mS·cm-1, 5.00 mS·cm-1, and 6.25 mS·cm-1. Additionally, plants were sprayed with a 0.5% foliar-applied calcium solution or deionized water (control) three times during the experimental period. In Expt. A, the concentration of fertilizer significantly...

  1. Evaluation of BNF by groundnut and responses of cereal crops to different levels of nitrogen fertilizer in the coastal area of the Syrian Arab Republic

    A two course crop rotation experiment was conducted over a period of two years in order to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and its contribution to the subsequent cereal crop in terms of its N-conserving effect. Also the response of the treatment crop (Zea mays L.) to different levels of N-fertilization (100 and 150 kg N ha-1) were evaluated. Moreover, the effect of a previous crop, N rate and timing on the test crop (Triticum aestivum) was assessed. Results showed that groundnut fixed as much as 52.9 and 23.4 kg N ha-1 at pod filling stage and 66.7 and 34.4 at physiological maturity stage for the 1992 and 1993 growing season, respectively. The test crop did not benefit from the residual N due to the high precipitation in the region leaching down most of the inorganic nitrogen beyond the root zone. In the 1992 growing season, the lower N rate for maize (100 kg N ha-1) was superior over the higher rate (150 kg N ha-1). But due to water stress in the 1993 growing season, a different trend with regard to the response of maize to fertilizer N was obtained. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 10 tabs

  2. INFLUENCE OF NPK AND LIME APLICATION ON ERVA-MATE GROWTH, ROOT-ROT SEVERITY AND SOIL FUNGI POPULATION1

    Igor Poletto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the influence of the application of NPK and liming doses in the soil, on the growth of Erva-mate, the severity of rot-root and the fungi population of the soil. To do so, an experiment was installed at the green house, in the Forest Nursery of UFSM, using an experimental design completely randomized factorial 4x3x4 (Factor F: Fusarium spp. inoculation; Factor C: soil limestone; Factor A: NPK doses , totaling 48 treatments. The seedlings were cultivated in vases containing 2 kg of soil, classified as ‘Red-Yellow Argisoil’ (clay soil. At the end of the experiment was measured the stem diameter, height of the aerial part, leaves number, aerial dry biomass, root dry biomass and total dry biomass of the seedlings. Also, the soil was collected, from each treatment, for the chemical analysis and the counting of the fungi population. It was observed that the association among application of NPK and liming in the soil hampered the development of Erva-mate seedlings. The analysis of some variables suggests that the limestone absence provided greater resistance of seedlings to the attack of Fusarium spp. or the severity of Fusarium spp. was reduced in lower pH. The fungi population of the soil presented varied behavior depending on the applied treatments.

  3. Influência de lâminas de água e adubação mineral na nutrição e produtividade de arroz de terras altas Influence of water levels and mineral fertilization on nutrition and yield of upland rice

    C. A. C. Crusciol

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Para recomendações de adubação mais racionais, é fundamental o conhecimento das exigências nutricionais da cultura do arroz, nos diversos sistemas de cultivo. Objetivando estudar a influência de lâminas de água na nutrição e exportação de nutrientes pelo arroz de terras altas, cultivar IAC 201, sob dois níveis de adubação, foram instalados experimentos em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em Selvíria (MS, nos anos agrícolas de 1994/95 e 1995/96. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da precipitação natural e de quatro lâminas de água fornecidas por aspersão. A lâmina L2 foi baseada no coeficiente de cultura (Kc do arroz de terras altas. As lâminas L1 e L3 foram definidas como 0,5 e 1,5 vez os Kcs utilizados em L2, respectivamente, e na lâmina L4 foi adotado Kc = 1,95 durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Em 1995/96, foram utilizados os mesmos tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as subparcelas constituídas por duas doses de adubação (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 de N, 90 de P2O5 e 30 de K2O, e AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 de N, 180 de P2O5 e 60 de K2O. A menor disponibilidade de água durante a fase vegetativa e reprodutiva proporcionou redução na produção de matéria seca, nos teores e quantidades de nutrientes acumuladas na parte aérea. O sistema irrigado por aspersão, independentemente da lâmina utilizada, proporcionou maior produtividade de grãos e exportação de nutrientes. Em solos com teores adequados de nutrientes para o sistema de sequeiro, não há resposta ao aumento da adubação mineral pelo arroz no sistema irrigado por aspersão, apesar da maior extração de nutrientes.In order to achieve more sound fertilizer recommendations, knowledge about nutritional requirements of rice in different growing systems is fundamental. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of water levels on nutrition and nutrient exportation by upland rice (cultivar IAC 201 under two levels of mineral fertilizer. Experiments were conducted in the growing seasons of 1994/95 and 1995/96 on a Typic Haplustox, in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments were five water levels: natural rain and four water levels provided by sprinkler irrigation. Water level 2 (L2 was based on the crop coefficient (Kc for upland rice. L1 and L3 were then defined as 0.5 and 1.5 times the Kcs used in L2, respectively. For water level 4 (L4, Kc = 1.95 was used during the entire plant cycle. The same treatments were applied in 1995/96 in a split-plot scheme. The subplots consisted in two NPK-fertilization levels (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 of N, 90 of P2O5, and 30 of K2O; and AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 of N, 180 of P2O5, and 60 of K2O. Low water availability during the vegetative and reproductive phases decreased the dry matter yield, nutrient contents, and nutrient uptake. Sprinkler irrigation increased grain yield and nutrient exportation, independent of the water level. In soils with appropriate nutrient levels for the dryland system, the irrigated rice did not respond to increased mineral fertilization, despite the larger nutrient uptake.

  4. Abortamento de frutos da nogueira macadmia sob influncia da adubao mineral / Macadamia nut abortion as affected by mineral fertilization

    Marcos Jos, Perdon; Eduardo, Suguino; Adriana Novais, Martins; Rogrio Peres, Soratto.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A nogueira macadmia (Macadamia integrifolia) apresenta elevada taxa de abortamento de frutos. A nutrio desequilibrada pode ser um dos fatores que contribui para isso. Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar a influncia de doses de N e do parcelamento da adubao NPK, de cobertura, na reduo do [...] abortamento de frutos da nogueira macadmia. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, durante trs anos agrcolas, num Latossolo Vermelho, em Jaboticabal, Estado de So Paulo. O primeiro experimento foi constitudo por cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1) e quatro repeties. O segundo experimento foi constitudo por quatro formas de parcelamento da adubao NPK (T1: outubro T2: outubro + dezembro, T3: outubro + dezembro + fevereiro e T4: outubro+dezembro + fevereiro + abril) e cinco repeties. A maior parte dos frutos (77,7 %) foi abortada no incio de seu desenvolvimento. A aplicao de N, bem como o parcelamento da adubao NPK de cobertura, pelo menos em duas vezes (outubro e dezembro), no alteraram o nmero de frutos abortados por planta de macadmia, mas, por aumentarem o nmero total de frutos emitidos e reduzirem a percentagem de abortamento, proporcionaram maior produtividade de nozes. Abstract in english Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) has a high nut abortion rate. Unbalanced nutrition may be one of the factors that contributes to this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of N doses and the split application of NPK fertilizers on fruit abortion of macadamia nut. Two experi [...] ments were conducted during three growing seasons on an Oxisol, in Jaboticabal, So Paulo State, Brazil. The first experiment consisted of five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 yr-1) and four replications. The second experiment consisted of four splitting modes of NPK fertilizers (T1: October, T2: October + December, T3: October + December + February and T4: October + December + February + April) and five replications. Most fruits (77.7%) aborted earlier in their development. The N application and the split fertilization of NPK as topdress for at least twice (October and December), did not affect the number of aborted fruits per macadamia tree, but, by increasing the total number of set fruits and reducing the percentage of abortion, provided higher nut productivity.

  5. How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?

    Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

  6. Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with plant growth, nodulation, and shoot npk in legumes

    Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with different root and shoot growth, nodulation and shoot NPK parameters was studied in three legumes viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora. The three test legume species showed different patterns of root and shoot growth, nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and shoot N, P and K content. Different mycorrhizal structures viz. mycelium, arbuscules and vesicles showed different patters of correlation with different studied parameters. Mycelial infection showed an insignificantly positive correlation with root and shoot dry biomass and total root length. Maximum root length was however, negatively associated with mycelial infection. Both arbuscular and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with shoot dry biomass and different parameters of root growth. The association between arbuscular infection and maximum root length was significant. All the three mycorrhizal structures showed a positive correlation with number and biomass of nodules. The association between arbuscular infection and nodule number was significant. Mycelial infection was positively correlated with percentage and total shoot N and P. Similarly percentage N was also positively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. By contrast, total shoot N showed a negative association with arbuscular as well as vesicular infections. Similarly both percentage and total shoot P were negatively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. All the associations between mycorrhizal parameters and shoot K were negative except between vesicular infection and shoot %K. (author)

  7. Fertilizer-nitrogen residues: useful conservation and pollutant potential under maize

    A study of the fate of labelled fertilizer nitrogen in cropped soil, with particular reference to leaching after harvest, is reported. The experiment was carried out in a chernozem soil with three replications and two treatments (I and II), with maize as the crop: I: NPK(120kgN.ha-1; 100kgP.ha-1; 126kgK.ha-1. II: NPK+OM(120kgN.ha-1; 100kgP.ha-1; 126kgK.ha-1 plus 5000kg of organic matter (ground straw) per hectare). A 4-m2 plot was fertilized with (15NH4)2SO4 containing 10 atom 15N% excess. Tensiometers and access tubes were installed for measuring water content and water pressure at depths of 30, 60, 100, 150 and 200cm. Harvested crop as well as soil cores taken after crop harvest were analysed for 15N. The highest content of fertilizer-derived NO3-15N at 0-60cm depth was 1ppm, and at 120-180cm depth it was 0.3ppm. Climatological data were also obtained. There was evidence that, after harvest, mineral nitrogen had moved to a depth of 2m and some 10% was derived from the labelled fertilizer. Organic matter additions tended to reduce both leaching of nitrate and the percentage of leached Ndff. (author)

  8. Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado

    Fabiano André Petter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar made from Eucalyptus on soil fertility, and on the yield and development of upland rice. The experiment was performed during two years in a randomized block design with four replicates, in a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. Four doses of NPK 05-25-15, annually distributed in stripes (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1, and four doses of biochar (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha-1, applied once in the first year - alone or with NPK - were evaluated. In the first year, biochar positively affected soil fertility [total organic carbon (TOC, Ca, P, Al, H+Al, and pH], at 0-10 cm soil depth, and it was the only factor with significant effect on yield. In the second year, the effect of biochar diminished or was overcome by the fertilizer. TOC moved down in the soil profile to the 0-20 cm depth, influencing K availability in this layer. In the second year, there was a significant interaction between biochar and the fertilizer on plant growth and biomass dry matter accumulation.

  9. Response of Seed Yield and its Components of Safflower to Sowing Dates, Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Times of Foliar Application with Milagrow

    S.M.S. El-Hety

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high productivity of safflower is outcome of many agronomical practices such as sowing dates, N-levels and times of foliar fertilization. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing dates (1st Sept., 1st Oct. and 1st Nov., N-levels (40, 60 and 80 kg N fed-1 and times of foliar application with Milagrow (without, one and two times on seed yield of safflower. Each sowing date was practiced in separate experiment. Every experiment was carried out in strip plot design with three replications. Sowing safflower at 1st October gave the highest values of seed yield and its components in both seasons. The lowest means of seed yield and its components were resulted from sowing at 1st September in both seasons. Raising N-levels markedly accompanied with obvious increase in all studied characters in both seasons. Application of 80 kg N fed-1 significantly resulted in the highest values of all studied characters of safflower. Spraying safflower plants with Milagrow two times after 30 and 70 days from sowing produced the highest values of seed yield and its components in both seasons. On the other wise, control treatment gave the lowest values of these characters in both seasons. From the obtained data, it can be concluded that sowing safflower on 1st October and mineral fertilizing with 80 kg N fed-1 beside twice foliar application with Milagrow as a natural growth promoter in order to maximizing its seed yield and its components under the environmental conditions of Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

  10. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS

    Phosphorus (P) is a primary nutrient necessary for plant growth. When soil P level is below what is needed for plant needs, P is supplied to the soil by the addition of P fertilizer or organic residuals (i.e., manure). Because of P fertilizer use in the past few decades or application of manure, a g...

  11. [Soil C, P and microbial biomass C, P response to different fertilizations in the hillslope cropland of purple soil].

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Ya-juan; Peng, Yan; Jin, Jin; Zhu, Bo; Yu, Gui-rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the changes and coupling characteristics of carbon (C), phosphorus (P) and microbial C, P in a hillslope cropland of purple soil. The results showed that total organic carbon (TOC) ranged from 90.8 to 100.8 g . kg-1 under organic fertilizer or straw combined with inorganic fertilizer treatments (including N, NP and NPK) as compared with nitrogen (N) application only (62.2 g . kg-1). Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 0.65 to 0.84 g . kg-1 in organic combined with inorganic fertilization treatments, and that under straw combined with inorganic fertilizer treatments was 23%-38% of organic fertilizer combined with inorganic fertilization treatments. The microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) under N fertilizer was significantly decreased as compared with combined fertilization treatments. The ratios of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) to MBP under combined fertilization treatments were between 5 to 26, and the TOC/TP ratios under organic fertilizer and straw combined treatments were between 92 to 137 and 296 to 653, respectively, while those under N fertilizer treatment were 59 and 2000, respectively. The results indicated that combined organic and inorganic fertilizers would be helpful for enhancing P availability and increasing its potential capacity in purple soil. PMID:25985660

  12. Relation of zinc levels and water soluble phosphorus in suphala [fertilizer] on uptake of phosphorus and zinc

    Under pot culture, four levels of Zn 0, 2, 4 and 6 ppm, were studied in relation to 30, 50 and 100 % water soluble levels of phosphorus in suphala for the dry matter production and uptake of P and Zn by maize on acidic soil of Goa and black cotton soil of Maharashtra. 32P and 65Zn tracers were used for this investigation. The results revealed that application of Zn has increased the dry matter and uptake of phosphorus upto 4 ppm of Zn application and it has decreased at 6 ppm Zn level. This inhibition of P uptake was observed at all water soluble levels of P and in both the soils studied. Zn uptake by maize in both the soils under study was increased with increasing level of Zn, irrespective of water soluble level of P in suphala. (author)

  13. Effects of Variety and Fertilizers on Number of Grains/Cob of Maize in Asaba Area of Delta State

    Enujeke E. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta state University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June, 2010 to evaluate the effects of variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on number of grain/cob of maize. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times in a factorial layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three different maize varieties sown at 75c...

  14. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  15. Fertility potential of rabbit bucks fed maize-based diets containing graded levels of fumonisin B1

    Kingsley Idahor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1-contaminated maize-based diets have been reported to be mycotoxic in animal species, yet more validated data and biomarkers are needed. In this study, Fumonisin B1 (FB1 infected yellow-maize was used to formulate Diets 1, 2 and 3, containing 1,700, 1,800 and 1,900g FB1/kg diet, respectively. Sixty sexually matured bucks and does were used, but only the bucks were fed the FB1-contaminated diets for eight weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the treated bucks were mated to the dry does that were fed FB1-free yellow maize-based diet. Effects on testis and live weight, feed utilisation, conception rate, embryo development and spermatozoa production per gram testis were monitored. Results indicated significant depression (P<0.05 in feed intake, from 546.7712.09g/week in Diet 1 with the lowest FB1 concentration, to 509.8421.98g/week in Diet 3 with the highest FB1 concentration in the diets. Weight gain was drastically reduced (P<0.05 from 34.139.32g/week in Diet 1 to 20.3822.13g/week in Diet 3. Meanwhile, some of the untreated does were pregnant in all the treatments, indicating that FB1 concentration at 2.0mg/kg diet may not be spermaticidal and there were no abnormalities in the embryos. It was observed that the paired testis weight value in Diet 1 (3.060.31 was not significantly different (P>0.05 from that of Diet 3 (2.940.23. The testicular elements were distorted by the dietary FB1, but did not follow a definite pattern. Spermatozoa production per gram testis values (31.1 37.3 x 106 recorded were much higher than 24 x 106 for a healthy rabbit buck. Consequently, FB1 concentration < 2.0mg/kg diet may not affect the fertility potentials of bucks orally dosed for a relatively short period. This observation further elucidates earlier discoveries that FB1 is not a reproductive toxicant. Hence, the United States Food and Drug Administration proposed a guideline of 2.0mg total fumonisins/kg diet, to be adopted with strict adherence to safeguard healthy living.

  16. Changes in soil nematode communities under the impact of fertilizers

    Gruzdeva, L. I.; Matveeva, E. M.; Kovalenko, T. E.

    2007-06-01

    Changes taking place in the communities of soil nematodes of an artificially sown meadow under the impact of annually applied mineral fertilizers have been studied in a field experiment for nine years. It is shown that changes in the species composition, trophic structure, and numbers of nematodes from different genera depend on the fertilizer applied and on the competitiveness of the plant species grown. The spectra of nematode genera sensitive to the complete mineral fertilizer (NPK) and to the particular nutrients have been identified with the use of a number of parameters, including the maturity index of nematode communities, the biotope preferences of the particular nematode genera, and the general pattern of nematode habitats. The results obtained in this study can be used to assess the effect of mineral fertilizers on the soil fauna and to suggest optimum application rates of mineral fertilizers ensuring the sustainable development of meadow herbs. The use of the data on the trophic structure of nematode communities for predicting the ways of organic matter decomposition in the soil is discussed.

  17. Association between fertilin beta, protamines 1 and 2 and spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein mRNA levels, fertilization ability of human spermatozoa, and quality of preimplantation embryos.

    Pawe? P Jagodzi?ski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization involves a series of cellular interactions culminating in the fusion of gamete membranes, creating a zygote and then an embryo. During the process of human fertilization in vivo or in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF, sperm must be capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction, binding to the zona pellucida (ZP, and penetrating the ZP to fuse with the oolema. The key role in this process is played by fertilin beta. Protamines and histones are the proteins that bind to sperm chromatin and contribute in chromatin remodeling during early spermiogenesis. It has been suggested that these proteins may also participate in successful fertilization and embryo development. Using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR reaction (QR-PCR methods and zygote and embryo scoring, we compared fertilin beta, protamine 1 (PRM1, protamine 2 (PRM2, spermatid-specific linker histone 1 (HILS1 mRNAs levels, in vitro fertilization ability of mature spermatozoa, and quality of embryos obtained from in vitro fertilization (IVF. We found significantly lower contents of fertilin beta transcript in spermatozoa from patients in which IVF fertilization failed (p<0.001. We also noticed a correlation between high levels of fertilin beta and increased quality of embryos (p<0.05. We observed an increase in PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels in spermatozoa obtained from patients with successful in vitro fertilization versus compared to the number of these transcripts isolated from spermatozoa of patients in which in vitro fertilization failed (P<0.001, (P<0.001, respectively. We found direct correlation between PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels to the quality of embryos (r=0.31, P=0.012, (r=0.31, P=0.011, respectively. The differences in HILS1 mRNA contents between these two groups were not statistically significant (P>0,05. We did not observe an association between HILS1 transcript contents and quality of embryos (r=0.22, P=0.076. We suggest that fertilin beta and protamines contribute not only to successful fertilization, but may have an important impact in development of preimplantation embryos.

  18. Incorporation of mineral phosphorus and potassium on leather waste (collagen): A new N{sub collagen}PK-fertilizer with slow liberation

    Nogueira, Francisco G.E.; Prado, Nayara T. do [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz C.A., E-mail: luizoliveira@ufla.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Bastos, Ana R.R. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Lopes, Joao H. [Departamento de Quimica, UNICAMP, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Janice G. de [Departamento de Ciencia do Solo, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000, Lavras-MG (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    The feasibility of using a solid waste (rich in nitrogen) from the leather industry, after chromium extraction, as adsorbent for P and K, for possible utilization as NPK fertilizer was evaluated. The materials, with and without the addition of P and K, were characterized by chemical analyses, infrared spectroscopy, EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and SEM (scanning electronic microscopy). Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used for analyzing the experimental data, which showed a better fit to the Freundlich model, thus suggesting a multilayer adsorption process on the surface of the adsorbent. A preliminary test in greenhouse demonstrates that the P and K incorporation on the matrix rich in nitrogen (collagen) is a interesting alternative to use such material as NPK fertilizer. The application of N{sub collagen}PK formulations, as a source of nutrients for the growth of rice plants, showed promising agronomic results.

  19. Use of Cocopeat and Zeolite as a Seedling Media for Cocoa and Its Response to Some Levels of Available Water

    Leizy Free Agustin F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, cocoa pod husk is commonly collected as heap nearby processing facilities or in the field and being considered as waste. To minimize the negative impact of the husks and to obtain added value an effort to develop the husk into granule fertilizer has been carried out. Fresh cocoa pod husk was hulled to obtain organic paste, then mixed with 5% zeolite and 5% rock phosphate powder (w/w. The mixture was kept for 2 weeks prior to granulation. The granules were characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests of the granules were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedlings as indicator plants. The tests were set according to completely randomized design and the treatments were arranged factorially. The evaluated treatments consisted of rates of granules and rates of inorganic fertilizer applications. The granules were applied at 7 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 g/seedling. The granule treatments were combined with application of inorganic compound fertilizer at rates of 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15. The inorganic fertilizers were applied four times during experiment. The results indicated that the granule has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, and high content of organic carbon and phosphorus. The growth of coffee and cocoa seedlings increased due to application of granules derived from cocoa pod husk. Responses of coffee and cocoa seedlings to granule application conformed to quadratic equations. The optimum application rate of granules was 14.5 g/seedling for Robusta coffee seedlings and 14.6 g/seedling for cocoa seedlings. Granule application may replaced role of inorganic fertilizer to increase growth of cocoa and coffee seedling.Key words: Cocoa pod husk, organic waste, seedling growth, zeolite, rock phosphate, minerals, Theobroma cacao L., Coffea canephora.

  20. Restoration of fertility of gleyic fluvisols to increase rice yields using shellfish products in Toumbokro, Cte d'Ivoire

    KOUADIO Koffi Patrice

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study designed to characterize the effects of shellfish products on the chemical properties of fluvisols gleyic and yield of rice was carried out in Toumbokro, Yamoussoukros region, Cte d'Ivoire. The work has been focused on soil amendment by three types of shells (Achatina spp Donax spp and Ostrea spp. Three doses of shellfish products (500, 1000 and 1500 kg.ha- 1 and NPK fertilizer were tested in a split-plot design with three repetitions. At ground level, the study showed that the shellfish products have positive effects very marked on all the physical and chemical characteristics. The effects of these shellfish products on the richness of the soil occur gradually. The increase of pH, due to the products made, creates a condition favorable to microorganisms that become active and mineralize sufficient organic substances. The study indicates that shellfish products induce high levels of production of rice cultivation. The average of yield of the experiments carried out is set at 5.41 t.ha-1 in Toumbokro. These performances, never recorded insubsistence agriculture, are explained by the effective correction of mineral deficiencies unsuspected soil by the flow of shellfish products. All the variables studied define the contribution of 1000 kg.ha-1 shredded shells of Achatina spp, as the optimum for soil amendment.

  1. Restoration of Fertility of Gleyic Fluvisols to Increase Rice Yields using Shellfish Products in Toumbokro, Cte d'Ivoire

    Kouadio Koffi Patrice

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study designed to characterize the effects of shellfish products on the chemical properties of fluvisols gleyic and yield of rice was carried out in Toumbokro, Yamoussoukros region, Cte d'Ivoire. The work has been focused on soil amendment by three types of shells (Achatina spp Donax spp and Ostrea spp. Three doses of shellfish products (500, 1000 and 1500 kg.ha-1 and NPK fertilizer were tested in a split-plot design with three repetitions. At ground level, the study showed that the shellfish products have positive effects very marked on all the physical and chemical characteristics. The effects of these shellfish products on the richness of the soil occur gradually. The increase of pH, due to the products made, creates a condition favorable to microorganisms that become active and mineralize sufficient organic substances. The study indicates that shellfish products induce high levels of production of rice cultivation. The average of yield of the experiments carried out is set at 5.41 t.ha-1 in Toumbokro. These performances, never recorded in subsistence agriculture, are explained by the effective correction of mineral deficiencies unsuspected soil by the flow of shellfish products. All the variables studied define the contribution of 1000 kg.ha-1 shredded shells of Achatina spp, as the optimum for soil amendment.

  2. Alternate nitrogen amendments for organic fertilizers.

    Sridhar, M K; Adeoye, G O; AdeOluwa, O O

    2001-12-19

    The use of compost or manure in agriculture as an organic source of nutrients is common in many tropical, developing countries like Nigeria. One of the drawbacks of such materials is their low nitrogen (N) content (=1% N). Farmers commonly use chemical N fertilizers such as urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and NPK formulations to obtain better crop growth and yield. These chemical supplements may have a negative impact on the environment through nitrate leaching into water, leading to eutrophication of surface waters that can affect public health. Gliricidia sepium, a fast-growing, tropical, perennial hedge plant was tested as a source of N in organo-mineral fertilizer formulations. Average nutrient content of Gliricidia is 3.8% N, 0.32% P, 1.8% K, 0.8% Ca, and 0.2% Mg. Using a sand culture and Amaranthus caudatus as a test crop, it was shown that amending commercial composts with 30% Gliricidia prunings would benefit many small-scale farmers and control environmental pollution. PMID:12805738

  3. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens=Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control, T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fertilizer was applied at three month intervals and castor bean cake organic fertilizer was applied once a month (40 g per pot for both. Plant height and the number of leaves and shoots were evaluated one year after the beginning of the trial. The organic fertilizer on its own and with EPL (T7, T8 and T9 produced the tallest plants and highest number of leaves. Organic fertilizer with 0.1 and 0.2% EPL produced the most shoots. For all variables, chemical fertilizer, both with and without EPL, was less effective than organic fertilizer with EPL and treatment with only EPL was less effective than treatment with organic fertilizer.O efeito da utilização do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com adubação orgânica e química foi avaliado no desenvolvimento de mudas de areca bambu. Os tratamentos foram T1= sem adubação (testemunha; T2= T2= EPL 0,1%; T3= EPL 0,2%; T4= NPK-20-5-20; T5= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,1%; T6= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,2%; T7= torta de mamona; T8= torta de mamona + EPL 0,1% e T9= torta de mamona + EPL 0,2%. As soluções de EPL foram 0,1% e 0,2%, aplicados 100 mL por vaso, quinzenalmente. O adubo químico NPK 20-5-20 foi aplicado trimestralmente e a torta de mamona, adubo orgânico utilizado, foi aplicado mensalmente (ambos 40 g por vaso. A altura da planta, o número de folhas e o número de brotações foram avaliados após um ano do início do experimento. A adubação orgânica isolada e com adição de EPL (T7, T8 e T9 proporcionou maiores alturas de planta e maior número de folhas. A adubação orgânica com a adição de EPL 0,1 e 0,2% produziu mais brotos. Para todas as variáveis, a adubação química com e sem o EPL foram menos efetivas que a adubação orgânica com EPL e os tratamentos com EPL isoladamente foram menos efetivos que os tratamentos com adubação orgânica.

  4. Effect of Different Levels of Fertilizer Nano_Iron Chelates on Growth and Yield Characteristics of Two Varieties of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Varamin 88 and Viroflay

    AlirezaLadan Moghadam; Hesam Vattani; Nasim Baghaei; Narges Keshavarz

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate effect of different concentrations of iron chelate Nano fertilizer on growth and performance of two kinds of Spinach, an experiment was performed as a plan of completely random plot in three alternations and in study field of Khazra Company in 2012. First studied factor was different types of Spinach including Varamin 88 and Viroflayand second studied factor was different concentrations of fertilizer (0, 2 and 4 ppt, respectively). Nano fertilizer solution injection wa...

  5. Farmers' Use of Integrated Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management Practices for Sustainable Crop Production: A Field-level Study in Bangladesh

    M. G. Farouque; Hiroyuki Tekeya

    2008-01-01

    Problem statement: The most pressing problem for Bangladesh agriculture is the current state of gradual decreasing of soil fertility, stagnating crop yields and declining productivity in a range of food crops. According to crop production scientists, Integrated Soil Fertility (ISF) and Nutrient Management (NM) is an advanced approach that can serve as a remedy to improve crop yields and to preserve soil fertility in the long run. Approach: This study was th...

  6. Fertilization Effects on the Chemical Composition and In vitro Organic Matter Digestibility of Semi-natural Meadows as Predicted by NIR Spectrometry

    Laura M. DALE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of livestock grazing in highly-productive mountain meadows is an important aspect for the economic viability and the environmental impact of a grassland-based farm. The main aim of this study was to build near infrared models to determine the chemical composition and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Romanian meadow forages. The treatments were organic and mineral fertilizer combinations, and forage samples were obtained from three fertilization experiments conducted in the Apuseni Mountains; these samples were analysed using classical and NIR methods. The samples were scanned in the NIR wavelength band. The CRA-W Gembloux ‘local’ calibration models were validated with Romanian meadow forages and then used in order to predict the forage quality of samples. A second objective of the study was to determine the effects of fertilization on forage quality. The results showed a decrease in crude protein content from the NPK treatment (150:75:75, which can be explained by a reduction of Fabaceae plants with this treatment from 17.25% of the populations in the control (semi-natural meadow not fertilized to 6.25% in the fertilized plots. The decrease in protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility was related to a reduced Fabaceae presence. Our recommendation is to use mineral fertilization with NPK doses less than 100:50:50 to improve meadow productivity; meanwhile organic fertilization can also be used to complement and maintain biodiversity and forage quality.

  7. Nveis de vibrao e choques em diferentes estradas durante o transporte de ovos frteis / Levels of vibration and shock on different roads during transportation of fertile eggs

    Arica C., Nazareno; Iran J. O. da, Silva; Afrnio M. C., Vieira; Frederico M. C., Vieira; Ksia O. S., Miranda.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Os nveis de vibrao e choques podem, devido ao transporte, afetar a qualidade dos ovos frteis. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi caracterizar e avaliar a influncia das estradas sobre os nveis de vibrao e choques no transporte dos ovos frteis. A pesquisa foi conduzida na empresa integradora avco [...] la no estado de So Paulo, por meio do acompanhamento de trs carregamentos em diferentes estaes do ano (primavera, vero e outono). Um caminho climatizado do tipo ba foi utilizado, com capacidade para 592 caixas de ovos, totalizando em mdia 90.840 ovos. As avaliaes dos nveis de vibrao (m s-2) e choques nas estradas de terra e asfalto foram registradas por meio de quatro acelermetros da marca Hobo. Para o nvel de vibrao o delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente aleatorizado com esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 4. Para o nmero de choques o delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente aleatorizado com esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Os piores nveis de vibrao e choques da carga ocorreram no sentido vertical. A estrada de asfalto ofereceu as piores condies para o transporte de ovos. As perdas no transporte ultrapassaram 1% e so atribudas s trincas e quebra dos ovos. Abstract in english The levels of vibration and shock due to transport can affect the quality of fertile eggs. The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the influence of roads on the levels of vibration and shock in the transport of fertile eggs. The survey was conducted in the poultry integrator compan [...] y in the State of So Paulo, by tracking shipments in three different seasons (spring, summer and autumn). An air-conditioned trunk was used, with a capacity of 592 boxes of eggs, totaling an average of 90,840 eggs. The evaluation of vibration levels (m s-2) and shocks on unpaved and asphalt roads were recorded by four accelerometers brand Hobo. For the vibration level, the experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 x 2 x 4 factorial. For the number of shocks the experimental design was completely randomized with a factorial 3 x 2. The worst levels of vibration and shock load occurred in the vertical direction. The asphalt road provided the worst conditions for the transport of eggs. The transport losses exceeded 1%, which are attributed to cracks and breakage of eggs.

  8. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Sewage sludge and wood ashes could be used as fertilizers in order to increase forest tree production. In southern Sweden forest growth normally increases with approximately 10 % after ash recycling due to increased N and/or P availability. P is added with the ashes and the pH-increasing effect of the wood ash can lead to increased N net mineralization. Other positive effects of wood ash recycling are improved nutrient sustainability and less acid run-off water. Possible negative effects are heavy metal accumulation, if the content of one or more heavy metals of the recycled ash exceeds the heavy metal content of the harvested biomass, and nitrate leaching if the vegetation cannot take up nitrified N. It is important to evaluate the sustainability of fertilization systems based on residues such as sludge and wood ash. Wood ash does not contain N and the P concentration often is too low for the ashes to function as an NP fertilizer. Thus N and sometimes P must be added. Sludge is an interesting alternative. The main purpose of the project is to study sustainable production of forest bio energy in intensively cultivated birch and hybrid aspen stands. Another purpose is to establish experiments that can be used for long term studies and as demonstration objects. In the first few years the goal is to study the short term effects of residue based fertilization compared to conventional NPK fertilization on tree nutrient uptake, nutrient leaching, sustainability and economy. In the long term the goal is to design appropriate fertilization strategies in a residue based fertilization system for the intensive cultivation of birch and hybrid aspen without negative side effects such as large scale nutrient leaching. Four field experiments were established in 2008 and one additional experiment in hybrid aspen will be established in the spring of 2009. Elevated bud N and P concentrations after fertilization with both Ashes+N and NPK means good possibilities for future growth increases. But, tree growth response should be studied before any conclusions can be drawn regarding biomass production in the experiments. The similarities in plant response to Ashes+N and NPK suggests that Ashes+N can be used as a P and K resource in the fertilization of young stands of birch and hybrid aspen. If the Ashes+N treatment results in increased N availability due to the pH increase, possibly the N dose could be lowered in order to decrease the risks for N leaching without negative effects on tree N uptake. Tools for the prediction of N mineralization need to be developed. The energy harvest for fertilized birch and hybrid aspen appear to be at least as high as for fertilized Norway spruce. Intensive cultivation including fertilization of young stands appears to be energy efficient: the energy input is a small fraction of the increase in energy harvest. Residue based fertilization appears to be more energy efficient than fertilization with NPK. If production systems other than the ones currently applied are more efficient in terms of sustainable energy production it is important to review the funding of research and development within the field. Which species or species mixtures are most efficient under which soil and climatic condition? Management programs and harvesting techniques need to be developed. More studies on fertilization response and energy harvest in deciduous species with and without the use of residue based fertilizers are needed in order to develop guidelines for the sustainable production of forest bio energy. Empirical studies should be combined with modeling studies in order to improve the understanding of the systems and predictability of management measures. Residue based fertilization appears to be attractive both environmentally and economically, but it is important that such systems are evaluated closely in terms of growth response, nutrient leaching, carbon and metal balances, etc. in comparison with conventional fertilization

  9. Preliminary studies on morphological diversity of coconut (cocos nucifera L.) seedlings by organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments at Karachi, Pakistan

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers amendments on the growth parameters of coconut seedlings in field at the Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Karachi. The seedling height and number of leaves were significantly high in treatment T7 (Neem seed powder) (27.62 +- 8.74) and treatment T5 (NPK) (27.18 +- 8.60). The maximum number of the roots was observed in T1 (NPK + Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (2.26 +- 0.71) and T3 (NPK + Gliricidia sepium) (1.69 +- 0.53), where as minimum roots was recorded in T8 (Control) (0.94 +- 0.29). The maximum number of leaves was observed in T4 (Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (1.49 +- 0.47) and T1 (1.31+- 0.41). The results showed the beneficial effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on seedlings. The work indicated morphological diversity of seedlings at the nursery stage to help the growers in choosing planting materials for their gardens in coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan. (author)

  10. Response Of Guava Trees (Psidium Guajava) To Soil Applications Of Mineral And Organic Fertilisers And Biofertilisers Under Conditions Of Low Fertile Soil

    Shukla Sushil Kumar; Adak Tarun; Singha Atul; Kumar Kailash; Singh Vinod Kumar; Singh Achal

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the influence of different organic fertilisers - vermicompost, mulching, Azotobacter, phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM) and Trichoderma harzianum added each year to mineral fertilisers containing NPK and to farmyard manure (FYM) on leaf nutrient status, tree growth, fruit yield and quality of guava grown in low fertile soil. The results revealed that vermicompost, bio-fertilisers and organic mulching resulted in yield and fruit quality boosters, as com...

  11. Comparative Effects of Different Fertilizer Sources on the Growth and Nutrient Content of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seedling in a Greenhouse Trial

    Dania, S. O.; Akpansubi, P.; O. O. Eghagara

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of NPK, poultry manure, and organomineral fertilizer on the growth and nutrient concentration of Moringa oleifera leaves. The experimental design was completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments replicated three times. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P=0.05. Growth parameters measured include number of leaves per plant, plant height (cm), and stem girth (mm). The application of p...

  12. Implementation of the long-range atmospheric transport model NPK-PUFF, version 1.0, in the Dutch EPR-organisation

    Following the accident at the nuclear power station in Chernobyl, KNMI and RIVM developed a model for the long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides. This model, the RIVM/KNMI PUFF model, is in use for application in the National Plan for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (NPK, abbreviated in Dutch). The PUFF-model is used at KNMI and RIVM. However, differences exist between the two versions of the model due to new model developments. It is therefore decided to create a new version of the PUFF model, the NPK-PUFF model. This model combines the best elements of the two versions, especially in the use of the more detailed HIRLAM- and ECMWF-meteorological data. The NPK-PUFF model is now operational at KNMI and RIVM. However, before the model can be used in the NPK it is necessary to check whether the two operational versions of the NPK-PUFF model give similar results. This report describes the tests performed and the results. The tests consist of a calculation for a hypothetical release on 17 November 1994, using different combinations of meteorological data, and a calculation with actual data in June 1997. Various criteria are used to compare the results and to accept or reject the results. The results of the two operational versions of the NPK-PUFF model appeared to be similar. The differences in model results were small and the deviations were not systematically. For some calculations, at a few moments the criteria were not fulfilled completely. However, these deviations are considered not to be crucial. With these results, it is proposed to accept the NPK-PUFF model, version 1.0, for application in the National Plan for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response. 7 refs

  13. Influence of nitrate fertilization on Cd uptake and oxidative stress parameters in alfalfa plants cultivated in presence of Cd

    S, Hattab; S, Hattab; H, Boussetta; M, Banni.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant nutrients might affect the activity and bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil -plant environment thus their accumulation in the plant. Little is known about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on cadmium (Cd) uptake by alfalfa "Medicago sativa". This work aims to characterize the oxidat [...] ive status, the physiological stress parameters and the Cd uptake in alfalfa + Medicago sativa ; exposed to Cd and supplied with nitrogen fertilizers. The experiment was carried out in a green house with alfalfa grown in Cd-polluted soil (3.6 ppm) and amended with two different fertilizers: without NO3- (PK) or with NO3- (NPK) in a sand:peat (v:v) mixture. The following parameters were monitored: Chlorophyll content, Photosynthesis rate, Catalase (CAT) activity, Thiobarbutiric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS) content and Cd bioaccumulation. It was found that NPK fertilization increased mean Cd uptake as well as plant biomass in Cd-exposed plants. Nitrogen supply was also effective in reduction Cd-induces phytotoxicity (Photosynthetic pigments and rate) and oxidative stress alterations. Our results suggest that nitrogen supply may improve the uptake rate of Cd by alfalfa and provide new insights on the importance of nitrogen fertilization towards future phytoremediation applications using alfalfa.

  14. Partio de biomassa seca e nutriente em minicepas de eucalipto influenciada pela adubao NPK

    Jos Pereira Carvalho Neto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986615O estado nutricional da planta-matriz de grande importncia para a manuteno do seu vigor vegetativo, o que determina a produo de brotos e tambm os ndices de enraizamento e velocidade de formao das razes, uma vez que os macronutrientes e os micronutrientes esto envolvidos nos processos bioqumicos e fisiolgicos vitais planta. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influncia da adubao NPK sobre a partio de biomassa seca e nutriente em minicepa de eucalipto em soluo nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetao. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4x4x41/2, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com trs repeties. Os tratamentos se constituram de quatro doses dos nutrientes de N (50; 100; 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de ureia, P (7,5; 15; 30 e 60 mg L-1 na forma de cido fosfrico e K (50; 100; 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de cloreto de potssio em soluo nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente, para a biomassa seca das miniestacas e biomassa seca da parte area e raiz das minicepas com efeito linear decrescente, com o aumento das doses de N. A dose de 50 mg L-1 de N proporcionou maior acmulo de biomassa seca das miniestacas e minicepas. A distribuio percentual da biomassa seca e dos nutrientes na biomassa seca das miniestacas, parte area e razes das minicepas variou em relao s doses de N. A extrao de macronutrientes pelas miniestacas de 6 cm na dose de 50 mg L-1 de N seguiu a seguinte ordem decrescente de N > S > P > K > Ca > Mg e micronutrientes de Cu > B > Mn > Fe > Zn.

  15. GERMINAO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE CENOURA EM SOLO DE MINERAO DE CALCRIO SOB DIFERENTES INTENSIDADES LUMINOSAS E ADUBAES GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF CARROT SEEDS IN LIMESTONE MINING SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES AND FERTILIZATIONS

    Paulo C. Cavatte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as condies ideais para germinao, o tipo de solo muito importante, pois, interfere no apenas na germinao das sementes mas, tambm, no desenvolvimento ps-seminal. Alm da adubao, outro fator importante na emergncia e crescimento das mudas a luminosidade devido sua influncia em processos como a fotossntese. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influncia da adubao com esterco bovino, torta de filtro e vinhaa, bem como da luminosidade na germinao e vigor de sementes de cenoura, em solo de minerao de calcrio. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetao, em 2005, em Alegre-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 13 x 3 (adubaes x luminosidades e 4 repeties. Os tratamentos constaram de solo de minerao de calcrio enriquecido ou no com adubao e 3 nveis de luminosidade. A adubao teve influncia direta nas plntulas, pois, as menores intensidades (13.8 mol ftons m-2s-1 aumentaram a germinao e altura destas, enquanto as maiores intensidades (1192.8 mol ftons m-2s-1 aumentaram a velocidade de germinao e o acmulo de matria seca. A adubao com os 3 materiais orgnicos e NPK proporcionou maior altura e matria seca s plantas.The ideal conditions for germination such as the soil type are very important in agriculture. Besides interfering into germination of the seeds they also affect their development after germination. Another important factor in emergency and growth of the seedlings is the brightness, due to its influence on the photosynthesis processes. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fertilization with cattle manure, sugarcane powder and vinase, as well as from the brightness on both germination and vigor of carrot seeds in limestone mining soil. The experiment was conducted during the year 2005, under greenhouse conditions, in Alegre county-ES. The entirely randomized design with a factorial scheme 13 x 3 (fertilizations x brightness and four replicates was used. The treatments consisted of limestone mining soil either enriched or unenriched with fertilization and subjected to three brightness levels. The brightness directly affected the germination and the development of the carrot plantlets, whereas the lower bright intensities (13.8 mol photons m-2s-1 increased either germination and plantlet heights and the higher ones (1192.8 mol photons m-2s-1 increased the germination speed and the dry matter accumulation. The fertilization with those organic materials and NPK provided better results for height and dry matter of the plantlets.

  16. Fertility and the economy.

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when education and training of children increases. Quality is substituted for quantity. The neoclassical model that "the capital-labor ratio and the degree of capital deepening" is affected by population growth is examined as well as the modern approach, and the implications are expressed, i.e., intergenerational transfers and parental altruism. PMID:12285413

  17. Fertilization in northern forests

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten; Bergh, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied in...... the effects on the stand level, and especially on the landscape level, including late rotation management of the forest. 2014 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  18. Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China.

    He, Y T; Zhang, W J; Xu, M G; Tong, X G; Sun, F X; Wang, J Z; Huang, S M; Zhu, P; He, X H

    2015-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P fraction. Our results demonstrated that cfPOC was a sensitive SOC indicator and manure addition was the best fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands. PMID:26119378

  19. Fertility preferences in Thailand.

    Guest, P

    1999-07-01

    This study examined the fertility preferences of currently married women and its variations across a range of variables using data from a completed national survey of contraceptive use in Thailand. Results of this study showed that fertility is below the replacement level, indicating a total fertility rate of 2.0. The main factor in the decline has been the acceptance of contraception and the couples' desire to have two children in the family. Furthermore, there is a variation in the number of desired children among women living in different areas, and among women with different levels of education and occupations. The findings also indicated that the desire for families with a balanced sex composition has resulted in a desire for 2 children, thus lowering the limit for marital fertility. However, while it is clear that most women do desire a balanced sex composition, a significant proportion of women have no sex preferences for the children they desire, thus resulting in the possibility of further lowering the desired number of children. PMID:12349404

  20. Influence des matières végétales et des engrais NPK sur la biologie de Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae

    Darriet F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude de laboratoire, les auteurs ont mesuré sur des femelles gravides de Aedes aegypti, l’attractivité à la ponte de milieux aqueux contenant un engrais NPK, de la matière végétale (MV et un mélange composé de MV+NPK. Tandis que les analyses physico-chimiques ont permis d’identifier puis de doser les constituants de chaque milieu, le suivi des larves et la pesée des femelles émergentes nous ont renseigné sur l’impact des composés minéraux et organiques sur le développement des moustiques. Sur les 23 jours qu’a duré l’expérience, la solution NPK est restée aussi attractive que le mélange MV+NPK sans toutefois pouvoir assurer le développement des larves. L’infusion MV a révélé une attractivité à la ponte moins importante, mais elle a apporté aux larves de moustiques les substances organiques dont la solution NPK était dépourvue. Enfin le mélange MV+NPK a attiré les femelles à la ponte tout en assurant pleinement la croissance des larves de Ae. aegypti. Alors que les analyses physico-chimiques de NPK ont révélé une composition essentiellement minérale (NH4++NO3–+P+K et celles de MV de fortes concentrations en carbone et en azote organiques, le mélange MV+NPK s’est distingué par une composition mixte organique et minérale qui a favorisé la prolifération des bactéries et le développement des larves de moustiques. Ce sont des observations importantes qui pourraient aider à la fabrication de pièges à la fois attractifs et létaux (NPK+larvicide et dont les fonctions seraient de piéger les femelles gravides à la recherche d’un lieu de ponte et de tuer les larves à l’éclosion des oeufs.

  1. PENETRATION OF NITROGEN INTO WATER AS A RESULT OF FERTILIZATION OF LIGHT SOIL

    Franciszek Czyżyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article there are present the results of six-year study of infiltration of nitrogen through the sand soil (loamy sand. Every year the soil was fertilized by compost (from sewage sludge and equivalent doses of nitrogen in mineral fertilizers. Two variants of compost fertilization (K1-10 and K2-15 g N·m-2 were used. Additionally two variants of NPK with equivalent doses of nitrogen as an ammonium nitrate supplemented with PK as a superphosphate and potassium salt were applied. Systematically there were investigated the volume of all leachates and their chemical composition. With increasing doses of fertilizers the concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the leachate were increased. The concentration of nitrogen in the leachate from the soil fertilized by nitrate was much greater than in compost with equivalent dose of nitrogen. Not only nitrates but also nitrogen from soluble organic compounds were rinsed from the soil. In the case of soil fertilized by compost the participation of nitrates in the total value of nitorgen in the leachate was 41-77%. However in the case of fertilization by ammonium sulphate this proportion was significantly higher and was in the range 60-95%. Over the years, a systematic soil fertilization by both ways increased the nitrogen concentrations in leachate. It shows that in the soil there is surplus of nitrogen, increasing during the time.

  2. Componentes da Produo de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanznia e Mombaa Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK

    Quadros Danilo Gusmo de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produo e das perdas de matria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanznia e Mombaa de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura mdia de 30 cm de resduo ps-pastejo. As avaliaes foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com trs repeties. As adubaes estudadas corresponderam ao decrscimo em 30 % e aos acrscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padro" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produo estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pr-pastejo e no resduo aumentou linearmente com a adubao, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaa (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanznia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participao de lminas foliares na MSV em pr-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanznia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaa (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos no variou com a adubao. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevao das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produes de MSV. A MS senescida (mdia de 3108 kg/ha de MS no diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acmulo dirio de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaa apresentou maior potencial de resposta adubao do que o cv. Tanznia, com taxas de lotao de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.

  3. Moss-specific changes in nitrogen fixation following two decades of warming, shading, and fertilizer addition

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Lett, Signe; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming will induce changes in Arctic ecosystem carbon balance, but besides climate, nitrogen availability is a critical controlling factor of carbon cycling. It is therefore essential to obtain knowledge on the influence of a changing climate on nitrogen fixation, as this process is the...... main source of new nitrogen to arctic ecosystems. In order to gain information on future nitrogen fixation rates in a changing climate, we studied the effects of two decades of warming with passive greenhouses, shading with sackcloth, and fertilization with NPK fertilizer on nitrogen fixation rates. To...... expand the knowledge on species-specific responses, we measured nitrogen fixation associated with two moss species: Hylocomium splendens and Aulacomnium turgidum. Our expectations of decreased nitrogen fixation rates in the fertilizer and shading treatments were met. However, contrary to our expectation...

  4. Organic Cultivation of Tomato in India with Recycled Slaughterhouse Wastes: Evaluation of Fertilizer and Fruit Safety

    Malancha Roy; Rimi Das; Amit Kundu; Sanmoy Karmakar; Satadal Das; Pradip Kumar Sen; Anupam Debsarcar; Joydeep Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and health safety of recycled slaughterhouse wastes-derived fertilizer and the produce obtained through its application is not well understood. Waste bovine blood and rumen digesta were mixed, cooked and sun-dried to obtain bovine-blood-and-rumen-digesta-mixture (BBRDM, NPK 30.36:1:5.75). 1.26 ± 0.18 log CFU mL−1 fecal coliforms were recovered in BBRDM. E. coli O157:H7, Mycobacteria, Clostridium sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp. and Brucella sp. were absent. No re-growth of p...

  5. Utility of Dried Distillers Grain as a Fertilizer Source for Corn

    Kelly A. Nelson; Motavalli, Peter P.; Randall L. Smoot

    2009-01-01

    Increased ethanol production may result in excessive dried distillers grains (DDGs) that could be utilized as a fertilizersource for corn (Zea mays L.). Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of 1) DDG rates on weed suppression,changes in soil properties, and differences in grain yield and quality and 2) DDGs, polymer-coated urea (PCU), andanhydrous ammonia (AA) fertilizer sources on grain yield and quality. DDGs had a total N-P-K composition of38.2-6.9-11.5 g kg-1, respectively. Ther...

  6. Effect of neem cake/fertilizers on symbiotic and non-symbiotic N2 fixing bacteria

    Neem cake amendment in soil at 1.3% no adverse effect on the population of four symbiotic Rhizobium species viz., japonicum, R. leguminosarum, R. Phaseoli and R. Fredii and three non-symbiotic free living nitrogen fixers bacteria viz., Pseudomonas diazotrophicus, Klebsiella planticola and Enterobacter cloacae. Neem cake extracted with n-hexane stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species in vitro, whereas Neem cake expeller extracted neither inhibited nor stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species except for R. Fredii, whose was slightly retarded. The fertilizers (urea, NPK and DAP) had no adverse effect on these bacteria even at the dosage ten times higher the recommended dose. (author)

  7. Establishing a soil reference system for fertility assessment and monitoring at plot level in the highlands of Mindanao, Philippines

    Guadalupe D. Calalang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the crop production areas of Miarayon Village, along the volcanic footslope of Mt. Kalatungan, Talakag, Bukidnon, Philippines. The elevation range of the longitudinal toposequence is 1,900 to 1,300 m asl. Production areas in the intermediate part of the toposequence (Salsalan are located at about 1,600 to 1,400 m asl and in the lower part (Mambuaw at 1,400 to 1,300 m asl. A total of 24 plots (12 in each location which were planted to potatoes, carrots and corn were investigated. Soils are “Andic” Cambisol in open and convex positions and “Andic” Umbrisol in concave positions and toeslopes. The soil pH values ranged from 5.0-5.9. TOC and TN content were medium to high (4.1-8.9% and 0.30-0.80% respectively with C/N ratios from 8-15. Range values of available Ca, Mg, K and Na were 1.9-11.24, 0.16-2.14 and 0.20-1.13, 0.04-0.13 cmol+kg-1, respectively. Top soil horizon exchangeable Al in Mambuaw was higher than in Salsalan. The differences in TN, C/N ratio and available K levels between the two locations were very highly significant, TOC was highly significant and for soil pH and available Ca and sum of bases, their disparities were significant. Available Mg and Na did not differ between the two sites. Mean potato yield in Salsalan was 8.97 tha-1 more than in Mambuaw. Mean carrot yield in Salsalan was 2.39 tha-1 lesser than in Mambuaw. Mean corn yield in Salsalan was higher than in Mambuaw by 0.29 tha-1 only. Correlations between potato yields with TOC, TN, and available Ca were highly significant while soil pH and K were significant. There was no relationship detected between potato yields and Mg and Na. There was no association detected between carrot yields with topsoil nutrient levels. Correlations were noted in corn yields with available Ca, Mg and K.

  8. Evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in Central Chile

    F, Njera; Y, Tapia; C, Baginsky; V, Figueroa; R, Cabeza; O, Salazar.

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to carry out an evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in central Chile. Soil samples were collected from 31 maize fields for macro- and micronutrient analysis; additionally a crop manag [...] ement survey was carried out in each field. These data were used to identify the range of critical soil-test concentrations of nutrients and the relationships among these soil fertility parameters; to assess the relationship between maize yields and nutrient status of soils; to evaluate the current fertiliser practices of farmers comparing them with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertiliser model calculations; and to analyse whether The results showed that there was a dominance of neutral-alkaline soils with low organic matter and N levels, and high P, cations and micronutrient levels. Regression analysis explained at least 59% of the variation in maize yields, when soil pH and available zinc (Zn) content were identified as the most important variables controlling maize yield. Results suggest that in neutral-alkaline soils cultivated with maize and high inputs of N-P-K, there may be a maize yield response to Zn applications. It was found that most farmers over-fertilised with N (from 60 to 360 kg N ha-1) and P (from10 to 120 kg P2O5 ha-1), converting maize fields in an important non-point source of pollution of water bodies in Central Chile.

  9. Evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in Central Chile

    F, Njera; Y, Tapia; C, Baginsky; V, Figueroa; R, Cabeza; O, Salazar.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to carry out an evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in central Chile. Soil samples were collected from 31 maize fields for macro- and micronutrient analysis; additionally a crop manag [...] ement survey was carried out in each field. These data were used to identify the range of critical soil-test concentrations of nutrients and the relationships among these soil fertility parameters; to assess the relationship between maize yields and nutrient status of soils; to evaluate the current fertiliser practices of farmers comparing them with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertiliser model calculations; and to analyse whether The results showed that there was a dominance of neutral-alkaline soils with low organic matter and N levels, and high P, cations and micronutrient levels. Regression analysis explained at least 59% of the variation in maize yields, when soil pH and available zinc (Zn) content were identified as the most important variables controlling maize yield. Results suggest that in neutral-alkaline soils cultivated with maize and high inputs of N-P-K, there may be a maize yield response to Zn applications. It was found that most farmers over-fertilised with N (from 60 to 360 kg N ha-1) and P (from10 to 120 kg P2O5 ha-1), converting maize fields in an important non-point source of pollution of water bodies in Central Chile.

  10. Application of mineral fertilizers in Bulgaria and their efficiency on the slightly leached chernozems of the Dobroudja region

    Over the past years the agriculture in Bulgaria is undergoing a process of reconstruction and structural changes. The utilization of mineral fertilizers has gradually increased since 1948 and reached its summit in 1981 when about 227 kg/ha NPK have been used. Nowadays these norms have been were and in 1996 they were only 35 kg/ha at the expense of applying N-fertilizers mainly in wheat. The efficiency of the applied nutrients was estimated on slightly leached chernozem in the period 1967-1997. The regular long term fertilization of N120P60K0 had a favorable effect on grain yield in an agronomical and economic aspect (5070 kg/ha). The highest grain yield was received at fertilization with N120P120K120 (5230 kg/ha). Refs. 4 (author)

  11. Effect of organic fertilization of soil, differentiated over many years, on the utilization of 15N-labelled urea

    Topsoil from samples with different organic fertilization of a soil fertility experiment started in 1936 at the Thyrow experimental site of the Berlin Humboldt University Crop Production Department was used for a pot experiment to study the N utilization of equal amounts of mineral fertilizer N (1.380 mg N/pot in the form of 15N-labelled urea with an N frequency of 50 +- 0.5 atom per cent). The results showed that combined application of mineral NPK fertilization and high amounts of farmyard manure over a period of about 40 years on deep-loam fallow soil-sandy-rusty soil (diluvial sand to loamy-sandy soil) will lead to better utilization of the applied urea N as well as to higher N availability from the N pool of the soil. (author)

  12. Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK

    Bovi Marilene Leão Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.

  13. Fertility, education and development: further evidence from India

    DREZE, Jean; Murthi, Mamta

    2000-01-01

    There has been a significant decline in fertility in many parts of India since the early 1980s. This paper reexamines the determinants of fertility levels and fertility decline, using panel data on Indian districts for 1981 and 1991. We find that women's education is the most important factor explaining fertility differences across the country and over time. Low levels of child mortality and son preferences also contribute to lower fertility. By contrast, general indicators of modernization a...

  14. High levels of bioplastic are produced in fertile transplastomic tobacco plants engineered with a synthetic operon for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2011-04-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5' end by the host plant's psbA coding sequence and at the 3' end by the host plant's 3' psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated. PMID:21325565

  15. Content of nitrates in potato tubers depending on the organic matter, soil fertilizer, cultivation simplifications applied and storage

    Jaroslaw, Pobere& #380; ny; Elzbieta, Wszelaczy& #324; ska; Dorota, Wichrowska; Dariusz, Jaskulski.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates naturally occur in plant-based food. Nitrates content in consumable plant organs is small and should not raise concern provided that the recommended fertilization and harvest terms of the original plants are observed. The aim was to determine the effect of the application of various organic [...] matter of soil fertilizer and simplifications in growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on the content of nitrates in the tubers of mid-early cultivar 'Satina' after harvest and after 6-mo of storage. Introducing cultivation simplification involves limiting mineral fertilization by 50% as well as chemical protection limitation. The soil fertilizer was used: 0.6 (autumn), 0.3 (spring), and 0.3 L ha-1 (during the vegetation period). The content of nitrates, was determined with the use of the ion-selective method (multi-purpose computer device CX-721, Elmetron). The lowest amount of nitrates was recorded in the tubers from the plots without the application of organic matter with a 50% rate of mineral fertilization with soil fertilizer (120.5 mg kg-1 FW). The use of varied organic matter resulted in a significant increase in the content of nitrates in tubers and the lowest effect on their accumulation was reported for straw. The soil fertilizer used significantly decreased the content of nitrates in tubers by 15% for 100% NPK and 10.4% for 50% NPK. After 6-mo storage, irrespective of the experiment factors, the content of nitrates decreased in the fertilization experiment by 26% and in the experiment with a limited protection - by 19.9%.

  16. Optimal fertilizer application for Panax notoginseng and effect of soil water on root rot disease and saponin contents

    Xia, Pengguo; Guo, Hongbo; Zhao, Hongguang; Jiao, Jie; Deyholos, Michael K.; Yan, Xijun; Liu, Yan; Liang, Zongsuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Blind and excessive application of fertilizers was found during the cultivation of Panax notoginseng in fields, as well as increase in root rot disease incidence. Methods Both 3414 application and orthogonal test designs were performed at Shilin county, Yunnan province, China, for NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and mineral fertilizers, respectively. The data were used to construct the one-, two-, and three-factor quadratic regression models. The effect of fertilizer deficiency on root yield loss was also analyzed to confirm the result predicted by these models. A pot culture experiment was performed to observe the incidence rate of root rot disease and to obtain the best range in which the highest yield of root and saponins could be realized. Results The best application strategy for NPK fertilizer was 0kg/667m2, 17.01kg/667m2, and 56.87kg/667m2, respectively, which can produce the highest root yield of 1,861.90g (dried root of 100 plants). For mineral fertilizers, calcium and magnesium fertilizers had a significant and positive effect on root yield and the content of four active saponins, respectively. The severity of root rot disease increased with the increase in soil moisture. The best range of soil moisture varied from 0.56 FC (field capacity of water) to 0.59 FC, when the highest yield of root and saponins could be realized as well as the lower incidence rate of root disease. Conclusion These results indicate that the amount of nitrogen fertilizer used in these fields is excessive and that of potassium fertilizer is deficient. Higher soil moisture is an important factor that increases the severity of the root rot disease.

  17. Adubao orgnica, mineral e organomineral e sua influencia no crescimento da helicnia em Garanhuns-PE Organic, mineral and organomineral fertilization and its influence on the growth of heliconia in Garanhuns, Brazil

    Josabete SB Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As helicnias se destacam pela beleza e variedade de formas e cores e esto entre as flores tropicais mais comercializadas no mundo. Foi avaliado o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de Heliconia psittacorum x H. spathocircinata, cv. Golden Torch, quanto adubao orgnica e mineral. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram constitudos por quatro dosagens de adubo (testemunha (T1 solo local; esterco de boi (T2; adubo mineral NPK (T3 e esterco de boi + NPK (T4, em dez repeties. Foram avaliados a altura da planta, nmero de brotaes, poca do florescimento, nmero, tamanho e peso das inflorescncias. A combinao da adubao mineral (NPK e orgnica (esterco (organomineral afetou significativamente a altura das plantas, apresentando um aumento de mais de 23% quando comparada com o controle aos 330 dias aps o plantio. Aos seis meses de cultivo, todas as plantas exibiam um crescimento bastante homogneo e vigoroso, sem sintomas visuais de deficincia nutricional, evidenciando que a adubao qumica associada ao esterco bovino (organomineral a mais recomendada para o cultivo de helicnia cv. Golden Torch. Essa cultivar pode ser bem adaptada s condies de Garanhuns.Heliconia stands out for its beauty and variety of shapes and colors and this plant is among the most traded tropical flowers in the world. We evaluated the growth and development of Heliconia psittacorum x H. spathocircinata cv. Golden Torch, submitted to organic and mineral fertilization. The experiment was carried out in field, in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four doses of fertilizer (control (T1 local soil; cattle manure (T2; mineral fertilizer NPK (T3 and cattle manure + NPK (T4, in ten replications. We evaluated plant height, number of shoots, flowering time, number, size and weight of inflorescences. The combination of mineral fertilizer (NPK and organic (manure (organomineral significantly affected plant height resulting in an increase of over 23% when compared with the control 330 days after planting date. After six months of cultivation, all plants exhibited a very homogeneous and vigorous growth without visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency, showing that chemical fertilization associated with cattle manure (organomineral is highly recommended for growing heliconia cv. Golden Torch. This cultivar can be well adapted to the conditions of Garanhuns, Pernambuco state, Brazil.

  18. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicum annum

    MUJIYATI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Pengaruh pupuk kandang dan NPK terhadap populasibakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum dalam tanah pada budidaya cabai (Capsicumannum. Bioteknologi 6: 63-69. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui peningkatan populasi bakteri Azotobacter dan Azospirillum akibat pemberian pupuk kandang. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan perlakuan: (i tanpa pupuk sebagai kontrol, (ii dengan pupuk kandang, (iii dengan pupuk NPK. Data dikumpulkan secara eksperimen dengan menanam cabai pada beberapa petak percobaan dengan perlakuan penggunaan pupuk sebanyak tiga kali ulangan. Data yang dikumpulkan terdiri atas jumlah populasi Azotobacter dan Azospirillum, kandungan nitrogen dalam tanah dan hasil cabai. Percobaan lapangan dilakukan di Desa Gathak, Kecamatan Karangnongko, Kabupaten Klaten, Jawa Tengah. Data primer dari hasil penelitian di analisis dengan uji ANAVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa menggunakan pupuk kandang dapat meningkatkan populasi bakteri Azotobacter (0,02% dan Azospirillum (0,46% apabila dibandingkan kontrol, sehingga dapat meningkatkan kesuburan tanah dalam waktu yang cukup lama yaitu dengan meningkatkan ketersediaan hara dalam tanah. Kandungan nitrogen total tanah setelah diberi pupuk kandang juga meningkat dan sangat bermanfaat untuk bahan penyusun tubuh tumbuhan.

  19. Farmers' Use of Integrated Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management Practices for Sustainable Crop Production: A Field-level Study in Bangladesh

    M. G. Farouque

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The most pressing problem for Bangladesh agriculture is the current state of gradual decreasing of soil fertility, stagnating crop yields and declining productivity in a range of food crops. According to crop production scientists, Integrated Soil Fertility (ISF and Nutrient Management (NM is an advanced approach that can serve as a remedy to improve crop yields and to preserve soil fertility in the long run. Approach: This study was therefore conducted to determine the extent of use ISF and NM practices by the farmers for their crop production in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 120 farmers (39 landless, 34 marginal, 19 small, 20 medium and 8 large farmers from eight villages located in four districts in Bangladesh through face-to-face interviews from December 2005 to January 2006. Results: Most of the farmers were landless, marginal or small farm holders who rarely practiced soil fertility management means. Medium and large farmers did practice soil fertility management either occasionally or regularly. The use of organic manures by different categories of farmers indicated that medium and large farm holders were more careful about the use of cow dung, farmyard manure, crop residues, green manure and oil cakes as sources of organic manures than landless, marginal and small farm holders. Findings related to use of chemical fertilizers revealed that medium and large farmers often followed the recommended doses while landless, marginal and small farmers mostly applied chemical fertilizers based on their own assessment of soil conditions. Conclusion/Recommendations: Medium and large farmers are more prompt than landless, marginal and small farmers in terms of use of different components of ISF and NM practices for their crop production. The findings of this study might be helpful for the agricultural policy planners both from GOs and NGOs for developing effective crop production strategies considering soil fertility and plant nutrients aspects for landless, marginal and small farmers who constitutes about 74%of farming community in Bangladesh.

  20. Assessment Of NPK In Human Male And Female Urine For Its Fertilising Potential In Agriculture

    Alfred L.K. Kuwornu; Kwasi Obiri-Danso

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study evaluated concentrations of Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium in male and female urine stored over six months and its potential as a fertilizing agent in agriculture. Urinals were constructed to allow for easy collection of male and female urine and then stored in transparent bottles for six months in a greenhouse. Monthly triplicate analysis of male and female urine was done for nitrogen phosphorus potassium temperature pH and colour change. Bray P1 and Flame photometry me...

  1. Efeito de diferentes substratos e duas formas de adubação na produção de mudas de mamoeiro Different growth medium and fertilizer effects on papaya seedlings growth

    Osvaldo Kiyohi Yamanishi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de plantas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cvs. Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1 crescidas em bandejas de poliestireno (72 células com substrato (Plantmax Hortaliças® = casca de pínus + vermiculita + turfa, adicionado de 4% de adubo orgânico (húmus; esterco de gado e Nutriplanta® combinado com 0,05% de adubo químico (Osmocote® NPK 14-14-14 de liberação lenta e NPK 14-14-14 de liberação normal. A germinação das sementes do híbrido Tainung 1 iniciou-se aos 12 dias após a semeadura em todos os tratamentos, e da cultivar Sunrise Solo, aos 14 dias. A cultivar Sunrise Solo e o híbrido Tainung 1 apresentaram maior taxa de germinação nos substratos adubados com Osmocote® e fonte orgânica de húmus e esterco bovino, respectivamente. As mudas de mamoeiros Tainung 1 e Sunrise Solo crescidas nos substratos contendo Osmocote® apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento do que nos substratos com formulado NPK (14-14-14 de liberação normal. Apesar dos bons resultados apresentados pelas mudas de Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1 nos tratamentos constituídos de Nutriplanta®, não foi verificada diferença significativa entre os substratos contendo adubos orgânicos. As mudas desenvolvidas em substrato contendo esterco de curral + NPK de liberação normal tiveram os piores resultados para a maioria das características analisadas (altura, diâmetro do caule, peso seco da parte aérea, caule e raiz, e área foliar total. Os teores de nutrientes (NPK encontrados na análise foliar das amostras foram superiores nos tratamentos com Osmocote® em relação aos demais, cerca de 20% para o híbrido Tainung 1 e 10% para o Sunrise Solo.The behavior of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Tainung 1' seedlings grown in polystyrene trays (72 cells in the growth medium (Plantmax® = pine bark + vermiculite + peat amended with 4% of organic fertilizer (Humus; composted cattle manure and Nutriplanta® combined with 0.05% of inorganic fertilizer (Osmocote® - slow release - NPK 14-14-14 and normal release NPK 14-14-14 was evaluated in this study. Germination in cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and hybrid 'Tainung 1' occurred 12 and 14 days after sowing, respectively. Higher germination rate in both materials was obtained in the growth medium fertilized with Osmocote plus humus and composted cattle manure, respectively. The seedlings fertilized with slow release type hastened growth compared with normal one. Growth medium amended with Nutriplanta® gave good results but there was no significant difference with others organic fertilizers. The seedlings grown in growth medium amended with composted cattle manure + normal release NPK showed the poorest results in almost all analyzed parameters such as height, stem diameter, dry weight - root and top - and total leaf area. The nutrient contents (NPK found in the leaf analyses samples were higher in treatments using slow release fertilizer (~20% for hybrid Tainung 1 and ~+10% for cv. Sunrise Solo compared with the normal one.

  2. Biomass, nutrient and heavy metal in eucalyptus roots fertilized with different sewage sludge

    Alexandre de Vicente Ferraz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge in forestry plantations has been encouraged in several countries for promoting growth of trees. However, because the sludge eventually contains heavy metals, it has been disposed frequently in landfills. This study investigated the biomass and the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in fine roots ( <5 mm of Eucalyptus grandis trees fertilized with sludges from different wastewater treatment plants (WTPs. The experimental design comprised randomized blocks with four replications and five treatments: (1 control, without fertilization, (2 mineral fertilization NPK and (3, 4 and 5 Fertilization with 15 t ha-1(dry basis of sewage sludge from Barueri-SP, So Miguel-SP and Parque Novo Mundo-SP wastewater treatment plants. Samples of fine roots were collected at 42 months old of trees, at layer 0-20 cm of soil, using a stainless steel probe. In this stage, the fine root biomass was similar among treatments with sewage sludge and the control. However, the soil fertilization with sewage sludge from Parque Novo Mundo WTP, conditioning with lime, provided higher root biomass than mineral fertilization. In general, the soil fertilization with sewage sludge from different WTPs increased the concentration of P, Ca, Zn and Ni in the fine roots of E. grandis and reduced the Mn concentration, but don't significantly changed the concentration of the Cd, Cr and Pb.

  3. Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this stric...

  4. Fertilizers in cereals crops. Effect of fertilization in grain quality

    In the last years the yields of the maize cultivation in the Pampeana production region have constantly increased, foreseeing higher increases of yield in the next years. Such increase is due, between other motives, to the use of hybrids of higher potential yield. There is a direct relation between the yield potential of a genotype and the nutrients demand, fact that constitutes one of the geneticists concerns. Maize hybrids reach its maximum expression when the plant is cultivated in good supplied soils with balanced quantities of nutrients that in several cases are reached with the practice of fertilization. The quantitative and qualitative vegetal response to the use of phosphate fertilizers depend of soils, of the environmental conditions, of fertilizer and the way of its application as well as of the maize hybrid that was used. To direct the practice of fertilization towards the reposition of the soil nutrients extracted by genotypes of high yield without producing excesses that increase costs and put in danger the environment, it is necessary to know the real coefficient used by the plants of the phosphorus available in the soils. The isotopic methodology allows to distinguish the phosphorus coming from two nutrient sources: soil and fertilizer, even in the juvenile phase of vegetal development and to evaluate the efficiency of fertilizers in plant nutrition. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the use of phosphorus coming from one of the phosphorus source available (soil, fertilizer), that should allow to increase and make more specific the knowledge's level of the different maize hybrids. This is obtained by determination of the grade of use of nutrient (of the soil) and of the nutrient of fertilizers, evaluating the qualitative and quantitative responses to fertilization

  5. Bayesian inference of baseline fertility and treatment effects via a crop yield-fertility model.

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer. PMID:25405353

  6. Adubo de liberao lenta na produo de mudas de mamoeiro / Controlled-release fertilizer in papaya seedlings production

    Luiz Augusto Lopes, Serrano; Laercio Francisco, Cattaneo; Geraldo Antnio, Ferreguetti.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir as doses adequadas de um adubo de liberao lenta para a produo de mudas dos principais gentipos de mamoeiro cultivados no Estado do Esprito Santo. O experimento foi realizado em estufa agrcola, na Empresa Caliman Agrcola S.A., em Linhares-ES, sob delineam [...] ento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x6. Foram avaliados cinco gentipos de mamoeiro 'Golden', 'Calimosa', 'Tainung 01', 'INCAPER 09' e 'INCAPER 39', cultivados em substrato comercial fertilizado com seis doses de um adubo de liberao lenta, frmula NPK + (Mg) 13-06-16 + (1,4): 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0 e 12,5 kg m-3. Houve diferenas no crescimento e no estado nutricional das mudas de mamoeiro em relao ao gentipo e s doses do adubo de liberao lenta utilizados. As doses do adubo que proporcionaram os maiores valores para altura e massa seca total das mudas de mamoeiro foram: 11,2 e 11,3 kg m-3 para o 'Golden'; 7,7 e 7,9 kg m-3 para o 'Calimosa'; 11,6 e 10,9 kg m-3 para o 'Tainung 01'; 10,5 e 10,6 kg m-3 para o 'INCAPER 09', e 11,0 e 9,6 kg m-3 para o 'INCAPER 39', respectivamente. Nessas mesmas doses do adubo, as mudas apresentaram adequado nvel nutricional. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to define the appropriate doses of a controlled-release fertilizer to production of papaya seedlings, in Espirito Santo State, Brazil. The research was realized in greenhouse in Caliman Agricola Company, Linhares- ES, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized co [...] mplete block in a factorial scheme 5x6. It was evaluated five papaya genotypes 'Golden', 'Calimosa', 'Tainung 01', 'INCAPER 09' and 'INCAPER 39', cultivated in commercial substrate (constituted of pinus bark and vermiculite) fertilized with six doses of controlled-release fertilizer formula NPK + (Mg) 13-06-16 + (1.4): 0.0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 and 12.5 kg m-3. Differences in growth and nutritional status of papaya seedlings were observed according to the genotype and the dose of controlled-release fertilizer used. The highest values for height and total dry matter of papaya seedlings occurred with the doses: 11.2 and 11.3 kg m-3 for 'Golden'; 7.7 and 7.9 kg m-3 for 'Calimosa'; 11.6 and 10.9 kg m-3 the 'Tainung 01'; 10.5 and 10.6 kg m-3 for 'INCAPER 09' and 11.0 and 9.6 kg m-3 for 'INCAPER 39', respectively. In the same doses the papaya seedlings showed adequate levels of nutrients.

  7. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años, en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna, la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas. Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (χ²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002, probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos.Natural regeneration of woody species in a Costa Rican plantation of Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae and the effect of P and NPK fertilization. Forest plantation management strategies, including the selection of species, may have positive or negative effects over plant regeneration in the tropics. in this case, understory woody plants density and richness were studied in Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica, in a monoculture of Vochysia guatemalensis (ten year old plantation. Nineteen 80 m²plots, with several fertilization treatments (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/plant of P, and NPK, during the first years, P placed once at the hole in a completely randomized factorial design, were analyzed. Afterwards, the NPK fertilizer was increased from 150 to 200 g/ plant/year until the plantation was six year old. The plots, established after the coffee plantation was eliminated, had a minimum management schedule, basically the elimination of herbaceous vegetation once or twice a year during the first three years, and a tree thinning when the plantation was four year old, to increase spacing from 2x2 to 4x4 m. All woody vegetation taller than 0.5 m was tallied. A total of circa 10 000 ind/ha, distributed in 90 species, were found, mostly native of the region, some identified for forestry use, others important for the fauna. The majority of the species had low relative densities and frequencies. Sixteen percent of the plants reached heights greater than 2.5 m. Several factors seem to explain this regeneration pattern: a canopy with an intermediate openness, a low intensity forestry management, the nearness of the plantation to a mature forest fragment, and that the Vochysia plantation substituted a coffee plantation where soil conservation strategies and an annual fertilization management plan were applied. Finally, plots with only P had significantly higher species richness and abundance (χ2=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002 probably because the trees in this treatment were less developed (when compared with the others. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 111-118. Epub 2009 November 30.

  8. Energy crop (Sida hermaphrodita) fertilization using digestate under marginal soil conditions: A dose-response experiment

    Nabel, Moritz; Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Horsch, David; Jablonowski, Nicolai David

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for energy security and the mitigation of climate change are the main drivers pushing energy-plant production in Germany. However, the cultivation of these plants can cause land use conflicts since agricultural soil is mostly used for plant production. A sustainable alternative to the conventional cultivation of food-based energy-crops is the cultivation of special adopted energy-plants on marginal lands. To further increase the sustainability of energy-plant cultivation systems the dependency on synthetic fertilizers needs to be reduced via closed nutrient loops. In the presented study the energy-plant Sida hermaphrodita (Malvaceae) will be used to evaluate the potential to grow this high potential energy-crop on a marginal sandy soil in combination with fertilization via digestate from biogas production. With this dose-response experiment we will further identify an optimum dose, which will be compared to equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Further, lethal doses and deficiency doses will be observed. Two weeks old Sida seedlings were transplanted to 1L pots and fertilized with six doses of digestate (equivalent to a field application of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160t/ha) and three equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Control plants were left untreated. Sida plants will grow for 45 days under greenhouse conditions. We hypothesize that the nutrient status of the marginal soil can be increased and maintained by defined digestate applications, compared to control plants suffering of nutrient deficiency due to the low nutrient status in the marginal substrate. The dose of 40t/ha is expected to give a maximum biomass yield without causing toxicity symptoms. Results shall be used as basis for further experiments on the field scale in a field trial that was set up to investigate sustainable production systems for energy crop production under marginal soil conditions.

  9. Biochar helps enhance maize productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions under balanced fertilization in a rainfed low fertility inceptisol.

    Zhang, Dengxiao; Pan, Genxing; Wu, Gang; Kibue, Grace Wanjiru; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Zheng, Jufeng; Cheng, Kun; Joseph, Stephen; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Maize production plays an important role in global food security, especially in arid and poor-soil regions. Its production is also increasing in China in terms of both planting area and yield. However, maize productivity in rainfed croplands is constrained by low soil fertility and moisture insufficiency. To increase the maize yield, local farmers use NPK fertilizer. However, the fertilization regime (CF) they practice is unbalanced with too much nitrogen in proportion to both phosphorus and potassium, which has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and excessive greenhouse gases emissions. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether a high yielding but low greenhouse gases emission system could be developed by the combination of balanced fertilization (BF) and biochar amendment in a rainfed farmland located in the Northern region of China. Biochar was applied at rates of 0, 20, and 40t/ha. Results show that BF and biochar increased maize yield and partial nutrient productivity and decreased nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. Under BF the maize yield was 23.7% greater than under CF. N2O emissions under BF were less than half that under CF due to a reduced N fertilizer application rate. Biochar amendment decreased N2O by more than 31% under CF, while it had no effect on N2O emissions under BF. Thus BF was effective at maintaining a high maize yield and reducing greenhouse gases emissions. If combined with biochar amendment, BF would be a good way of sustaining low carbon agriculture in rainfed areas. PMID:25959223

  10. Respuesta del papayo al riego y a la fertilización N-P-K en un Vertisol

    Adriana Mellado-V\\u00E1zquez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta del papayo (Caricapapaya L., variedad Maradol, en términos de rendimiento, eficiencia del uso del agua y productividad económica, a sistemas de riego y fertilización N-P-K en fertirriego, y convencional por surcos y fertilización N-P-K al suelo, en un Vertisol del Valle de Apatzingán, Michoacán, México. Los niveles estudiados fueron: para riego por goteo, con una y dos cintillas; y para fertilización con fertirriego, 220-30-160, 250-40-180 y 280-50-200 kg ha-1 de N-P2O5-K2O; a la vez que el sistema convencional consistió de riego por surcos y fertilización al suelo de 200-120-200 kg ha-1 de N-P2O5-K2O. El sistema de riego con dos cintillas dio un rendimiento medio de 30.4 t ha-1, el sistema de riego con una cintilla de 19.6 t ha-1 y el riego convencional por surcos de 13.3 t ha-1. No se observó respuesta a la fertilización N-P-K en fertirriego dentro de los sistemas de riego con una y dos cintillas. En los tres sistemas de riego yfertilización estudiados, se observaron concentraciones bajas de K en la planta, altas de Ca y B, y de suficiencia de N, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn y Mn. La eficiencia de uso del agua fue similar para los sistemas de riego con una y dos cintillas, del orden de 37.3 a 40.6 kg mm-1 ha-1, y menor en el sistema convencional, con un valor de 17.6 kg mm-1 ha-1. Los sistemas de riego con una y dos cintillas presentaron costos totales medios similares, del orden de 49 148 y 50 920 pesos ha-1, respectivamente, y el sistema convencional de 33 912 pesos ha-1. El sistema de riego con dos cintillas dio ingresos netos y tasas de retorno del capital medios de 58 742 pesos ha-1 y 115.5%, respectivamente, el sistema de riego con una cintilla dio valores de 21 207 pesos ha-1 y 43.1%, respectivamente, y el sistema convencional presentó valores intermedios, de 30 123 pesos ha-1 y 88.8%, respectivamente.

  11. Effects of eustatic sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and iron fertilization on atmospheric pCO2 and seawater composition over the last 130 000 years

    Wallmann, K.; Schneider, B.; Sarnthein, M.

    2015-06-01

    We developed and employed an earth system model to explore the forcings of atmospheric pCO2 change and the chemical and isotopic evolution of seawater over the last glacial cycle. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus, reactive nitrogen, molecular oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), 13C-DIC and 14C-DIC were calculated for 24 ocean boxes. The bi-directional water fluxes between these model boxes were derived from a 3-D circulation field of the modern ocean (Opa 8.2, NEMO) and tuned such that tracer distributions calculated by the box model were consistent with observational data from the modern ocean. To model the last 130 kyr, we employed records of past changes in sea-level, ocean circulation, and dust deposition. According to the model, about half of the glacial pCO2 drawdown may be attributed to marine regressions. The glacial sea-level low-stands implied steepened ocean margins, a reduced burial of particulate organic carbon, phosphorus, and neritic carbonate at the margin seafloor, a decline in benthic denitrification, and enhanced weathering of emerged shelf sediments. In turn, they led to a distinct rise in the standing stocks of DIC, TA, and nutrients in the global ocean, promoted the glacial sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the ocean, and added 13C- and 14C-depleted DIC to the ocean as recorded in benthic foraminifera signals. The other half of the glacial drop in pCO2 was linked to reduced deep ocean dynamics, a shoaling of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and a rise in iron fertilization. The increased transit time of deep waters in the glacial ocean led to significant 14C depletions with respect to the atmosphere. The deglacial rapid and stepwise rise in atmospheric pCO2 was induced by upwelling both in the Southern Ocean and subarctic North Pacific and promoted by a drop in dust-borne iron discharge to the Southern Ocean. The deglacial sea-level rise led to a gradual decline in nutrient, DIC, and TA stocks, a slow change due to the large size and extended residence times of dissolved chemical species in the ocean. Thus, the rapid deglacial rise in pCO2 was dominated by fast changes in ocean dynamics and reduced dust deposition whereas the gradual pCO2 rise over the Holocene may be linked to the slow drop in nutrient and TA stocks that continued to promote an ongoing CO2 transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere.

  12. Teores de nutrientes e metais pesados em plantas de estrago submetidas a diferentes fertilizaes / Levels of nutrients and heavy metals in tarragon plants under different fertilizers

    Affonso Celso, Gonalves Jr.; Mayara Mitiko, Yoshihara; Endrigo Antonio de, Carvalho; Leonardo, Strey; Alice Jacobus de, Moraes.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo e a utilizao de plantas medicinais tm acompanhado a evoluo do ser humano desde a antiguidade, assim como o desenvolvimento de tcnicas de manejo e cultivo das mesmas. Na busca pela sustentabilidade dos agroecossistemas, o uso de fontes de fertilizantes que forneam os nutrientes neces [...] srios s culturas, deve ser feito de modo a causar o menor impacto ambiental possvel. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar a disponibilidade dos nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn, e dos metais pesados Cd, Pb e Cr em plantas de estrago (Artemisia dracunculus) submetidas a diferentes fertilizaes, orgnica (composto a base de dejeto suno) e mineral, em Argissolo Vermelho distrfico (PVd). O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado (DIC) em esquema fatorial (2x3), sendo duas fontes e trs doses de fertilizao (sem fertilizao, dose recomendada e o dobro da dose recomendada) totalizando seis tratamentos com quatro repeties. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que tanto as fontes, quanto as doses de fertilizao influenciaram na disponibilidade dos elementos avaliados nas plantas. O fertilizante orgnico disponibilizou maiores concentraes de Cu e Mn. A fertilizao mineral disponibilizou maiores teores dos nutrientes N e K. Os metais pesados Cd e Cr no apresentaram concentraes dentro do limite de deteco do mtodo utilizado. Abstract in english The cultivation and use of medicinal plants has accompanied the evolution of mankind since antiquity, together with the development of techniques for their cultivation and management. In the search for sustainability of agroecosystems, the use of sources for fertiliser that provide the necessary nut [...] rients for crops should be handled so as to cause the least possible environmental impact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn, and the heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr, in tarragon plants (Artemisia dracunculus) subjected to different fertilisers, organic (swine-manure based compost) and mineral, in a dystrophic Red Argisol (PVd). The experimental design was completely randomised (DIC) in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme, comprising two sources and three levels of fertilisation (no fertilisation, recommended dose and double the recommended dose), giving a total of six treatments with four replications. The results showed that the source as well as the level of fertiliser influenced availability of the elements under evaluation in the plants. The organic fertilizer provided higher concentrations of Cu and Mn. Mineral fertilisation provided higher levels of the nutrients N and K. The heavy metals Cd and Cr showed no concentrations within the limits of detection for the method used.

  13. Efeito da solarização, adubação química e orgânica no controle de nematóides em alface sob cultivo protegido Effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on the control of nematode on greenhouse lettuce

    Marlene G da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da solarização do solo associados à adubação no controle de nematóides e na produtividade da alface cultivar "Verônica" foram avaliados em solo naturalmente infestado. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, um com e outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica mais NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com filme plástico transparente. A população de nematóides foi avaliada em duas camadas (0-10 cm e 10-20 cm, e as coletas de solo foram feitas em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento; após a solarização; após a colheita. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com medidas no espaço e no tempo (5 adubações x 2 camadas x 3 épocas, e a comparação entre experimentos foi feita pela análise conjunta. O efeito da solarização sobre o controle de nematóides dependeu da adubação e camada do solo. A solarização reduziu a população de nematóides na camada de 0-10 cm em todos os tratamentos de adubação. A solarização associada ao NH4 reduziu a diversidade na camada de 10-20 cm. A solarização combinada às adubações orgânica, N-NH4, NPK e orgânica mais NPK reduziu de maneira eficiente o número de galhas, o número de massas de ovos e a população de nematóides fitoparasitas nas raízes, em especial de Meloidogyne spp. Solarização combinada à adubação orgânica apresenta potencial para controle de nematóides e redução do uso de agrotóxicos.The effect of soil solarization and fertilization was evaluated for nematode control in 'Veronica' lettuce in naturally infested soil. The two greenhouse experiments consisted of five fertilization treatments: organic fertilization; ammoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; NPK fertilization; organic and NPK fertilization; control (without fertilization, in solarized and non-solarized soils. In the solarized plot the soil was covered during 132 days with transparent plastic film. The nematode populations were evaluated in two layers (010 cm and 10-20 cm with soil collections done at three times (before solarization; after solarization; and after harvest. The experimental design was of sub-subdivided blocks plots with assessments in space and time (5 fertilization x 2 depths x 3 times. The effect of solarization on nematode control was dependent on fertilization and soil depth. Solarization reduced nematodes population at 0-10 cm depth in all the fertilization treatments. Solarization associated to ammoniacal nitrogen reduced nematode diversity at 10-20 cm depth. Solarization associated to organic, ammoniacal nitrogen, NPK and organic + NPK fertilization reduced efficiently gall numbers, egg masses number and phytoparasitic nematodes, specially Meloidogyne spp., in lettuce roots. Solarization associated to organic fertilization has a potential to be used in nematode control and to reduce pesticides application.

  14. Pengaruh Pemberian Limbah Kalapa sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinsensis Jacq) di Pembibitan Awal

    Siregar, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui Pengaruh pemberian Limbah Kelapa Sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) di Pre Nursery. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kelurahan Gedung Johor Kecamatan Medan Johor pada ketinggian 27 meter diatas permukaan laut. Penelitian berlangsung dari bulan November-Maret 2001.

  15. The influence of long-term fertilization on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soil and its uptake by crops.

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhao, Bingzi; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi; Zhang, Hailin

    2014-09-01

    Continuous application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can affect soil and food quality with respect to heavy metal concentrations. The risk of cadmium (Cd) contamination in a long-term (over 20 years) experimental field in North China with an annual crop rotation of winter wheat and summer maize was investigated. The long-term experiment had a complete randomized block design with seven fertilizer treatments and four replications. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1) organic compost (OM), (2) half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (OM + NPK), (3) NPK fertilizer (NPK), (4-6) chemical fertilizers without one of the major nutrients (NP, PK, and NK), and (7) an unamended control (CK). Soil samples from 0 to 20 cm were collected in 1989, 1999, and 2009 to characterize Cd and other soil properties. During the past 20 years, various extents of Cd accumulation were observed in the soil, and the accumulation was mainly affected by atmospheric dry and wet deposition and fertilization. In 2009, the average Cd concentration in the soil was 148 ± 15 μg kg(-1) and decreased in the order of NPK ≈ OM + NKP ≈ PK > NP ≈ NK > OM ≈ CK. Sequential extraction of Cd showed that the acid-soluble fraction (F1, 32 ± 7 %) and the residual fraction (F4, 31 ± 5 %) were the dominant fractions of Cd in the soil, followed by the reducible fraction (F2, 22 ± 5 %) and oxidizable fraction (F3, 15 ± 6 %). The acid-soluble Cd fraction in the soil and Cd accumulation in the crops increased with soil plant available K. Fraction F3 was increased by soil organic C (SOC) and crop yields, but SOC reduced the uptake of soil Cd by crops. The long-term P fertilization resulted in more Cd buildup in the soil than other treatments, but the uptake of Cd by crops was inhibited by the precipitation of Cd with phosphate in the soil. Although soil Cd was slightly increased over the 20 years of intensive crop production, both soil and grain/kernel Cd concentrations were still below the national standards for environmental and food safety. PMID:24793068

  16. Eficincia bioeconmica da adubao de pastagem natural no sul do Brasil Bioeconomic efficiency of native pasture fertilization in southern Brazilian

    Davi Teixeira dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as produes vegetal e animal e a resposta econmica de uma pastagem natural submetida adubao de correo e doses de nitrognio durante a estao de crescimento 1998/99. O experimento foi conduzido em rea da Estao Experimental Agronmica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EEA - UFRGS. Em 1996 foram aplicados 3000kg ha-1 de calcrio e adubao correspondente a 500kg ha-1 da frmula 5-20-20. Na anlise econmica, considerou-se um tero destas quantidades como referente utilizao na estao de crescimento 1998/99. Os tratamentos foram doses de nitrognio (N na forma de uria (zero, 100 e 200kg ha-1 de N, em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso com duas repeties de rea por tratamento. Os animais experimentais foram novilhas de corte com um ano de idade e peso mdio inicial de 160kg. A massa de forragem, a taxa de acmulo dirio de matria seca, a produo total de matria seca verde e a eficincia de transformao do N em produo primria foram maiores (PThis research was aimed at evaluating the plant and animal production and the economic response of a native pasture submitted to the application of N-P-K and nitrogen levels during the 1998/99 growing season. The experiment was conducted at Estao Experimental Agronmica of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EEA - UFRGS. The pasture was fertilized in 1996 using 3000kg ha-1 of lime and 500kg ha-1 of 5-20-20. The one third of these amounts was considered as that concerning the 1998/99 growing season, in the economic analysis. The treatments were nitrogen (N levels (zero, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N as urea, in a randomized block design with two plots by treatment. The experimental animals were beef heifers with initial age of 1,5 year-old and average live weight of 160kg. The forage mass, dry matter accumulation rate, green dry matter total production and the N transformation efficiency in primary production were enhanced by the N level applied (P< 0.1. The treatments 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N increased the costs in 104.1 and 208.2%, respectively. The treatment 200kg ha-1 of N presented the greater area live weight gain, the gross margin and the N conversion efficiency in animal product. The greater net financial return was reached when only lime and N-P-K fertilization were applied. The native pasture showed a positive response to the fertilizer application, within the amplitude of amount of the input applied in this experiment.

  17. Male adolescent fertility preservation.

    Moss, Jared L; Choi, Andrew Wonho; Fitzgerald Keeter, Mary Kate; Brannigan, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Until the 1960s, few adolescents and young adults (AYAs) survived their initial cancer diagnoses. Now, ∼12,400 AYA patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, and almost 80% will now achieve a long-term cure. This dramatic improvement in survival is primarily due to multimodal treatments and combined chemotherapeutic regimens. Unfortunately, the increase in survival is often accompanied by treatment-related toxicities due to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical procedures. Despite guidelines published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and numerous other professional organizations, high percentages of male AYA oncology patients are not properly counseled regarding their fertility preservation options before cancer treatment. Although administering fertility preservation care to adolescent males can be challenging in many ways, numerous studies show that this care can be delivered with high degrees of success and high levels of patient and parent satisfaction. The key to this success at many institutions has been the implementation of formalized integrated fertility preservation programs with infrastructure geared toward the delivery of comprehensive expedited care. PMID:26707904

  18. Effects of Method and Level of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and Availability of Ammonium and Nitrate in Blueberry

    Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) require low soil pH and prefer N primarily as ammonium for optimum production. Nitrogen fertilizer methods and rates were evaluated in a new field of ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) to determine their effects on soil pH and availability of ammonium and nit...

  19. Divorce, fertility and the shot gun marriage

    Alesina, Alberto; Giuliano, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Using the birth certificates data from the Vital Statistics of the USA between 1968 and 1999, we construct state level panel data of different measures of fertility and examine the change in divorce laws. Total fertility declined in states that introduced unilateral divorce, which makes dissolution of marriage easier. Most of this effect is due to a decline of out-of-wedlock fertility. We suggest an explanation (and provide supportive evidence for it) based upon the effect of divorce laws on ...

  20. Analysis of selected fertilizers imported to Libya for major, minor, trace and toxic elements using ICP-OES and INAA

    The concentration of 35 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr) in six different imported, NPK, NP and K fertilizers were determined by ICP-OES in two different laboratories and by INAA. The fertilizers were labeled as 24/12 (Belgium), 46/18 (Morocco), 50% ammonium sulfate 50% K2O (Belgium), New 24/12 (Belgium), 16.8.24 (France) and 17.17.17 (France). It is clear that these fertilizers vary widely in their heavy metals and uranium content, and the accumulation of certain elements in vitally important media such as water, soil and food is undesirable from the medical point of view. The results obtained were acceptable and intercomparison between various methods was carried out. (author)

  1. Response of Grain Weight of Maize to Variety, Organic Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer in Asaba Area of Delta State

    Enujeke E. C.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June 2010 to evaluate the response of grain weight of maize to variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factional layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three maize varieties sown at 75cm x 15cm and evaluated for the grain weight. The results obtained indicated that hybrid variety which produced yield of 2.1 tha-1 in 2008 and 2.3 tha-1 in 2009 was superior. The results of interaction showed that variety, manure type and rates of application were significantly (p<0.05 different in 2008 and 2009. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid maize variety, 9022-13, which was outstanding in grain weight be grown in the study area. Alternatively, farmers who prefer open-pollinated varieties could grow BR9922-DMRSF2 or Agbor local variety for farmers who prefer local varieties in maize production. (ii Farmers who prefer mineral fertilizers for increased grain weight of maize should apply 450kgha-1 of NPK 20:10:10. (iii Farmers who practice organic agriculture in Asaba agro-ecological zone should apply 30tha-1 of poultry manure to enhance maize yield.

  2. Effects of calcium, potassium, rubidium and various fertilizers on radiocaesium transfers in field and experimental conditions

    To provide a basis for estimating the effectiveness of various treatments in reducing radiocaesium transfer to vegetation and grazing animals in upland ecosystems, studies have been undertaken to determine interactions between radiocaesium transfer and that of analogous elements (e.g. Rb, K) and the effects of various inorganic fertilizers (lime, NPK at different rates). Laboratory results demonstrated Rb and K (at equivalent ionic concentrations) tended to reduce radiocaesium concentrations in vegetation. These effects were highly dependent on the particular combination of plant species and soil conditions. Field investigations showed that potassium reduced radiocaesium concentrations in vegetation only very slightly. Though statistically significant, this effect was insufficient a basis to recommend the use of potassium treatments to ameliorate the effects of deposited radiocaesium. Studies at sites with a known history of land management prior to, or after, the Chernobyl accident show the effect of liming, ancient drainage, and application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. (author)

  3. Evaluation of health state and growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. and Gypsophila repens L. groving in soil in variable fertilization

    Maria Warner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NPK fertilization on plant growth and roots yield of Gypsophila paniculata and Gypsophila repens was investigated. The nutrients were applied in different proportions. The health state of Gypsophila was also analyzed. The pathogens isolated from plants showing the diseases symptoms represented eight species: Alternaria dianthicola Neergaard; Fusarium avenaceum (Fr. Sacc.; Fusarium culmorum (W. G.Smith Sacc.; F.equiseti (Cola Sacc.; F.oxysporum Schlecht., Snyder et Hansen; F.sambucinum Fuck; Phytophthora sp. de Bary; Rhizoctonia solani K. Fusarium oxysporum and other species of fungi were isolated from Gypsophila paniculata, whilst from Gypsophila repens only Fusarium oxysporum was obtained.

  4. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION ON THE DEVELOP MENT OF PHYTOPLANKTON ON CARP FISH FARMS

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative investigation on the effect of fowl fertilizer (4800 kg. ha-1 and mineral fertilizer NPK 17 : 8 : 9 (1.200 kg. ha-1 on the development of phytoplankton was carried out in two variations of an experimental fish farm of equal surface area of 0,1 ha-1 and depth 120 cm, during the culturing season from June to September, 1983. In the fish ponds carp fry were cultured from the larval stage to 3 months old along with stocked larvae at 250.000 ind. ha-1. The production of carp fry reached about 1.000 kg ha-1 in both variations, without supplement feeding the fish. In both variations of experimental fish ponds a similar phytoplankton community developed (QS=69%, which was composed of 151 species belonging to the systematic division of Cyanophyta (17, Euglenophyta (23, Pyrophyta (1, Chrysophyta (47 and Chlorophyta (61. The cenotic structure of phytoplankton in fish ponds treated with the fowl fertilizer made up 131 species, and in the fish ponds treated with the mineral fertilizer 105 species. In the amount of total phytoplankton between the two treated fish ponds certain differences were determined. The mean amount of phytoplankton in conditions of fertilizing with fowl fertilizer was 0,9x10-6 ind. l-1 (with seasonal dynamics from 0,04x106 ind. l-1 to 3x106 ind. l-1, and in conditions with mineral fertilization 3x106 ind. l-1 (with seasonal dynamics from 0,04x106 ind. l-1 to 5x106 ind. l-1. The dominant groups of phytoplankton were Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta, in that the dynamics of Cyanophyta during the culturing season in certain variations differed (Figures 1-5. The higher number values of the total phytoplankton, especially those belonging to the systematic division of Cyanophyta, show a greater trophic effect of the mineral fertilizer NPK (17 : 8 : 9 in comparison with the fowl fertilizer, however differential analysis did not determine a significance (p < 0,05.

  5. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer...

  6. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  7. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer...

  8. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  9. Yield and Chemical Composition of Cucumber Treated by Nitrogen Levels and Doses of Gamma Rays

    Two field experiments were performed at the Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during 2010 and 2011 summer growing seasons in sandy soil. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing seeds which treated by gamma irradiation with different doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy. This was in combination with three rates of nitrogen, fertilizer i.e., 30, 60 and 90 Kg N/fed. The experiments were laid out using drip irrigation system. The obtained results indicated that gamma rays doses showed significant differences on cucumber yield per plot or per Fed., increasing doses of gamma rays gradually increased cucumber yield per plot up to highest dose, i.e., (6 Gy). The highest value of total yield was obtained with the highest nitrogen rate (90 Kg N/fed.). Doses of gamma rays significantly increased total soluble solids (T.S.S.), total Carbohydrates, fats, total protein, NPK and Ca of cucumber fruits. Application of 60 Kg N/fed. recorded the highest values of all above mentioned chemical characters except of total protein with 90 kg N/fed. every all dose treatments. The effect of interaction between doses and fertilizer levels on chemical characters were significant therefore, the highest values was found at 4 Gy and 60 Kg N/fed. treatment for protein, fat, nitrogen and potassium contents while the carbohydrate and calcium contents had the highest value with the treatment of 6 Gy and 60 Kg N/fed

  10. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  11. Fertilization in northern forests

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten; Bergh, Johan

    2014-01-01

    fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological...... resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...

  12. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Andersson, Gunnar; Rønsen, Marit; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Lappegård, Trude; Neyer, Gerda; Skrede, Kari; Teschner, Kathrin; Vikat, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study...... recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education, resulting in small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Another interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women...

  13. Distal determinants of fertility decline: Evidence from 640 Indian districts

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.; Gunther Fink; Rajesh Chauhan; David Canning

    2016-01-01

    Background: Districts in India exhibit enormous variation in the level of socioeconomic development and are at different stages of fertility transition. Though a large and growing body of literature has examined the proximate determinant of fertility at the state and individual levels, there are limited studies on distal determinants of fertility change in the districts (micro-regions) of India. This is the first ever study to examine the association of fertility change with three key distal ...

  14. Growth of Jacaranda-da-Bahia (Dalbergia nigra((Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth under different levels of NPK

    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of well-nourished and quality seedlings is one of the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of forest plantations. The present study aimed to verify, by means of morphological characteristics, the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth of jacarand-da-bahia seedlings (Dalbergia nigra ((Vell. Fr. All. in order to establish the optimal dose of each nutrient to be added in different substrates thus aiming to ensure the production of seedlings with better quality. The seedlings were produced in three types of soils: mesotrophic Ultisol (PVAm, Alic Oxisol (LVAa and distrofic Oxisol (LVAd. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions from February to June of 2006. 11 treatments were defined according baconian matrix, in which the nutrients (N, P and K ranged in three different doses and two additional treatments (Zero and Reference. A completely randomized design with four replications was adopted. The seedlings were planted in pots with a capacity of 2.1 dm3 and 120 days after sowing the data was collected. After analyzing the data, it was concluded that for the production of jacarand-da-bahia seedlings it is recommended an addition of dosages greater than or equal to 600 mg.dm-3 of P and 200 mg.dm-3 of N when using underground earth in the production of seedlings, from distrofic Oxisol and 300 mg.dm-3 of P and 90 mg.dm-3 of N when using mesotrophic Ultisol. As for the addition of K, since the seedlings were undemanding or the available contents in the soil were sufficient to supply their needs, it is recommended the application of the minimum tested dose of 50 mg.dm-3 of soil until further studies with lower doses is tested.

  15. Fertility trends in Singapore.

    Singh, K; Viegas, O; Ratnam, S S

    1988-10-01

    In 1966, the Singapore National Family Planning and Population Program established the goal of reaching replacement fertility by 1990 and zero population growth by the year 2030. To achieve this goal, the government relied on a series of incentives and disincentives to discourage births above the 3rd birth order, including tax relief for the 1st 3 children only, paid medical leave for women undergoing sterilization after the 3rd or subsequent birth, monetary stipends in some cases where the mother is sterilized after the 1st or 2nd birth, and increasing accouchement charges for increasing birth orders. Also important to demographic planning were liberalization of Singapore's abortion legislation and more aggressive promotion of contraception. As a result of these efforts, Singapore's crude birth rate has declined from 29.5/1000 population in 1965 to 16.6/1000 in 1985. Also observed have been dramatic declines in infant mortality in this same period, from 26.2/1000 live births to 9.3/1000, and in maternal mortality, from 52/100,000 live births to 10/100,000. In 1985, 42% of total births were to women in the 25-29-year age group. The numbers of 4th and later births fell by 90% between 1966 and 1985. The total fertility rate has declined from 4.6/woman in 1965 to 3.1 in 1970 to 1.6 in 1986. Below replacement level fertility was achieved in 1975, in part because of government policy but also as a result of cultural and socioeconomic factors such as increasing female labor force participation rates, a break-up of the extended family system, a rise in the age at 1st marriage, and rises in educational attainment. The drop in fertility was contributed mainly by the higher socioeconomic class, more affluent, and educated Singaporeans. Thus, in 1981, the government introduced certain pronatalist policies and incentives to encourage better educated women to produce more children, e.g., tax relief and the elimination of monetary incentives to sterilization acceptors above a median income level. PMID:3192553

  16. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was obtained in treatments with fertilization with biofertilizer, this differing treatment received organic fertilizer, however, did not differ from mineral fertilizer treatment. Thus, the organomineral fertilization is the alternative that is being studied, in which the fertilizer is combined in organic form with mineral fertilizer, so that there are different times of nutrient availability during the pasture cycle production.

  17. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutrients release from two compressed nitrogen-potassium-phosphorous (NPK) fertilizers. In the Lourizán Forest Center, tablet-type controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) were prepared by compressing various mixtures of fertilizers without covers or binders. We used soil columns (50 cm long and 7.3 cm inner diameter) that were filled with soil from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of an A horizon corresponding to a Cambic Umbrisol. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil (within the first 3 cm), and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime for 80 days. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. These elements were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first leachates and reached a steady state when 1426 mm of water had been percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in this geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with a composition of 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident, with a significant increase of pH, available Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, P and effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) in the fertilized columns, as well as a significant decrease in exchangeable Al3+, reaching values < 0.08 cmol (+) kg-1.

  18. Age and Fertility

    ... tre atment, inc lu ding in vitro fertilization (IVF). Although stories in the news media may lead ... be to able use fertility treatments such as IVF to get pregnant, a woman’s age affects the ...

  19. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sbastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, -interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs. PMID:26490561

  20. Correlation between fertility and levels of protein, sugar and free amino acids in seminal plasma of Nelore bulls Correlao entre fertilidade e nveis de protena, acar e aminocidos livres no plasma seminal de touros Nelore

    T.I. Assumpo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between fertility and the concentrations of proteins, reducing sugars and 17 types of free amino acids in the seminal plasma of Nelore bulls were estimated. The samples were collected from 19 bulls that had high quality semen, according to physical and morphological analyses. The bulls had their fertility scores estimated based on the pregnancy of the females mated to them during three consecutive breeding seasons, either by artificial insemination or by natural breeding. A large variability in the concentrations of the molecules was observed among the samples and a significant correlation coefficient (r= 0.90 between levels of proteins and reducing sugars was estimated. None of the components showed a significant correlation with fertility.Estimaram-se as correlaes entre fertilidade e concentraes de protenas, acares redutores e 17 tipos de aminocidos livres do plasma seminal de 19 touros Nelore, adultos, doadores de smen de alta qualidade segundo as anlises fsicas e morfolgicas. O escore de fertilidade foi estimado de acordo com a porcentagem de gestao das fmeas cobertas em trs estaes de monta consecutivas, por inseminao artificial ou monta natural. Foi observada alta variabilidade na concentrao das molculas analisadas nas amostras. O coeficiente de correlao estimado entre concentraes de protena e de acares redutores foi de 0,90. Individualmente, nenhum dos componentes quantificados apresentou correlao significativa com a fertilidade dos touros.

  1. Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Cowdung in Combination with Foliar Spray of Chemicals on the Growth and Quality of Jute Plant

    Anwarul Islam,; Abu Sayeed; Nurul Absar; Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal; Shamsul Alam

    2003-01-01

    The experiment was performed in the experimental land of the Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi during the period of April-May, 2000 and 2001. The physicochemical compositions of jute leaves under different foliar treatments were investigated at the mature stage. The results obtained showed significantly increase in most of the chemical composition under different treatments. The soil of the cultivated land as well as jute leaves obtained from experimental land became less acidic as c...

  2. Fertility differentials in early postwar malaya.

    Swee-Hock, S

    1967-06-01

    During theearlypostwar years up to1957, the three main races in Malaya-Malays, Chinese, and Indians-experienced some differences in their levels of fertility. The lowest fertility was recorded among the Malays, with Chinese and Indian fertility about 5 percent and 10 percent higher, respectively. The comparatively low fertility of the Malays was owing to the exceptionally high rate of divorce, which meant unstable marriages and shorter periods of exposure to the risk of childbearing.A fairly well-defined pattern of state differences in fertility levels is found to exist in Malaya. Briefly, fertility was on the high side in the northern states of Johore, Malacca, and Negri Sembilan, and on the low side in the northern states of Penanq, Kelantan, Perlis, Kedah, and Trengganu, with the central states of Perak, Selangor, and Pahang in the intermediate position.The usual rural-urban fertility differentials are seen to prevail in Malaya as a whole and in the smaller units at state levels. Finally, the three main races registered higher fertility in rural areas, and the greatest gap between rural and urban rates prevailed among the Chinese. PMID:21318676

  3. Organic Culti