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Sample records for npk fertility levels

  1. Desempenho do gergelim em função da adubação NPK e do nível de fertilidade do solo / Sesame performance in function of NPK fertilizer and levels of soil fertility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano, Perin; Danilo José, Cruvinel; José Waldemar da, Silva.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do gergelim, em condições de safrinha, em doses crescentes de NPK e diferentes níveis de fertilidade do solo. Foram instalados dois experimentos: um em casa-de-vegetação e outro a campo. Em casa-devegetação, utilizou-se fatorial 6 x 2, distribuído em d [...] elineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O primeiro fator constou de seis doses do adubo 04:14:08; o segundo, de dois tipos de solo (baixa e alta fertilidade). O experimento a campo constou de seis tratamentos (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg ha-1 do adubo 04-20-10), distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A adubação com 04:14:08, quando em solo de baixa fertilidade, promoveu aumento na altura das plantas, desde o início até o final do ciclo, enquanto, em solo de alta fertilidade, as respostas foram evidenciadas apenas nos primeiros 43 dias de crescimento. A adubação ainda promoveu aumento no peso de matéria seca das hastes e das vagens, no número de vagens e na produção de grãos, em solo de baixa fertilidade, atingindo produção máxima de grãos na dose de 550 kg ha-1 do adubo 04:14:08. No campo, não houve resposta da adubação com relação à produção de matéria seca e rendimento de grãos cultivados na safrinha. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate sesame performance to NPK fertilizer and different levels of soil fertility. Two experiments were conducted: one in a greenhouse and another in field conditions. In the greenhouse, the study used a completely randomized design, in a 6 x 2 factorial scheme, [...] with four replications. The first factor was six fertilization levels of 04:14:08, and the second two soil types (low and high fertility). The experiment in field conditions used randomized blocks with 6 treatments (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1 of 04-20-10 fertilizer 04:20:10) and 4 replications. The fertilization with 04:14:08 in low fertility soil promoted greater height of the plants from the beginning until the end of the cycle, whereas in ground of high fertility responses were evident only in the first 43 days of growth. The fertilization resulted in an increase in sesame grain yield when cultivated in low fertility soil, reaching maximum values in the dose of 550 kg ha-1 of 04:14:08 fertilizer. In field conditions, there was no response from fertilization with respect to the dry matter and yield of sesame grains cultivated in second crop conditions.

  2. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization

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    CORRYANTI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tisserant. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased on inoculated seedlings compare to with uninoculated. NPK fertilization of 0.0625 g per seedling and inoculation on teak seedlings showed alkaline phosphatase activity in range 90-201 EU, and in roots indicated in range 14-72%. Gigaspora sp inoculation on teak seedlings was showing the highest of alkaline phosphatase activity. Increasing phosphatase alkaline activity relevant to hyphae growth, and increasing of root infection decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased seedling dry weight.

  3. Sweet corn yield on ultisol soil treated with Effective Microorganisms (EM4) and NPK fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    La Suere; Sarawa

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was accomplished to study the effect of EM4, NPK fertilizer and their interaction on sweet corn yield. It was carried out on Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agriculture Haluoleo University, Kendari from December 2006 to May 2007. Split-plot design was employed with NPK fertilizer as main plot, consisting four levels: NPK0 (control), NPK1 (150 kg urea + 50 kg SP36 + 17 kg KCl) per hectare, NPK2 (200 kg urea + 100 kg SP36 + 33 kg KCl) per hectare, NPK3 (300 kg urea ...

  4. Response of Early Maturity Mutant Lines of Low Land Rice on Several Levels of NPK Fertilizers and Irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A problem which will occur in the IP400 program is the exploitation of nutrient and water. This problem could be overcome by using early maturating having high fertilizer and water use efficiency. For this purpose several mutant lines were tested for their efficiency on using fertilizers and water. The testing of the mutant lines were done in the field at the experimental station of the Agricultural Department Pusakanagara, West Java. Treatments employed were six mutant lines and two rice varieties which four rates of NPK fertilizers (0, 25, 50, and 100%) and three irrigation regimes (continuously sub merging, 10 and 15 days of alternate sub merging). The soil water content was determined by neutron probe at the start of each water regimes. The N total mutant of the plants were carried out at the Plant Nutrition Laboratory, PATIR-BATAN. Results showed that the average yield, in sequence from the highest to the lowest (t/ha) is OBS 1705 (9,3597), Cimelati (8,9631), OBS 1700 (8,9192), Diah Suci (8,7706), OBS 1713 (8,2797), OBS 1703 (8,2733), OBS 1718 (8,2489) and OBS 1704 (8,0019). Statistically highest yield/ha was obtained at all the water regimes and NPK fertilizer rates was shown by OBS 1705 and did not differ significantly from Cimelati variety, but it significantly differ from Diah Suci variety, OBS 1713, OBS 1703, OBS 1718 and OBS 1718. The OBS 1704 was highly responsive to the NPK fertilization, producing and increase any weight at the lowest rate of NPK fertilization (25%). The uptake of total nitrogen (kg N/ha) in the grain of the mutant lines were all higher than that of the parent lines (Cimelati and Diah Suci). (author)

  5. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia

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    Jelena Milinovi?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20 exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

  6. Response of Rice Line PB-95 to Different NPK Levels

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    K.H. Awan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the effect of applying N, P and K fertilizers at different rates and combinations on growth and yield of rice line PB-95. The fertilizer treatments comprised the T1 (control, T2 (0-75-75, T3 (60-75-75, T4(120-75-75, T5 (180-75-75, T6 (120-0-75, T7 (120-500-75, T8 (120-100-75, T9 (120-75-0, T10 ((120-75-50 and T11 (120-75-100 NPK kg ha-1. The results showed that application of NPK significantly increased the crop yield and maximum paddy and straw yield were obtained from plot fertilized @ 120-100-75 NPK kg ha-1. Harvest Index was highest at control, N physiological efficiency index and N fertilizer efficiency decreased with increasing N levels. Similarly, P physiological efficiency index decreased while P fertilizer efficiency increased with increasing P levels.

  7. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were affected by many factors, including physical and economic conditions, government policy, management system, technology, and management methods. PMID:26571668

  8. Evaluation of Bread Wheat on Different Fertilizer Levels

    OpenAIRE

    M.I. Rajput; Z.A. Soomro; Siddiqui, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Student`s Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam during Rabi 2000-2001. Seven treatments viz.T1(00-00-00) control,T2 (100-50-50 NPK),T3 (120-60-50 NPK),T4 (140-70-50 NPK), T5 (160-80-50 NPK), T6 (180-90-50 NPK) and T7 (200-100-50 NPK) were tested to assess the effect of fertilizer levels on the yield and yield contributing characters of wheat variety T.J.-83. The fertilizer levels of NPK (T6) recorded significantly maxim...

  9. Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations

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    PAULO BOLLER GALLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ?Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP, em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação.The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee plantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4 factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

  10. Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK / NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PAULO BOLLER, GALLO; BERNARDO VAN, RAIJ; JOSÉ ANTONIO, QUAGGIO; LUIS CARLOS ESTEVES, PEREIRA.

    Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ? [...] Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP), em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação. Abstract in english The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee p [...] lantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

  11. Structural and impedance characterization of ceramics prepared from NPK fertilizer

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    Diouma Kobor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of this work was to study the possibilities of valorising the phosphates through the development of a conductive ceramics using NPK fertilizer as a precursor. Phosphorus based powders were synthesized using solid state technique from NPK fertilizer, lithium chloride and iron chloride at different temperatures up to 900 °C and ceramic samples were prepared by the powder pressing and sintering at 1100 °C. XRD spectra of the calcined powders show various sharp peaks indicating a relatively high degree of crystallinity and presence of different crystalline phases, such as: phosphorus based crystalline compounds (AlPO4 and LiFePO4, ferrite (Fe3O4 and DyFeO3, CaSO4 and K3DyCl6. The prepared phosphorus based ceramics showed very interesting electrical and dielectric properties. Thus, in the future the obtained ceramics could find application in electronic or energy storage devices. However, further investigations are necessary to understand the exact chemical composition and structural characteristics of this material, to better understand the origin of the obtained electrical and dielectric behaviour.

  12. Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

  13. Controlled-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosiewicz, Anna; Tomaszewska, Maria

    2003-01-15

    The commercial granular fertilizer NPK6-20-30 was coated using polysulfone (PSF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and cellulose acetate (CA). The coatings were formed from the polymer solutions by the phase inversion technique. Measurements of the thickness and porosity of the prepared coatings and a microphotographic observation of the coatings were performed. The physical properties of the coatings influence the release rate of macronutrients which are present in the core of the coated fertilizer. In the case of PAN coating with 60.45% porosity, prepared from a 16% polymer solution, 100% of NH(4)(+) and P(2)O(5) was released after 4 h of test and 99.7% of K(+) after 5 h of test, whereas in the case of coating with 48.8% porosity, 31.8% of NH(4)(+), 16.7% of P(2)O(5), and 11.6% of K(+) was released after 5 h. In all experiments, different selectivities of the coatings in terms of the release of components were observed. The release of potassium through the coatings made of PSF and PAN was the slowest. The same tendency was observed for the release of nitrogen through a coating of CA. The release of fertilizer active components was the slowest in the case of PSF. The lowest porosity coating was prepared from the 18% PSF solution. PMID:12517104

  14. BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.R, Tortella; O, Rubilar; M, Cea; C, Wulff; O, Martínez; M.C, Diez.

    Full Text Available Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinid [...] ol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity) in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1%) and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0%) and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

  15. Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.

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    R. Jagadeeswaran

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient use efficiencies of newly formulated slow release NPK sources in turmeric during 2001-2002. These are recent introduction which are in the form of tablets, mixtures and coated ammonium phosphate, which contains all the three major nutrients in them, which were tested in comparison with conventional or standard fertilizer materials at three NPK levels viz., 75, 100 and 125% of recommended dose. The results indicated that nutrient use efficiencies viz., agronomic efficiency, apparent recovery and partial factor productivity were significantly enhanced by the application of tablet forms of NPK sources than other slow release forms as well as standard fertilizer materials.

  16. Flower Synchrony, Growth and Yield Enhancement of Small Type Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L. Through Plant Growth Regulators and NPK Fertilization

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    Md. Yunus Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU. In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (?0.05 influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

  17. The influence of Avadex BW on the yield and chemical composition of spring barley variety 'Aramir', with different NPK fertilization

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    Micha? P?oszy?ski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The combined influence of two doses of herbicide Avadex BW (3 and 6 l/ha and three levels of NPK fertilization on spring barley variety 'Aramir' was studied in a pot experiment. Only with the highest NPK dose, and only during the initial stage of vegetation the herbicide showed the phytotoxicity toward barley. Avadex BW manifested no significant effect on the yields of ,grain and straw. Increasing doses of N~P brought about significant yield increases of above-ground parts during shooting stage, and of the grain and straw in the final yield. Fertilization gave much more evident qualitative changes in barley than the herbicide. The latter increased Ca content in the straw and decreased that of potassium in the straw and grain.

  18. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

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    F.M Oloyede

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

  19. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.M, Oloyede.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivat [...] ion and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

  20. BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    G.R Tortella; O Rubilar; Cea, M; Wulff, C; Martínez, O.; M.C Diez

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing conc...

  1. Inoculação de Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK na composição química e contaminação fungo-fumonisina de milho / Inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization on chemical composition and fungal-fumonisin contamination of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana P., Bernd; Thiago M., Souza; Mariana A. de, Oliveira; Elisabete Y. S., Ono; Claudemir, Zucareli; Elisa Y., Hirooka.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Propôs,neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da inoculação de sementes com Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio) na composição química e contaminação por fungo-fumonisina de grãos de milho. O delineamento experimental foi bloco casualizado em fatorial 2 x 3, corresponden [...] te à inoculação com P. fluorecens (não inoculada ou inoculada) e níveis de adubação NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1, formulados 08-28-16) com 4 repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram composição química (proteína e cinzas), contaminação fúngica (bolores e leveduras) e fumonisinas B1 (FB1) e B2 (FB2). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey e correlação de Pearson, pelo teste-t (p 0,05). A interação entre fatores, com incremento no nível de adubação NPK e uso de P. Fluorescens, resultou em aumento no teor de cinzas e proteína (p Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the effect of inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) on chemical composition and contamination by fungal-fumonisin of maize grains. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in factorial 2 [...] x 3, corresponding to inoculation with P. fluorescens (non-inoculated or inoculated) and levels of NPK fertilization (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1, formulation 8-28-16), with 4 replications. The parameters evaluated were chemical composition (protein and ash), contamination by fungal (mold and yeast) and fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2). The data were subjected to analysis of variance, comparisons of means by Tukey test and Pearson correlation by test-t (p 0.05). The interaction between factors, increase in NPK level and use of P. fluorescens, resulted in increase in protein content and ash (p

  2. Macronutrientes em mudas de citros cultivadas em vasos em resposta à adubação NPK Macronutrients in citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita com o objetivo de avaliar-se os efeitos do fornecimento de N, P e K sobre os teores de macronutrientes do porta-enxerto e das mudas. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/55³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Determinaram-se os teores totais de N, P e K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas novas e velhas, raízes e caule e a extração de N, P e K. Os teores de N relacionaram-se diretamente e os de P e K inversamente com a adubação nitrogenada. Os teores de Ca, Mg e S relacionaram-se positivamente até as doses intermediárias de N utilizadas. Houve efeito inibitório do fertilizante potássico sobre a absorção de Ca e Mg. A acumulação de NPK pelos porta-enxertos foi em torno de 30% pelas raízes e 70% pela parte aérea.'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees (Citrus sinensis budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia were grown in containers using pine bark, vermiculite and perlite as substracts with the objective of evaluating the NPK fertilization effect on macronutrient levels. The experiment was a complete (1/5 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Young and old leaves, root and stem total nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and NPK accumulation were evaluated. Tissue N concentration was directly and P and K concentrations were inversely related to nitrogen fertilization. Calcium, Mg and S concentrations increased up to the intermediate N fertilization rates. K fertilizer inhibited Ca and Mg absorption by plants. Rootstock NPK accumulated as 30% in roots and 70% in shoot.

  3. Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakhudin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to August 2009. Experimental design used was a factorial in a completely randomized design. The first factor was hucalci concentration, consisted of 10% (H1, 20% (H2, and 30% (H3. The second factor was zeolite concentration, consisted of 25% (Z1, 50% (Z2, 75% (Z3, and 100% (Z4. NPK fertilizer (without coating used as a control. The results showed that hucalci and zeolite had a capability to increase water adsorption and to retard the release of N, P, K. The coated NPK with hucalci 30% and zeolite 100% had the highest quality in water absorption, water retention and release of nutrients.

  4. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC MATERIALS AND NPK FERTILIZER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Uduzei Remison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in organic materials as soil fertility restorer is increasing due to the high cost and unavailability at the right time of inorganic fertilizer and the problem associated with residue disposal by burning which can further aggravate global warming. The effects of different organic materials and NPK fertilizer on the performance of maize were examined in field experiments carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma in a forest savanna transition zone of Edo State, Nigeria. The investigations were carried out during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons and involved the use of organic materials (wood shavings, rice hulls, kola husks and their combinations and NPK fertilizer. The layout of the experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results indicated that most of the organic materials, especially kola husk and mixtures with kola husk and NPK increased yield and its components. The treatments significantly increased the concentrations of N, P, K and Na in ear leaves and grains.

  5. NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol / Adubação NPK no crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em Neossolo Quartzarênico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Teixeira de, Souza; Enilson de Barros, Silva; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Luiz Arnaldo, Fernandes.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A adubação balanceada é importante para o crescimento das plantas. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) é uma espécie sobre a qual as informações são escassas, sendo muito recentes ensaios com adubação. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em respost [...] a às doses de NPK em casa de vegetação em um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, bem como estimar os níveis críticos de P e K no solo e de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea até 120 dias de avaliação. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema de fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4)½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições, totalizando 96 parcelas experimentais, sendo as doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 300 mg dm-3) na forma de ureia; as de P (0, 45, 90 e 180 mg dm-3), na forma de superfosfato triplo; e as de K (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg dm-3), na forma de cloreto de potássio. Após 120 dias, as plantas foram colhidas e as seguintes variáveis avaliadas: altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, teor de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e atributos químicos do solo. As mudas de pinhão-manso responderam à adubação NPK na fase de inicial de crescimento; a resposta para o N foi negativa, sem a necessidade de aplicação desse nutriente. A dose recomendada foi de 55 mg dm-3 de P e 67 mg dm-3 de K. Os níveis críticos, correspondentes às doses recomendadas, foram de 13 mg dm-3 para P e 74 mg dm-3 para K no solo (Mehlich-1). Os teores de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de pinhão-manso foram de 37,4, 2,1 e 35,3 g kg-1, respectivamente. Abstract in english Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a [...] greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x 4 x 4)½, totalizing 32 treatments with three replicates, 96 experimental plots and N rates (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg dm-3) as urea; P rates (0, 45, 90 and 180 mg dm-3) as triple superphosphate and K rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3) as potassium chloride. After 120 days, the plants were harvested and some variables evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, macro and micronutrient levels in plant shoots, and soil chemical properties. The physic nut seedlings responded to NPK fertilizer in the initial growth phase; the response to N was negative. The recommended P and K rates were 25 and 67 mg dm-3, respectively. The critical levels, corresponding to the recommended P rate were 13 and 74 mg dm-3 for K in soil (Mehlich-1). The N, P and K levels in the shoot dry matter of physic nut were 37.4, 2.1 and 35.7 g kg-1, respectively.

  6. Effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on total antioxidant capacity of soil and amaranth leaves (Amaranthus cruentus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was set up in 2007 in a split-plot design to investigate the effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of fresh leaf tissue of the Polish amaranth varieties Rawa and Aztek, cultivated for seed, and of the soil they were cultivated on. The experiment was conducted with three replicates. The following combinations of macroelement doses were applied: I: N – 50 , P – 40, K – 40 kg ha-1; II: N – 90, P – 60, K – 60 kg ha-1; and III: N – 130, P – 70, K – 70 kg ha-1. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC of the soil and amaranth leaves was determined using the method described by Rice-Evans and Miller, as modified by Bartosz. Organic carbon content was determined as well. In most of the cases the fertilization (NPK caused an increase in total antioxidant capacity of the soil under amaranth cultivation. The highest total antioxidant capacity in the soil examined (compared with the control was found with combination III of NPK fertilizers for soil under Rawa cultivation, and with combination I for the Aztek soil. The total antioxidant capacity of amaranth per unit fresh leaf mass was dependent on the variety and on the doses of the macroelements applied. The highest total antioxidant capacity in Rawa per unit fresh leaf mass was observed with combination III, while for the Aztek variety the highest TAC was found with combination I. Statistical analysis showed significant dependencies between TAC of the soils and leaves and the level of fertilization, as well as between the TAC of the soil and of amaranth leaves.

  7. Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution Adubação npk na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva

    OpenAIRE

    José Pereira Carvalho Neto; Enilson de Barros Silva; Reynaldo Campos Santana; Paulo Henrique Grazziotti

    2011-01-01

    Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomiz...

  8. Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Carvalho Neto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized fractional factorial (4 x 4 x 4½, with a total of 32 treatments with three replications. The treatments consisted of four doses of N (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 as urea, P (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg L-1 in the form of phosphoric acid and K (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 in the form of potassium chloride in the nutrient solution. Only the effect of N alone was significant for the number and dry weight of minicuttings per ministump, with a linear decreasing effect with increasing N levels. The highest number of cuttings was obtained at a dose of 50, 7.5 and 50 mg L-1 of N, P and K, respectively.

  9. Mistura de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha com fertilizante NPK Mixture of Brachiaria brizantha seeds with NPK fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo do Valle Lima; José Cláudio de Sousa Tavares; Valéria Rodrigues Azevedo; Patrícia da Silva Leitão-Lima

    2010-01-01

    As informações são contraditórias quanto ao tempo em que as sementes de Brachiaria brizantha podem ficar misturadas ao fertilizante NPK sem diminuir o poder germinativo das sementes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de tempos de contato do adubo granulado NPK 04-14-08, com sementes dessa forrageira, na qualidade fisiológica (germinação e vigor). Empregou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas análise de variância e comparação das médias pelo te...

  10. Acúmulo de NPK e sódio na mamoneira sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada / Accumulation of NPK and sodium in castor bean under saline stress and nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reginaldo G., Nobre; Lauriane A. dos A., Soares; Hans R., Gheyi; Geovani S. de, Lima; Givanildo da S., Lourenço; Saulo da S., Soares.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com água de diferentes salinidades e doses de nitrogênio, sobre a acumulação de NPK e sódio na parte aérea da mamoneira, em experimento conduzido em lisímetros. Utilizou-se aleatorização em bloco em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com três rep [...] etições, estudando-se os cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água (CEa), variando de 0,4 a 4,4 dS m-1, associados a cinco doses de nitrogênio (50 a 150% da recomendada). Os teores de NPK e de sódio na cv. BRS Energia foram maiores nas folhas que no caule e entre as épocas de avaliação, aos 120 dias após a semeadura (DAS) em relação aos 46 DAS. Nas folhas os teores acumulados aos 46 DAS, variou na sequência K > Na > N > P e aos 120 DAS K > N > Na > P; enquanto no caule variaram em ambas as épocas, a ordem foi Na > K > P ? N e em função da CEa e K> Na> P ? N em função das doses de N aos 46 DAS níveis crescentes de CEa promoveram aumento no teor de Nfolha e Kfolha assim como o incremento da adubação com N inibiu o teor de Na folha; aos 120 DAS o maior teor de Nfolha foi obtido com a CEa de 4,4 dS m-1 e a dose de N de 150%, já o teor de Kfolha e Kcaule foi obtido na dose de 150% de N enquanto o teor de P não foi influenciado por nenhum fator estudado. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water of different salinities and doses of nitrogen fertilization on accumulation of NPK and sodium in the aerial parts of the castor bean, the experiment was conducted in lysimeters. A randomized block design in 5 x 5 factorial ar [...] rangement with three replications was used, and the effects of electrical conductivity of water (ECw) varying from 0.4 to 4.4 dS m-1 associated with nitrogen dose (50 to 150% of recommended dose) were studied. The NPK and sodium contents in the aerial parts of to plant in the leaves in comparison to stems and evaluation times 120 days after sowing (DAS) > 46 DAS. In leaves the content at 46 DAS varied according to following sequence K > Na > N > P and at 120 DAS K > N > Na > P while in the stem in both study periods it accumulated in the order Na > K > P ? N under water salinity and K > Na > P ? N depending on nitrogen fertilization. At 46 DAS, the increasing levels of ECw caused an increase in the Nleaf and Kleaf and nitrogen dose inhibited Na leaf content. At 120 DAS the highest content of Nleaf was obtained in treatment ECw 4.4 dS m-1 and in dose of 150% N while the contents of Kleaf and Kstem were obtained in the dose of 150% N. The P content was not affected by any of the studied factors.

  11. Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae / Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marihus Altoé, Baldotto; Lílian Estrela Borges, Baldotto; Rogério Batista, Santana; Cláudio Roberto, Marciano.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria di [...] azotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas as características de crescimento e nutricionais das plantas. O crescimento do milho foi influenciado pela adubação, mas foi reforçado pela combinação com a bactéria, que resultou em aumentos significativos na matéria seca da parte aérea (7 %) e área foliar (9 %), quando comparado com as das plantas não inoculadas. Os resultados indicaram incrementos no acúmulo de N (11 %), P (30 %) e K (17 %), em plantas de milho, em resposta à inoculação bacteriana em conjunto com NPK, quando comparado com os das plantas que apenas receberam adubação. A estabilidade e maior consistência da resposta da planta hospedeira para bacterização, na presença de fertilização química, apontam para uma ferramenta biotecnológica promissora para melhorar o crescimento inicial e adaptação de plantas de milho ao ambiente de cultivo. Abstract in english The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophi [...] c bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7%) and leaf area (9%) when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%), P (30%) and K (17%) of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.

  12. A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release systems. However, there are no attempts to explore the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as controlled release for NPK fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of NPK fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and zeta-potential. The FTIR results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements N, P and K. The stability of the CS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of nitrogen and potassium than with the addition of phosphorus, due to the higher anion charge from the calcium phosphate than the anion charges from the potassium chloride and urea. The mean diameter increase of the CS-PMAA nanoparticles in suspension with the addition of different compounds indicated that the elements are being aggregated on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles.

  13. Influence of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre Habimana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L. in a volcanic soil of Musanze District in the Northern Province of Rwanda. This was geared upon by many unattended biotic and agronomic factors pertaining to low yields of carrot crop in this area. The treatments were: the control (T0, 10 t ha-1 of chicken manure (T1, 300 kg ha-1 of NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer (T2, and 5 t ha-1 chicken manure + 150 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer (T3 and each treatment was in three repetitions. The soil was tested for some of its physical and chemical properties and the soil reaction was moderately acid (pH 5.97 and the quantities of N, P, K were moderate. The growth and yield parameters were studied along with the effect of treatments and the economic contribution of the intervention was determined by Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BGR approach. Results revealed that the significantly (p < 0.05 highest plant height (45.59 cm and leaf length (45.29 cm were obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer and the lowest were 34.12 and 34.69 cm, respectively, in the absolute control. The sole application of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer recorded plant heights of 43.70 and 39.89 cm and leaf lengths of 43.46 and 39.61 cm, respectively. Results also indicated that marketable root yield was statistically similar between control (5.6 t ha-1 and chicken manure alone (5.7 t ha-1 and between NPK fertilizer alone (8.55 t ha-1 and combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (10.55 t ha-1. The best BCR was obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (2.09 compared with the absolute control (1.12, chicken manure alone (1.75 and NPK fertilizer alone (1.62.

  14. NPK-10:26:26 complex fertilizer assisted optimal cultivation of Dunaliella tertiolecta using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anup; Pathak, Akhilendra K; Guria, Chandan

    2015-10-01

    A culture medium based on NPK-10:26:26 fertilizer was formulated for enhanced biomass and lipid production of Dunaliella tertiolecta by selecting appropriate nutrients and environmental parameters. Five-level-five-factor central composite design assisted response surface methodology was adopted for optimal cultivation of D. tertiolecta and results were compared with simple genetic algorithm (GA). Significant improvement in biomass and lipid production was obtained using newly formulated fertilizer medium over f/2 medium. Following optimal parameters [i.e., NaHCO3, (mM), NPK-10:26:26 (g L(-1)), NaCl (M), light intensity (?mol m(-2) s(-1)) and temperature (°C)] were obtained for maximum biomass (1.98 g L(-1)) and lipid production (0.76 g L(-1)): (42.50, 0.33, 1.09, 125, 25.13) and (38.44, 0.40, 1.25, 125, 24.5), respectively using GA. A multi-objective optimization was solved using non-dominated sorting GA to find best operating variables to maximize biomass and lipid production simultaneously. Effects of operating parameters and their interactions on algae and lipid productivity were successfully revealed. PMID:26188554

  15. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  16. Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Renato Z. Santos; Arione S Pereira; Cláudio José S. Freire

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS) no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva) e três níveis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha) de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10). Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacif...

  17. Influence of mineral fertilization (NPK) on the quality of apricot fruit (cv. Canino). The effect of the mode of nitrogen supply

    OpenAIRE

    Radi, Mohamed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Jaouad, Abderrahime; Amiot, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers were evaluated on biochemical markers involved in the quality of apricots (sugars, organic acids and free acidity) and technological qualities (phenolic compounds: substrates of the enzymatic browning reaction). Apricot fruits (cv. Canino) were picked in the Marrakech area (Morocco). An experimental design was carried out with four factors: N, P and K, each one at two levels, and two modes of N ...

  18. Efeitos da adubação NPK na fertilidade do solo, nutrição e crescimento da seringueira / NPK fertilization effects on soil fertility, mineral nutrition and growth of rubber trees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O. C., Bataglia; W. R., Santos.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes combinações de doses de fertilizantes NPK, durante o período de formação do seringal, sobre as características químicas do solo, nutrição mineral e crescimento de árvores de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. A [...] rg.], clone RRIM 600. O experimento foi instalado em 1985 e realizado até 1993, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), testando as doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicadas na forma de uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. Foi usado Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Podzólico distrófico A moderado de textura arenosa/média, localizado no município de Avaí, estado de São Paulo, no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das árvores. A avaliação do experimento foi feita por meio da análise de solo, de folha e medida do perímetro do caule. O fertilizante nitrogenado (uréia) foi o que causou maiores alterações com intensa acidificação do solo. Além de alterar diversos atributos do solo, a aplicação de uréia elevou as concentrações de N e reduziu as de K e S nas folhas. A fertilização fosfatada aumentou a disponibilidade de P no solo e a concentração nas folhas, o mesmo acontecendo com a adubação potássica em relação à disponibilidade de K no solo e na planta. Apesar disso, as correlações entre as concentrações de P e K no solo e nas folhas e o período de imaturidade não foram coerentes com esse aumento de disponibilidade. Mesmo sem a aplicação de micronutrientes, observou-se que as concentrações de B nas folhas correlacionaram-se positivamente com o período de imaturidade, enquanto os demais micronutrientes pouco influíram na fertilidade do solo. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate soil and plant responses to a continuous supply of NPK fertilizers on rubber trees [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. The experiment was conducted on a Red-Yellow Podzolic Latosol sand/medium texture at Avaí, State of [...] São Paulo, Brazil. A fractionated factorial experiment 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) was used, with doses of 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, applied as urea, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. The evaluations consisted of soil, leaf and trunk girth analyses. The nitrogen fertilizer (urea) promoted the greatest changes in soil fertility, significantly increasing soil acidity. Leaf N concentration was enhanced while K and S decreased. Phosphate fertilizer increased soil P availability and leaf P. Potassium fertilizer improved soil and leaf K contents. Leaf N was better correlated with plant growth while soil and leaf P and K were not consistently correlated. Borum concentrations in the leaves were positively correlated with the immaturity period of the crop. The availability of other micronutrients was not affected by the fertilizer treatments. Nitrogen and potassium nutrition showed the best correlations with crop growth. Differences up to twelve months in the immaturity period were observed for the different treatments.

  19. Influence of Npk Inorganic Fertilizer Treatment on the Proximate Composition of the Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.E. Osuagwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h-1 treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p<0.05 increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p<0.05 decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant’s leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  20. Desenvolvimento de mudas de citros cultivadas em vaso em resposta à adubação NPK Development of citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/55³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e o K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Avaliaram-se a produção de material seco das folhas, raízes, caule, parte aérea e total; área foliar, relação raízes/parte aérea; altura de plantas; volume radicular, relação área foliar/material seco para os porta-enxertos e as mudas, e o diâmetro do caule para os porta-enxertos. Funções de resposta foram ajustadas e os níveis de nutrientes foram calculados. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de fertilizantes que levaram às melhores respostas para produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência'/'Cravo' sobre o porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' foram: N, 9,85; P, 2,86; K, 7,99 g por plantas.The objective of this research was to evaluate the NPK fertilizer effect on 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery tree (Citrus sinensis development, budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia in a protected environment using containers with Pinus bark, vermiculite and perlite substrates. The experiment consisted of a complete (1/5 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Leaf, root, stem, shoot and total dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, leaf area, plant height, root system volume; leaf area dry matter ratio stem diameter were evaluated. Response functions were adjusted and nutrient rates for maximum yield are presented. Results showed that fertilizer level that lead to the best 'Valencia' sweet orange on Rangpur lime nursery tree response was (g per plant: N, 9.85; P, 2.86; K, 7.99.

  1. Phosphate solubilizers enhance NPK fertilizer use efficiency in rice and legume cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarah, I; Deka, M; Saikia, N; Deka Boruah, H P

    2011-12-01

    It has been reported that phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are the most promising bacteria among the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); which may be used as biofertilizers for plant growth and nutrient use efficiency. Moreover, these soil micro-organisms play a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and other nutrients. Through this study, the management of nutrient use efficiency by the application of PSB was targeted in order to make the applied nutrients more available to the plants in the rice (Oryza sativa) and yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation. Results have shown that the treatments with PSB alone or in the form of consortia of compatible strains with or without the external application of chemical NPK gave more germination index (G. I.) from 2.5 to 5 in rice and 2.7 to 4.8 in bean seeds. They also showed a higher growth in both shoot and root length and a higher biomass as compared to the control. This gives us an idea about the potentiality of these PSB strains and their application in rice and yardlong bean cultivation to get a better harvest index. Their use will also possibly reduce the nutrient runoff or leaching and increase in the use efficiency of the applied fertilizers. Thus, we can conclude that the NPK uptake and management can be improved by the use of PSB in rice and yardlong bean cultivation, and their application may be much more beneficial in the agricultural field. PMID:22558541

  2. Effect of Sowing Methods and NPK Levels on Growth and Yield of Rainfed Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Shamim; Khan, M H; Khanday, B. A.; Nabi, Sabeena

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the response of rainfed maize to sowing methods and NPK levels, an experiment was undertaken during kharif of 2011 and 2012 at Dryland (Kerawa) Agriculture Research Station, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Budgam. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with combination of 2 sowing methods (flat sowing, 75?cm apart rows, and ridge sowing, 75?cm apart ridges) and 3 fertility levels (60?:?40?:?20, 75?:?50?:?30, and 90...

  3. Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. MAKINDE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol and Lagos state university LASU Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1 control (no fertilizer, (2 pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB 100%, (3 PGB + NPK (75:25, (4 PGB + NPK (50:50, (5 Kola Pod Husk (KPH 100%, (6 KPH + NPK(75:25, (7 KPH + NPK(50:50 and (8 NPK(100% were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were assessed in the second and third planting periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in four replications. Data were analyzed using ANOVA Test. Due to the high N status of the soil in Ikorodu (sandy clay loam its uptake was significantly (p<0.05 higher (87.1% than that of LASU. The KPH and PGB had the highest potential in A. cruentus production. At Ikorodu site, KPH + NPK (75:25 had the nutrient uptake while at LASU, PGB + NPK (75:25 was optimum. KPH + NPK (75:25 gave highest N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake in A. cruentus

  4. The effects of NPK fertilization for nine years on boreal forest vegetation in northwestern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkington, R.; John, Elizabeth [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Botany; Krebs, C.J.; Sinclair, A.R.E.; Smith, J.N.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Dale, M.R.T.; Boutin, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Nams, V.O. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Boonstra, R. [Toronto Univ., Scarborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Life Sciences; Martin, K. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1998-06-01

    Plant productivity is limited by mineral nutrient availability in many boreal forest ecosystems. This study is an analysis of the growth responses of components of a boreal plant community, cryptogams, herbaceous and woody perennials, the dominant shrubs Salix glauca (grey willow) and Betula glandulosa (bog birch) and the dominant tree Picea glauca (white spruce), to the addition of an NPK fertilizer over a nine-year period. The study was carried out in a low-nutrient boreal forest ecosystem in the Yukon territory in northwestern Canada. The following predictions were tested: (1) that there would be an overall increase in abundance (measured either as cover, density, or dry mass) of all components of the vegetation, (2) that vegetation composition would change as more competitive species increased in abundance, and (3) that initial community changes in response to fertilization would be transient. In general, all predictions were found to be true. Species composition changed rapidly in response to fertilizer. Graminoids (e.g. Festuca altaica) and some dicots (e.g. Mertensia paniculata and Achillea millefolium) increased in cover, while other dicots (e.g. Anemone parviflora), dwarf shrubs (e.g. Arctostaphylos uvaursi), bryophytes and lichens declined. There was a significant increase in the growth rate of the two dominant shrubs and of Picea, but not in the cone crop or seed production by Picea. Surveys after 1 or 2 years showed responses by the vegetation but more stable patterns of response did not emerge until after 5 or 6 years. There were consistent and directional changes in the percent cover of some of the herbaceous species on control plots. Growth rates of Salix and Betula varied considerably from year to year, independently of treatment. Long-term studies are essential if we are to understand the role of nutrient limitation in this ecosystem 49 refs, 9 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK / Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães, Teles; Maria Socorro de Souza, Carneiro; Ismail, Soares; Elzania Sales, Pereira; Pedro Zione de, Souza; João Avelar, Magalhães.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distri [...] buídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF), colmos (MSC) e total (MST), teor de proteína bruta (PB), N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan [...] Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic Red Yellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY) evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP) and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

  6. Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene L. A. Bovi

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa", durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N, fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O, em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação. As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993, quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE, com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente. A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente, enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha. Doses crescentes de potássio (K apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97 na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente. Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK, exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N.The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in perennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth was studied under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N, phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5 and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993, when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE, with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively. The interaction GE x PO (sample position was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively, while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³ in the within row, and 6.84 g/dm³ between rows. There was a positive linear response to applied potassium (R² =0.93 to 0.

  7. Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

  8. A comparative study of distillery spent wash with NPK (standard chemical fertilizers at seedling stage of sorghum (sorghum bicolor l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Ahmed Soomro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The price of commercial chemical fertilizers is beyond the purchasing power of farming community of world’s developing countries. Therefore, to find out the substitute of these commercial chemical fertilizers a comparative study was conducted at seedling stage of sorghum variety named Sarokartuho in seed testing laboratory. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design (CRD with three replications and three treatments, i.e. only drinking water (as check, recommended dose of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK commercial fertilizer, 30%+70% of distillery spent wash + water, 50%+50% distillery spent wash + water respectively. The results for spent wash (T2 were at seed germination% (95.33%, shoot length (6.62 cm, root length (5.49 cm, shoot fresh weight (0.18 mg, root fresh weight (0.019 mg, shoot dry weight (0.017 mg and root-dry weight (0.005 mg of sorghum. However, the maximum values for these all traits of observations except seed germination were recorded at recommended dose of NPK (chemical fertilizers.

  9. Effect of Sowing Methods and NPK Levels on Growth and Yield of Rainfed Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Shamim; Khan, M H; Khanday, B A; Nabi, Sabeena

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the response of rainfed maize to sowing methods and NPK levels, an experiment was undertaken during kharif of 2011 and 2012 at Dryland (Kerawa) Agriculture Research Station, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Budgam. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with combination of 2 sowing methods (flat sowing, 75?cm apart rows, and ridge sowing, 75?cm apart ridges) and 3 fertility levels (60?:?40?:?20, 75?:?50?:?30, and 90?:?60?:?40 N?:?P2O5?:?K2O?kg?ha(-1)) with three replications. Various growth characters, namely, plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, number of days to different phenological stages, and yield, and yield contributing characters namely, cob length, number of grains cob(-1), cob diameter (cm), and 100-seed weight (g), were significantly higher with S2 over S1 during both the years of experimentation. Fertilizer levels F3 (90?:?60?:?40) and F2 (75?:?50?:?30) at par with one another produced significant increase in growth and yield characters, namely, plant height, leaf area index, dry matter production at different growth stages, cob length, number of cobs plant(-1), number of grains cob(-1), and 100-seed weight over F1 (60?:?40?:?20). Significantly higher grain yield was recorded with fertilizer level F3 (90?:?60?:?40) being at par with F2 (75?:?50?:?30) and showed significant increase over F1 (60?:?40?:?20) with superiority of 5.4 and 5.7 per cent during 2011 and 2012, respectively. The findings of the study concluded that ridge method of sowing of maize with NPK levels of 75?:?50?:?30?kg?ha(-1) showed better performance of crop in terms of growth, yield, and yield attributes. PMID:26090269

  10. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  11. Competição entre quatro variedades de girassol na ausência e na presença de adubação mineral com NPK Comparison of four sunflower varieties in the presence and absence of a NPK fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Vasconcelos da Rocha

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de quatro variedades de girassol, na ausência e na presença de adubação com NPK, foi estudado em diversas localidades do Estado de São Paulo. A variedade Uruguai destacou-se consideravelmente das outras na produção. O efeito médio de NPK foi pequeno, mas houve grandes diferenças nas respostas das variedades e pelo uso anterior dos solos. Nas áreas não adubadas no ano anterior, a adubação aumentou substancialmente a produção, sobretudo das variedades Uruguai e Aguapeí. Embora ocupasse o segundo lugar na produção, a variedade Riscada foi das menos eficientes no aproveitamento da adubação.Experiments were conducted in several localities of the State of São Paulo to study the production of four sunflower varieties in the presence and absence of a NPK fertilizer. The seed yields decreased from the variety Uruguai to Riscada, Aguapeí and Preta. While Uruguai produced remarkably more than the other varieties, the differences among the latter were smaller. The overall yield increase due to NPK was small, but the responses changed appreciably according to the variety and the previous treatment of the soils used for the experiments. In the areas which received no fertilizer in the previous year, the experimental fertilizer increased substantially the yields, principally of the varieties Uruguai and Aguapeí. Riscada was less responsive to the pertilizer application.

  12. Manejo da cultura do híbrido de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN : 01 para melhoria na qualidade do fruto com menor aplicação de adubação NPK / Management of the papaya crop of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN : 01 of 'Formosa' group for fruit quality improvement and less NPK fertilizer application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Venturim, Fontes; Alexandre Pio, Viana; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Jurandi Gonçalves de, Oliveira; Henrique Duarte, Vieira.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de alguns aspectos do manejo da cultura do mamoeiro como espaçamento e nível de adubação NPK, sobre alguns atributos de qualidade dos frutos do híbrido do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agr [...] ícola S.A., em Linhares-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,70 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão da empresa (PE); A2 = 100% PE; A3 = 120% PE; A4 = 140% PE, e A5 = 160% PE), e três períodos de avaliação (junho, agosto e outubro de 2007). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa (PE) consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P2O5) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K2O), respectivamente. Foram analisados a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a concentração de sólidos solúveis (SS), o pH, a acidez titulável (AT) e a razão SS/AT da polpa. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de médias. Os resultados mostram que, entre as condições de espaçamento e níveis de adubação NPK testados, o melhor desempenho foi obtido pelas combinações E1A1 ou E2A1, os quais devem ser adotadas para o manejo do híbrido UC01. Os tratamentos resultaram em frutos com atributos de qualidade superiores, além de proporcionar redução nos gastos com adubação NPK e menor impacto ambiental em função da aplicação excessiva de adubo no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of some aspects of the management of the crop as spacing and level of NPK fertilizer application on some quality attributes of fruits of the papaya hybrid of 'Formosa' group UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). The experiment was conducted in the farm Caliman [...] Agrícola S.A., in Linhares -E. S. We used the randomized complete block design, with factorial arrangement, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m; E3 = 2,70 m), five levels of conventional NPK (A1 = 80% of the company's standard; A2 = 100% of the standard; A3 = 120% of the standard; A4 = 140% of the standard; and A5 = 160% of the standard) and three evaluation periods (June, August and October 2007). The standard NPK fertilizer company consists of 350, 105 and 660 kg/ha/year of ammonium sulphate (20% of N), superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. We evaluated the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the concentration of soluble solids (SS), pH, acidity (TA) and the ratio SS /TA of the pulp. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and mean test. The results show that among the conditions of spacing and NPK fertilizer levels tested, the best performance was obtained by combinations E1A1 or E2A1, which should be adopted to manage the hybrid UC01. These treatments resulted in fruits with superior quality attributes, in addition to these management practices provide a reduction in spending on NPK fertilizer and a smaller environmental impact according to excessive application of fertilizer in the soil.

  13. Adubação com NPK e irrigação do girassol em Luvissolo: Comportamento vegetativo / NPK fertilization and irrigation of sunflowers in Luvisol: Vegetative behavior

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vinícius Batista, Campos; Lúcia Helena Garófalo, Chaves; Hugo Orlando Carvallo, Guerra.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre as culturas utilizadas para a produção de biocombustíveis, o girassol é um das mais importantes. Apesar de existir informações na literatura, as necessidades hídricas e de nutrientes do girassol ainda não estão perfeitamente definidas. Com o objetiv [...] o de verificar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada, fosfatada, potássica e o conteúdo de água disponível no solo (AD) sobre o comportamento vegetativo do girassol Embrapa 122 V2000, na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande-PB, foi conduzido um experimento com quarenta e quatro tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de doses (kg ha-1) de N, P e K de acordo com uma matriz baconiana, sendo 1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 e quatro conteúdos de água disponível (55, 70, 85 e 100% da AD). O tratamento nove é o de referência, correspondendo às doses adotadas pelos produtores de girassol do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em triplicata. Avaliou-se a altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas e área foliar, aos 40 e 60 dias após a semeadura. Os resultados indicaram que os efeitos da água disponível e adubação com NPK sobre a cultura do girassol ocorreram de forma independente, excetuando-se o número de folhas. Todas as variáveis apresentaram comportamento linear crescente em função da água disponível do solo, exceto a área foliar. Para as condições estudadas, as doses 100, 80 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, proporcionaram os maiores índices de crescimento. Abstract in english The sunflower is one of the most important crops used for the production of biofuels. While the literature does contain some information, the hydric and nutritional requirements of sunflowers are still not completely defined. In order to correct this defi [...] ciency, an experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil, with the aim of evaluating the effect of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium fertilization and available soil water (AW) on the behavior of Sunflower cv. Embrapa 122 V2000. The experiment consisted of 44 treatments with compound fertilizers using a Baconian Matrix (1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 kg ha-1 of N, P and K, respectively, and four difference quantities of available soil water (55, 70, 85 and 100%). The 9th compound fertilizer treatment was considered the reference since its doses are those used by the region's sunflower growers in Rio Grande do Norte State. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area of the plants were evaluated at 40 and 60 days after sowing. The results showed that the effects of available soil water and NPK fertilization on sunflower crop occurred independently for all variables except for the number of leaves. All variables increased linearly as a function of available soil water, except for leaf area. For the conditions studied, the doses 100, 80 and 80 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O resulted in the highest growth rates, respectively.

  14. Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil / Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar, Spironello; José Antonio, Quaggio; Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Pedro Roberto, Furlani; José Maria Monteiro, Sigrist.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Am [...] arelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribuídos em dois blocos. O P foi aplicado somente no plantio nas doses de 0; 80; 160 e 320 kg/ha de P(2)0(5), como superfosfato. As doses de N e K2O foram 0; 175; 350 e 700 kg/ha, aplicadas como uréia e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente, parceladas em quatro aplicações, durante o período de crescimento da cultura. Ajustaram-se funções de resposta para a produção e características de qualidade dos frutos com o objetivo de estimar as doses de N, P e K para atingir valores máximos. Observou-se resposta quadrática na produção, com um máximo de 72 t/ha de frutos frescos estimado para as doses de 498 e 394 kg/ha de N e K2O, respectivamente. Para a maximização do tamanho do fruto e da porcentagem de frutos de primeira classe (massa maior que 2,6 kg), as doses de N e K foram, respectivamente, 11 e 43% maiores daquelas necessárias para atingir a produção máxima. Não foi observado efeito das doses de P no crescimento ou produção, mesmo com a baixa disponibilidade do nutriente no solo da área experimental. O aumento nas doses de N diminuiu o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, enquanto o oposto ocorreu com as doses de K, que aumentaram também os teores de vitamina C. Produção e tamanho de fruto apresentaram relação positiva com os teores de N e de K nas folhas. Abstract in english There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the [...] State of São Paulo (Agudos county). The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5), as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg), were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.

  15. Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Spironello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the State of São Paulo (Agudos county. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5, as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg, were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribuídos em dois blocos. O P foi aplicado somente no plantio nas doses de 0; 80; 160 e 320 kg/ha de P(20(5, como superfosfato. As doses de N e K2O foram 0; 175; 350 e 700 kg/ha, aplicadas como uréia e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente, parceladas em quatro aplicações, durante o período de crescimento da cultura. Ajustaram-se funções de resposta para a produção e características de qualidade dos frutos com o objetivo de estimar as doses de N, P e K para atingir valores máximos. Observou-se resposta quadrática na produção, com um máximo de 72 t/ha de frutos frescos estimado para as doses de 498 e 394 kg/ha de N e K2O, respectivamente. Para a maximização do tamanho do fruto e da porcentagem de frutos de primeira classe (massa maior que 2,6 kg, as doses de N e K foram, respectivamente, 11 e 43% maiores daquelas necessárias para atingir a produção máxima. Não foi observado efeito das doses de P no crescimento ou produção, mesmo com a baixa disponibilidade do nutriente no solo da área experimental. O aumento nas doses de N diminuiu o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, enquanto o oposto ocorreu com as doses de K, que aumentaram também os teores de vitamina C. Produção e tamanho de fruto apresentaram relação positiva com os teores de N e de K nas folhas.

  16. Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution / Adubação npk na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Pereira, Carvalho Neto; Enilson de Barros, Silva; Reynaldo Campos, Santana; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis adequados de nutrientes na planta podem variar de acordo com a espécie ou clone, a idade e o manejo adotado. Com isso, muitas vezes, ajustes na solução nutritiva são necessários conforme o material que se deseja multiplicar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da adubação [...] NPK na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetação da UFVJM. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4)½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro doses dos nutrientes N (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1) na forma de ureia, P (7,5, 15, 30 e 60 mg L-1) na forma de ácido fosfórico e K (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1) na forma de cloreto de potássio em solução nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente para número e massa seca das miniestacas por minicepa, com efeito linear decrescente com o aumento das doses de N. O maior número de miniestacas foi obtido nas doses de 50, 7,5 e 50 mg L-1 de NPK, respectivamente. Abstract in english Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on productio [...] n and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized fractional factorial (4 x 4 x 4)½, with a total of 32 treatments with three replications. The treatments consisted of four doses of N (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1) as urea, P (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg L-1) in the form of phosphoric acid and K (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1) in the form of potassium chloride in the nutrient solution. Only the effect of N alone was significant for the number and dry weight of minicuttings per ministump, with a linear decreasing effect with increasing N levels. The highest number of cuttings was obtained at a dose of 50, 7.5 and 50 mg L-1 of N, P and K, respectively.

  17. Adubação da cana-de-acúcar: XIV. Adubação NPK em latossolo roxo / NPK fertilizer experiments of sugar cane on dusky red latosol soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael, Alvarez; Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano Vaz de, Arruda; Bernardo, Van Raij; Antônio Carlos, Gomes; Frederico, Zink.

    Full Text Available São apresentados e discutidos os resultados de dezenove ensaios de adubação de cana-de-açúcar, efetuados em latossolo roxo, em diferentes regiões paulistas. Adotou-se um delineamento fatorial 3³ para N, P e K, procurando-se avaliar a reação da cultura a esses nutrientes em áreas exploradas havia alg [...] uns anos com cana e em outras em início de exploração. A variedade utilizada foi a CB 41/76, plantando-se de janeiro a março de 1958. Foram aplicados 0,90 e 180kg/ha de N; 0,80 e 160kg/ha de P2O5 e 0,100 e 200kg/ha de K2O. Houve respostas significativas a nitrogênio em dez casos, a fósforo em nove e a potássio em dezesseis. A produção média sem adubo, em todos os ensaios, foi de 82,9t/ha. As doses máximas dos adubos proporcionaram aumentos médios de 15,2t/ha para nitrogênio, de 10,0t/ha para fósforo e de 21,3t/ha para potássio. O ajuste de funções de respostas aos resultados permitiu a verificação de que combinações mais econômicas dos nutrientes estão muito acima das recomendações correntes. As respostas da cultura à adubação estiveram diretamente relacionadas com a produtividade máxima econômica (r = 0,773**). Foi possível identificar relação direta entre respostas a N e produtividade (r = 0,695**), de respostas a N com o teor de matéria orgânica no solo (r = 0,677**) e de fósforo com o teor de P no solo, determinado pelo método da resina trocadora de íons (r = 0,709**). Abstract in english Nineteen 3³ NPK factorial experiments with sugar cane were carried out in 1958/59 on dusky red latosol soils of various sugar plant owned lands, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The amounts of nutrients applied corresponded to: 0, 90 and 180 kg/ha of N; 0, 80 and 160kg/ha of P(2)0(5); and 0, 100 a [...] nd 200kg/ha of K2O. The experiments were separated in two types of areas, based on former soil use: one group in areas where sugar cane was cultivated over ten years, and the other group in areas where which sugar cane had never been cultivated. The results were in accordance with former management, indicating residual effect of phosphorus applications and potassium depletion on the areas former cultivated with sugar cane. However, responses to nitrogen could not be related to former soil usage. Responses of sugar cane to nitrogen were related to soil organic matter (r = 0.695**) and to phosphorus with resin extractable P (r = 0.709**), but the response to potassium fertilizer was not related to soil K (r = 0.284 n.s). With adjusted response functions, the optimal economical amount of nutrients were shown to be in general, higher than the current recommendations. Yield increases promoted by NPK were directly related to the maximum economic yield (r = 0.773**).

  18. The combination of NPK fertilizer and deltamethrin insecticide favors the proliferation of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriet, F; Rossignol, M; Chandre, F

    2012-05-01

    In this laboratory study, we investigated how the biological cycle of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (VKPR strain) would be like when grew in an environment containing more or less plant matter (2.5 or 5 g/l) and fertilizer (8-12-8 or 17-23-17 mg/l). Half of the environments studied were not exposed to insecticide (control) whereas the other half was submitted to deltamethrin treatment at the concentration of 0.015 mg/l. The bioassays showed that 2.5 g/l of plant matter in water are not sufficient to feed the hundred larvae, each breeding site contains. Treating these breeding sites with deltamethrin reversed the situation as it decreased the competition for food resources and allowed the surviving larvae to share the small amount of food enabling them to pursue their development until adults. If the introduction of NPK in untreated sites has not improved the nutritive qualities of the water, in the treated sites it multiplied the number of emerging adults by 2.5. In the waters containing 5 g/l of plant matter, the larvae did not undergo feeding competition and the impact of insecticide followed of a more traditional selection scheme that expressed itself by a lower number of emerging adults. In these environments treated or nontreated where plant matter is abundant, adding NPK brings food supplement to the larvae therefore increases the survival rate of An. gambiae. To conclude, whether in habitats with little or much plant matter, NPK presence in water results in larger adults with generally, more soluble proteins. PMID:22550627

  19. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition. The study was aimed to analyze the effects of different types of media, fertilizer concentration, and frequency of fertilizer application on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings. The expe...

  20. Respuesta del litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en el norte de Oaxaca, México / Response of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) to NPK fertilization in northern Oaxaca, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramiro, Maldonado Peralta; Antonio, Trinidad Santos; Daniel, Téliz Ortíz; Vicente A., Velasco Velasco; Víctor H., Volke Haller.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta de litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en árboles de la var. 'Brewster' de seis años plantados al norte de Oaxaca, en el periodo 2009 - 2011. Se usaron seis proporciones (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 y 125 %) de la dosis 50-130-50 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 y K2O como tra [...] tamientos; adicionalmente se probaron otros tres tratamientos: dosis 100 % + 3.6 t ha-1 de composta, dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores, y dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores + 720 kg ha-1 de Ca (OH)2. La primera fertilización se aplicó en noviembre de 2009 pero no se encontró respuesta a la fertilización en 2010. En 2010 y 2011 la fertilización se dividió en dos partes. La primera mitad se aplicó el 30 de agosto de 2010, y la otra mitad el 11 de febrero de 2011. Los resultados que aquí se reportan son del periodo 2010 - 2011. Las concentraciones foliares mayores de N, P y K se obtuvieron al inicio de la yema floral con las dosis mas altas de fertilización. La mayor floración y el mayor rendimiento de fruta se lograron con la dosis 100 % de N-P-K + elementos menores que superó (P ? 0.05) al testigo. El mayor contenido de clorofila foliar se obtuvo con el tratamiento 125 %, en comparación con el testigo. Los mayores valores de peso de materia seca de brotes vegetativos y de área foliar se lograron con el tratamiento 100 % + composta. El contenido de N foliar correlacionó con el rendimiento de brotes y con área foliar (r = 0.72 y r = 0.65, respectivamente). Se concluye que los árboles de litchi fertilizados con NPK, composta y elementos menores, aumentaron su concentración foliar de N, P y K, cantidad de flores, rendimiento de fruta, color verde de las hojas, biomasa de nuevos brotes y área foliar. No se encontró respuesta del litchi a la aplicación de hidróxido de calcio. Abstract in english Responses of six years old litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees cv. 'Brewster' to NPK fertilization at north of Oaxaca state were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Six dosage treatments (0, 25, 50 75, 100 and 125 %) of the 50-130-50 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O were used. Additional treatments were: 100 % [...] dosage + 3.6 t ha-1 of compost, 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients, and 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients + 720 kg ha-1 of Ca(OH)2. The first fertilization was applied on November 2009, but no response was obtained in 2010. In 2010 and 2011 the fertilization was divided in two parts. The first half was applied in August 30, 2010, and the other in February 11, 2011. The results reported here correspond to the 2010 - 2011 period. Highest concentrations of N, P and K in the leaves at the flower bud stage were obtained with the highest dosages. The highest amounts of flowers and fruit yield compared to the control were observed with 100 % of NPK + micronutrients. Highest chlorophyll contents were found with the 125 % dosage. The highest values of new shoots dry weight and leaf area were obtained with the 100 % dosage + compost. Positive correlations between foliar nitrogen with new shoots weight and leaf area (r = 0.72 and r = 0.65, respectively), were found. It is concluded that litchi trees fertilized with NPK , compost and micronutrients increased N, P and K concentration in the leaves, amount of flowers, fruit yield, green color of leaves, new shoots weight and leaf area. No response to calcium hydroxide application was observed in litchi trees.

  1. Análise de formulações NPK fiscalizadas pelo mapa, de 2008 a 2010 / Analysis of NPK fertilizers inspected by mapa from 2008 to 2010

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Coelho de, Sena; Tairone Paiva, Leão; George Freitas, von Borries; Osiris, Turnes.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil ocupa o quarto lugar mundial em consumo de fertilizantes; dentre esses, destaca-se o fertilizante mineral misto como o mais consumido no País. Depois da atualização da legislação brasileira de fertilizantes em 2004, muitos produtores desses insumos afirmam que houve aumento excessivo no rig [...] or da legislação em relação à fiscalização dos teores de nutrientes neles contidos. Dentro desse contexto, os objetivos deste trabalho foram aplicar técnicas de análise estatística exploratória e descritiva e de regressão logística aos dados de análises fiscais de fertilizantes realizadas pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA), nos anos de 2008 a 2010, buscando indicadores da contribuição das fontes de variação referentes aos fatores estabelecimento, formulação e laboratório para a variação total dos resultados; e verificar se os níveis de tolerância estabelecidos pelo MAPA estão sendo praticados. Para tanto, esses dados, separados por estabelecimento, formulação, laboratório, especificação granulométrica e período foram submetidos à análise descritiva, seguida de regressão logística. A regressão logística demonstrou que, para N e P analisados pelo laboratório com maior número de observações, as variáveis "estabelecimento" e "formulação" influem no resultado final da análise, dentro ou fora da garantia, enquanto para K, analisado pelo mesmo laboratório, apenas a variável "formulação" influi nesses resultados. Abstract in english Brazil is the fourth largest consumer of fertilizers in the world. Among these, bulk blends fertilizers are the most consumed in the country. After updating of Brazilian legislation in regard to fertilizers in 2004, many producers claim that there was an excessive increase in the strictness of legis [...] lation concerning inspection of nutrient levels in those products. Within this context, the objective of this study was to provide an exploratory and descriptive statistical analysis to the data gathered by MAPA (Ministry of Agriculture) from the inspection of the fertilizer industry from the years 2008 to 2010, looking for the most important source of variation, including producer, formula, and laboratory, and verifying if the minimum requirements established by law are being practiced. These data, separated by producer, formula, laboratory, particle size, and period, were subjected to descriptive analysis, followed by logistic regression. Logistic regression showed that for nitrogen and phosphorus analyzed by the laboratory with the greatest number of observations, the "producer" and "formula" variables affect the final results (not-in-conformity or in-conformity), whereas for potassium analyzed by the same laboratory, only the "formula" variable affected the results.

  2. The Influence of N-P-K Fertilizer Rates and Cropping Systems on Root Biomass and Some Root Morphological Variables of Sweet Corn and Vegetable Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Iman; Zakaria Wahab; Mohd Ridzwan Abd Halim; Syed Omar Syed Rastan

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment using 1.2 x 0.5 x 0.5 m rhizoboxes with 280 kg soil was carried out to investigate the effect of three N-P-K fertilizer rates (50, 00 and 50% of the recommended fertilizer rate) and cropping systems (mono-crop corn or soybean, intercrop corn and soybean without root separation, with plastic and with geotextile root separation) on root biomass, volume surface area and total root length. Mono-crop corn and intercropped corn under plastic sheet root separation had significantl...

  3. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rehman; M. Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad Ehsan Safdar; Safdar Hussain; Naeem Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in fou...

  4. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  5. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  6. Impact of long-term N, P, K, and NPK fertilization on the composition and potential functions of the bacterial community in grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yao; Cassman, Noriko; de Hollander, Mattias; Mendes, Lucas W; Korevaar, Hein; Geerts, Rob H E M; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2014-10-01

    Soil abiotic and biotic interactions govern important ecosystem processes. However, the mechanisms behind these interactions are complex, and the links between specific environmental factors, microbial community structures, and functions are not well understood. Here, we applied DNA shotgun metagenomic techniques to investigate the effect of inorganic fertilizers N, P, K, and NPK on the bacterial community composition and potential functions in grassland soils in a 54-year experiment. Differences in total and available nutrients were found in the treatment soils; interestingly, Al, As, Mg, and Mn contents were variable in N, P, K, and NPK treatments. Bacterial community compositions shifted and Actinobacteria were overrepresented under the four fertilization treatments compared to the control. Redundancy analysis of the soil parameters and the bacterial community profiles showed that Mg, total N, Cd, and Al were linked to community variation. Using correlation analysis, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were linked similarly to soil parameters, and Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were linked separately to different suites of parameters. Surprisingly, we found no fertilizers effect on microbial functional profiles which supports functional redundancy as a mechanism for stabilization of functions during changes in microbial composition. We suggest that functional profiles are more resistant to environmental changes than community compositions in the grassland ecosystem. PMID:25046442

  7. Poaceae cespitosa e decumbente adubadas com NPK: efeitos na agregação do solo / Caespitosa and decumbens Poaceae fertilized with NPK: effects on soil aggregation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dácio Jerônimo de, Almeida; Ivandro de França da, Silva; Flávio Pereira da Mota, Silveira; Robeval Diniz, Santiago; José Ronaldo Calado, Costa.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A desagregação de partículas do solo afeta a sua capacidade produtiva, resultando em processos de compactação, erosão e perdas de nutrientes. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a qualidade e estabilidade dos agregados de um Latossolo Amarelo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, representado por Urochloa dec [...] umbens e Urochloa brizantha, na presença e ausência de adubação mineral, e por duas formas de amostragem (fileiras e entre as fileiras), em três profundidades de amostragem. As amostras indeformadas de solo coletadas foram destorroadas, passadas em peneira de 9,52 mm e, após secagem, em peneiras de 2,00 mm; 1,00 mm; 0,50 mm e 0,25 mm, obedecendo às seguintes classes de diâmetro: 9,52-2,00 mm; 2,00-1,00 mm; 1,00-0,50 mm e 0,50-0,25 mm, por peneiragem seca. Estes agregados foram, também, separados por peneiragem úmida, sendo, ainda, determinada a argila dispersa e a massa seca de raízes. Os agregados maiores que 2,00 mm apresentaram estabilidade elevada, na camada de 0,00-0,05 m, em comparação aos agregados de menores classes, não havendo efeito do local de amostragem e de adubação sobre o tamanho e estabilidade dos agregados. Concluiu-se não haver diferença entre as duas espécies estudadas, forma de coleta das amostras e adubação, na formação e estabilidade de agregados. Abstract in english The disintegration of soil particles affects its productive capacity, resulting in compression, erosion and nutrient losses. This study aimed at evaluating the aggregates quality and stability of a Yellow Latosol, in a randomized blocks design represented by Urochloa decumbens and Urochloa brizantha [...] , with and without mineral fertilization, and two sampling forms (rows and between rows), in three sampling depths. The undeformed soil samples collected were shattered and passed through a 9.52 mm sieve and, after drying, through a 2.00 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.50 mm and 0.25 mm sieves, according to the following diameters classes: 9.52-2.00 mm, 2.00-1.00 mm, 1.00-0.50 mm and 0.50-0.25 mm, by using dry sieving. These aggregates were also separated by wet sieving and the dispersed clay and root dry matter were determined. Aggregates larger than 2.00 mm showed high stability, in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, when compared to the aggregates from smaller classes, with no effect of sampling and fertilization site on the aggregates size and stability. There was no difference for the two species analyzed, sampling method and fertilization on the aggregates formation and stability.

  8. Evaluation of radioactivity levels in fertilizers commonly used in the Southern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed to evaluate radioactive concentrations in three categories of fertilizers, phosphate (0-46-0); potash (0-0-60); and NPK (13-13-13) using gamma spectroscopic techniques. The experimental analyses indicated mean concentrations of 697 ± 15, 8.9 ± 1.0 and 47 ± 12 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively, in phosphate fertilizers. Potash fertilizers had the average levels of 1.1 ± 0.10, 0.40 ± 0.05, and 15,162 ± 1017 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The NPK fertilizers contained 7.45 ± 2.76, 2.63 ± 0.29, 3581 ± 601 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological health hazard parameters are assessed and compared with the U.S. acceptable dose limits. (author)

  9. Adubação com NPK em coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.: atributos químicos do solo e nutrição da planta NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de informações sobre adubação de coqueiro para o Estado de São Paulo, realizou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W, visando a estudar os efeitos da aplicação de NPK em alguns atributos do solo e nutrição da planta, de set/2000 a fev/2004. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³, com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de N, P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de K2O. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas fracionadamente durante a estação das chuvas, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. A aplicação de N em doses superiores a 240 kg ha-1 ano-1 causou excessiva acidificação do solo, sendo que 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 foi suficiente para manter o teor de N foliar na faixa de suficiência. A adubação com P e K nas doses mais elevadas resultou em perdas por lixiviação. A adubação com 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O foi suficiente para manter o teor de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial e as plantas com teores de K foliar acima da faixa de suficiência. O P foliar manteve-se sempre acima da faixa de suficiência, independentemente da adubação fosfatada.There are very few information about fertilization of coconut grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with 'Dwarf Green' coconut was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on some soil chemical properties and plant nutrition, from September, 2000 to February, 2004. The trial was located on an Oxisol in the west part of the State of São Paulo (20º47'S; 51º01'W. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³. The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of N, P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of K2O, applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. Rates of N higher than 240 kg ha-1year-1 caused excessive soil acidification, whereas 120 kg ha-1year-1 was enough to achieve sufficiency range on leaves. Application of higher rates of P and K caused losses by leaching. It was necessary 120 kg of K2O ha-1year-1 to maintain soil exchangeable K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment, the same rate kept leaf K concentration above sufficiency range. Foliar P contents were always higher than sufficiency range despite of P fertilization.

  10. Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivair André Nava

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, pois os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn, um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas.Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tissues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn, a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application. Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

  11. Utilization of nitrogen by two rice varieties at various NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to assess the efficiency of utilization of N by rice, as a basal application or as a top dressing or both, vs. genotype - an important and controversial issue. Nitrogen-15 labelling was adopted. The effects of genotype and N, P, and K levels, with basal and split N dressings, were investigated in pots, in terms of recovery of fertilizer 15N in the straw and grain

  12. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels / Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdul, Rehman; M, Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad, Ehsan Safdar; Safdar, Hussain; Naeem, Akhtar.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cult [...] ivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm), siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm), y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja) y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1). La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE), así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE) fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150) que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK. Abstract in english Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical ar [...] rangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1). Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1) than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.

  13. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm, ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm, and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip; NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1. Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE and N use efficiency (NUE were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cultivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm, siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm, y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1. La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE, así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150 que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK.

  14. Effete of Gamma Radiation and N.P.K on Lettuce yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiment were carried out during 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experiment at farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt – The experiments were conducted to study the effect of irradiated sowing seeds with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation and / or the effect of different levels of NPK fertilizer 0, (NPK)1, (NPK)2, (NPK)3, (NPK)4 and (NPK)5 on the morphological and chemical parameters of the lettuce yield. The fresh weight of the plant in the line, length of the plant in the line, the number of leaves in the line, the number of plants in the line and the fresh weight in Fadden per ton were studied. There were significant effects of NPK contents on the lettuce leaves at (NPK) 4 in the dose level 6 Gy and on Calcium and Vitamins. We found that the most effective doses on leaf lettuce is 6 Gy dose of gamma radiation which gives strong and early seedlings in maturity upwards in the production of seedlings dose of 4 Gy. While the dose 8 Gray did not occur any increase at dose level 6 Gy. The Level (NPK) 4 increase the production of fresh per acre more upwards for all levels with 6 Gray and fourth level was the best in the natural qualities and characteristics of chemical terms of delay growth harvest lettuce, as well as influence on the plant content of calcium, nitrogen, protein and all the natural qualities among the first season and the second season.

  15. [Effect of NPK and B supply levels on boron uptake and biological properties of different genotypic oilseed rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y; Yang, Y

    2001-04-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to study the boron absorption by oilseed rape(Brassica napus), the mechanism of its resistance to boron deficiency, and the effect of boron deficiency on its biological properties under different NPK supply levels. The results indicated that under boron deficiency, increasing NPK supply aggravated boron deficiency symptoms, which led to the decrease of leaf area and its growth rate and nitrate reductase activity(NRA) and the increase of chlorophyll(a + b) content at seedling stage, and the decrease of the number of productive branches and pods of each plant and seed yield at maturity. It was suggested that the ratio of boron concentration in youngest open leaves(YOL) to youngest mature leaves(YML) at seedling stage could be an index to judge the boron mobility in plants of different genotypic oilseed rape. Boron mobility and its utilization efficiency were one of the important nutritional mechanisms responsible for the difference in response of different genotypic oilseed rapes to boron deficiency. PMID:11757364

  16. Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Farmyard Manure on Nut Production of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. Baloch; M. Moizuddin; Imam, M.; B.A. Abro; J.A. Lund; A.H. Solangi

    2004-01-01

    During the present studies it was found that coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) had a good response to fertilizers. The maximum yield of 658 nuts was obtained by the application of 700 g Urea+270 g DAP+1600 g MOP. The results also indicated that the application of fertilizers helped to increase nut yield in coconut.

  17. Differential response of radish plants to supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation under varying NPK levels: chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2012-07-01

    Current and projected increases in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation may alter crop growth and yield by modifying the physiological and biochemical functions. This study was conducted to assess the possibility of alleviating the negative effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 7.2 kJ m?² day?¹; 280-315 nm) on radish (Raphanus sativus var Pusa Himani) by modifying soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels. The N, P and K treatments were recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N and 1.5 times recommended dose of K. Plants showed variations in their response to UV-B radiation under varying soil NPK levels. The minimum damaging effects of sUV-B on photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance coupled with minimum reduction in chlorophyll content were recorded for plants grown at recommended dose of NPK. Flavonoids increased under sUV-B except in plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of N. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) also increased in response to sUV-B at all NPK levels with maximum at 1.5 times recommended dose of K and minimum at recommended dose of NPK. This study revealed that sUV-B radiation negatively affected the radish plants by reducing the photosynthetic efficiency and increasing LPO. The plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of NPK/N/K could not enhance antioxidative potential to the extent as recorded at recommended dose of NPK and hence showed more sensitivity to sUV-B. PMID:22304244

  18. Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Espironelo

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%.Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

  19. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most demanded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S. Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE, i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation, while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 40 and 48 % of K, and 35 and 45 % of Mg absorbed during the cycle was exported with grains, whereas less than 15 % of Ca was exported.

  20. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo. Parte II - Efeito do calcário e de vários adubos Effect of lime, manure, green manure, and NPK-fertilizers on the yields of sweet potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1945 e 1950 foram conduzidas quatro experiências em solos ácidos, duas em Campinas (terra-roxa e duas em Tupi Paulista (solo do Glacial, para estudar os efeitos, sôbre a batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam., das aplicações de 3 t/ha de calcário, 50 t/ha de estêrco e duas adubações com 60-1 00-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O, sendo uma exclusivamente mineral e outra organomineral. Além dêsses tratamentos, que constituiram um esquema fatorial 4X2, tôdas as experiências tiveram um tratamento extra, com adubação verde na ausência do calcário. Isolada, a calagem não trouxe aumentos de produção; no presença do estêrco, porém, ela provocou, em quatro experiências, aumentos correspondentes a 5, 12, 20 e 84%. Sòmente três das experiências permitiram estudar as respostas ao corretivo na presença das adubações NPK, mineral e organomineral: no primeiro caso elas foram -26, +26 e +34%; no segundo, -29, -20 e +21%. Os efeitos do estêrco foram sempre elevados, principalmente na presença do calcário, quando alcançaram +104, +148, +158 e +254%. Embora menores que as do estêrco, as respostas às adubações com NPK (em três experiências também foram muito boas, mas nem sempre a presença do calcário lhes foi favorável: as da adubaçâo mineral, de +62, +62 e +88% na ausência do calcário, passaram, na sua presença, respectivamente para +94, +34 e +144%; as da adubação organomineral, de +148, +94 e +74 % na ausência, passaram para +67, +73 e + 104% na presença do corretivo. Quanto à adubação verde, no conjunto, das quatro experiências seu efeito foi quase igual ao do estêrco. Na dose empregada, o estêrco levou ao solo muito maiores quantidades de nutrientes que as adubações com NPK. O método de aplicação destas, que foi o usado naprática - ou seja, colocando-as, no momento do plantio, em contacto com as mudas - parece também ter concorrido para reduzir-lhes o efeito. As depressões causadas pela colagem são atribuídos à conhecido influência nociva da "overliming". Em duas experiências cujos solos foram analisados opas a colheita, verificou-se que a calagem elevou o pH de 5,6 o 6,7, em média, mas reduziu opreciàvelmente as disponibilidades de fósforo assimilável, sobretudo nos tratamentos adubados com NPK.This paper reports the results of four experiments with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam. to study the effects of liming, two different NPK-fertilizers, manure and green-manuring on different areas of two localities of the State of São Paulo. Liming alone did not increase the yields. In the presence of manure, its effects corresponded to +5, +12, +20, and +48%, but in the presence of the NPK-fertilizers they varied from satisfactory to negative. The responses to manure were always very high, principally in the presence of lime. Although not sa large, the effects the NPK-fertilizers were also very good, bul the presence of lime, which enhanced them in some cases, in other coses depressed them considerably. The results of green-manuring were almost equal to those of manure. In the dosage used, manure supplied the soil with much larger quantities of nutrients than the NPK-fertilizers. The method of application of the latter - at planting time and in contact with the cuttings - contributed also to reduce their effectiveness. Regarding the yield reduction caused by liming, they are attributed to the so-called overliming injury. The study of the soils of two trials showed that in the limed the pH averaged only 6.7, ut the quantities of available phosphorus were appreciably reduced, especially in the treatments with the NPK-fertilizers.

  1. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo. Parte II - Efeito do calcário e de vários adubos / Effect of lime, manure, green manure, and NPK-fertilizers on the yields of sweet potatoes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. Paes de, Camargo; E. S., Freire; W. R., Venturini.

    Full Text Available Entre 1945 e 1950 foram conduzidas quatro experiências em solos ácidos, duas em Campinas (terra-roxa) e duas em Tupi Paulista (solo do Glacial), para estudar os efeitos, sôbre a batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam.), das aplicações de 3 t/ha de calcário, 50 t/ha de estêrco e duas adubações com 60-1 00- [...] 40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O, sendo uma exclusivamente mineral e outra organomineral. Além dêsses tratamentos, que constituiram um esquema fatorial 4X2, tôdas as experiências tiveram um tratamento extra, com adubação verde na ausência do calcário. Isolada, a calagem não trouxe aumentos de produção; no presença do estêrco, porém, ela provocou, em quatro experiências, aumentos correspondentes a 5, 12, 20 e 84%. Sòmente três das experiências permitiram estudar as respostas ao corretivo na presença das adubações NPK, mineral e organomineral: no primeiro caso elas foram -26, +26 e +34%; no segundo, -29, -20 e +21%. Os efeitos do estêrco foram sempre elevados, principalmente na presença do calcário, quando alcançaram +104, +148, +158 e +254%. Embora menores que as do estêrco, as respostas às adubações com NPK (em três experiências) também foram muito boas, mas nem sempre a presença do calcário lhes foi favorável: as da adubaçâo mineral, de +62, +62 e +88% na ausência do calcário, passaram, na sua presença, respectivamente para +94, +34 e +144%; as da adubação organomineral, de +148, +94 e +74 % na ausência, passaram para +67, +73 e + 104% na presença do corretivo. Quanto à adubação verde, no conjunto, das quatro experiências seu efeito foi quase igual ao do estêrco. Na dose empregada, o estêrco levou ao solo muito maiores quantidades de nutrientes que as adubações com NPK. O método de aplicação destas, que foi o usado naprática - ou seja, colocando-as, no momento do plantio, em contacto com as mudas - parece também ter concorrido para reduzir-lhes o efeito. As depressões causadas pela colagem são atribuídos à conhecido influência nociva da "overliming". Em duas experiências cujos solos foram analisados opas a colheita, verificou-se que a calagem elevou o pH de 5,6 o 6,7, em média, mas reduziu opreciàvelmente as disponibilidades de fósforo assimilável, sobretudo nos tratamentos adubados com NPK. Abstract in english This paper reports the results of four experiments with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) to study the effects of liming, two different NPK-fertilizers, manure and green-manuring on different areas of two localities of the State of São Paulo. Liming alone did not increase the yields. In the pres [...] ence of manure, its effects corresponded to +5, +12, +20, and +48%, but in the presence of the NPK-fertilizers they varied from satisfactory to negative. The responses to manure were always very high, principally in the presence of lime. Although not sa large, the effects the NPK-fertilizers were also very good, bul the presence of lime, which enhanced them in some cases, in other coses depressed them considerably. The results of green-manuring were almost equal to those of manure. In the dosage used, manure supplied the soil with much larger quantities of nutrients than the NPK-fertilizers. The method of application of the latter - at planting time and in contact with the cuttings - contributed also to reduce their effectiveness. Regarding the yield reduction caused by liming, they are attributed to the so-called overliming injury. The study of the soils of two trials showed that in the limed the pH averaged only 6.7, ut the quantities of available phosphorus were appreciably reduced, especially in the treatments with the NPK-fertilizers.

  2. The combination of NPK fertilizer and deltamethrin insecticide favors the proliferation of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Darriet, F.; Rossignol, M.; Chandre, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory study, we investigated how the biological cycle of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (VKPR strain) would be like when grew in an environment containing more or less plant matter (2.5 or 5 g/l) and fertilizer (8-12-8 or 17-23-17 mg/l). Half of the environments studied were not exposed to insecticide (control) whereas the other half was submitted to deltamethrin treatment at the concentration of 0.015 mg/l. The bioassays showed that 2.5 g/l of plant matter in water are not sufficient to...

  3. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo parte: III - Métodos de aplicação de NPK e estêrco Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes: III - Trials on the placement of npk and manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatadas nove experiências sôbre a localização de adubos na cultura de batata-doce, realizadas entre 1943-44 e 1946-47, sendo quatro com NPK (60-100-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O e cinco com estêrco. Em dois dos ensaios com NPK, conduzidos em Tupi Paulista (um dêles repetido por três anos no mesmo local, a adubação foi mais eficiente quando misturada com a terra dos camalhões do que aplicada sob eles ou em sulcos feitos em seus cumes. Nos outros dois, realizados em Campinas, a aplicação sob os camalhões se mostrou melhor, em média, mas os resultados variaram muito. Tratando-se de assunto que depende de muitos fatôres, inclusive das condições meteorológicas, os autores encarecem a necessidade de se continuarem as experiências, e, tendo discutido as vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos estudados, sugerem a inclusão, em futuros planos, do aplicação de P e K em sulcos laterais às mudas e de N em cobertura. Nas cinco experiências com estêrco, tôdas anuais e executadas em três localidades, seu espalhamento entre os camalhões se mostrou, em regra, inferior à aplicação sob os camalhões ou de mistura com o solo dêstes. Dos dois últimos métodos, o primeiro foi superior em três ensaios, igual em um e inferior no outro. As observações feitas indicam que, em geral, o estêrco deve ser colocado sob os camalhões.This paper reports the results of nine experiments conducted in the State of Sao Paulo on methods of application of NPK and manure for sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.. In two of the four trails with NPK, better results were obtained where it was broadcast before ridging than where it was placed in o furrow either under or on the top of the ridges. In the other two, the placement under the ridges showed better in the average, but the yearly results varied considerably. As the suitability of different methods of application depends on many factors, especially on the weather, the authors point to the need of farther trials and, after discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied, they suggest for the next project the inclusion of side-placement of the phosphorus, potosh and part of the nitrogen doses, the greater portion of the latter being top-dressed two to four weeks after planting. In the five trials with manure, its application between the ridges was, as a rule, inferior to both the placement under the ridges and broadcasting before ridging. Of the two last methods, the former gave better average results, but there were some indications that the latter would be more suitable either for heavy or for very light soils, in order that the organic matter improves the physical conditions of a larger volume of the soils.

  4. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo parte: III - Métodos de aplicação de NPK e estêrco / Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes: III - Trials on the placement of npk and manure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. Paes de, Camargo; E. S., Freire.

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatadas nove experiências sôbre a localização de adubos na cultura de batata-doce, realizadas entre 1943-44 e 1946-47, sendo quatro com NPK (60-100-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O) e cinco com estêrco. Em dois dos ensaios com NPK, conduzidos em Tupi Paulista (um dêles repetido por três ano [...] s no mesmo local), a adubação foi mais eficiente quando misturada com a terra dos camalhões do que aplicada sob eles ou em sulcos feitos em seus cumes. Nos outros dois, realizados em Campinas, a aplicação sob os camalhões se mostrou melhor, em média, mas os resultados variaram muito. Tratando-se de assunto que depende de muitos fatôres, inclusive das condições meteorológicas, os autores encarecem a necessidade de se continuarem as experiências, e, tendo discutido as vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos estudados, sugerem a inclusão, em futuros planos, do aplicação de P e K em sulcos laterais às mudas e de N em cobertura. Nas cinco experiências com estêrco, tôdas anuais e executadas em três localidades, seu espalhamento entre os camalhões se mostrou, em regra, inferior à aplicação sob os camalhões ou de mistura com o solo dêstes. Dos dois últimos métodos, o primeiro foi superior em três ensaios, igual em um e inferior no outro. As observações feitas indicam que, em geral, o estêrco deve ser colocado sob os camalhões. Abstract in english This paper reports the results of nine experiments conducted in the State of Sao Paulo on methods of application of NPK and manure for sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.). In two of the four trails with NPK, better results were obtained where it was broadcast before ridging than where it was place [...] d in o furrow either under or on the top of the ridges. In the other two, the placement under the ridges showed better in the average, but the yearly results varied considerably. As the suitability of different methods of application depends on many factors, especially on the weather, the authors point to the need of farther trials and, after discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied, they suggest for the next project the inclusion of side-placement of the phosphorus, potosh and part of the nitrogen doses, the greater portion of the latter being top-dressed two to four weeks after planting. In the five trials with manure, its application between the ridges was, as a rule, inferior to both the placement under the ridges and broadcasting before ridging. Of the two last methods, the former gave better average results, but there were some indications that the latter would be more suitable either for heavy or for very light soils, in order that the organic matter improves the physical conditions of a larger volume of the soils.

  5. Evaluation of NPK 8-30-20 with gypsum addition compared to fertilization employed in the region for the production of potato (Solanumtuberosum L. Evaluación de NPK 8-30-20 con yeso en comparación a la fertilización convencional para la producción de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Avaliação da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola em comparação à adubação convencional para produção de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Jobim Vieira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Different forms of fertilizer management are employed by potato farmers, and from time to time, it appears a receipt to fertilize the crop. However, one should pay special attention to nutrition and fertilization of the potato as the relative demand of fertilizer per unit area in culture is high. The objective was to evaluate the use of NPK 8-30-20 with the addition of gypsum compared to NPK 4-14-8 (regional standard treatment in the production of potato. The study was conducted at the Research Unit in Potato Production and Microclimate on Agriculture, Campus CEDETEG at UNICENTRO in Guarapuava - PR. The treatments were: T1 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8, T2 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum; T3 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20, T4 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum, T5 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of plaster to make up the difference between fertilizer. The cultivation of potato was held on December 23, 2008 and the cultivar used was Agatha. The seed used was Generation 01 and tubers of class II. The density used was 50.000 tubers per hectare. The experimental design was completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated the productivity and classification of tubers of the size and incidence and severity of common scab (Streptomyces spp. and silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani Dur. And Mont. in the tubers. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and mean comparison by Tukey test (5%. Classification of the tubers was performed according to the diameter classes of the Ordinance No. 69 MAP of February 21, 2005. The use of manure at 5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum and 1.75 t ha-1 of 8-30-20 NPK plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum causes the best results of yield of potato tubers and better classification. The application of gypsum was important to reduce the incidence of common scab independent of the formulation and application of NPK without addition of gypsum predisposes the crop to a higher incidence of scabies.

    Diferentes formas de manejo da adubação são empregadas pelos bataticultores, sendo que, de tempos em tempos, surge uma fórmula para adubar a cultura. Porém, deve-se dar especial atenção à adubação e nutrição da cultura da batata, pois a demanda relativa de fertilizantes por unidade de área na cultura é elevada. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola comparado a adubação NPK 4-14-8 (tratamento padrão regional na produção da cultura da Batata. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade de Pesquisa em Produção de Batata e Microclima para a Agricultura, no Campus CEDETEG da Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste – UNICENTRO em Guarapuava – PR. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: T1 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8; T2 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T3 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20; T4 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T5 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de gesso para suprir a diferença entre os fertilizantes. O plantio da cultura da batata foi realizado no dia 23 de dezembro de 2008 e a cultivar utilizada foi a Ágata. A semente utilizada foi de Geração 01 e tubérculos de classe II. A densidade de plantio utilizada foi de 50.000 tubérculos por hectare. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e

  6. Alterações em atributos químicos de um solo submetido à adubação e cultivado com videira 'Niagara Rosada' / Changes on some soil chemical properties due to npk fertilization for 'Nigara Rosada' grapevine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Marco Antonio, Tecchio; Mara Fernandes, Moura; Maurilo Monteiro, Terra; Erasmo José Paioli, Pires; José Luiz, Hernandes.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar alterações em atributos químicos do solo, causadas pela adubação com NPK em videira 'Niagara Rosada', coletaram-se amostras de solo provenientes de um experimento de campo executado em Louveira (SP), durante quatro ciclos de produção. O delineamento experimental foi em bloc [...] os ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³), com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses de N (0; 65; 130 e 195 kg/ha de N), P (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg/ha de P2O5) e K (0; 45; 90 e 135 kg/ha de K2O) aplicados em cada ciclo de produção. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas em forma fracionada, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. Na implantação do experimento, em agosto de 2005, e após quatro safras, em novembro de 2008, foram coletadas amostras de solo de 0 a 20 cm e de 20 a 40 cm de profundidade, determinando-se valores de pH (CaCl2), o teor de matéria orgânica, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al e calculada a soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases. Avaliaram-se, também, a produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos e das bagas. A adubação nitrogenada em videira determinou incrementos significativos na acidez do solo. Doses baixas de P e K foram suficientes para manter o teor de P e de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial, após quatro ciclos de produção. A produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos não foram influenciadas pela adubação com N, P e K. A adubação com N, P e K em vinhedos com alta disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo, condição comum na região de Louveira e Jundiaí, implica prejuízo econômico ao produtor, eleva os teores de nutrientes no solo acima das necessidades da cultura, podendo, ainda, aumentar o risco de contaminação ambiental. Abstract in english Soil samples were analyzed with the objective of investigating changes on some soil chemical properties due to NPK fertilization of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine. The samples were collected in a field experiment carried out in Louveira, Brazil, during four crop seasons. The experimental design was an i [...] ncomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were rates of N (0, 65, 130, and 195 kg/ha of N as NH4NO3), P (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha of P2O5 as triple superphosphate) and K (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg/ha of K2O as KCl) applied at each crop season. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) availability some chemical properties (organic matter, pH CaCl2, H+Al and base saturation) were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation (August, 2005) and after four production cycles (November, 2008). Soil samples were collected from layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Fruit yield and some physical characteristics of bunches and berries were evaluated. Soil pH decreased with increasing in N rates. Low rates of P and K were sufficient to maintain soil P and K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment. Grapevine production was not affected by NPK fertilization. The application of NPK fertilizers in vineyards with soils with high nutrient availability implies economic losses and environmental contamination risk.

  7. Resposta de pinus taeda com diferentes idades à adubação NPK no Planalto Sul Catarinense / Response of one-, five-, and nine-year-old pinus taeda to NPK fertilization in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Letícia, Moro; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Marcia Aparecida, Simonete; Paulo Cezar, Cassol; Djalma Miler, Chaves.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Na região do Planalto Sul-catarinense, a maioria das florestas de Pinus foi implantada sem fertilização do solo na fase de plantio. Atualmente, muitas áreas encontram-se em segunda ou terceira rotação de Pinus e sem nenhuma fertilização, o que pode limitar a produtividade pela baixa fertilidade do s [...] olo. Uma alternativa para a mitigação desse problema seria a adubação em povoamentos já estabelecidos. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação com N, P e K, em diferentes fases de crescimento de Pinus taeda, foram conduzidos experimentos no campo, em plantios de um, cinco e nove anos de idade, todos de segunda rotação, sobre Cambissolos no município de Otacílio Costa, SC. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinações de doses de N (N0 = 0, N1 = 70 e N2 = 140 kg ha-1 de N), P (P0 = 0, P1 = 75 e P2 = 150 kg ha-1 P2O5) e K (K0 = 0, K1 = 60 e K2 = 120 kg ha-1 de K2O), além de uma testemunha, nas seguintes combinações: N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2 e N2P2K1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram avaliados altura e diâmetro no colo ou à altura do peito das árvores e calculado o volume de tronco das plantas e teores de N, P e K nas acículas aos seis e 18 meses, após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Os resultados evidenciaram que nas plantas de um ano de idade houve incremento significativo no volume de madeira com a aplicação de 70 kg ha-1 de P2O5. Para os plantios de cinco e nove anos, a adição de doses a partir de 70, 75 e 60 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, promoveram incrementos significativos no volume de madeira, mostrando que a adubação em florestas já estabelecida é uma estratégia a ser considerada em sítios de baixa fertilidade. Abstract in english In the southern highland (Planalto Sul) region of Santa Catarina, Brazil, most of the pine forests were planted without soil fertilization. Currently, many areas are in the second or third rotation, and their productivity may be limited by low soil fertility. An alternative to mitigate this problem [...] would be fertilization in the established forest. This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of fertilization with N, P, and K at different growth stages of Pinus taeda. Experiments were conducted in one-, five-, and nine-year-old forests, all in the second rotation, in Cambisols located in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Treatments consisted of combinations of fertilization rates of N (N0=0, N1=70, and N2=140 kg ha-1 N), P (P0=0, P1=75, and P2=150 kg ha-1 P2O5), and K (K0=0, K1=60, and K2=120 kg ha-1 K2O), plus a control treatment without fertilization. The combinations used were N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2, and N2P2K1. A completely randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications. The height and diameter at the root collar or at breast height of trees was measured; also the trunk volume of the plants and N, P, and K contents in needles at six and 18 months after fertilization were measured. In one-year-old plants, a significant increase in timber volume was obtained with the application of 70 kg ha-1 of P2O5. For five- and nine-year-old plants, fertilization with 70, 75, and 60 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively, promote significant increase in timber volume, showing that fertilization of established pine forests increase productivity in areas of low fertility.

  8. Crescimento, índices fisiológicos e produtividade de cultivares de feijoeiro sob diferentes níveis de adubação / Growth, physiological indices and yield of common bean cultivars under different levels of fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Letícia Andriani dos, Santos; Rogério Peres, Soratto; Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Jaqueline Regiani, Gonsales.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conhecimentos sobre o acúmulo e a distribuição da fitomassa do feijoeiro comum, sob diferentes níveis de adubação, podem auxiliar no manejo da cultura. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento, os índices fisiológicos e a produtividade de cultivares de feijão, sob diferentes níveis de adubação [...] NPK. O experimento foi conduzido em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos ('Pérola', sem adubação; 'Pérola', com 50% da adubação recomendada; 'Pérola', com 100% da adubação recomendada; 'IAC Alvorada', sem adubação; 'IAC Alvorada', com 50% da adubação recomendada e 'IAC Alvorada', com 100% da adubação recomendada) e, as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. A adubação NPK aumentou os acúmulos de matéria seca, os componentes da produção e a produtividade de grãos dos cultivares Pérola e IAC Alvorada de forma semelhante. O cultivar IAC Alvorada apresentou maiores índices de área foliar e matéria seca de folhas, quando comparados com os de Pérola, sob adubação NPK recomendada, porém, sem esses índices refletirem-se em maior produtividade de grãos. O máximo acúmulo de matéria seca foi alcançado aos 80 DAE e a maior taxa de crescimento da cultura ocorreu aos 55 DAE, independentemente do tratamento. Abstract in english Knowledge of the accumulation and distribution of phytomass in common bean plants under different levels of fertilization can improve crop management. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, physiological indices and yield of common bean cultivars under different levels of NPK fertilizat [...] ion. The experiment was carried out on a dystroferric Red Nitosol , in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, in a split plot randomized block design, with four replications. Plots were constituted of six treatments (Pérola without fertilization, Pérola with 50% of recommended fertilization, Pérola with 100% of recommended fertilization, IAC Alvorada without fertilization, IAC Alvorada with 50% of recommended fertilization, and IAC Alvorada with 100% of the recommended fertilization) and subplots were made up by seven harvest times during the growth cycle. The NPK fertilization increased similarly the dry matter accumulation, yield components, and grains yield of cultivars of Pérola and IAC Alvorada. Under recommended fertilization, IAC Alvorada cultivar showed higher leaf area index and leaf dry matter accumulation than Pérola; however, with no effects on the increase of grain yield. Regardless of treatment, the maximum dry matter accumulation was achieved at 80 DAE and the highest crop growth rate occurred at 55 DAE.

  9. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária / Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros, Salgado; Anísio, Azzini; Celi Teixeira, Feitosa; Armando, Petinelli; Arruda, Veiga.

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, e [...] m Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí. Abstract in english Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of Sã [...] o Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  10. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí.Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  11. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PRODUKSI BEBERAPA AKSESI TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pratikta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH] The experiment was conducted in the Field Research, in Kumendung village, Muncar, Banyuwangi from November 2012 until February 2013. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect of NPK fertilizer in some accession of maize on it’s growth and production. It’s also evaluate the protein content of the accession under different fertilizer treatment. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replications. Main plot were NPK aplication rates (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 and the sub-plots were accesion number ( V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah ; V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning ; V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma ; and V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. An split plot statistical analysis of varience (ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5 % level of probability according to Hanafiah, (2005 was realized using the excel program. Growth and yield parameters recorded at different stages of crop growth and development. There were plant height, leaves number above the ear, leaves number under the ear, tassel emergence, silk emergence, physiologically ripe age, ear lenghth, ear weight, ear circumference, ear weight per plot, kernel weight, kernel weight per plot, 100-grain weight, and protein content. The result showed that no significant different affected by the defferent NPK application rates on these accession. Base on the character selection, the yielding of all accession were higher than Bisma variety. Content of the accession were 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; and 10,10 mg g-1 for V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively. Keywords: NPK Fertilizer; Maize accession; Production [INDONESIAN] Penelitian dilakukan di lahan Desa Kumendung Kecamatan Muncar Kabupaten Banyuwangi pada bulan November 2012 hingga Febuari 2013. Tujuan dari percobaan ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pupuk NPK terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi beberapa Aksesi jagung, dan mengevaluasi kadar protein yang terkandung didalamnya. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Split Plot dengan tiga ulangan. Petak utama adalah Pupuk NPK (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 dan sub-plot adalah aksesi jagung (V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah, V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning, V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma, dan V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. Hasil percobaan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis varian (ANOVA dan Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT pada taraf ? 5% (Hanafiah, 2005 dengan menggunakan program excel. Parameter pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun atas dan dibawah tongkol jagung, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbungan betina, umur masak fisiologis, berat tongkol per petak (kg, berat pipilan per petak (kg, berat tongkol per tanaman (g, panjang tongkol isi (cm, lingkar tongkol (cm, berat 100 biji per tanaman (g, dan kandungan protein biji jagung (mg g-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang nyata antar perlakuan yang dicobakan pada parameter yang diamati. Perlakuan penambahan pupuk NPK tidak menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata pada semua parameter. Berdasarkan pemilihan karakter, semua aksesi terpilih lebih tinggi dibanding varietas Bisma. Kandungan protein rata-rata aksesi yang diuji yaitu 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; dan 10,10 mg g-1 masing-masing untuk V1, V2, V3, dan V4. Kata Kunci: Pupuk NPK; Aksesi Jagung; Produksi How to citate: Pratikta D, S Hartatik, KA Wijaya. 2013. Pengaruh penambahan pupuk NPK terhadap produksi beberapa aksesi tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian 1(2: 19-21.

  12. Gross alpha and beta activities and trace heavy elemental concentration levels in chemical fertilizers and agricultural farm soils in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    N.N. Jibiri; K. P. Fasae

    2013-01-01

    trace heavy elemental concentrations have been determined in Single Super Phosphate (SSP) and Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium (NPK) fertilizers samples used for agricultural purposes in Nigeria. Cultivated farm soil samples from two regions (north and south) in the country and samples of phosphate rocks were also analyzed for gross ? and ? radioactivity and elemental concentrations. The beta activity concentration in the NPK (15-15-15) fertilizers was found to vary from 2410.0 ± 80.0 Bq·kg–1 ...

  13. Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK / Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shiro, Miyasaka; E. S., Freire; Toshio, Igue; J., Teófilo Sobrinho; Luiz D' Artagnan de, Almeida.

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo) e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília), para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòment [...] e o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral. Abstract in english Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minut [...] iflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

  14. Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília, para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòmente o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral.Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL. Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minutiflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

  15. Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The recommendation of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development at the ESCAP regional conference was to adopt strategies for attaining replacement-level fertility of 2.1 or 2.2 children by 2010. East Asian countries, except Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the Southeast Asian countries Singapore and Thailand have already reached replacement-level fertility. Most larger Oceanic countries have also done so. Only South Asian Sri Lanka and southern India have attained replacement level. The following conditions slow or hinder the goal, but they do not provide an "absolute" barrier to fertility decline: social welfare schemes and old age security, son preference, lack of government family planning, poverty, relatively high mortality, low status of women, and education status. Theories of demographic transition have postulated that economic and social development initially brings a decline in mortality, and later brings a decline in fertility; and high fertility was an adaptation to high mortality. Policy gets caught in the lag between mortality and fertility decline. Eventually the cultural motives for high fertility are undercut by social and economic development. Although the generalization that economic growth slows fertility is true for South Asia, the correlation is uneven. Forceful government-sponsored family planning programs in Bangladesh and China may lead the way to strategies for decline in ESCAP region. A Thailand study suggested important factors were fundamental social change, the increased cost of children, cultural acceptance of birth control, a latent demand for fertility control, and government efforts in family planning. ESCAP countries have in common relatively high morality and inadequate public health programs, patriarchal structures, and limited female autonomy, poverty and landlessness, lack of community cohesiveness, and inadequate family planning programs. Weaknesses in programs are attributed to failure to recognize policies that affect reproduction and the difference between male power and female responsibility. Direct strategies should involve strong government support for male and female contraception, government promotion of delayed marriage, and an emphasis on reproductive health in female family planning programs. PMID:12288842

  16. INSTALAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIE FORRAGEIRA EM RAZÃO DA PROFUNDIDADE NO SOLO E CONTATO COM FERTILIZANTE FORMULADO NPK INSTALLATION OF FORAGE SPECIES AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL DEPTH AND CONTACT WITH NPK FERTILIZER FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Percinoto Pompei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Na semeadura consorciada de espécies forrageiras e lavouras produtoras de grãos, aumenta-se a eficiência de ocupação do solo, possibilitando a Integração Agricultura-Pecuária. Porém, existem limitações, como, por exemplo, a deposição das sementes de espécies forrageiras em condições desfavoráveis de germinação e emergência. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a emergência e a produção de fitomassa de plântulas de B. brizantha cv. MG-5, em razão da adubação e profundidade de semeadura. As sementes foram depositadas em colunas de solo, submetidas à ausência e presença de adubação, equivalente a 300 kg ha-1 de 08-28-16, em quatro profundidades (0,0 cm; 2,5 cm; 5,0 cm; e 10,0 cm, em um delineamento em blocos completos, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 4. Para que haja maior potencial de emergência da Brachiaria brizantha, é preciso realizar a semeadura da espécie forrageira a 2,5 cm de profundidade no solo. A semeadura superficial de B. brizantha não é a mais adequada. Porém, caso haja necessidade de realizá-la, não deve ser feita com as sementes misturadas ao adubo. A mistura do adubo às sementes prejudicou o estande da B. brizantha. Contudo, os indivíduos remanescentes da espécie forrageira superaram o efeito negativo do fertilizante, produzindo maior fitomassa.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Gramínea forrageira; efeito salino; integração agricultura-pecuária.

  1. Impact of Long-Term Fertilization Practice on Soil Structure Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; MØldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    The study characterized soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizer over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm tall) and bulk soil samples were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil properties including texture, organic carbon, soil–water characteristic, air permeability and diffusivity were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Long-term applications of AM and NPK had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 0.015 kg kg? 1 (unfertilized plot) to 0.024 kg kg? 1 (well fertilized plot, 30 T ha? 1 2y? 1 AM with NPK). Total porosity linearly followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.36 to 0.43 m3 m? 3. The water holding capacity of the soil was considerably increased with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Gas diffusivity and air permeability measurements clearly indicated that the level of soil aeration improved with increasing AM and NPK fertilizer amount. The three-dimensional X-ray CT visualizations revealed higher macroporosity and biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized areas when compared to plots without or only a small amount of fertilizer applied. A combined evaluation of the soil water characteristic, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggested that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved with increasing fertilizer amount. Furthermore, the soils fertilized with both AM and NPK showed a more aggregated structure than soils amended with AM only.

  2. Measurement of NPK, Temperature, Moisture, Humidity using WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gaikwad S.V,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In India, where the economy is mainly base on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic and are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. The main reason is the lack of rains and scarifies of land reservoir water and overused of fertilizers so we need to control these parameters. This system made wireless sensor network for monitoringagricultural environments for various factors such as NPK, temperature and humidity along with other factors can be of significance.By using pH sensors we get the information about the soil and analyze the acid level of the soil. By which we can apply fertilizer to the place where it needs, also we can avoid over fertilization of the crops. We used humidity sensor to sense the weather. By this the farmer can get idea about the climate. If there is any chance for rainfall; the farmer need not irrigate the crop field. This Seminar reports the design and development of a smart wireless sensor network (WSN for an agricultural environment. Monitoring agricultural environments for various factors such as Nitrates, Zink, Potassium, Phosphorus, Humidity and Temperature along with other factors can be of significance. The ability to document and detail changes in parameters of interest has become increasingly valuable. Investigations were performed for a remote monitoring system using WiFi, where the wireless sensor nodes are based on WSN802G modules. These nodes send data wirelessly to a central server, which collects the data, stores it and allows it to be analyzed and displayed as needed.

  3. Effect of Foliar Application of NPK on Some Growth Characters of Two Cultivars of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabah Ali; Majeed K Abbas

    2011-01-01

    -1 of this fertilizer on some growth characters, yield component and chemical constituents of calyces of two cultivars of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.); red and lined. The results show that plant height, number of branches per plant, total number of fruits and dry calyces yield were increased due to foliar application of NPK. Also, all chemical constituents were positively affected by NPK application. The higher rate of NPK, 2 g L-1, was more effective than the lower rate. In addition, red...

  4. Effects of Organic-Chemical Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Rice (Chai Nat 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopit Vetayasuporn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of organic-chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer (NPK 16:16:8 on the growth and yield of rice Chai Nat 1 in Roi-Et province, Northeast Thailand. Organic-chemical fertilizer was developed from organic fertilizer 82+9.0 kg of NPK 46:0:0 + 4.5 kg of NPK 18:46:0 and 4.5 kg of NPK 0:0:60. Five treatments were compared consisting of : T1 (control without fertilizer; T2 (312.5 kg ha-1 organic-chemical fertilizer; T3 (625 kg ha-1 organic-chemical fertilizer; T4 (937.5 kg ha-1 organic-chemical fertilizer and T5 (chemical fertilizer; 312.5 kg ha-1 NPK 16:16:8. Yield of rice grains under all treatments increased between 2-4 times when compared to the control (1.37 t ha-1. In terms of statistical data, growth and yield of rice Chai Nat 1 obtained from organic-chemical and chemical fertilizers were significantly different at a confidence level of 95% to the control. Application of organic-chemical fertilizer alone showed 2-2.5 times (2.66-3.43 t ha-1 increased yield of grains over the control. However, maximum grain yield (5.57 t ha-1 was obtained from T5 (chemical fertilizer which also gave the highest all yield parameters such as number of grain per panicle (108.20, total number panicle per hill (14.82, plant height (62.48 cm and percentage of filled grain (82.17%. Excluding labor costs, even maximum grain yield obtained from chemical fertilizer was higher than those found from organic-chemical fertilizer but taking into account chemical fertilizer cost which is 3.4 times higher than organic-chemical fertilizer. Therefore, the soil amendment with organic-chemical fertilizer may be a practicable alternative for the farmers who are unable to afford the cost of chemical fertilizer. Moreover, organic-chemical fertilizer farming is more economically viable, beneficial for farmers livelihoods and environmentally friendly than those found in chemical fertilizer farming alone.

  5. Impact of long-term fertilization practice on soil structure evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; MØldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soil structure plays a central role for plant growth and development by controlling root penetration and the availability of water, air and essential nutrients. The factors contributing to soil structure development and evolution are so complex that it is not yet possible to precisely predict the impact of a particular management practice. In this study, we characterized the soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizers over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm height) were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil physical properties including texture, water retention, and air permeability and diffusion were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Soil textural analysis revealed that AM and NPK applications had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 1.53% (unfertilized plot) to 2.37% (well fertilized plot, NPK and 30 T ha-1 2y-1 AM). Total porosity closely followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.37 to 0.43 m3 m-3. The water-holding capacity of the soils was also greatly improved with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Air permeability and diffusion measurements clearly indicated that all soils were sufficiently aerated for plant growth. However, the level of aeration was higher for well-fertilized soils. The X-ray CT 3D visualizations revealed higher biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized soils when compared to plots without or small amount of fertilizer application. A combined evaluation of the water retention, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggests that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved for soils fertilized with AM and NPK as compared to soils with AM only.

  6. Prostate specific antigen level in a fertilizer factory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find the effect of the fertilizer factory environment on serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels. Subjects and Methods: A total of 205 workers, all male, of Pak Arab Fertilizer Factory, Multan had their prostatic specific antigen (PSA) estimated. The age of the workers varied between 22 to 65 years (mean age= 48.3 plus minus 8.5 years). The people belonged to various working groups and most of them were on normal Pakistani diet. They had been residing/working in the factory area for a period varying from 5 to 30 years. PSA levels were also estimated in 118 normal persons to serve as a control group. The age of these persons varied from 19 to 64 years. These were mostly hospital staff and general public not residing in the factory area and had no history of prostatic disease. Sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay techniques were applied to measure the PSA concentrations in serum. Results: Observed PSA levels in this population were between 0.2 and 11.5 ng/ml. Overall mean PSA level was 1.9 plus minus 0.84 ng PSA/ml. Mean PSA level observed in control group was 0.73 plus minus 0.64 ng/ml (upper 95% limit was 3.2 ng/ml). Comparison of PSA levels of factory workers with values in normal subjects showed that 9 out of 205 male workers (4.3% of total) had significantly elevated levels of PSA. In 2 workers (1 % of total) observed PSA levels were above 10 ng/ml. The levels above this limit are most commonly observed in the cancer patients. Conclusion: A significant proportion of the workers of the fertilizer factory are at risk of malignant and non-malignant disease of the prostate. (author)

  7. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients / Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: I - macronutrientes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Peres, Soratto; Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Letícia Andriani dos, Santos; André Luiz Gomes, Job.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cultivares com maior potencial produtivo e a adoção de maior nível tecnológico têm possibilitado a obtenção de elevadas produtividades de grãos da cultura do feijão, o que provavelmente alterou a demanda por nutrientes dessa cultura. No entanto, quase não existem informações sobre as quanti [...] dades e as épocas do ciclo em que os nutrientes são mais exigidos pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a extração e a exportação de macronutrientes pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1- - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Sob maiores níveis de adubação NPK, ambos os cultivares apresentaram as maiores produtividades de grãos, extração e exportação de macronutrientes, porém sem diferirem entre si. Os tratamentos com 100 % da adubação NPK recomendada apresentaram maior extração de macronutrientes, com quantidades médias por hectare de 140 kg de N; 16,5 kg de P; 120 kg de K; 69 kg de Ca; 17,9 kg de Mg; e 16,3 kg de S. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por N, P, K, Ca e Mg ocorreu dos 45 aos 55 dias após emergência (DAE), ou seja, no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), enquanto as maiores taxas de absorção de S concentraram-se entre os 55 e 65 DAE. Mais de 70 % do P, entre 58 e 69 % do N, 40 e 52 % do S, 40 e 48 % do K e 35 e 45 % do Mg absorvidos ao longo do ciclo foram exportados com os grãos, enquanto menos de 15 % do Ca foi exportado Abstract in english The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most deman [...] ded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S). Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE), i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation), while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 4

  8. NPK Trial on Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. Deho; M.R. Wagan; M.K. Baloach; I. Rajpar; M.I. Keerio

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum doze of NPK fertilizers for the onion (Allium cepa L.), variety Phulkara on a loamy soil. The bed size was 4.5 x 4.0 m. Six fertilizer treatments were tested in RCBD for the height of plant (cm), number of leaves plant-1, single plant weight, bulb diameter (horizontal and vertical), bulb size (Volume) and yield ha-1. Compared to other fertilizer treatments, the application of 80 N + 60 P2O5 + 40 K2O (kg ha-1) produced more leaves and l...

  9. Mineral fertilizers as a source of radioactive contamination of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrotechnical measures necessary to enhance crop yields markedly contribute to the radioactivity level of the environment. Mineral fertilizers contain various radionuclides, depending on the source of the raw material used for their production. Among them, uranium ( 235U and 238U) and descendants of its radioactive decay are considered to be the most dangerous for human health. The content of some natural radionuclides was determined in seven kinds of mineral fertilizers: ammonium-nitrate (AN), urea, calcareous ammonium-nitrate (KAN), monoammonium-phosphate (MAP), NPK, potassium-chloride (KCl) and superphosphate (SP). Activities of 40K and 137Cs were also determined. Samples were analysed on gamma spectrometers with NaI (8192 and 4096 channels) and semiconductor (germanium) detectors. Considerable activity levels of 40K were found especially in NPK and KCl, while SP contained the highest level of uranium. Activity levels of 137Cs were well below the prescribed limits. (author)

  10. Yielding Components of Canola Response to NPK Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zahir Afridi; Mohammad Tariq Jan; Imtiaz Ahmad; Muhammad Azim Khan

    2002-01-01

    Two methods of N application, four levels of P and two levels of K were tested to evaluate the effect of NPK on the yielding components of canola (cv. Dunkeld). Sole dose of N proved superior to split dose and produced significantly more branches per plant. Nitrogen had no influence on pods per plant, seeds per pod and grain weight. Increase in P, linearly increased the pods per plant and seeds per pod, while P had no influence on grain weight and branches per plant. Potassium showed no signi...

  11. Behavior of Foliares Applications of Humus Mixed with the NPK in Rice Cultivation (Oryza Sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Saborit Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the observation of one green yellowsh clorosis in the plantations of rice, after the cold campaings and the disminishing of the agricultural efficiency of the cerial in areas of Saint Elena Land belonging to the fortified cooperatove of credits and service (FCCS Camilo Cienfuegos in Las Nuevas, La Sierpe, Province of Sancti – Spiritus, were done foliars aplications with mineral fertilizing as, N.P.K to different doses and moments of applications, in order to obtain alternative of nutrition for the cultivation, the work was done on a green yellowish ferralitic ground since 2009 to 2011, using LP-5 cultivation doing the sowing by the method of transplantation, fertilization. It was done mixing 49L. ha-¹ of liquid warm humus with 0.35 Kg. ha-¹ of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The results shown that the use of the foliar fertilization with liquid worm humus mixed with the N.P.K minerals, increased the efficiency, obtaining 5.3t. ha-¹ as an average in different variants used. The economic analysis showed that the treatment with 40% of nitrogen was reduced with seven foliars applications, it was highest to the witness N.P.K in 1.5t . ha-¹ of the grain obtaining a relative benefit of 4264.55 pesos by hectarea.

  12. An Assessment of China’s Fertility Level Using the Variable-r Method

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yong

    2008-01-01

    The fertility level in China is a matter of uncertainty and controversy. This paper applies Preston and Coale’s (1982) variable-r method to assess the fertility level in China. By using data from China’s 1990 and 2000 censuses as well as annual population change surveys, the variable-r method confirms that Chinese fertility has reached a level well below replacement.

  13. Efecto de la fertilización química, orgánica y combinada sobre el rendimiento de la papa variedad Granola / Effect of the fertilization chemical, organic and combined on the yield of variety Granola

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karen, Arias; Olga, Arnaude de Chacón.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de la papa, Solanum tuberosum L., demanda un alto uso de insumos agrícolas entre los que destacan los fertilizantes químicos (FQ) y enmiendas orgánicas (EO), las cuales alcanzan en muchos casos un alto porcentaje en los costos de producción, por lo que se hace necesario buscar estrategias [...] de manejo que disminuya el valor de la fertilización. En la Aldea Pernía, municipio Vargas del estado Táchira, se condujo un experimento en papa, variedad Granola a 1.900 m.s.n.m., precipitación promedio de 900 mm, temperatura entre 12 y 17ºC, zona de vida (B-h-p) según Holdridge, suelo Fa, Orthends, donde se evaluaron dos manejos de fertilización, cinco tipos de FQ: Testigo con cero aplicación; NPK; NPK + Mg; NPK + Mg+B y NPK+B a tres niveles de fertilización orgánica (FO): 0; 5 y 10 t.ha-1 de gallinaza (abono orgánico; AO) con tres repeticiones. Se determinó el efecto de la FQ, EO y combinada sobre el rendimiento de esta variedad. Los resultados indican que el mayor se obtuvo en el tratamiento NPK+Mg (38,39 t.ha-1) seguido del NPK+B (36 t.ha-1) con el nivel 5 t.ha-1 de la AO (P?0,01). No hubo diferencias significativas (P?0,01) al aplicar 5 y 10 t.ha-1 (34,77 y 36,10 t.ha-1, respectivamente). Sin embargo, este nivel de 0 t.ha-1 es menor 22,55 t.ha-1. El mejor resultado se encontró cuando se aplica el FQ y la EO al momento de la siembra Abstract in english In Venezuela, the production of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., normally requires the applications of great amount of mineral fertilizers (OF), and organic amendments (OA) which represent an important part of the production costs of this crop. So it is necessary to develop strategies to decrease its u [...] se. We carried out an experiment in the town of Pernia, Vargas county in Tachira State, to evaluate the response of potato (variety Granola) to the application of 5 treatment of chemical fertilization (testwithout fertilizer; NPK, NPK+Mg; NPK+Mg+B and NPK+B) and 3 levels of organic fertilization (0, 5 and 10 t.ha-1 of chicken manure), with 3 repetitions for each combination. The experimental site is located at 1.900 masl, with a mean annual precipitation of 900 mm, and air temperature between 12 and 17 ºC. The soil is classified as Orthends. The results showed that the greatest yield was found with the application of NPK+Mg (38.39 t.ha-1), followed by the treatment of NPK+B (35.90 t.ha-1) and 5 t.ha-1 of chicken manure (P?0,01). The split of the organic and mineral fertilizer doses does not improve the yield of potato, when compared against the application of the whole dose of fertilizer at the sowing time. Also, there were not significant differences in the potato yield when it was fertilized with five and 10 t of chicken manure (34.77 y 36.10 t.ha-1, respectively), however at the level of 0 t.ha-1 of chicken manure the yield is smaller 22.55 t.ha-1. When placing the chemical fertilizer and the organic amendment were splitted, yield not different from the whole dose application at the time of seedtime

  14. Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e níveis de adubação sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato em folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 / Different planting spacings and fertilization levels on the activity of nitrate reductase in leaves of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Venturim, Fontes; Alexandre Pio, Viana; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Jurandi Gonçalves de, Oliveira; Diolina Moura, Silva; Sabrina Garcia, Broetto; Mariela Mattos da, Silva.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e de níveis de adubação NPK sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato (RN) nas folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 , visando a sugerir possível ajuste em seu manejo de adubação nitrogenada, no sentido de ma [...] ximizar a eficiência do uso do nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., no município de Linhares - ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,8 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,7 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão; A2 = 100% padrão da empresa; A3 = 120% do padrão; A4 = 140% do padrão, e A5 = 160% do padrão) e cinco períodos de avaliação (meses de março a julho). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K), respectivamente. Os dados obtidos para a atividade da RN foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e teste de médias. Dentre os tratamentos testados, o nível A1 (80% do padrão), independentemente do espaçamento, poderia ser indicado no manejo do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01, pois em todos eles a atividade da redutase do nitrato, em praticamente todos os períodos avaliados, apresentou valores adequados, ou até mesmo superiores aos encontrados na literatura em cultivares de mamoeiro. A redução da adubação NPK pôde ser justificada, uma vez que não houve diferença na produtividade das plantas entre os tratamentos avaliados. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different planting spacings and levels of NPK manuring on the activity of the nitrate reductase (NR) in the leaves of the papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, aiming to suggest possible adjustment in the handling of nitrogen fertilization, in the se [...] nse of maximizing the efficiency of the use of the nitrogen. The experiment was driven in the Caliman Agrícola S.A. farm, in the municipal district of Linhares- ES. A complete block design, factorial, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1.8 m, E2 = 2.25 m and E3 = 2.7 m), five levels of NPK conventional manuring (A1 = 80% of the standard, A2 = 100% of the company standard, A3 = 120% of the standard, A4 = 140% of the standard and A5 = 160% of the standard) and five evaluation periods ( from March to July) was used. The standard of the company NPK manuring consists of 350, 105 and 660 Kg ha-1year -1 of sulfate of ammonium (20% of N), simple superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. The data obtained for the activity of NR were submitted to a variance analysis and average test. Among the tested treatments, A1 (80% of standard), independent of the spacing, could be indicated in the handling of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, because in all of them the activity of the nitrate reductase in, practically, all of the appraised periods, presented appropriate values, or even, superiors to the ones found in the literature for the papaya tree. The reduction of NPK fertilization could be justified, once that did not have difference in the productivity of the plants among the evaluated treatments.

  15. Performance of sugarcane somaclones under different irrigation and fertilizers doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro grown plantlets (somaclones) were regenerated through callus culture. Selected somaclone along with parent were tested under different fertilizer and irrigation levels for agronomic and qualitative traits of parent/clones. Maximum plant height, and internodes (plant-1) was observed in NIA-98 somaclone. The tillers (plant-1), weight plant-1, cane yield, sucrose and purity were greater in AEC82-1026 somaclone and maximum stem girth was obtained in BL4 somaclone from the combination of 150-80-100 NPK (kg ha-1) with 25 irrigations during the growing season. It was concluded that the application of 150-80-100 kg NPK ha-1 and 25 irrigations during the growth period of sugarcane were efficient for achieving better agronomic and qualitative traits of sugarcane somaclones. (author)

  16. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940?1950

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Nisén; Pekka Martikainen; Karri Silventoinen; Mikko Myrskylä

    2014-01-01

    Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR) among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940?1950 (N=38,838). Education was mea...

  17. Effect Of Urea, Superphosphate, Potash And Npk On Soil Respiration ( Carbon Dioxide Evolution From Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Bhattacharya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms have been reported for maintaining the soil fertility by breaking down of organic matter and release of carbon dioxide, which is a measure of soil respiration, during their metabolic activities. But due to excessive use of agrochemicals, the populations of these beneficial microorganisms are declining which may decrease the fertility status of soil. Several studies were conducted on the toxic impact of some pesticides on soil respiration.On contrary, few studies were conducted on the effect of fertilizer on soil respiration and no specific result could be found out. So the present experiment was undertaken to find out effect of the most common fertilizer (Urea, Superphosphate, Potash and NPK on soil respiration. The CO evolution reached a highest peak within 15 2days of the experiment and then gradually started decreasing and finally became stabilize when compare with the control sample

  18. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  19. The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

  20. Calagem e adubação mineral e orgânica do cafeeiro na região de Campinas / Liming and mineral and organic fertilization of coffee tree at Campinas Region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Genésio da Silva, Cervellini; Toshio, Igue; Sérgio Vasco de, Toledo.

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento com cafeeiro cultivar Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 em um latossolo roxo transição para latossolo vermelho-amarelo orto, cuja vegetação original era típica de cerrado, na região de Campinas, comparando-se os tratamentos com esterco de curral e adubação mineral NPK, complementados [...] ou não com calcário dolomítico e com os micronutrientes zinco e boro. Aplicaram-se, por ano e por cova, 40 litros de esterco quando na ausência de NPK e 20 litros quando com NPK. A adubação mineral constou da utilização de 120 g de N, 40 g de P2O5 e 120 g de K2O por ano e por cova; quando em presença de esterco, usou-se metade dessas doses. O calcário foi aplicado na quantidade de 1 kg por ano e por cova, e zinco e boro, na quantidade de 20 g de sulfato de zinco e 20 g de bórax, também por cova e por ano. A análise das produções de café beneficiado no período de 1965 a 1970 permitiu constatar que a testemunha e o tratamento com NPK foram significativamente inferiores aos demais. Destacaram-se com as melhores produções os tratamentos que receberam esterco mais NPK, com ou sem calcário. Nas análises de solos, constatou-se aumento nas bases quando foi aplicado o esterco e, em contrapartida, aumento de acidez com o tratamento de NPK. As análises das folhas mostraram efeitos sobre teores de alumínio e manganês coerentes com os dados obtidos nas produções e análises do solo. Abstract in english Experiments with mineral and organic manure were carried out in a Red Latosolic Soil Transition to Orto Red Yellow Latosolic Soil at Campinas region with Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 coffee tree cultivar. The treatments with manure was compared with the treatments with mineral fertilizers of NPK with or wi [...] thout lime or micronutrients zinc and boron. The analyses of coffee production data showed that the treatments with mineral fertilizers and the test treatment with no fertilizer, had the lowest productions. The treatments with manure and NPK with or without lime had better production than other treatments. The soil analyses showed high levels of bases on the manure treatments and high acidity on the NPK treatments. The leaf analyses confirmed the results of the effects of the treatments on the aluminium and manganese contents.

  1. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that, from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1, since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1.

  2. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYADI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i whithout fertilizer as the control, (ii with manure fertilizer, and (iii with NPK fertilizer. Data was experimentally collected by planting chili in several plots treated by manure, with three replications. The field experiment was conducted in Gathak Village, Karangnongko Sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java. The data collected consist of the total population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, nitrogen content in soil and the chili yield. The primary data of research were analyzed using ANOVA test and followed by LSD test, with the degree of significance by 95% .The results showed that the manure fertilizer can increase the population of bacteria as many as 0.02% (Azotobacter and 0.46% (Azospirillum when they were compared to the control one. So that it can increase the soil fertility when they were used in long time. Therefore increasing the nutrient availability in the soil was occurred. Application of manure fertilizer could increase the total nitrogen content in the soil and it is very useful for the fertilizing of plants.

  3. Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK

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    Ademar P. de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1 com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1.

  4. ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS

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    S.B.Bhardwaj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T. Singh et al. (1974, Singh (1964, Bhattacharya (1986,Pathak (1999 and Khan and Raeside (1998 have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980 considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

  5. Wheat Response to Fertilizer Application Techniques and Nitrogen Levels: II. Crop Growth and Yield Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Qudrat Ullah Khan; Muhammed Safdar Baloch; Abdul Aziz Khakwani; Muhammed Ayyaz Khan; Inayat Ullah Awan; Ejaz Ahmed Khan; Ghazanfar Ullah; Kashif Wasim; Ghulam Jilani; Muhammad Mohib Ullah

    2013-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to evaluate difference among various levels of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer, its application techniques and their interaction on the growth, yield components and yield of wheat. Treatments of N fertilizer application techniques, viz., broadcast and side-dressing were allocated to main-plots and nitrogen levels, viz., 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg N/ha were placed in sub-plots. This experiment was repeated for two years with the same treatments. Results revea...

  6. Onion Response to Applied N,P and K Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir R. Khan; A. Hameed Ansari; Lubna S. Rajput; U. Usmani Khail; F.C. Oad; G.N. Sohu

    2001-01-01

    Two field trials were conducted to study the onion response to various doses of N, P and K fertilizers. Plant height, bulb diameter, single bulb weight and total marketable bulb yield increased significantly by the NPk fertilizer treatments. Plots treated with 90:60:80 kg NPK/ha, displayed significantly maximum marketable bulb yield over other treatments. Onion planted on ridges gave significantly better yield over flat planting. It was suggested that for obtaining maximum marketable bulb yie...

  7. Amelioration of NPK on Metals Polluted Bare and Vegetated Sites of Trelogan Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anwer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Trelogan lead/zinc mine waste in North Wales, England with the amelioration of N, P, K. NP, NK, PK and NPK in bare and vegetated areas. In seven treated plots of bare mine area, the seedlings of three species, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris and Anthoxanthum odoratum differed significantly (p = 0.01. Similarly dry weight of four species, F. rubra, A. capillaris, A. odoratum and Cladonia sp. (a lichen in vegetated treated plots also differed significantly (p = 0.001. Fertilizers did not differed significantly in both bare and vegetated areas.

  8. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940?1950

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    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940?1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30?34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59?69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  9. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions. PMID:23562689

  10. Effects of fertilization regimes on tea yields, soil fertility, and soil microbial diversity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shan-Lian, Qiu; Li-Min, Wang; Dong-Feng, Huang; Xin-Jian, Lin.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is an important agricultural practice for increasing crop yields and influencing soil properties. A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2006-2011 in southeastern China, to investigate the effects of fertilization regimes on tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) yields, soil c [...] hemical properties, and soil bacterial and fungal communities. The field experiment included six treatments: (1) unfertilized control (CON); (2) chemical fertilizers (NPK); (3) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure (1/2NPKOM); (4) organic manure fertilizers (OM); (5) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure plus legume stover returned (1/2NPKOM+L), and (6) chemical fertilizers plus legume stover returned (NPKL). Results showed that, compared to the control, NPK treatment showed no significant effect on soil organic matter (SOM), total N (TN), total P (TP), total K (TK), available N (AN), available K (AK) and tea yields, but showed the lowest bacterial Shannon index of 1.714 and the lowest value of 2.002 for fungal Shannon index. Organic manure treatment had the richest diversity of soil bacterial community with Shannon index of 2.542, and the highest levels of soil essential nutrients, including SOM (30.03%), TN (2.90 g kg-1), TP (1.35 g kg-1), AN (245.30 mg kg-1), AP (57.00 mg kg-1), and AK (271.80 mg kg-1), followed by 1/2NPKOM+L, which appeared the maximal tea yields of 6772 kg ha-1. Organic manure amendment was a key factor in determining soil properties and productivity. Base on soil quality and tea yields, both OM and 1/2NPKOM+L treatments were recommended as better choices of fertilization practices for tea soils in southeastern China. These findings provided a better understanding of the importance of fertilizations in promoting soil fertility, crop yields, and altering soil microbial diversity, leading to selection of scientific fertilization practices for sustainable development of agroecosystems.

  11. Desempenho agronômico do milho sob adubação mineral e inoculação das sementes com rizobactérias Agronomic performance of maize under mineral fertilizer and seed inoculation with rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. de Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho agronômico da cultura do milho (Zea mays de segunda safra submetido à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens sob níveis de adubação NPK, um experimento em campo foi conduzido utilizando-se a cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35 cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Foram testados seis tratamentos sob o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1 e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados as características fitométricas, os componentes de produção e a produtividade de grãos do milho. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey p To evaluate the agronomic performance of second maize (Zea mays crop, subjected to inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens under different levels of NPK fertilization, a field experiment was conducted using the cultivar of hybrid maize 30F35 grown in Oxisol. Six treatments were tested in a randomized block design in factorial scheme 3 x 2, with three levels of NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1 and two levels of inoculants (with and without, and four replications. The characteristics, yield components and productivity were evaluated. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at p < 0.05 level. The inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens associated with fertilization with 250 kg ha-1 NPK at sowing time promotes the development and productive performance of second maize crop.

  12. Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh, Colagar; Mehdi, Pouramir; Eisa Tahmasbpour, Marzony; Sayed Gholam Ali, Jorsaraei.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml) was significantly [...] higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml) (p value

  13. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado / Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia Bacelar, Fonseca; Marcel Giovanni Costa, França; Everaldo, Zonta; Victor, Giorni.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de [...] oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK) e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes. Abstract in english Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a [...] greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK) and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.

  14. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.

  15. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Alvarez

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo.The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated with this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control; 2. NPK (control; 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

  16. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo / Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael, Alvarez; Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano Vaz de, Arruda; Gentil, Godoy Júnior.

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de am [...] ônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo. Abstract in english The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated wi [...] th this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control); 2. NPK (control); 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

  17. Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

  18. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  19. Response of different combinations of manure and fertilizers to the yield of rape crop

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Baliyan

    2012-01-01

    This study was an attempt to determine the effect of different combinations of manure and fertilizers on the yield of rape crop so as to improve yield by recommending the best combination of manure and fertilizers to the rape growers in Botswana. Rape crop was planted on farmers field in a complete randomized block design where nine different combinations of manure and fertilizers, namely, chicken manure (Ch); Ch and NPK (2:3:2); Ch and Fe (Iron); Ch, NPK and Fe; Ch and Urea; Ch, NPK and Urea...

  20. Influence Organic Fertilizer and Gamma Ray on the Quality and Yield of Carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Two field experiment were carried out in the experimental farm belonging at Inshas, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, during the two growing season 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 to study the effect of pre sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays and/or organic and NPK fertilizers on carrot yield and quality. The doses 20 and 30 Gy of gamma rays increased significantly one carrot weight per gm., number of carrot/line, weight of carrot ton/feddan in comparison with the control. The same trend was seen in weight of carbohydrate and nitrogen (mg/100 gm) in the two seasons. As for organic and NPK fertilizer at was found that both fertilizers increased significantly yield characters in comparison with control but the increase of NPK was more than organic fertilizer. The interaction (30 Gy × NPK fertilizer) produced the highest mean values of most characters.

  1. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wroc?aw version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  2. Desempenho agronômico do milho sob adubação mineral e inoculação das sementes com rizobactérias / Agronomic performance of maize under mineral fertilizer and seed inoculation with rhizobacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana A. de, Oliveira; Claudemir, Zucareli; Leandro T., Spolaor; Allan R., Domingues; André S., Ferreira.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho agronômico da cultura do milho (Zea mays) de segunda safra submetido à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens sob níveis de adubação NPK, um experimento em campo foi conduzido utilizando-se a cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35 cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Fora [...] m testados seis tratamentos sob o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados as características fitométricas, os componentes de produção e a produtividade de grãos do milho. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey p Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic performance of second maize (Zea mays) crop, subjected to inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens under different levels of NPK fertilization, a field experiment was conducted using the cultivar of hybrid maize 30F35 grown in Oxisol. Six treatments were tested in a random [...] ized block design in factorial scheme 3 x 2, with three levels of NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculants (with and without), and four replications. The characteristics, yield components and productivity were evaluated. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at p

  3. Impact of water-fertilizer interaction on yields of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-fertilizer interaction was studied on wheat and cotton during crop seasons of 1995 to 1998 in the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia (south), Irrigation and Drainage Project. Irrigation levels applied included 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 times the evapotranspiration (ET), while fertilizer doses were 75, 100 and 125 percent of recommendations of NPK for district Bahawalnagar. The experiment was conducted at four different locations of the project, where soil was medium textured, free from salinity/alkalinity and sufficiently drained, with water table in the range of 2-3m from the soil surface. Wheat variety Inqalab-91 and cotton variety CLM-109 were sown at their recommended time of sowing, seed rate and management practices. Irrigation was applied in consideration of open-pan evaporation and crop co-efficient for the respective crop, when sum total of the products of pan-evaporation and KC values reached 7.5 cm. Irrigation was applied to all the plots according to treatment allowance, i.e. , with 25 percent cut and addition to .75 and 1.25 Et levels, respectively. The results indicated that irrigation levels had non-significant effect on wheat and cotton yields. The results clearly negate the concept of heavy irrigation, generally exercised by our farming community. Light irrigation as a results of 0.75 Et indication were equally effective: rather, these were economical and efficient under the scarce water availability. Fertilizer had somewhat significant response. Irrigation and fertilizer did not exhibit much significant interaction. In case of wheat, the two inputs were independent, while cotton had significant inter-dependence of the two variables. The experiment gave the conclusion that both wheat and cotton crops should be applied lighter irrigation and NPK fertilizer must be applied in compliance to recommendations, for efficient and economical use of the available crop-production resources. (author)

  4. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife contraception, managers may need to consider the possibility that many species and populations can compensate for reduction in fecundity, and this could minimize any reduction in population growth rate.

  5. Doses de NPK em viveiro de Hevea spp. na obtenção de plantas aptas para enxertia em latossolo amarelo textura média, na Ilha do Mosqueiro - PA / Levels of NPK on nursery of Hevea spp on the development of plants ready for grafting in a sandy clay loamy yellow latosol, in Mosqueiro Island - PA, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos, Viégas; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de determinar as doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio mais adequadas para obtenção de plantas aptas para enxertia em viveiro de seringueira, instalou-se um experimento em Latossolo Amarelo textura média na Ilha do Mosqueiro-PA. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso c [...] om duas repetições obedecendo ao arranjo fatorial 33 Foram utilizadas as doses de 0-2,1-4,2 g/planta de N; 0-3,5-7,0 g/planta de P2O5; 0-1,4-2,8 g/planta de K2O e dose constante de 0,8 g/planta de MgO, empregando-se como fontes, respectivamente, sulfato de amônio, superfosfato triplo, cloreto de potássio e sulfato de magnésio. Os resultados foram obtidos duzentos e vinte dias após a instalação do experimento, sendo realizadas as seguintes avaliações: análises químicas do solo e folhas, altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e plantas aptas para a enxertia. Pelos resultados obtidos chega-se à conclusão que as doses mais adequadas foram 330 kg/ha (4,6 g/p) de N, 340 kg/ha (4,8 g/p) de P2O5 e 190 kg/ha (2,7 g/p) de K2O, aliadas a dose constante de 60 kg/ha (0,8 g/p) de MgO, propiciando um índice de aproveitamento de oitenta e sete porcento de plantas aptas para enxertia. Abstract in english With the purpose of determining the most adequate levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for the production of plants ready for grafting in nursery, a trial was carried out in a sandy clay loamy yellow Latosol in Mosqueiro Island-PA, Brazil. It was used a randomized block design with two repli [...] cations following a factorial design of 33. The levels applied were of 0-2.1-4.2 g/plant of N; 0-3-5-7-0 g/plant of P2O5; 0-1.4-2.8 g/plant of K2O and a permanent level of 0.8 g/plant of MgO, the sources applied were, respectively, ammonium sulfate, triple superphosphate, potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate. The results were abtained two-hundred and twenty days after the beginning of the trial, the following evaluations were made: chemical analysis of soil and leaves, plants height, stem diameter, dry matter weight of aerial parts and plant ready for grafting. Based on the overall results od the study it was concluded that the adequate levels were 330 kg/ha (4.6 g/plant) of N; 340 kg/ha (4.8 g/plant) of P2O5 and 190 kg/ha (2.7 g/plant) of K(2)0, together with the permanent level of 60 kg/ha (0.8 g/plant) of MgO, producing a rate of profit of eighty-seven percent of plant ready for grafting.

  6. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral. The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial. Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral. Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante.

  7. The Influence of Varieties and Planting Systems on the Peach Tree Growth, Productivity and NPK Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian G. MATEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the effect of two organo-mineral fertilizers: root fertilizer C011 and foliar fertilizer 411 bio-ionic liquids, on some vegetative and productive features of five new peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] varieties introduced in Romania: ‘Earlirich’, ‘Royal Estate’, ‘Rubirich’, ‘October Star’ and ‘Late Luka’, grafted on GF 677 rootstock. The experimental plot located on a reddish preluvosol, have been established in 2008 with four planting systems: Tatura trellis, V planting system, Sibari Y and Vertical axe with different nutrition area/tree. Fertilization was applied on the beggining of June and August, 2010 and 2011 on the soil, locally on the tree rows (C011 and by foliar spraying (411. Trees vegetative growth was compared at the end of the vegetation period by number of fruit buds per unit trunk surface section (CM/TSS with significant differences between types of crowns and the biggest values for ‘Rubirich’; the total shoots length with significant differences between varieties. The influence of fertilization on trees productivity was apreciated by analyzing the yield and some typical productivy indexes. The studied parameters including the NPK uptake, have been significantly influenced by the variety 3.39% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2010 and 2.75% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2011 in Tatura trellis planting system.

  8. Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM; Mahmud SHOOR

    2013-01-01

    The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida). The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose) recorded the highest plant height, number o...

  9. Long-term effect of mineral fertilizers and amendments on microbial dynamics in an alfisol of Western Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, S; S.S Kanwar; Sharma, S P

    2007-01-01

    The microbial dynamics expressed in terms of culturable microbial populations i.e. bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and Azotobacter were measured after 33 years of continuous application of mineral fertilizers and amendments to an acid alfisol. The bacterial, fungal and Azotobacter populations were maximum in plots treated with mineral fertilizers and FYM (100%NPK+FYM) while actinomycetes population was maximum in mineral fertilizes and lime treated plots (100%NPK+Lime). The bacterial populatio...

  10. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    OpenAIRE

    Micha? MAJEWSKI; Marta BAJER; Agnieszka KUCZKOWSKA; Zenon W?GLAR; Anna SEREDA; Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the ...

  11. Effects of municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilizer amendments on soil properties and heavy metals distribution in maize plants (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Gregoria; de Imperial, Rosario Miralles; Torrijos, Manuel; Delgado, Mar; Rodriguez, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Soil amendments based on crop nutrient requirements are considered a beneficial management practice. A greenhouse experiment with maize seeds (Zea mays L.) was conducted to assess the inputs of metals to agricultural land from soil amendments. Maize seeds were exposed to a municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (50 Mg ha(-1)) and NPK fertilizer (33 g plant(-1)) amendments considering N plant requirement until the harvesting stage with the following objectives: (1) determine the accumulation of total and available metals in soil and (2) know the uptake and ability of translocation of metals from roots to different plant parts, and their effect on biomass production. The results showed that MSW compost increased Cu, Pb and Zn in soil, while NPK fertilizer increased Cd and Ni, but decreased Hg concentration in soil. The root system acted as a barrier for Cr, Ni, Pb and Hg, so metal uptake and translocation were lower in aerial plant parts. Biomass production was significantly enhanced in both MSW and NPK fertilizer-amended soils (17%), but also provoked slight increases of metals and their bioavailability in soil. The highest metal concentrations were observed in roots, but there were no significant differences between plants growing in amended soil and the control soil. Important differences were found for aerial plant parts as regards metal accumulation, whereas metal levels in grains were negligible in all the treatments. PMID:21908014

  12. Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Obid Hussain

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598-2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

  13. Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raad Obid, Hussain; Hayder Hamza, Hussain.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl) detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598- [...] 2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h) after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

  14. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers / Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Donizetti Tomaz, Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira, Novais; Víctor Hugo, Alvarez V.; José Maria Moreira, Dias; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque, Villani.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânico [...] s e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial). Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral). Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante. Abstract in english Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fe [...] rtilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral). The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.

  15. ONION YIELD AS AFFECTED BY FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH AMINO AND HUMIC ACIDS UNDER NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed A. Kandil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nutrient foliar spraying such as amino and humic acids under nitrogen fertilizer levels on growth, yield and keeping quality of onion bulbs cv. Giza 20. Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The obtained results showed that foliar spraying with humic acid resulted in highest growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as TSS %, dry matter and total weight loss percentages at storage period  compared with the control treatment. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels up to 214.2 kg N/ha significantly increased growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as total weight loss percentages at storage period. In addition, fertilization with 71.4 kg N/ha significantly increased TSS and dry matter percentages. It could be recommended that spraying with humic acid and adding 214.2 kg N/ha maximize onion bulb yield under the environmental conditions of Gharbeia Governorate. The interaction between nutrients spraying and nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly affected foliage fresh weight, total weight loss % after 1, 2, 3 and 5 months.

  16. EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaad DERBALA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

  17. The historical fertility transition at the micro level: Southern Sweden 1815-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Bengtsson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We know a great deal about the historical fertility transition at the macro level. The dominating focus on the macro level in previous research on the fertility transition means, however, that to a large extent we lack knowledge about details of the decline and empirical tests of the leading explanatory frameworks. Objective: Our aim is to explore socioeconomic fertility differentials in an industrializing community, to gain insight about the details and discuss possible mechanisms. The study starts well before industrialization and finishes at the end of the transition. Methods: We use longitudinal individual-level data from the Scanian Economic-Demographic Database, which contains demographic as well as socioeconomic information, including occupation, landholding, and income. In the analysis we use hazard regressions with shared frailty at the family level. Results: The transition involved not only parity-specific stopping but also spacing. While the upper social strata had higher fertility prior to the transition, they started to control their fertility earlier, by the 1880s, and also more consistently. Farmers, the middle class, and skilled workers followed in the decades after, and unskilled workers with some additional delay. Conclusions: These findings are partly inconsistent with several of the major explanations in the literature, such as mortality decline, increased female labor force participation, and a quantity-quality trade-off, but consistent with an innovation process where new ideas and attitudes about family limitation spread from the elite to other social groups. Comments: Further studies are required to empirically test the innovation-diffusion theory.

  18. Nitrogen and Crude Proteins in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva under Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko PETEK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the influence of different organic and mineral fertilization treatments and post-harvest treatments on the content of nitrogen and crude proteins in the edible part of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva. A field trial (2003-2005 was set up in a hilly part of Croatia according to the Latin square method with four types of fertilization (control, 50 t ha-1 stable manure, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30, while treatments involved harvested fresh beetroot and stored fresh beetroot. The highest dry weight (DW content was determined in climatologically favourable 2004 (average 14.8% DW and in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (15.6% DW in harvested beetroot. In 2004 and 2005, the highest levels of nitrogen and crude proteins in harvested beetroot were determined in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (2.41 and 2.43 g N kg-1 in fresh weight and 15.07 and 15.21 g crude proteins kg-1 in fresh weight, respectively. Regardless of fertilization treatment or studied year, nitrogen and crude protein contents were higher in stored than in harvested beetroot, by 12% on average. The lowest crude protein content was determined in treatment with stable manure what confirmed that protein content decreased by organic fertilization. It can be concluded that beetroot lost some water during the storage period, which increased its content of nitrogen and crude proteins in fresh weight and thus increased the nutritional quality of beetroot as a functional food.

  19. Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharoona, Baby; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir A

    2008-05-01

    Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH(3) and alpha-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers. PMID:18340443

  20. Gas exchange in massai grass under five nitrogen fertilization levels during establishment and regrowth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Neves, Lopes; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Magno José Duarte, Cândido; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco, Pompeu; Rodrigo Gregório da, Silva; José Wellington Batista, Lopes; Francisco Ronaldo Belém, Fernandes; Francisco Marcus Lima, Bezerra.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gas exchange in the massai grass during establishment and regrowth cycles in a greenhouse, using five nitrogen (N) fertilization levels. A completely randomized split-plot design of five nitrogen levels (0; 150; 300; 450 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil) was empl [...] oyed with the N levels as plots, and the cycles (establishment, regrowth 1 and 2) as subplots, evaluated with five replicates. We evaluated leaf transpiration (E), leaf temperature (TFOL), leaf photosynthesis rate (A), leaf carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis/transpiration ratio (A/E), photosynthesis/conductance ratio (A/gs), chlorophyll relative index (CRI), and nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI). Growth cycles influenced all physiological characteristics, except for NSI. N fertilization levels affected TFOL, A, CRI and NSI variables, whereas for gs, E, Ci, A/E and A/gs it did not occur. A increased from 6.38 to 10.33 µmol•m-2.s-1, at levels 0 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil, respectively. Gas exchange in the massai grass was favored by nitrogen fertilization, since the cycles amended these characteristics of the grass.

  1. Effect of Seed Inoculation and Different Nitrogen Levels on the Grain Yield of Mungbean

    OpenAIRE

    Asrar Mahboob; Muhammad Asghar

    2002-01-01

    Effect of seed inoculation and different nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of mungbean was studied at Agronomic Research Station, Farooqabad during the year 2000 and 2001. Results showed that various yield components like No. of pods plant -1, No. of grain pods -1, 1000 grain weight, biological and grain yield were affected significantly by seed inoculation and fertilizer application. Seed inoculation + 50-50-0 NPK kg ha -1, exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum po...

  2. Fertility Levels, Trends and Differentials in Pakistan: Evidence from the Population, Labour Force and Migration Survey 1979-80

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Iqbal; Mohammad, Irfan; Farooqi, Naseem Iqbal; Sheikh, Khalid Hameed; Siyal, H. B.; Syed, Tariq Ahmad; Nasir, Zafar Mueen; Haq, Rashida

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of the present report are two fold: (1) to analyse in some detail the fertility data collected in "Population, Labour Force and Migration" (PLM) Survey of 1979; and (2) to compare its findings, wherever necessary, with those of PFS (particularly for current fertility) and other surveys. The report is organized into eight sections, Section 2 is a brief review of earlier fertility levels and trends. Discussion of the PLM Survey and its methodology finds its place in ...

  3. INAA of some phosphates used in fertilizer industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INAA method for As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn determination in raw phosphates and Romanian NPK phosphate fertilizers was applied. The concentration values of uranium and some possible toxic elements in fertilizers are discussed. (author)

  4. Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of 137Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears to be an effective countermeasure (at least in the type of forest used in this study). The reduction of the 137Cs levels in plants and fungi persisted for quite a long period of time

  5. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry wei...

  6. An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

  7. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in the United States, 1945 to 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use were made for counties in the United States for the period 1945 to 1985. County fertilizer use estimates were obtained through the disaggregation of state-level fertilizer use in proportion to the amount of state fertilized acreage reported to exist in counties. Numerical values of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use by county are not presented in the text of this report because of the size of the data file, but are available in machine-readable form upon request. Graphical summaries of national, state, and county nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use are presented to briefly describe the spatial and temporal variability that exist in the data.

  8. Investigation of high level of AsAb, EmAb in fertility female serum infected by chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of chlamydia trachomatis. AsAb, EmAb in female fertility. Methods: LPS antigen of chlamydia in reproduction tract of fertility female was detected by monoclonal antibody and immunology chromatography; the content of AsAb, EmAb in serum of fertility female was detected by ELISA. Results: Infections rate of chlamydia trachomatis in fertility female was higher than that in the control AsAb, EmAb in serum of the fertility patients who were infected with chlamydia trachomatis showed a significant difference from that in the control group. Conclusion: The level of AsAb, EmAb increases in patients who have been infected with chlamydia trachomatis and these cytokines is involved in the course of female fertility

  9. Response Of Sesame To Gamma Irradiation And Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels On Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted in an Extension field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate during 2009 and 2010 seasons to investigate the influence of four gamma-irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) and five N fertilizer levels (zero, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Kg N/fad.), on yield and it's attributes of sesame cultivar Giza 32. Gamma irradiation doses were arranged randomly in the main plots, while the five N fertilizer levels were assigned to the sub-plots. Decreasing gamma irradiation doses from 30 to 20 and 10 Gy, consistently and significantly increased plant height (cm), height to the first fruiting branch (cm), fruiting zone length (cm), number of branches and capsules/plant, 1000-seeds weight (g), seed weight(g /capsule), seed weight(g /plant), seed yield (kg/fad.) seed oil content (%) as well as oil yield (kg/fad.). Increasing N fertilizer level up 100 Kg/fad., significantly increased plant height (cm), height to the first fruiting branch (cm) fruiting zone length (cm), number of branches and capsules/plant. 1000-seeds weight (g), seed weight (g/capsule), seed weight/ plant (g), seed yield (kg/fad.) and oil yield (kg/fad.)

  10. Soil pollution state as affected by different soil fertility regulation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of 14 chemical elements was measured in the soil of ten long-term field trials located in different climatic zones of Lithuania. Soil samples were taken from the control (untreated) and anthropogenic (fertilized with mineral NPK and/or organic fertilizers, limed) treatment plots. The samples were analyzed by the AAS method and directly analyzed with X-rays upon fine grinding (for Sr). In the western zone of Lithuania the anthropogenic impact (liming with fertilizing) resulted in statistically significant increase in the content of 4 elements (B, Ni, Sr, Zn). In the eastern zone 3 elements (Cu, Co, Sr) showed significant differences. Soil contamination index was exceeded significantly (up to 2 versus the background levels) only for Sr (2.14 times) in the western zone

  11. Composição química dos grãos de milho em resposta à adubação mineral e inoculação com rizobactérias / Chemical composition of corn grains in response to mineral fertilization and inoculation with rhizobacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Alves de, Oliveira; Claudemir, Zucareli; Leandro Teodoski, Spolaor; Allan Ricardo, Domingues; André Sampaio, Ferreira.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Para o aumento da produtividade agrícola no País, são necessários estudos para melhor aproveitamento da adubação mineral, a fim de uma produção de grãos com melhor qualidade nutricional. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor e o acúmulo de proteína, de cinzas e de nutrientes em grãos de mi [...] lho provenientes de plantas submetidas à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens e cultivadas em diferentes níveis de adubação NPK no solo. Foram testados seis tratamentos, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0,125 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições, sendo instalado em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, utilizando o cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35. Determinaram-se os teores e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, proteína e cinzas dos grãos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english To increase agricultural productivity in the country, studies are needed to improve the utilization of mineral fertilizers in order to produce grains with improved nutritional quality. The study aimed to evaluate the content and accumulation of protein, ash and nutrients in corn grains from plants i [...] noculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens and grown under different levels of NPK fertilizer in the soil. We tested six treatments in a randomized complete block design in a factorial 3 x 2, three levels of chemical fertilizer NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculation using P. fluorecens (with and without), with four replicates, in a Oxisol, using the maize hybrid 30F35. The content and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, protein and ash content of the grains were evaluated. The data were submitted to Anova and means compared by the Tukey test p

  12. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saime, Guzel; Meltem, Tanriverdi.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels o [...] f leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  13. Natural radioactivity in phosphate rock, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate deposits are generally characterized by enhanced radionuclide concentrations compared to natural levels. The mining and processing of this phosphate ore redistribute radionuclides throughout the environment and introduce them into phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), NPK fertilizers and di-calcium phosphate (DCP). Contents of natural radionuclides from thorium and uranium series, 226Ra, 210Pb and 228Ra, were measured in Brazilian igneous phosphate rock, phosphoric acid, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizer samples, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of U and Th in the same samples. The fertilizers samples which are derived directly from phosphoric acid, MAP and DAP, presented activity concentrations around the detection limits of the counting system for 226Ra (-1), for 228Ra (-1) and for 210Pb (-1). As for U and Th, the concentrations found in MAP and DAP are more significant, up to 374 and 250 Bq x kg-1, respectively. SSP, TSP and NPK, which are obtained by mixing phosphoric acid with different amounts of phosphate rock and NH3, presented higher concentrations of radionuclides, up to 871 Bq x kg-1 for 226Ra, 283 Bq x kg-1 for 228Ra, 1255 Bq x kg-1 for 210Pb, 413 Bq x kg-1 for U and 538 Bq x kg-1 for Th. (author)

  14. Effects of Long Term Application of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Soil Organic Carbon and Physical Properties in Maize–Wheat Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babbu Singh Brar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Balanced and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers may enhance the accumulation of soil organic matter and improves soil physical properties. A field experiment having randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted for 36 years at Punjab Agricultural University (PAU, Ludhiana, India to assess the effects of inorganic fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM on soil organic carbon (SOC, soil physical properties and crop yields in a maize (Zea mays–wheat (Triticum aestivum rotation. Soil fertility management treatments included were non-treated control, 100% N, 50% NPK, 100% NP, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + Zn, 100% NPK + W, 100% NPK (-S and 100% NPK + FYM. Soil pH, bulk density (BD, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity, aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD and infiltration were measured 36 years after the initiation of experiment. Cumulative infiltration, infiltration rate and aggregate MWD were greater with integrated use of FYM along with 100% NPK compared to non-treated control. No significant differences were obtained among fertilizer treatments for BD and EC. The SOC pool was the lowest in control at 7.3 Mg ha?1 and increased to 11.6 Mg ha?1 with 100%NPK+FYM. Improved soil physical conditions and increase in SOC resulted in higher maize and wheat yields. Infiltration rate, aggregate MWD and crop yields were positively correlated with SOC. Continuous cropping and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased soil C sequestration and crop yields. Balanced application of NPK fertilizers with FYM was best option for higher crop yields in maize–wheat rotation.

  15. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K and magnesium (Mg sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1: two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis, applied based on its nitrogen (N content and the N requirement for the crop and an additional treatment with NPK. The castor bean grain yield fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from conventional fertilization, with the maximum value achieved at a dose of 7.5 t ha-1 of sewage sludge. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased zinc and copper levels in the soil to values close to or higher than those in conventional fertilization, without any influence on the concentrations in the leaf. Fertilization with K and Mg sulphate increased the levels of these cations in the soil without affecting the concentrations in the leaves. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased the contents of organic matter, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and boron in the soil, and manganese and boron in castor bean leaves.

  16. County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Commercial Fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer, for both farm and nonfarm uses, for the conterminous United States, for...

  17. Poder de mercado na indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08), no período de 1993-2006

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graciela Aparecida, Profeta; Marcelo José, Braga.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As barreiras à entrada, a concentração observada e a alta de preços dos fertilizantes induziram à desconfiança de possibilidade de exercício do poder de mercado por parte das empresas representativas da indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08). Esses indícios podem ser condição necessári [...] a, porém não suficiente para afirmar a existência e o exercício de fato do poder. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar a conduta das empresas representativas da indústria de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08), por meio da estimação do parâmetro de conduta médio, ?. O período de análise foi fevereiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2006. A análise do comportamento das firmas baseou-se na teoria da Nova Organização Industrial Empírica. O ? foi estimado via interação da equação de demanda e relação de oferta representativa da indústria. Sob o ?, aplicou­-se o teste de hipótese para conhecer a conduta das firmas. Os resultados não permitiram identificar a existência do poder de mercado, exceto quando foram consideradas apenas as quatro maiores empresas. Entretanto, não foi possível fazer inferências sobre o exercício do poder de mercado das quatro maiores empresas, haja visto que a principal preocupação foi em relação à possibilidade de exercício, e não ao seu exercício de poder de fato. Abstract in english Barriers to the entrance, the concentration observed and the increase of prices of fertilizers had conducted to the diffidence of the possibility of the exercise of market power on part of companies which represent the Brazilian industry of the NPK (04-14-08) fertilizer. These indications can be a n [...] ecessary condition, however not enough to affirm the existence and the exercise, in fact, of the power. The objective was to identify the behavior of the representative companies of the NPK (04-14-08) fertilizer industry, through the estimate of the average parameter of behavior, ?. The period of analysis was February 1993 until December 2006. The analysis of the behavior of the firms was based on the New Empirical Industrial Organization (Neio) theory. ? was projected through the interaction of the demand equation and the representative supply ratio of the industry. Under ?, the hypothesis test was applied to know the behavior of the firms. Results did not allow identifying the existence of the market power, except when only the four major companies had been considered. However, it was not possible to make inferences on the exercise of the market power of the four major companies, since that the main concern was regarding the possibility of the exercise, and not the exercise in fact.

  18. Effect of Different Levels of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Protein Content of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on the growth, yield and protein content of two wheat varieties. Two varieties of wheat were tested. Aghrani and Kanchan with five levels of chemical and organic fertilizer viz. F1 (control), F2, F3, F4 and F5. Urea was applied in 2 splits in F1 and in 3 splits in F2 to F4 as per recommendation. In F5, it was applied in 4 equal splits. In F1, inorganic fertilizers were applied @ 100 kg ...

  19. [Effects of different K fertilizer and water level on growth and physiological characteristics of Isatis indigotica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan-Juan; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Chen, Su-Dan; Deng, Qiao-Hua

    2014-05-01

    The experiment included three potassium levels (K0 0 g x kg(-1), K1 0.33 g x kg(-1), K2 0.67 g x kg(-1)) and two water gradients (well watered and drought stress), then measured growth indicators, SOD, POD, CAT activities and concents of osmotic regulation substances. To explore the effects of K fertilizer and water on growth and physiological characteristics of Isatis indigotica, providing reference for improving drought resistance of I. indigotica. The result showed drought stress inhibited the growth and decreased the biomass of I. indigotica but K fertilizer can alleviate the drought stress. Compared with K0 treatment, K1, K2 treatment increased the biomass of overground part of by 89. 13% ,60. 87% under drought stress. The corresponding increase in soluble sugar content was 16.67%, 5.00%, and in proline content was 42.41%, 65.62%, respectively. SOD,POD and CAT activities was significantly improved in K1, K2 treatment in comparison with K0 treatment under drought stress, but soluble protein content significantly reduced. The conclusion is that appropriate amount of K fertilizer can increase the activities of antioxidase and the content of osmoregulation substance under drought stress, and improve drought resistance of I. indigotica. PMID:25282880

  20. Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

  1. Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis study focuses on the fertility levels and trends of Iranian women aged10-49 years during three decades, 1967-1996. Information was collected by interviewing a systematiccluster sample of 13,253 households. The basic date of concern was the date of each live born childfor a sample of women in reproductive age and whether the live born was alive at the time of thestudy. The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to becalculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates werefound for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels areprobably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately afterthe 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 haddropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96. This declinewas probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularlysince 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a babyboom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the comingdecades.FrenchCette étude porte sur les niveaux et les tendances de fertilité chez les Iraniennes âgées de 10 à 49 ans sur une période de trente ans, soit de 1967-1996. L'information a été recueillie en interviewant un échantillon en grappes systématique de 13 253 ménages. La principale date qui nous intéresse est la date de naissance de chaque enfant vivant pour un échantillon de femmes en âge de procréer et le fait que l'enfant soit toujours en vie au moment de l'étude. La nature détaillée des données recueillies pour chaque naissance a permis d'établir les taux de fertilité pour les périodes précises avant le sondage pour les années civiles précises. Les taux de fertilité étaient supérieurs pour les périodes de 10 à 15 ans et de 15 à 20 ans avant le sondage. Ces taux élevés sont sans doute attribuables à des changements socio-économiques favorisant une plus grande fertilité immédiatement après la révolution de 1979. Cependant, les résultats de ce sondage indiquent qu'entre 1967 et 1996, l'ISF est passé de 6,38 à 2.88 (ISF avait été établi à partir du comportement procréateur des années 1992-96. Cette chute avait probablement été causée par le fait que les femmes se mariaient plus tard et à des changements dans la politique favorisant la régulation des populations, surtout depuis 1987. Malgré ce déclin éventuel de la fertilité des dernières années, l'Iran s'attend, au cours des prochaines décennies, à une explosion démographique une fois que les enfants nés entre 1976 et 86 auront atteints l'âge de procréer.

  2. Effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on sweet corn (Zea maYs L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on emergence m/sup -2/ growth and grain yield of sweet corn. The fertilizer and interaction of fertilizer x seed density had significant negative effect with increasing level while seed density had a positive effect with increased density on emergence per m/sup 2/. Increased seed density significantly reduced plant growth which increased with application of higher fertilizer dose. The grain yield was improves by ridge planting methods, increased seed density and increased fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (3,553.50 kg ha/sup-1/) of sweet corn plants was recorded in ridge planting method with highest NP fertilizer level of 300:150 kg ha/sup 1/ and 4 seeds hill/sup -1/. The lowest grain yield (3,493.75 kg ha/sup -1/) of sweet corn was observed in flat sowing planting method with 120:75 NP level and 2 seeds hill/sup -1/ seed density. The ridge planting rank first then furrow and flat planting methods on basis of grain yield per hectare. The sweet corn plant yield was high with 4 seeds hill/sup -1/ compared with 2 seeds hill/sup -1/. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the Level and Impact of Selected Physiochemical Parameters of Fertilizer Effluent on Obinna River, Adani, Enugu State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chizoba Chinelo Agu; Matthew Chukwudi Menkiti; Bernard Ibezim Okolo; Patrick Chukwudi Nnaji

    2014-01-01

    This work quantitatively evaluates the level and impact of selected physiochemical properties of fertilizer effluent on the Obinna River of Adani, Enugu State, Nigeria. The fertilizer effluent originated from surrounding farms and flushed into the Obinna River. Water samples were collected from designated points along the river and analysed for physical, chemical and biological properties using standard methods of APHA. Impact of selected key parameters such as nitrate,...

  4. Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida. The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose recorded the highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes such as number of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plot, flower yield/plant, flower yield/plot. The early flower bud initiation, 50 percent flowering and more flowering duration was achieved in the treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose. Application of Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose registered significantly higher quality parameters such as flower diameter.

  5. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones.

  6. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-09-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. PMID:23726145

  7. Adubação mineral e orgânica e a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae em cebola Mineral and organic fertilization and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adubação mineral e orgânica sobre a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola, Allium cepa L., foi avaliado na Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina, entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram níveis de adubação mineral com N, P2O5 e K2O em dose recomendada e três vezes a recomendada, adubação orgânica e a testemunha foi a ausência de adubação. Os tratamentos foram as seguintes doses de nutrientes: 1 30 + 120 + 60kg ha-1 de NPK; 2 90 + 360 + 180kg ha-1 de NPK; 3 75kg ha-1 de N; 4 225kg ha-1 de N; 5 80kg ha-1 de P2O5; 6 240kg ha-1 de P2O5; 7 60kg ha-1 de K2O; 8 180kg ha-1 de K2O; 9 75kg ha-1 de N + 80kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 10 225kg ha-1 de N + 240kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 11 37,5kg ha-1 de N + 40kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; testemunha sem adubação. Nenhuma das fontes e níveis de adubação apresentaram nível populacional de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo.The effect of the mineral and organic fertilization on onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind., population density was evaluated at Ituporanga Experiment Station, EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between August and December 1998. The treatments were different levels of mineral fertilization with N, P2O5 and K2O at recommended rate and three times recommended rate, the organic fertilization and without fertilization was check. The treatments in nutrient rate were: 30 + 120 + 60kg NPK ha-1; 90 + 360 + 180kg NPK ha-1; 75kg N ha-1; 225kg N ha-1; 80kg P2O5 ha-1; 240kg P2O5 ha-1; 60kg K2O ha-1; 180kg K2O ha-1; 75kg N ha-1 + 80kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 225kg N + 240kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 37,5kg N + 40kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; check without fertilizer. The onion thrips population density was similar among treatments with fertilizer and the check without fertilization. The mineral fertilization didn’t increase significantly onion thrips incidence.

  8. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and ?-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and ?-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  9. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintained—the periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also, states with higher nonfarm-to-total fertilizer ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus tended to have higher urban land-use percentages.

  10. Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup

    2012-04-17

    In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species. PMID:22404621

  11. Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

  12. Influence of Both Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Productivity of Barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influences of gamma irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) as well as nitrogen fertilizer levels (zero, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/fad) on growth, yield and yield components of barley cultivar Giza 123 were studied during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. The study was conducted in an extension field at Belbees District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Irradiation with the lowest gamma does gave the highest value for each of emergence/m2, plant height at heading (cm), flag leaf area at heading (cm2), spike length (cm), number of grains/spike and weight of grains/spike. Nitrogen application significantly increased emergence/m2, plant height, flag leaf area (cm2), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2 as well as grain, straw and biological yields (kg/fad). Accepted September 2013.

  13. Wheat Response to Application Methods and Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer: I. Phenology, Growth Indices and Protein Content

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Qudrat Ullah Khan; Muhammed Safdar Baloch; Abdul Aziz Khakwani; Muhammed Ayyaz Khan; Inayat Ullah Awan; Ejaz Ahmed Khan; Ghazanfar Ullah; Kashif Wasim; Sadaf Javeria; Ghulam Jilani

    2013-01-01

    Fertilizer use efficiency of nitrogen is very low due to various types of losses. This two year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of various levels of nitrogen and its application methods on phenology, growth indices and quality of wheat. Fertilizer application methods (broadcast and side-dressing) were placed in the main plots, while nitrogen levels (60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg/ha) applied in sub plots. Crop data showed that nitrogen methods had non-significant ...

  14. Study on the effect of temperature and the level of nitrogenase fertilizer on formation dynamics of nitrate in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of temperature and application level of nitrogenase fertilizer on the formation dynamics of nitrate in soil were studied with the isotope tracer CO(15NH2)2 by planting spinages in pot culture. the dynamics model of nitrate in soil after applying urea was established as: C = A(e-ket-e-kat). With temperature of 10 degree C, the model was as follows: C = 1-e-kat. The results showed that temperature had an obvious effect on the formation and degradation velocity of nitrate in soil but the application level of nitrogenase fertilizer had no significant effect on them

  15. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    OpenAIRE

    Ransom, Jason I; Powers, Jenny G; Thompson Hobbs, N; Baker, Dan L

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to c...

  16. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g?1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg?1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g?1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

  17. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  18. Fertilizante mineral e resíduo orgânico sobre características agronômicas da soja e nutrientes no solo / Mineral fertilizer and organic waste on soybean crop and soil nutrients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Everson Reis, Carvalho; Pedro Milanez de, Rezende; Messias José Bastos de, Andrade; Alexandre Martins Abdão dos, Passos; João Almir, Oliveira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do fertilizante mineral NPK associado ao resíduo orgânico "cama de frango", sobre as características agronômicas da soja bem como os teores de nutrientes em um Cambissolo. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Itutinga, sul de Minas Gerais, no delineamento em bloc [...] os casualizados, com três repetições em esquema de parcela subdividida. A cultivar utilizada no experimento foi a BRS Favorita RR. Os tratamentos aplicados às parcelas foram constituídos por quatro doses de "cama de frango" (0; 3; 6 e 9 Mg ha-1), aplicados em área total. As subparcelas constituíram as cinco doses do fertilizante mineral formulado NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 kg ha-1), aplicados ao sulco de semeadura. A adubação com o fertilizante mineral proporciona aumento na altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, número de legumes por planta e na produtividade de grãos da cultura da soja. A adubação com o resíduo orgânico "cama de frango" eleva a altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, massa de 100 grãos, número de legumes por planta e o rendimento de grãos de soja, porém em doses mais elevadas favorece o acamamento das plantas. A utilização da cama de frango é viável em termos agronômicos e econômicos na cultura da soja. A adição de cama de frango eleva os teores de potássio e enxofre no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral fertilizer NPK associated with the organic waste "poultry litter" on the agronomic characteristics of soybean as well as nutrient levels in the Cambisol. The experiment was carried out in Itutinga, southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, [...] in a randomized blocks experimental design with three replications in split-plot. The cultivar used was BRS Favorita RR. The treatments applied to plots consisted on four doses of "poultry litter" (0; 3; 6 and 9 Mg ha-1), applied in the total area. The subplots were the five doses of mineral fertilizer NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 kg ha-1), applied to the groove seeding. Fertilization with mineral fertilizers provides an increase in plant and first pod height, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean. Fertilization with organic waste "poultry litter" increases the plant and first pod height, weight of 100 grains, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean, however at higher doses favors the lodging of plants. The use of poultry litter is viable in agronomic and economic terms in the soybean crop. The addition of poultry litter increases the contents of potassium and sulfur in the soil.

  19. EFFECTS OF FERTILIZER TYPE (CHICKEN LITTER VS. INORGANIC FERTILIZER) AND CATTLE GRAZING ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture plots included unharvested, hayed, light and heavy cattle grazing pressure, fertilized with either inorganic N-P-K or broiler litter. Total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) followed a seasonal trend and were higher in grazed plots than hayed & unharvested plots. Fungi a...

  20. Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  1. Effects of decaying leaf litter and inorganic fertilizer on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka Kanayo S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of decaying leaf litter of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina as organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a screen house. Twenty-four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which included: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1, 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2, 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic fertilizer (T3, a mixture of 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T4, a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T5 and control (T6. The significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize seedlings, and this was closely followed by T4 treated seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as an organic fertilizer in maize production in a screen house conditions did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.

  2. Distinguishing nitrogen fertilization levels in field corn (Zea mays L.) with actively induced fluorescence and passive reflectance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is an active sensing technique capable of capturing immediate and specific indications of changes in plant physiology and metabolism as they relate to the concentration and photosynthetic activity of the plant pigments. Reflectance is a passive sensing technique that can capture differences in the concentration of the primary plant pigments. Fluorescence and reflectance were compared for their ability to measure levels of plant stress that are of agronomic importance in corn (Zea mays L.) crops. Laboratory LIF and reflectance spectra were made on excised leaves from field grown corn. Changes in the visible region of the spectrum were compared between groups of plants fertilized with seven different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. A pulsed nitrogen laser emitting photons at a wavelength of 337 nm was used as a fluorescence excitation source. Differences in maximum intensity of fluorescence occurred at 440 nm, 525 nm, 685 nm, and 740 nm. Significant separations were found between levels of N fertilization at several LIF wavelength ratios. Several reflectance algorithms also produced significant separations between certain levels of N fertilization

  3. Organochlorine compound levels in fertile and infertile women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marcia Xavier Bastos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was quantify organochlorine compounds in women seeking for infertility treatment (n = 15 and in spontaneously pregnant ones (n = 21. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was applied regarding lifestyle, occupational and reproductive history. Blood samples were collected from both groups. RESULTS: From the pesticides studied, pp'DDE was detected in 100% of infertile women, at higher mean levels than in pregnant women (3.02 mcg/L vs. 0.88 mcg/L; p = 0.001; power of 69%, without correlation with the etiology of infertility. Levels of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were low, with positive samples in 100% in the infertile women for PCBs 138, 153, 180, while in pregnant women, they were 85.7% for congeners 138 and 153. Only PCB180 showed significance, with frequency of 71.4% (p = 0.019. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for female infertility were: age, consumption of untreated water and of canned foods. Exposure to the most prevalent organochlorine compounds described in literature was confirmed in the study, indicating that pp'DDE may adversely influence female fertility.

  4. Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascolonicum Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopit Vetayasuporn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A block experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of biological and chemical (NPK 15:15:15 fertilizers on the growth and yield of shallot cultivation in Mahasakham University, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand. Six biological fertilizers were developed from BBF (basically biological fertilizer: 45 g cattle manure + 45 g rice bran + 20 mL of molasses + 10 mL of EM + 10 L of dechlorinated water and used in this experiment. Chemical and biological fertilizers showed insignificant at a confidence level of 95% on the growth and yield of shallots. Increasing biological and chemical fertilizers concentration in this experiment had no significant effect on shallot growth and yield. Except control (without fertilizer, average shallot total weight with leaves and number of leaves per plant in all treatments were ranged between 9.885-12.024 g and 19.095-21.840 leaves, respectively. Average shallot total weight with leaves and number of leaves per plant obtained in this experimental were coincided to the Thai market standard. Growth and yield of these shallots showed significant different to the control (5.525 g of weight and 15.625 leaves per plant. Supplemented golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculat into BBF provided higher NO3? contents (4.28-4.68%. However, the high content of nitrate in biological fertilizer did not show significant effects in promoting shallot growth and yield. Under taking into account chemical fertilizer cost, which is ten times higher than biological fertilizer, the soil amendment with biological fertilizer may be a practicable alternative for the poor farmers who own degraded farmlands may be unable to afford the cost of chemical fertilizer.

  5. The effect of fertilization levels and genetic deployment on soil organic matter chemistry and turnover in managed loblolly pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J. G.; Jokela, E. J.; He, D.; Hockaday, W. C.; Schuur, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics were examined for two managed loblolly pine forests (Pinus taeda L.) located in north-central Florida on sandy Spodosols. The study designs were split-plots with the whole plots designated as fertilization levels, and the split-plots full-sib families of loblolly pine. The forests were aged 9 and 10 years at sampling. Roots, wood, and charcoal were hand-picked from SOM and density fractionation (1.6 g/ml) used to further separate SOM into a light (LF) and heavy fraction (HF). LF turnover rates were estimated using radiocarbon and LF chemistry determined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Family or fertilization level effects on the mass of SOM components were not significant at both sites. The largest proportions of SOM were in the LF (83% and 85%) and wood (6% and 9%). Varying in relative contributions were charcoal (2% and 3%) and the HF (4% and 1%) while fine dead roots were between 1-2% of total SOM. Higher fertilization levels generally depressed fine root (genetics in forests can influence SOM chemistry, but that family and the degree of fertilization have little net effect on SOM chemistry and turnover.

  6. Effect of biochar on the properties of loamy sand Spodosol soil samples with different fertility levels: A laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizhiya, E. Ya.; Buchkina, N. P.; Mukhina, I. M.; Belinets, A. S.; Balashov, E. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of biochar on the properties of a loamy sand Spodosol with different fertility level in the ploughed horizon has been studied in a 60-day laboratory experiment. It has been found that the application of biochar resulted in a significant increase of the soil water content in the range of soil-water potential from -5 to -50 kPa, a significant decrease of the total shrinkage of the soil with high level of fertility after three wetting-drying cycles, and the accumulation of a significantly higher content of nitrates in the soil. At a water content of 21%, less favorable conditions for the denitrification development were formed in the soil with high level of fertility than in the medium-fertile soil, which resulted in lower cumulative N2O emission from the former. The addition of biochar resulted in no significant changes in the cumulative emission of CO2 from the studied soil but significantly reduced the emission of N2O from the soil at the simultaneous addition of biochar and clover residues.

  7. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  8. The response of a Mombaça grass seed crop to timing and levels of boron fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Menezes de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B deficiency has been frequentely mentioned in crops of economic interest. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of two times (March 3 2008 and at anthesis and four doses of foliar application of B (equivalent to 0, 2, 4 and 6 kg ha-1 in Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça on components of seed yield and quality, seed yield, and relationships among yield-components. The experimental design was a randomized block design in a factorial design (2x4, with four replications. The experiment was conducted in the field. The times and doses of B application had no effect on the mass of tillers vegetative and tillers with panicle, and numbers of vegetative tillers, tillers with panicle and total tillers. The interaction was significant in March 3, for the number of seeds apparent and pure, panicle-1 and area-1, apparent seed yield, pure seed yield, harvest index, germinable seed yield, and for a one thousand seeds pure. The times and doses of B did not affect the physical purity and seed germination. A high correlation was obtained between the number of apparent and pure seeds per area and harvest index, with apparent seed yield and with pure seed yield. Levels of foliar B fertilization of 4.0 kg ha-1 can be recommended to be applied in seed crops of Mombaça grass.

  9. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels decline under hormonal suppression: a prospective analysis in fertile women after delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortner Iris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AMH's reported stability during periods of hormonal change makes it a practical tool in assessing ovarian reserve. However, AMH declines with age and age-specific cut-offs remain to be established in women with proven fertility. This study aims to determine age-specific ranges of AMH in women with proven fertility. Methods Two hundred-ten fertile women, aged 18-40 years, were prospectively recruited for AMH measurements within 14 days after delivery and age stratified into 3 groups (18-30, 31-36 and 37-40 years. Eligibility required spontaneous conception within a maximal period of six months. Autoimmune diseases, chemotherapy, radiation, ovarian surgery and polycystic ovary syndrome precluded inclusion. Results 95% confidence intervals of AMH declined with advancing female age from 0.9-1.1 to 0.6-0.9 and 0.2-0.4 ng/mL (P Conclusions Like infertile populations, fertile women demonstrate declining AMH with advancing age. Uniformly lower levels than in infertile women suggest that AMH levels do not appear as stable under all hormonal influences as previously reported.

  10. Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans

    OpenAIRE

    Gorzelany J.

    1999-01-01

    Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force ca...

  11. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N2-fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  12. New complex fertilizer 'Suprodit' to obtain safe agricultural productions on contaminated lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaevich Ratnikov, Alexander; Sergeevich Anisimov, Vyacheslav; Nikoaevna Anisimova, Lidiya; Georgievich Sviridenko, Dmitry; Jurievna Balanova, Olesya

    2015-04-01

    One of the reclamation techniques to reduce the accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in the crop is the use of natural sorbents, industrial deposits of which are located in the contaminated areas or at distances that allows one to organize cheap their delivery to the application site. More promising reclamation technique is the use of new types of complex fertilizers, the main components of which are special sorbents of natural or artificial origin. New complex fertilizer of prolonged action - "SUPRODIT", containing in addition to nutrients highly efficient mineral and organic sorbents, was developed by specialists of the RIRAE. The feedstock for mineral sorbent was Tripoli (finely porous siliceous mineral) from local field (Kaluga region), organic sorbent - peat. The "SUPRODIT"composition: N - 8-11%; P2O5 - 11-13 %; K2O - 11-17%, organic matter and 30-40%, respectively. The effect of a single application of complex fertilizer will be maintained for two or more growing seasons. Received RF patent for the invention "Method of production of complex fertilizer of prolonged action". In a series of field experiments on sod-podzolic sandy loam soil it was shown that the application of "SUPRODIT" at dose of 800 kg/ha to soil contaminated with dehydrated sewage sludge (DSS), significantly reduces heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) content in a crop of oats and barley due to the sorption properties of this fertilizers. Thus, Cd accumulation in the oats grain decreased 1.3 times, barley grain - 1.5 times, Ni - 1.5 times for barley and oats; Pb - 1.8 and 1.7 times respectively opposite to variant where the DSS was applied only. "SUPRODIT" reduces the negative effects of HM on the growth and development of plants, and limits the accumulation of 137Cs and HM in biomass. The 137Cs content in the biomass of barley in the variant of jointly added to soil of 137Cs and "SUPRODIT" decreased by 8.9 times in comparison with control and 4.4 times compared with standard fertilizers (NPK). The Cd accumulation by barley grain in sod-podzolic soil, contaminated with Cd6, Zn600, Cu390 mg/kg, when applying "SUPRODIT" was 2.5 times less than after industrial fertilizers (NPK and nitrophoska) application; the accumulation of Zn - 1.5 and 1.9 times less; the accumulation of Cu - 1.6 and 1.5 times less in comparison with NPK and nitrophoska, respectively. Applying of "SUPRODIT" constrain the accumulation of 137Cs in barley grain 1.2-1.3 times more efficiently than NPK and nitrophoska. Use "SUPRODIT" in technologies of cultivation of fodder crops on contaminated land in the districts of the Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation allow us to get a feed corresponding to acceptable levels on the content of 137Cs at a density of contamination 500-920 kBq/m2, which ensures that the milk will fit to corresponding maximum permissible concentration.

  13. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da correção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus, cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and 128 for the 50, 100 and 150% recommended fertilizer rates. The NPK fertilizer levels, keeping c

  14. Long-term effects of cropping systems and fertilization on crop production, soil characteristics and nitrogen cycling in the Guinean and Sudanian savannah zones of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term effects of annual fallow and two grain legumes, namely groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on soil N, fertilizer N recovery and yield of subsequent non-fixing crops were investigated in two ecological savannah zones of West Africa. The effects of fallow and groundnut on sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and cotton (Gossypium sp) were studied using a 10-year (1993-2003) field experiment at the agronomic research station of Farako-Ba (4 deg. 20' West, 11 deg. 6' North and 405 m altitude) in Guinean savannah zone Burkina Faso. A factorial 3x8 design in a split plot arrangement was used. Three crop rotations (cotton-groundnut-Sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) were used as first factor and 8 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+crop residues, NPK+dolomite, PK+crop residues, PK+manure, PK+compost, PK and control) were applied as second factor. In the Sudanian savannah zone, a 5-year (1995-1999) field experiment was laid down at the research station of Kouare (11 deg 59' North, 0 deg. 19' West and 850 m altitude). A factorial of three cropping systems (cowpea-sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) as a first factor and 4 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+dolomite, PK+manure and a control) as a second factor in a split plot design was used. In the Guinean savannah zone, grain yields of succeeding sorghum increased from 547 kg ha-1 in continuous sorghum to 912 and 1021 kg ha-1 in fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations respectively. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N at sowing. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 19% for the continuous sorghum to 32 and 51% for the fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum respectively. Soil organic carbon increased from 0.36% in continuous sorghum to 0.39 and 0.54% in cotton-groundnut-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, continuous sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations decreased soil organic carbon. Only fallow-sorghum rotation maintained soil organic carbon, exchange acidity and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Manure applications increased soil organic carbon, total N and available P. Except for the fallow-sorghum rotation, other rotations increased aluminum saturation and decreased soil pH compared to original soil. Manure or dolomite applications decreased exchange acidity and maintained soil pH and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotation was the most efficient for the Guinea savannah zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer plus one t ha-1 of dolomite can be recommended for cotton and sorghum. Alternatively mineral PK fertilizer combined with 3 t ha-1 cattle manure can be applied to sorghum. Only mineral NPK fertilizer can be used on groundnut. In the Sudanian savannah zone, sorghum grain yields increased by 75 and 100% when sorghum was rotated with fallow or cowpea respectively, compared to mono cropping of sorghum. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cowpea-sorghum rotations supplied 17 and 90% more N to succeeding sorghum compared to the mono cropping system of sorghum. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 17% for the continuous sorghum to 22 and 26% for the cowpea-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, all cropping systems decreased soil organic carbon and increased aluminum saturation. All cropping systems decreased soil pH and increased aluminum saturation compared to original soil. Cowpea-sorghum rotation was the most efficient cropping system in the Sudanian zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer associated with one t ha-1 of dolomite or 3 t ha-1 of manure must be applied to sorghum. But only recommended mineral NPK fertilizer can be applied for cowpea. (author)

  15. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Gorecka; Henryk Gorecki; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Marzanna Bara?ska; Izabela Michalak; Agnieszka Zieli?ska

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with s...

  16. Effects of fertilizer and plant density on yield and quality of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Faravani Mahdi; Salari Behjat; Heidari Mostafa; Kashki Mohammad Taghi; Gholami Barat Ali

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of organic fertilizer on yield of anise, an experiment was conducted in the form of split-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications in Mashhad, Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center. Four treatments of fertilization: the control, vermicompost - 5 t/ha, cow manure - 25 t/ha, and mineral fertilizer (NPK) - 60 kg/ha (the same rate of each nutrient) were applied as the main factor. The...

  17. High levels of inorganic nutrients affect fertilization kinetics, early development and settlement of the scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E. K. Y.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Kwok, C. K.; Ip, A. H. P.; Chan, S. W.; Leung, H. N.; Yeung, L. C.; Ang, P. O.

    2015-09-01

    Dose-response experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ammonia nitrogen (NH3/NH4 +) and orthophosphate (PO4 3-) on four stages of larval development in Platygyra acuta, including fertilization, embryonic development and the survival, motility, and settlement of planula larvae. Fertilization success was reduced significantly under 200 ?M NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. These high doses of NH3/NH4 + and PO4 - affected egg viability (or sperm viability and polyspermic block simultaneously) and polyspermic block, respectively. These results provide the first evidence to indicate the mechanisms of how inorganic nutrients might affect coral fertilization processes. For embryonic development, NH3/NH4 + at 25-200 ?M caused delay in cell division after 2-h exposure and NH3/NH4 + at 100-200 ?M resulted in larval death after 72 h. However, no significant differences were observed in the mobility and survivorship of either planula or competent larvae under different levels of NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. There was a significant (~30 %) drop in the settlement of competent larvae under the combined effect of 100 ?M NH3/NH4 + and PO4 3-. The effects of elevated nutrients appeared to become more significant only on gametes or larvae undergoing active cellular activities at fertilization, early development, and settlement.

  18. Bacterial diversity in Greenlandic soils as affected by potato cropping and inorganic versus organic fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund; Pedas, Pai Rosager

    2014-01-01

    Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems will in the near future be exposed to severe environmental stresses due to global warming. For example, the microbial community structure and function may change as a result of increased temperatures. In Greenland, agriculture is carried out in the Subarctic regions with only limited pest management, despite the presence of plant pathogenic fungi. The microbial community composition in agricultural soils, which plays an important role for soil and plant health and for crop yield, may be affected by the use of different fertilizer treatments. Currently, only limited research has been performed on the effects of these treatments on bacterial communities in Arctic and Subarctic agricultural soils. The major objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of conventional (NPK) and organic (sheep manure supplemented with nitrogen) fertilizer treatments on bacterial diversity, nutrient composition and crop yield in two Greenlandic agricultural soils. An effect of fertilizer was found on soil and plant nutrient levels and on crop yields. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences did not reveal any major changes in the overall bacterial community composition as a result of different fertilizer treatments, indicating a robust microbial community in these soils. In addition, differences in nutrient levels, crop yields and bacterial abundances were found between the two field sites and the two experimental growth seasons, which likely reflect differences in physical-chemical soil parameters. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Influence of estrogen levels on thermal perception, pain thresholds and pain tolerance : Studies on women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Stening, Kent; Berg, Göran; Hammar, Mats; Voster, Helene; Eriksson, Olle; Amandusson, Åsa; Blomqvist, Anders

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between estrogen and pain in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Quantitative sensory tests (QST) were performed twice during the IVF-regimen: once during hormonal down-regulation and once during hormonal upregulation. A group of healthy men and a group of women using monophasic contraceptives were also examined, to control for session-to-session effects. Among the women undergoing IVF, serum 17?-estradiol levels differed strongly between treatments as ...

  20. Apple fruit quality, yield and leaf macronutrients content as affected by fertilizer treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Milo& #353; evi& #263; ; N, Milo& #353; evi& #263; .

    Full Text Available During two years we have investigated main fruit quality traits, yield and leaf nutrient content at 120 days after full bloom (DAFB) of ,Idared, and ,Melrose, apples on M.9 rootstock when fertilized with complex NPK (15:15:15) alone, and mixture with natural zeolite (Agrozel) and/or cattle manure. R [...] esults showed that fruit quality has been strongly affected by cultivars, whereas fertilizer treatments influenced only yield per tree. Moreover, significant impact of cultivar and fertilizer treatment on leaf P, K and Mg was found. Leaf of ,Melrose, contained higher P and K content, and lower Mg content than those of ,Idared,. In ,Melrose,, NPK alone increased leaf P, whereas in ,Idared, , mixture of NPK+Agrozel and NPK+Manure promoted leaf P, K and Mg content. According to DOP and EDOP indexes, excessive leaf Mg content was found, and deficiency of the rest of nutrients. ,Melrose, exhibited better balanced nutritional values for nutrients as compared to ,Idared,, whereas NPK+M promoted better balanced nutritional values than other treatments.

  1. Apple fruit quality, yield and leaf macronutrients content as affected by fertilizer treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Milo& #353; evi& #263; ; N, Milo& #353; evi& #263; .

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During two years we have investigated main fruit quality traits, yield and leaf nutrient content at 120 days after full bloom (DAFB) of ,Idared, and ,Melrose, apples on M.9 rootstock when fertilized with complex NPK (15:15:15) alone, and mixture with natural zeolite (Agrozel) and/or cattle manure. R [...] esults showed that fruit quality has been strongly affected by cultivars, whereas fertilizer treatments influenced only yield per tree. Moreover, significant impact of cultivar and fertilizer treatment on leaf P, K and Mg was found. Leaf of ,Melrose, contained higher P and K content, and lower Mg content than those of ,Idared,. In ,Melrose,, NPK alone increased leaf P, whereas in ,Idared, , mixture of NPK+Agrozel and NPK+Manure promoted leaf P, K and Mg content. According to DOP and EDOP indexes, excessive leaf Mg content was found, and deficiency of the rest of nutrients. ,Melrose, exhibited better balanced nutritional values for nutrients as compared to ,Idared,, whereas NPK+M promoted better balanced nutritional values than other treatments.

  2. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  3. Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorzelany J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force causing bean damage and bean deformation up to crack.

  4. Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo?ena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Ba?cyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘?l?za’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

  5. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70% and KNO3 - zeolite (30%. Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

  6. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK / Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos, Bernardi; Carlos Guarino, Werneck; Patrick Gesualdi, Haim; Nélio das Graças de Andrade da Mata, Rezende; Paulo Renato Perdigão, Paiva; Marisa Bezerra de Mello, Monte.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por [...] 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1) ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z) e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK), e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP). Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura. Abstract in english The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibb [...] le tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1) with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant) of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70%) and KNO3 - zeolite (30%). Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

  7. Effect of Various Nitrogen Fertilizers and Their Levels on Big-Arch Shelter Cucumber Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaopeng Ou Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are mainly cultivated through facility in early spring and late autumn in Northern of China. In the case of a serious shortage of water resources, water use efficiency of greenhouse vegetable is of an important scientific significance in both water and fertilizer management. On the basis of pan Evaporation (Ep and real-time monitoring of soil moisture content, the amount of water irrigation adequate to big-arch shelter cucumber growth, water dissipation, yield and water use efficiency were determined through the combination of three nitrogen fertilizers including urea, urea containing nitrification inhibitors (5:1 with urea and nitrification inhibitor and coated urea (slow fertilizer and their various levels with 0 kg/ha, 350 kg/ha, 550 kg/ha, 750 kg/ha. The results showed that the most 10,9000 kg/ha production was gained by the treatment of 550 kg/ha urea containing inhibitors, which could increase 41.5% of a yield, 15.2% of a cumulative water consumption that was at 462.0mm and 44.7% of a water use efficiency that is at 14.11kg (dry matter/(mm• ha, compared with that of control, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the application of moderate levels of urea containing nitrification inhibitor in greenhouse cucumber can gain higher yields and water use efficiency.

  8. Yield of Maize Hybrid-3335 as Affected by NP Levels

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ayyaz Khan; Naeem Ullah Khan; Khalil Ahmad; M. Safdar Baloch; M. Sadiq

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to see the effect of different NP levels on maize hybrid "3335". The fertilizer levels were 90-90-90, 90-120-90, 90-150-90, 150-90-90, 150-120-90, 150-150-90, 210-90-90, 210-120-90, and 210-150-90 Kg ha -1 NPK including control having no fertilizer. The results revealed that maximum plant height (175.8 cm), number of cobs/plant (2.067), number of grains/cob (374.3), 1000-grain weight (226.5 g), Biological yield (15.42 t ha -1), and grain yield (48.08 t ha -1) was...

  9. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  10. Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphate fertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan, Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphate fertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) (about 80 hectares), 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF) farm and Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI) (about 100 hectares). These all soils were situated in the urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimation was gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farms result the presence of Potassium (40K), Cesium (137Cs), and Uranium (238U). The average amount of radioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6

  11. Effect of inorganic fertilizers and municipal solid waste manure on some soil physical properties in cotton-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil for three consecutive years (2002-2005) to study the effects of combined use of chemical fertilizers (NPK) and organic manure (municipal solid waste manure-MSWM) on soil organic matter, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, and yields of crops in cotton (Desi)-wheat cropping system. After three years, organic matter content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil increased (42-68%)to 7.1-8.4 g kg from an initial level of 5.0 g kg with out any significant interaction between two fertilizer doses, three management techniques and six seasons except for dose x season interaction where higher organic matter contents were found after each cotton harvest by site-specific fertilizer application. In general, the bulk density of the surface soil increased un-impressively with the time by unique use of fertilizers and decreased gradually by application of integrated plant nutrients management (IPNM) technique using MSWM with or without pesticides/herbicides use. Porosity of soil increased (2.5 %) by applying IPNM technique compared to unique use of chemical fertilizers. Penetration resistance was increased with unique use of fertilizers to a level of 0.80 M Pa from initial value of 0.74 MPa. Presumably due to higher intrinsic bulk density of the soil. Over the three years, on an average, the MSW manured and fertilized plots (IPNM with pesticides/herbicides use ) produced higher i.e. 2% and 11% increase in seed cotton and wheat grain yields respectively than did the plots receiving chemical fertilizers. Neglecting herbicides/pesticides application decreased (4-5%) seed cotton yield. (author)

  12. Effects of Levels of Sulfur Fertilizer on Growth of Digitaria eriantha Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Auraiwan Isuwan; Jeerasak Saelim; Somsak Paothong

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of sulfur fertilizer application on the quantity and chemical composition of Digitaria eriantha grass. The experiment was conducted at Petchaburi Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Petchaburi, Thailand, during August to October, 2006. Treatments consisted of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai applications in the form of ammonium sulfate and were arranged in randomized complete block with 4 field blocks as replication. Grass was sampl...

  13. ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS EFFECTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SWEET MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. SACCHARATA STRUT. IN SOUTH EASTERN RAINFOREST ZONE OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UWAH DF, ENEJI AE, ESHIET UJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth and yield response of sweet maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Strut. to rates of poultry manure(PM and NPK 20-10-10 fertilizer was studied under field condition in 2010 late growing season in Calabar, ahumid forest agro ecology of south eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised of three rates of PM (0, 5 and 10t/ha,factorially combined with four rates of NPK (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg/ha and arranged into a randomized completeblock design with three replications. Application of PM at the highest rate significantly increased plant height,number of leaves/plant, number of cobs/plant, unhusked and dehusked green cob yields and also hastened daysto 50% tasselling. The highest rates of PM and NPK maximized leaf area index (LAI, number of grains/cob andharvest index (HI whereas total dry matter (TDM, weight of grains/cob, cob yield/ha and total grain yield peakedat 10t/ha PM and 400kg/ha NPK fertilizer. The 10t/ha PM rate and 400kg/ha NPK increased TDM by 43 and 91%and total grain yield by 101 and 34% respectively, compared with the control. Poultry manure at 10t/ha incombination with 400kg/ha NPK fertilizer out-yielded other treatments in terms of biomass yield, cob yield/ha,harvest index and total grain yield.

  14. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Levels of Some Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances in Hibiscus sabdariffa

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbadoyi, Emmanuel O.; Amanabo Musa

    2012-01-01

    The presence of antinutrients and toxic substances in vegetables limits the derivable benefits from vegetables. The levels of these substances in vegetables are influenced by the nature of soil in which the vegetables are grown. The effect of applied nitrogen fertilizer on the levels of some antinutrients and toxic substances is investigated with a view to determine the appropriateness or otherwise of the application of nitrogen fertilizer in growing vegetables. Pot experiments were conducted...

  15. Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascolonicum) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Sopit Vetayasuporn

    2006-01-01

    A block experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of biological and chemical (NPK 15:15:15) fertilizers on the growth and yield of shallot cultivation in Mahasakham University, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand. Six biological fertilizers were developed from BBF (basically biological fertilizer: 45 g cattle manure + 45 g rice bran + 20 mL of molasses + 10 mL of EM + 10 L of dechlorinated water) and used in this experiment. Chemical and biological fertilizers showed insignific...

  16. Phosphate solubilizers enhance NPK fertilizer use efficiency in rice and legume cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Duarah, I.; Deka, M.; Saikia, N; Deka Boruah, H. P.

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are the most promising bacteria among the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); which may be used as biofertilizers for plant growth and nutrient use efficiency. Moreover, these soil micro-organisms play a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and other nutrients. Through this study, the managem...

  17. Determination of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, lead, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium in fertilizers by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter F; Hall, William L

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing regulatory interest in the non-nutritive metals content of fertilizer materials, but at present there is no consensus analytical method for acid digestion and instrument detection of those elements in fertilizer matrixes. This lack of method standardization has resulted in unacceptable variability of results between fertilizer laboratories performing metals analysis. A method has been developed using microwave digestion with nitric acid at 200 degrees C, followed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry instrument detection, for the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, and selenium. The method has been collaboratively studied, and statistical results are here reported. Fourteen collaborators were sent 62 sample materials in a blind duplicate design. Materials represented a broad cross section of fertilizer types, including phosphate ore, manufactured phosphate products, N-P-K blends, organic fertilizers, and micro-nutrient materials. As much as possible within the limit of the number of samples, materials were selected from different regions of the United States and the world. Limit of detection (LOD) was determined using synthetic fertilizers consisting of reagent grade chemicals with near zero levels of the non-nutritive elements, analyzed blindly. Samples with high iron content caused the most variability between laboratories. Most samples reasonably above LOD gave HorRat values within the range 0.5 to 2.0, indicating acceptable method performance according to AOAC guidelines for analyses in the mg/kg range. The method is recommended for AOAC Official First Action status. PMID:17225590

  18. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alvarez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana.In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replications, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1 NPK (control, 2 NPK + Fe, 3 NPK + B, 4 NPK + Cu, 5 NPK + Mn, 6 NPK + Zn, 7 NPK + Mo, 8 NPK + Mg and 9 NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

  19. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes / Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Alvarez; A. C. P., Wutke.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetrabor [...] ato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana. Abstract in english In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replication [...] s, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1) NPK (control), 2) NPK + Fe, 3) NPK + B, 4) NPK + Cu, 5) NPK + Mn, 6) NPK + Zn, 7) NPK + Mo, 8) NPK + Mg and 9) NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo). The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

  20. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4.05) and grain yield (768.5 g/m/sup 2/) which were significantly higher than them under N level of 75 kg/ha. According to the results, the treatment of optimum irrigation with minimum N level of 150 kg/ha is recommended for realizing high maize yield in Gonabad, Iran. (author)

  1. Effect of Potassium and Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Biomass of Some Halophytes Grown under High Levels of Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Maher N. Noaman

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out at Nahshala Farm, about 50 km from Al-Ain, UAE during the 2001/2002 growing seasons, using five halophyte species; Spartina sp., Distichlis palmeri., Paspalum vaginatum, Juncus roemerianus and Batis maritima, under six levels of N and K fertilizer combinations irrigated with salinity water of 20 g L-1. The objectives of the experiment were twofold; 1) to find out the optimum rate of potassium and nitrogen under such high salinity stress and 2) to study the r...

  2. Effect of various levels of nitrogen fertilizer on some vegetative growth attributes of pea ( pisum sativum L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive growing years on few growth characteristics of four pea cultivars viz., Arkel, Climax, Green Feast and Olympia in response to different levels of N fertilizer under the climatic conditions of district Mastung, Balochistan. Six N fertilizer levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha/sup -1/) plus a constant dose of 60+40 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/ O ha/sub -1/ were prepared, and designated as T/sub 1/ to T/sub 7/, respectively. These N levels were applied to each sub-plot (except T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) in two split doses first at the time of flowering and second at the time of pod formation to quantify how much N fertiliser's required by different pea cultivars to realize the highest growth and yield. Results exhibited that in response to various levels of added N fertilizer, all mentioned growth attributes were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). However, cultivars response was found significant only for secondary branches plant/sub -1/, plant height and shoot moisture contents. A maximum number of primary branches plant/sup -1/ (6.94), secondary branches plant/sub -1/ (10.72), plant height (69.77 cm), number of leaves plant/sup -1/ (19.75), leaf length (11.81 cm) and shoot moisture contents (571.0 g kg/sup -1/) was recorded with application of 100 kg N ha/sup -1/. The interaction between fertilizer and pea cultivars was found non-significant for all mentioned attributes in the trial. Results further revealed that all growth parameters were slightly to highly significant and positively correlated among themselves as well as with their fresh pod yields. These attributes could be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the fresh pod yield and also for breeding purposes in peas. (author)

  3. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  4. Comparative study of organic and inorganic fertilizers on forage corn (Zea mays l.) Grown on two soil types

    OpenAIRE

    El Amin, A. E [?????? ??? ?????? ??????

    2001-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted in 1995/96 and 1996/97 to investigate the interactive effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers applied to two soil types on the performance of corn (Zea mays L.). The soil types were Vertisols from Gezira scheme and Aridisols from West of Omdurman. The organic fertilizers were green manure and chicken manure; the inorganic fertilizers were: urea (N), superphosphate (P), potassium sulphate (K) and combination of NPK. The treatments were replicated thrice ...

  5. Negative biomarker based male fertility evaluation: Sperm phenotypes associated with molecular-level anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sutovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker-based sperm analysis elevates the treatment of human infertility and ameliorates reproductive performance in livestock. The negative biomarker-based approach focuses on proteins and ligands unique to defective spermatozoa, regardless of their morphological phenotype, lending itself to analysis by flow cytometry (FC. A prime example is the spermatid specific thioredoxin SPTRX3/TXNDC8, retained in the nuclear vacuoles and superfluous cytoplasm of defective human spermatozoa. Infertile couples with high semen SPTRX3 are less likely to conceive by assisted reproductive therapies (ART and more prone to recurrent miscarriage while low SPTRX3 has been associated with multiple ART births. Ubiquitin, a small, proteolysis-promoting covalent posttranslational protein modifier is found on the surface of defective posttesticular spermatozoa and in the damaged protein aggregates, the aggresomes of spermiogenic origin. Semen ubiquitin content correlates negatively with fertility and conventional semen parameters, and with sperm binding of lectins LCA (Lens culinaris agglutinin; reveals altered sperm surface and PNA (Arachis hypogaea/peanut agglutinin; reveals acrosomal malformation or damage. The Postacrosomal Sheath WWI Domain Binding Protein (PAWP, implicated in oocyte activation during fertilization, is ectopic or absent from defective human and animal spermatozoa. Consequently, FC-parameters of PAWP correlate with ART outcomes in infertile couples and with fertility in bulls. Assays based on the above biomarkers have been combined into multiplex FC semen screening protocols, and the surface expression of lectins and ubiquitin has been utilized to develop nanoparticle-based bull semen purification method validated by field artificial insemination trials. These advances go hand-in-hand with the innovation of FC-technology and genomics/proteomics-based biomarker discovery.

  6. Influence of cimetidine and bromocriptine on prolactin levels in rat fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Qamar; Hamid, Sadaf; Minhas, Liaqat Ali; Gul, Anjuman

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to see the effects of parenterally administered drugs cimetidine and bromocriptine affecting serum prolactin upon the fertility of adult male albino rats. Ninety adult young male albino rats between the ages of 60 to 120 days were selected. The animals were divided into three groups. Cimetidine was administered in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight to group B intramuscularly and in addition to cimetidine, bromocriptine in a dose of 2.5 mg/day intramuscularly was gi...

  7. Phytometric Assessment of Fertility of Roadside Soils and Its Relationship with Major Nutrients.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akbar, K. F.; Hale, W.H.G.; Šerá, Božena; Ashraf, I.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 5 (2012), s. 1141-1145. ISSN 1230-1485 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11040 Keywords : roadside verges * soil fertility * phytometric assessment * NPK analyses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2012

  8. Growth of chamaecyparis lawsoniana nursery trees with different levels of covering and substrate mineral fertilization / Crescimento de mudas de chamaecyparis lawsoniana em diferentes níveis de adubação mineral do substrato e em cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simultaneous experiments were accomplished in the Nursery of Ornamental Plants of the Federal University of Paraná State with the objective of evaluating the effect of mineral fertilization on the growth of nursery trees of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana planted directly in the field and in individual packings. The experimental design was the completely randomized with five combinations of NPK 4-30-10 + urea, in grams (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 and 120 + 40 for the field and 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 and 40 + 16 for the packings and four replications. The growth of the plants was observed during one year and the height of plants and the diameter of the trunks were evaluated each two months. The fertilization in covering in the field did not stimulate the growth of the plants. The substrate fertilization promoted significantly higher growth of plants in height and diameter of trunks in the period from September to May. The trunk diameter was more influenced, demonstrating that the secondary growth of the plant is more stimulated by the fertilization. The plant growth in the field was greater than the plant growth in individual packings.Foram realizados dois experimentos simultâneos no Viveiro de Plantas Ornamentais da Universidade Federal do Paraná com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral sobre o crescimento de mudas de Chamaecyparis lawsoniana plantadas diretamente no campo e em recipientes individuais. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado com cinco combinações de NPK (4-30-10 mais uréia, em gramas, (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 e 120 + 40, respectivamente para o campo e 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 e 40 + 16, respectivamente para os recipientes e quatro repetições. O crescimento das plantas foi observado durante um ano, realizando-se avaliações de altura da muda e diâmetro do tronco a cada dois meses. A adubação em cobertura a campo não estimulou o crescimento das mudas. A adubação de substrato promoveu maior crescimento de mudas em recipiente em altura e em diâmetro de tronco mais significativamente no período de setembro a maio. O crescimento em diâmetro do tronco da muda foi mais influenciado, demonstrando que o crescimento secundário da planta foi mais estimulado pela adubação. O crescimento das mudas a campo foi maior que o ocorrido em recipientes.

  9. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

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    Aleksandra Juriši?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  10. Fertilizer addition lessens the flux of microbial carbon to higher trophic levels in soil food webs of grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanski, Kathleen; Scheu, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Roots and root-derived C compounds are increasingly recognised as important resources for soil animal food webs. We used (13)C-labelled glucose as a model C compound representing root exudates to follow the incorporation of root-derived C into the soil animal food web of a temperate grassland over a period of 52 weeks. We investigated variations in glucose C incorporation with fertilizer addition and sward composition, i.e. variations in plant functional groups. The approach allowed the differentiation of trophic chains based on primary decomposers feeding on litter and phytophagous species feeding on roots (i.e. not incorporating glucose C) from those based on secondary decomposers feeding on microorganisms (thereby assimilating glucose C). Each of the studied soil animal species incorporated glucose C, indicating that the majority of grassland soil animal species rely on microorganisms as food resources with microorganisms being fuelled by root exudates. However, incorporation of glucose C into soil animal species varied markedly with species identity, suggesting that detritivorous microarthropods complement each other in channelling microbial C through soil food webs. Fertilizer addition markedly reduced the concentration of glucose C in most soil animal species as well as the absolute transfer of glucose C into oribatid mites as major secondary decomposers. The results suggest that fertilizer addition shifts the basis of the decomposer food web towards the use of unlabelled resources, presumably roots, i.e. towards a herbivore system, thereby lessening the link between microorganisms and microbial grazers and hampering the propagation of microbial C to higher trophic levels. PMID:25147053

  11. NPK NMR Sensor: Online Monitoring of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Animal Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Morten K; Jensen, Ole; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nyord, Tavs; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the actual content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) in animal slurry is highly important to optimize crop production and avoid environmental pollution when slurry is spread on agricultural fields. Here, we present a mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor suitable for online monitoring of the NPK content in animal slurry as an alternative to crude estimates or tedious nonspecific, off-site laboratory analysis. The sensor is based on (14)N, (17)O, (31)P, and (39)K NMR in a digital NMR instrument equipped with a 1.5 T Halbach magnet for direct detection of ammonium N, total P, and K and indirect evaluation of the organic N content, covering all practical components of NPK in animal slurry. In correlation studies, the obtained NMR measurements show good agreement with reference measurements from commercial laboratories. PMID:26020811

  12. Nutrição do cafeeiro arábica em função da densidade de plantas e da fertilização com NPK Coffee nutrition as a function of plant density and NPK fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos Prezotti; Aledir Cassiano da Rocha

    2004-01-01

    Embora aumente a produtividade por área, o adensamento reduz a produção por planta, eleva sua eficiência de recuperação de nutrientes, o que contribui para a redução da quantidade de fertilizantes a ser aplicada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do cafeeiro arábica à aplicação de N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de N), P (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg.ha-1 de P2O5) e K (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de K2O), cultivados em diferentes densidades de plantio (3.333, 5.000, 10.000 e 2...

  13. Effects of Sulphur, Zinc and Boron Supplied from Chemical Fertilizers and Poultry Manure to Wetland Rice (Cv. BRRI Dhan 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Uddin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of S, Zn and B supplied from chemical fertilizers and poultry manure on yield and nutrient uptake by rice (cv. BRRI Dhan-30. There were ten treatments:- T0, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8 and T9. The rate of different nutrients were 100 kg N ha?1 from urea, 30 kg P ha?1 from TSP, 60 kg K ha?1 from MP, 20 kg S ha?1 from gypsum, 2 kg Zn ha?1 from zinc oxide, 1 kg B ha?1 from borax and 4 t poultry manure ha?1. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The different nutrients significantly increased plant height, effective tillers hill?1, filled grains panicle?1, 1000-grain weight, grain and straw yields of rice. The highest grain yield of 4850 kg ha?1 was obtained when S, Zn and B were applied together with NPK fertilizers (T8 which was comparable to the yields obtained when S, Zn or B were applied singly or in combination of two with NPK fertilizers (T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 and also with the application of poultry manure with reduced NPK application (T9. The concentrations and uptake of N, P, K and S by grain and straw were higher when poultry manure was used as a source of S, Zn and B with reduced amount of NPK(T9. It appears that application of S, Zn and B along with NPK is essential in this soil to get maximum yield of BRRI Dhan-30. If poultry manure can be applied @ 4 t ha?1 the use of NPK can be reduced and S, Zn and B fertilizers may not be needed.

  14. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae) y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Fco, Di Stefano; Luis A, Fournier.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis [...] de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años), en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna), la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas). Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (?²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002), probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos. Abstract in english Natural regeneration of woody species in a Costa Rican plantation of Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae) and the effect of P and NPK fertilization. Forest plantation management strategies, including the selection of species, may have positive or negative effects over plant regeneration in the trop [...] ics. in this case, understory woody plants density and richness were studied in Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica, in a monoculture of Vochysia guatemalensis (ten year old plantation). Nineteen 80 m²plots, with several fertilization treatments (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/plant of P, and NPK, during the first years, P placed once at the hole) in a completely randomized factorial design, were analyzed. Afterwards, the NPK fertilizer was increased from 150 to 200 g/ plant/year until the plantation was six year old. The plots, established after the coffee plantation was eliminated, had a minimum management schedule, basically the elimination of herbaceous vegetation once or twice a year during the first three years, and a tree thinning when the plantation was four year old, to increase spacing from 2x2 to 4x4 m. All woody vegetation taller than 0.5 m was tallied. A total of circa 10 000 ind/ha, distributed in 90 species, were found, mostly native of the region, some identified for forestry use, others important for the fauna. The majority of the species had low relative densities and frequencies. Sixteen percent of the plants reached heights greater than 2.5 m. Several factors seem to explain this regeneration pattern: a canopy with an intermediate openness, a low intensity forestry management, the nearness of the plantation to a mature forest fragment, and that the Vochysia plantation substituted a coffee plantation where soil conservation strategies and an annual fertilization management plan were applied. Finally, plots with only P had significantly higher species richness and abundance (?2=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002) probably because the trees in this treatment were less developed (when compared with the others). Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1): 111-118. Epub 2009 November 30.

  15. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or for shrinkage, which presented: ¦b = 650kg/cm2, E = 59.877kg/cm2, ¦c = 296kg/cm2 e ¦n = 131kg/cm2. Control treatment showed highest values for shear strength and compression parallel to grain. Too many branches in all trees and also too many knots in lumber were observed. Pruning is recommended for homogeneous planting of Sclerolobium paniculatum to avoid knots in order to be produced wood of superior quality.

  16. Correlation between the level of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in follicular fluid with fertilization rates in IVF/ ICSI cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mehdizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Follicular fluid (FF plays an important role in oocytes and embryo development, which may contribute to IVF/ICSI success rate. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP level in FF and the success rate of IVF/ICSI.Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, FF samples, FF samples were obtained from 100 patients referred to Tabriz Alzahra Hospital. Seventy-nine subjects underwent IVF and the remaining 21 underwent ICSI. The levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I and CETP were measured using enzymatic, turbidometric and ELISA methods respectively.Results: Analysis of the subgroups with different levels of CETP showed a significant lower level of CETP in the subgroup with the lowest number of mature oocytes (p70% of this ratio.Conclusion: While no association was found for pregnancy, the amount of CETP in FF was associated positively to the maturity and the percentage of oocyte fertilization.

  17. Dynamics of the level and ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus in carp ponds water: the effect of mineral fertilizers upon its quality

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Hadjinikolova; Angelina Ivanova

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to establish the dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus level variation and of their ratio after mineral fertilizers application in water. After mineral fertilizers application into the ponds, the real biogenic quantities in water have increased by 2.8-10 times for nitrogen, and by 2-28 times for phosphates, at scheduled nitrogen levels of 5-7 mg L-1 and nitrogen/phosphorus ratio of 10:1, 16:1 and 20:1, respectively. During the period 1st – 3rd day after fert...

  18. Nutrient Composition of Selected Sweet Potato [Ipomea batatas (L) Lam] Varieties as Influenced by Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Ukom; P.C. Ojimelukwe; D.A. Okpara

    2009-01-01

    Total ß-carotene content of four varieties of Sweet potatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] as influenced by different levels of nitrogen fertilizer were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) The proximate composition and mineral contents were also determined. The nitrogen fertilizer treatments were combinations of four levels of 0kgN/ha(control), 40 kgN/ha, 80 kg/Nha, 120 kgN/ha on the four varieties of Sweet potato; white-fleshed TIS87/0087 and TIS8164, orange-fleshed Ex-Ig...

  19. Short Communication: Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

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    Nasim-Akhtar*, M. Tufail, Muhammad Yousuf Hussain and Muhammad Akram

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphatefertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan,Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphatefertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture andBiology (NIAB (about 80 hectares, 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF farmand Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI (about 100 hectares. These all soils were situated inthe urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimationwas gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farmsresult the presence of Potassium (40K, Cesium (137Cs, and Uranium (238U. The average amount ofradioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6 and 659.50 Bqkg-1, respectively. For 232Th contamination, the averaged values found were 57.52, 55.80 and 63.0 Bqkg-1 for AARI, NIAB and UAF farms, respectively. For 238U, the average values were 36.51, 30.60 and39.8 Bq kg-1 for all the above farms, respectively. For 137Cs (nuclear fall the averaged value in all theinvestigated farms was 2.50, 2.43 and 2.60 Bq kg-1, respectively. The existence of 137Cs in the soilsamples of the investigated farms shows that these farms might have received the nuclear fall from manmade sources. Its absorbed dose in air for NIAB, AARI and UAF farms amounted to 49.52, 47.55 and52.99 nGy kg-1, respectively. The values of Radium equivalent activity were 159.74, 145.01 and 163.67Bqkg-1, respectively. The calculated annual effective doses for the selected agricultural farms were0.96, 0.95 and 0.98 mSvy-1, respectively. External and Internal radioactive radiation hazard index forall the investigated farms were also calculated, which were less than one. This result leads to theinformation that the existing radiation contamination in the soils of the investigated farms is not animmediate hazard to the labourers/general public who are in contact with these farms. However, if thecultivation of these farms with the use of artificial fertilizers goes on then with time, in future the soilsof these farms may pose a risk for the general public.

  20. Eficiency and wastewater used as fertilizer on sugar beet crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Some researchs about wastewater treatment have been show efficiency on DQO removal, however Nitrogen and Phosphorus removal are smaller than other nutrients. The use of wastewater as nutrient source can be interesting due high nutrients amount. This trial was carried out on Suggar beet plants at Horticulture Department of Centro Regional Universitário de Espírito Santo do Pinhal – UNIPINHAL, by using wastewater associated or no with fertilizer at different rates comparing with normal water. The results obtained showed that wastewater has higher amount of nutrients than normal water and increased the sugar beet root weight when associated or no with fertilizer NPK.

  1. Socioeconomic fertility differentials in a late transition setting: A micro-level analysis of the Saguenay region in Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Vézina; Danielle Gauvreau; Alain Gagnon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Historically, the French Canadian population of Quebec, Canada, is known for its high fertility, which lasted well into the 20th century, and for its late fertility transition. Within Quebec, regions such as Saguenay are known for having experienced an even more delayed fertility transition. Objective: In Quebec, as elsewhere, various factors modulated the transition, and differential behaviors and timing can be observed across socioeconomic groups. These factors are studied he...

  2. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  3. Serum selenium levels in diabetic children. A followup study during selenium-enriched agricultural fertilization in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W C; Mäkelä, A L; Näntö, V; Mäkelä, P

    1995-01-01

    The effect of increased selenium uptake on serum selenium in diabetic children was investigated during the first 9 yr of the Finnish nationwide selenium fertilization program, which started in 1984. Serum selenium concentrations were followed in 237 diabetic children (mean age 8.1 yr) and 214 controls from 1984 to 1992. The control group consisted of 107 siblings of the diabetics and of 107 other healthy children of corresponding age groups. Selenium was determined by direct electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effect of the increased uptake was seen in both diabetic and in control persons. Before the autumn of 1985, diabetic patients had significantly higher serum selenium levels than their siblings or the other healthy controls. Toward the end of year 1987, this difference had disappeared. After that, serum selenium levels continued to increase until the year 1990. In 1990 the mean selenium serum level of diabetic patients was 1.36 mumol/L and that of controls 1.33 mumol/L. The duration of diabetes did not have any effect on selenium serum levels. Slightly higher serum selenium in new diabetic patients before the start of therapy was explained by the dehydration state. The patients who were younger than 3 yr had slightly lower selenium serum levels when compared with older age groups. This difference was observed, however, only during the first 3 yr of the study. After that, when the selenium intake increased in general, no age-dependent differences were found anymore. There were no significant differences in serum selenium levels between males and females in either diabetic patients or in controls. PMID:7779570

  4. EFFECT OF BALANCED NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN FOUR- YEAR ROTATION ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY

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    Witold SZCZEPANIAK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased nitrogen use efficiency, NUE, in crop plant production is the main challenge for agriculture in this century. Any success in this objective achievement requires to take into account not only phosphorus and potassium but also secondary nutrients, such as magnesium and sulfur, at least. In order to check this hypothesis a series of annual field experiments were conducted in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2006, testing in the four course rotation response of following crops: maize ? spring barley ? winter oil-seed rape ? winter wheat to increasing level of nitrogen nutritional balance imposed by set of treatments comprised potassium and magnesium. The obtained results clearly indicated on maize as the most productive crop, irrespective of the imposed fertilizing system. The highest yields of the tested crops were harvested on plots fertilized with NPK and Kieserite, provide that potassium was applied as Korn-Kali. Effects of the imposed systems of fertilizer N balancing have been assessed by means of two NUE indices, such as: (i partial factor productivity of fertilizer nitrogen (PFPN and agronomic net efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen (AEN. Both indices were useful in making a reliable evaluation of tested treatments, but the AEN was more conspicuous as a NUE index. The most pronounced effect of the applied nutrients on yield development was through improvement of kernel/grain number per plant. This fact indirectly stresses on the importance of the period extending from the stage of ear growth to the stage of kernel/grain growth as decisive for final grain yield establishment. The net balance of plant available potassium and phosphorus showed that their net surplus with respect to yield response was negative, in turn indicating on magnesium as a nutrient required to reach nutritional balance of N, P, K in high-yielding crops.

  5. The effect of mineral fertilization on fungi colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers after harvest and after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo?ena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact experiment conducted in Ba?cyny, in which a late potato cultivar, Jasia, was grown. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization: A (N 80 kg × ha-1 P 80 kg × ha-1 K120 kg × ha-1 and B (N 120 kg × ha-1 P 144 kg × ha-1 K156 kg × ha-1, and foliar fertilization (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn and Solubor DF on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungal populations colonizing potato tubers. Fungi were isolated immediately after harvest and after a five-month storage period. After seven days of incubation, fungal colonies were transferred onto agar slants for microscopic identification. Over the entire experimental period, more pathogenic fungi were obtained from potato tubers analyzed after storage (62.9% of the total fungal population after storage than from those analyzed immediately after harvest (39.1%, and the greatest number of fungi was reported in 2004. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated most frequently, followed by Colletotrichum coccodes and Alternaria alternata. Pathogens of the genus Fusarium and the species Helminthosporium solani were not numerous. In the treatment A with soil mineral fertilization with lower NPK rates, larger numbers of pathogenic fungi were noted in 2004 after harvest and after five-month storage, and in 2005 after harvest. At the remaining dates of analysis, pathogens were more frequently isolated from potato tubers in experimental variant B with higher NPK rates. Immediately after harvest, the highest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated in the treatment with foliar application of ADOB Mn and Basfoliar 12-4-6. After five-month storage, pathogens most often colonized potato tubers in experimental variant B with foliar application of Solubor DF, Solubor DF and ADOB Mn, and in experimental variant A with a combination of fertilizers. In the other fertilization variants, including in the control treatment, the population size of pathogenic agents remained at a similar level.

  6. Valor nutritivo dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça adubados com nitrogênio e sob lotação rotacionada = Nutritive value of Tanzania and Mombaça grasses fertilized with nitrogen under rotational stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A adubação de pastagens aumenta a produção de forragem e a taxa de lotação, mas o alimento deve conter nutrientes necessários à produção por animal satisfatória . O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses crescentes de N (101,5; 145; 188,5 e 232 kg ha-1, mantendo relação de N-P-K de 1-0,07-1, sobre a composição química e adigestibilidade dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça, sob lotação rotacionada. O experimento foi realizado na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, segundo delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 3 repetições. A composição química e a digestibilidade dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça pouco variaram, exceto o conteúdo de FDN nas folhas e a digestibilidade dos colmos, maiores no capim-Tanzânia, antes do pastejo. A adubação nitrogenada aumentou os conteúdos de PB ea digestibilidade, sem alterar as frações fibrosas , atestando que a adubação é requisito básico para a intensificação da produção animal em pastagens.Pasture fertilization increase s forage production and stocking rate. However, forage should contain enough nutrients to animal production . The aim of this work was to evaluate increas ing doses of N (101.5; 145.0; 188.5, and 232.0 kg ha-1, keeping N-P-K relation 1-0.07-1, on chemical composition and digestibility of Tanzania and Mombaça grasses under rotational stocking . The experiment was conducted atFaculdade of Ciências Agrárias and Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, following a randomized block design with three replications. Both chemical composition and digestibility presented low variation between Tanzania and Mombaça grasses, except for NDF content of leaves and digestibility of stems, which were found higher levels as to Tanzaniagr ass, before grazing. Nitrogen fertilization increasedprotein content and digestibility without affecting fiber, testifying that fertilization is an essential operation to animal production on pastures.

  7. Effects of tillage methods, corn residue mulch and n fertilizer levels on the wheat crop productivity under the rain fed condition of loess plateau china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2 years study was conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods (Chisel plough tillage, Zero-tillage, Rotary tillage and Mould board plough tillage), two mulch levels (M0 i.e. No corn residue mulch and M1 i.e. Corn residue mulch) and 5 N fertilizer levels (0, 80, 160, 240 and 320 kg N/ha) on the wheat crop productivity under the rain fed condition of Loess Plateau, China. Factorial experiment with three replications, having strip, split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in sub- plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots was used for this study. Due to variations in rainfalls, during the year, 2010-11, maximum grain yields i.e. 6.58 t/ha and 6.72 t/ha were recorded in case of Zero tillage planting method and similarly in case of 80 kg N/ha, while during the cropping year 2011-12 equal grain yields were recorded in case of all tillage methods, however maximum grain yield (7.46 t /ha) was recorded in case of 320 kg N/ha, N fertilizer level. On two years average basis, maximum grain yields i.e. 6.75 t/ha and 6.80 t/ha were recorded in case of Zero tillage planting method and similarly in case of 80 kg N/ha as compared with the other tillage methods or N fertilizer levels. Use of mulch reduced > 40% weeds infestation. Economic analysis shows that Zero tillage and minimum use of N fertilizer according to the projected rainfalls along with the use of mulch are both economic and environmental friendly. (author)

  8. Adubação e o período anterior à interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim Effect of fertilization on weeds and on the period before weed interference in the peanut culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Yamauti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação sobre a comunidade infestante e sobre o período anterior à interferência (PAI das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim, cv. IAC Runner 886, em sistema convencional. Os períodos de convivência estudados foram: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55 e 126 dias após a emergência (DAE, totalizando oito tratamentos, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em dois níveis de adubação: 0 e 150 kg ha-1 da formulação 00-20-20 (N-P-K. A adubação não alterou a composição da comunidade infestante, destacando-se Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleraceae e Sida rhombifolia como as espécies de maior importância relativa. Contudo, a densidade de plantas daninhas foi maior na área não adubada, mas sem afetar de modo diferenciado a massa seca acumulada por elas. O cultivar de amendoim IAC Runner 886 pode conviver com essa comunidade com e sem adubação por até 15 e 17 DAE (PAI, respectivamente, sem sofrer perdas significativas na produção. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu entre 31 e 34% a produtividade do amendoim para as áreas sem adubação e com adubação, respectivamente.This experiment was carried out to study the effect of fertilization on weed community and on the period before weed interference (PBI in peanut culture, IAC Runner 886, under a conventional till system. The weed control periods studied were: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55, and 126 days after emergence (DAE, totaling eight treatments, arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications and two levels of fertilization (0 and 150 kg ha-1 of formulation 00-20-20 (N-P-K. Fertilization did not affect the weed community, with the species Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleracea and Sida rhombifolia being the most prominent at all levels of fertilization. However, weed density was higher in the non- fertilized area, but without particularly affecting the dry mass accumulated by these species. Peanut can grow along with the weed community, with and without fertilization, up to 15 and 17 DAE, without significant yield losses. Weed interference reduced peanut productivity between 31 and 34% for both the fertilized area and the area without fertilization, respectively.

  9. Adubação e o período anterior à interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim / Effect of fertilization on weeds and on the period before weed interference in the peanut culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.S., Yamauti; P.L.C.A., Alves; M., Nepomuceno; J.V.F., Martins.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação sobre a comunidade infestante e sobre o período anterior à interferência (PAI) das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim, cv. IAC Runner 886, em sistema convencional. Os períodos de convivência estudados foram: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30 [...] , 45, 55 e 126 dias após a emergência (DAE), totalizando oito tratamentos, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em dois níveis de adubação: 0 e 150 kg ha-1 da formulação 00-20-20 (N-P-K). A adubação não alterou a composição da comunidade infestante, destacando-se Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleraceae e Sida rhombifolia como as espécies de maior importância relativa. Contudo, a densidade de plantas daninhas foi maior na área não adubada, mas sem afetar de modo diferenciado a massa seca acumulada por elas. O cultivar de amendoim IAC Runner 886 pode conviver com essa comunidade com e sem adubação por até 15 e 17 DAE (PAI), respectivamente, sem sofrer perdas significativas na produção. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu entre 31 e 34% a produtividade do amendoim para as áreas sem adubação e com adubação, respectivamente. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out to study the effect of fertilization on weed community and on the period before weed interference (PBI) in peanut culture, IAC Runner 886, under a conventional till system. The weed control periods studied were: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55, and 126 days after emergence ( [...] DAE), totaling eight treatments, arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications and two levels of fertilization (0 and 150 kg ha-1 of formulation 00-20-20 (N-P-K)). Fertilization did not affect the weed community, with the species Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleracea and Sida rhombifolia being the most prominent at all levels of fertilization. However, weed density was higher in the non- fertilized area, but without particularly affecting the dry mass accumulated by these species. Peanut can grow along with the weed community, with and without fertilization, up to 15 and 17 DAE, without significant yield losses. Weed interference reduced peanut productivity between 31 and 34% for both the fertilized area and the area without fertilization, respectively.

  10. Fertility in four regions spanning large contrasts in serum levels of widespread persistent organochlorines: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen Eva C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs may interfere with reproductive function but direct evidence in humans is very limited. Methods Fertility was examined in four regions with contrasting blood levels of POPs. Pregnant women and their partners in Warsaw (Poland, Kharkiv (Ukraine and Greenland were consecutively enrolled during antenatal visits. Swedish fishermen and their spouses were recruited separately and independently of current pregnancy. Lipid adjusted serum concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153 and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl-ethylene (DDE were available for both partners. Time to pregnancy interviews were obtained among 2269 women and 798 men provided a semen sample. Results Inuits had high levels of both POP markers, Swedish fishermen were high in CB-153 but low in DDE, men from Kharkiv were high in DDE and low in CB-153 while men from Warsaw were low in CB-153 and had intermediate DDE levels. Compared to Warsaw couples, fecundability was reduced among couples from Kharkiv [adjusted fecundability ratio (FR 0.64 (95% CI 0.5–0.8] and elevated in Swedish fishermen families [FR 1.26 (95% CI 1.0–1.6]. Adjusted geometric means of sperm counts and morphology did not differ between regions while sperm motility was higher in men living in Warsaw. Conclusion We observed regional differences in time to pregnancy and sperm motility that may be related to regional differences in POP blood levels, but other interpretations are also plausible. In particular, differences in access to safe contraception and in the prevalence of contraceptive failures are most likely to bias comparisons of time to pregnancy.

  11. Effects of decaying leaf litter and inorganic fertilizer on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuka Kanayo S.; Ogunsumi Israel A.; Obiakara Maxwell C.; Ojo Olubukola M.; Uka Ufereh N.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of decaying leaf litter of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina as organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a screen house. Twenty-four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which included: 250 g of decaying leaves of T...

  12. Nitrogen fixed by wheat plants as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels and Non-symbiotic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic nitrogen is required for all egyptian soils for wheat. Free living and N 2-fixing microorganisms are able associate closely related with the roots of geraminacae. Pot experiment studies were carried out to examine the response of wheat plants to inoculation with Azospirillum Brasilense and Azotobacter Chroococcum, single or in combination, under various levels of ammonium sulfate interaction between both the inoculants increased straw or grain yield as well as N-uptake by wheat plants with increasing N levels. Results showed that grains of wheat plants derived over 19,24 and 15% of its N content from the atmospheric - N 2 (Ndfa) with application of 25,50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil in the presence of + Azospirillum + azotobacter. The final amount of N 2-fixers. The highest values of N 2-fixed were observed with mixed inoculants followed by inoculation with Azospirillum and then azotobacter. The recovery of applied ammonium sulfate-N was markedly increased by inoculation with combined inoculants, but less in uninoculated treatments. Seeds inoculated with non-symbiotic fixing bacteria could be saved about 25 kg N without much affecting the grain yield. i fig., 4 tabs

  13. Long-term balanced fertilization increases the soil microbial functional diversity in a phosphorus-limited paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Ding, Long-Jun; Xue, Kai; Yao, Huai-Ying; Quensen, John; Bai, Shi-Jie; Wei, Wen-Xue; Wu, Jin-Shui; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of long-term chemical fertilization on soil microbial communities has been one of the frontier topics of agricultural and environmental sciences and is critical for linking soil microbial flora with soil functions. In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and a functional gene array, geochip 4.0, were used to investigate the shifts in microbial composition and functional gene structure in paddy soils with different fertilization treatments over a 22-year period. These included a control without fertilizers; chemical nitrogen fertilizer (N); N and phosphate (NP); N and potassium (NK); and N, P and K (NPK). Based on 16S rRNA gene data, both species evenness and key genera were affected by P fertilization. Functional gene array-based analysis revealed that long-term fertilization significantly changed the overall microbial functional structures. Chemical fertilization significantly increased the diversity and abundance of most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling, especially for the treatments NK and NPK. Significant correlations were found among functional gene structure and abundance, related soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, suggesting that a fertilizer-induced shift in the microbial community may accelerate the nutrient turnover in soil, which in turn influenced rice growth. The effect of N fertilization on soil microbial functional genes was mitigated by the addition of P fertilizer in this P-limited paddy soil, suggesting that balanced chemical fertilization is beneficial to the soil microbial community and its functions. PMID:25410123

  14. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  15. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camilla Bof; Knupp, Eliana Aparecida Nonato; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano, E-mail: cgbs@cdtn.b [Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena; Ciqueira, Maria Celia [Pocos de Caldas Lab., (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  16. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P fertilizers alone, combined application of organic amendments and NPK fertilizers facilitated the storage of newly sequestered SOC in silt- and clay-sized fractions, which could be more conducive to the stability of SOC. Based on 13C-NMR spectra, both silt and clay fractions were composed of Alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C and carbonyl-C. Changes in the relative proportion of different C species were observed between silt and clay fractions: the clay fraction had relatively more Alkyl-C, carbonyl-C and less O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C than those in the silt fraction. This might be ascribed to the fact that the organic matter complexed with clay was dominated by microbial products, whereas the silt appeared to be rich in aromatic residues derived from plants. The spectra also showed that the relative proportion of different C species was modified by fertilization practices. In comparison with organic amendments alone, the relative proportion of Alkyl-C was decreased by 9.1%-11.9% and 13.7%-19.9% under combined application of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers, for silt and clay, respectively, and that of O-alkyl-C was increased by 2.9%-6.3% and 13.4%-22.1%, respectively. These results indicated that NPKOM and NPKRS treatments reduced the decomposition rate of SOC. The aromaticity, hydrophobicity and, hence, chemical recalcitrance of silt- and clay-associated SOC in the NPK fertilizer treatments were lower than those of the organically amended plots and unfertilized treatments, indicating decreased recalcitrance of SOC against decomposition. We concluded that long-term application of organic manure combined with chemical fertilizers, either through increased accumulation of both recalcitrant compounds and carbohydrates or reduced decomposition of organic matter, was a sustainable strategy for facilitating carbon accumulation of the paddy soil investigated in this study. PMID:26314136

  17. Produção de morangos a partir de fertilizantes alternativos em pré-plantio Pre-planting fertilization effects on strawberry fruit yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Kleinick Vignolo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar doses de fertilizantes alternativos na adubação de pré-plantio quanto à produção de frutos de morangueiro. Os tratamentos foram baseados em doses de adubação NPK (kg ha-1 recomendada para a cultura do morangueiro em que as doses de torta de mamona (TM, fosforita alvorada (FA e cloreto de potássio (KCl variaram de acordo com a recomendação da análise de solo. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento em blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as cultivares dispostas na parcela e as adubações na subparcela. Foi utilizado um esquema fatorial 2x4, em que o fator cultivar apresentou dois níveis: 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real', e o fator adubação de pré-plantio, quatro níveis. As avaliações realizadas foram produção de frutos por planta, massa seca da parte aérea e índice de clorofila. A cultivar 'Camarosa' apresentou maior número e massa de frutos por planta e maior massa seca da parte aérea. A cultivar 'Camino Real' apresentou maior massa média por fruto e maior índice de clorofila. Com relação às doses de adubação de pré-plantio que propiciaram maior número e massa de frutos por planta, foram 1.937kg ha-1 e 1.713kg ha-1 de adubo, respectivamente.The study aimed to evaluate the doses of alternative fertilizer pre-planting fertilization on strawberries yield. The treatments were based on doses of NPK (kg ha-1 recommended for strawberry culture in which the doses of castor bean (TM, phosphorite dawn (FA and potassium chloride (KCl varied according to the recommendation of the soil analysis. The treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design at split plots with cultivars in the plot and fertilization in the sub-plot. It was used a factorial 2x4 arrangement, in which the cultivar factor had two levels: 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real', and the pre-planting fertilizer factor with four levels. The evaluations were fruit yield per plant, shoot dry mass and chlorophyll content. 'Camarosa' cultivar showed a greater number and weight of fruits per plant and higher dry mass shoots. Cultivar 'Camino Real' had the largest average per fruit and increased chlorophyll content. Regarding the fertilization rates of pre-planting, which fostered a greater number and weight of fruits per plant, it was 1937kg ha-1 and 1713kg ha-1 of fertilizer, respectively.

  18. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO / ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enio, Marchezan; Vandro Rogério, Vizzotto; Marta Gomes da, Rocha; Eduardo Londero, Moojen; José Henrique Souza da, Silva.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da corre [...] ção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum), trevo branco (Trifolium repens) e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus), cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS) ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare. Abstract in english The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction [...] associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), white clover (Trifolium repens) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and 128 for the 50, 100 and 150% recommended fertilizer ra

  19. Influence of Gamma Irradiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Gemmeiza-9 Wheat Cultivar Yield and its Attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted in an Extension field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate during two winter successive seasons, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 to investigate the influence of four gamma irradiation doses (0,10,20 and 30Gy) and 6 nitrogen fertilizer levels (0,25,50,75,100 and 125 KgN/fad,) , on yield and it's attributes of bread wheat cultivar Gemmeiza-9 The obtained results indicated that, wheat grains irradiated with low dose (10Gy) of Gamma radiation surpassed the other tow irradiation doses (20 and 30 Gy) and the control in each of plant height(cm), spike length (cm), Flag leaf area(cm2)at heading ,number of spikes /m2 , number of spikelets /spike, number of grains / spikelet, grain weight/spike(g) , grain weight/spikelet (mg), 1000- grains weight(g), grain, straw and biological yields/fad. Each increment in nitrogen supply caused significant increase in each above mentioned yield and yield components studied

  20. Influence of fertilizer levels on phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soils with the tropical pasture grass Brachiaria brizantha (hochst. ex a. rich.) stapf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Arias, Marianela

    2005-01-01

    Determination of fertilizer levels in phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons is a complex issue, since nutrient demands of the plant and of degrading microorganisms in the rhizosphere have to be considered In the present work, three fertilizer levels were tested in a greenhouse experiment with the aim of optimizing growth of the tropical pasture grass Brachiaria brizantha and enhance microbial degradation of heavy crude oil in soil Fertilizer was applied twice in a concentration of 200, 300, and 400 mg each of N, P, and K per kg soil before and after the first sampling (14 wk). The medium fertilizer concentration resulted in best root growth and highest absolute oil dissipation (18.4%) after 22 wk The highest concentration produced best shoot growth and highest relative oil dissipation after 14 wk (10.5% less than unplanted control). In general, degradation of total oil and grease was higher in planted than in unplanted soil, but differences diminished toward the end of the experiment. Next to fertiizer quantity, its composition is an important factor to be further studied, including the form of available nitrogen (N-NO3- vs. N-NH4+). Field trials are considered indispensable for further phytoremediation studies, since greenhouse experiments produce particular water and nutrient conditions. PMID:16285412

  1. Soil nutrient dynamics as influenced by organomineral fertilizers and tea seedlings nutrient uptake in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ipinmoroti, R.R.; Adeoye, G. O.; Iremiren, G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Cocoa husk, cow dung, poultry droppings, siam weed - Chromolaena odorata and tea fluff are common farm wastes in Nigeria. They were used as manures as sole and in combination with inorganic fertilizer as organominerals (OMF), compared to NPK (5:l:1) a reference fertilizer, to supply 150 kg N ha-l to potted tea seedlings in the open nursery space at Ibadan (lowland ecology) and Kusuku (highland ecology) of Nigeria. The manure based fertilizer treatments resulted in significantly (Pc0.05) highe...

  2. A Study on the Radioactivity Level in Raw Materials, Final Products and Wastes of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mahbubur R. Bhuiyan; Debasish Paul; Md. Idris Ali; Md. Abu Haydar; Md. Abdus Samad; Sheikh Mohammad A. Islam

    2012-01-01

    A study on the detection of probable radionuclides and their activity concentrations in the raw material (phosphate rock), final product (fertilizer) and waste samples collected from all the phosphate fertilizer factories (total two factories—A Diammonium Phosphate, DAP and a Triple Super Phosphate, TSP factory) in Bangladesh were carried out. A total of seven types of samples (grossly divided into solid and liquid types); liquid waste, waste-mixed river water, normal river water, phosphate r...

  3. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Alessandra A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3 of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  4. The Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yassini

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 10% of Iranian couples wishing to have a child experience some types of infertility which may impose a considerable psychological burden on them. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the level of anxiety and depression among infertile couples undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment cycles in Iran. Methods: Fifty infertile couples that who undergoing IVF (n=25 or ICSI (n=25 cycles were considered for this descriptive cross-sectional study. Also, 25 married couples (18-40 years old with history of fertility served as control subjects. All husbands and wives were examined by means of Beck Depression and Spielberger Anxiety Inventories. Results: Comparing with controls, the highest rates of moderate and severe anxiety, were observed in women undergoing IVF (76% and 12%, respectively; P<0.05. However, the rate of depression among women in IVF group was comparable to women undergoing ICSI. Also, the highest rates of severe depression and anxiety were demonstrated among housewives (23.9% and 11%, respectively. The lowest rates of severe anxiety and depression were observed in husbands participated in either IVF or ICSI cycles. In addition, illiterates, compared with educated couples, undergoing IVF or ICSI program were shown to have the highest rates of both depression and anxiety. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of anxiety and depression were higher in women, especially housewives, undergoing IVF or ICSI cycles than control subjects. Also, men showed lower rates of anxiety and depression than women undergoing IVF or ICSI. Therefore, this can provide useful information and guidance for health professionals working with infertile patients. KeyWords: anxiety, depression, infertility, IVF, ICSI, Iran

  5. Reconsidering the relation between fertility and key fertility-related demographic behaviour across space and time

    OpenAIRE

    Prskawetz, Alexia; Mamolo, Marija; ENGELHARDT, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies on fertility in Europe indicate the changing cross-country correlation between fertility and key fertility-related indicators. Fertility now tends to be lowest in countries that are traditional, catholic and family oriented, while fertility is highest in countries with high divorce rates, high rates of cohabitation and high levels of extra-marital fertility. In this paper we provide support to the argument that the change in the crosscountry correlation between fertility and fe...

  6. [Effects of long-term fertilization on bacterial and archaeal diversity and community structure within subtropical red paddy soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hong-zhao; Wu, Hao; Ge, Ti-da; Li, Ke-lin; Wu, Jin-shui; Wang, Jiu-rong

    2015-06-01

    Paddy soils not only function as an important sink for "missing carbon" but also play an important role in the production of greenhouse gases such as N2O and CH4. Dynamic changes in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are closely related to microbially mediated carbon and nitrogen transformation processes occurring in soil. Using soil samples collected from a long-term fertilization experimental site in Taojiang County, subtropical China (established in 1986), we determined the effects of long-term (>25 years) non-fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (NPK), and NPK combined with rice straw residues (NPKS) on soil bacterial and archaeal community structures. The 16S rRNA genotypes from the three differently treated soils were divided into 9 bacterial phylotypes, mainly including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and archaea of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Crenarchaeota increased in the soils under NPK and NPKS treatments, with the increase being greater in the latter treatment. LUBSHUFF statistical analyses also demonstrated that there was significant difference among the microbial community compositions in CK-, NPK- and NPKS-treated soils. The abundance of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes ranged from 0.58 x 10(10) to 1.06 x 10(10) copies · g(-1) dry soil and from 1.16 x 10(6) to 1.72 x 10(6) copies · g(-1) dry soil, respectively. Application of fertilizers increased the bacterial and archaeal abundance and diversity in the treated soils, with NPKS > NPK. Long-term chemical and organic applications significantly affected the abundance, diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal communities in paddy ecosystems. PMID:26572036

  7. Response of Sweet Potato to Integrated Effect of Chemical and Natural Phosphorus Fertilizer and Their Levels in Combination with Mycorrhizal Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abd El-Fattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices based on combinations of biofertilizer and inorganic or natural sources of fertilizer would produce vigor growth and more sustainable yield than either using biofertilizer or inorganic fertilizer alone. In this respect, two field trials were performed in 2007 and 2008 summer seasons to determine the growth, root quantity and quality response of sweet potato to chemical and natural Phosphorus (P fertilizer (superphosphate and rock phosphate under four levels of P in combination with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM fungi inoculation treatment and their integrated effects. The obtained results showed superior growth, increased total and marketable yield, in addition improved root quality (total sugars, total carotene, total soluble solids and carbohydrates with superphosphate comparing with natural rock phosphate. Application of the highest level of P (100% P2O5 enhanced vine length, leaves number and vine fresh weight. Also, increased root quantity and quality traits. Inoculation plants with VAM-fungi significantly increased productivity and improved root organic composition. Integrated effects between either superphosphate under the recommended level (100% P2O5 or between VAM-fungi inoculation under the same level exhibited improving in plant growth and yield production. Sweet potato plants tended to reveal their best quality performance when superphosphate is applied combined with VAM-fungi inoculation treatment. In general, the obtained results indicated that for increasing sweet potato root production and quality, a combination between superphosphate at the recommended P level and VAM-fungi inoculation treatment was the best. The integrated effect between superphosphate and VAM-fungi was better than either using inorganic or bio-phosphate fertilizer alone.

  8. Efeito da calagem e adubação da seringueira no estado nutricional e produção de borracha seca Effect of liming and fertilization on nutritional state and dry rubber production of rubber-tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonias de Castro Virgens Filho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da calagem e da adubação NPK no estado nutricional e na produção de borracha seca do clone RRIM 600. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram testados duas testemunhas (sem adubação e sem calagem; sem adubação e com calagem, e seis tratamentos com calagem e adubação (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 e N2P2K2. Os níveis anuais de NPK utilizados corresponderam a 40 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 de K2O. Nas subparcelas foram utilizados os sistemas de explotação ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre os teores de N, P, S, Cu e Zn nas folhas. A aplicação de N, nas duas doses, não elevou o seu teor nas folhas. O aumento nas doses de K2O na presença de N2P2 promoveu decréscimo no teor de zinco. A maior produção de borracha seca (1.778,9 kg ha-1, na média dos três anos, foi obtida no tratamento N2P2K1 + calagem nos dois sistemas de explotação.The effects of lime and NPK application on nutritional state and dry rubber production of clone RRIM 600 were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized split-plot with four replicates. In the plots were tested two controls (without fertilizer and without lime; without fertilizer and with lime and six treatments with lime and NPK fertilization (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 and N2P2K2. The two sub-treatments were the following tapping systems: ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S1 and ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S2. The NPK levels used, in kg ha-1 y-1, were represented by 40 and 80 of N; 17.5 and 35.0 of P2O5 and 0, 33.2 and 66.4 of K2O. There was a significant effect of treatments on the N, P, S, Cu and Zn content in leaves. The N applied to soil up to the second dosage was not enough to increase the N level in leaves. Increasing the application of K2O, in the presence of N2P2, promoted a linear decreasing effect on the Zn level. The highest rubber yield (1,778.9 kg ha-1, as an average of the three years, was obtained with the treatment N2P2K1 plus liming, under both tapping systems.

  9. Comparison of digestion methods to determine heavy metals in fertilizers

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    Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard method to regulate heavy metal determination in Brazilian fertilizers and the subsequent use of several digestion methods have produced variations in the results, hampering interpretation. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three digestion methods for determination of metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in fertilizers. Samples of 45 fertilizers marketed in northeastern Brazil were used. A fertilizer sample with heavy metal contents certified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST was used as control. The following fertilizers were tested: rock phosphate; organo-mineral fertilizer with rock phosphate; single superphosphate; triple superphosphate; mixed N-P-K fertilizer; and fertilizer with micronutrients. The substances were digested according to the method recommended by the Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil (MAPA and by the two methods 3051A and 3052 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. By the USEPA method 3052, higher portions of the less soluble metals such as Ni and Pb were recovered, indicating that the conventional digestion methods for fertilizers underestimate the total amount of these elements. The results of the USEPA method 3051A were very similar to those of the method currently used in Brazil (Brasil, 2006. The latter is preferable, in view of the lower cost requirement for acids, a shorter digestion period and greater reproducibility.

  10. Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120). The most active development of denitrifiers was in the fallow soil. It is known that cultivated forms comprise only about 1 to 10% of the total number of soil microorganisms. Quantitative analysis by the methods of molecular biology makes it possible to consider the full range of microorganisms. The concentration of extracted DNA can serve as an indicator of the total "biogenity" of the soil, as we isolated the genetic material of all organisms living in the soil. The highest concentration of DNA found in the samples from the fallow soil. Much lower values were found in the soils treated with mineral fertilizers: 38.9% in trial NPK-60 and 53.3% in trials NPK-120 and NPK-0. Thus, to sustain biota in cultivated chernozems and to improve the ecological state of the fields, the rates of mineral fertilizers have to be properly controlled. Moderate rates can be recommended. Features of the soil microbiome can serve as universal and sensitive indicators of the state of the soils under different farming systems. The quantitative analysis of isolated total DNA is an efficient tool to control the ecological state of the soils, especially those involved in agriculture.

  11. Determination of Optimum Level of NP Fertilizer for Dry Land Wheat Production in the Rainfed Areas of Kohat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hassan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The farmers of the rainfed areas are usually reluctant to use the recommended dose of fertilizers. This study was undertaken on the farmers field as adaptive research trials with the idea, whether the economic risk which is the main hindrance in adapting the recommended dose of fertilizers, is possible to be minimized by using its smaller doses. Fertilizers doses significantly affected biological, bhoosa yield and grain yield kg ha-1. Highest bundle weight and bhoosa kg ha-1 were recorded with the application of 2.5 bag of each Urea and DAP ha-1, and also with the application of 1.25 bag Urea and 2.5 bag DAP ha-1. Maximum grain yield of (2405-2500 kg ha-1 were obtained in T1, T2 and T3 respectively.

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from rape field as affected by nitrogen fertilizer management: A case study in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Jinshui; Zhao, Jinsong; Ruan, Leilei; Malghani, Saadatullah

    2011-03-01

    Agricultural soils are one of the major sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2O) emission. Red soil, one of the typical agricultural soils in sub-tropical China, plays an important role in the global N 2O flux emissions. To determine its N mineralization potential, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a rape field under red soil at the experimental station of Heshengqiao at Xianning, Hubei, China. To estimate N-induced N 2O flux, we examined N 2O flux during the growth stages of the rape field including four treatments: fertilizer PK (N0), fertilizer NPK (60 kg N ha -1) (N1), fertilizer NPK (120 kg N ha -1) (N2), fertilizer NPK (240 kg N ha -1) (N3). There were distinct variations in soil N 2O fluxes (from 0.16 to 0.90 kg N ha -1), with higher values being observed during the spring and autumn while low values were observed during winter season. Among different treatments, N fertilization significantly increased the N 2O fluxes, with highest fluxes from N3 while lowest values being observed from N0 treatment. This suggested increased microbial activity in response to increased N fertilizer application. It was interesting to note that fertilizer-induced emissions decreased as the applied fertilizer amount was increased. During the whole growing season, N 2O flux did not correlate with soil temperature, but it significantly correlated to other environmental variables; water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NO 3--N and NH 4+-N contents, which suggests the need for efficient water use and low inorganic nitrogen fertilizer management practices.

  13. Presentation of a model simulating the response of lakes to fertilizations to reduce radiocesium levels in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake fertilization is a potential remedy for toxic contamination in lakes with low productivity, which are known to be sensitive to, e.g. radionuclides, metals and organic toxins. This study presents a model to plan the duration and predict the outcome of fertilization in lakes. Several methods of lake fertilization have been used in field experiments: (1) Lake and wetland liming using 'mixed' lime with added phosphorus; (2) treatment with commercial fertilizers; and (3) using effluents (containing phosphorus) from fish farms. This model is basically a dynamic model using differential equations to handle fluxes, amounts and concentrations. It also includes several empirical relationships, because the model is meant to be used in practice and the driving variables should be few and readily available, like catchment and lake morphometric data. The model is primarily intended to be used as a sub-model predicting realistic changes in phosphorus and potassium concentrations and in lake pH caused by these remedial measures within the framework of a more extensive lake model for radiocesium. It is, however, meant to be based on the fundamental processes regulating phosphorus fluxes in lakes, and could be of interest also in contexts other than radioecology. It is driven by the amount of fertilizer added to the lake and the month of treatment. The consequences for the spread, biological uptake and concentrations of radiocesium are also discussed and simulated. The phosphorus model is, and must be, easy to handle since all the input data should be derived either from maps or from regular monitoring programs. In this paper, the model is presented and calibrations are examined. The results of the calibrations indicate that the model should be useful for managers to optimise lake fertilization, e.g. in contexts of lake radioecology where the benefits and drawbacks of different remedial strategies are evaluated (multi-attribute analysis). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Evaluation of interspecific hybrids and cultivars of Brachiaria spp. submitted to sourcers and levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Atauri Cardelli Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of nitrogen supply (N is a very important issue concerned to plant growth and the environment healthy. For farmers, to know how much N the plant requires enables the application of appropriate amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, maximizing the use of this material. The availability of N has been identified as one of the main limiting factors, but also a management tool in the production of grasses. The nitrogen in the soil either, as a constituent of organic matter or in the mineral form (ammonium and nitrate, has a limited supply and can be depleted rapidly in a few crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sources and nitrogen levels in four genotypes of Brachiaria (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata and two interspecific hybrids of Brachiaria spp on the total and the leaf dry matter production, leaf percentage and leaf: stem ratio. The soil was an Psament-Entisol, coming from a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with low organic matter content. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, in Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo, from October 2009 to April 2010. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks and the treatments were arranged in a factorial 4 x 2 x 4, four genotypes of Brachiaria , two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate and four nitrogen rates (0, 75, 150 or 225 mg dm-3 with five replicates, totaling 160 pots with a capacity of 3.34 dm3 of soil. Two cuts were performed in the plants. After the second cut a soil sample was collected from each experimental unit. Two evaluations were performed on plants. The first one 52 days after sowing, and the second 56 days after the first cut. Data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2; average qualitative factors were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The degrees of freedom related to N rates (quantitative factor were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials; to obtain the best equation fits the data. The variables evaluated were positively influenced by N fertilization, which can alter growth patterns and canopy structure. The hybrids H69 and H12 showed structural features in relation to all variables evaluated that positively validate as options for pasture. The ammonium nitrate was more effective than urea for dry matter production in hybrids H69 and H12 in the first cut, and for regrowth of cultivars Piata and Marandu. The results showed that nitrogen is a good tool which in turn contributes positively to increases the growth-related variables, such as dry matter (total, leaves and pseudostems. The hybrids H69 and H12 showed morphological, structural features and production of dry matter that validate them as positive options for pasture use.

  15. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether an additional foliar calcium application influenced the same parameters. Subsequently, the effect of the various treatments on the germination of the obtained seeds was explored. Two identical experiments (A and B) were carried out with five concentrations of nutrient solutions corresponding to an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.25 mS·cmL1, 2.50 mS·cmL1, 3.75 mS·cmL1, 5.00 mS·cmL1, and 6.25 mS·cmL1. Additionally, plants were sprayed with a 0.5% foliar-applied calcium solution or deionized water (control) three times during the experimental period. In Expt. A, the concentration of fertilizer significantly affected seed production. Number of flower heads and seed weight were not influenced by the dose of fertilizer, but plant biomass and number of seeds were significantly reduced at the highest concentration (6.25 mS·cmL1). In Expt. B, the fertilizer concentration did not affect number of flower heads and seed number, but seed weight and plant biomass were significantly reduced at the highest fertilizer concentration. In both experiments, the seeds germinated slower and less seeds germinated when plants had received the largest amount of fertilizer (6.25 mS·cmL1). In none of the experiments did applied calcium affect the number of flowers, seed production, seed weight, or the total biomass. Our data indicate that seed producers of G. hybrida should not apply standard fertilizer in a concentration higher than corresponding to an EC of ’1.25 mS·cmL1. It would have been valuable if we also had included a treatment with a lower EC value like 0.75 mS·cmL1 to improve the estimate of the optimal EC level from a curved function for the seed production and quality parameters.

  16. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea / Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Felippe, Ratke; Adriana, Verginassi; Débora de C, Basto; Hélber S, Morgado; Milena RF de, Souza; Eliana Paula, Fernandes.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lent [...] a e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola), 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®)),3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N®)) e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®)), e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas, matéria seca de folhas e os teores de nitrogênio foliar. As doses de diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta mostraram regressões polinomiais significativas para a produção de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula e teores de nitrogênio foliar, sendo que neste ultimo parâmetro avaliado, o Entec 26® não obteve regressão polinomial significativa. A produção de matéria seca de folhas de rúcula mostrou regressões lineares não significativas. As máximas produções de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula foram obtidas com as doses de 600 kg ha-1; 490 kg ha-1; 765 kg ha-1 e 462 kg ha-1 de N com o uso de uréia, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® e Super N®, respectivamente. Abstract in english Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 ( [...] agricultural urea), 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®)),3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N®)) and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®)). Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.

  17. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felippe Ratke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 (agricultural urea, 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®,3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N® and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®. Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola, 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®,3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N® e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®, e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas, matéria seca de folhas e os teores de nitrogênio foliar. As doses de diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta mostraram regressões polinomiais significativas para a produção de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula e teores de nitrogênio foliar, sendo que neste ultimo parâmetro avaliado, o Entec 26® não obteve regressão polinomial significativa. A produção de matéria seca de folhas de rúcula mostrou regressões lineares não significativas. As máximas produções de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula foram obtidas com as doses de 600 kg ha-1; 490 kg ha-1; 765 kg ha-1 e 462 kg ha-1 de N com o uso de uréia, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® e Super N®, respectivamente.

  18. El riego y fertilización en la calidad postcosecha del zapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn]. / The irrigation and fertilization on postharvest quality of sapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn].

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. R., Vallejo-Pérez; D., Nieto-Ángel; M. T., Martínez-Damián; J. A., Mora-Aguilera; D., Téliz-Ortiz; C., Nava-Díaz.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del riego y fertilización sobre la calidad en postcosecha del zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota). Árboles de 20 años de edad provenientes de semilla fueron sometidos a dos frecuencias de riego por gravedad: tradicional (cada 10 días) y controlado a 20 milibares (cada 3 días); además, [...] se evaluaron cuatro mezclas de nitrógeno (N), fósforo (P) y potasio (K): 0, 1, 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK al año, divididas en seis aplicaciones bimestrales. Las variables evaluadas en pulpa de frutos en madurez fisiológica (MF) y madurez comercial (MC) fueron: acidez, sólidos solubles totales (SST), firmeza, color (L,a,b), fenoles y carotenoides totales, pérdida de peso (PP) y concentración de NPK. El riego controlado a 20 mb mejoró la apariencia física de la pulpa (aumento del brillo) en MC e incrementó la concentración de carotenoides. La fertilización, también aumentó la concentración de carotenoides en frutos, mejorando su calidad y además, la pérdida de peso por transpiración fue menor respecto a los frutos de árboles no fertilizados. 2 kg de NPK causó mayor luminosidad en MC y 1.5 kg de NPK produjeron frutos con pulpa más roja. La disminución de la firmeza en frutos con MF causado por la fertilización con 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK, condiciona a un manejo cuidadoso del producto durante su cosecha y evitar heridas y golpes que afecten el proceso normal de maduración. Abstract in english The effect of irrigation and fertilization on post harvest quality of zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota) was evaluated. Twenty year-old trees developed from seed were irrigated at two frequencies: traditional (every 10 days) and 20-millibares controlled (every 3 days). Irrigation was combined with four [...] fertilization rates 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg of NPK per tree. Evaluated variables on fruits at physiological (MF) and commercial maturity (MC) were the followings: acidity, total soluble solids (SST), firmness, color (L, a, b), phenols and total carotenoids, weight loss (WL) and NPK concentration. The 20 mb-controlled irrigation improved pulp appearance (brightness) during MC and increased carotenoid concentration. Fertilization improved fruit quality, increasing carotenoid concentration and reducing weight loss by transpiration. In addition, 2 kg NPK treatment resulted in higher brightness of fruits at MC and 1.5 kg NPK produced fruits with dark red pulp. The fact that firmness of fruits on MF was reduced by applying 1.5 and 2.0 kg NPK requires careful handling of sapote fruit during harvest season avoiding lesions and buises that may affect the normal ripening process.

  19. Converging strategies by farmers and scientists to improve soil fertility and enhance crop production in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Saidou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Farmer perception, indigenous knowledge, extensive cassava, earthworm casts, arbuscular mycorrhiza, crop rotation, nutrient uptake, soil fertility, co-research, land tenure.Farmers in the transitional zone of Benin claim that extensive cassava cropping and prior cotton fertiliser enhance yield of subsequent maize. To cope with labour shortage, farmers have adapted fertiliser practices by mixing NPK-SB and urea. We agreed with farmers through a Stakeholder Learning Group to study the...

  20. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabzadeh Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed. Results: Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001 and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01, respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS. In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032 and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05. Conclusion: Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients.

  1. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed.Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001) and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01), respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS). In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032) and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients (Author).

  2. High fertility among Indochinese refugees.

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, J R; Rumbaut, R G; Brindis, C; Korenbrot, C C; Minkler, D

    1989-01-01

    From 1975 to 1988, nearly 900,000 Indochinese refugees were resettled in the United States. This paper examines patterns of fertility among these refugees from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who have exhibited high levels of reproduction since their arrival. Data are drawn from sample surveys in San Diego and San Francisco, CA. Fertility levels were found to exceed five children per ever-married woman, a level that is consistent with perceptions of ideal family size in the homeland. Fertility le...

  3. Relationship of antral follicle counts to fertility and ovarian AMH mRNA levels in beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammalian females, reproductive senescence is associated with decreased numbers of follicles in the ovary. Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) of ovarian origin has been proposed to be a biomarker of the number of follicles in the ovary and of fertility in women, as well as to control activation of pri...

  4. Socioeconomic fertility differentials in a late transition setting: A micro-level analysis of the Saguenay region in Quebec

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    Hélène Vézina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, the French Canadian population of Quebec, Canada, is known for its high fertility, which lasted well into the 20th century, and for its late fertility transition. Within Quebec, regions such as Saguenay are known for having experienced an even more delayed fertility transition. Objective: In Quebec, as elsewhere, various factors modulated the transition, and differential behaviors and timing can be observed across socioeconomic groups. These factors are studied here in the context of the Saguenay region, where particularly rich data are available. The region was mostly rural at first, but industrialization and urbanization occurring since the beginning of the 20th century allow us to study socioeconomic reproductive differentials before and during the transition. Methods: To do so, we rely on the BALSAC database, which contains all church and civil records from the onset of colonization around 1840 up to 1971. In addition to the usual descriptive statistics, we use Cox models to analyze the probability of having a first birth and higher order births among four socioeconomic groups defined with HISCLASS coding. Results: The results demonstrate the late timing of the transition and a clear progression from the non-manual and skilled workers, who show the first signs of declining fertility during the 1930s, to the farmers, who do the same only at the end of the 1950s. As a result, socioeconomic fertility differentials widened during the transition period. Conclusions: Even in a context where the transition was significantly delayed compared to most other regions studied in this issue, some socioeconomic differentials were observed prior to the transition, and they widened during the transition due to the differential progression of contraceptive practices among couples.

  5. The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria

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    Onifade, OS.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha, four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P, NPK (20 : 10 : 10, and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS. Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm, density (plants/m2 and spread (cm were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Sampling for yield estimation in each plot was done at 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Mean plant height with respect to seed rate, fertilizer type and growth stage significantly (P 2000 kg DM/ha. Application of SSP, NPK and CAN gave more total DM yields than the unfertilized control plot respectively by about 69, 75 and 75 %. Total DM yield varied from 1024 kg DM/ha when T. procumbens was harvested at an earlier stage (6 WPS to 2130 kg DM/ha at a later harvest (12 WPS. The main CP of leaf was significantly (P <0.05 affected by ail the treatments imposed.

  6. Influence of solar irradiance, watering frequency and inorganic fertilizer on incidence of dieback disease and growth of Ceiba pentendra (L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts at raising seedlings of Ceiba pentandra in nurseries have been hampered by damping-off, leaf spots and stem anthracnose causing stem dieback disease by fungal attack. Managing the disease by fungicides retarded growth of the seedlings; hence a method of controlling the dieback disease and boosting growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings based on environmental factors was investigated. Using a randomised complete block design in a factorial split-plot experiment, the dependence of survival and growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings on solar irradiance, watering frequency and NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer was studied to improve the survival rate of seedlings by preventing dieback disease in large-scale plantation development in Ghana. Solar irradiance, daily watering of 4.5 L per plot and inorganic fertilizer application of 1.0 g per seedling had the strongest effect in minimizing the incidence of dieback disease and ensuring 90 % survival and improved collar diameter growth. The levels of irradiance, watering regime and optimum fertilizer application required to control dieback disease and promote growth of Ceiba pentandra seedlings were set, and could be adopted by tree growers. (au)

  7. DETERMINACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES NIVELES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN PAPA (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO EN UN SUELO CON PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO IN A SOIL WITH PROPERTIES ANDICAS OF SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Yovani Rios Quinchoa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La fertilización es una labor que cumple con la necesidad de suplementar a la planta, los nutrientes no satisfechos por el suelo en su condición de fertilidad natural. Por muchas décadas se han utilizado dosis deficientes que conducen a bajas producciones, y en ocasiones dosis excesivas de fertilizantes químicos que pueden generar problemas ambientales. La fertilización con nutrientes secundarios (Ca, Mg, S y el micronutriente B, han sido poco estudiadas en el cultivo de papa, razón por la cual se evaluó, en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín, el efecto de diferentes dosis de estos nutrientes en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena de la variedad DIACOL Capiro en un suelo con propiedades ándicas de Santa Rosa de Osos. Se utilizaron dosis bajas, moderadas y altas de NPK, Ca, Mg, B y S, y se encontró una respuesta positiva en rendimiento a las aplicaciones crecientes de NPK (500, 1.500 y 3000 kg ha-1, también se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso de los tubérculos de primera y segunda categoría, mientras que los tubérculos de tercera y cuarta categoría no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las interacciones entre Ca, Mg, B y S no tuvieron efecto apreciable sobre el rendimiento de los tubérculos, ya que en la mayoría de los casos solo se observaron los efectos simples de dichos elementos.The fertilization is a work that fulfills the supplementary to the plant nutritional necessities that are not satisfied by the soil, in its condition of natural fertility. For many decades faulty doses has been used that take to low productions, and in occasions excessive doses of chemical fertilizers that lead to environmental problems. The fertilization with nutritious secondary (Ca, Mg, S and the micronutrient B, has been little studied in potato crop in Colombia; for this reason, we evaluated, in the Centro de Investigacion e Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal Paysandú of the La Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín, the effect of different doses of these nutrients, in a cultivation of potato of the variety DIACOL Capiro in a soil with andics properties of Santa Rosa de Osos. Low, moderate and high doses of NPK, Ca, Mg, B and S, was used, and it was a positive result in yield to the growing applications of NPK (500, 1.500 and 3000 kg ha-1, significant differences were also presented in weight in the tubers of first and second category, while the tubers of third and quarter category did not present significant differences. The interactions among Ca, Mg, B and S didn’t have appreciable effect on the yield of the tubers, since in most of the alone cases one observes the simple effects of this elements.

  8. DETERMINACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES NIVELES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN PAPA (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA) DIACOL CAPIRO EN UN SUELO CON PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA / DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA) DIACOL CAPIRO IN A SOIL WITH PROPERTIES ANDICAS OF SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jairo Yovani, Rios Quinchoa; Sonia del Carmen, Jaramillo Villegas; Luis Hernán, González Santamaría; José Miguel, Cotes Torres.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La fertilización es una labor que cumple con la necesidad de suplementar a la planta, los nutrientes no satisfechos por el suelo en su condición de fertilidad natural. Por muchas décadas se han utilizado dosis deficientes que conducen a bajas producciones, y en ocasiones dosis excesivas de fertiliza [...] ntes químicos que pueden generar problemas ambientales. La fertilización con nutrientes secundarios (Ca, Mg, S) y el micronutriente B, han sido poco estudiadas en el cultivo de papa, razón por la cual se evaluó, en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín), el efecto de diferentes dosis de estos nutrientes en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena) de la variedad DIACOL Capiro en un suelo con propiedades ándicas de Santa Rosa de Osos. Se utilizaron dosis bajas, moderadas y altas de NPK, Ca, Mg, B y S, y se encontró una respuesta positiva en rendimiento a las aplicaciones crecientes de NPK (500, 1.500 y 3000 kg ha-1), también se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso de los tubérculos de primera y segunda categoría, mientras que los tubérculos de tercera y cuarta categoría no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las interacciones entre Ca, Mg, B y S no tuvieron efecto apreciable sobre el rendimiento de los tubérculos, ya que en la mayoría de los casos solo se observaron los efectos simples de dichos elementos. Abstract in english The fertilization is a work that fulfills the supplementary to the plant nutritional necessities that are not satisfied by the soil, in its condition of natural fertility. For many decades faulty doses has been used that take to low productions, and in occasions excessive doses of chemical fertilize [...] rs that lead to environmental problems. The fertilization with nutritious secondary (Ca, Mg, S) and the micronutrient B, has been little studied in potato crop in Colombia; for this reason, we evaluated, in the Centro de Investigacion e Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal Paysandú of the La Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín), the effect of different doses of these nutrients, in a cultivation of potato of the variety DIACOL Capiro in a soil with andics properties of Santa Rosa de Osos. Low, moderate and high doses of NPK, Ca, Mg, B and S, was used, and it was a positive result in yield to the growing applications of NPK (500, 1.500 and 3000 kg ha-1), significant differences were also presented in weight in the tubers of first and second category, while the tubers of third and quarter category did not present significant differences. The interactions among Ca, Mg, B and S didn’t have appreciable effect on the yield of the tubers, since in most of the alone cases one observes the simple effects of this elements.

  9. Influence of Various Types of Organic Manures and Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Biomass Yield and Nutrient Content of Napier-Bajra Hybrid Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bandeswaran*, L. Radhakrishnan and M. Murugan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to test the response of Napier-bajra hybrid grass that was subjected to treatment with 3 different types of organic manures and 3 different levels of inorganic nitrogen (20kgN/acre, 40kgN/acre and 60kgN/acre as fertilizer. Organic manure (farm yard manure, bio digested slurry and poultry manure @ 4 tons/acre as basal manure increased the fodder biomass in a dose-dependent manner when used in combination with a nitrogen-containing fertilizer. We estimated biomass yield in terms of fresh matter yield and dry matter yield. We estimated the nutrient content in terms of percentages of crude protein and crude fibre in the grass that was subjected to different treatments. Our results show that biomass yield was significantly higher when organic manures were used in combination with maximum level (60 kg/acre of inorganic nitrogen application. The crude protein content was comparable between the 3 types of organic manures and increased in a dose dependent manner to the level of inorganic nitrogen used. The crude fibre content was significantly (P<0.05 higher when poultry manure was used as organic manure and was not influenced by the level of inorganic nitrogen application. There was no significant difference in the palatability of grass fed to the sheep. The cost of production of the grass decreased at higher levels of nitrogen application. From this study, was conclude that inorganic nitrogen @ 60 kg/acre and organic manure @ 4 tons/acre yields significantly higher fodder biomass and that nitrogen- containing fertilizer is a critical component required for economical production of Napier- bajra hybrid grass.

  10. Maduración y calidad de frutos de mango 'Kent' con tres niveles de fertilización / Ripening and fruit quality of mango 'Kent' with three levels of fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    René, García Martínez; Alfredo, López Jiménez; Crecenciano, Saucedo Veloz; Samuel, Salazar-García; Javier, Suárez Espinosa.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El programa anual de fertilización juega un papel importante en el manejo del huerto y de su eficiencia dependen, en gran medida, la producción y calidad de los frutos. Una fertilización balanceada considera la cantidad de nutrientes disponibles en el suelo, incluyendo los que utiliza el árbol para [...] su desarrollo y los que son removidos por la producción de fruto, lo que asegura el suministro adecuado de macro y micro elementos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto del programa de fertilización sobre los cambios en las variables relacionadas con la maduración y calidad de frutos de mango 'Kent', a partir de un experimento instalado en un huerto de comercial en Acaponeta, Nayarit, México, donde se aplicaron tres niveles de fertilización ((g árbol-1): normal (381 de N, 367 de P2O5, 296 de K2O, 688 de Ca, 84 de Mg, 14 de Fe, 9 de Mn, 5 de Zn y 45 de B), alta (50% más de cada elemento de la dosis normal) y control (sin fertilización). Las dosis de fertilización afectaron la concentración nutrimental del fruto. Se presentaron diferencias en los perfiles de la intensidad respiratoria, firmeza, sólidos solubles totales (SST), ácido cítrico, ácido ascórbico y relación azúcar/ácido, asimismo, la presencia de nitrógeno en los niveles de fertilización normal y alta, aumentó la tonalidad verde del color de fondo de los frutos. Se concluyó que, la calidad y vida de anaquel de los frutos fue afectada por los niveles de fertilización aplicados. Abstract in english The annual fertilization program plays an important role in the management of the garden and its efficiency depend largely, production and fruit quality. A balanced fertilization consider the amount of nutrients available in the soil, including those used by the tree for their development and they a [...] re removed by the production of fruit, ensuring adequate supply of macro and micro elements. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fertilization program on changes in the variables related to the maturation and fruit quality of mango 'Kent' from an experiment installed in a commercial orchard in Acaponeta, Nayarit, Mexico, where three levels of fertilization were applied (g tree-1): regular (381 de N, 367 de P2O5, 296 de K2O, 296, 688 Ca, 84 Mg, Fe 14, 9 Mn, 5 Zn and 45 B), high (50% more of each element of the regular dose) and control (without fertilization). The fertilization affected the nutrient concentration of fruit. Differences were presented in profiles the total respiratory rate, firmness, soluble solids (TSS), citric acid, ascorbic acid and sugar/acid ratio also the presence of nitrogen in levels of regular and high fertilization increased the green hue of the background colour of the fruits. It was concluded that the quality and shelf life of fruits was affected by fertilization levels applied.

  11. RESPUESTA DE LA PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIEDAD DIACOL CAPIRO A LA FERTILIZACIÓN EN UN ANDISOL DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO, COLOMBIA EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. DIACOL CAPIRO VARIETY UNDER ANDISOL FROM EAST ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison David Tabares Patiño

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la respuesta de la fertilización en papa DIACOL Capiro se evaluaron diferentes niveles de Ca (0, 3, 5 y 9 cmolc kg-1, Mg (0, 0,7; 1,4 y 3 cmolc kg-1, B (0, 0,5, 1,0 y 2,0 mg kg-1 y S (0, 10, 20 y 40 mg kg-1, con tres niveles de NPK, (relación 1:2:2 en dosis de 500, 1.500 y 3.000 kg ha-1. Para ello se utilizó un diseño central compuesto modificado sobre 80 parcelas experimentales de 1 m2. Para determinar las concentraciones de estos elementos en el suelo, se realizaron incubaciones de suelo y se obtuvieron eficiencias de 0,17; 0,83; 0,79; 0,90; 0,10 y 0,53 para P, K, Ca, Mg, B y S, respectivamente. Hubo una respuesta positiva a las dosis crecientes de NPK, cuyos promedios de producción total fueron 7,54; 9,34 y 11,39 kg m-2. Sin embargo, la relación costo/beneficio, indica que las dosis adecuadas para la fertilización química de la papa Diacol Capiro en este suelo, están alrededor de 1.500 kg ha-1 y no justifica la aplicación de las dosis más altas de fertilizante, dado que al duplicarlas solo se logra un incremento del 22% en la producción total y no se observaron diferencias significativas en la producción de tubérculos de mayor valor comercial. Las aplicaciones de Ca y Mg no siempre presentaron efectos positivos sobre la producción en los diferentes niveles de fertilización evaluados. Las adiciones de B y S mostraron reducción en la producción con diferencias significativas, por posible desbalance en la solución nutritiva del suelo, dado que la materia orgánica adicionada, suple las deficiencias de microelementos y el S.This research was carried out for evaluate the response to fertilization in andic soils of the potato variety DIACOL Capiro. Different levels of Ca (0, 3, 5 y 9 cmolc kg-1, Mg (0, 0.7, 1.4 and 3 cmolc kg-1, B (0, 0,5, 1,0 and 2,0 mg kg-1 and S (0, 10, 20 y 40 mg kg-1 with three levels of NPK, (grade 1:2:2 in 500, 1.500 and 3.000 kg ha-1 dose where evaluated. A modified central composite design was used and 80 experimental plots of 1 m2 were established. In order to determinate the concentrations of these elements in the soil solution, there were made incubations with different dose of these elements and the application efficiency were P: 0.17, K: 0.83, Ca: 0.79, Mg: 0.90, S: 0.53 and B: 0.10. The yield was partitioned in four categories by size tuber. The levels of NPK showed a positive response for total yield with averages 7.54, 9.34 and 11.39 kg m-2 for 500, 1.500 and 3.000 kg ha-1 of NPK, respectively.. Differences among the tuber size categories, more of 6 cm, 2-4 cm and less of 2 cm , were significant, but in the 4-6 cm category it did not have significant differences. The Ca and Mg applications showed unpredictable effects over the production in the different fertilization levels evaluated. The use of B and S did show significant differences in the production for the studied soil.

  12. RESPUESTA DE LA PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.) VARIEDAD DIACOL CAPIRO A LA FERTILIZACIÓN EN UN ANDISOL DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO, COLOMBIA / EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L.) DIACOL CAPIRO VARIETY UNDER ANDISOL FROM EAST ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edison David, Tabares Patiño; Sonia, Jaramillo Villegas; Luis Hernán, González Santamaría; José Miguel, Cotes Torres.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la respuesta de la fertilización en papa DIACOL Capiro se evaluaron diferentes niveles de Ca (0, 3, 5 y 9 cmolc kg-1), Mg (0, 0,7; 1,4 y 3 cmolc kg-1), B (0, 0,5, 1,0 y 2,0 mg kg-1) y S (0, 10, 20 y 40 mg kg-1), con tres niveles de NPK, (relación 1:2:2) en dosis de 500, 1.500 y [...] 3.000 kg ha-1. Para ello se utilizó un diseño central compuesto modificado sobre 80 parcelas experimentales de 1 m2. Para determinar las concentraciones de estos elementos en el suelo, se realizaron incubaciones de suelo y se obtuvieron eficiencias de 0,17; 0,83; 0,79; 0,90; 0,10 y 0,53 para P, K, Ca, Mg, B y S, respectivamente. Hubo una respuesta positiva a las dosis crecientes de NPK, cuyos promedios de producción total fueron 7,54; 9,34 y 11,39 kg m-2. Sin embargo, la relación costo/beneficio, indica que las dosis adecuadas para la fertilización química de la papa Diacol Capiro en este suelo, están alrededor de 1.500 kg ha-1 y no justifica la aplicación de las dosis más altas de fertilizante, dado que al duplicarlas solo se logra un incremento del 22% en la producción total y no se observaron diferencias significativas en la producción de tubérculos de mayor valor comercial. Las aplicaciones de Ca y Mg no siempre presentaron efectos positivos sobre la producción en los diferentes niveles de fertilización evaluados. Las adiciones de B y S mostraron reducción en la producción con diferencias significativas, por posible desbalance en la solución nutritiva del suelo, dado que la materia orgánica adicionada, suple las deficiencias de microelementos y el S. Abstract in english This research was carried out for evaluate the response to fertilization in andic soils of the potato variety DIACOL Capiro. Different levels of Ca (0, 3, 5 y 9 cmolc kg-1), Mg (0, 0.7, 1.4 and 3 cmolc kg-1), B (0, 0,5, 1,0 and 2,0 mg kg-1) and S (0, 10, 20 y 40 mg kg-1) with three levels of NPK, (g [...] rade 1:2:2) in 500, 1.500 and 3.000 kg ha-1 dose where evaluated. A modified central composite design was used and 80 experimental plots of 1 m2 were established. In order to determinate the concentrations of these elements in the soil solution, there were made incubations with different dose of these elements and the application efficiency were P: 0.17, K: 0.83, Ca: 0.79, Mg: 0.90, S: 0.53 and B: 0.10. The yield was partitioned in four categories by size tuber. The levels of NPK showed a positive response for total yield with averages 7.54, 9.34 and 11.39 kg m-2 for 500, 1.500 and 3.000 kg ha-1 of NPK, respectively.. Differences among the tuber size categories, more of 6 cm, 2-4 cm and less of 2 cm , were significant, but in the 4-6 cm category it did not have significant differences. The Ca and Mg applications showed unpredictable effects over the production in the different fertilization levels evaluated. The use of B and S did show significant differences in the production for the studied soil.

  13. Mixed fertilizers incorporated in organic polimer matrix and pressed in tablets as means of enhancing the nutrients productive use in increased crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of increasing productive use of fertilizer nutrients in crops an admixture of brown coal dust containing up to 40 % carbon ammonia lignosulfonate with 50 % lignoles dry matter as binding agent were used to press water soluble fertilizer sources with a total of N+P2O5+K2O content of up to 26 % in tablets. These may be manufactured at different N:P2O5:K2O ratios as for instance 1:1:1; 1:0.75:0.50 etc. Brown coal and coal refuse dust were used as matrix for inclusion while lignosulfonates served for binding the ingredients when pressing them in tablets of 15-20 g dry mass each. These were tested in accurate field experiments to compare the agronomic effectiveness of equal amounts of NPK in tablets with equivalent rates of powdered sources of nutrients in the same chemical forms. NPK pressed in tablets were applied locally along the plant row, while the powdered mixed fertilizer have been thoroughly mixed in the ploughed layer. Accurate field experiments have pointed out the higher agronomical effectiveness of NPK pressed in tablets as compared to equal amounts of NPK powdered and thoroughly mixed into the ploughed layer of soil. Indicators were higher yield increases per nutrient unit and higher degrees of apparent productive use of nutrients in crops. Refs. 4 (author)

  14. The Fertile Grounds Initiative: A new way to close nutrient flows at regional level resulting in better agricultural productivity and less environmental losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Christy; van Duivenbooden, Niek; Noij, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    The threat of declining soil fertility levels is well known. Yet, and despite numerous efforts, we seem incapable of changing the current situation of sink areas in developed countries and depletion areas in developing countries. With negative consequences (i.e. loss in productive capacity and loss in environmental quality) in both areas. Moreover, due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows become increasingly disconnected. Soil nutrient depletion cannot simply be compensated for with mineral fertilisers, for the following reasons: • mineral fertilisers are often not affordable for smallholders and fertiliser subsidy systems are not always successful • mineral fertilisers do not contain organic matter and therefore do not halt the degradation of the soil • mineral fertilisers work best in combination with organic sources of nutrients (compost, farm yard manure, etc.) • To halt soil degradation an integrated approach is needed, including reducing losses of nutrients and organic matter from soils at risk. Presently, more actors are getting involved in reallocation of nutrients, especially in the energy and waste sector. Time has come for a new approach to bring together demands and supplies for nutrients. We therefore present the Fertile Grounds Initiative: a broker for nutrient supply and demand in the region. The Fertile Grounds Initiative is based on the findings that: • Organic ánd mineral nutrients are required for increased and sustainable production; • Nutrients have a value and should be treated as such; • Due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows are ever more polarized between depletion and concentration areas; • The demand for energy poses new threats and opportunities for nutrient management. In the Fertile Grounds Initiative nutrient suppliers from the energy sector, waste management, fertilizer companies, etc. and demands for nutrients from farmers are brought together in a dynamic platform. This platform acts as a nutrient bank and integrates different sources of nutrients into high quality crop nutrition products. A capacity building programme ensures proper application of the nutrients and optimal use of on-farm nutrients. To further shape our ideas of the Fertile Grounds Initiative you are cordially invited to become involved.

  15. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra A., Souza; Raquel L., Boscariol; David H., Moon; Luis E.A., Camargo; Siu M., Tsai.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcadores moleculares foram utilizados para estudar os efeitos do nitrogênio mineral na expressão fenotípica de QTLs associados ao número de nódulos (NN) e à resistência a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli em feijoeiro. Linhagens recombinantes obtidas do cruzamento BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 foram aval [...] iadas em casa-de-vegetação, sob dois níveis de adubação nitrogenada (0 e 5 mM de NH4NO3). A resistência ao patógeno foi avaliada pela medição da área foliar lesionada (DLA) e o NN por meio de contagem direta. Análises de variância foram empregadas para detectar associações significativas entre características quantitativas e genótipos das linhagens em 85 loci marcadores distribuídos em 12 grupos de ligação (LG). Sob a condição de ausência de N mineral, foram encontradas associações significativas entre 15 marcadores distribuídos em 7 LG para NN e 11 marcadores em 5 LG para DLA, explicando 34 e 42% da variação fenotípica destas características, respectivamente. Na presença de N, foram detectadas somente cinco associações significativas para NN e oito para DLA, explicando 28 e 26% da variação fenotípica de cada respectiva característica. Alguns QTLs foram detectados somente na ausência de N, evidenciando o efeito deste elemento na expressão destes QTLs. Entretanto, em alguns QTLs associados a NN, a contribuição dos alelos parentais foi dependente da concentração de N utilizada. Quatro QTLs foram encontrados associados tanto a número de nódulos como resistência a Xanthomonas, sugerindo um controle genético comum do feijoeiro à infecções bacterianas. Por outro lado, a expressão fenotípica de alguns QTLs não foi significativamente afetada pelo nível de nitrogênio utilizado. A estabilidade destes QTLs é interessante do ponto de vista de um programa de melhoramento voltado para o desenvolvimento de cultivares adaptadas a condições variáveis de fertilidade de solo. Abstract in english Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN) and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT- [...] 93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3) of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA) and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG) and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  16. Fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Fertility treatment has been associated with obstetrical and perinatal complications. It is, however, uncertain whether fertility treatment or parental subfertility is associated with long-term development of the children. We aimed to assess the growth and mental health of children and adolescents conceived after fertility treatment compared to spontaneously conceived controls. First, we evaluated all previous studies comparing neurodevelopmental outcomes between children conceived after fertili...

  17. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens=Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control, T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fertilizer was applied at three month intervals and castor bean cake organic fertilizer was applied once a month (40 g per pot for both. Plant height and the number of leaves and shoots were evaluated one year after the beginning of the trial. The organic fertilizer on its own and with EPL (T7, T8 and T9 produced the tallest plants and highest number of leaves. Organic fertilizer with 0.1 and 0.2% EPL produced the most shoots. For all variables, chemical fertilizer, both with and without EPL, was less effective than organic fertilizer with EPL and treatment with only EPL was less effective than treatment with organic fertilizer.O efeito da utilização do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com adubação orgânica e química foi avaliado no desenvolvimento de mudas de areca bambu. Os tratamentos foram T1= sem adubação (testemunha; T2= T2= EPL 0,1%; T3= EPL 0,2%; T4= NPK-20-5-20; T5= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,1%; T6= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,2%; T7= torta de mamona; T8= torta de mamona + EPL 0,1% e T9= torta de mamona + EPL 0,2%. As soluções de EPL foram 0,1% e 0,2%, aplicados 100 mL por vaso, quinzenalmente. O adubo químico NPK 20-5-20 foi aplicado trimestralmente e a torta de mamona, adubo orgânico utilizado, foi aplicado mensalmente (ambos 40 g por vaso. A altura da planta, o número de folhas e o número de brotações foram avaliados após um ano do início do experimento. A adubação orgânica isolada e com adição de EPL (T7, T8 e T9 proporcionou maiores alturas de planta e maior número de folhas. A adubação orgânica com a adição de EPL 0,1 e 0,2% produziu mais brotos. Para todas as variáveis, a adubação química com e sem o EPL foram menos efetivas que a adubação orgânica com EPL e os tratamentos com EPL isoladamente foram menos efetivos que os tratamentos com adubação orgânica.

  18. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens) / Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christina da Silva, Wanderley; Ricardo Tadeu de, Faria; Maurício Ursi, Ventura.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da utilização do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL) aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com adubação orgânica e química foi avaliado no desenvolvimento de mudas de areca bambu. Os tratamentos foram T1= sem adubação (testemunha); T2= T2= EPL 0,1%; T3= EPL 0,2%; T4= NPK-20-5-20; T5= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0 [...] ,1%; T6= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,2%; T7= torta de mamona; T8= torta de mamona + EPL 0,1% e T9= torta de mamona + EPL 0,2%. As soluções de EPL foram 0,1% e 0,2%, aplicados 100 mL por vaso, quinzenalmente. O adubo químico NPK 20-5-20 foi aplicado trimestralmente e a torta de mamona, adubo orgânico utilizado, foi aplicado mensalmente (ambos 40 g por vaso). A altura da planta, o número de folhas e o número de brotações foram avaliados após um ano do início do experimento. A adubação orgânica isolada e com adição de EPL (T7, T8 e T9) proporcionou maiores alturas de planta e maior número de folhas. A adubação orgânica com a adição de EPL 0,1 e 0,2% produziu mais brotos. Para todas as variáveis, a adubação química com e sem o EPL foram menos efetivas que a adubação orgânica com EPL e os tratamentos com EPL isoladamente foram menos efetivos que os tratamentos com adubação orgânica. Abstract in english The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL) on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control), T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, [...] T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fertilizer was applied at three month intervals and castor bean cake organic fertilizer was applied once a month (40 g per pot for both). Plant height and the number of leaves and shoots were evaluated one year after the beginning of the trial. The organic fertilizer on its own and with EPL (T7, T8 and T9) produced the tallest plants and highest number of leaves. Organic fertilizer with 0.1 and 0.2% EPL produced the most shoots. For all variables, chemical fertilizer, both with and without EPL, was less effective than organic fertilizer with EPL and treatment with only EPL was less effective than treatment with organic fertilizer.

  19. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C

    2003-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. This study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with a placebo. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that Maca has no effect on serum reproductive hormone levels in apparently healthy men when administered in doses used for aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. Men aged between 21 and 56 Years received 1500 mg or 3000 mg Maca. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol were measured before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with placebo or Maca (1.5 g or 3.0 g per day). Data showed that compared with placebo Maca had no effect on any of the hormones studied nor did the hormones show any changes over time. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum testosterone levels were not affected by treatment with Maca at any of the times studied (P, not significant). In conclusion, treatment with Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels. PMID:12525260

  20. Use of slow-release fertilizer on the production of sweet potatoes plantlets in tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of plantlets in containers generally requires the use of fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of sweet potato in styrofoam trays using slow-release fertilizer. The experiment was carried out, under a screen-protected nursery, in a factorial scheme 5x5, with five doses of slow-release fertilizer NPK 19-06-10 (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 g per 25 kg de substrate and five times of plantlets permanence in tray (14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting the cuttings. The number and dry matter of roots and leaves were evaluated. The number of roots was not influenced by fertilizer addition. In general, there is not damage to plantlets growth until the highest dose used. Therefore, the fertilizer addition increases the sweet potato plants growth and the dose of 200 g per 25 kg of substrate is responsible for the best results.

  1. Vascularização das glândulas adrenais em galinhas da linhagem NPK (Gallus gallus domesticus) / Vascularization of chickens adrenal glands in NPK lineage (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Coutinho do, Amaral; Marcelo Ismar, Santana; Pedro Primo, Bombonato; Frederico Ozanan, Carneiro e Silva; Hildebrando Gomes, Benedicto.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares viscerais, que freqüentemente mostram suficientes variações para diferenciação entre famílias e ordens, utilizamos 34 galinhas da linhagem NPK, com idade aproximada de 10 semanas, eutanasiadas com dose de gás anestésic [...] o, tendo marcado seus contingentes arteriais com solução aquosa de Neoprene Látex ¨450¨ a 50 %, corada com corante específico e fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10 %, para estudar a vascularização das glândulas adrenais. Assim, os resultados indicam que as glândulas adrenais são órgãos pares, dispostos um em cada antímero, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e médio-cranialmente aos rins. Nos dois antímeros, as glândulas adrenais receberam vasos oriundos das artérias adrenais homólogas provenientes da artéria renal cranial e da aorta descendente (ramos diretos). Independentemente da origem, o número de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variou de acordo com o antímero, sendo de 1 a 4 para o antímero esquerdo, e de 1 e 3 para o direito. Quanto maior o número de artérias totais e ramos emitidos pelas artérias adrenais contralaterais destinados a um antímero, maior será o número de ramos destinados pelas mesmas ao antímero oposto. Abstract in english Aiming at knowing the visceral vascular arrangements which frequently show huge variation to be differentiated in families and orders, we used 34 NPK chickens, aged at approximately 10 weeks, euthanized with a dose of anaesthetic gas, with arterial contingents marked with an aqueous 50 % Neoprene La [...] tex ¨450¨ solution, colored with a specific coloring agent and fixed in an aqueous 10% formaldehyde solution, to study adrenal gland vascularization. The results indicated that the adrenal glands are paired organs, positioned in each antimer, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs and medio-cranially to the kidneys. In the two antimers, the adrenal glands receive vessels originating from the homologous adrenal arteries that come from the cranial renal artery and from the descending aorta (right branches). Regardless of their origin, the number of branches destined to the adrenal glands varied according to the antimer, totaling 1 to 4 for the left antimer, and 1 to 3 for the right one. The higher the number of total arteries and branches emitted by the contralateral adrenal arteries destined to an antimer, the higher the number of branches they destine to the opposite antimer.

  2. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsozué, D.; Nghonda, J. P.; Mekem, D. L.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), direct seeding (DS) and tillage seeding (TS) on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK + 25 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK + 50 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK + 100 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC) were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC), resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea) and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F3. pH values were 5.2-5.7 under DMC, 4.9-5.3 under DS and TS and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were higher in the control sample and DMC than in the other systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low pH values.

  3. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsozué, D.; Nghonda, J. P.; Mekem, D. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), direct seeding (DS) and tillage seeding (TS) on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK + 25 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK + 50 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK + 100 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC) were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC), resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea) and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha-1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha-1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha-1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F3. pH values were 5.2 to 5.7 under DMC, 4.9 to 5.3 under DS and TS, and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were high in the control sample and the DMC than in the others systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low soil pH values.

  4. Effects of added fertilizers and carbon source on the persistence of carbaryl in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of added fertilizers and carbon source on the persistence of carbaryl in two types of soils was investigated using the technique of liquid scintillation counting. In both soils, the addition of fertilzers (NPK) had little effect on the rate of degradation of carbaryl. In contrast, the addition of sucrose, with or without fertilizer increases degradation of carboryl in a yellow red latosol soil poor in organic matter but has little effect on the degradation in a humic gley soil rich in organic mutter. (Author)

  5. Amelioration of Indian urban air pollution phytotoxicity in Beta vulgaris L. by modifying NPK nutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anoop [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Department of Botany, Allahabad Agricultural Institute - Deemed University, Allahabad 211 007 (India); Agrawal, S.B. [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)]. E-mail: sbagarwaldr@sancharnet.in; Rathore, Dheeraj [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Department of Botany, Allahabad Agricultural Institute - Deemed University, Allahabad 211 007 (India)

    2005-04-01

    Air pollution levels are increasing at an alarming rate in many developing countries, including India and causing a potential threat to crop production. Field experiments were conducted to examine the impact of urban air pollutants on biomass (yield) and some physiological and biochemical parameters of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var. All Green) that grew from germination to maturity at seven periurban sites of Allahabad city having different concentrations of air pollutants under different levels of nutrients. The 6 h daily mean NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} concentrations varied from 2.5 to 42.5, 10.6 to 65 and 3.5 to 30.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively at different locations. Levels of air pollution showed significant negative correlations with photosynthetic pigments, protein, ascorbic acid and starch contents and catalase activity of palak leaves. A significant negative correlation was found for total biomass with SO{sub 2} (r = -0.92), NO{sub 2} (r = -0.85) and O{sub 3} (r = -0.91) concentrations. The increased fertilizer application (N, P and K) over the recommended dose resulted in a positive response by reducing losses in photosynthetic pigments and total biomass. This study proved that ambient air pollution of Allahabad city is influencing negatively to the growth and yield of palak plants. - Air pollution caused adverse impact on growth and biomass accumulation of Beta vulgaris L. plants while higher fertility levels showed reduced yield losses.

  6. Fertility Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive Relationships Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Fertility Awareness KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Birth Control > Fertility Awareness Print A A A Text ...

  7. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Felippe Ratke; Adriana Verginassi; Débora de C Basto; Hélber S Morgado; Milena RF de Souza; Eliana Paula Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 (agricultural urea), 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®)),3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N®)) and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®)). ...

  8. PRODUCCIÓN DE ABONOS ORGÁNICOS CON LA UTILIZACIÓN DE ELODEA (Egeria densa PRESENTE EN LA LAGUNA DE FÚQUENE PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS WITH ELODEA (Egeria densa PRESENT ON THE FUQUENE LAGOON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveth Caro Lara

    Full Text Available La elodea (Egeria densa, un problema para lagos y lagunas en Colombia, puede ser materia prima para la producción de abonos orgánicos de bajo costo y de buena calidad. Para emplearla en la obtención de abonos orgánicos, se elaboraron fertilizantes a partir de seis formulaciones, así: 1 Elodea 50% cal dolomítica 20% levadura 5% melaza 5% gallinaza 20%. 2 Elodea 60% cal dolomítica10% levadura 3% melaza 8% gallinaza 19%. 3 Elodea 70% cal dolomítica 15% levadura 2% melaza 3% gallinaza 10%. 4 Formulación 1 + lombricompuesto; 5 Formulación 2 + lombricompuesto y 6 Formulación 3 + lombricompuesto. Para cada uno de los abonos, se determinó el contenido total de N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, carbón oxidable total, coliformes y relación C:N. Bajo condiciones de invernadero, se evaluó el efecto de los abonos en un Andisol sobre el cultivo de lechuga e igualmente, se monitoreó la temperatura y el pH a través del periodo de producción de los abonos. En general, el contenido de los elementos analizados y la relación C:N cumplen los requisitos para estos abonos. Hubo efecto significativo del contenido entre formulaciones y en el bioensayo para rendimiento entre formulaciones y dosis, siendo la formulación tres la de más alto rendimiento. De igual manera hubo efecto significativo de fuentes y de dosis en el contenido de N-P-K en la lechuga. El pH de los seis abonos fue de 7,00 a 7,30, considerado apropiado. Se demostró la factibilidad de producción de abonos orgánicos de buena calidad a partir de elodea.Elodea (Egeria densa, a problem in lakes and lagoons of Colombia, could be a raw material to produce cheap and good quality organic fertilizers. To evaluate the elodea for organic compost production, fertilizers were elaborated with six formulations: 1 Elodea 50% dolomitic lime 20% yeast 5% melasse 5% hene manure 20%. 2 Elodea 60% dolomitic lime 10% yeast 3% melasse 8% hene manure 19%. 3 Elodea 70% dolomitic lime 15% yeast 2% melasse 3% hene manure 10%. 4 Formulation 1 + earthworm fertilizer. 5 Formulation 2 + earthworm fertilizer. Formulation y 6 Formulation 3 + earthworm fertilizer. For each fertilizer the total content of N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, total oxidised carbon, coliforms and C:N were analyzed. Under greenhouse conditions the effect of the fertilizers were evaluated in an Andisol and with lettuce as indicator. During production of the fertilizer temperature and pH were observed. The results showed significant effect of the elements among organic fertilizer. The composition of these fertilizers was according to the requisites for Colombian Organic Fertilizers. The greenhouse experiment showed significant effect of sources and levels on yield and N-P-K content of the lettuce. In general, the formulation three was the best. The pH of the fertilizers varied from 7.0 to7.3, considered adequate. The feasibility to produce good quality organic fertilizers from elodea was demonstrated.

  9. PRODUCCIÓN DE ABONOS ORGÁNICOS CON LA UTILIZACIÓN DE ELODEA (Egeria densa) PRESENTE EN LA LAGUNA DE FÚQUENE / PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS WITH ELODEA (Egeria densa) PRESENT ON THE FUQUENE LAGOON

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iveth, Caro Lara; Zulma, Romero Otálora; Rodrigo, Lora Silva.

    2009-06-30

    Full Text Available La elodea (Egeria densa), un problema para lagos y lagunas en Colombia, puede ser materia prima para la producción de abonos orgánicos de bajo costo y de buena calidad. Para emplearla en la obtención de abonos orgánicos, se elaboraron fertilizantes a partir de seis formulaciones, así: 1) Elodea 50% [...] cal dolomítica 20% levadura 5% melaza 5% gallinaza 20%. 2) Elodea 60% cal dolomítica10% levadura 3% melaza 8% gallinaza 19%. 3) Elodea 70% cal dolomítica 15% levadura 2% melaza 3% gallinaza 10%. 4) Formulación 1 + lombricompuesto; 5) Formulación 2 + lombricompuesto y 6) Formulación 3 + lombricompuesto. Para cada uno de los abonos, se determinó el contenido total de N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, carbón oxidable total, coliformes y relación C:N. Bajo condiciones de invernadero, se evaluó el efecto de los abonos en un Andisol sobre el cultivo de lechuga e igualmente, se monitoreó la temperatura y el pH a través del periodo de producción de los abonos. En general, el contenido de los elementos analizados y la relación C:N cumplen los requisitos para estos abonos. Hubo efecto significativo del contenido entre formulaciones y en el bioensayo para rendimiento entre formulaciones y dosis, siendo la formulación tres la de más alto rendimiento. De igual manera hubo efecto significativo de fuentes y de dosis en el contenido de N-P-K en la lechuga. El pH de los seis abonos fue de 7,00 a 7,30, considerado apropiado. Se demostró la factibilidad de producción de abonos orgánicos de buena calidad a partir de elodea. Abstract in english Elodea (Egeria densa), a problem in lakes and lagoons of Colombia, could be a raw material to produce cheap and good quality organic fertilizers. To evaluate the elodea for organic compost production, fertilizers were elaborated with six formulations: 1) Elodea 50% dolomitic lime 20% yeast 5% melass [...] e 5% hene manure 20%. 2) Elodea 60% dolomitic lime 10% yeast 3% melasse 8% hene manure 19%. 3) Elodea 70% dolomitic lime 15% yeast 2% melasse 3% hene manure 10%. 4) Formulation 1 + earthworm fertilizer. 5) Formulation 2 + earthworm fertilizer. Formulation y 6) Formulation 3 + earthworm fertilizer. For each fertilizer the total content of N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, total oxidised carbon, coliforms and C:N were analyzed. Under greenhouse conditions the effect of the fertilizers were evaluated in an Andisol and with lettuce as indicator. During production of the fertilizer temperature and pH were observed. The results showed significant effect of the elements among organic fertilizer. The composition of these fertilizers was according to the requisites for Colombian Organic Fertilizers. The greenhouse experiment showed significant effect of sources and levels on yield and N-P-K content of the lettuce. In general, the formulation three was the best. The pH of the fertilizers varied from 7.0 to7.3, considered adequate. The feasibility to produce good quality organic fertilizers from elodea was demonstrated.

  10. Incorporation of mineral phosphorus and potassium on leather waste (collagen): A new NcollagenPK-fertilizer with slow liberation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using a solid waste (rich in nitrogen) from the leather industry, after chromium extraction, as adsorbent for P and K, for possible utilization as NPK fertilizer was evaluated. The materials, with and without the addition of P and K, were characterized by chemical analyses, infrared spectroscopy, EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and SEM (scanning electronic microscopy). Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used for analyzing the experimental data, which showed a better fit to the Freundlich model, thus suggesting a multilayer adsorption process on the surface of the adsorbent. A preliminary test in greenhouse demonstrates that the P and K incorporation on the matrix rich in nitrogen (collagen) is a interesting alternative to use such material as NPK fertilizer. The application of NcollagenPK formulations, as a source of nutrients for the growth of rice plants, showed promising agronomic results.

  11. New fertility trends in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Behind a stable and relatively high fertility level in Norway during the 1990s we find increasing differences in the pattern of fertility both in regard to the timing of the first childbirth and number of children born. In this paper, data from the Central Population Register in Norway are used to provide a review of recent fertility trends and discuss the consequences of education level on differences in fertility patterns. The paper will also provide some indication of aspects that will be dealt with in future projects.

  12. FERTILIZER APPLICATION METHODS AND IRRIGATION LEVELS ON EARLY (Zea mays L. DEVELOPMENT FORMAS DE APLICAÇÃO DO FERTILIZANTE E NÍVEIS DE IRRIGAÇÃO NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz do Nascimento

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Early corn development (Zea mays L. was evaluated through roots (MR and tops (MA dry matter in a low tunnel greenhouse pot experiment, in a 2x2x4 factorial completely randomized design with three replications, comparing the following treatments: two Oxisols (a sandy Latossolo Vermelho Escuro — LE and a clay Latossolo Roxo - LR; two methods of fertilizer application (soil mixed - A1, and furrow planting line - A2, and four irrigation levels (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% deficit in relation to the evapotranspired water. Significant effects were observed for fertilizer application methods and irrigation levels on MA, with 89,6% higher yield for A2, and MA reduction for increased water stress. There was a significant interaction between soil types and fertilizer application methods on MA, with a larger MA in the LE soil for A1 method, while MA was larger in the LR soil for A2 method. For MR, it was observed a significant effect of soil type and fertilizer application methods, with a larger yield in the LR soil under the A2 form. The findings confirm the importance of adequate soil water supply for nutrient absorption processes, resulting in better plant development. The localized fertilizer application is recommended for Oxisols with higher clay contents and larger phosphorus fixation capacity.

    KEY-WORDS: Fertilizer; irrigation levels; Zea mays.

    O desenvolvimento inicial da cultura do milho (Zea mays L. foi avaliado através da produção de matéria seca das raízes (MR e da parte aérea (MA em um experimento conduzido em vasos, abrigado sob uma estufa do tipo túnel baixo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 4, com os seguintes tratamentos: dois tipos de solo (Latossolo Vermelho Escuro, textura arenosa - LE e Latossolo Roxo, textura argilosa - LR; duas formas de aplicação do adubo (misturado ao solo - A1, e localizado no sulco de plantio - A2; e quatro níveis de irrigação (0%, 15%, 30% e 45% de déficit em relação à água evapotranspirada, com três repetições. Houve um efeito significativo da forma de aplicação do adubo e dos níveis de irrigação sobre a MA, com uma produção 89,6% maior para a forma A2 de aplicação do adubo, bem como uma redução da MA em função do aumento do estresse hídrico. Verificou-se uma interação significativa entre os fatores solo e forma de aplicação do adubo sobre a MA, com uma MA maior no LE para a forma A1, enquanto a MA foi maior no LR para a forma A2. Quanto à MR, houve efeito significativo do tipo de solo e forma de aplicação do adubo com uma maior produção no LR e na forma A2. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a importância de um suprimento adequado de água no solo para os processos de absorção de nutrientes, o que resulta em um melhor desenvolvimento das plantas. A forma localizada de aplicação do adubo é a mais recomendada para o caso dos solos de cerrado, onde a capacidade de fixação do fósforo é elevada, principalmente nos mais argilosos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fertilização; níveis de irrigação; arroz.

  13. Use of organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer in a modern planting system to increase the productivity of vanilla plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanilla is a plant belonging to the orchid family and native to Mexico. In Malaysia, research and cultivation of vanilla plants are becoming more popular and intensive because the plant has a high commercial value. Fertilizing of vanilla plants is important to enhance the nutrients needed by the plants for growth and vanilla pod production. In 1999, research in MARDI showed that the use of chemical fertilizer NPK (15:15:15) was suitable for vanilla plants. For plants that have not produced vanilla pods foliar fertilizer must be sprayed and foliar fertilizer application must be reduced at pod production stage. The fertilizer programme is almost similar to those of other vanilla producing countries such as Indonesia and Mexico. In Indonesia, studies on organic farming of vanilla have been conducted. They have produced chemical-free vanilla fertilizer products such as Bio-Fob, Bio-TRIBA and Organo TRIBA Compost. We in Malaysian Nuclear Agency conducted a study on the effects of organic and bio fertilizers on vanilla at the vanilla experimental plot. This plot adopts the modern system of vanilla planting. The study involved the use of organic and bio fertilizer products produced in Nuclear Malaysia such as Organik NF, plant growth promoter and phosphate solubiliser and imported commercial orchid mycorrhizal bio fertilizer from Korea. The application of these fertilizers is by placing the fertilizers on the planting media in poly bags with replications according to the treatments. Observations were made weekly for 15 weeks by measuring of parameters including the bud growth and leaf number. These data are plotted in graphical form for evaluation.(author)

  14. Effects of aqueous plant extracts and inorganic fertilizer on the germination, growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuka Kanayo S.; Obiakara Maxwell C.; Ogunsumi Israel A.

    2014-01-01

    Screen house experiments were carried out to examine the effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Tithonia diversifolia (Ti) and Vernonia amygdalina (Ve), as well as NPK fertilizer (15-15-15) on the germination, growth and development of maize. Fresh leaves were collected, washed with tap water, chopped and pounded, soaked in distilled water and filtered. The two filtrates were used to prepare extracts at 50 and 100% w/v. Four maize seeds were placed in Petri di...

  15. Comparative performance and profitability of two corn hybrids with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of NPK and organic manures on growth and yield of two maize hybrids. Experiment comprised of two factors (H) hybrids (H/sub 1/: FHY-421 and H/sub 2/: FHY-434) and (F) four fertilizer types, viz. F/sub 1/: inorganic fertilizer (control) NPK at the rate 120:60:50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/, F/sub 2/ poultry manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/, F/sub 3/: FYM at the rate 20 t ha/sup -1/ and F/sub 4/: bio-fertilizer at the rate 30 g kg/sup -1/ seed So, the treatments comprised of T/sub 1/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 1/), T/sub 2/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 3/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 1/), T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 5/ (F/sub 3/ + H/sub 1/, T/sub 6/ (F/sub 3/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 7/ (F/sub 4/ + H/sub 1/), and T/sub 8/ (F/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/). As the experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement, it was observed that although FHY-434 with inorganic fertilizer NPK at the rate 120:60:50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ i.e. T/sub 2/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 2/) produced maximum plant height (212.30 cm), number of grains cob/sup -1/ (606.60), 1000-grain weight (310.90 g ), grain yield (8.44 t ha/sup -1/) and net profit (As. 85803 ha/sup -1/), followed by FHY -434 with poultry manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/ i.e. T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/) in the same parameters, yet T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/) with net profit As. 83764 ha/sup -1/ is being advocated for organic cultivation for long term and sustainable production keeping in WTO scenario, as it produced grain yield 8.91 t ha/sup -1/. (author)

  16. Crecimiento de vara perlilla (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) en respuesta a fertilización y altura de corte / Growth of "vara perlilla" (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) in response to fertilization and clipping height

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Concepción, Mendoza-Bautista; Miguel Á., López-López; Dante A., Rodríguez-Trejo; Alejandro, Velásquez-Martínez; Fortino, García-Moreno.

    2012-11-15

    Full Text Available Vara perlilla (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) se emplea para elaborar escobas rústicas y artesanías navideñas. Actualmente se aprovechan sus poblaciones naturales y se cultiva. Sin embargo, se carece de información suficiente del manejo de la especie. Con el objetivo de determinar los efectos [...] de tres niveles de fertilización y dos alturas de corte se realizó este estudio en una plantación de tres años. El diagnóstico nutrimental se hizo con la metodología Tendencias de Concentración y se usó para diseñar la fórmula de fertilización. Se aplicaron los nutrimentos que resultaron limitativos. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con seis tratamientos derivados de la combinación de las alturas de corte (6 y 12 cm) y las fórmulas de fertilización (testigo, Mn-Zn y NPK+Mn-Zn). Se evaluaron número de rebrotes, diámetro y longitud de rebrotes, diámetro promedio de rebrotes por arbusto, longitud promedio de rebrotes por arbusto y biomasa aérea, antes y seis meses después de la fertilización. La biomasa y la longitud de rebrotes mostraron efecto de la fertilización (p Abstract in english 'Vara perlilla' (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) is used to elaborate rustic brooms and Christmas handcrafts. Currently, its natural populations are used and it is cultivated. However, there is a lack of sufficient information regarding species management. With the objective of determining the [...] effects of three levels of fertilization and two clipping heights, this study was carried out in a three-year plantation. The nutritional diagnosis was performed by using the Trends in Concentration method which was used to design a fertilization formula. Nutrients that turned out to be limiting were applied. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with six treatments derived from the combination of clipping heights (6 and 12 cm) and fertilization formulas (control, Mn-Zn and NPK+Mn-Zn). The number of resprouts, diameter and length of resprouts, average diameter of resprouts per shrub, average length of resprouts per shrub and aerial biomass were evaluated, before and six months after fertilization. The biomass and the length of resprouts showed an effect from fertilization (p

  17. Natural Radioactivity in Produced and Imported Phosphate Fertilizers in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunisia is the fifth phosphate producer in the world. Many types of phosphate fertilizers are produced in the country and many others are imported and used in agriculture. It is known that natural radioactivity content (NORM), due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K isotopes in phosphate industry can be elevated. This work consists on a study of the concentration of these radionuclides in some produced phosphate fertilizers in Tunisia and sum exported ones. The study concerns the most used fertilizers in the country. It was found that generally the Tunisian fertilizers contain the highest activity concentrations of radium and thorium isotopes with the exceptions for 40K. TSP contains the highest concentration of 226Ra (186.2 ± 14.5 Bq/kg) and of 232Th (33.7 ± 3.5 Bq/kg). The highest amount of 40K was found in one type of NPK (9969.5 ± 123.6 Bq/kg). The radium equivalent index was calculated for all the analysed fertilizers and was found to be the highest in imported NPKs samples (the maximum value was about 775 Bq/kg) because of their high content of 40K. For the Tunisian fertilizers the maximum radium equivalent index was about 238 Bq/kg in TSP. (author)

  18. Evaluation of BNF by groundnut and responses of cereal crops to different levels of nitrogen fertilizer in the coastal area of the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two course crop rotation experiment was conducted over a period of two years in order to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and its contribution to the subsequent cereal crop in terms of its N-conserving effect. Also the response of the treatment crop (Zea mays L.) to different levels of N-fertilization (100 and 150 kg N ha-1) were evaluated. Moreover, the effect of a previous crop, N rate and timing on the test crop (Triticum aestivum) was assessed. Results showed that groundnut fixed as much as 52.9 and 23.4 kg N ha-1 at pod filling stage and 66.7 and 34.4 at physiological maturity stage for the 1992 and 1993 growing season, respectively. The test crop did not benefit from the residual N due to the high precipitation in the region leaching down most of the inorganic nitrogen beyond the root zone. In the 1992 growing season, the lower N rate for maize (100 kg N ha-1) was superior over the higher rate (150 kg N ha-1). But due to water stress in the 1993 growing season, a different trend with regard to the response of maize to fertilizer N was obtained. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 10 tabs

  19. Sistema de blocos prensados e doses de adubo de liberação lenta na formação de porta-enxerto cítrico / Pressed blocks system and slow release fertilizer levels for citrus rootstock formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes, Serrano; Cláudia Sales, Marinho; Deborah Guerra, Barroso; Almy Júnior Cordeiro de, Carvalho.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à restrição que os tubetes impõem ao crescimento lateral do sistema radicular, o uso de materiais orgânicos prensados está sendo utilizado para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção do porta-enxerto cítrico limoeiro 'Cravo' no sistema de blo [...] cos prensados até a repicagem, e o efeito deste sistema e de doses de um fertilizante de liberação lenta sobre o crescimento desse porta-enxerto até o ponto de enxertia. Avaliaram-se três sistemas de produção até a repicagem: em tubetes preenchidos com substrato comercial composto por casca de pínus; em tubetes preenchidos com substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v); e em "blocos prensados" constituídos pela prensagem do substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v). Da repicagem à enxertia, foram empregadas cinco doses de Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14): 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g planta-1. As mudas provenientes do sistema de blocos prensados atingiram o ponto de repicagem e o de enxertia mais rapidamente que as produzidas em tubetes. No ponto de enxertia, estas apresentaram maiores médias de diâmetro de caule e massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. O sistema utilizado na produção do porta-enxerto também interferiu na resposta das mudas à adubação empregada. Abstract in english Due to the restriction that the stiff plastic tubes impose to the lateral growth of the root system, the use of pressed organic materials has been proposed for the production of forests species seedlings. The research was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the production of rootstock 'Ran [...] gpur' lime tree in pressed blocks until the transplant, and the effect of those systems were evaluated and doses of slow release fertilizer on the growth of that rootstock until the grafting point. Three production systems were evaluated: in stiff plastic tubes filled up with commercial substrate composed by pinus bark; in stiff plastic tubes filled up with substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse and industrial sugarcane plant residues, (3:2;v:v); and production in "pressed blocks" constituted by the press of the substrate used in the system 2. From transplant at the grafting point, five doses of Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14) were used: 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g plant-1. Compared to the seedlings grown in tubes, seedlings coming of the system of pressed blocks reached the transplant and the grafting point more quickly. In the grafting point they resulted in rootstocks with larger stem diameter, larger root and aerial part dry matter. The system used in the production of the rootstock also interfered in the answer of the plants to the employed manuring.

  20. Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Two Types of Bio-Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Two Cultivars of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Najafvand Direkvandi; N. Alemzadeh Ansari; F. Sedighie Dehcordie

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer with two types of bio-fertilizers (0, 125, 75, 225, 125 plus Super Nitro and 125 kg N h-1 plus Nitroxin bio-fertilizer) and two cultivars (Super Chief and Super Beita) on growth and yield of tomato, at a field Andimeshk, Khuzestan Iran, during 2006. The experiment design was randomized complete block design arranged in split plot, with three replications. During of study, were measured some of...

  1. Response of Seed Yield and its Components of Safflower to Sowing Dates, Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Times of Foliar Application with Milagrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.S. El-Hety

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high productivity of safflower is outcome of many agronomical practices such as sowing dates, N-levels and times of foliar fertilization. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing dates (1st Sept., 1st Oct. and 1st Nov., N-levels (40, 60 and 80 kg N fed-1 and times of foliar application with Milagrow (without, one and two times on seed yield of safflower. Each sowing date was practiced in separate experiment. Every experiment was carried out in strip plot design with three replications. Sowing safflower at 1st October gave the highest values of seed yield and its components in both seasons. The lowest means of seed yield and its components were resulted from sowing at 1st September in both seasons. Raising N-levels markedly accompanied with obvious increase in all studied characters in both seasons. Application of 80 kg N fed-1 significantly resulted in the highest values of all studied characters of safflower. Spraying safflower plants with Milagrow two times after 30 and 70 days from sowing produced the highest values of seed yield and its components in both seasons. On the other wise, control treatment gave the lowest values of these characters in both seasons. From the obtained data, it can be concluded that sowing safflower on 1st October and mineral fertilizing with 80 kg N fed-1 beside twice foliar application with Milagrow as a natural growth promoter in order to maximizing its seed yield and its components under the environmental conditions of Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

  2. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) is a primary nutrient necessary for plant growth. When soil P level is below what is needed for plant needs, P is supplied to the soil by the addition of P fertilizer or organic residuals (i.e., manure). Because of P fertilizer use in the past few decades or application of manure, a g...

  3. Relative Efficiency of Controlled Release and Water Soluble Fertilizers on the Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Senthil Valavan; Kumaresan, K R

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted at eastern block of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (11°N and 77° E) during (Aug-December) 1999 in Periyanayakkan palayam series, clay loam soil (Vertic ustropept) to study the effect of Controlled Release Fertilizers (CRF) and Water Soluble fertilizers (WSF) as against the conventional Straight fertilizers on tomato yield and quality. The results revealed that the soil application of 50% NPK+WSF (PS at 1 or 2 g L-1) foliar spray found to be the best combi...

  4. Calidad nutritiva de Brachiaria humidicola con fertilización orgánica e inorgánica en suelos ácidos / Nutritive value of Brachiaria humidicola with organic and inorganic fertilization in acid soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.M.M., Jiménez; L., Granados; J., Oliva; J., Quiroz; M., Barrón.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de fertilizante orgánico e inorgánico sobre la calidad nutritiva de Brachiaria humidicola, en tres épocas climáticas del año a los 21, 28 y 35 días de crecimiento. El estudio se condujo sobre una pradera localizada en suelos ácidos. [...] Los efectos principales estudiados fueron: época climática (E), sequía, lluvias e invierno; tipo de fertilizante (TF), sin fertilizante, fertilizante inorgánico (150-60-00 NPK) y orgánico (15-4,8-8,4 NPK); edad de corte 21, 28 y 35 días y sus interacciones. Se utilizaron tres réplicas por tratamiento. Las variables estudiadas fueron: proteína bruta (PB), digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca (DIMS), fibra detergente neutro (FDN) y digestibilidad de la FDN (DFDN). Los efectos principales estudiados y sus interacciones afectaron (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic fertilization on nutritive value of Brachiaria humidicola during three climatic seasons at the 21, 28 and 35 days old of growth. The study was carried out on grassland in acid soil. The main effects were climatic season [...] (E), dry, rainfall and winter; kind of fertilizer (TF), without fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (150-60-00 NPK) and organic fertilizer (15-4,8-8.4 NPK); age of harvest (21, 28 y 35 days) and their interactions. Three replicate were used by treatment. The response variables were crude protein (PD), digestibility in situ of the dry matter (DIMS), neutral detergent fiber (FDN) and digestibility of the FDN (DFDN). The main effects studied and their interactions affected (p

  5. Association between fertilin beta, protamines 1 and 2 and spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein mRNA levels, fertilization ability of human spermatozoa, and quality of preimplantation embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kempisty

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization involves a series of cellular interactions culminating in the fusion of gamete membranes, creating a zygote and then an embryo. During the process of human fertilization in vivo or in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF, sperm must be capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction, binding to the zona pellucida (ZP, and penetrating the ZP to fuse with the oolema. The key role in this process is played by fertilin beta. Protamines and histones are the proteins that bind to sperm chromatin and contribute in chromatin remodeling during early spermiogenesis. It has been suggested that these proteins may also participate in successful fertilization and embryo development. Using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR reaction (QR-PCR methods and zygote and embryo scoring, we compared fertilin beta, protamine 1 (PRM1, protamine 2 (PRM2, spermatid-specific linker histone 1 (HILS1 mRNAs levels, in vitro fertilization ability of mature spermatozoa, and quality of embryos obtained from in vitro fertilization (IVF. We found significantly lower contents of fertilin beta transcript in spermatozoa from patients in which IVF fertilization failed (p<0.001. We also noticed a correlation between high levels of fertilin beta and increased quality of embryos (p<0.05. We observed an increase in PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels in spermatozoa obtained from patients with successful in vitro fertilization versus compared to the number of these transcripts isolated from spermatozoa of patients in which in vitro fertilization failed (P<0.001, (P<0.001, respectively. We found direct correlation between PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels to the quality of embryos (r=0.31, P=0.012, (r=0.31, P=0.011, respectively. The differences in HILS1 mRNA contents between these two groups were not statistically significant (P>0,05. We did not observe an association between HILS1 transcript contents and quality of embryos (r=0.22, P=0.076. We suggest that fertilin beta and protamines contribute not only to successful fertilization, but may have an important impact in development of preimplantation embryos.

  6. Use of Cocopeat and Zeolite as a Seedling Media for Cocoa and Its Response to Some Levels of Available Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leizy Free Agustin F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, cocoa pod husk is commonly collected as heap nearby processing facilities or in the field and being considered as waste. To minimize the negative impact of the husks and to obtain added value an effort to develop the husk into granule fertilizer has been carried out. Fresh cocoa pod husk was hulled to obtain organic paste, then mixed with 5% zeolite and 5% rock phosphate powder (w/w. The mixture was kept for 2 weeks prior to granulation. The granules were characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests of the granules were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedlings as indicator plants. The tests were set according to completely randomized design and the treatments were arranged factorially. The evaluated treatments consisted of rates of granules and rates of inorganic fertilizer applications. The granules were applied at 7 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 g/seedling. The granule treatments were combined with application of inorganic compound fertilizer at rates of 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15. The inorganic fertilizers were applied four times during experiment. The results indicated that the granule has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, and high content of organic carbon and phosphorus. The growth of coffee and cocoa seedlings increased due to application of granules derived from cocoa pod husk. Responses of coffee and cocoa seedlings to granule application conformed to quadratic equations. The optimum application rate of granules was 14.5 g/seedling for Robusta coffee seedlings and 14.6 g/seedling for cocoa seedlings. Granule application may replaced role of inorganic fertilizer to increase growth of cocoa and coffee seedling.Key words: Cocoa pod husk, organic waste, seedling growth, zeolite, rock phosphate, minerals, Theobroma cacao L., Coffea canephora. 

  7. [Soil C, P and microbial biomass C, P response to different fertilizations in the hillslope cropland of purple soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Ya-juan; Peng, Yan; Jin, Jin; Zhu, Bo; Yu, Gui-rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the changes and coupling characteristics of carbon (C), phosphorus (P) and microbial C, P in a hillslope cropland of purple soil. The results showed that total organic carbon (TOC) ranged from 90.8 to 100.8 g . kg-1 under organic fertilizer or straw combined with inorganic fertilizer treatments (including N, NP and NPK) as compared with nitrogen (N) application only (62.2 g . kg-1). Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 0.65 to 0.84 g . kg-1 in organic combined with inorganic fertilization treatments, and that under straw combined with inorganic fertilizer treatments was 23%-38% of organic fertilizer combined with inorganic fertilization treatments. The microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) under N fertilizer was significantly decreased as compared with combined fertilization treatments. The ratios of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) to MBP under combined fertilization treatments were between 5 to 26, and the TOC/TP ratios under organic fertilizer and straw combined treatments were between 92 to 137 and 296 to 653, respectively, while those under N fertilizer treatment were 59 and 2000, respectively. The results indicated that combined organic and inorganic fertilizers would be helpful for enhancing P availability and increasing its potential capacity in purple soil. PMID:25985660

  8. Relation of zinc levels and water soluble phosphorus in suphala [fertilizer] on uptake of phosphorus and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under pot culture, four levels of Zn 0, 2, 4 and 6 ppm, were studied in relation to 30, 50 and 100 % water soluble levels of phosphorus in suphala for the dry matter production and uptake of P and Zn by maize on acidic soil of Goa and black cotton soil of Maharashtra. 32P and 65Zn tracers were used for this investigation. The results revealed that application of Zn has increased the dry matter and uptake of phosphorus upto 4 ppm of Zn application and it has decreased at 6 ppm Zn level. This inhibition of P uptake was observed at all water soluble levels of P and in both the soils studied. Zn uptake by maize in both the soils under study was increased with increasing level of Zn, irrespective of water soluble level of P in suphala. (author)

  9. Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano André Petter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar made from Eucalyptus on soil fertility, and on the yield and development of upland rice. The experiment was performed during two years in a randomized block design with four replicates, in a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. Four doses of NPK 05-25-15, annually distributed in stripes (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1, and four doses of biochar (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha-1, applied once in the first year - alone or with NPK - were evaluated. In the first year, biochar positively affected soil fertility [total organic carbon (TOC, Ca, P, Al, H+Al, and pH], at 0-10 cm soil depth, and it was the only factor with significant effect on yield. In the second year, the effect of biochar diminished or was overcome by the fertilizer. TOC moved down in the soil profile to the 0-20 cm depth, influencing K availability in this layer. In the second year, there was a significant interaction between biochar and the fertilizer on plant growth and biomass dry matter accumulation.

  10. Fertilizer-nitrogen residues: useful conservation and pollutant potential under maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the fate of labelled fertilizer nitrogen in cropped soil, with particular reference to leaching after harvest, is reported. The experiment was carried out in a chernozem soil with three replications and two treatments (I and II), with maize as the crop: I: NPK(120kgN.ha-1; 100kgP.ha-1; 126kgK.ha-1. II: NPK+OM(120kgN.ha-1; 100kgP.ha-1; 126kgK.ha-1 plus 5000kg of organic matter (ground straw) per hectare). A 4-m2 plot was fertilized with (15NH4)2SO4 containing 10 atom 15N% excess. Tensiometers and access tubes were installed for measuring water content and water pressure at depths of 30, 60, 100, 150 and 200cm. Harvested crop as well as soil cores taken after crop harvest were analysed for 15N. The highest content of fertilizer-derived NO3-15N at 0-60cm depth was 1ppm, and at 120-180cm depth it was 0.3ppm. Climatological data were also obtained. There was evidence that, after harvest, mineral nitrogen had moved to a depth of 2m and some 10% was derived from the labelled fertilizer. Organic matter additions tended to reduce both leaching of nitrate and the percentage of leached Ndff. (author)

  11. Efecto de bocashi y fertilizantes de liberación lenta en algunas propiedades de suelos con maíz / Effect of Bocashi and slow release fertilizers on some soil properties with corn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angélica, Bautista-Cruz; Gricel, Cruz Domínguez; María de las Nieves, Rodríguez-Mendoza.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó el efecto de la aplicación individual o combinada de composta (bocashi, B) y fertilizantes de liberación lenta (FLL) sobre algunas propiedades de suelos de terraza y valle cultivados con maíz (Zea mays L.) en la región Mixteca del estado de Oaxaca, México. Se utilizó un [...] diseño completamente al azar con 7 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones: control, sin fertilización (C); fertilización convencional (90-46-00 NPK) (FC); B; FLL1 [Multigro 6®, 21-14-10 NPK]; FLL2 [Multigro 3®, 24-05-14 NPK]; B+FLL1; B+FLL2. En el suelo de valle el pH disminuyó y el contenido de P disponible aumentó con FLL2. En el suelo de terraza el pH disminuyó con FLL2, y el contenido de P disponible incrementó con B+FLL2. El carbono de la biomasa microbiana (CBM) incrementó con B en ambos suelos. El efecto significativo de la interacción fertilización × tipo de suelo indicó que la respuesta del P disponible y CBM a la fertilización estuvo condicionada por el tipo de suelo. Los resultados sugieren que la aplicación individual de FLL2 y B puede mejorar el pH, el P disponible y el CBM en suelos cultivados con maíz. Abstract in english In this study the effect of individual or combined application of compost (bocashi, B) and slow-release fertilizers (FLL) on some soil properties of terrace and valley, cultivated with maize (Zea mays L.) in the Mixteca region from the state of Oaxaca, Mexico was determined. A completely randomized [...] design with 7 treatments and 4 replications was used: control without fertilization (C); conventional fertilizer (90-46-00 NPK) (FC); B; FLL1 [Multigro 6®, 21-14-10 NPK]; FLL2 [Multigro 3®, 24-05-14 NPK]; B + FLL1; B + FLL2. On the soil from the valley, pH decreased and the content of available P increased with FLL2. On terrace soil, pH decreased with FLL2, and content of available P increased with B + FLL2. The microbial biomass carbon (CBM) increased with B in both soils. The significant effect of fertilization × soil type interaction indicated that the response of available P and CBM to fertilization was influenced by the soil type. The results suggest that individual application of FLL2 and B can improve pH, available P and CBM in soils cultivated with maize.

  12. Abortamento de frutos da nogueira macadâmia sob influência da adubação mineral / Macadamia nut abortion as affected by mineral fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos José, Perdoná; Eduardo, Suguino; Adriana Novais, Martins; Rogério Peres, Soratto.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A nogueira macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia) apresenta elevada taxa de abortamento de frutos. A nutrição desequilibrada pode ser um dos fatores que contribui para isso. Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar a influência de doses de N e do parcelamento da adubação NPK, de cobertura, na redução do [...] abortamento de frutos da nogueira macadâmia. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, durante três anos agrícolas, num Latossolo Vermelho, em Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo. O primeiro experimento foi constituído por cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1) e quatro repetições. O segundo experimento foi constituído por quatro formas de parcelamento da adubação NPK (T1: outubro T2: outubro + dezembro, T3: outubro + dezembro + fevereiro e T4: outubro+dezembro + fevereiro + abril) e cinco repetições. A maior parte dos frutos (77,7 %) foi abortada no início de seu desenvolvimento. A aplicação de N, bem como o parcelamento da adubação NPK de cobertura, pelo menos em duas vezes (outubro e dezembro), não alteraram o número de frutos abortados por planta de macadâmia, mas, por aumentarem o número total de frutos emitidos e reduzirem a percentagem de abortamento, proporcionaram maior produtividade de nozes. Abstract in english Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) has a high nut abortion rate. Unbalanced nutrition may be one of the factors that contributes to this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of N doses and the split application of NPK fertilizers on fruit abortion of macadamia nut. Two experi [...] ments were conducted during three growing seasons on an Oxisol, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The first experiment consisted of five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 yr-1) and four replications. The second experiment consisted of four splitting modes of NPK fertilizers (T1: October, T2: October + December, T3: October + December + February and T4: October + December + February + April) and five replications. Most fruits (77.7%) aborted earlier in their development. The N application and the split fertilization of NPK as topdress for at least twice (October and December), did not affect the number of aborted fruits per macadamia tree, but, by increasing the total number of set fruits and reducing the percentage of abortion, provided higher nut productivity.

  13. Effect of Different Levels of Fertilizer Nano_Iron Chelates on Growth and Yield Characteristics of Two Varieties of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.: Varamin 88 and Viroflay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlirezaLadan Moghadam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate effect of different concentrations of iron chelate Nano fertilizer on growth and performance of two kinds of Spinach, an experiment was performed as a plan of completely random plot in three alternations and in study field of Khazra Company in 2012. First studied factor was different types of Spinach including Varamin 88 and Viroflayand second studied factor was different concentrations of fertilizer (0, 2 and 4 ppt, respectively. Nano fertilizer solution injection was performed in early morning when plant had 8-13 leaves. Results show that wet weight and maximum leaf area index is influenced by concentration of iron chelate Nano fertilizer and dry weight is influenced by both type of Spinach and concentration of Nano fertilizer. Using 4 kg/ha Nano fertilizer causes 58 and 47% increase inwet weight and maximum leaf surface index, respectively comparing to use of no fertilizer. Using 4 kg/ha Nano fertilized leaded to maximum value of aerial organs dry weight for Sugar beet type and minimum value was obtained for treating both types of Spinach without using fertilizer. Studying leaf area index trend and growth rate diagrams indicate that Nano fertilizer has a positive effect on all plant growth steps.

  14. Adubação do algodoeiro: XI - Ensaio com calcário, adubação verde e adubação mineral Fertilizer experiments with cotton: XI - Trial with lime, green manure and mineral fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Corrêa

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho .são apresentados os primeiros resultados de uma experiência instalada na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em solo Corumbataí com pH = 5,3, para estudar o efeito, sôbre a produção do algodoeiro, da calarem, da adubação verde com mucuna prêta {Stizolobium sp. e de uma adubação mineral com .NPK. sendo êsses tratamentos efetuados separadamente ou combinados. A mucuna foi plantada nos mesmos anos em que se aplicou o calcário; nesses anos, os canteiros testemunhas e os que só receberam calcário ficaram em pousio. Quando o algodoeiro ocupou os canteiros, êstes foram divididos em duas partes, aplicando-se NPK em uma delas. A experiência foi conduzida de modo que em todos os anos figuraram as culturas do algodoeiro e da mucuna. No conjunto dos quatro anos relatados (1956-57 a 1959-60 os efeitos médios da calagem e das adubações verde e mineral foram significativos e atingiram respectivamente +19, +19 e +13%. Todavia, êsses efeitos foram atenuados por vários fatôres, entre outros pela adubação com NPK das culturas anteriores à experiência e pelos pousios na fase preparatória desta. Tanto que as respostas a todos os tratamentos tenderam a aumentar no decorrer dos anos. O efeito do tratamento calcário + mucuna foi superior à soma das respostas à mucuna e ao calcário empregados separadamente. Durante o periodo relatado, as produções dos canteiros sem qualquer tratamento cairam consideravelmente, o mesmo acontecendo, com menor intensidade, às dos diversos tratamentos, com exceção do que recebeu calcário + mucuna + NPK, no qual elas tenderam a aumentar. Em relação à testemunha geral, o efeito deste último tratamento foi de +38% no primeiro biênio, elevando-se a +115% no segundo.This paper reports the first results of an experiment conducted on the Corumbatai type of soil with pH = 5,3 to study the effect, on the cotton crop, of ground lime-stone, green manure with velvet beans (Stizolobium sp., and a NPK--fertilizer, these treatments being used single or combined. Liming and planting of velvet beans were carried out in the same years, and during these years the control plots and those which received lime alone were left idle. When cotton occupied the plots, these were halved for the application, or not, of NPK. The experiment was conducted so that velvet beans and cotton were present everv year. Averaging the results obtained in the four years reported (1956-57 to 1959--60, the responses to liming, green-manuring and NPK were respectively + 19. + 19 and +13%- These averages, however, were curtailed by several factors, including the application of NPK to the crops which previously occupied the utilized area and the idle periods during the preparatory stage of the experiment. Effectively, the responses to all of the treatments tended to grow better as the years passed. During the course of the experiment the yields decreased considerably in the untreated plots and, in a smaller degree, in the majority of the differently treated ones; contrarily, they tended to increase in those which received lime + green manure + NPK. The responses to the latter treatment were +38 and +115%. respectively in the averages of the first and second biennial periods.

  15. Vermicomposting Leachate (Worm Tea) as Liquid Fertilizer for Maize (Zea mays L.) Forage Production

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Gomez Roberto Carlos; Luc Dendooven; Gutierrez-Miceli Federico Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how dilution of vermicompost Leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected maize plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m-1, contained 834 mg K+ L-1, 247 mg NO3-1 L-1 and 168 mg PO43– L-1, was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65% germina...

  16. Efeito de diferentes substratos e duas formas de adubação na produção de mudas de mamoeiro / Different growth medium and fertilizer effects on papaya seedlings growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvaldo Kiyohi, Yamanishi; Geni Rodrigues, Fagundes; José Altino, Machado Filho; Gustavo de Vincenzo, Valone.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de plantas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cvs. Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1) crescidas em bandejas de poliestireno (72 células) com substrato (Plantmax Hortaliças® = casca de pínus + vermiculita + turfa), adicionado de 4% de adubo orgânico (húmus; esterco de gado e Nutriplanta® [...] ) combinado com 0,05% de adubo químico (Osmocote® NPK 14-14-14 de liberação lenta e NPK 14-14-14 de liberação normal). A germinação das sementes do híbrido Tainung 1 iniciou-se aos 12 dias após a semeadura em todos os tratamentos, e da cultivar Sunrise Solo, aos 14 dias. A cultivar Sunrise Solo e o híbrido Tainung 1 apresentaram maior taxa de germinação nos substratos adubados com Osmocote® e fonte orgânica de húmus e esterco bovino, respectivamente. As mudas de mamoeiros Tainung 1 e Sunrise Solo crescidas nos substratos contendo Osmocote® apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento do que nos substratos com formulado NPK (14-14-14) de liberação normal. Apesar dos bons resultados apresentados pelas mudas de Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1 nos tratamentos constituídos de Nutriplanta®, não foi verificada diferença significativa entre os substratos contendo adubos orgânicos. As mudas desenvolvidas em substrato contendo esterco de curral + NPK de liberação normal tiveram os piores resultados para a maioria das características analisadas (altura, diâmetro do caule, peso seco da parte aérea, caule e raiz, e área foliar total). Os teores de nutrientes (NPK) encontrados na análise foliar das amostras foram superiores nos tratamentos com Osmocote® em relação aos demais, cerca de 20% para o híbrido Tainung 1 e 10% para o Sunrise Solo. Abstract in english The behavior of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Tainung 1') seedlings grown in polystyrene trays (72 cells) in the growth medium (Plantmax® = pine bark + vermiculite + peat) amended with 4% of organic fertilizer (Humus; composted cattle manure and Nutriplanta®) combined with 0.05% o [...] f inorganic fertilizer (Osmocote® - slow release - NPK 14-14-14 and normal release NPK 14-14-14) was evaluated in this study. Germination in cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and hybrid 'Tainung 1' occurred 12 and 14 days after sowing, respectively. Higher germination rate in both materials was obtained in the growth medium fertilized with Osmocote plus humus and composted cattle manure, respectively. The seedlings fertilized with slow release type hastened growth compared with normal one. Growth medium amended with Nutriplanta® gave good results but there was no significant difference with others organic fertilizers. The seedlings grown in growth medium amended with composted cattle manure + normal release NPK showed the poorest results in almost all analyzed parameters such as height, stem diameter, dry weight - root and top - and total leaf area. The nutrient contents (NPK) found in the leaf analyses samples were higher in treatments using slow release fertilizer (~20% for hybrid Tainung 1 and ~+10% for cv. Sunrise Solo) compared with the normal one.

  17. Efeito de diferentes substratos e duas formas de adubação na produção de mudas de mamoeiro Different growth medium and fertilizer effects on papaya seedlings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Kiyohi Yamanishi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de plantas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cvs. Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1 crescidas em bandejas de poliestireno (72 células com substrato (Plantmax Hortaliças® = casca de pínus + vermiculita + turfa, adicionado de 4% de adubo orgânico (húmus; esterco de gado e Nutriplanta® combinado com 0,05% de adubo químico (Osmocote® NPK 14-14-14 de liberação lenta e NPK 14-14-14 de liberação normal. A germinação das sementes do híbrido Tainung 1 iniciou-se aos 12 dias após a semeadura em todos os tratamentos, e da cultivar Sunrise Solo, aos 14 dias. A cultivar Sunrise Solo e o híbrido Tainung 1 apresentaram maior taxa de germinação nos substratos adubados com Osmocote® e fonte orgânica de húmus e esterco bovino, respectivamente. As mudas de mamoeiros Tainung 1 e Sunrise Solo crescidas nos substratos contendo Osmocote® apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento do que nos substratos com formulado NPK (14-14-14 de liberação normal. Apesar dos bons resultados apresentados pelas mudas de Sunrise Solo e Tainung 1 nos tratamentos constituídos de Nutriplanta®, não foi verificada diferença significativa entre os substratos contendo adubos orgânicos. As mudas desenvolvidas em substrato contendo esterco de curral + NPK de liberação normal tiveram os piores resultados para a maioria das características analisadas (altura, diâmetro do caule, peso seco da parte aérea, caule e raiz, e área foliar total. Os teores de nutrientes (NPK encontrados na análise foliar das amostras foram superiores nos tratamentos com Osmocote® em relação aos demais, cerca de 20% para o híbrido Tainung 1 e 10% para o Sunrise Solo.The behavior of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Tainung 1' seedlings grown in polystyrene trays (72 cells in the growth medium (Plantmax® = pine bark + vermiculite + peat amended with 4% of organic fertilizer (Humus; composted cattle manure and Nutriplanta® combined with 0.05% of inorganic fertilizer (Osmocote® - slow release - NPK 14-14-14 and normal release NPK 14-14-14 was evaluated in this study. Germination in cv. 'Sunrise Solo' and hybrid 'Tainung 1' occurred 12 and 14 days after sowing, respectively. Higher germination rate in both materials was obtained in the growth medium fertilized with Osmocote plus humus and composted cattle manure, respectively. The seedlings fertilized with slow release type hastened growth compared with normal one. Growth medium amended with Nutriplanta® gave good results but there was no significant difference with others organic fertilizers. The seedlings grown in growth medium amended with composted cattle manure + normal release NPK showed the poorest results in almost all analyzed parameters such as height, stem diameter, dry weight - root and top - and total leaf area. The nutrient contents (NPK found in the leaf analyses samples were higher in treatments using slow release fertilizer (~20% for hybrid Tainung 1 and ~+10% for cv. Sunrise Solo compared with the normal one.

  18. Fertility potential of rabbit bucks fed maize-based diets containing graded levels of fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Idahor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1-contaminated maize-based diets have been reported to be mycotoxic in animal species, yet more validated data and biomarkers are needed. In this study, Fumonisin B1 (FB1 infected yellow-maize was used to formulate Diets 1, 2 and 3, containing 1,700, 1,800 and 1,900µg FB1/kg diet, respectively. Sixty sexually matured bucks and does were used, but only the bucks were fed the FB1-contaminated diets for eight weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the treated bucks were mated to the dry does that were fed FB1-free yellow maize-based diet. Effects on testis and live weight, feed utilisation, conception rate, embryo development and spermatozoa production per gram testis were monitored. Results indicated significant depression (P<0.05 in feed intake, from 546.77±12.09g/week in Diet 1 with the lowest FB1 concentration, to 509.84±21.98g/week in Diet 3 with the highest FB1 concentration in the diets. Weight gain was drastically reduced (P<0.05 from 34.13±9.32g/week in Diet 1 to 20.38±22.13g/week in Diet 3. Meanwhile, some of the untreated does were pregnant in all the treatments, indicating that FB1 concentration at 2.0mg/kg diet may not be spermaticidal and there were no abnormalities in the embryos. It was observed that the paired testis weight value in Diet 1 (3.06±0.31 was not significantly different (P>0.05 from that of Diet 3 (2.94±0.23. The testicular elements were distorted by the dietary FB1, but did not follow a definite pattern. Spermatozoa production per gram testis values (31.1 – 37.3 x 106 recorded were much higher than 24 x 106 for a healthy rabbit buck. Consequently, FB1 concentration < 2.0mg/kg diet may not affect the fertility potentials of bucks orally dosed for a relatively short period. This observation further elucidates earlier discoveries that FB1 is not a reproductive toxicant. Hence, the United States Food and Drug Administration proposed a guideline of 2.0mg total fumonisins/kg diet, to be adopted with strict adherence to safeguard healthy living.

  19. Resposta do pinhão-manso à aplicação de níveis de irrigação e doses de adubação potássica / Response of Jatropha curcas crop to irrigation and potassium fertilization levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ednaldo L., Oliveira; Manoel A., Faria; Adão W. P., Evangelista; Paulo C., Melo.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo do pinhão-manso vem despertando grande interesse para a produção de biodiesel. Apesar da irrigação e da adubação contribuírem para o aumento da sua produção, poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas neste contexto. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a produtividade de [...] sementes de pinhão-manso em resposta a diferentes doses de adubação potássica e lâminas de irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), na região sul do estado de Minas Gerais. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro lâminas de irrigação calculadas com base em percentagens da evaporação do tanque Classe A (ECA), ou seja, 0, 40, 80 e 120% e quatro doses de adubação potássica (30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 de K2O). Para avaliar o crescimento e a produtividade de sementes do pinhão-manso utilizaram-se dados do primeiro e do segundo ano de cultivo. A irrigação produziu efeitos significativos sobre o crescimento e produtividade de sementes de pinhão-manso; entretanto, as doses de adubação potássica aplicadas não influenciaram as fontes de variação analisadas. Abstract in english Jatropha curcas crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for biodiesel production. Despite the irrigation and mineral fertilization to promote increase of Jatropha curcas yield, few studies have been conducted on this issue. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the growth and productivit [...] y of Jatropha curcas, in response to irrigation management and potassium fertilization doses. The field experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Lavras in the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais. Four different irrigation depths, corresponding to different fractions (0, 40, 80, 120%) of the Class A pan evaporation (ECA), and four potassium doses (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of K2O) were used as treatments. To evaluate the growth and yield of Jatropha curcas seeds the data corresponding to first and second year of cultivation was used. The results showed that plants irrigated showed better productivity and initial growth, while potassium fertilization levels did not show significant effect.

  20. Topdressing fertilization with nitrogen and potassium levels in sweet-potatoAdubação de cobertura na batata-doce com doses combinadas de nitrogênio e potássio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced fertilizations with N and K often increase the performance of crops, however, when there is absence of one of these nutrients in poor soils, can reduce crop response to fertilization with the other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of sweet-potato, the amount of sweetpotato without quality, and leaf nutrients analysis, of sweet-potato crop fertilized with N and K. The trial was conducted in farming for commercial production, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, during February-June 2007, in a dystrophic Ultisol of medium texture. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with four replications, on factorial 4 x 4: levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 (urea source combined with levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg K2O ha-1 (KCl source, applied to 39 days after planting of the crop. The sweet-potato is responsive to topdressing application with nitrogen and potassium, however, the greatest increases in productivity occur when doses of N and K are combined. Fertilization with N and K not increase the amount of sweet-potato without quality marketing. The highest increase in productivity of sweet-potato is reached with topdressing combined with 100 kg N ha-1 plus 120 kg K2O ha-1. A adubação balanceada de N e K frequentemente aumenta o desempenho das lavouras, contudo, a falta de um desses nutrientes em solos deficientes pode levar a decréscimos na resposta ao outro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de batata-doce comercializável, a quantidade de raízes tuberosas para descarte e a diagnose foliar de lavoura de batata-doce adubada com N e K. O experimento foi realizado em lavoura comercial, em Presidente Prudente-SP, de fevereiro a junho de 2007, em um Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com 0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 de N (uréia, em interação com 0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 de K2O (KCl, aplicados em cobertura aos 39 dias após o plantio. A cultura da batata-doce é responsiva à adubação nitrogenada e potássica de cobertura, porém, os maiores incrementos de produtividade são alcançados com as doses de N e K combinadas. A adubação de cobertura com N e K não acarreta em aumento da quantidade de raízes tuberosas impróprias para a comercialização. O maior incremento de produtividade da batata-doce é alcançado com a adubação de cobertura combinada com 100 kg de N ha-1 mais 120 kg de K2O ha-1.

  1. Níveis de adubação nitrogenada nas características morfológicas e produtividade do jiló / Levels of nitrogen fertilizer, morphologic characteristics of fruits and yield of jiló

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luiz R., Torres; Adelar José, Fabian; Vinícius G., Pocay.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na UFRRJ, de julho a dezembro de 1993. Avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de nitrogênio (0; 24; 48; 72 e 96 kg.ha-1 de N) em algumas características morfológicas do fruto e na produtividade da cultura do jiló, cultivar Tinguá. As colheitas tiveram início a parti [...] r dos 105 dias após o plantio. Foram observados o diâmetro, comprimento, peso médio e produção total dos frutos nas colheitas realizadas num intervalo de dez dias, totalizando nove colheitas. Observou-se que o jiló responde positivamente à adubação nitrogenada aumentando sua produtividade em até 35,7%, quando comparado à testemunha, apesar de não ter ocorrido diferença estatística entre as doses testadas. As características morfológicas avaliadas não foram influenciadas pelo nível de N. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, fron July to December, 1993. The effects of different levels of nitrogen (0; 24; 48; 72 and 96 kg.ha-1 of N) was evaluated over some morphological characteristics of the fruit and over yield of the jiló, cultivar [...] Tinguá. Harvest began 105 days after sowing date, in 10-day intervals. The diameter, length, medium weight and total yield of fruits were evaluated. The jiló plant responds positively to the nitrogen fertilizer application, increasing the yield up to 35,7%, in relation to the control plot, in spite of non statistical differences among nitrogen levels; the morphologic characteristics suffered no influence from N levels.

  2. Educational differentials in cohort fertility during the fertility transition in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hyun Yoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between women's education and fertility rates, few of these studies have examined the pattern of fertility differentials over the course of the fertility transition. As a country that has experienced a rapid decline in fertility and marked improvements in women's educational attainment over the last several decades, South Korea represents an ideal case for studying this dynamic association. Objective: The aim of the article is to explain the pattern of fertility differentials by level of education and the contribution of the changes in women's educational attainment to the fertility decline during the fertility transition in South Korea. Methods: Drawing upon data from the Korean censuses conducted between 1970 and 2010, I analyze completed cohort fertility for women born between 1926 and 1970 using demographic-decomposition techniques and cohort parity progression ratios by level of education. Results: The differences in fertility by educational attainment have gradually declined over the transition, with fertility almost converging at a low level among recent birth cohorts. Fertility in South Korea had been declining in all of the social groups until the sub-replacement fertility was reached. The change in women's educational attainment then became an important factor in the further decline in fertility. The trend toward fewer children quickly spread from the most educated to the least educated women throughout the fertility transition. Conclusions: The transformation of fertility behaviors across social strata has been a key element in the Korean fertility transition. Although educational expansion, particularly the introduction of mass education, has contributed to falling fertility in South Korea, the role of education in fertility decline is more pronounced in the diffusion of innovative ideas and behaviors, which reduced fertility differentials across social strata.

  3. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE CENOURA EM SOLO DE MINERAÇÃO DE CALCÁRIO SOB DIFERENTES INTENSIDADES LUMINOSAS E ADUBAÇÕES / GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF CARROT SEEDS IN LIMESTONE MINING SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES AND FERTILIZATIONS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo, C. Cavatte; João, B. Zonta; José, C. Lopes; Leandro, T. de Souza; João, H. Zonta; Rithiely P, Q. Cavatte.

    Full Text Available Dentre as condições ideais para germinação, o tipo de solo é muito importante, pois, interfere não apenas na germinação das sementes mas, também, no desenvolvimento pós-seminal. Além da adubação, outro fator importante na emergência e crescimento das mudas é a luminosidade devido sua influência em p [...] rocessos como a fotossíntese. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adubação com esterco bovino, torta de filtro e vinhaça, bem como da luminosidade na germinação e vigor de sementes de cenoura, em solo de mineração de calcário. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em 2005, em Alegre-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 13 x 3 (adubações x luminosidades) e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de solo de mineração de calcário enriquecido ou não com adubação e 3 níveis de luminosidade. A adubação teve influência direta nas plântulas, pois, as menores intensidades (13.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1) aumentaram a germinação e altura destas, enquanto as maiores intensidades (1192.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1) aumentaram a velocidade de germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca. A adubação com os 3 materiais orgânicos e NPK proporcionou maior altura e matéria seca às plantas. Abstract in english The ideal conditions for germination such as the soil type are very important in agriculture. Besides interfering into germination of the seeds they also affect their development after germination. Another important factor in emergency and growth of the seedlings is the brightness, due to its influe [...] nce on the photosynthesis processes. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fertilization with cattle manure, sugarcane powder and vinase, as well as from the brightness on both germination and vigor of carrot seeds in limestone mining soil. The experiment was conducted during the year 2005, under greenhouse conditions, in Alegre county-ES. The entirely randomized design with a factorial scheme 13 x 3 (fertilizations x brightness) and four replicates was used. The treatments consisted of limestone mining soil either enriched or unenriched with fertilization and subjected to three brightness levels. The brightness directly affected the germination and the development of the carrot plantlets, whereas the lower bright intensities (13.8 µmol photons m-2s-1) increased either germination and plantlet heights and the higher ones (1192.8 µmol photons m-2s-1) increased the germination speed and the dry matter accumulation. The fertilization with those organic materials and NPK provided better results for height and dry matter of the plantlets.

  4. INFLUENCE OF NPK AND LIME APLICATION ON ERVA-MATE GROWTH, ROOT-ROT SEVERITY AND SOIL FUNGI POPULATION1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the influence of the application of NPK and liming doses in the soil, on the growth of Erva-mate, the severity of rot-root and the fungi population of the soil. To do so, an experiment was installed at the green house, in the Forest Nursery of UFSM, using an experimental design completely randomized factorial 4x3x4 (Factor F: Fusarium spp. inoculation; Factor C: soil limestone; Factor A: NPK doses , totaling 48 treatments. The seedlings were cultivated in vases containing 2 kg of soil, classified as ‘Red-Yellow Argisoil’ (clay soil. At the end of the experiment was measured the stem diameter, height of the aerial part, leaves number, aerial dry biomass, root dry biomass and total dry biomass of the seedlings. Also, the soil was collected, from each treatment, for the chemical analysis and the counting of the fungi population. It was observed that the association among application of NPK and liming in the soil hampered the development of Erva-mate seedlings. The analysis of some variables suggests that the limestone absence provided greater resistance of seedlings to the attack of Fusarium spp. or the severity of Fusarium spp. was reduced in lower pH. The fungi population of the soil presented varied behavior depending on the applied treatments.

  5. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Sewage sludge and wood ashes could be used as fertilizers in order to increase forest tree production. In southern Sweden forest growth normally increases with approximately 10 % after ash recycling due to increased N and/or P availability. P is added with the ashes and the pH-increasing effect of the wood ash can lead to increased N net mineralization. Other positive effects of wood ash recycling are improved nutrient sustainability and less acid run-off water. Possible negative effects are heavy metal accumulation, if the content of one or more heavy metals of the recycled ash exceeds the heavy metal content of the harvested biomass, and nitrate leaching if the vegetation cannot take up nitrified N. It is important to evaluate the sustainability of fertilization systems based on residues such as sludge and wood ash. Wood ash does not contain N and the P concentration often is too low for the ashes to function as an NP fertilizer. Thus N and sometimes P must be added. Sludge is an interesting alternative. The main purpose of the project is to study sustainable production of forest bio energy in intensively cultivated birch and hybrid aspen stands. Another purpose is to establish experiments that can be used for long term studies and as demonstration objects. In the first few years the goal is to study the short term effects of residue based fertilization compared to conventional NPK fertilization on tree nutrient uptake, nutrient leaching, sustainability and economy. In the long term the goal is to design appropriate fertilization strategies in a residue based fertilization system for the intensive cultivation of birch and hybrid aspen without negative side effects such as large scale nutrient leaching. Four field experiments were established in 2008 and one additional experiment in hybrid aspen will be established in the spring of 2009. Elevated bud N and P concentrations after fertilization with both Ashes+N and NPK means good possibilities for future growth increases. But, tree growth response should be studied before any conclusions can be drawn regarding biomass production in the experiments. The similarities in plant response to Ashes+N and NPK suggests that Ashes+N can be used as a P and K resource in the fertilization of young stands of birch and hybrid aspen. If the Ashes+N treatment results in increased N availability due to the pH increase, possibly the N dose could be lowered in order to decrease the risks for N leaching without negative effects on tree N uptake. Tools for the prediction of N mineralization need to be developed. The energy harvest for fertilized birch and hybrid aspen appear to be at least as high as for fertilized Norway spruce. Intensive cultivation including fertilization of young stands appears to be energy efficient: the energy input is a small fraction of the increase in energy harvest. Residue based fertilization appears to be more energy efficient than fertilization with NPK. If production systems other than the ones currently applied are more efficient in terms of sustainable energy production it is important to review the funding of research and development within the field. Which species or species mixtures are most efficient under which soil and climatic condition? Management programs and harvesting techniques need to be developed. More studies on fertilization response and energy harvest in deciduous species with and without the use of residue based fertilizers are needed in order to develop guidelines for the sustainable production of forest bio energy. Empirical studies should be combined with modeling studies in order to improve the understanding of the systems and predictability of management measures. Residue based fertilization appears to be attractive both environmentally and economically, but it is important that such systems are evaluated closely in terms of growth response, nutrient leaching, carbon and metal balances, etc. in comparison with conventional fertilization

  6. France: High and stable fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Clémentine Rossier; Ariane Pailhé; Laurent Toulemon

    2008-01-01

    The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countri...

  7. Influence of nitrate fertilization on Cd uptake and oxidative stress parameters in alfalfa plants cultivated in presence of Cd

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Hattab; S, Hattab; H, Boussetta; M, Banni.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant nutrients might affect the activity and bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil -plant environment thus their accumulation in the plant. Little is known about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on cadmium (Cd) uptake by alfalfa "Medicago sativa". This work aims to characterize the oxidat [...] ive status, the physiological stress parameters and the Cd uptake in alfalfa + Medicago sativa ; exposed to Cd and supplied with nitrogen fertilizers. The experiment was carried out in a green house with alfalfa grown in Cd-polluted soil (3.6 ppm) and amended with two different fertilizers: without NO3- (PK) or with NO3- (NPK) in a sand:peat (v:v) mixture. The following parameters were monitored: Chlorophyll content, Photosynthesis rate, Catalase (CAT) activity, Thiobarbutiric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS) content and Cd bioaccumulation. It was found that NPK fertilization increased mean Cd uptake as well as plant biomass in Cd-exposed plants. Nitrogen supply was also effective in reduction Cd-induces phytotoxicity (Photosynthetic pigments and rate) and oxidative stress alterations. Our results suggest that nitrogen supply may improve the uptake rate of Cd by alfalfa and provide new insights on the importance of nitrogen fertilization towards future phytoremediation applications using alfalfa.

  8. Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with plant growth, nodulation, and shoot npk in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with different root and shoot growth, nodulation and shoot NPK parameters was studied in three legumes viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora. The three test legume species showed different patterns of root and shoot growth, nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and shoot N, P and K content. Different mycorrhizal structures viz. mycelium, arbuscules and vesicles showed different patters of correlation with different studied parameters. Mycelial infection showed an insignificantly positive correlation with root and shoot dry biomass and total root length. Maximum root length was however, negatively associated with mycelial infection. Both arbuscular and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with shoot dry biomass and different parameters of root growth. The association between arbuscular infection and maximum root length was significant. All the three mycorrhizal structures showed a positive correlation with number and biomass of nodules. The association between arbuscular infection and nodule number was significant. Mycelial infection was positively correlated with percentage and total shoot N and P. Similarly percentage N was also positively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. By contrast, total shoot N showed a negative association with arbuscular as well as vesicular infections. Similarly both percentage and total shoot P were negatively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. All the associations between mycorrhizal parameters and shoot K were negative except between vesicular infection and shoot %K. (author)

  9. Preliminary studies on morphological diversity of coconut (cocos nucifera L.) seedlings by organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments at Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers amendments on the growth parameters of coconut seedlings in field at the Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Karachi. The seedling height and number of leaves were significantly high in treatment T7 (Neem seed powder) (27.62 +- 8.74) and treatment T5 (NPK) (27.18 +- 8.60). The maximum number of the roots was observed in T1 (NPK + Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (2.26 +- 0.71) and T3 (NPK + Gliricidia sepium) (1.69 +- 0.53), where as minimum roots was recorded in T8 (Control) (0.94 +- 0.29). The maximum number of leaves was observed in T4 (Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (1.49 +- 0.47) and T1 (1.31+- 0.41). The results showed the beneficial effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on seedlings. The work indicated morphological diversity of seedlings at the nursery stage to help the growers in choosing planting materials for their gardens in coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan. (author)

  10. Efeito da solarização, adubação química e orgânica no controle de nematóides em alface sob cultivo protegido Effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on the control of nematode on greenhouse lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene G da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da solarização do solo associados à adubação no controle de nematóides e na produtividade da alface cultivar "Verônica" foram avaliados em solo naturalmente infestado. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, um com e outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica mais NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com filme plástico transparente. A população de nematóides foi avaliada em duas camadas (0-10 cm e 10-20 cm, e as coletas de solo foram feitas em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento; após a solarização; após a colheita. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com medidas no espaço e no tempo (5 adubações x 2 camadas x 3 épocas, e a comparação entre experimentos foi feita pela análise conjunta. O efeito da solarização sobre o controle de nematóides dependeu da adubação e camada do solo. A solarização reduziu a população de nematóides na camada de 0-10 cm em todos os tratamentos de adubação. A solarização associada ao NH4 reduziu a diversidade na camada de 10-20 cm. A solarização combinada às adubações orgânica, N-NH4, NPK e orgânica mais NPK reduziu de maneira eficiente o número de galhas, o número de massas de ovos e a população de nematóides fitoparasitas nas raízes, em especial de Meloidogyne spp. Solarização combinada à adubação orgânica apresenta potencial para controle de nematóides e redução do uso de agrotóxicos.The effect of soil solarization and fertilization was evaluated for nematode control in 'Veronica' lettuce in naturally infested soil. The two greenhouse experiments consisted of five fertilization treatments: organic fertilization; ammoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; NPK fertilization; organic and NPK fertilization; control (without fertilization, in solarized and non-solarized soils. In the solarized plot the soil was covered during 132 days with transparent plastic film. The nematode populations were evaluated in two layers (010 cm and 10-20 cm with soil collections done at three times (before solarization; after solarization; and after harvest. The experimental design was of sub-subdivided blocks plots with assessments in space and time (5 fertilization x 2 depths x 3 times. The effect of solarization on nematode control was dependent on fertilization and soil depth. Solarization reduced nematodes population at 0-10 cm depth in all the fertilization treatments. Solarization associated to ammoniacal nitrogen reduced nematode diversity at 10-20 cm depth. Solarization associated to organic, ammoniacal nitrogen, NPK and organic + NPK fertilization reduced efficiently gall numbers, egg masses number and phytoparasitic nematodes, specially Meloidogyne spp., in lettuce roots. Solarization associated to organic fertilization has a potential to be used in nematode control and to reduce pesticides application.

  11. "Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.

    2012-12-01

    Chinese farmers have a very long history of using manures in their fields. Owing to the long-term addition of manures, an anthropogenic layer was formed on the top of original soil profile (drab soil) in Guanzhong Plains on the south edge of the Loess Plateau, North China. This soil is named the Manural Loessial soil (or Lou soil, "Lou" means the different stories of a building in Chinese). The depth of anthropogenic layer is in range of about 30 to 100 cm depth, which has a close relationship with the soil productivity. This fertile agricultural soil has sustained the agriculture in the region for millenniums. We had determined the organic carbon (SOC) in 7 soil profiles, and found that the depths of anthropogenic layer of were in range of 40 to 71 cm (averaging 59 cm). And the anthropogenic layer became shallower as the profile was far from the village due to less manure application. The organic C stocks in this layer accounted for 69% of organic C stocks in 0-100 cm soil profiles. Organic C stocks in Lou soil was higher than that in the newly cultivated soil developed from loess parent materials. Our 30-day incubation experiment found that addition of synthetic N fertilizer significantly increased the decomposition of SOC in the soils. However, The decomposition rate of SOC in the soil added with manure and inorganic fertilizers for 18-yr (MNPK soil) was significantly lower than in the soils added without fertilizer or inorganic fertilizers (NF soil, and NPK soils). The half-life of the organic C in MNPK soils was also slower than the NF soil, and NPK soil. It indicates that long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves the stabilization of soil organic C. Long-term cultivation has not only increased organic C stocks, but also stabilization of organic C in soil profile. It provides us a unique sample to study the mechanism of accumulation and stabilization of organic C in soil to balance agricultural production and C sequestration in a warming earth. Our micro-plot experiment with 15N-labeled fertilizer in the long-term fertilizer trial found that the use efficiency of N fertilizer (NUE) in MNPK soil was higher than the NPK soil and NF soil in both wheat-summer fallow and winter wheat and summer corn rotation system. However, the N fertilizer losses in MNPK soil was lower than the NPK soil and NF soil in the two systems. We concluded that the long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves N synchrony between the supply and crop demand, and reduces its loss. Since the 1980s, however, the application of manure to arable fields has declined in Guanzhong Plain, and in other parts of China, due to the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers, and labor costs to apply manure. The nutrient input of the arable fields are heavily dependent on inorganic fertilizers. It changes the biogeochemical cycling of the ecosystem, and results in a series of problems, including eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission, and nitrate leaching. Therefore, we need to find the alternatives to solve the problems, to conserve this old anthropogenic soil while producing enough food to feed the growing population.

  12. The Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    M Yassini; MA Khalili; Z Hashemian

    2005-01-01

    Background: Approximately 10% of Iranian couples wishing to have a child experience some types of infertility which may impose a considerable psychological burden on them. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the level of anxiety and depression among infertile couples undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment cycles in Iran. Methods: Fifty infertile couples that who undergoing IVF (n=25) or ICSI (n=25) cycles were considered for this descriptive cross-sectional study. A...

  13. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer level on the grain yield, some qualitative and technological indices of Triticum aestivum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Foto Kashta

    2014-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels on five bread wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design, having four replications, plot size of 10 m2. N doses used were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha. The grain production of each variant was analyzed for the following traits: grain yield, thousand kernels weight, test weight, protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation (SDS), as indirect indices ...

  14. Effect Of Urea, Superphosphate, Potash And Npk On Soil Respiration ( Carbon Dioxide Evolution From Soil )

    OpenAIRE

    Anindita Bhattacharya; Sanjat Kumar Sahu; Ajit Hundet; Prabal Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Soil microorganisms have been reported for maintaining the soil fertility by breaking down of organic matter and release of carbon dioxide, which is a measure of soil respiration, during their metabolic activities. But due to excessive use of agrochemicals, the populations of these beneficial microorganisms are declining which may decrease the fertility status of soil. Several studies were conducted on the toxic impact of some pesticides on soil respiration.On contrary, few studies were condu...

  15. Leaching versus input of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in different fertilizer regimens in Christmas tree stands of Abies nordmanniana in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram

    2006-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) fertilization and deposition on nutrient leaching were assessed in four Danish Nordmarm fir Christmas tree stands on former arable land. NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer type was applied in doses between 0 and 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Deposition of N, K and Mg varied between 16 and 21 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), 2 and 10 kg K ha(-1) year(-1), and 2 and 3 kg Mg ha(-1) year(-1). The concentration of NO3-N in the soil water on the sandy sites was characterized by notable pulses contrasting the mitigated peaks on the clayey site. In general, the soil water concentrations and leaching reflected the fertilization, except for K at one clayey site. Mean annual leaching of NO3-N ranged from approximately 6 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the control treatment to 235 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1) fertilizer treatment. In the treatment with the commonly used 300 kg NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer NO3-N leaching was estimated to be approximately 46 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Annual leaching of N was described in a general model based on the fertilizer input. K and Mg leaching were distinctly more site specific than was N leaching. The magnitude of NO3-N leaching caused by application of 300 kg NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer was between the leaching amounts observed in traditional Danish forestry and Danish agriculture.

  16. PENETRATION OF NITROGEN INTO WATER AS A RESULT OF FERTILIZATION OF LIGHT SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Czy?yk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article there are present the results of six-year study of infiltration of nitrogen through the sand soil (loamy sand. Every year the soil was fertilized by compost (from sewage sludge and equivalent doses of nitrogen in mineral fertilizers. Two variants of compost fertilization (K1-10 and K2-15 g N·m-2 were used. Additionally two variants of NPK with equivalent doses of nitrogen as an ammonium nitrate supplemented with PK as a superphosphate and potassium salt were applied. Systematically there were investigated the volume of all leachates and their chemical composition. With increasing doses of fertilizers the concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the leachate were increased. The concentration of nitrogen in the leachate from the soil fertilized by nitrate was much greater than in compost with equivalent dose of nitrogen. Not only nitrates but also nitrogen from soluble organic compounds were rinsed from the soil. In the case of soil fertilized by compost the participation of nitrates in the total value of nitorgen in the leachate was 41-77%. However in the case of fertilization by ammonium sulphate this proportion was significantly higher and was in the range 60-95%. Over the years, a systematic soil fertilization by both ways increased the nitrogen concentrations in leachate. It shows that in the soil there is surplus of nitrogen, increasing during the time.

  17. Evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in Central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Nájera; Y, Tapia; C, Baginsky; V, Figueroa; R, Cabeza; O, Salazar.

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to carry out an evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in central Chile. Soil samples were collected from 31 maize fields for macro- and micronutrient analysis; additionally a crop manag [...] ement survey was carried out in each field. These data were used to identify the range of critical soil-test concentrations of nutrients and the relationships among these soil fertility parameters; to assess the relationship between maize yields and nutrient status of soils; to evaluate the current fertiliser practices of farmers comparing them with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertiliser model calculations; and to analyse whether The results showed that there was a dominance of neutral-alkaline soils with low organic matter and N levels, and high P, cations and micronutrient levels. Regression analysis explained at least 59% of the variation in maize yields, when soil pH and available zinc (Zn) content were identified as the most important variables controlling maize yield. Results suggest that in neutral-alkaline soils cultivated with maize and high inputs of N-P-K, there may be a maize yield response to Zn applications. It was found that most farmers over-fertilised with N (from 60 to 360 kg N ha-1) and P (from10 to 120 kg P2O5 ha-1), converting maize fields in an important non-point source of pollution of water bodies in Central Chile.

  18. Evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in Central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Nájera; Y, Tapia; C, Baginsky; V, Figueroa; R, Cabeza; O, Salazar.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to carry out an evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in central Chile. Soil samples were collected from 31 maize fields for macro- and micronutrient analysis; additionally a crop manag [...] ement survey was carried out in each field. These data were used to identify the range of critical soil-test concentrations of nutrients and the relationships among these soil fertility parameters; to assess the relationship between maize yields and nutrient status of soils; to evaluate the current fertiliser practices of farmers comparing them with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertiliser model calculations; and to analyse whether The results showed that there was a dominance of neutral-alkaline soils with low organic matter and N levels, and high P, cations and micronutrient levels. Regression analysis explained at least 59% of the variation in maize yields, when soil pH and available zinc (Zn) content were identified as the most important variables controlling maize yield. Results suggest that in neutral-alkaline soils cultivated with maize and high inputs of N-P-K, there may be a maize yield response to Zn applications. It was found that most farmers over-fertilised with N (from 60 to 360 kg N ha-1) and P (from10 to 120 kg P2O5 ha-1), converting maize fields in an important non-point source of pollution of water bodies in Central Chile.

  19. Mycorrhizal effectiveness on physic nut as influenced by phosphate fertilization levels / Eficiência micorrízica no pinhão-manso sob diferentes doses de adubação fosfatada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elcio Liborio, Balota; Oswaldo, Machineski; Alexandra, Scherer.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a cultura do pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) tem despertado grande interesse pelo seu alto potencial na produção de matéria prima para a produção de biocombustíveis. Apesar de sua adaptabilidade às condições de baixa fertilidade do solo, as plantas requerem a correção da acidez d [...] o solo e a adição de considerável quantidade de fertilizantes para alta produção de frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a efetividade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em mudas de pinhão-manso em diferentes doses de P no solo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando solo arenoso (LVd) autoclavado como substrato em vasos com capacidade de 4 kg. Foram avaliados em um delineamento completamente casualizado - em um esquema fatorial, com quatro repetições - os tratamentos de fungos micorrízicos (controle, Gigaspora margarita ou Glomus clarum) e a adição de P (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg kg-1 de solo). O experimento foi conduzido por 180 dias. A inoculação micorrízica proporcionou aumento no crescimento das plantas, nos teores de P e na eficiência de absorção de P pelas raízes nas baixas doses de P. O pinhão-manso apresentou decréscimo no quociente de utilização de P com o aumento da adição de P. O índice de eficiência de utilização de P aumentou nas menores doses e diminuiu nas altas doses de adição deste nutriente. A colonização micorrízica e a esporulação foram influenciadas negativamente pela adição de P. A mais alta eficiência micorrízica ocorreu entre as concentrações de 7,8 e 25 mg kg-1 de P no solo. O pinhão-manso respondeu positivamente à adição de P, indepedentemente da presença micorrízica. Abstract in english In recent years, physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) has attracted attention because of its potential for biofuel production. Although it is adapted to low-fertility soils, physic nut requires soil acidity corrections and addition of a considerable amount of fertilizer for high productivity. The objecti [...] ve of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (control without AMF inoculation, Gigaspora margarita inoculation or Glomus clarum inoculation) on increasing growth and yield of physic nut seedlings under different rates of P fertilization (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 P soil) in greenhouse. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, block in a factorial scheme design with four replications. The physic nut plants were harvested 180 days after the beginning of the experiment. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased physic nut growth, plant P concentration and root P uptake efficiency at low soil P concentrations. The P use quotient of the plants decreased as the amount of P applied increased, and the P use efficiency index increased at low P levels and decreased at high P levels. Mycorrhizal root colonization and AMF sporulation were negatively affected by P addition. The highest mycorrhizal efficiency was observed when the soil contained between 7.8 and 25 mgkg-1 of P. The physic nut plants responded strongly to P application, independent of mycorrhizal inoculation.

  20. Establishing a soil reference system for fertility assessment and monitoring at plot level in the highlands of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe D. Calalang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the crop production areas of Miarayon Village, along the volcanic footslope of Mt. Kalatungan, Talakag, Bukidnon, Philippines. The elevation range of the longitudinal toposequence is 1,900 to 1,300 m asl. Production areas in the intermediate part of the toposequence (Salsalan are located at about 1,600 to 1,400 m asl and in the lower part (Mambuaw at 1,400 to 1,300 m asl. A total of 24 plots (12 in each location which were planted to potatoes, carrots and corn were investigated. Soils are “Andic” Cambisol in open and convex positions and “Andic” Umbrisol in concave positions and toeslopes. The soil pH values ranged from 5.0-5.9. TOC and TN content were medium to high (4.1-8.9% and 0.30-0.80% respectively with C/N ratios from 8-15. Range values of available Ca, Mg, K and Na were 1.9-11.24, 0.16-2.14 and 0.20-1.13, 0.04-0.13 cmol+kg-1, respectively. Top soil horizon exchangeable Al in Mambuaw was higher than in Salsalan. The differences in TN, C/N ratio and available K levels between the two locations were very highly significant, TOC was highly significant and for soil pH and available Ca and sum of bases, their disparities were significant. Available Mg and Na did not differ between the two sites. Mean potato yield in Salsalan was 8.97 tha-1 more than in Mambuaw. Mean carrot yield in Salsalan was 2.39 tha-1 lesser than in Mambuaw. Mean corn yield in Salsalan was higher than in Mambuaw by 0.29 tha-1 only. Correlations between potato yields with TOC, TN, and available Ca were highly significant while soil pH and K were significant. There was no relationship detected between potato yields and Mg and Na. There was no association detected between carrot yields with topsoil nutrient levels. Correlations were noted in corn yields with available Ca, Mg and K.

  1. Effect of neem cake/fertilizers on symbiotic and non-symbiotic N2 fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neem cake amendment in soil at 1.3% no adverse effect on the population of four symbiotic Rhizobium species viz., japonicum, R. leguminosarum, R. Phaseoli and R. Fredii and three non-symbiotic free living nitrogen fixers bacteria viz., Pseudomonas diazotrophicus, Klebsiella planticola and Enterobacter cloacae. Neem cake extracted with n-hexane stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species in vitro, whereas Neem cake expeller extracted neither inhibited nor stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species except for R. Fredii, whose was slightly retarded. The fertilizers (urea, NPK and DAP) had no adverse effect on these bacteria even at the dosage ten times higher the recommended dose. (author)

  2. Effect of Long-term Fertilization and Cropping on Micronutrient Cations of Soils in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M.S.H. Khan; M. J. Abedin Mian; A. Akhter; M.F. Hossain; M.S.I. Sikder

    2002-01-01

    The effects of intensive fertilization and cropping on micro nutrients content of soil, solution and plant samples were studied. The treatments selected for this study were control, N, NP, NS, NPK and NPKSZn. The samples were analyzed to see the concentration of Zn, Cu, and Mn. Application of N showed an increase only in available Fe and Mn over control. The long-term application of P (TSP) increased available, total and soil solution content of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn and uptake by crops. Fe and M...

  3. Long-term effects of single potassium fertilization on {sup 137}Cs levels in plants and fungi in a boreal forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K., E-mail: Klas.Rosen@mark.slu.s [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Vinichuk, M. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Chernyakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Nikolova, I.; Johanson, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    We examined the long-term effects of a single application of potassium (K) fertilizer (100 kg K ha{sup -1}) in 1992 on {sup 137}Cs uptake in a forest ecosystem in central Sweden. {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were determined in three low-growing perennial shrubs, heather (Calluna vulgaris), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and in four wild fungal species (Cortinarius semisanguineus, Lactarius rufus, Rozites caperata and Suillus variegatus). Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants and fungi growing on K-fertilized plots 17 years after application of the K fertilizer was significantly lower than in corresponding species growing in a non-fertilized control area. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was 21-58% lower in fungal sporocarps and 40-61% lower in plants in the K-fertilized area compared with the control. Over the study period, this decrease in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was more consistent in plants than in fungi, although the effect was statistically significant and strongly pronounced in all species. The effect of K fertilization in reducing {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in fungi and plants decreased over time but was still significant in 2009, 17 years after fertilization. This suggests that application of K fertilizer to forests is an appropriate and effective long-term measure to decrease radiocaesium accumulation in plants and fungi. - Research highlights: {yields} Effects of potassium fertilizer on {sup 137}Cs uptake by plants and fungi are investigated. {yields} {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in forest plants decreased even within the first year. {yields} The most significant reduction occurred over the first 7-8 years. {yields} The reduction in fungi was less pronounced, but still statistically significant.

  4. Application of mineral fertilizers in Bulgaria and their efficiency on the slightly leached chernozems of the Dobroudja region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past years the agriculture in Bulgaria is undergoing a process of reconstruction and structural changes. The utilization of mineral fertilizers has gradually increased since 1948 and reached its summit in 1981 when about 227 kg/ha NPK have been used. Nowadays these norms have been were and in 1996 they were only 35 kg/ha at the expense of applying N-fertilizers mainly in wheat. The efficiency of the applied nutrients was estimated on slightly leached chernozem in the period 1967-1997. The regular long term fertilization of N120P60K0 had a favorable effect on grain yield in an agronomical and economic aspect (5070 kg/ha). The highest grain yield was received at fertilization with N120P120K120 (5230 kg/ha). Refs. 4 (author)

  5. Partição de biomassa seca e nutriente em minicepas de eucalipto influenciada pela adubação NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Carvalho Neto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986615O estado nutricional da planta-matriz é de grande importância para a manutenção do seu vigor vegetativo, o que determina a produção de brotos e também os índices de enraizamento e velocidade de formação das raízes, uma vez que os macronutrientes e os micronutrientes estão envolvidos nos processos bioquímicos e fisiológicos vitais à planta. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a partição de biomassa seca e nutriente em minicepa de eucalipto em solução nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetação. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4x4x41/2, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições. Os tratamentos se constituíram de quatro doses dos nutrientes de N (50; 100; 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de ureia, P (7,5; 15; 30 e 60 mg L-1 na forma de ácido fosfórico e K (50; 100; 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de cloreto de potássio em solução nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente, para a biomassa seca das miniestacas e biomassa seca da parte aérea e raiz das minicepas com efeito linear decrescente, com o aumento das doses de N. A dose de 50 mg L-1 de N proporcionou maior acúmulo de biomassa seca das miniestacas e minicepas. A distribuição percentual da biomassa seca e dos nutrientes na biomassa seca das miniestacas, parte aérea e raízes das minicepas variou em relação às doses de N. A extração de macronutrientes pelas miniestacas de 6 cm na dose de 50 mg L-1 de N seguiu a seguinte ordem decrescente de N > S > P > K > Ca > Mg e micronutrientes de Cu > B > Mn > Fe > Zn.

  6. Efeitos da adubação NPK na fertilidade do solo, nutrição e crescimento da seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Bataglia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes combinações de doses de fertilizantes NPK, durante o período de formação do seringal, sobre as características químicas do solo, nutrição mineral e crescimento de árvores de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. O experimento foi instalado em 1985 e realizado até 1993, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, testando as doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicadas na forma de uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. Foi usado Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Podzólico distrófico A moderado de textura arenosa/média, localizado no município de Avaí, estado de São Paulo, no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das árvores. A avaliação do experimento foi feita por meio da análise de solo, de folha e medida do perímetro do caule. O fertilizante nitrogenado (uréia foi o que causou maiores alterações com intensa acidificação do solo. Além de alterar diversos atributos do solo, a aplicação de uréia elevou as concentrações de N e reduziu as de K e S nas folhas. A fertilização fosfatada aumentou a disponibilidade de P no solo e a concentração nas folhas, o mesmo acontecendo com a adubação potássica em relação à disponibilidade de K no solo e na planta. Apesar disso, as correlações entre as concentrações de P e K no solo e nas folhas e o período de imaturidade não foram coerentes com esse aumento de disponibilidade. Mesmo sem a aplicação de micronutrientes, observou-se que as concentrações de B nas folhas correlacionaram-se positivamente com o período de imaturidade, enquanto os demais micronutrientes pouco influíram na fertilidade do solo.

  7. High levels of bioplastic are produced in fertile transplastomic tobacco plants engineered with a synthetic operon for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2011-04-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5' end by the host plant's psbA coding sequence and at the 3' end by the host plant's 3' psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated. PMID:21325565

  8. Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this stric...

  9. Content of nitrates in potato tubers depending on the organic matter, soil fertilizer, cultivation simplifications applied and storage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaroslaw, Pobere& #380; ny; Elzbieta, Wszelaczy& #324; ska; Dorota, Wichrowska; Dariusz, Jaskulski.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates naturally occur in plant-based food. Nitrates content in consumable plant organs is small and should not raise concern provided that the recommended fertilization and harvest terms of the original plants are observed. The aim was to determine the effect of the application of various organic [...] matter of soil fertilizer and simplifications in growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on the content of nitrates in the tubers of mid-early cultivar 'Satina' after harvest and after 6-mo of storage. Introducing cultivation simplification involves limiting mineral fertilization by 50% as well as chemical protection limitation. The soil fertilizer was used: 0.6 (autumn), 0.3 (spring), and 0.3 L ha-1 (during the vegetation period). The content of nitrates, was determined with the use of the ion-selective method (multi-purpose computer device CX-721, Elmetron). The lowest amount of nitrates was recorded in the tubers from the plots without the application of organic matter with a 50% rate of mineral fertilization with soil fertilizer (120.5 mg kg-1 FW). The use of varied organic matter resulted in a significant increase in the content of nitrates in tubers and the lowest effect on their accumulation was reported for straw. The soil fertilizer used significantly decreased the content of nitrates in tubers by 15% for 100% NPK and 10.4% for 50% NPK. After 6-mo storage, irrespective of the experiment factors, the content of nitrates decreased in the fertilization experiment by 26% and in the experiment with a limited protection - by 19.9%.

  10. Farmers' Use of Integrated Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management Practices for Sustainable Crop Production: A Field-level Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Farouque

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The most pressing problem for Bangladesh agriculture is the current state of gradual decreasing of soil fertility, stagnating crop yields and declining productivity in a range of food crops. According to crop production scientists, Integrated Soil Fertility (ISF and Nutrient Management (NM is an advanced approach that can serve as a remedy to improve crop yields and to preserve soil fertility in the long run. Approach: This study was therefore conducted to determine the extent of use ISF and NM practices by the farmers for their crop production in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 120 farmers (39 landless, 34 marginal, 19 small, 20 medium and 8 large farmers from eight villages located in four districts in Bangladesh through face-to-face interviews from December 2005 to January 2006. Results: Most of the farmers were landless, marginal or small farm holders who rarely practiced soil fertility management means. Medium and large farmers did practice soil fertility management either occasionally or regularly. The use of organic manures by different categories of farmers indicated that medium and large farm holders were more careful about the use of cow dung, farmyard manure, crop residues, green manure and oil cakes as sources of organic manures than landless, marginal and small farm holders. Findings related to use of chemical fertilizers revealed that medium and large farmers often followed the recommended doses while landless, marginal and small farmers mostly applied chemical fertilizers based on their own assessment of soil conditions. Conclusion/Recommendations: Medium and large farmers are more prompt than landless, marginal and small farmers in terms of use of different components of ISF and NM practices for their crop production. The findings of this study might be helpful for the agricultural policy planners both from GOs and NGOs for developing effective crop production strategies considering soil fertility and plant nutrients aspects for landless, marginal and small farmers who constitutes about 74%of farming community in Bangladesh.

  11. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado; Anísio Azzini; Celi Teixeira Feitosa; Armando Petinelli; Arruda Veiga

    1984-01-01

    São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve...

  12. Adubação orgânica, mineral e organomineral e sua influencia no crescimento da helicônia em Garanhuns-PE / Organic, mineral and organomineral fertilization and its influence on the growth of heliconia in Garanhuns, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josabete SB, Carvalho; Jéssyca DL, Martins; Cláudia, Ulisses; Wilkilane L, Silva.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As helicônias se destacam pela beleza e variedade de formas e cores e estão entre as flores tropicais mais comercializadas no mundo. Foi avaliado o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de Heliconia psittacorum x H. spathocircinata, cv. Golden Torch, quanto à adubação orgânica e mineral. O experimento foi [...] conduzido em campo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro dosagens de adubo (testemunha (T1) solo local; esterco de boi (T2); adubo mineral NPK (T3) e esterco de boi + NPK (T4)), em dez repetições. Foram avaliados a altura da planta, número de brotações, época do florescimento, número, tamanho e peso das inflorescências. A combinação da adubação mineral (NPK) e orgânica (esterco) (organomineral) afetou significativamente a altura das plantas, apresentando um aumento de mais de 23% quando comparada com o controle aos 330 dias após o plantio. Aos seis meses de cultivo, todas as plantas exibiam um crescimento bastante homogêneo e vigoroso, sem sintomas visuais de deficiência nutricional, evidenciando que a adubação química associada ao esterco bovino (organomineral) é a mais recomendada para o cultivo de helicônia cv. Golden Torch. Essa cultivar pode ser bem adaptada às condições de Garanhuns. Abstract in english Heliconia stands out for its beauty and variety of shapes and colors and this plant is among the most traded tropical flowers in the world. We evaluated the growth and development of Heliconia psittacorum x H. spathocircinata cv. Golden Torch, submitted to organic and mineral fertilization. The expe [...] riment was carried out in field, in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four doses of fertilizer (control (T1) local soil; cattle manure (T2); mineral fertilizer NPK (T3) and cattle manure + NPK (T4)), in ten replications. We evaluated plant height, number of shoots, flowering time, number, size and weight of inflorescences. The combination of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic (manure) (organomineral) significantly affected plant height resulting in an increase of over 23% when compared with the control 330 days after planting date. After six months of cultivation, all plants exhibited a very homogeneous and vigorous growth without visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency, showing that chemical fertilization associated with cattle manure (organomineral) is highly recommended for growing heliconia cv. Golden Torch. This cultivar can be well adapted to the conditions of Garanhuns, Pernambuco state, Brazil.

  13. Adubação nitrogenada em cobertura no feijoeiro com suplementação de molibdênio via foliar / Nitrogen topdressing fertilization on common bean with leaf spray of molybdenum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Carlos, Calonego; Edson Ulisses, Ramos Junior; Rodrigo Domingues, Barbosa; Glauber Henrique Pereira, Leite; Hélio, Grassi Filho.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o efeito da aplicação foliar de molibdênio (Mo) e da adubação de cobertura com nitrogênio (N) nos componentes de produção, produtividade e teor de nitrato nas folhas do feijão Carioca Precoce. O trabalho foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas de Bo [...] tucatu (UNESP/Botucatu-SP), em Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura argilosa. Realizou-se a semeadura do feijão em 06/03/2003 com o fornecimento de 230 kg ha-1 do formulado NPK (4-30-10) no plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram de cinco doses de N (25; 50; 75; 100 e 125 kg ha-1), aplicadas aos 20 dias após a emergência (DAE), associados com e sem a aplicação foliar de 80 g ha-1 de Mo aos 25 DAE. Avaliou-se a concentração de nitrato e amônio nas folhas, além dos componentes de produção e da produtividade de grãos de feijão. A ausência de suplementação de Mo via adubação foliar promoveu o acúmulo de nitrato na folha a medida que aumenta a quantidade de N fornecida, evidenciando a baixa eficiência na assimilação de N na falta desse micronutriente. A massa de cem grãos responde positivamente ao suplemento de Mo via adubação foliar, reduzindo a necessidade de N para se obter os melhores resultados. A adubação molíbdica aumentou a produtividade do feijoeiro independentemente da dose de N aplicada em cobertura no feijoeiro. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of leaf spray of molybdenum (Mo) and nitrogen (N) rates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cultivar Carioca Precoce, evaluating the yield components, yield and leaves nitrate levels. The research was carried out in Botucatu, State of São Pau [...] lo, Brazil. The sowing of the beans (06/03/2003) was made with the supply of 230 kg ha-1 of NPK (4-30-10) granulated fertilizer at planting. The experiment was a complete randomized block, with four replications and a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement, involving five N rates (25; 50; 75 and 125 kg ha-1), applied 20 days after emergency (DAE), with or without 80 g ha-1 of Mo, applied on leaves at 25 DAE. The Mo absence by leaf spray promoted the nitrate accumulation in the leaves in treatments with higher rates of N. The weight of 100 grains increased with the Mo by leaf spray, reducing the need for N to get the best results. The molybdenum fertilization increased bean yield regardless of N rate applied to the beans.

  14. Fertilizers in cereals crops. Effect of fertilization in grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years the yields of the maize cultivation in the Pampeana production region have constantly increased, foreseeing higher increases of yield in the next years. Such increase is due, between other motives, to the use of hybrids of higher potential yield. There is a direct relation between the yield potential of a genotype and the nutrients demand, fact that constitutes one of the geneticists concerns. Maize hybrids reach its maximum expression when the plant is cultivated in good supplied soils with balanced quantities of nutrients that in several cases are reached with the practice of fertilization. The quantitative and qualitative vegetal response to the use of phosphate fertilizers depend of soils, of the environmental conditions, of fertilizer and the way of its application as well as of the maize hybrid that was used. To direct the practice of fertilization towards the reposition of the soil nutrients extracted by genotypes of high yield without producing excesses that increase costs and put in danger the environment, it is necessary to know the real coefficient used by the plants of the phosphorus available in the soils. The isotopic methodology allows to distinguish the phosphorus coming from two nutrient sources: soil and fertilizer, even in the juvenile phase of vegetal development and to evaluate the efficiency of fertilizers in plant nutrition. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the use of phosphorus coming from one of the phosphorus source available (soil, fertilizer), that should allow to increase and make more specific the knowledge's level of the different maize hybrids. This is obtained by determination of the grade of use of nutrient (of the soil) and of the nutrient of fertilizers, evaluating the qualitative and quantitative responses to fertilization

  15. Evaluation of residual fertilizer effects using labelled fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residual fertilizer effects of using triple superphosphate (TSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) applied under field conditions (100, 200 and 300 kg/ha of TSP and 100 and 200 kg/ha of DAP) were determined on typic Haplustol and lithic Haplustol soils. One year after fertilization, samples were taken from fertilized and unfertilized field plots. Two treatments were applied under growth chamber conditions, one using TSP labelled with 32P (42 mg TSP, with 0.13 MBq/mg P in 450 g of soil) and the other with unfertilized soil. Ray grass seeds were sown. The plants was harvested 30 days after planting and calcinated; then the 32P and 31P concentrations were measured. Calculations were made of the P fractions in plant derived from fertilizer (Pdff) and from soil (Pdfs). The P in plant increased with the increased level of fertilizer in the field treatments and with fertilization under growth chamber conditions. The soil P in fertilized soils included the native pool and residual fertilizer P. The relationship between the Pdff under growth chamber conditions and the Pdfs was chosen in order to compare the P availability in soils with different doses of fertilizer. In the typic Haplustol soil, the relationship between the Pdff and the Pdfs was similar when TSP or DAP was applied. For lithic Haplustol soil, a greater in the available P in soil was found at equal doses using TSP. The relationship between Pdff and Pdfs was similar when TSP was applied to both soils. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION AND CUTTING ON FLORISTIC AND PHYTOCENOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FACIES (Arrenatheretum elatioris alopecurosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Stjepanovi?

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1993-1997 investigations were conducted on natural low marshy grassland of facies Arrhenatheretum elatioris alopecurosum located 60 km west of Osijek and 7 km south of the river Drava. Variants of nitrogen fertilization, NPK fertilizers and non-fertilized were comprised in the investigation. Presence of 121 plant species of which 22 grass and grass-like species, 12 legumes and 87 other plant species was determined. On the average of five years grassland fertilization affected changes in density value of all plant groups. The highest grass density was found out with the variant fertilized with N120P12K120 and the highest legumes density appeared to be on non-fertilized variant. In 1997 Centaurea jacea, Cerastium holosteoides and Myosotis arvensis dissapeared from plant density of other species due to fertilization and mowing effect. Grasses Alopercurus pratensis and Poa pratensis var. angustifolia as well as leguminoses Trfolim pratense and Lathyrus pratensis are especially characterized by good fodder and density value.

  17. Phosphorus Requirements of Cereal Crops and Fertility Build up Factor in a Typic Camborthid Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaid- ur-Rehman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted to arrest Phosphorus requirements of wheat, sorghum fodder and rice crops at 95% relative yield; Phosphorus Fertility Buildup Factor (PFBF and level of phosphorus buildup in a Typic Camborthid (Sultanpur series soil of rice tract of the Punjab, Pakistan. Sorption isotherms were constructed in the laboratory and data fitted into linear form of modified Freundlich Model and doses were computed against soil solution P levels. Different theoretical P doses were applied in the field to develop soil solution P level of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.50 mg LG1 along with a control (native soil solution P. Phosphorus was also applied at the rate of 60 and 90 mg P2O5 kgG1 to subsequent sorghum fodder and rice crops, respectively. Wheat grain and straw, fresh sorghum fodder, rice paddy and straw yields were recorded at the harvest. Plant sampling was done at booting stage of wheat and rice and at the harvest of each crop. Soil sampling was also done at the harvest of each crop. The results indicated that maximum wheat grain yield was 4.05 mg haG1; sorghum fresh fodder yield was 43.83 mg haG1 and rice paddy yield was 4.43 mg haG1. Total P uptake by wheat, sorghum and rice was 22.73, 37.69 and 20.48 kg haG1, respectively. Mean phosphorus fertility build-up factor (mg P required to build 1 mg P kgG1 soil was 16.23 and the level of P buildup (mg P kgG1 built-up in soil for each mg P kgG1 soil applied was 0.062. Level of P depletion was 0.141 mg P kgG1 for NPK check plots while 0.162 mg P kgG1 for P check plots. Internal P requirement for wheat was 0.255% at booting stage and 0.281% for grain stage. For sorghum fodder, internal P requirement was 0.233% and for rice, it was 0.146% at booting stage and 0.266% for paddy stage.

  18. Survivel, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings fertilized at planting on Andisol soils in Iceland : six-year results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Hreinn; Sigurgeirsson, Adalsteinn

    2006-01-01

    A field trial was carried out in 1995 to study the effect of fertilization at planting on the survival, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings planted on Andisol soils at two sites in South Iceland. Nine fertilizer treatments were tested on three tree species Betula pubescens Ehrh., Larix sibirica Ledeb. and Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. After six growing seasons, seedlings provided with controlled-release-fertilizer (Osmocote®: 25 g per seedling) or smaller amounts of easily soluble nitrogen–phosphorus fertilizer (e.g. 1.2 g N per seedling and 1.4 g P per seedling) showed significantly improved survival and growth. Larger amounts of N increased mortality during the first year. Fertilized trees were less subject to frost heaving than untreated trees. In the year following application of NPK fertilizer the effect was insignificant on the foliar concentration of macronutrients of the fertilized seedlings, compared to control seedlings. It is concluded that fertilization during afforestation in Iceland and other areas in the world with similar climatic and soil properties could make the difference between plantation success or failure. Growth; Survival; Foliar nutrient concentration; Frost heaving; Betula pubescens Ehrh.; Larix sibirica Ledeb.; Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.; Fertilizer; Containerized seedlings

  19. Soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the intensified practices and effectively diminishing land resources per capita, increasing weights of both native soil- and added fertilizer-nitrogen will be lost to agriculture and its products, and will find their way into the environment. Soil-nitrogen levels and contingent productivity can nevertheless be maintained in the face of these losses on the basis of improved soil-N management. In some local situations nitrate levels in water for drinking purposes are likely to continue rising. In some cases agriculture and clearance practices are only one of several sources. In others they are clearly mainly responsible. In developing countries these losses represent those of a relatively increasingly costly input. This is due to the fact that industrial fertilizer nitrogen production is a particularly high energy-consuming process. In the more advanced industrialized countries they represent an addition to the problems and costs of environmental quality and health protection. The programmes, information and data reviewed here suggest that these problems can be contained by improved and extended soil and water management in agriculture on the basis of existing technology. In particular there appears to be enormous scope for the better exploitation of existing legumes both as non-legume crop alternatives or as biofertilizers which also possess more desirable C:N ratios than chemical fertilizer

  20. Adubo de liberação lenta na produção de mudas de mamoeiro / Controlled-release fertilizer in papaya seedlings production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes, Serrano; Laercio Francisco, Cattaneo; Geraldo Antônio, Ferreguetti.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir as doses adequadas de um adubo de liberação lenta para a produção de mudas dos principais genótipos de mamoeiro cultivados no Estado do Espírito Santo. O experimento foi realizado em estufa agrícola, na Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A., em Linhares-ES, sob delineam [...] ento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x6. Foram avaliados cinco genótipos de mamoeiro 'Golden', 'Calimosa', 'Tainung 01', 'INCAPER 09' e 'INCAPER 39', cultivados em substrato comercial fertilizado com seis doses de um adubo de liberação lenta, fórmula NPK + (Mg) 13-06-16 + (1,4): 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0 e 12,5 kg m-3. Houve diferenças no crescimento e no estado nutricional das mudas de mamoeiro em relação ao genótipo e às doses do adubo de liberação lenta utilizados. As doses do adubo que proporcionaram os maiores valores para altura e massa seca total das mudas de mamoeiro foram: 11,2 e 11,3 kg m-3 para o 'Golden'; 7,7 e 7,9 kg m-3 para o 'Calimosa'; 11,6 e 10,9 kg m-3 para o 'Tainung 01'; 10,5 e 10,6 kg m-3 para o 'INCAPER 09', e 11,0 e 9,6 kg m-3 para o 'INCAPER 39', respectivamente. Nessas mesmas doses do adubo, as mudas apresentaram adequado nível nutricional. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to define the appropriate doses of a controlled-release fertilizer to production of papaya seedlings, in Espirito Santo State, Brazil. The research was realized in greenhouse in Caliman Agricola Company, Linhares- ES, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized co [...] mplete block in a factorial scheme 5x6. It was evaluated five papaya genotypes 'Golden', 'Calimosa', 'Tainung 01', 'INCAPER 09' and 'INCAPER 39', cultivated in commercial substrate (constituted of pinus bark and vermiculite) fertilized with six doses of controlled-release fertilizer formula NPK + (Mg) 13-06-16 + (1.4): 0.0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 and 12.5 kg m-3. Differences in growth and nutritional status of papaya seedlings were observed according to the genotype and the dose of controlled-release fertilizer used. The highest values for height and total dry matter of papaya seedlings occurred with the doses: 11.2 and 11.3 kg m-3 for 'Golden'; 7.7 and 7.9 kg m-3 for 'Calimosa'; 11.6 and 10.9 kg m-3 the 'Tainung 01'; 10.5 and 10.6 kg m-3 for 'INCAPER 09' and 11.0 and 9.6 kg m-3 for 'INCAPER 39', respectively. In the same doses the papaya seedlings showed adequate levels of nutrients.

  1. Adubo de liberação lenta na produção de mudas de mamoeiro Controlled-release fertilizer in papaya seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir as doses adequadas de um adubo de liberação lenta para a produção de mudas dos principais genótipos de mamoeiro cultivados no Estado do Espírito Santo. O experimento foi realizado em estufa agrícola, na Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A., em Linhares-ES, sob delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x6. Foram avaliados cinco genótipos de mamoeiro 'Golden', 'Calimosa', 'Tainung 01', 'INCAPER 09' e 'INCAPER 39', cultivados em substrato comercial fertilizado com seis doses de um adubo de liberação lenta, fórmula NPK + (Mg 13-06-16 + (1,4: 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0 e 12,5 kg m-3. Houve diferenças no crescimento e no estado nutricional das mudas de mamoeiro em relação ao genótipo e às doses do adubo de liberação lenta utilizados. As doses do adubo que proporcionaram os maiores valores para altura e massa seca total das mudas de mamoeiro foram: 11,2 e 11,3 kg m-3 para o 'Golden'; 7,7 e 7,9 kg m-3 para o 'Calimosa'; 11,6 e 10,9 kg m-3 para o 'Tainung 01'; 10,5 e 10,6 kg m-3 para o 'INCAPER 09', e 11,0 e 9,6 kg m-3 para o 'INCAPER 39', respectivamente. Nessas mesmas doses do adubo, as mudas apresentaram adequado nível nutricional.The objective of this work was to define the appropriate doses of a controlled-release fertilizer to production of papaya seedlings, in Espirito Santo State, Brazil. The research was realized in greenhouse in Caliman Agricola Company, Linhares- ES, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a factorial scheme 5x6. It was evaluated five papaya genotypes 'Golden', 'Calimosa', 'Tainung 01', 'INCAPER 09' and 'INCAPER 39', cultivated in commercial substrate (constituted of pinus bark and vermiculite fertilized with six doses of controlled-release fertilizer formula NPK + (Mg 13-06-16 + (1.4: 0.0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 and 12.5 kg m-3. Differences in growth and nutritional status of papaya seedlings were observed according to the genotype and the dose of controlled-release fertilizer used. The highest values for height and total dry matter of papaya seedlings occurred with the doses: 11.2 and 11.3 kg m-3 for 'Golden'; 7.7 and 7.9 kg m-3 for 'Calimosa'; 11.6 and 10.9 kg m-3 the 'Tainung 01'; 10.5 and 10.6 kg m-3 for 'INCAPER 09' and 11.0 and 9.6 kg m-3 for 'INCAPER 39', respectively. In the same doses the papaya seedlings showed adequate levels of nutrients.

  2. Biological fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological fertilization in energy forestry includes both soil amendments with various forms of organic matter, direct cultivation of symbotically nitrogen-fixing woody plants or willow/poplar plantations intermixed with nitrogen-fixing ley crops or trees, and stimulation or introduction of other rhizosphere microorganisms that interact positively with the energy forest crop. Microbial aspects on the use of organic matter and the role of root-symbionts and other plant growth stimulating rhizosphere microorganisms are dealt with. The main emphasis, however, is laid on experiences of direct cultivation of woody leguminous and actinorhizal plants for energy forest purposes under both temperate and tropical conditions. Plant selection, plantation management, rhizobiology, climatic considerations and environmental aspects are discussed. (author)

  3. Effects of eustatic sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and iron fertilization on atmospheric pCO2 and seawater composition over the last 130 000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, K.; Schneider, B.; Sarnthein, M.

    2015-06-01

    We developed and employed an earth system model to explore the forcings of atmospheric pCO2 change and the chemical and isotopic evolution of seawater over the last glacial cycle. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus, reactive nitrogen, molecular oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), 13C-DIC and 14C-DIC were calculated for 24 ocean boxes. The bi-directional water fluxes between these model boxes were derived from a 3-D circulation field of the modern ocean (Opa 8.2, NEMO) and tuned such that tracer distributions calculated by the box model were consistent with observational data from the modern ocean. To model the last 130 kyr, we employed records of past changes in sea-level, ocean circulation, and dust deposition. According to the model, about half of the glacial pCO2 drawdown may be attributed to marine regressions. The glacial sea-level low-stands implied steepened ocean margins, a reduced burial of particulate organic carbon, phosphorus, and neritic carbonate at the margin seafloor, a decline in benthic denitrification, and enhanced weathering of emerged shelf sediments. In turn, they led to a distinct rise in the standing stocks of DIC, TA, and nutrients in the global ocean, promoted the glacial sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the ocean, and added 13C- an