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Sample records for npk fertility levels

  1. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization

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    CORRYANTI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tisserant. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased on inoculated seedlings compare to with uninoculated. NPK fertilization of 0.0625 g per seedling and inoculation on teak seedlings showed alkaline phosphatase activity in range 90-201 EU, and in roots indicated in range 14-72%. Gigaspora sp inoculation on teak seedlings was showing the highest of alkaline phosphatase activity. Increasing phosphatase alkaline activity relevant to hyphae growth, and increasing of root infection decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased seedling dry weight.

  2. Response of Early Maturity Mutant Lines of Low Land Rice on Several Levels of NPK Fertilizers and Irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A problem which will occur in the IP400 program is the exploitation of nutrient and water. This problem could be overcome by using early maturating having high fertilizer and water use efficiency. For this purpose several mutant lines were tested for their efficiency on using fertilizers and water. The testing of the mutant lines were done in the field at the experimental station of the Agricultural Department Pusakanagara, West Java. Treatments employed were six mutant lines and two rice varieties which four rates of NPK fertilizers (0, 25, 50, and 100%) and three irrigation regimes (continuously sub merging, 10 and 15 days of alternate sub merging). The soil water content was determined by neutron probe at the start of each water regimes. The N total mutant of the plants were carried out at the Plant Nutrition Laboratory, PATIR-BATAN. Results showed that the average yield, in sequence from the highest to the lowest (t/ha) is OBS 1705 (9,3597), Cimelati (8,9631), OBS 1700 (8,9192), Diah Suci (8,7706), OBS 1713 (8,2797), OBS 1703 (8,2733), OBS 1718 (8,2489) and OBS 1704 (8,0019). Statistically highest yield/ha was obtained at all the water regimes and NPK fertilizer rates was shown by OBS 1705 and did not differ significantly from Cimelati variety, but it significantly differ from Diah Suci variety, OBS 1713, OBS 1703, OBS 1718 and OBS 1718. The OBS 1704 was highly responsive to the NPK fertilization, producing and increase any weight at the lowest rate of NPK fertilization (25%). The uptake of total nitrogen (kg N/ha) in the grain of the mutant lines were all higher than that of the parent lines (Cimelati and Diah Suci). (author)

  3. The Performance of Zea mays as Influenced by NPK fertilizer Application

    OpenAIRE

    Law-ogbomo, Joyce Egberanwen; Law-ogbomo, Kolawole Edomwonyi

    2009-01-01

    Field trials were made to estimate the effect of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize were conducted over a two year period. NPK fertilizer applications significantly increase plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield. The optimum level of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer for successful production of maize grains was 400 (60 kg N + 27.16 kg P + 49.80 kg K) kg / ha compound fertilizer based on the fact that it had the g...

  4. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia

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    Jelena Milinovi?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20 exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

  5. GROWTH OF Eucalyptus globulus SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO NPK FERTILIZATION

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    Raul Vicente Pezzutti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study has had as its objectives to evaluate the seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus subspecies maidenii, in response to different NPK originated from the combination of slow release and quick release fertilizers. The study was conducted in a climatized green house ata the Technological Center of Forestry, in the Forest Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria-RS, from September to December of 1997. The plants were cultivated in a compost of pine bark substrate, in a completely randomized design, consisting of 4 treatments which consisted of Phosphorus dosages (60% of Super Simple (0-18-0 and a slow release NPK fertilizer (14-14-14, known as Osmocote, which derived from ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, calcium phosphate and potassium sulfate. The treatments, resulting from the combination of 60% super simple and 40% osmocote were 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 and 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate. There were  4 repetitions of 11 plants for each treatment. After 100 days the height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were evaluated. The results indicate that the E. globulus subsp. maidenii seedlings growth responded positively to NPK fertilization  [60% of Super Simple (0-18-0+40% of slow release fertilizer (14-14-14]; when the fertilizer was not applied the seedlings did not grow as much while the maximum increment in height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were obtained in the  dosage range of 6,7 Kg m-3 to 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate.

  6. Physiology, phenology and yield of sunflower (autumn) as affected by NPK fertilizer and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn, 2000 and 2001. The response of sunflower hybrids (SF-187 and Parsun-1) were studied using low medium and high rate of NPK (0, 50, 100,150 kg ha/sup -1/) in factorial design with split plot arrangements. Days to R1 (button stage), R4 (inflorescence begins to open), R5.8 (80% anthesis) and R9 (physiological maturity) stages significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Among the hybrids, Parsun-1 matured 4-5 days later than SF-187. Similarly, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), and dry matter accumulation (DMA) also significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Maximum LAI, CGR, DMA and seed yield was produced by fertilizer treatments of 150:100:100 kg ha/sup -1/ during both the seasons. Oil content also varied with different combinations of NPK fertilizers which ranged from 37 to 39% during both the seasons. (author)

  7. Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations

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    PAULO BOLLER GALLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ?Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP, em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação.The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee plantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4 factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

  8. Structural and impedance characterization of ceramics prepared from NPK fertilizer

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    Diouma Kobor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of this work was to study the possibilities of valorising the phosphates through the development of a conductive ceramics using NPK fertilizer as a precursor. Phosphorus based powders were synthesized using solid state technique from NPK fertilizer, lithium chloride and iron chloride at different temperatures up to 900 °C and ceramic samples were prepared by the powder pressing and sintering at 1100 °C. XRD spectra of the calcined powders show various sharp peaks indicating a relatively high degree of crystallinity and presence of different crystalline phases, such as: phosphorus based crystalline compounds (AlPO4 and LiFePO4, ferrite (Fe3O4 and DyFeO3, CaSO4 and K3DyCl6. The prepared phosphorus based ceramics showed very interesting electrical and dielectric properties. Thus, in the future the obtained ceramics could find application in electronic or energy storage devices. However, further investigations are necessary to understand the exact chemical composition and structural characteristics of this material, to better understand the origin of the obtained electrical and dielectric behaviour.

  9. Produtividade do quiabeiro adubado com esterco bovino e NPK / Yield of okra fertilized with bovine manure and NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar P. de, Oliveira; Ovídio P. R. da, Silva; Juliete A., Silva; Damiana F. da, Silva; Débora T. de A., Ferreira; Suany M. G., Pinheiro.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o rendimento do quiabeiro em função do emprego de doses de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de NPK. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco [...] bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1) com e sem NPK, com quatro repetições. Os números máximos de 37 e 26 frutos planta-1 foram obtidos nas doses estimadas de 20 e 26 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente, com e sem NPK. As doses estimadas de 23 e 28 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produtividades de frutos comerciais de 21 e 17 t ha-1, com e sem NPK, respectivamente. Os teores máximos de N foliar no quiabeiro foram de 36,9 e 33 g kg-1 obtidos na dose de 50 t ha-1 de esterco bovino com com e sem NPK, respectivamente. O teor foliar de P reduziu com o aumento das doses de esterco bovino com valor de 2,4 g kg-1 na dose de 50 t ha-1 com NPK enquanto se obteve, sem NPK, média de 2,2 g kg-1. O teor foliar de K na presença da adubação com NPK foi de 26,7 na dose de 50 t ha-1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of okra under doses of bovine manure in the presence and the absence of NPK. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a factorial 6 x 2, six doses of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1), with [...] and without NPK, with four replications. The maximum numbers of 37 and 26 fruits plant -1 were obtained at estimated doses of 20 and 26 t ha-1 of bovine manure, respectively with and without NPK. Estimated doses of 23 and 28 t ha-1 of manure were responsible for maximum commercial fruit yields of 21 and 17 t ha-1, with and without NPK, respectively. The maximum concentration of N in okra leaf were 36.9 and 33 g kg-1 obtained under the dose of 50 t ha-1 of manure, respectively with and without NPK. The P content in leaf decreased with increasing doses of bovine manure with a value of 2.4 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1 with NPK, while without NPK resulted on an average of 2.2 g kg-1. The K content in leaf in the presence of NPK fertilization was 26.7 g kg-1 under the dose of 50 t ha-1.

  10. Efeito da adubação NPK na cultura da crotalária Influence of NPK fertilization in sunnhemp crop

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    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em oito experimentos em que se procurou determinar os efeitos de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, na produção de massa verde e sementes de Crotalaria juncea L. No estudo dos três principais elementos, empregou-se um delineamento fatorial 3ª com duas repetições. Foram estudadas as dosagens de 0, 30 e 60 de N; 0, 60 e 120 de P2O5 e 0, 30 e 60 de K2O, em quilograma/hectare, empregados sob a forma de salitre-do-chile, superfosfato simples e cloreto de potássio respectivamente. Os experimentos foram realizados nos anos agrícolas 1967/68 e 1968/69, nas Estações Experimentais de Campinas, Tietê, Tatuí e Ribeirão Preto e, segundo a Comissão de Solos do Ministério da Agricultura, respectivamente, em solo: Latassolo roxo, série Chapadão; Podzólico vermelho-amarelo variação Piracicaba; Latossolo roxo e Latossolo roxo. Os resultados mostram que, na maioria dos experimentos, o emprego do fósforo aumentou significativamente a produção de massa verde e sementes. O nitrogênio apresentou efeito significativo em alguns deles, ao passo que o efeito do potássio foi praticamente nulo, só apresentando significância quando em presença do fósforo ou do fósforo e nitrogênio juntos.In this paper the influence of NPK fertilization in the production of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. regarding fibers and seeds was studied. The experiments were conducted dining two years in four different regions of São Paulo State. The data showed that the best results were obtained with the application of phosphorus.

  11. BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.R, Tortella; O, Rubilar; M, Cea; C, Wulff; O, Martínez; M.C, Diez.

    Full Text Available Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinid [...] ol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity) in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1%) and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0%) and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

  12. Flower Synchrony, Growth and Yield Enhancement of Small Type Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L. Through Plant Growth Regulators and NPK Fertilization

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    Md. Yunus Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU. In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (?0.05 influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

  13. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd. PMID:24897796

  14. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

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    F.M Oloyede

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

  15. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.M, Oloyede.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivat [...] ion and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

  16. Inoculação de Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK na composição química e contaminação fungo-fumonisina de milho / Inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization on chemical composition and fungal-fumonisin contamination of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana P., Bernd; Thiago M., Souza; Mariana A. de, Oliveira; Elisabete Y. S., Ono; Claudemir, Zucareli; Elisa Y., Hirooka.

    1274-12-01

    Full Text Available Propôs,neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da inoculação de sementes com Pseudomonas fluorescens e adubação NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio) na composição química e contaminação por fungo-fumonisina de grãos de milho. O delineamento experimental foi bloco casualizado em fatorial 2 x 3, corresponden [...] te à inoculação com P. fluorecens (não inoculada ou inoculada) e níveis de adubação NPK (0, 125 e 250 kg ha-1, formulados 08-28-16) com 4 repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram composição química (proteína e cinzas), contaminação fúngica (bolores e leveduras) e fumonisinas B1 (FB1) e B2 (FB2). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey e correlação de Pearson, pelo teste-t (p 0,05). A interação entre fatores, com incremento no nível de adubação NPK e uso de P. Fluorescens, resultou em aumento no teor de cinzas e proteína (p Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the effect of inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens and NPK fertilization (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) on chemical composition and contamination by fungal-fumonisin of maize grains. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in factorial 2 [...] x 3, corresponding to inoculation with P. fluorescens (non-inoculated or inoculated) and levels of NPK fertilization (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1, formulation 8-28-16), with 4 replications. The parameters evaluated were chemical composition (protein and ash), contamination by fungal (mold and yeast) and fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2). The data were subjected to analysis of variance, comparisons of means by Tukey test and Pearson correlation by test-t (p 0.05). The interaction between factors, increase in NPK level and use of P. fluorescens, resulted in increase in protein content and ash (p

  17. Bioremediation in Mangrove Sediments Impacted by Oil Using Two Types of Fertilizers NPK and OSMOCOTE, Brazil

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    Danusia Ferreira Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a technique applied to several environmental impacts, among which the ones generated by petroleum derivatives, through the introduction of microorganisms into the environment, or creating optimal conditions for them to develop. The present study aimed to evaluate the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons through the biostimulation technique in the mangrove sediment impacted by petroliferous activities, testing the potentiality of two fertilizers (NPK and OSMOCOTE as accelerating agents of the biodegradation of petroleum components, under experimental conditions. In order to understand the bioremediation process it was used the quantification of nutrient contents, the percent of saturated, aromatic and NSO hydrocarbons, and the behavior of saturated compounds along the entire experiment, besides the monitoring of physical and chemical parameters. Chromatographic profiles characterized a major degradation of saturated hydrocarbons at the units with NPK, presenting a better efficiency of this fertilizer in the tested biostimulation process.

  18. Effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on total antioxidant capacity of soil and amaranth leaves (Amaranthus cruentus L.

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    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was set up in 2007 in a split-plot design to investigate the effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of fresh leaf tissue of the Polish amaranth varieties Rawa and Aztek, cultivated for seed, and of the soil they were cultivated on. The experiment was conducted with three replicates. The following combinations of macroelement doses were applied: I: N – 50 , P – 40, K – 40 kg ha-1; II: N – 90, P – 60, K – 60 kg ha-1; and III: N – 130, P – 70, K – 70 kg ha-1. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC of the soil and amaranth leaves was determined using the method described by Rice-Evans and Miller, as modified by Bartosz. Organic carbon content was determined as well. In most of the cases the fertilization (NPK caused an increase in total antioxidant capacity of the soil under amaranth cultivation. The highest total antioxidant capacity in the soil examined (compared with the control was found with combination III of NPK fertilizers for soil under Rawa cultivation, and with combination I for the Aztek soil. The total antioxidant capacity of amaranth per unit fresh leaf mass was dependent on the variety and on the doses of the macroelements applied. The highest total antioxidant capacity in Rawa per unit fresh leaf mass was observed with combination III, while for the Aztek variety the highest TAC was found with combination I. Statistical analysis showed significant dependencies between TAC of the soils and leaves and the level of fertilization, as well as between the TAC of the soil and of amaranth leaves.

  19. Bioremediation in Mangrove Sediments Impacted by Oil Using Two Types of Fertilizers NPK and OSMOCOTE, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Danusia Ferreira Lima; Olívia Maria Cordeiro de Oliveira; Manoel Jeronimo Moreira Cruz; Jorge Alberto Triguis; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando S.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation is a technique applied to several environmental impacts, among which the ones generated by petroleum derivatives, through the introduction of microorganisms into the environment, or creating optimal conditions for them to develop. The present study aimed to evaluate the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons through the biostimulation technique in the mangrove sediment impacted by petroliferous activities, testing the potentiality of two fertilizers (NPK and OSMOCOTE) as acceler...

  20. Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution Adubação npk na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva

    OpenAIRE

    José Pereira Carvalho Neto; Enilson de Barros Silva; Reynaldo Campos Santana; Paulo Henrique Grazziotti

    2011-01-01

    Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomiz...

  1. Effect of different levels of foliar fertilization with NPK micronutrients more in the productivity of winter maize in Dourados Region, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Efeito de diferentes níveis de adubação foliar com NPK mais micronutrientes na produtividade do milho safrinha na Região de Dourados/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhereme Augusto Biscaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of foliar fertilization on the agronomic characteristics of corn plants, irrigated by a system of irrigation by sprinkler. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, from 23 September 2008 to February 20, 2009 using a multinutrient liquid fertilizer NPK plus micronutrients. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine doses of liquid fertilizer (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2.0 L ha –1 and four replications. The corn plants were evaluated during the experiment between growth stages R3 to R6 characterized by the state of the dough and physiological maturity, respectively. The variables studied were plant height, height of ear insertion, number of grains per ear and yield. The foliar provided to increase the height of corn plants, reducing the height of insertion of the ears, increasing the number of grains per ear and yield. The estimated dose of 1.15 L ha-1 provided the best results on the variables analyzed.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar nas características agronômicas de plantas de milho, irrigado por um sistema de irrigação por aspersão convencional. O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD, no período de 23 setembro de 2008 a 20 fevereiro de 2009 utilizando-se um fertilizante líquido multinutriente NPK + micronutrientes. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados, com nove doses do fertilizante líquido (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,5; 1,75 e 2,0 L ha-1 e quatro repetições. As plantas de milho foram avaliadas no decorrer do experimento entre os estádios fenológicos R3 à R6 caracterizados pelo estado de grão farináceo e maturação fisiológica respectivamente. As variáveis analisadas foram altura de plantas, altura de inserção das espigas, número de grãos por espiga e produtividade. A adubação foliar proporcionou aumento da altura das plantas de milho, redução da altura de inserção das espigas, aumento do número de grãos por espiga e da produtividade. A dose estimada de 1,15 L ha-1 proporcionou os melhores resultados sobre as variáveis analisadas.

  2. Acúmulo de NPK e sódio na mamoneira sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada / Accumulation of NPK and sodium in castor bean under saline stress and nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reginaldo G., Nobre; Lauriane A. dos A., Soares; Hans R., Gheyi; Geovani S. de, Lima; Givanildo da S., Lourenço; Saulo da S., Soares.

    1066-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com água de diferentes salinidades e doses de nitrogênio, sobre a acumulação de NPK e sódio na parte aérea da mamoneira, em experimento conduzido em lisímetros. Utilizou-se aleatorização em bloco em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com três rep [...] etições, estudando-se os cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água (CEa), variando de 0,4 a 4,4 dS m-1, associados a cinco doses de nitrogênio (50 a 150% da recomendada). Os teores de NPK e de sódio na cv. BRS Energia foram maiores nas folhas que no caule e entre as épocas de avaliação, aos 120 dias após a semeadura (DAS) em relação aos 46 DAS. Nas folhas os teores acumulados aos 46 DAS, variou na sequência K > Na > N > P e aos 120 DAS K > N > Na > P; enquanto no caule variaram em ambas as épocas, a ordem foi Na > K > P ? N e em função da CEa e K> Na> P ? N em função das doses de N aos 46 DAS níveis crescentes de CEa promoveram aumento no teor de Nfolha e Kfolha assim como o incremento da adubação com N inibiu o teor de Na folha; aos 120 DAS o maior teor de Nfolha foi obtido com a CEa de 4,4 dS m-1 e a dose de N de 150%, já o teor de Kfolha e Kcaule foi obtido na dose de 150% de N enquanto o teor de P não foi influenciado por nenhum fator estudado. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water of different salinities and doses of nitrogen fertilization on accumulation of NPK and sodium in the aerial parts of the castor bean, the experiment was conducted in lysimeters. A randomized block design in 5 x 5 factorial ar [...] rangement with three replications was used, and the effects of electrical conductivity of water (ECw) varying from 0.4 to 4.4 dS m-1 associated with nitrogen dose (50 to 150% of recommended dose) were studied. The NPK and sodium contents in the aerial parts of to plant in the leaves in comparison to stems and evaluation times 120 days after sowing (DAS) > 46 DAS. In leaves the content at 46 DAS varied according to following sequence K > Na > N > P and at 120 DAS K > N > Na > P while in the stem in both study periods it accumulated in the order Na > K > P ? N under water salinity and K > Na > P ? N depending on nitrogen fertilization. At 46 DAS, the increasing levels of ECw caused an increase in the Nleaf and Kleaf and nitrogen dose inhibited Na leaf content. At 120 DAS the highest content of Nleaf was obtained in treatment ECw 4.4 dS m-1 and in dose of 150% N while the contents of Kleaf and Kstem were obtained in the dose of 150% N. The P content was not affected by any of the studied factors.

  3. Adubação do milho: XXIV - Resultados de um ensaio permanente com estêrco, calcário e NPK mineral / Fertilizer experiments with corn: XXIV - First 9-year results of a long term trial with manure, limestone, and NPK fertilizer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L. T., Miranda; G.P., Viegas; E. S., Freire.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados dos nove primeiros anos de um ensaio de adubação do milho instalado em terra-roxa-misturada da Estação Experimental «Theodureto de Camargo», Campinas, no qual foram estudados, em esquema fatorial, três níveis de estêrco, três de calcário e três de NPK mi [...] neral. De estêrco, usaram-se 0, 10 e 20 t/ha; de NPK, 0, 60-60-30 e 120-120-60 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O. Êsses adubos foram empregados anualmente. O calcário só foi aplicado em dois anos: no primeiro, 2 e 4 t/ha; no terceiro, 2 e 0,85 t/ha. As produções foram geralmente boas e, em média dos tratamentos, tenderam a crescer no decorrer do ensaio, o que se atribui à acumulação de resíduos das consecutivas adubações e ao uso de híbridos cada vez mais produtivos. Embora tendesse a melhorar um pouco nos últimos anos, o efeito médio da calagem foi nulo, mas sua interação com NPK foi significativa e positiva; respectivamente na ausência e na presença de NPK, as respostas ao corretivo corresponderam a -205 e +204 kg/ha. A reação ao estêrco foi linear e mais ou menos constante no decorrer do periodo estudado. A interação com NPK foi significativa e negativa: tendo seu efeito médio alcançado +1.340 kg/ha na ausência de NPK, na presença desta adubação baixou para apenas +443 kg/ha. No conjunto do período relatado, o efeito de NPK foi altamente significativo. Conquanto do tipo parabólico, a curva das produções ainda era ascendente quando se usou a dose 2. Do que se disse linhas atrás, deduz-se que a presença do calcário aumentou e a do estêrco diminuiu o efeito de NPK. A resposta a NPK baixou de +1.904 kg/ha, na ausência, para +1.007 kg/ha na presença do estêrco. Todavia, as produções cresceram sempre que se aumentaram as doses totais de nutrientes. As médias citadas não representam bem o efeito de NPK, pois sua interação com anos, altamente significativa, mostrou que êle aumentou no decorrer do ensaio. Abstract in english This paper reports the first 9-year results of an experiment in which the effects of manure, limestone, and a NPK fertilizer are being tested on continuous corn. The experiment is located at Campinas, on a «terra-roxa-misturada» soil fairly fertile with the initial pH of 5.6. The corn yields were ge [...] nerally satisfactory and tended to increase during the indicated period, this being attributed to the accumulation of residues of the successive fertilizer applications and the use of more productive hybrids. The average effect of lime was null, but its interaction with NPK was significant and positive: in the absence and in the presence of NPK respectively, the responses to lime corresponded to -205 and +204 kg/ha (kilograms per hectare). The yield increases due to manure were very good and more or less constant during the period studied. Its interaction with NPK was significant and negative: +1,340 kg/ha in the absence and only +443 kg/ha in the presence of NPK. As to NPK, its effect was significant and tended to increase considerably as the years passed. While the presence of lime enhanced it, that of manure depressed it. In the 9-year average the response to NPK, which reached +1,904 kg/ha in the absence, dropped to +1,007 kg/ha in the presence of manure. However, the yields still increased where NPK + manure were applied. The authors also studied the influence of the treatments on some characteristics of the corn plant and ears, and on the chemical properties of the soil, as well as the most profitable rates of NPK applications.

  4. A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release systems. However, there are no attempts to explore the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as controlled release for NPK fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of NPK fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and zeta-potential. The FTIR results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements N, P and K. The stability of the CS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of nitrogen and potassium than with the addition of phosphorus, due to the higher anion charge from the calcium phosphate than the anion charges from the potassium chloride and urea. The mean diameter increase of the CS-PMAA nanoparticles in suspension with the addition of different compounds indicated that the elements are being aggregated on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles.

  5. Efecto de fertilización con n-p-k y la distancia de siembra sobre el rendimiento de la cebolla (allium cepa l. Effect of N-P-K fertilization and planting distance on onion (Allium cepa L. yield

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    Ana Viloria

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Se establecieron cuatro dosis de fertilización con N-P-K y cuatro distancias de siembra en un diseño de parcelas divididas con subunidades en cuadrado latino, para estudiar su efecto sobre el tamaño y el rendimiento del bulbo de cebolla Texas Grano 438. El diámetro del bulbo se comportó como una característica dependiente de la fertilización y la distancia de siembra. Con las dosis menor (150-44-166 kg/ha de N-P-K, respectivamente el máximo diámetro se logró en la distancia 12 x 20 cm mientras que con las dosis mayores lo fue en la distancia 10 x 20 cm. Al variar la distancia desde 6 x 20 cm hasta 12 x 20 cm se modificó significativamente la altura y el peso fresco del bulbo, lográndose los valores máximos en la distancia 10 x 20 cm. No se detectaron diferencias entre las dosis del fertilizante. El rendimiento por unidad de área presentó respuestas inversamente proporcionales a las distancias de siembra.The effect of four doses of N-P-K and four plant spacing on size and yield of Texas Grano 438 onion bulb was studied in a latin square design. Bulb diameter was dependent on fertilization and plant spacing. At the 12 x 20 cm spacing, maximum diameters were obtained with the lowest level of fertilization (150-44-166 kg/ha N-P-K, respectively while with higher dose the maximum diameter was found at the 10 x 20 cm plant spacing. When spacing was changed from 6 x 20 cm to 12 x 20 cm, the bulb's height and fresh weight were significantly modified, obtaining maximum values at the 10 x 20 cm. No differences were found for fertilizer dose. Yield per area unit showed results in indirect proportion to plant spacing.

  6. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere elsined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  7. ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES

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    Marcos Roberto Murbach

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

  8. Influence of mineral fertilization (NPK) on the quality of apricot fruit (cv. Canino). The effect of the mode of nitrogen supply

    OpenAIRE

    Radi, Mohamed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Jaouad, Abderrahime; Amiot, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers were evaluated on biochemical markers involved in the quality of apricots (sugars, organic acids and free acidity) and technological qualities (phenolic compounds: substrates of the enzymatic browning reaction). Apricot fruits (cv. Canino) were picked in the Marrakech area (Morocco). An experimental design was carried out with four factors: N, P and K, each one at two levels, and two modes of N ...

  9. Influence of Npk Inorganic Fertilizer Treatment on the Proximate Composition of the Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth

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    G.G.E. Osuagwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L. and Gongronema latifolium (Benth was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h-1 treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p<0.05 increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p<0.05 decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant’s leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  10. Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeeswaran, R.; Murugappan, V.; Govindaswamy, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient use efficiencies of newly formulated slow release NPK sources in turm...

  11. Comparative Effect of City Finished Compost and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Availability of Phosphorus to Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Towhid Osman; Md. Abul Kashem; Ashoka Sarker

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the comparative effect of city finished compost and NPK fertilizer on the growth and availability of phosphorus to radish (Raphanus sativus L.). An air dried sandy loam soil was mixed with five rates of city finished compost (CFC) equivalent to 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 ton ha–1 and three rates of NPK fertilizer equivalent to 50% (N-P-K = 69-16-35 kg ha–1), 100% (N-P-K = 137-32-70 kg ha–1<...

  12. INFLUENCE OF COMPOST, MICROORGANISMS AND NPK FERTILIZER UPON GROWTH, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pokluda, Robert; Abdelwahab, Mohamed Mahmoud; Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis

    2007-01-01

    The performance of compost and microorganisms was compared with standard, commercial rates of NPK fertilizers with respect to the growth, chemical composition and essential oil production of Rosmarinus officinalis L. In two successive seasons, plants treated by a mixture of compost and microorganisms showed a significant increase in vegetative growth, total N, P and carbohydrate content and essential oil production. The findings clearly indicate that compost and microorganisms could replace c...

  13. Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Oloyede, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized...

  14. Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK = Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães Teles

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF, colmos (MSC e total (MST, teor de proteína bruta (PB, N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic RedYellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

  15. Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK / Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães, Teles; Maria Socorro de Souza, Carneiro; Ismail, Soares; Elzania Sales, Pereira; Pedro Zione de, Souza; João Avelar, Magalhães.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distri [...] buídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF), colmos (MSC) e total (MST), teor de proteína bruta (PB), N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan [...] Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic Red Yellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY) evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP) and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

  16. Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK / Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marilene L. A., Bovi; Sandra H., Spiering; Antonia Marlene M., Barbosa.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente [...] em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth), cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa"), durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N), fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 ) e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O), em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação). As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993), quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m) tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE), com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente). A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra) foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente), enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha). Doses crescentes de potássio (K) apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97) na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente). Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK), exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N. Abstract in english The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in per [...] ennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was studied under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5) and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O) doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993), when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing) were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE), with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively). The interaction GE x PO (sample position) was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively), while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³ in the within row, and 6.84 g/dm³ between rows). There was

  17. Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

  18. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  19. Competição entre quatro variedades de girassol na ausência e na presença de adubação mineral com NPK Comparison of four sunflower varieties in the presence and absence of a NPK fertilizer

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    José Luiz Vasconcelos da Rocha

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de quatro variedades de girassol, na ausência e na presença de adubação com NPK, foi estudado em diversas localidades do Estado de São Paulo. A variedade Uruguai destacou-se consideravelmente das outras na produção. O efeito médio de NPK foi pequeno, mas houve grandes diferenças nas respostas das variedades e pelo uso anterior dos solos. Nas áreas não adubadas no ano anterior, a adubação aumentou substancialmente a produção, sobretudo das variedades Uruguai e Aguapeí. Embora ocupasse o segundo lugar na produção, a variedade Riscada foi das menos eficientes no aproveitamento da adubação.Experiments were conducted in several localities of the State of São Paulo to study the production of four sunflower varieties in the presence and absence of a NPK fertilizer. The seed yields decreased from the variety Uruguai to Riscada, Aguapeí and Preta. While Uruguai produced remarkably more than the other varieties, the differences among the latter were smaller. The overall yield increase due to NPK was small, but the responses changed appreciably according to the variety and the previous treatment of the soils used for the experiments. In the areas which received no fertilizer in the previous year, the experimental fertilizer increased substantially the yields, principally of the varieties Uruguai and Aguapeí. Riscada was less responsive to the pertilizer application.

  20. Adubação com NPK e irrigação do girassol em Luvissolo: Comportamento vegetativo / NPK fertilization and irrigation of sunflowers in Luvisol: Vegetative behavior

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vinícius Batista, Campos; Lúcia Helena Garófalo, Chaves; Hugo Orlando Carvallo, Guerra.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre as culturas utilizadas para a produção de biocombustíveis, o girassol é um das mais importantes. Apesar de existir informações na literatura, as necessidades hídricas e de nutrientes do girassol ainda não estão perfeitamente definidas. Com o objetiv [...] o de verificar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada, fosfatada, potássica e o conteúdo de água disponível no solo (AD) sobre o comportamento vegetativo do girassol Embrapa 122 V2000, na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande-PB, foi conduzido um experimento com quarenta e quatro tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de doses (kg ha-1) de N, P e K de acordo com uma matriz baconiana, sendo 1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 e quatro conteúdos de água disponível (55, 70, 85 e 100% da AD). O tratamento nove é o de referência, correspondendo às doses adotadas pelos produtores de girassol do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em triplicata. Avaliou-se a altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas e área foliar, aos 40 e 60 dias após a semeadura. Os resultados indicaram que os efeitos da água disponível e adubação com NPK sobre a cultura do girassol ocorreram de forma independente, excetuando-se o número de folhas. Todas as variáveis apresentaram comportamento linear crescente em função da água disponível do solo, exceto a área foliar. Para as condições estudadas, as doses 100, 80 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, proporcionaram os maiores índices de crescimento. Abstract in english The sunflower is one of the most important crops used for the production of biofuels. While the literature does contain some information, the hydric and nutritional requirements of sunflowers are still not completely defined. In order to correct this defi [...] ciency, an experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil, with the aim of evaluating the effect of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium fertilization and available soil water (AW) on the behavior of Sunflower cv. Embrapa 122 V2000. The experiment consisted of 44 treatments with compound fertilizers using a Baconian Matrix (1: 0-0-0, 2: 0-80-80, 3: 80-80-80, 4: 100-80-80, 5: 60-0-80, 6: 60-100-80, 7: 60-120-80, 8: 60-80-0, 9: 60-80-80, 10: 60-80-100, 11: 60-80-120 kg ha-1 of N, P and K, respectively, and four difference quantities of available soil water (55, 70, 85 and 100%). The 9th compound fertilizer treatment was considered the reference since its doses are those used by the region's sunflower growers in Rio Grande do Norte State. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area of the plants were evaluated at 40 and 60 days after sowing. The results showed that the effects of available soil water and NPK fertilization on sunflower crop occurred independently for all variables except for the number of leaves. All variables increased linearly as a function of available soil water, except for leaf area. For the conditions studied, the doses 100, 80 and 80 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O resulted in the highest growth rates, respectively.

  1. Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK

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    Ademar Spironello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the State of São Paulo (Agudos county. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5, as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg, were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribuídos em dois blocos. O P foi aplicado somente no plantio nas doses de 0; 80; 160 e 320 kg/ha de P(20(5, como superfosfato. As doses de N e K2O foram 0; 175; 350 e 700 kg/ha, aplicadas como uréia e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente, parceladas em quatro aplicações, durante o período de crescimento da cultura. Ajustaram-se funções de resposta para a produção e características de qualidade dos frutos com o objetivo de estimar as doses de N, P e K para atingir valores máximos. Observou-se resposta quadrática na produção, com um máximo de 72 t/ha de frutos frescos estimado para as doses de 498 e 394 kg/ha de N e K2O, respectivamente. Para a maximização do tamanho do fruto e da porcentagem de frutos de primeira classe (massa maior que 2,6 kg, as doses de N e K foram, respectivamente, 11 e 43% maiores daquelas necessárias para atingir a produção máxima. Não foi observado efeito das doses de P no crescimento ou produção, mesmo com a baixa disponibilidade do nutriente no solo da área experimental. O aumento nas doses de N diminuiu o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, enquanto o oposto ocorreu com as doses de K, que aumentaram também os teores de vitamina C. Produção e tamanho de fruto apresentaram relação positiva com os teores de N e de K nas folhas.

  2. Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution / Adubação npk na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Pereira, Carvalho Neto; Enilson de Barros, Silva; Reynaldo Campos, Santana; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis adequados de nutrientes na planta podem variar de acordo com a espécie ou clone, a idade e o manejo adotado. Com isso, muitas vezes, ajustes na solução nutritiva são necessários conforme o material que se deseja multiplicar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da adubação [...] NPK na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetação da UFVJM. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4)½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro doses dos nutrientes N (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1) na forma de ureia, P (7,5, 15, 30 e 60 mg L-1) na forma de ácido fosfórico e K (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1) na forma de cloreto de potássio em solução nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente para número e massa seca das miniestacas por minicepa, com efeito linear decrescente com o aumento das doses de N. O maior número de miniestacas foi obtido nas doses de 50, 7,5 e 50 mg L-1 de NPK, respectivamente. Abstract in english Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on productio [...] n and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized fractional factorial (4 x 4 x 4)½, with a total of 32 treatments with three replications. The treatments consisted of four doses of N (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1) as urea, P (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg L-1) in the form of phosphoric acid and K (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1) in the form of potassium chloride in the nutrient solution. Only the effect of N alone was significant for the number and dry weight of minicuttings per ministump, with a linear decreasing effect with increasing N levels. The highest number of cuttings was obtained at a dose of 50, 7.5 and 50 mg L-1 of N, P and K, respectively.

  3. Effect of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient content of eucalyptus minicuttings in nutrient solution Adubação npk na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Carvalho Neto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient levels in plants vary according to the species or clone, age and management practice. Therefore, adjustments of the nutrient solution are often necessary according to the plant material for multiplication. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of NPK fertilization on production and leaf nutrient contents of eucalyptus cuttings in nutrient solution. The study was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized fractional factorial (4 x 4 x 4½, with a total of 32 treatments with three replications. The treatments consisted of four doses of N (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 as urea, P (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg L-1 in the form of phosphoric acid and K (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 in the form of potassium chloride in the nutrient solution. Only the effect of N alone was significant for the number and dry weight of minicuttings per ministump, with a linear decreasing effect with increasing N levels. The highest number of cuttings was obtained at a dose of 50, 7.5 and 50 mg L-1 of N, P and K, respectively.Os níveis adequados de nutrientes na planta podem variar de acordo com a espécie ou clone, a idade e o manejo adotado. Com isso, muitas vezes, ajustes na solução nutritiva são necessários conforme o material que se deseja multiplicar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da adubação NPK na produção e nos teores de nutrientes foliares em miniestacas de eucalipto em solução nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetação da UFVJM. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro doses dos nutrientes N (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de ureia, P (7,5, 15, 30 e 60 mg L-1 na forma de ácido fosfórico e K (50, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de cloreto de potássio em solução nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente para número e massa seca das miniestacas por minicepa, com efeito linear decrescente com o aumento das doses de N. O maior número de miniestacas foi obtido nas doses de 50, 7,5 e 50 mg L-1 de NPK, respectivamente.

  4. Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil

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    Muhammad Jamil Khan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat crop in both experiments. The soil under investigation was calcareous in nature, having a high pH (8.2, low in organic matter (8200 mg kg-1, and deficient in N (300 mg kg-1, P (7.5 mg kg-1 and Zn (6.2 mg kg-1. Boiler ash was rich inmicronutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and also contained sufficient amount of Ca, Mg, Na, S, K and P. Consequently, total porosity of soil, available P, S and K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu content in soil, increased with the levels of boiler ash application.On the other hand, dry bulk density declined which is a positive effect. ECe and pH of the soil was minutely increased. Yields and most of the yield components of wheat crop in pots, as well as in the field experiment, also increased due to boiler ashapplication. It is recommended that application of boiler ash @ 50 t ha-1 will result in enhanced yield of wheat in calcareous soil.

  5. Exigências nutricionais da grápia em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico: efeito da adubação NPK no teor de nutrientes nos tecidos / Nutritional demand of grápia in Paleaudalf soil: effect of NPK fertilization on content of nutrients in the tissues

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Teixeira, Nicoloso; Marco Aurélio de Freitas, Fogaça; Flávio, Zancheti; Roni Paulo, Fortunato; Evandro Luiz, Missio.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride) é uma espécie florestal nativa de ampla utilidade na indústria madeireira, motivo pelo qual, atualmente, encontra-se em processo de extinção. Em trabalho prévio, utilizando-se um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, foi demonstrado que o crescimento de [...] plantas jovens de grápia respondeu à adubação de N, P e K com dose de máxima eficiência técnica estimada em, respectivamente, 70, 80 e 80mg kg-1. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar o efeito da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes e micronutrientes dos tecidos de plantas de grápia. Em condições de casa de vegetação, foram realizados 27 tratamentos de adubação em esquema trifatorial completo (3x3x3), representados por três níveis (0, 40 e 80mg kg-1) de N, de P e de K. A parcela experimental foi constituída de um vaso com 3,5kg de Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico e duas plantas. Aos 140 dias após a emergência das plantas, avaliou-se o crescimento e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes da grápia. Os resultados sugerem que os teores adequados de nutrientes nas folhas de plantas jovens de grápia, para se obter de 80 a 100% da produção de biomassa, sejam: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1. Abstract in english Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride) is a Brazilian forest species with great interest for timber-trade, and nowadays due to deforestation, it has been considered in extinction process. In the previous paper, it was shown that the NPK fertilization, respectively at 70, 80 and 80mg kg-1 of a Pa [...] leudalf soil, significantly increased the growth of young plants of grápia. The present work is aimed at characterizing the effects of the NPK fertilization on macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the tissues of grápia. At glasshouse conditions, 27 fertilization treatments were used in a complete trifactorial scheme (3x3x3), represented by the combination of three levels (0, 40 and 80mg kg-1) of N, of P and of K. As experimental unit, pots with 3.5kg of a Paleudalf soil and two plants were used. At 140 days after plant emergence, plant growth and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in leaves, stem and roots were evaluated. The data suggest that the adequate nutrient contents in leaves of young plants of grápia, envision to obtain 80 to 100% of biomass production, were: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.

  6. Exigências nutricionais da grápia em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico: efeito da adubação NPK no teor de nutrientes nos tecidos Nutritional demand of grápia in Paleaudalf soil: effect of NPK fertilization on content of nutrients in the tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride é uma espécie florestal nativa de ampla utilidade na indústria madeireira, motivo pelo qual, atualmente, encontra-se em processo de extinção. Em trabalho prévio, utilizando-se um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, foi demonstrado que o crescimento de plantas jovens de grápia respondeu à adubação de N, P e K com dose de máxima eficiência técnica estimada em, respectivamente, 70, 80 e 80mg kg-1. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar o efeito da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes e micronutrientes dos tecidos de plantas de grápia. Em condições de casa de vegetação, foram realizados 27 tratamentos de adubação em esquema trifatorial completo (3x3x3, representados por três níveis (0, 40 e 80mg kg-1 de N, de P e de K. A parcela experimental foi constituída de um vaso com 3,5kg de Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico e duas plantas. Aos 140 dias após a emergência das plantas, avaliou-se o crescimento e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes da grápia. Os resultados sugerem que os teores adequados de nutrientes nas folhas de plantas jovens de grápia, para se obter de 80 a 100% da produção de biomassa, sejam: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog. Macbride is a Brazilian forest species with great interest for timber-trade, and nowadays due to deforestation, it has been considered in extinction process. In the previous paper, it was shown that the NPK fertilization, respectively at 70, 80 and 80mg kg-1 of a Paleudalf soil, significantly increased the growth of young plants of grápia. The present work is aimed at characterizing the effects of the NPK fertilization on macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the tissues of grápia. At glasshouse conditions, 27 fertilization treatments were used in a complete trifactorial scheme (3x3x3, represented by the combination of three levels (0, 40 and 80mg kg-1 of N, of P and of K. As experimental unit, pots with 3.5kg of a Paleudalf soil and two plants were used. At 140 days after plant emergence, plant growth and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in leaves, stem and roots were evaluated. The data suggest that the adequate nutrient contents in leaves of young plants of grápia, envision to obtain 80 to 100% of biomass production, were: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.

  7. Rendimiento de una plantación comercial de cacao ante diferentes dosis de fertilización con npk en el sureste del estado táchira, venezuela Effect of NPK fertilization on yield of a commercial plantation of cocoa at the southeast of Táchira State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Sánchez F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La carencia de fertilización adecuada es mencionada como una de las causas de los bajos rendimientos del cacao en Venezuela. Para determinar la respuesta de una plantación comercial ubicada en el sureste del estado Táchira fueron realizados dos experimentos. Los tratamientos fueron establecidos a partir de la dosis de laboratorio (DL de NPK según el análisis de suelo. El primer ensayo tuvo una duración de un año y se evaluaron cinco dosis (100 % DL, 50 % DL, 200 % DL, 400 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante. El segundo ensayo se realizó durante tres años y se evaluaron tres dosis (100 % DL, 200 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante. En ambos ensayos se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con seis repeticiones y parcelas experimentales de seis árboles. Sólo en una de las cuatro evaluaciones se detectó efecto del fertilizante sobre el peso de la cosecha. Se concluye que diversos factores, entre los cuales probablemente participe la alta variabilidad existente en las plantaciones de cacao del país, así como la presencia de un alto nivel freático estacional, habrían influido en la escasa respuesta de las plantas a la fertilización con NPK.The low yields in cocoa in Venezuela are associated with lack of fertilization. Two experiments were performed in a commercial plantation in the southeast of Táchira State to determine the response to several doses of fertilization. The treatments were established based on laboratory dose (LD of NPK estimated from soil analysis. The first trial was run for one year and the following five doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 50 % LD, 200 % LD, 400 % LD and a control without fertilization. The second trial lasted three years and three doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 200 % LD, and a non fertilized control. A complete randomized block design, with six replications and six-tree plots, was used in each experiment. Only one out of the four evaluations showed effect of the fertilizer on the crop yield. It is concluded that several factors, among which the high tree variability that usually exists within cocoa plantations in the country, along with the presence of a seasonal shallow water table, probably affected the tree response to the NPK fertilizer.

  8. Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Marilene L. A. Bovi; Sandra H. Spiering; Antonia Marlene M. Barbosa

    1999-01-01

    O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pup...

  9. Performance of Some Snap Bean Varieties as Affected by Different Levels of Mineral Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Mawgoud; El-desuki, M.; Salman, S. R.; Abou-hussein, S. D.; A.M.R.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed in order to evaluate the growth and yield performance of some French bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) i.e. Royal Nel, Duel, Coby and Julia and their responses to different levels of NPK fertilization. The four mentioned varieties were fertilized with four NPK levels i.e. 20: 32: 24; 30: 48: 36; 40: 64: 48; or 50: 80: 54. Data showed that cvs. Royal Nel and Coby recorded the highest values in vegetative growth while cv. Julia was the lowest. Increasing the level o...

  10. Respuesta del litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en el norte de Oaxaca, México / Response of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) to NPK fertilization in northern Oaxaca, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramiro, Maldonado Peralta; Antonio, Trinidad Santos; Daniel, Téliz Ortíz; Vicente A., Velasco Velasco; Víctor H., Volke Haller.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta de litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en árboles de la var. 'Brewster' de seis años plantados al norte de Oaxaca, en el periodo 2009 - 2011. Se usaron seis proporciones (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 y 125 %) de la dosis 50-130-50 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 y K2O como tra [...] tamientos; adicionalmente se probaron otros tres tratamientos: dosis 100 % + 3.6 t ha-1 de composta, dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores, y dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores + 720 kg ha-1 de Ca (OH)2. La primera fertilización se aplicó en noviembre de 2009 pero no se encontró respuesta a la fertilización en 2010. En 2010 y 2011 la fertilización se dividió en dos partes. La primera mitad se aplicó el 30 de agosto de 2010, y la otra mitad el 11 de febrero de 2011. Los resultados que aquí se reportan son del periodo 2010 - 2011. Las concentraciones foliares mayores de N, P y K se obtuvieron al inicio de la yema floral con las dosis mas altas de fertilización. La mayor floración y el mayor rendimiento de fruta se lograron con la dosis 100 % de N-P-K + elementos menores que superó (P ? 0.05) al testigo. El mayor contenido de clorofila foliar se obtuvo con el tratamiento 125 %, en comparación con el testigo. Los mayores valores de peso de materia seca de brotes vegetativos y de área foliar se lograron con el tratamiento 100 % + composta. El contenido de N foliar correlacionó con el rendimiento de brotes y con área foliar (r = 0.72 y r = 0.65, respectivamente). Se concluye que los árboles de litchi fertilizados con NPK, composta y elementos menores, aumentaron su concentración foliar de N, P y K, cantidad de flores, rendimiento de fruta, color verde de las hojas, biomasa de nuevos brotes y área foliar. No se encontró respuesta del litchi a la aplicación de hidróxido de calcio. Abstract in english Responses of six years old litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees cv. 'Brewster' to NPK fertilization at north of Oaxaca state were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Six dosage treatments (0, 25, 50 75, 100 and 125 %) of the 50-130-50 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O were used. Additional treatments were: 100 % [...] dosage + 3.6 t ha-1 of compost, 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients, and 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients + 720 kg ha-1 of Ca(OH)2. The first fertilization was applied on November 2009, but no response was obtained in 2010. In 2010 and 2011 the fertilization was divided in two parts. The first half was applied in August 30, 2010, and the other in February 11, 2011. The results reported here correspond to the 2010 - 2011 period. Highest concentrations of N, P and K in the leaves at the flower bud stage were obtained with the highest dosages. The highest amounts of flowers and fruit yield compared to the control were observed with 100 % of NPK + micronutrients. Highest chlorophyll contents were found with the 125 % dosage. The highest values of new shoots dry weight and leaf area were obtained with the 100 % dosage + compost. Positive correlations between foliar nitrogen with new shoots weight and leaf area (r = 0.72 and r = 0.65, respectively), were found. It is concluded that litchi trees fertilized with NPK , compost and micronutrients increased N, P and K concentration in the leaves, amount of flowers, fruit yield, green color of leaves, new shoots weight and leaf area. No response to calcium hydroxide application was observed in litchi trees.

  11. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition. The study was aimed to analyze the effects of different types of media, fertilizer concentration, and frequency of fertilizer application on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings. The expe...

  12. Análise de formulações NPK fiscalizadas pelo mapa, de 2008 a 2010 / Analysis of NPK fertilizers inspected by mapa from 2008 to 2010

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Coelho de, Sena; Tairone Paiva, Leão; George Freitas, von Borries; Osiris, Turnes.

    1207-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil ocupa o quarto lugar mundial em consumo de fertilizantes; dentre esses, destaca-se o fertilizante mineral misto como o mais consumido no País. Depois da atualização da legislação brasileira de fertilizantes em 2004, muitos produtores desses insumos afirmam que houve aumento excessivo no rig [...] or da legislação em relação à fiscalização dos teores de nutrientes neles contidos. Dentro desse contexto, os objetivos deste trabalho foram aplicar técnicas de análise estatística exploratória e descritiva e de regressão logística aos dados de análises fiscais de fertilizantes realizadas pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA), nos anos de 2008 a 2010, buscando indicadores da contribuição das fontes de variação referentes aos fatores estabelecimento, formulação e laboratório para a variação total dos resultados; e verificar se os níveis de tolerância estabelecidos pelo MAPA estão sendo praticados. Para tanto, esses dados, separados por estabelecimento, formulação, laboratório, especificação granulométrica e período foram submetidos à análise descritiva, seguida de regressão logística. A regressão logística demonstrou que, para N e P analisados pelo laboratório com maior número de observações, as variáveis "estabelecimento" e "formulação" influem no resultado final da análise, dentro ou fora da garantia, enquanto para K, analisado pelo mesmo laboratório, apenas a variável "formulação" influi nesses resultados. Abstract in english Brazil is the fourth largest consumer of fertilizers in the world. Among these, bulk blends fertilizers are the most consumed in the country. After updating of Brazilian legislation in regard to fertilizers in 2004, many producers claim that there was an excessive increase in the strictness of legis [...] lation concerning inspection of nutrient levels in those products. Within this context, the objective of this study was to provide an exploratory and descriptive statistical analysis to the data gathered by MAPA (Ministry of Agriculture) from the inspection of the fertilizer industry from the years 2008 to 2010, looking for the most important source of variation, including producer, formula, and laboratory, and verifying if the minimum requirements established by law are being practiced. These data, separated by producer, formula, laboratory, particle size, and period, were subjected to descriptive analysis, followed by logistic regression. Logistic regression showed that for nitrogen and phosphorus analyzed by the laboratory with the greatest number of observations, the "producer" and "formula" variables affect the final results (not-in-conformity or in-conformity), whereas for potassium analyzed by the same laboratory, only the "formula" variable affected the results.

  13. RESPOSTA DA SERINGUEIRA CLONE RRIM 600 À ADUBAÇÃO NPK EM SOLO PODZÓLICO VERMELHO-AMARELO RESPONSES OF RUBBER TREE CLONE RRIM 600 TO NPK FERTILIZATION ON RED YELLOW PODZOLIC SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, que teve por objetivo determinar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] à adubação NPK durante o período de formação do seringal, relata os resultados de experimento com o clone RRIM 600 em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo de textura arenosa, no município de Avaí (SP, Brasil. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicados no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das plantas. Avaliou-se o perímetro do caule a 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a cada quatro meses, e calculou-se a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal em cada parcela. Efetuaram-se análises de solo aos 27 e 51 meses de idade das plantas e análises de folhas, anualmente, no verão. A partir de 60 meses de idade das plantas, aproximadamente três anos após o início das adubações, observou-se efeito linear da adubação nitrogenada sobre o perímetro do caule. A adubação fosfatada teve efeito linear a partir da idade de 72 meses e a interação NP linear foi consistente depois de 75 meses. Usando como indicador a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para as adubações nitrogenada e potássica. O período de imaturidade foi abreviado até em oito meses, comparando-se o tratamento sem adubação com os de melhor desempenho. Adubações desequilibradas, como no tratamento 0-80-120, provocaram retardamento até de 12 meses no período de imaturidade em relação ao tratamento de melhor desempenho (120-120-120. Um ano depois da interrupção da aplicação de fertilizantes, no fim do experimento, não se observou efeito residual dos tratamentos sobre os indicadores de crescimento utilizados.The response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell.Arg.], clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization during the immature stage was evaluated on a sand soil at Avaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Randomized block, closing with fractionated factorial experiment 1/2(4 x 4 x 4 was used to test 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, applied from the second to the eighth years after planting. Trunk girth at 1.20 m above the budgrafting union was measured every four months. The percentage of plants able for tapping and the immaturity period were calculated from girth measurements. Soil analysis were performed at 27 and 51 months after planting and leaf analysis every year. Responses to nitrogen fertilization started to be observed from 60 months, aproximately three years after the beginning of fertilizer applications. Linear effect of phosphorus and NP interaction started at ages of 72 and 75 months respectively. Responses to K fertilization was not detected for trunk girth. Considering the percentage of plants able for tapping, responses were linearly and statistically significant for N and K fertilization. The immaturity period of the crop was reduced eigth months when non fertilized plots were compared to those with the best relations of NPK. Delay of immaturity period up to twelve months was observed considering the best treatments and those with unbalanced relations of NPK. Fertilizer responses disappeared one year after stopping fertilizer applications.

  14. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average height of residue of 30 cm. A complete randomized block design was used with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial with three field replications. The fertilization doses corresponded to the reduction of 30 % and the increase of 30 and 60% in relation to a standard dose of 145; 21.6; and 180 kg/ha of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively (assuming the contents of 1.2, 0.08, and 1.2% of N, P, and K in DM, to reach an estimated DM production of 12000 kg/ha. There was a linear effect of fertilization doses on green DM (GDM before and after grazing. The cv. Mombaça exhibited higher herbage mass before and after grazing (9183 and 5279 kg/ha of GDM, respectively than the cv. Tanzania (6275 and 3808 kg/ha of GDM, respectively. The proportion of leaf blade in the GDM available was lower in the cv. Tanzania (51% than in the cv. Mombaça (54 %. The tiller density was not affected by the fertilization doses. However, the increase in tiller weight due to fertilizer doses was responsible for the higher GDM production. The senesced DM did not vary between cultivars, with a mean value of 3108 kg/ha. In general, higher rates of fertilization resulted in greater GDM accumulation rate and higher losses of GDM by trampling. The cv. Mombaça showed a greater response potential to fertilization than the cv. Tanzania with stocking rates of 6.2 and 4.0 UA/ha, respectively.

  15. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rehman; Farrukh Saleem, M.; Muhammad Ehsan Safdar; Safdar Hussain; Naeem Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in fou...

  16. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  17. Influence of NPK fertilization on the yield of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalho Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a species of eucalyptus with potential for establishment of planted forests in the savannah area of Roraima. Little is known about the appropriate management of E. camaldulensis in the conditions of the savannah of Roraima, and for this reason, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K in the production of essential oil of the species. The experiment was conducted in ½ 43 fractional factorial design, that evaluated four doses of N (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1, P (0, 30, 60, 120 kg ha-1 and K (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1. One year after planting, the yield of essential oil was determined in fresh leaves, with extraction performed by the method of hydrodistillation in Clevenger type system. The yield of essential oil was changed mainly due to fertilization, increasing from 0.43 to 0.62% as it increased the doses of P. These values were within the range of 0.3 to 2.8% in the literature to yield essential oil in fresh leaves of E. camaldulensis. The highest oil yield was observed with a dose of 120 kg ha-1 phosphorus.

  18. Effect of tillage methods and fertilizer levels on maize production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted at National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to observe the emergence and grain yield of maize crop under different fertilizer applications viz. 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and cattle manure 6000, 8000 and 10,000 kg ha/sup -1/ applied in the plots ploughed through tillage practices with deep tillage, conventional tillage and zero-tillage. The non significant interaction between fertilizers and tillage methods as well as between cattle manure and tillage methods each with three levels were found. It indicated that fertilizers and manures should be studied independently using pair wise comparison. Pair wise comparisons indicated that the fertilizer at the rate of 150-75-75 kg ha/sup -1/ (NPK) was suitable for best germination rate and grain yield of maize. Similarly the deep tillage was preferred over conventional and zero tillage, on the other hand, the highest level of manure (10000 kg ha/sup -1/) was recommended for best germination rate and grain yield, where as 8000 kg ha/sup -1/ for grain weight and number of grains per cob. (author)

  19. Adubação com NPK em coqueiro-anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.) rendimento e qualidade de frutos / NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) - yield and fruit quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Ondino Cleante, Bataglia; Salatiér, Buzetti; Enes, Furlani Junior; Jacira dos Santos, Isepon.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A produção de coco para extração de água no Estado de São Paulo está em expansão. Entretanto, faltam informações básicas sobre o manejo desta cultura. Desse modo, instalou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W), visando ao estudo da resposta do coqueiro à adubação com NPK d [...] e set/2000 a fev/2004. Empregou-se o esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4³), sendo os tratamentos formados pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de N), P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha¹ de P2O5) e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha¹ de K2O). Como fontes de N, P e K, respectivamente, aplicaram-se NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, fracionadamente, durante a época das chuvas. A aplicação de N causou diminuição no volume de água e massa média dos frutos e na quantidade de frutos por cacho; inversamente, a adubação potássica teve efeito positivo nestas características. Os teores de P e K da água de coco aumentaram com a aplicação de P e K, entretanto não houve efeito dos tratamentos nos resultados da avaliação sensorial. A aplicação de P não teve efeito significativo na produção de frutos. Abstract in english Coconut production aiming water extraction is increasing in São Paulo State, Brazil. Coconut is a new crop in this region, so there is a lack of information about its management. A field experiment was conducted in Pereira Barreto, SP, Brazil (20º47'S; 51º01'W) to study the effects of NPK rates on y [...] ield and fruit quality, from September,2000 to February, 2004. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of N), P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha¹ of P2O5) and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha¹ of K2O), applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. The effect of N rates was negative on water volume production on fruits, weight and number of fruits per bunch, and in a different way, K application had a positive effect on them. P and K contents in the coconut water increased with P and K fertilization, otherwise the treatments had no effect on sensory evaluation results. P application had no effect on fruit production.

  20. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2009-03-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O(3) concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O(3). PMID:19070410

  1. Poaceae cespitosa e decumbente adubadas com NPK: efeitos na agregação do solo / Caespitosa and decumbens Poaceae fertilized with NPK: effects on soil aggregation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dácio Jerônimo de, Almeida; Ivandro de França da, Silva; Flávio Pereira da Mota, Silveira; Robeval Diniz, Santiago; José Ronaldo Calado, Costa.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A desagregação de partículas do solo afeta a sua capacidade produtiva, resultando em processos de compactação, erosão e perdas de nutrientes. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a qualidade e estabilidade dos agregados de um Latossolo Amarelo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, representado por Urochloa dec [...] umbens e Urochloa brizantha, na presença e ausência de adubação mineral, e por duas formas de amostragem (fileiras e entre as fileiras), em três profundidades de amostragem. As amostras indeformadas de solo coletadas foram destorroadas, passadas em peneira de 9,52 mm e, após secagem, em peneiras de 2,00 mm; 1,00 mm; 0,50 mm e 0,25 mm, obedecendo às seguintes classes de diâmetro: 9,52-2,00 mm; 2,00-1,00 mm; 1,00-0,50 mm e 0,50-0,25 mm, por peneiragem seca. Estes agregados foram, também, separados por peneiragem úmida, sendo, ainda, determinada a argila dispersa e a massa seca de raízes. Os agregados maiores que 2,00 mm apresentaram estabilidade elevada, na camada de 0,00-0,05 m, em comparação aos agregados de menores classes, não havendo efeito do local de amostragem e de adubação sobre o tamanho e estabilidade dos agregados. Concluiu-se não haver diferença entre as duas espécies estudadas, forma de coleta das amostras e adubação, na formação e estabilidade de agregados. Abstract in english The disintegration of soil particles affects its productive capacity, resulting in compression, erosion and nutrient losses. This study aimed at evaluating the aggregates quality and stability of a Yellow Latosol, in a randomized blocks design represented by Urochloa decumbens and Urochloa brizantha [...] , with and without mineral fertilization, and two sampling forms (rows and between rows), in three sampling depths. The undeformed soil samples collected were shattered and passed through a 9.52 mm sieve and, after drying, through a 2.00 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.50 mm and 0.25 mm sieves, according to the following diameters classes: 9.52-2.00 mm, 2.00-1.00 mm, 1.00-0.50 mm and 0.50-0.25 mm, by using dry sieving. These aggregates were also separated by wet sieving and the dispersed clay and root dry matter were determined. Aggregates larger than 2.00 mm showed high stability, in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, when compared to the aggregates from smaller classes, with no effect of sampling and fertilization site on the aggregates size and stability. There was no difference for the two species analyzed, sampling method and fertilization on the aggregates formation and stability.

  2. Adubação com NPK em coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L.): atributos químicos do solo e nutrição da planta / NPK fertilization on Dwarf Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Ondino Cleante, Bataglia; Salatiér, Buzetti; Enes, Furlani Junior.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de informações sobre adubação de coqueiro para o Estado de São Paulo, realizou-se um experimento de campo em Pereira Barreto (20º47'S; 51º01'W), visando a estudar os efeitos da aplicação de NPK em alguns atributos do solo e nutrição da planta, de set/2000 a fev/2004. O delineamento ex [...] perimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³), com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses anuais de N (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de N), P (0; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5) e K (0; 120; 240 e 360 kg ha-1 de K2O). As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas fracionadamente durante a estação das chuvas, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. A aplicação de N em doses superiores a 240 kg ha-1 ano-1 causou excessiva acidificação do solo, sendo que 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 foi suficiente para manter o teor de N foliar na faixa de suficiência. A adubação com P e K nas doses mais elevadas resultou em perdas por lixiviação. A adubação com 120 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O foi suficiente para manter o teor de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial e as plantas com teores de K foliar acima da faixa de suficiência. O P foliar manteve-se sempre acima da faixa de suficiência, independentemente da adubação fosfatada. Abstract in english There are very few information about fertilization of coconut grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with 'Dwarf Green' coconut was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on some soil chemical properties and plant nutrition, from September, 2000 to February, 2004. The [...] trial was located on an Oxisol in the west part of the State of São Paulo (20º47'S; 51º01'W). The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were annual rates of N (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of N), P (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 of P2O5) and K (0, 120, 240, and 360 kg ha-1 of K2O), applied as NH4NO3, triple superphosphate and KCl, respectively. The rates of N, P e K were split during rainy season. Rates of N higher than 240 kg ha-1year-1 caused excessive soil acidification, whereas 120 kg ha-1year-1 was enough to achieve sufficiency range on leaves. Application of higher rates of P and K caused losses by leaching. It was necessary 120 kg of K2O ha-1year-1 to maintain soil exchangeable K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment, the same rate kept leaf K concentration above sufficiency range. Foliar P contents were always higher than sufficiency range despite of P fertilization.

  3. Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivair André Nava

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, pois os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn, um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas.Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tissues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn, a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application. Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

  4. Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn / Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivair André, Nava; Affonso Celso, Gonçalves Junior; Herbert, Nacke; Valdir Luiz, Guerini; Daniel, Schwantes.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, poi [...] s os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1)x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn), um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro). Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas. Abstract in english Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tiss [...] ues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1)x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn), a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application). Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

  5. Mobility and retention of micronutrients in soil : Part III. Investigation on the influence of various external factors, NPK-fertilizers and soil amending agents on the mobility and retention of manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations on the mobility and retention of manganese through Sindri red sandy clay loam of pH 7.4 and Ranchi clay loam of pH 5.6 have been carried out using the radiotracer 54Mn. The vertical distribution of manganese in these soils showed almost sharp fall upto a depth of 12 to 14 cm and thereafter it tended to attain the saturation. Variations have been marked in the degrees of manganese retention at the top surface layers of the concerned soils. Influence of various NPK fertilizers and soil amending agents, at various application levels, have been studied on the mobility, retention and leaching loss of manganese in the prementioned soils. Marked variations have been recorded and discussed. (author)

  6. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels / Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdul, Rehman; M, Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad, Ehsan Safdar; Safdar, Hussain; Naeem, Akhtar.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cult [...] ivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm), siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm), y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja) y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1). La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE), así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE) fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150) que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK. Abstract in english Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical ar [...] rangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1). Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1) than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.

  7. Effete of Gamma Radiation and N.P.K on Lettuce yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiment were carried out during 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experiment at farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt – The experiments were conducted to study the effect of irradiated sowing seeds with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation and / or the effect of different levels of NPK fertilizer 0, (NPK)1, (NPK)2, (NPK)3, (NPK)4 and (NPK)5 on the morphological and chemical parameters of the lettuce yield. The fresh weight of the plant in the line, length of the plant in the line, the number of leaves in the line, the number of plants in the line and the fresh weight in Fadden per ton were studied. There were significant effects of NPK contents on the lettuce leaves at (NPK) 4 in the dose level 6 Gy and on Calcium and Vitamins. We found that the most effective doses on leaf lettuce is 6 Gy dose of gamma radiation which gives strong and early seedlings in maturity upwards in the production of seedlings dose of 4 Gy. While the dose 8 Gray did not occur any increase at dose level 6 Gy. The Level (NPK) 4 increase the production of fresh per acre more upwards for all levels with 6 Gray and fourth level was the best in the natural qualities and characteristics of chemical terms of delay growth harvest lettuce, as well as influence on the plant content of calcium, nitrogen, protein and all the natural qualities among the first season and the second season.

  8. [Effect of NPK and B supply levels on boron uptake and biological properties of different genotypic oilseed rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y; Yang, Y

    2001-04-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to study the boron absorption by oilseed rape(Brassica napus), the mechanism of its resistance to boron deficiency, and the effect of boron deficiency on its biological properties under different NPK supply levels. The results indicated that under boron deficiency, increasing NPK supply aggravated boron deficiency symptoms, which led to the decrease of leaf area and its growth rate and nitrate reductase activity(NRA) and the increase of chlorophyll(a + b) content at seedling stage, and the decrease of the number of productive branches and pods of each plant and seed yield at maturity. It was suggested that the ratio of boron concentration in youngest open leaves(YOL) to youngest mature leaves(YML) at seedling stage could be an index to judge the boron mobility in plants of different genotypic oilseed rape. Boron mobility and its utilization efficiency were one of the important nutritional mechanisms responsible for the difference in response of different genotypic oilseed rapes to boron deficiency. PMID:11757364

  9. Influência da adubação foliar com NPK nos teores de cálcio e magnésio encontrados em órgãos do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.) / Influence of the foliar spraying with NPK in ca and mg levels in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L. raça Latifolium)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augusto Ferreira de, Souza; Moacyr de O.C., Brasil Sobrinho.

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em vasos, nas condições de casa de vegetação da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" em Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no ano de 1975/76; para estudar o efeito de pulverização foliares com N, P, K sobre os teores de Ca e Mg em órgãos do algodoeiro (G [...] ossypium hirsutum L. raça Latifolium) Cv. IAC - 13-1. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, segundo esquena fatorial 2x3³ em três repetições. Sendo três os nutrientes (N, P, K) em três dosagens (0, 1, 2) aplicados em quatro (A1) e oito (A2) pulverizações foliares. As doses, com seus valores médios empregados em quatro pulverizações foram: N0=0; N1=0,44; N2=0,88; P0=0; P1=0,05; P2=0,10; K0=0; K1=0,33; K2=0,66; em oito pulverizações foram: N0=0; N1=0,91; N2=1,82; P0=0; P1=0,10; P2=0,20; K0=0; K1=0,70; K2=1,40 em kg/ha. Os produtos empregados foram: NH4NO3, NaH2PO4H2O e o KCl como fonte de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente. A avaliação dos tratamentos foi feita baseando-se nos teores de cálcio e magnésio determinados nas raízes, caules, folhas velhas e folhas novas do algodoeiro. Pode-se concluir que: o nitrogênio aplicado via foliar provocou diminuição nos teores de cálcio e magnésio nas folhas velhas e folhas novas. As pulverizações foliares não afetaram os teores de magnésio dos caules. Quatro pulverizações foliares de nutrientes causaram maiores teores de cálcio nos caules e magnésio nas raízes, do que oito pulverizações. Abstract in english This research was carried out in greenhouse of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975/76; to study the influence of NPK spraying on leaves about composition of Ca and Mg in parts of cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum L. raça Latifolium) Cv. IAC 1 [...] 3-1. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Blocks with the treatments combined in a 2 x 3³ factorial with 3 replications. The treatments were: spraying-two (4 and 8) fertilizers-three (N, P, K) in three levels (0, 1, 2). This three levels had the following averages according to the numbers of spraying, sweh as: four spraying: N0 = 0; N1 = 0,44; N2 = 0,88; P0 = 0; P1 = 0,05; P2 = 0,10; K0 = 0; K1 = 0,33; K2 = 0,66; eight spraying: N0 = 0; N1 = 0,91; N2 = 1,82; P0 = 0; P1 = 0,10; P2 = 0,20; K0 = 0; K1 = 0,70, K2 = 1,40. The levels are expressed in kg/ha and the source of fertilizers used were: NH4NO3, NaH2PO4H2O and KCl for N, P2O5 and K2O respectively. The evaluation of the treatments were done based upon the percentage of Ca and Mg in dry matter of roots, stalls, young leaves and old leaves. The following conclusions could be drawn from this research: The N caused reduction of Ca and Mg levels in old and young leaves. The nutrients sprayings did not caused the Mg levels in the stalks. The plants with four spraying treatments had graster Ca levels in stalks and Mg levels in roots than with eight spraying treatments.

  10. Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Espironelo

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%.Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

  11. Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca) / Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ademar, Espironelo; José Romano, Gallo; Arquimedes, Lavorenti; Toshio, Igue; Ruter, Hiroce.

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e [...] Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%. Abstract in english Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety) were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in [...] the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

  12. Crecimiento y extracción de N-P-K por plantas de pimentón (Capsicum annuum L. abonadas con estiércol de pollo en Quíbor, estado Lara Growth and N-P-K removal in chicken manure fertilized bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. plants in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Escalona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de los cultivos depende en gran medida de una adecuada nutrición mineral, por lo que la extracción de nutrientes que ellos hacen es la base para establecer los programas de fertilización. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, estado nutricional y los niveles de extracción de N, P y K en plantas de pimentón abonadas con dosis altas de estiércol de pollo. El ensayo se realizó en el campo experimental del INIA en Quibor, estado Lara, utilizando el híbrido Enterprise, el cual se trasplantó a una distancia de 0,35 m entre plantas y 1,20 m entre hileras. Cada parcela estuvo constituida por 4 hileras de 11 plantas cada una. Las parcelas fueron repetidas seis veces. El crecimiento inicial, expresado como altura y peso seco de las plantas, fue lento y el mismo aumentó rápidamente a partir de los 45 días después de la siembra (dds mostrando un comportamiento normal en este cultivo. Se detectó una tendencia general al incremento de la concentración de N y K en el tejido vegetal durante el ciclo de crecimiento. A los 90 dds la mayor concentración de N y K existió en las hojas (41,7 y 39,3 mg.g-1, mientras que la mayor concentración de P se encontró en los frutos (3,7 mg.g-1. Cada planta extrajo, en promedio, 1,749 g N, 0,137 g P y 1,725 g K, reflejando similares niveles de extracción para el nitrógeno y el potasio, pero mucho menores para el fósforo. La proporción de extracción fue de 12:1:12 para el N:P:K, respectivamente.Crops growth depends strongly on appropriate mineral nutrition, so plant nutrient removal creates the basis for many fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status, and N-P-K removal of bell pepper plants fertilized with high dose of chicken manure. The essay was carried out at the Experimental Station of INIA in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela, by using the Enterprise hybrid, which was transplanted at 0.35 m within and 1.20 m between rows. Six plots were conformed by four rows with 11 plants each. The initial growth, expressed as plant height and dry weight, was low but it increased rapidly since the mid cycle (45 DAS following a normal trend for this crop. Overall trend of N and K tissue levels increased during the plant cycle. In 90-day old plants the highest N and K levels were found in leaves (41.7 and 39.3 mg.g-1 while the highest P level was found in fruits (3.7 mg.g-1. As an average, each plant removed from the soil 1.749 g N, 0.137 g P and 1.725 g K, showing similar values for nitrogen and potassium, but much lower for phosphorus. The nutrient removal ratio was 12:1:12 for N:P:K, respectively.

  13. Crecimiento y extracción de N-P-K por plantas de pimentón (Capsicum annuum L.) abonadas con estiércol de pollo en Quíbor, estado Lara / Growth and N-P-K removal in chicken manure fertilized bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Escalona; R, Pire.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de los cultivos depende en gran medida de una adecuada nutrición mineral, por lo que la extracción de nutrientes que ellos hacen es la base para establecer los programas de fertilización. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, estado nutricional y los niveles de extra [...] cción de N, P y K en plantas de pimentón abonadas con dosis altas de estiércol de pollo. El ensayo se realizó en el campo experimental del INIA en Quibor, estado Lara, utilizando el híbrido Enterprise, el cual se trasplantó a una distancia de 0,35 m entre plantas y 1,20 m entre hileras. Cada parcela estuvo constituida por 4 hileras de 11 plantas cada una. Las parcelas fueron repetidas seis veces. El crecimiento inicial, expresado como altura y peso seco de las plantas, fue lento y el mismo aumentó rápidamente a partir de los 45 días después de la siembra (dds) mostrando un comportamiento normal en este cultivo. Se detectó una tendencia general al incremento de la concentración de N y K en el tejido vegetal durante el ciclo de crecimiento. A los 90 dds la mayor concentración de N y K existió en las hojas (41,7 y 39,3 mg.g-1), mientras que la mayor concentración de P se encontró en los frutos (3,7 mg.g-1). Cada planta extrajo, en promedio, 1,749 g N, 0,137 g P y 1,725 g K, reflejando similares niveles de extracción para el nitrógeno y el potasio, pero mucho menores para el fósforo. La proporción de extracción fue de 12:1:12 para el N:P:K, respectivamente. Abstract in english Crops growth depends strongly on appropriate mineral nutrition, so plant nutrient removal creates the basis for many fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status, and N-P-K removal of bell pepper plants fertilized with high dose of chicken manure. Th [...] e essay was carried out at the Experimental Station of INIA in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela, by using the Enterprise hybrid, which was transplanted at 0.35 m within and 1.20 m between rows. Six plots were conformed by four rows with 11 plants each. The initial growth, expressed as plant height and dry weight, was low but it increased rapidly since the mid cycle (45 DAS) following a normal trend for this crop. Overall trend of N and K tissue levels increased during the plant cycle. In 90-day old plants the highest N and K levels were found in leaves (41.7 and 39.3 mg.g-1) while the highest P level was found in fruits (3.7 mg.g-1). As an average, each plant removed from the soil 1.749 g N, 0.137 g P and 1.725 g K, showing similar values for nitrogen and potassium, but much lower for phosphorus. The nutrient removal ratio was 12:1:12 for N:P:K, respectively.

  14. Response of mature ‘Manzanilla’ olive trees to different doses of N-P-K fertilizer applied by fertigation

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Sillero, Ana; Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Troncoso de Arce, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Fertigation is widely used in the new intensive olive orchards, although, there is not enough information for a rational management of this practice. Preliminary results of an fertigation experiment iniciated in 1999 in a mature olive orchard of the cultivar ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ are presented. Four treatments were established: T1(no fertilizer) and T2, T3 and T4, in which the trees received 200, 400 and 600 g N per tree and irrigation season (May to October), respectively, of a dose of...

  15. The combination of NPK fertilizer and deltamethrin insecticide favors the proliferation of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Darriet, F.; Rossignol, M; Chandre, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory study, we investigated how the biological cycle of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (VKPR strain) would be like when grew in an environment containing more or less plant matter (2.5 or 5 g/l) and fertilizer (8-12-8 or 17-23-17 mg/l). Half of the environments studied were not exposed to insecticide (control) whereas the other half was submitted to deltamethrin treatment at the concentration of 0.015 mg/l. The bioassays showed that 2.5 g/l of plant matter in water are not sufficient to...

  16. Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

  17. YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF EXTRA-EARLY MAIZE (Zea mays L. AS AFFECTED BY RATES OF NPK FERTILIZER SUCCEEDING CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens SUPPLIED WITH DIFFERENT RATES SHEEP MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad Babaji

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to study response of extra-early maize variety (95TZEE-Y1 to rates of NPK (0, 40:20:20, 80:40:40 and 120:60:60 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 and residual FYM (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 applied to chilli pepper the previous season in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Higher values for soil physical and chemical properties were obtained in plots supplied with manure the previous season with soil from 2006 experiment more fertile than for the first year, hence produced 21% more grain yield. All the applied NPK rates in 2005 and except 40:20:20 ha1 in 2006 had resulted in early maize crop as compared to control. Husked and de-husked cob and 100-grain weights and grain yield/ha were higher at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1. Maize grown in plot supplied with 15 t FYM ha1 the previous year matured earlier. Cobs and 100-grain weights and grain yield were highest in plot supplied with 10 t FYM ha1. The 10t FYM ha-1 had 69% and 68% more grain yield than the control in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Highest maize yield was obtained at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 or 10t FYM ha-1. All the parameters measured significantly and positively related to each other when the two years data were combined.

  18. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo parte: III - Métodos de aplicação de NPK e estêrco Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes: III - Trials on the placement of npk and manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatadas nove experiências sôbre a localização de adubos na cultura de batata-doce, realizadas entre 1943-44 e 1946-47, sendo quatro com NPK (60-100-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O e cinco com estêrco. Em dois dos ensaios com NPK, conduzidos em Tupi Paulista (um dêles repetido por três anos no mesmo local, a adubação foi mais eficiente quando misturada com a terra dos camalhões do que aplicada sob eles ou em sulcos feitos em seus cumes. Nos outros dois, realizados em Campinas, a aplicação sob os camalhões se mostrou melhor, em média, mas os resultados variaram muito. Tratando-se de assunto que depende de muitos fatôres, inclusive das condições meteorológicas, os autores encarecem a necessidade de se continuarem as experiências, e, tendo discutido as vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos estudados, sugerem a inclusão, em futuros planos, do aplicação de P e K em sulcos laterais às mudas e de N em cobertura. Nas cinco experiências com estêrco, tôdas anuais e executadas em três localidades, seu espalhamento entre os camalhões se mostrou, em regra, inferior à aplicação sob os camalhões ou de mistura com o solo dêstes. Dos dois últimos métodos, o primeiro foi superior em três ensaios, igual em um e inferior no outro. As observações feitas indicam que, em geral, o estêrco deve ser colocado sob os camalhões.This paper reports the results of nine experiments conducted in the State of Sao Paulo on methods of application of NPK and manure for sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.. In two of the four trails with NPK, better results were obtained where it was broadcast before ridging than where it was placed in o furrow either under or on the top of the ridges. In the other two, the placement under the ridges showed better in the average, but the yearly results varied considerably. As the suitability of different methods of application depends on many factors, especially on the weather, the authors point to the need of farther trials and, after discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied, they suggest for the next project the inclusion of side-placement of the phosphorus, potosh and part of the nitrogen doses, the greater portion of the latter being top-dressed two to four weeks after planting. In the five trials with manure, its application between the ridges was, as a rule, inferior to both the placement under the ridges and broadcasting before ridging. Of the two last methods, the former gave better average results, but there were some indications that the latter would be more suitable either for heavy or for very light soils, in order that the organic matter improves the physical conditions of a larger volume of the soils.

  19. Evaluation of NPK 8-30-20 with gypsum addition compared to fertilization employed in the region for the production of potato (Solanumtuberosum L. Evaluación de NPK 8-30-20 con yeso en comparación a la fertilización convencional para la producción de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Avaliação da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola em comparação à adubação convencional para produção de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Jobim Vieira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Different forms of fertilizer management are employed by potato farmers, and from time to time, it appears a receipt to fertilize the crop. However, one should pay special attention to nutrition and fertilization of the potato as the relative demand of fertilizer per unit area in culture is high. The objective was to evaluate the use of NPK 8-30-20 with the addition of gypsum compared to NPK 4-14-8 (regional standard treatment in the production of potato. The study was conducted at the Research Unit in Potato Production and Microclimate on Agriculture, Campus CEDETEG at UNICENTRO in Guarapuava - PR. The treatments were: T1 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8, T2 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum; T3 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20, T4 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum, T5 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of plaster to make up the difference between fertilizer. The cultivation of potato was held on December 23, 2008 and the cultivar used was Agatha. The seed used was Generation 01 and tubers of class II. The density used was 50.000 tubers per hectare. The experimental design was completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated the productivity and classification of tubers of the size and incidence and severity of common scab (Streptomyces spp. and silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani Dur. And Mont. in the tubers. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and mean comparison by Tukey test (5%. Classification of the tubers was performed according to the diameter classes of the Ordinance No. 69 MAP of February 21, 2005. The use of manure at 5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum and 1.75 t ha-1 of 8-30-20 NPK plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum causes the best results of yield of potato tubers and better classification. The application of gypsum was important to reduce the incidence of common scab independent of the formulation and application of NPK without addition of gypsum predisposes the crop to a higher incidence of scabies.

    Diferentes formas de manejo da adubação são empregadas pelos bataticultores, sendo que, de tempos em tempos, surge uma fórmula para adubar a cultura. Porém, deve-se dar especial atenção à adubação e nutrição da cultura da batata, pois a demanda relativa de fertilizantes por unidade de área na cultura é elevada. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola comparado a adubação NPK 4-14-8 (tratamento padrão regional na produção da cultura da Batata. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade de Pesquisa em Produção de Batata e Microclima para a Agricultura, no Campus CEDETEG da Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste – UNICENTRO em Guarapuava – PR. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: T1 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8; T2 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T3 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20; T4 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T5 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de gesso para suprir a diferença entre os fertilizantes. O plantio da cultura da batata foi realizado no dia 23 de dezembro de 2008 e a cultivar utilizada foi a Ágata. A semente utilizada foi de Geração 01 e tubérculos de classe II. A densidade de plantio utilizada foi de 50.000 tubérculos por hectare. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e

  20. Adubação NPK e tamanho da batata-semente no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade de plantas de batata / NPK fertilization and potato tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Raphael de M, Queiroz; Jackson, Kawakami; Marcelo ML, Muller; Ires Cristina R, Oliari; Renan C, Umburanas; Vlandiney, Eschemback.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da batata demanda alto investimento para a sua implantação. Dentre os insumos responsáveis pelo alto custo da lavoura, destacam-se os fertilizantes e a semente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-sementes no crescimento, produt [...] ividade e rentabilidade da cultura da batata. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura comercial de batata em Guarapuava-PR, a partir de dezembro de 2010. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de 0, 2, 4 e 6 t ha-1 do fertilizante mineral 4-14-08 (parcela) e batatas-semente do tipo I e III (subparcela), arranjados em esquema de parcela subdividida, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Foram avaliados o comprimento da haste principal, número de hastes, índice de área foliar, massa fresca e número de tubérculos, aos 24, 41 e 57 dias após a emergência, além de quantificar a produtividade comercial e o número de tubérculos no período da colheita. Calculou-se também a máxima eficiência técnica e econômica das doses de fertilizantes. Não houve interação significativa entre doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-semente em nenhuma característica analisada. As doses de fertilizantes influenciaram todas as características analisadas, sendo que, de modo geral, as maiores doses resultaram em maiores valores das características. Entretanto, as doses de fertilizantes influenciaram com menor intensidade o número de hastes, que foi a característica mais influenciada pelo tamanho da batata-semente, sendo maior em plantas oriundas de sementes do tipo I. O tamanho da batata-semente não influenciou a produtividade de tubérculos. Observou-se aumento da produtividade de tubérculos com o aumento da dose de fertilizante até 4,2 t ha-1, porém a máxima eficiência econômica foi atingida com 3,5 t ha-1 de fertilizante. Conclui-se, portanto, que a utilização da dose de 3,5 t ha-1 e batatas-semente do tipo III resultaram na melhor opção econômica para o produtor. Abstract in english Potato crops need high investment for its establishment. Among the inputs responsible for the high crop cost, fertilizers and seeds stand out. We identified the effect of fertilizer doses and tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato crop. The experiment was carried out in a comme [...] rcial potato field at Guarapuava, Paraná state, Brazil, beginning on December 2010. The treatments were 0, 2, 4 and 6 t ha-1 of mineral fertilizer (main plot) and potato seeds of type I and III (sub plot), arranged in a split-plot with three blocks. The analyzed characteristics were main stem length, number of stems, leaf area index, fresh weight and number of tubers at 24, 41 and 57 days after emergence, and marketable yield, number of tubers and maximum technical and economical doses of fertilizers at harvest. There was no significant interaction between fertilizer doses and potato seed tuber size for any analyzed characteristic. The doses of fertilizer influenced all the analyzed plant characteristics, where, in general, the higher dose resulted in higher values of the characteristics. However, the dose of fertilizers had low effect on the number of stems, which was the most influenced characteristic by the seed size; it was higher in plants from seed type I. The size of tuber seeds did not influence tuber yield. Tuber yield increased with increasing doses of fertilizer up to the dose of 4.2 t ha-1, but the maximum economic efficiency was achieved with 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizer. It is concluded, therefore, that the use of 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizers and potato-seed type III resulted in the best economic option for the growers.

  1. Alterações em atributos químicos de um solo submetido à adubação e cultivado com videira 'Niagara Rosada' / Changes on some soil chemical properties due to npk fertilization for 'Nigara Rosada' grapevine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira, Teixeira; Marco Antonio, Tecchio; Mara Fernandes, Moura; Maurilo Monteiro, Terra; Erasmo José Paioli, Pires; José Luiz, Hernandes.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar alterações em atributos químicos do solo, causadas pela adubação com NPK em videira 'Niagara Rosada', coletaram-se amostras de solo provenientes de um experimento de campo executado em Louveira (SP), durante quatro ciclos de produção. O delineamento experimental foi em bloc [...] os ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³), com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses de N (0; 65; 130 e 195 kg/ha de N), P (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg/ha de P2O5) e K (0; 45; 90 e 135 kg/ha de K2O) aplicados em cada ciclo de produção. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas em forma fracionada, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. Na implantação do experimento, em agosto de 2005, e após quatro safras, em novembro de 2008, foram coletadas amostras de solo de 0 a 20 cm e de 20 a 40 cm de profundidade, determinando-se valores de pH (CaCl2), o teor de matéria orgânica, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al e calculada a soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases. Avaliaram-se, também, a produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos e das bagas. A adubação nitrogenada em videira determinou incrementos significativos na acidez do solo. Doses baixas de P e K foram suficientes para manter o teor de P e de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial, após quatro ciclos de produção. A produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos não foram influenciadas pela adubação com N, P e K. A adubação com N, P e K em vinhedos com alta disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo, condição comum na região de Louveira e Jundiaí, implica prejuízo econômico ao produtor, eleva os teores de nutrientes no solo acima das necessidades da cultura, podendo, ainda, aumentar o risco de contaminação ambiental. Abstract in english Soil samples were analyzed with the objective of investigating changes on some soil chemical properties due to NPK fertilization of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine. The samples were collected in a field experiment carried out in Louveira, Brazil, during four crop seasons. The experimental design was an i [...] ncomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were rates of N (0, 65, 130, and 195 kg/ha of N as NH4NO3), P (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha of P2O5 as triple superphosphate) and K (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg/ha of K2O as KCl) applied at each crop season. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) availability some chemical properties (organic matter, pH CaCl2, H+Al and base saturation) were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation (August, 2005) and after four production cycles (November, 2008). Soil samples were collected from layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Fruit yield and some physical characteristics of bunches and berries were evaluated. Soil pH decreased with increasing in N rates. Low rates of P and K were sufficient to maintain soil P and K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment. Grapevine production was not affected by NPK fertilization. The application of NPK fertilizers in vineyards with soils with high nutrient availability implies economic losses and environmental contamination risk.

  2. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: II - micronutrients / Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: II - micronutrientes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Rogério Peres, Soratto; Letícia Andriani dos, Santos.

    1043-10-01

    Full Text Available Sob maior nível tecnológico, cultivares de feijão com maior potencial produtivo possivelmente exigem maior quantidade de micronutrientes. Porém, no Brasil há carência de informações sobre extração e exportação de micronutrientes pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Neste estudo, objetivou-se aval [...] iar a extração e a exportação de micronutrientes (B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn) pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação NPK, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Maiores níveis de adubação NPK aumentaram a extração de micronutrientes pelos dois cultivares; no entanto, 100 % adubação NPK recomendada proporcionou extração média de 167 g de B, 58 g de Cu, 1.405 g de Fe, 1.213 g de Mn e 211 g de Zn por hectare. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, em ambos os cultivares, ocorreu no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), ou seja, de 42 a 55 dias, após a emergência (DAE). A quantidade de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn exportada foi dependente, principalmente, do nível de adubação NPK utilizado, com valores por hectare variando de 38 a 90 g de B, 12 a 26 g de Cu, 222 a 568 g de Fe, 234 a 467 g de Mn e 40 a 96 g de Zn. Abstract in english Where the level of agricultural technology is higher, common bean cultivars with a higher yield potential possibly require greater amounts of micronutrients. In Brazil however, there is a lack of information about the micronutrient extraction and exportation by the main grown cultivars. The objectiv [...] e of this study was to evaluate micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. Higher levels of NPK fertilization increased micronutrient extraction by both cultivars, and treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization extracted on average 167 g B, 58 g Cu, 1,405 g Fe, 1,213 g Mn and 211 g Zn per hectare. Regardless of the treatment, the highest demand period for B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in both cultivars occurred at the R7 stage (pod formation), i.e. 42 to 55 days after emergence (DAE). The amount of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn exported depended mainly on the level of NPK fertilization used, with values per hectare ranging from 38 to 90 g of B, 12 to 26 g of Cu, 222 to 568 g of Fe 234 to 467 g of Mn, and 40 to 96 g of Zn.

  3. Crescimento, índices fisiológicos e produtividade de cultivares de feijoeiro sob diferentes níveis de adubação / Growth, physiological indices and yield of common bean cultivars under different levels of fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Letícia Andriani dos, Santos; Rogério Peres, Soratto; Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Jaqueline Regiani, Gonsales.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conhecimentos sobre o acúmulo e a distribuição da fitomassa do feijoeiro comum, sob diferentes níveis de adubação, podem auxiliar no manejo da cultura. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento, os índices fisiológicos e a produtividade de cultivares de feijão, sob diferentes níveis de adubação [...] NPK. O experimento foi conduzido em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos ('Pérola', sem adubação; 'Pérola', com 50% da adubação recomendada; 'Pérola', com 100% da adubação recomendada; 'IAC Alvorada', sem adubação; 'IAC Alvorada', com 50% da adubação recomendada e 'IAC Alvorada', com 100% da adubação recomendada) e, as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. A adubação NPK aumentou os acúmulos de matéria seca, os componentes da produção e a produtividade de grãos dos cultivares Pérola e IAC Alvorada de forma semelhante. O cultivar IAC Alvorada apresentou maiores índices de área foliar e matéria seca de folhas, quando comparados com os de Pérola, sob adubação NPK recomendada, porém, sem esses índices refletirem-se em maior produtividade de grãos. O máximo acúmulo de matéria seca foi alcançado aos 80 DAE e a maior taxa de crescimento da cultura ocorreu aos 55 DAE, independentemente do tratamento. Abstract in english Knowledge of the accumulation and distribution of phytomass in common bean plants under different levels of fertilization can improve crop management. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, physiological indices and yield of common bean cultivars under different levels of NPK fertilizat [...] ion. The experiment was carried out on a dystroferric Red Nitosol , in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, in a split plot randomized block design, with four replications. Plots were constituted of six treatments (Pérola without fertilization, Pérola with 50% of recommended fertilization, Pérola with 100% of recommended fertilization, IAC Alvorada without fertilization, IAC Alvorada with 50% of recommended fertilization, and IAC Alvorada with 100% of the recommended fertilization) and subplots were made up by seven harvest times during the growth cycle. The NPK fertilization increased similarly the dry matter accumulation, yield components, and grains yield of cultivars of Pérola and IAC Alvorada. Under recommended fertilization, IAC Alvorada cultivar showed higher leaf area index and leaf dry matter accumulation than Pérola; however, with no effects on the increase of grain yield. Regardless of treatment, the maximum dry matter accumulation was achieved at 80 DAE and the highest crop growth rate occurred at 55 DAE.

  4. Resposta de pinus taeda com diferentes idades à adubação NPK no Planalto Sul Catarinense / Response of one-, five-, and nine-year-old pinus taeda to NPK fertilization in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Letícia, Moro; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Marcia Aparecida, Simonete; Paulo Cezar, Cassol; Djalma Miler, Chaves.

    1181-11-01

    Full Text Available Na região do Planalto Sul-catarinense, a maioria das florestas de Pinus foi implantada sem fertilização do solo na fase de plantio. Atualmente, muitas áreas encontram-se em segunda ou terceira rotação de Pinus e sem nenhuma fertilização, o que pode limitar a produtividade pela baixa fertilidade do s [...] olo. Uma alternativa para a mitigação desse problema seria a adubação em povoamentos já estabelecidos. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação com N, P e K, em diferentes fases de crescimento de Pinus taeda, foram conduzidos experimentos no campo, em plantios de um, cinco e nove anos de idade, todos de segunda rotação, sobre Cambissolos no município de Otacílio Costa, SC. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinações de doses de N (N0 = 0, N1 = 70 e N2 = 140 kg ha-1 de N), P (P0 = 0, P1 = 75 e P2 = 150 kg ha-1 P2O5) e K (K0 = 0, K1 = 60 e K2 = 120 kg ha-1 de K2O), além de uma testemunha, nas seguintes combinações: N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2 e N2P2K1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram avaliados altura e diâmetro no colo ou à altura do peito das árvores e calculado o volume de tronco das plantas e teores de N, P e K nas acículas aos seis e 18 meses, após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Os resultados evidenciaram que nas plantas de um ano de idade houve incremento significativo no volume de madeira com a aplicação de 70 kg ha-1 de P2O5. Para os plantios de cinco e nove anos, a adição de doses a partir de 70, 75 e 60 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, promoveram incrementos significativos no volume de madeira, mostrando que a adubação em florestas já estabelecida é uma estratégia a ser considerada em sítios de baixa fertilidade. Abstract in english In the southern highland (Planalto Sul) region of Santa Catarina, Brazil, most of the pine forests were planted without soil fertilization. Currently, many areas are in the second or third rotation, and their productivity may be limited by low soil fertility. An alternative to mitigate this problem [...] would be fertilization in the established forest. This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of fertilization with N, P, and K at different growth stages of Pinus taeda. Experiments were conducted in one-, five-, and nine-year-old forests, all in the second rotation, in Cambisols located in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Treatments consisted of combinations of fertilization rates of N (N0=0, N1=70, and N2=140 kg ha-1 N), P (P0=0, P1=75, and P2=150 kg ha-1 P2O5), and K (K0=0, K1=60, and K2=120 kg ha-1 K2O), plus a control treatment without fertilization. The combinations used were N0P0K0, N0P1K0, N1P1K1, N1P2K1, N1P2K2, and N2P2K1. A completely randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications. The height and diameter at the root collar or at breast height of trees was measured; also the trunk volume of the plants and N, P, and K contents in needles at six and 18 months after fertilization were measured. In one-year-old plants, a significant increase in timber volume was obtained with the application of 70 kg ha-1 of P2O5. For five- and nine-year-old plants, fertilization with 70, 75, and 60 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively, promote significant increase in timber volume, showing that fertilization of established pine forests increase productivity in areas of low fertility.

  5. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária / Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros, Salgado; Anísio, Azzini; Celi Teixeira, Feitosa; Armando, Petinelli; Arruda, Veiga.

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, e [...] m Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí. Abstract in english Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of Sã [...] o Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  6. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí.Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  7. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PRODUKSI BEBERAPA AKSESI TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pratikta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH] The experiment was conducted in the Field Research, in Kumendung village, Muncar, Banyuwangi from November 2012 until February 2013. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect of NPK fertilizer in some accession of maize on it’s growth and production. It’s also evaluate the protein content of the accession under different fertilizer treatment. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replications. Main plot were NPK aplication rates (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 and the sub-plots were accesion number ( V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah ; V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning ; V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma ; and V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. An split plot statistical analysis of varience (ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5 % level of probability according to Hanafiah, (2005 was realized using the excel program. Growth and yield parameters recorded at different stages of crop growth and development. There were plant height, leaves number above the ear, leaves number under the ear, tassel emergence, silk emergence, physiologically ripe age, ear lenghth, ear weight, ear circumference, ear weight per plot, kernel weight, kernel weight per plot, 100-grain weight, and protein content. The result showed that no significant different affected by the defferent NPK application rates on these accession. Base on the character selection, the yielding of all accession were higher than Bisma variety. Content of the accession were 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; and 10,10 mg g-1 for V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively. Keywords: NPK Fertilizer; Maize accession; Production [INDONESIAN] Penelitian dilakukan di lahan Desa Kumendung Kecamatan Muncar Kabupaten Banyuwangi pada bulan November 2012 hingga Febuari 2013. Tujuan dari percobaan ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pupuk NPK terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi beberapa Aksesi jagung, dan mengevaluasi kadar protein yang terkandung didalamnya. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Split Plot dengan tiga ulangan. Petak utama adalah Pupuk NPK (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 dan sub-plot adalah aksesi jagung (V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah, V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning, V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma, dan V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. Hasil percobaan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis varian (ANOVA dan Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT pada taraf ? 5% (Hanafiah, 2005 dengan menggunakan program excel. Parameter pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun atas dan dibawah tongkol jagung, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbungan betina, umur masak fisiologis, berat tongkol per petak (kg, berat pipilan per petak (kg, berat tongkol per tanaman (g, panjang tongkol isi (cm, lingkar tongkol (cm, berat 100 biji per tanaman (g, dan kandungan protein biji jagung (mg g-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang nyata antar perlakuan yang dicobakan pada parameter yang diamati. Perlakuan penambahan pupuk NPK tidak menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata pada semua parameter. Berdasarkan pemilihan karakter, semua aksesi terpilih lebih tinggi dibanding varietas Bisma. Kandungan protein rata-rata aksesi yang diuji yaitu 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; dan 10,10 mg g-1 masing-masing untuk V1, V2, V3, dan V4. Kata Kunci: Pupuk NPK; Aksesi Jagung; Produksi How to citate: Pratikta D, S Hartatik, KA Wijaya. 2013. Pengaruh penambahan pupuk NPK terhadap produksi beberapa aksesi tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian 1(2: 19-21.

  8. NPK macronutrients and microRNA homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcheski, Franceli R; Côrrea, Régis; Gomes, Igor A; de Lima, Júlio C; Margis, Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    Macronutrients are essential elements for plant growth and development. In natural, non-cultivated systems, the availability of macronutrients is not a limiting factor of growth, due to fast recycling mechanisms. However, their availability might be an issue in modern agricultural practices, since soil has been frequently over exploited. From a crop management perspective, the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are three important limiting factors and therefore frequently added as fertilizers. NPK are among the nutrients that have been reported to alter post-embryonic root developmental processes and consequently, impairs crop yield. To cope with nutrients scarcity, plants have evolved several mechanisms involved in metabolic, physiological, and developmental adaptations. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as additional key regulators of nutrients uptake and assimilation. Some studies have demonstrated the intrinsic relation between miRNAs and their targets, and how they can modulate plants to deal with the NPK availability. In this review, we focus on miRNAs and their regulation of targets involved in NPK metabolism. In general, NPK starvation is related with miRNAs that are involved in root-architectural changes and uptake activity modulation. We further show that several miRNAs were discovered to be involved in plant-microbe symbiosis during N and P uptake, and in this way we present a global view of some studies that were conducted in the last years. The integration of current knowledge about miRNA-NPK signaling may help future studies to focus in good candidates genes for the development of important tools for plant nutritional breeding. PMID:26136763

  9. Efeito de doses de NPK sobre os teores de nutrientes nas folhas e no solo, e na produtividade do maracujazeiro amarelo / Effect of NPK on nutrient levels in leaves and soil, and on yield of yellow passion fruit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ANA LÚCIA, BORGES; RANULFO CORREA, CALDAS; ADELISE DE ALMEIDA, LIMA; ISRAEL ELY DE, ALMEIDA.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência das adubações com nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio nos teores de nutrientes das folhas do maracujazeiro amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) e em propriedades químicas do solo, tendo em vista maximizar a produtividade e otimizar a prática da adubação. O expe [...] rimento foi conduzido no período de maio/96 a abril/98, em Latossolo Amarelo do Município de Cruz das Almas (BA). Empregou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial fracionado ½ de 4³, com dois blocos incompletos, avaliando-se quatro doses de N (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg ha-1 ano-1), de P2O5 (0, 80, 160 e 240 kg ha-1 ano-1) e de K2O (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg ha-1 ano-1). Amostragens de solo e folhas foram realizadas aos 12 e 24 meses após o plantio, bem como foi avaliada a produtividade no primeiro e no segundo ano. A adubação nitrogenada não influenciou os teores de N na folha, mas diminuiu os de boro e reduziu o pH do solo no segundo ano de cultivo. A adubação fosfatada aumentou, em média, apenas 12% os teores de P nas folhas e 35 vezes no solo. A adubação potássica elevou os teores do nutriente nas folhas do maracujazeiro, e no solo a valores acima do nível ótimo. A produtividade máxima de 22,1 t ha-1, em dois anos de cultivo, foi obtida com a aplicação de 244 kg de N, 72 kg de P2O5 e 285 kg ha-1 de K2O. Abstract in english This work evaluated the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization on nutrient levels in the leaves of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) and on the chemical properties of the soil, in order to maximize yield and optimize fertilizer applications. The experime [...] nt was carried out from May/96 to April/98, on a Yellow Latosol, in Cruz das Almas city, State of Bahia, Brazil. It was used a randomized block design, in a fractionated factorial arrangement ½ of 4³, with two incompleted blocks. It was evaluated four doses of N (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1), of P2O5 (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1 year-1) and K2O (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg ha-1 year-1). Soil samples and leaves were collected at 12 and 24 months after planting. Yield was evaluated in the first and second production years. Nitrogen fertilization did not affect the N level in the leaves but decreased boron and reduced the soil pH during the second production year. Phosphorus fertilization increased, in average, only 12% of the P levels in the leaves, and 35 times in soil. Potassium fertilization increased nutrient contents in leaves and in soil over the optimum level. Maximum yield of 22 t ha-1, during two years, was obtained with application of 244 kg of N, 72 kg of P2O5 and 285 kg of K2O ha-1.

  10. Crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis em diferentes tamanhos de tubetes e fertilização N-P-K Growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in different sized tubes and N-P-K'fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro Gomes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado com o objetivo de estudar o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis produzidas em diferentes tamanhos de tubetes e fertilização N-P-K. O substrato utilizado foi uma mistura de 80% de composto orgânico (CO e de 20% de moinha de carvão (MC, adubados com a presença e ausência dos elementos N, P e K. Como embalagens foram utilizados quatro tamanhos de tubetes de plástico rígido, com volumes de 50, 110, 200 e 280 cm³. Os volumes dos tubetes devem ser considerados para produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. Apesar de os melhores crescimentos terem sido obtidos nos maiores tubetes, estes não devem ser utilizados, uma vez que as alturas das mudas estão acima das tecnicamente ótimas para o plantio, além de o custo de produção ser onerado. Aos 60 dias de idade as mudas ainda estão pequenas e bastante tenras, sem o endurecimento adequado para o plantio no campo. Aos 120 dias após a semeadura a restrição ao crescimento das raízes e da altura das mudas é afetada, mesmo nos tubetes de maiores volumes, não sendo essa a idade indicada. O tubete de 110 cm³ de volume deve ser considerado para mudas com 90 dias de idade.An experiment was carried out to study the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in different sized tubes and N-P-K fertilization. A mixture of 80% organic compound (CO and 20% charcoal powder fertilized with and without N, P and K was used as substrate. Four sizes of hard plastic tubes at the volumes of 50, 110, 200 and 280 cm³ were used as containers. The tube volumes must be considered for producing Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Although the highest growths occurred in the larger tubes, these tubes should not be used because the seedling heights far surpass the ones considered as technically optimum for planting, and have a higher production cost. At 60 days of age, the seedlings are still small and quite tender, and do not present the hardness appropriate to field planting. At 120 days after sowing, the restriction to root growth and seedling height is affected even in the larger tubes, thus this is not the indicated age. The 110 cm³ volume tube must be considered for 90-day old seedlings.

  11. Crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis em diferentes tamanhos de tubetes e fertilização N-P-K / Growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in different sized tubes and N-P-K'fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Mauro, Gomes; Laércio, Couto; Helio Garcia, Leite; Aloisio, Xavier; Silvana Lages Ribeiro, Garcia.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado com o objetivo de estudar o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis produzidas em diferentes tamanhos de tubetes e fertilização N-P-K. O substrato utilizado foi uma mistura de 80% de composto orgânico (CO) e de 20% de moinha de carvão (MC), adubados com a presença e au [...] sência dos elementos N, P e K. Como embalagens foram utilizados quatro tamanhos de tubetes de plástico rígido, com volumes de 50, 110, 200 e 280 cm³. Os volumes dos tubetes devem ser considerados para produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. Apesar de os melhores crescimentos terem sido obtidos nos maiores tubetes, estes não devem ser utilizados, uma vez que as alturas das mudas estão acima das tecnicamente ótimas para o plantio, além de o custo de produção ser onerado. Aos 60 dias de idade as mudas ainda estão pequenas e bastante tenras, sem o endurecimento adequado para o plantio no campo. Aos 120 dias após a semeadura a restrição ao crescimento das raízes e da altura das mudas é afetada, mesmo nos tubetes de maiores volumes, não sendo essa a idade indicada. O tubete de 110 cm³ de volume deve ser considerado para mudas com 90 dias de idade. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out to study the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in different sized tubes and N-P-K fertilization. A mixture of 80% organic compound (CO) and 20% charcoal powder fertilized with and without N, P and K was used as substrate. Four sizes of hard plastic tubes a [...] t the volumes of 50, 110, 200 and 280 cm³ were used as containers. The tube volumes must be considered for producing Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Although the highest growths occurred in the larger tubes, these tubes should not be used because the seedling heights far surpass the ones considered as technically optimum for planting, and have a higher production cost. At 60 days of age, the seedlings are still small and quite tender, and do not present the hardness appropriate to field planting. At 120 days after sowing, the restriction to root growth and seedling height is affected even in the larger tubes, thus this is not the indicated age. The 110 cm³ volume tube must be considered for 90-day old seedlings.

  12. Nutrient Content (% Dry Matter of Maize as Affected by Different Levels of Fertilizers in Asaba Area of Delta State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Enujeke

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State. University, Asaba campus (Nigeria from March 2008 to June 2010 to evaluate the nutrient content (% dry matter of maize as affected by different levels of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factorial layout. Four different rates of poultry droppings, cattle dung and NPK 20: 10: 10 fertilizer were applied to three maize varieties sown at 75 cm x 15 cm spacing and the maize grains produced were evaluate for their nutrient content in percentage dry matter. The results obtained indicated that hybrid variety 9022-13 had the highest N, P and K contents (1.03, 1.68 and 0.26, respectively. Also, plants that received inorganic fertilizer had the highest values of 1.27% N, 1.64% P and 0.29% K. Based on rates of application, plants that received 450 kgha-1 NPK 20: 10: 10 fertilizer had the highest values of 1.74% N, 1.71% P and 0.49% K. The interaction effects showed that only variety, manure type and rates % application were significant (P < 0.05. Based on this study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid variety, 9022-13, which was outstanding in its nutrient content be grown in the study area. Alternatively, farmers who prefer open-pollinated varieties could grow BR 9922-DMRSF2 or Agbor local variety for people who prefer local varieties in maize production (ii Spacing of 75 cm x 15 cm (88, 888 plants/ha which resulted in better growth performance and yield should be adopted in maize production (iii Farmers who prefer mineral fertilizer for increased growth and yield of maize should apply 450 kg ha-1 of NPK 20: 10: 10 (iv Farmers who practice organic agriculture in Asaba agro-ecological zone should apply 30 tha-1 of poultry manure to enhance maize yield.

  13. Soil Fertility Problems in Cetnral Rechna Doab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the fertility status of soil in the central Rechna Doab area. Fertility of the whole Central Rechna Doab area was low, Phosphorus in particular was low in all soils, and some soil samples were Potassium deficient while few were low in nitrogen. The situation can be brought to medium fertility level by using proper amount of NPK on the basis of soil test evaluation. However, a high fertility level can only be achieved by all round efforts on scientific basis.

  14. Soil Fertility Problems in Cetnral Rechna Doab

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Arshad; Abida Akram

    1999-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the fertility status of soil in the central Rechna Doab area. Fertility of the whole Central Rechna Doab area was low, Phosphorus in particular was low in all soils, and some soil samples were Potassium deficient while few were low in nitrogen. The situation can be brought to medium fertility level by using proper amount of NPK on the basis of soil test evaluation. However, a high fertility level can only be achieved by all round efforts on scientific basis.

  15. Effect of long-term different fertilization on bacterial community structures and diversity in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joa, Jae Ho; Weon, Hang Yeon; Hyun, Hae Nam; Jeun, Young Chull; Koh, Sang Wook

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess bacterial species richness, diversity and community distribution according to different fertilization regimes for 16 years in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash. Soil samples were collected and analyzed from Compost (cattle manure, 2,000 kg/10a), 1/2 NPK+compost (14-20-14+2,000 kg/10a), NPK+compost (28-40-28+2,000 kg/10a), NPK (28-40-28 kg/10a), 3 NPK (84-120-84 kg/10a), and Control (no fertilization) plot which have been managed in the same manners with compost and different amount of chemical fertilization. The range of pyrosequencing reads and OTUs were 4,687-7,330 and 1,790-3,695, respectively. Species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1, and Shannon index were higher in 1/2 NPK+compost than other treatments, which were 15,202, 9,112, 7.7, respectively. Dominant bacterial groups at level of phylum were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Those were occupied at 70.9% in 1/2 NPK+compost. Dominant bacterial groups at level of genus were Pseudolabrys, Bradyrhizobium, and Acidobacteria. Those were distributed at 14.4% of a total of bacteria in Compost. Soil pH displayed significantly closely related to bacterial species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1 (psoil was affected by fertilization management, soil pH changes and characteristics of volcanic ash. PMID:25467117

  16. Npk mediated improvement in biomass production, photosynthesis and na+ regulation in panicum antidotale under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panicum antidotale is a promising grass species for use as fodder and forage using non-conventional agricultural practices. It was therefore grown using brackish water irrigation to determine the optimal spacing and fertilizer treatment required for sustainable growth, ion relations and photosynthesis. Planting distance of 1.5 ft2 resulted in higher biomass yield. Composite NPK fertilizer (NPK120) at the rate 120 kg ha-1 supported better plant growth rather than N, P, K individually or their various combinations (NP, NK, PK, NPK). Addition of fermented farmyard manure (NPK120+FM) improved ion regulation (lower Na+ uptake, higher K+/Na+ ratio), photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency but did not improve biomass production compared to NPK120. However, higher Na+ uptake with NPK120 would result in lower ion accumulation in the root zone and delayed soil degradation. We conclude that NPK120 could support sustainable growth of Panicum antidotale in our cropping system by keeping leaf Na+ within safe limits for CO/sub 2/ assimilation and reducing the need for frequent re-planting of salinized root stock. (author)

  17. Impact of Long-Term Fertilization Practice on Soil Structure Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; MØldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    The study characterized soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizer over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm tall) and bulk soil samples were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil properties including texture, organic carbon, soil–water characteristic, air permeability and diffusivity were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Long-term applications of AM and NPK had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 0.015 kg kg? 1 (unfertilized plot) to 0.024 kg kg? 1 (well fertilized plot, 30 T ha? 1 2y? 1 AM with NPK). Total porosity linearly followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.36 to 0.43 m3 m? 3. The water holding capacity of the soil was considerably increased with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Gas diffusivity andair permeability measurements clearly indicated that the level of soil aeration improved with increasing AM and NPK fertilizer amount. The three-dimensional X-ray CT visualizations revealed higher macroporosity and biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized areas when compared to plots without or only a small amount of fertilizer applied. A combined evaluation of the soil water characteristic, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggested that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved with increasing fertilizer amount. Furthermore, the soils fertilized with both AM and NPK showed a more aggregated structure than soils amended with AM only.

  18. Multiple Equilibria between Fertility Rates and Pension Levels Based on the Target Level of Government Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Nakamura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that when the government has a target debt level, multiple equilibria exist in the relationship between fertility rates and pension levels. One is associated with a high fertility rate and a high pension level. The other is associated with a low fertility rate and a low pension level. If the government fails to provide adequate security for individuals during their retirement years, it would result in a failure of coordination between the government and individuals.

  19. YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF EXTRA-EARLY MAIZE (Zea mays L.) AS AFFECTED BY RATES OF NPK FERTILIZER SUCCEEDING CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens) SUPPLIED WITH DIFFERENT RATES SHEEP MANURE

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir Ahmad Babaji; Yahaya, Rilwanu A.; Mahadi, Musa A.; Jaliya, Muhammad M.; Adamu Ahmed; Sharifai, Aminu I.; Kura, Habu N.; Arunah, Uthman L.; Ahmad Ibrahim; Muhammad, Aminu A.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to study response of extra-early maize variety (95TZEE-Y1) to rates of NPK (0, 40:20:20, 80:40:40 and 120:60:60 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1) and residual FYM (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 applied to chilli pepper the previous season) in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Higher values for soil physical and chemical properties were obtained in plots supplied with manure the previous season with soil...

  20. Effects of Organic-Chemical Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Rice (Chai Nat 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Sopit Vetayasuporn

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of organic-chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer (NPK 16:16:8) on the growth and yield of rice Chai Nat 1 in Roi-Et province, Northeast Thailand. Organic-chemical fertilizer was developed from organic fertilizer 82+9.0 kg of NPK 46:0:0 + 4.5 kg of NPK 18:46:0 and 4.5 kg of NPK 0:0:60. Five treatments were compared consisting of : T1 (control without fertilizer); T2 (312.5 kg ha-1 organic-chemical fertilizer); T3 (625 kg h...

  1. Impact of long-term fertilization practice on soil structure evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; MØldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soil structure plays a central role for plant growth and development by controlling root penetration and the availability of water, air and essential nutrients. The factors contributing to soil structure development and evolution are so complex that it is not yet possible to precisely predict the impact of a particular management practice. In this study, we characterized the soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizers over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm height) were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil physical properties including texture, water retention, and air permeability and diffusion were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Soil textural analysis revealed that AM and NPK applications had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 1.53% (unfertilized plot) to 2.37% (well fertilized plot, NPK and 30 T ha-1 2y-1 AM). Total porosity closely followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.37 to 0.43 m3 m-3. The water-holding capacity of the soils was also greatly improved with the increase of AM and NPK applications. Air permeability and diffusion measurements clearly indicated that all soils were sufficiently aerated for plant growth. However, the level of aeration was higher for well-fertilized soils. The X-ray CT 3D visualizations revealed higher biological (earthworm) activity in the well fertilized soils when compared to plots without or small amount of fertilizer application. A combined evaluation of the water retention, gas transport and X-ray CT results suggests that pore size distributions widened, and pore connectivity was significantly improved for soils fertilized with AM and NPK as compared to soils with AM only.

  2. Efecto de la presión de pastoreo y fertilización NPK en la producción de forraje de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero en el estado Mérida / Grazing pressure and NPK fertilization on the kikuyo-forage peanut association in Merida state. Pasture production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ciro, Dávila; Fernando, Castro; Diannelis, Urbano.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En la Finca Las Mesas (1.850 msnm), Jají, estado Mérida, se condujo un experimento con la finalidad de seleccionar la mejor presión de pastoreo y fertilización para la producción de forraje de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones, en parc [...] elas divididas, donde la parcela principal fue la presión de pastoreo (PPA: 800 y PPB: 1.600 kg MS residual/ha) y la secundaria los niveles de nitrógeno (0 y 200 kg/ha), fósforo (0, 150 y 300 kg P2O5/ha) y potasio (0 y 200 kg K2O/ha). Se evaluaron la oferta y el residuo, los cuales se estimaron con una curva de regresión para esta asociación (Y= -422,66 + 225,11X, donde X= altura del disco, con r² = 0,904). En la presión de pastoreo no se detectaron diferencias significativas en las variables evaluadas. Para el efecto de bloques, los potreros planos tuvieron más consumo acumulado (12.629,6 kg MS/ha), con respecto a los inclinados (5.848,3 kg MS/ha). El nitrógeno influyó significativamente en la oferta, obteniéndose un incremento promedio de 314,9 kg MS/ha/pastoreo y para casi todos los consumos, los incrementos fueron positivos, con una eficiencia de 9,03 kg MS de consumo por kg de nitrógeno aplicado, mientras que para el residuo no hubo diferencias estadísticas. El máximo efecto se encontró cuando se aplicó este macroelemento en los periodos de alta precipitación. El fósforo y el potasio no fueron significativos para las características forrajeras de la asociación; sin embargo, la tendencia de estos nutrientes fueron positivas en la mayoría de los tratamientos. Abstract in english A grazing field trail was carried out in "Las Mesas" farm (1.950 masl), Jají, Mérida state, with the purpose of selecting the best grazing pressure and fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels on the pasture production of the kikuyu-forage peanut association. A complete randomized [...] block design with three replications in a split-plot arrangement was used. Main plots (0.6 ha) were grazing pressures (HGP: 800, and LGP: 1.600 kg residual MS), and as subplots the combinations of fertilizer: nitrogen (0 and 200 kg N/ha), phosphorus (0, 150, and 300 kg P(2)0(5)/ha), and potassium (0 and 200 kg K(2)0/ha). Offered and residual pasture were estimated with an equation for this association (Y = -422,66 + 225,11X, were X = disk height, with r² = 0.904). The experimental period was 280 days. Grazing pressure did not show significant differences for the estimated variables. For blocks in flat areas pastures, more forage was consumed (12.629,6 kg DM/ha) than on the inclined ones (5.848,3 kg DM/ha). Nitrogen affected offered pasture with 314,9 kg DM/ha per grazing, and for almost all forage consumed the increments were positive with an efficiency of 9,03 kg DM consumed/kg N applied. For the residual DM, there were not significant differences. Maximum N influence was obtained when this element was applied during the raining season. The effects of phosphorus and potassium were not significant for the association, but it was a positive tendency on the offered and consumed pasture in almost all the treatments.

  3. Bio-economics of autumn planted sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under different NPK applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the response of autumn planted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to different levels of N, P and K fertilizers at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during, 2004 and 2005. Treatments comprised five N levels (0, 60. 90, 120 and 150 kg ha/sup -1/), five P levels (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/), four K levels (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/) in different combinations and two hybrids viz. FH-314 (standard height) and FH-245 (semi dwarf). Hybrid FH-314 produced significantly higher achene yield (2725.41 kg ha/sup -1/) than that of FH-245. There was a progressive increase in achene yield and yield components With increasing levels of N, P and K. The highest achene yield (3023 kg ha/sup -1/) and highest net benefit (Rs.19743) was obtained when the crop was fertilized at the rate 120:90:60 kg NPK ha/sub -1/. (author)

  4. Efecto de la presión de pastoreo y fertilización NPK sobre la composición botánica de la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero en la zona alta del estado Mérida / Grazing pressure and NPK fertilization effects on botanical composition of kikuyu grass - perennial peanut association in highlands of Mérida state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diannelis, Urbano; Fernando, Castro; Ciro, Dávila.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de determinar la mejor presión de pastoreo y fertilización con nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio que permita mantener un balance en la asociación kikuyo-maní forrajero, se condujo un experimento en Jají, estado Mérida, Venezuela. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repetici [...] ones, en un arreglo factorial de los tratamientos en parcelas divididas, donde en la parcela principal se aplicaron dos presiones de pastoreo (PPA: 800 y PPB: 1.600 kg MS residual/ha) y en la secundaria las combinaciones de dos niveles de nitrógeno (0 y 200 kg/ha/año), tres de fósforo (0, 150 y 300 kg P2O5/ha/año) y dos de potasio (0 y 200 kg K2O/ha/año), evaluándose la composición botánica al inicio y al final del experimento. El porcentaje de kikuyo en la mezcla disminuyó un 11%, mientras que el maní forrajero incrementó un 9%. Los componentes de biomasa muerta y del pasto Cynodon sp disminuyeron en 3 y 0,79%, respectivamente. La presión de pastoreo y sus interacciones no influyeron significativamente en los diferentes componentes de la mezcla; sin embargo, la tendencia del kikuyo en la asociación fue a declinar más en la presión de pastoreo baja (13,1%) que en la alta (8,1%), mientras que el porcentaje de maní incrementó en la asociación en ambos sistemas con 12,8 y 6,1%, respectivamente. El porcentaje del kikuyo en la mezcla fue afectado por el nitrógeno (P Abstract in english To obtain the best combination of the grazing pressure and fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium that allow a good balance in the species kikuyu grass-perennial peanut association, a field grazing experiment was conducted in Jají, Mérida state, Venezuela. A complete randomized block [...] design was used, with three replications. The treatments were a factorial in a split plot arrangement. Two grazing pressures were applied to main plots (HGP: 800 and LGP: 1600 kg residual DM/ha) and two levels of nitrogen (0 and 200 kg N/ha), three of phosphorus (0, 150, and 300 kg P2O5), and two of potassium (0 and 200 kg K2O/ha) were applied to sub-plots. Botanical composition was estimated at the beginning and the end of the trial. Percent of kikuyu grass in the mixture decreased 11%, while perennial peanut increased in 9%. Also, dead material and the grass Cynodon sp decreased 3 and 0.79%, respectively. The grazing pressure factor and its interactions were not significant, but the tendency for the components of the association was that kikuyu grass decreased 13.1% in the LGP and 8.1% in HGP, but perennial peanut increased in both systems 12.8% and 6.1%, respectively. Nitrogen application and N x K interaction were significant (P

  5. Influência da adubação foliar com NPK, na cultura algodoeira (G. hirsutum L. var. IAC-12), sobre a qualidade da fibra e da semente / Effect of foliar fertilization with NPK on the quality of fiber and seed of a cotton crop (G. hirsutum L., IAC-12, var.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio Pedro Laca, Buendia; A. M. Louis, Neptune.

    Full Text Available Aplicações de fertilizantes por via foliar e ao solo foram comparados na cultura algodoeira, utilizando-se a variedade IAC-12, com a finalidade de se estudar uma influência sobre alguns caracteres físicos da fibra e da semente. Tanto na adubação ao solo, como na foliar, foram utilizados como fonte d [...] e nitrogênio, a uréia (46%N), como fonte de fósforo, o superfosfato concentrado (45% P2O2) e como fonte de potássio, o cloreto de potássio (60% K2O). Os resultados obtidos mostram que entre as características físicas da análise da fibra, encontrou-se um efeito positivo no comprimento da fibra, resistência da fibra, resistência do fio e maior peso de semente (índice de semente) quando o cloreto de potássio foi aplicado por via foliar. Quanto à uniformidade da fibra e ao índice de finura, não houve influência da adubação foliar com nenhum dos três elementos. Nestes casos, a adubação ao solo, proporcionou melhores resultados. Deve-se ressaltar que com a dose mais alta de fósforo (60 kg de P2O5/ha), o valor do índice de finura foi maior. O adubo nitrogenado na dose de 40 kg de N/ha, influenciou na resistência da fibra (Pressley). Abstract in english Fertilizers treatments, either by foliar spraying or by soil applications were compared in the cotton crop using the IAC-12 variety with the aim of studying the effects of fertilizers on some physical characteristics of the fibre and the seed. The experiment was carried out on a latossol called «Ter [...] ra Roxa Estruturada", at the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz of the University of São Paulo, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Urea (46% Í), concentrated superphosphate (45% P2O5), potassium chloride (60% K2O) have been used as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium sources, respectively. The results showed a positive effect on the fiber lenght, fiber strength, the skein strength of cotton yarns and higher seed weight (seed index), when potassium chloride has been sprayed on the leaves. In respect to the uniformitty of the fibre, and fiber fineness (fineness index), there was no influence of the foliar fertilization with none of the three macronutrients; best results have been obtained with the soil application of fertilizers. It must be pointed ou that with the higher rate of phosphorus (60 kg P2O5/ha) the fineness index value was igher. The rate of nitrogen (40 kg/ha) influenced the fiber-strength index, as determined by from Pressley index.

  6. Prostate specific antigen level in a fertilizer factory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find the effect of the fertilizer factory environment on serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) levels. Subjects and Methods: A total of 205 workers, all male, of Pak Arab Fertilizer Factory, Multan had their prostatic specific antigen (PSA) estimated. The age of the workers varied between 22 to 65 years (mean age= 48.3 plus minus 8.5 years). The people belonged to various working groups and most of them were on normal Pakistani diet. They had been residing/working in the factory area for a period varying from 5 to 30 years. PSA levels were also estimated in 118 normal persons to serve as a control group. The age of these persons varied from 19 to 64 years. These were mostly hospital staff and general public not residing in the factory area and had no history of prostatic disease. Sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay techniques were applied to measure the PSA concentrations in serum. Results: Observed PSA levels in this population were between 0.2 and 11.5 ng/ml. Overall mean PSA level was 1.9 plus minus 0.84 ng PSA/ml. Mean PSA level observed in control group was 0.73 plus minus 0.64 ng/ml (upper 95% limit was 3.2 ng/ml). Comparison of PSA levels of factory workers with values in normal subjects showed that 9 out of 205 male workers (4.3% of total) had significantly elevated levels of PSA. In 2 workers (1 % of total) observed PSA levels were above 10 ng/ml. The levels above this limit are most commonly observed in the cancer patients. Conclusi observed in the cancer patients. Conclusion: A significant proportion of the workers of the fertilizer factory are at risk of malignant and non-malignant disease of the prostate. (author)

  7. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients / Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: I - macronutrientes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Peres, Soratto; Adalton Mazetti, Fernandes; Letícia Andriani dos, Santos; André Luiz Gomes, Job.

    1027-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cultivares com maior potencial produtivo e a adoção de maior nível tecnológico têm possibilitado a obtenção de elevadas produtividades de grãos da cultura do feijão, o que provavelmente alterou a demanda por nutrientes dessa cultura. No entanto, quase não existem informações sobre as quanti [...] dades e as épocas do ciclo em que os nutrientes são mais exigidos pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a extração e a exportação de macronutrientes pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1- - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Sob maiores níveis de adubação NPK, ambos os cultivares apresentaram as maiores produtividades de grãos, extração e exportação de macronutrientes, porém sem diferirem entre si. Os tratamentos com 100 % da adubação NPK recomendada apresentaram maior extração de macronutrientes, com quantidades médias por hectare de 140 kg de N; 16,5 kg de P; 120 kg de K; 69 kg de Ca; 17,9 kg de Mg; e 16,3 kg de S. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por N, P, K, Ca e Mg ocorreu dos 45 aos 55 dias após emergência (DAE), ou seja, no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), enquanto as maiores taxas de absorção de S concentraram-se entre os 55 e 65 DAE. Mais de 70 % do P, entre 58 e 69 % do N, 40 e 52 % do S, 40 e 48 % do K e 35 e 45 % do Mg absorvidos ao longo do ciclo foram exportados com os grãos, enquanto menos de 15 % do Ca foi exportado Abstract in english The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most deman [...] ded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S). Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE), i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation), while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 4

  8. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    SUPRIYADI; MUJIYATI

    2009-01-01

    Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i) whithout fertilize...

  9. Nutrição mineral de plantas ornamentais: VII. estudos de adubação NPK na cultura de gladíolo (Gladiolus grandiflorus, cv. 'Perusi') / Mineral nutrition of ornamental plants: VII. studies on N, P, K fertilization of gladiolus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Dantas, Fernandes; Henrique Paulo, Haag; Salim, Simão; Jairo Ribeiro de, Mattos.

    Full Text Available Três doses de N, P e K foram testadas em culturas de gladíolos (Gladiolus grandiflorus cv. 'Perusi') provenientes de três tamanhos diferentes de bulbos (Nº 3, Nº 1 e Jumbo). Todos os tratos culturais necessários foram dispensados aos experimentos cuja instalação se deu em um solo podzolizado da Coop [...] erativa Agrícola de Holambra, em Jaguariúna - SP. Estudaram-se os efeitos de adubação sobre produção de flores, produção de bulbos e de bulbilhos. A resposta do gladíolo aos níveis de fertilização variou bastante com o tamanho de bulbo plantado. São discutidos os efeitos de cada nutriente sobre as características estudadas. Abstract in english Studies on N, P. K fertilization of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus, cv. 'Perusi'). At the Agricultural Cooperative of Holambra, Jaguariúna SP, experiments with gladiolus were conducted with the objective of studying the effects of increasing dosis of N, R and K on the floral stems and corms produ [...] ction. The response of gladiolus to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium varied with the size of the corm that was planted. The effects of each nutrient on several characteristics of plants are discussed.

  10. Efecto de la fertilización química, orgánica y combinada sobre el rendimiento de la papa variedad Granola / Effect of the fertilization chemical, organic and combined on the yield of variety Granola

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karen, Arias; Olga, Arnaude de Chacón.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de la papa, Solanum tuberosum L., demanda un alto uso de insumos agrícolas entre los que destacan los fertilizantes químicos (FQ) y enmiendas orgánicas (EO), las cuales alcanzan en muchos casos un alto porcentaje en los costos de producción, por lo que se hace necesario buscar estrategias [...] de manejo que disminuya el valor de la fertilización. En la Aldea Pernía, municipio Vargas del estado Táchira, se condujo un experimento en papa, variedad Granola a 1.900 m.s.n.m., precipitación promedio de 900 mm, temperatura entre 12 y 17ºC, zona de vida (B-h-p) según Holdridge, suelo Fa, Orthends, donde se evaluaron dos manejos de fertilización, cinco tipos de FQ: Testigo con cero aplicación; NPK; NPK + Mg; NPK + Mg+B y NPK+B a tres niveles de fertilización orgánica (FO): 0; 5 y 10 t.ha-1 de gallinaza (abono orgánico; AO) con tres repeticiones. Se determinó el efecto de la FQ, EO y combinada sobre el rendimiento de esta variedad. Los resultados indican que el mayor se obtuvo en el tratamiento NPK+Mg (38,39 t.ha-1) seguido del NPK+B (36 t.ha-1) con el nivel 5 t.ha-1 de la AO (P?0,01). No hubo diferencias significativas (P?0,01) al aplicar 5 y 10 t.ha-1 (34,77 y 36,10 t.ha-1, respectivamente). Sin embargo, este nivel de 0 t.ha-1 es menor 22,55 t.ha-1. El mejor resultado se encontró cuando se aplica el FQ y la EO al momento de la siembra Abstract in english In Venezuela, the production of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., normally requires the applications of great amount of mineral fertilizers (OF), and organic amendments (OA) which represent an important part of the production costs of this crop. So it is necessary to develop strategies to decrease its u [...] se. We carried out an experiment in the town of Pernia, Vargas county in Tachira State, to evaluate the response of potato (variety Granola) to the application of 5 treatment of chemical fertilization (testwithout fertilizer; NPK, NPK+Mg; NPK+Mg+B and NPK+B) and 3 levels of organic fertilization (0, 5 and 10 t.ha-1 of chicken manure), with 3 repetitions for each combination. The experimental site is located at 1.900 masl, with a mean annual precipitation of 900 mm, and air temperature between 12 and 17 ºC. The soil is classified as Orthends. The results showed that the greatest yield was found with the application of NPK+Mg (38.39 t.ha-1), followed by the treatment of NPK+B (35.90 t.ha-1) and 5 t.ha-1 of chicken manure (P?0,01). The split of the organic and mineral fertilizer doses does not improve the yield of potato, when compared against the application of the whole dose of fertilizer at the sowing time. Also, there were not significant differences in the potato yield when it was fertilized with five and 10 t of chicken manure (34.77 y 36.10 t.ha-1, respectively), however at the level of 0 t.ha-1 of chicken manure the yield is smaller 22.55 t.ha-1. When placing the chemical fertilizer and the organic amendment were splitted, yield not different from the whole dose application at the time of seedtime

  11. Effect of Fertilizer and Inoculation on Lipase and Urease Activity of Mature Soybean cv. Williams-82 Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Kabir Khan Achakzai; Safdar Ali Kayani; Muhammad Yaqoob; Abdul Nabi

    2003-01-01

    A field experiment on soybean cv. Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil with six different level (T2 to T7) of added N fertilizer @ 23, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 plus a constant dose of P2O5 + K2O fertilizer @ 60 + 30 kg ha-1 respectively, Whereas T1 with zero level of added NPK was kept control. These six fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated field grown soybean crop. After harvest the mature dry seed of each treatment were analyzed for their li...

  12. Efeito da adubação NPK na cultura da crotalária Influence of NPK fertilization in sunnhemp crop

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado; Anísio Azzini; Celi Teixeira Feitosa; Armando Petinelli; Guido de Sordi

    1982-01-01

    No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em oito experimentos em que se procurou determinar os efeitos de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, na produção de massa verde e sementes de Crotalaria juncea L. No estudo dos três principais elementos, empregou-se um delineamento fatorial 3ª com duas repetições. Foram estudadas as dosagens de 0, 30 e 60 de N; 0, 60 e 120 de P2O5 e 0, 30 e 60 de K2O, em quilograma/hectare, empregados sob a forma de salitre-do-chile, superfosfa...

  13. Radiological impact of use of phosphatic fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of rock phosphate from various sources used for producing phosphate fertilizers of different types of N, P, NPK and by product gypsum were procured from twenty one fertilizer plants. Radio active counts were recorded. Strategies have been suggested to use fertilizers in a more eco-friendly way. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Efeito do NPK, via foliar, no conteúdo de nutrientes das folhas do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.) / NPK effect, in foliar spraying, on the nutrients composition of cotton leaves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augusto Ferreira de, Souza; Moacyr de O.C., Brasil Sobrinho.

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em vasos, nas condições de casa de vegetação da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1975/76. O objetivo foi verificar a influência de pulverizações foliares com NPK na composição de N, P, K nas folhas velhas e folha [...] s novas do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv. IAC-13-1. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 3³, em três repetições; sendo dois números de pulverizações (4 e 8), três macronutrientes (N, P, K) em três dosagens (0, 1,2). Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso com duas plantas. Os tratamentos utilizados constam da Tabela 1 . Os níveis com seus valores médios de N, P2O5 e K2O utilizados em 4 pulverizações: N0=0,N1=0,44,N2=0,84; P0=0, P1= 0,05, P2=0,09; K0=0,K1=0,33,K2=0,66, em 8 pulverizações, N0=0,N1=0,91,N2=1,87; P0=0,P1=0,10, P2=0,20; K0=0,K1=0,70, K2=1,40 em kg/ha, sendo fontes de nutrientes o NH4N0(3), NaH2P0(4)H(2)0 e KCl para N, P(2)0(5) e K(2)0 respectivamente. Os parâmetros empregados na avaliação dos tratamentos foram: teores de N, P, K em folhas velhas e novas do algodoeiro. Nas condições dos experimentos pode-se tirar as seguintes conclusões: A aplicação do efeito quadrático nos seus teores encontrados nas folhas novas apenas em 8 pulverizações, provocando aumento dos teores de P nas folhas velhas. Os algodoeiros não tratados com N revelaram maior teor de K na matéria seca das folhas velhas. O P causou diminuição dos teores de N nas folhas velhas e novas; aumentou os teores de P nas folhas velhas, quando em presença de N. O K aumentou o P nas folhas velhas e novas, diminuiu, porém, o seu teor nas folhas velhas. Abstract in english This research was carried out in greenhouse situated in the Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975/76, to study the influence of NPK spraying on leaves, on the NPK com position in leaves to cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv. IAC-13-1. The experimental [...] design was a Randomized Complete Blocks with the treatments combined in a 2 x 3³ factorial with 3 replications. The treatments were: spraying-two (4 and 8), fertilizers three (N,P,K) in three levels (0,1,2). This three levels had the following averages according to the number of spraying, such as: four spraying - N0 = 0, N1 = 0,44, N2 = 0,84; P0 = 0, P1= 0,05, P2 = 0,09; K0 = 0, K1 = 0,33, K2 = 0,66; eight spraying - N0 = 0; N1 = 0,91, N2 = 1,87; P0 = 0, P1 = 0,10, P2 = 0,20; K0 = 0, K1 = 0,70, K2 = 1,40. The levels are expressed in Kg/ha and the source of fertilizers used were; NH4NO3; NaH2PO5H2O and KC1 for N, P(2)0(5) and K(2)0 respectively. The evaluation of the treatments were done based upon: percentage of N, P, K dry matter of young leaves and old leaves. The following conclusions could be drawn from this research: the N caused increase in P level in old leaves. The cotton plants no treated with N increased the percentage of K in old leaves. The P caused reduction in N levels in old and young leaves; increased the P levels in old leaves in N presence. The K increased the P leavel in old and young leaves, descreased the K levels in old leaves.

  15. Community-level education accelerates the cultural evolution of fertility decline

    OpenAIRE

    H. Colleran; Jasienska, G; I. Nenko; A. Galbarczyk; Mace, R.

    2014-01-01

    Explaining why fertility declines as populations modernize is a profound theoretical challenge. It remains unclear whether the fundamental drivers are economic or cultural in nature. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests that community-level characteristics, for example average education, can alter how low-fertility preferences are transmitted and adopted. These assumptions have not been empirically tested. Here, we show that community-level education accelerates fertility decline in a way th...

  16. Híbridos de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cultivados sob Níveis Crescentes de Adubação: Rendimento, Proteína Bruta e Digestibilidade in Vitro / Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Hybrids Cultivated under Increasing Fertilization Levels: Yield, Crude Protein and in Vitro Digestibility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel Marques, Gontijo Neto; José Antônio, Obeid; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Paulo Roberto, Cecon; Magno José Duarte, Cândido; Lídia Ferreira, Miranda.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, os teores de proteína bruta (PB) e a digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (DIVMS) de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215), cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o del [...] ineamento em blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial 5 x 4 com quatro repetições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram altas produções médias de MS/ ha e resposta linear positiva, em função da adubação, ressalvando a alta produtividade (15,47 t/ha) nas parcelas sem adubação, em função da fertilidade do solo e das condições climáticas. Os híbridos apresentaram respostas diferenciadas quanto aos teores de PB, em função da adubação, predominando respostas quadráticas, determinando o comportamento quadrático da produção de proteína bruta. A DIVMS e a produção de matéria seca digestiva apresentaram respostas lineares positivas em função da adubação, sendo a produção de matéria seca digestível fortemente correlacionada (0,91**) com o aumento da produção de MS/ha. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage yield, crude protein (CP) contents and dry matter (DM) in vitro digestibility of five forage sorghum hybrids (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215), cultivated under four NPK fertilization levels. A randomized blocks design, in a 5 x [...] 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The evaluated hybrids showed high average DM/ha yield and positive linear answer in function of fertilization, except for the high productivity (15.47 t/ha) in the plots without fertilization, in function of soil fertilization and climatic conditions. The hybrids showed different answers for the CP contents, according to the fertilization, in a quadratic way, determining the quadratic behavior for the crude protein yield. IVDMD and digestive dry matter yield showed positive linear answers in function of fertilization, and the digestible dry matter yield was highly correlated (0.91**) with the increase of DM/ha yield.

  17. Híbridos de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Cultivados sob Níveis Crescentes de Adubação: Rendimento, Proteína Bruta e Digestibilidade in Vitro Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Hybrids Cultivated under Increasing Fertilization Levels: Yield, Crude Protein and in Vitro Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, os teores de proteína bruta (PB e a digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (DIVMS de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215, cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial 5 x 4 com quatro repetições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram altas produções médias de MS/ ha e resposta linear positiva, em função da adubação, ressalvando a alta produtividade (15,47 t/ha nas parcelas sem adubação, em função da fertilidade do solo e das condições climáticas. Os híbridos apresentaram respostas diferenciadas quanto aos teores de PB, em função da adubação, predominando respostas quadráticas, determinando o comportamento quadrático da produção de proteína bruta. A DIVMS e a produção de matéria seca digestiva apresentaram respostas lineares positivas em função da adubação, sendo a produção de matéria seca digestível fortemente correlacionada (0,91** com o aumento da produção de MS/ha.The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage yield, crude protein (CP contents and dry matter (DM in vitro digestibility of five forage sorghum hybrids (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215, cultivated under four NPK fertilization levels. A randomized blocks design, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The evaluated hybrids showed high average DM/ha yield and positive linear answer in function of fertilization, except for the high productivity (15.47 t/ha in the plots without fertilization, in function of soil fertilization and climatic conditions. The hybrids showed different answers for the CP contents, according to the fertilization, in a quadratic way, determining the quadratic behavior for the crude protein yield. IVDMD and digestive dry matter yield showed positive linear answers in function of fertilization, and the digestible dry matter yield was highly correlated (0.91** with the increase of DM/ha yield.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

  19. Effect Of Urea, Superphosphate, Potash And Npk On Soil Respiration ( Carbon Dioxide Evolution From Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Bhattacharya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms have been reported for maintaining the soil fertility by breaking down of organic matter and release of carbon dioxide, which is a measure of soil respiration, during their metabolic activities. But due to excessive use of agrochemicals, the populations of these beneficial microorganisms are declining which may decrease the fertility status of soil. Several studies were conducted on the toxic impact of some pesticides on soil respiration.On contrary, few studies were conducted on the effect of fertilizer on soil respiration and no specific result could be found out. So the present experiment was undertaken to find out effect of the most common fertilizer (Urea, Superphosphate, Potash and NPK on soil respiration. The CO evolution reached a highest peak within 15 2days of the experiment and then gradually started decreasing and finally became stabilize when compare with the control sample

  20. Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Brown (Nucleus Medical Media; )

    2013-02-01

    Thomas Brown of Nucleus Medical Media created this video to show the complete journey of fertilization from the cellular perspective. It was awarded an honorable mention in the 2012 International Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge, hosted by Science Magazine and the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  1. Performance of sugarcane somaclones under different irrigation and fertilizers doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro grown plantlets (somaclones) were regenerated through callus culture. Selected somaclone along with parent were tested under different fertilizer and irrigation levels for agronomic and qualitative traits of parent/clones. Maximum plant height, and internodes (plant-1) was observed in NIA-98 somaclone. The tillers (plant-1), weight plant-1, cane yield, sucrose and purity were greater in AEC82-1026 somaclone and maximum stem girth was obtained in BL4 somaclone from the combination of 150-80-100 NPK (kg ha-1) with 25 irrigations during the growing season. It was concluded that the application of 150-80-100 kg NPK ha-1 and 25 irrigations during the growth period of sugarcane were efficient for achieving better agronomic and qualitative traits of sugarcane somaclones. (author)

  2. Low-level nuclear waste tested for fertilizer value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry keeps coming up with proposals for getting rid of radioactive waste - burying it deep in the ground, sinking it at sea and even sending it into space reports Common Cause magazine under a headline, The Latest in Recycling. At its Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, Kerr-McGee manufactures fuel for nuclear power plants, generating a low-level radioactive liquid waste product called raphinate. After processing to remove radioactive substances, Kerr-McGee has gotten approval from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to use the nitrogen-rich residue as a fertilizer - but not to market it. As a result, Kerr-McGee is reported to be buying up thousands of acres of land on which to spread raphinate. The acreage is used to grow hay, which the company has gotten an okay to sell. The recycling effort hasn't exactly won neighborhood friends for the company, noted Common Cause. According to Kerr-McGee's corporate communications direct, When you say to somebody, Sequoyah Fuels is putting nuclear waste (on farmland), people jump up a wall

  3. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Tragaki; Christos Bagavos

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Meth...

  4. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940?1950

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Nisén; Pekka Martikainen; Karri Silventoinen; Mikko Myrskylä

    2014-01-01

    Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR) among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940?1950 (N=38,838). Education was m...

  5. Airborne Hyperspectral Images and Ground-Level Optical Sensors As Assessment Tools for Maize Nitrogen Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Quemada; Jose Luis Gabriel; Pablo Zarco-Tejada

    2014-01-01

    Estimating crop nitrogen (N) status with sensors can be useful to adjust fertilizer levels to crop requirements, reducing farmers’ costs and N losses to the environment. In this study, we evaluated the potential of hyperspectral indices obtained from field data and airborne imagery for developing N fertilizer recommendations in maize (Zea mays L.). Measurements were taken in a randomized field experiment with six N fertilizer rates ranging from zero to 200 kg?N?ha?1 and four replicati...

  6. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  7. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYADI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i whithout fertilizer as the control, (ii with manure fertilizer, and (iii with NPK fertilizer. Data was experimentally collected by planting chili in several plots treated by manure, with three replications. The field experiment was conducted in Gathak Village, Karangnongko Sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java. The data collected consist of the total population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, nitrogen content in soil and the chili yield. The primary data of research were analyzed using ANOVA test and followed by LSD test, with the degree of significance by 95% .The results showed that the manure fertilizer can increase the population of bacteria as many as 0.02% (Azotobacter and 0.46% (Azospirillum when they were compared to the control one. So that it can increase the soil fertility when they were used in long time. Therefore increasing the nutrient availability in the soil was occurred. Application of manure fertilizer could increase the total nitrogen content in the soil and it is very useful for the fertilizing of plants.

  8. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that, from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1, since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1.

  9. Calagem e adubação mineral e orgânica do cafeeiro na região de Campinas Liming and mineral and organic fertilization of coffee tree at Campinas Region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genésio da Silva Cervellini

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento com cafeeiro cultivar Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 em um latossolo roxo transição para latossolo vermelho-amarelo orto, cuja vegetação original era típica de cerrado, na região de Campinas, comparando-se os tratamentos com esterco de curral e adubação mineral NPK, complementados ou não com calcário dolomítico e com os micronutrientes zinco e boro. Aplicaram-se, por ano e por cova, 40 litros de esterco quando na ausência de NPK e 20 litros quando com NPK. A adubação mineral constou da utilização de 120 g de N, 40 g de P2O5 e 120 g de K2O por ano e por cova; quando em presença de esterco, usou-se metade dessas doses. O calcário foi aplicado na quantidade de 1 kg por ano e por cova, e zinco e boro, na quantidade de 20 g de sulfato de zinco e 20 g de bórax, também por cova e por ano. A análise das produções de café beneficiado no período de 1965 a 1970 permitiu constatar que a testemunha e o tratamento com NPK foram significativamente inferiores aos demais. Destacaram-se com as melhores produções os tratamentos que receberam esterco mais NPK, com ou sem calcário. Nas análises de solos, constatou-se aumento nas bases quando foi aplicado o esterco e, em contrapartida, aumento de acidez com o tratamento de NPK. As análises das folhas mostraram efeitos sobre teores de alumínio e manganês coerentes com os dados obtidos nas produções e análises do solo.Experiments with mineral and organic manure were carried out in a Red Latosolic Soil Transition to Orto Red Yellow Latosolic Soil at Campinas region with Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 coffee tree cultivar. The treatments with manure was compared with the treatments with mineral fertilizers of NPK with or without lime or micronutrients zinc and boron. The analyses of coffee production data showed that the treatments with mineral fertilizers and the test treatment with no fertilizer, had the lowest productions. The treatments with manure and NPK with or without lime had better production than other treatments. The soil analyses showed high levels of bases on the manure treatments and high acidity on the NPK treatments. The leaf analyses confirmed the results of the effects of the treatments on the aluminium and manganese contents.

  10. Calagem e adubação mineral e orgânica do cafeeiro na região de Campinas / Liming and mineral and organic fertilization of coffee tree at Campinas Region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Genésio da Silva, Cervellini; Toshio, Igue; Sérgio Vasco de, Toledo.

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento com cafeeiro cultivar Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 em um latossolo roxo transição para latossolo vermelho-amarelo orto, cuja vegetação original era típica de cerrado, na região de Campinas, comparando-se os tratamentos com esterco de curral e adubação mineral NPK, complementados [...] ou não com calcário dolomítico e com os micronutrientes zinco e boro. Aplicaram-se, por ano e por cova, 40 litros de esterco quando na ausência de NPK e 20 litros quando com NPK. A adubação mineral constou da utilização de 120 g de N, 40 g de P2O5 e 120 g de K2O por ano e por cova; quando em presença de esterco, usou-se metade dessas doses. O calcário foi aplicado na quantidade de 1 kg por ano e por cova, e zinco e boro, na quantidade de 20 g de sulfato de zinco e 20 g de bórax, também por cova e por ano. A análise das produções de café beneficiado no período de 1965 a 1970 permitiu constatar que a testemunha e o tratamento com NPK foram significativamente inferiores aos demais. Destacaram-se com as melhores produções os tratamentos que receberam esterco mais NPK, com ou sem calcário. Nas análises de solos, constatou-se aumento nas bases quando foi aplicado o esterco e, em contrapartida, aumento de acidez com o tratamento de NPK. As análises das folhas mostraram efeitos sobre teores de alumínio e manganês coerentes com os dados obtidos nas produções e análises do solo. Abstract in english Experiments with mineral and organic manure were carried out in a Red Latosolic Soil Transition to Orto Red Yellow Latosolic Soil at Campinas region with Mundo Novo LCP 387-17 coffee tree cultivar. The treatments with manure was compared with the treatments with mineral fertilizers of NPK with or wi [...] thout lime or micronutrients zinc and boron. The analyses of coffee production data showed that the treatments with mineral fertilizers and the test treatment with no fertilizer, had the lowest productions. The treatments with manure and NPK with or without lime had better production than other treatments. The soil analyses showed high levels of bases on the manure treatments and high acidity on the NPK treatments. The leaf analyses confirmed the results of the effects of the treatments on the aluminium and manganese contents.

  11. The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

  12. Amelioration of NPK on Metals Polluted Bare and Vegetated Sites of Trelogan Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anwer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Trelogan lead/zinc mine waste in North Wales, England with the amelioration of N, P, K. NP, NK, PK and NPK in bare and vegetated areas. In seven treated plots of bare mine area, the seedlings of three species, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris and Anthoxanthum odoratum differed significantly (p = 0.01. Similarly dry weight of four species, F. rubra, A. capillaris, A. odoratum and Cladonia sp. (a lichen in vegetated treated plots also differed significantly (p = 0.001. Fertilizers did not differed significantly in both bare and vegetated areas.

  13. ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B.Bhardwaj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T. Singh et al. (1974, Singh (1964, Bhattacharya (1986,Pathak (1999 and Khan and Raeside (1998 have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980 considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

  14. Wheat Response to Fertilizer Application Techniques and Nitrogen Levels: II. Crop Growth and Yield Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Qudrat Ullah Khan; Muhammed Safdar Baloch; Abdul Aziz Khakwani; Muhammed Ayyaz Khan; Inayat Ullah Awan; Ejaz Ahmed Khan; Ghazanfar Ullah; Kashif Wasim; Ghulam Jilani; Muhammad Mohib Ullah

    2013-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to evaluate difference among various levels of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer, its application techniques and their interaction on the growth, yield components and yield of wheat. Treatments of N fertilizer application techniques, viz., broadcast and side-dressing were allocated to main-plots and nitrogen levels, viz., 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg N/ha were placed in sub-plots. This experiment was repeated for two years with the same treatments. Results revea...

  15. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940?1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940?1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30?34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59?69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  16. Community-level education accelerates the cultural evolution of fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

    2014-03-22

    Explaining why fertility declines as populations modernize is a profound theoretical challenge. It remains unclear whether the fundamental drivers are economic or cultural in nature. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests that community-level characteristics, for example average education, can alter how low-fertility preferences are transmitted and adopted. These assumptions have not been empirically tested. Here, we show that community-level education accelerates fertility decline in a way that is neither predicted by individual characteristics, nor by the level of economic modernization in a population. In 22 high-fertility communities in Poland, fertility converged on a smaller family size as average education in the community increased-indeed community-level education had a larger impact on fertility decline than did individual education. This convergence was not driven by educational levels being more homogeneous, but by less educated women having fewer children than expected, and more highly educated social networks, when living among more highly educated neighbours. The average level of education in a community may influence the social partners women interact with, both within and beyond their immediate social environments, altering the reproductive norms they are exposed to. Given a critical mass of highly educated women, less educated neighbours may adopt their reproductive behaviour, accelerating the pace of demographic transition. Individual characteristics alone cannot capture these dynamics and studies relying solely on them may systematically underestimate the importance of cultural transmission in driving fertility declines. Our results are inconsistent with a purely individualistic, rational-actor model of fertility decline and suggest that optimization of reproduction is partly driven by cultural dynamics beyond the individual. PMID:24500166

  17. Effects of fertilization regimes on tea yields, soil fertility, and soil microbial diversity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shan-Lian, Qiu; Li-Min, Wang; Dong-Feng, Huang; Xin-Jian, Lin.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is an important agricultural practice for increasing crop yields and influencing soil properties. A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2006-2011 in southeastern China, to investigate the effects of fertilization regimes on tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) yields, soil c [...] hemical properties, and soil bacterial and fungal communities. The field experiment included six treatments: (1) unfertilized control (CON); (2) chemical fertilizers (NPK); (3) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure (1/2NPKOM); (4) organic manure fertilizers (OM); (5) half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure plus legume stover returned (1/2NPKOM+L), and (6) chemical fertilizers plus legume stover returned (NPKL). Results showed that, compared to the control, NPK treatment showed no significant effect on soil organic matter (SOM), total N (TN), total P (TP), total K (TK), available N (AN), available K (AK) and tea yields, but showed the lowest bacterial Shannon index of 1.714 and the lowest value of 2.002 for fungal Shannon index. Organic manure treatment had the richest diversity of soil bacterial community with Shannon index of 2.542, and the highest levels of soil essential nutrients, including SOM (30.03%), TN (2.90 g kg-1), TP (1.35 g kg-1), AN (245.30 mg kg-1), AP (57.00 mg kg-1), and AK (271.80 mg kg-1), followed by 1/2NPKOM+L, which appeared the maximal tea yields of 6772 kg ha-1. Organic manure amendment was a key factor in determining soil properties and productivity. Base on soil quality and tea yields, both OM and 1/2NPKOM+L treatments were recommended as better choices of fertilization practices for tea soils in southeastern China. These findings provided a better understanding of the importance of fertilizations in promoting soil fertility, crop yields, and altering soil microbial diversity, leading to selection of scientific fertilization practices for sustainable development of agroecosystems.

  18. Halophytes and Foliar Fertilization as a Useful Technique for Growing Processing Tomatoes in the Saline Affected Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Shaaban

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to grow processing tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Heinz in saline-affected soil of Suez, Egypt compared to others grown on non-saline soil. The work was dimensioned to take advantage of the high potentiality of the wild grown halophyte Zygophyllum coccinium in reducing soil salinity to a tolerable level for tomatoes to produce a satisfactory yield. To avoid salinity increase by adding macronutrient fertilizers to soil, tomato plants grown after Zygophyllum harvest were sprayed with NPK as a complementary technique to meet the plant nutritional requirements. Results showed that growing Zygophyllum sown two months before tomato transplanting could reduce 72.2% of the total soluble salts of the surface layer, lowering EC of the soil suspension by 67.3% and Mg++, Na+ and Cl-ion-concentrations by 77.3, 65 and 69.4%, respectively. As the plants received NPK as foliar fertilization, concentrations of K, Ca and Mg in stems and leaves as well as K and Ca in the fruits were increased. Macronutrients foliar feeding could also decrease concentrations of the harmful ions Na+ and Cl- in the tissues of plants grown on saline affected soil compared to those received no fertilization. Plants grown under saline affected soil conditions produced nearly one-half of the yield produced by those grown under the same soil conditions but received NPK foliar treatments or those grown under non-saline soil conditions and received no fertilization. However, the highest yield was obtained by the plants grown on non-saline soil and received NPK-foliar feeding

  19. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.

  20. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado / Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia Bacelar, Fonseca; Marcel Giovanni Costa, França; Everaldo, Zonta; Victor, Giorni.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de [...] oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK) e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes. Abstract in english Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a [...] greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK) and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.

  1. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo / Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael, Alvarez; Antônio Carlos Pimentel, Wutke; Hermano Vaz de, Arruda; Gentil, Godoy Júnior.

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de am [...] ônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo. Abstract in english The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated wi [...] th this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control); 2. NPK (control); 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

  2. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regiões canavieiras do estado de São Paulo Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: XV - results of micronutrients application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Alvarez

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de 23 experimentos em regiões canavieiras paulistas, para avaliar possíveis respostas da cana-de-açúcar a micronutrientes. Fizeram-se aplicações isoladas de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco, sulfato de manganês e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio e na presença de adubação NPK Em apenas um dos experimentos verificou-se efeito significativamente favorável à aplicação de micronutrientes, no caso, cobre e molibdênio. Com base nos resultados obtidos, corroborados por análises foliares em trabalho paralelo e conduzido à mesma época, concluiu-se que, nas condições do ensaio, deficiências de micronutrientes não constituem problema para a lavoura canavieira no Estado de São Paulo.The results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. The experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of São Paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated with this crop. Therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. The experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. The treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control; 2. NPK (control; 3. NPK + Fe; 4. NPK + B; 5. NPK + Cu; 6. NPK + Zn; 7. NPK + Mn; 8. NPK + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/N, l00kg/P2O5 and 120kg/K2O per hectare. The micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. In accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the pH and the original fertility level. In spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. The results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in São Paulo state, Thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.

  3. Response of different combinations of manure and fertilizers to the yield of rape crop

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Baliyan

    2012-01-01

    This study was an attempt to determine the effect of different combinations of manure and fertilizers on the yield of rape crop so as to improve yield by recommending the best combination of manure and fertilizers to the rape growers in Botswana. Rape crop was planted on farmers field in a complete randomized block design where nine different combinations of manure and fertilizers, namely, chicken manure (Ch); Ch and NPK (2:3:2); Ch and Fe (Iron); Ch, NPK and Fe; Ch and Urea; Ch, NPK and Urea...

  4. Influence Organic Fertilizer and Gamma Ray on the Quality and Yield of Carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Two field experiment were carried out in the experimental farm belonging at Inshas, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, during the two growing season 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 to study the effect of pre sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays and/or organic and NPK fertilizers on carrot yield and quality. The doses 20 and 30 Gy of gamma rays increased significantly one carrot weight per gm., number of carrot/line, weight of carrot ton/feddan in comparison with the control. The same trend was seen in weight of carbohydrate and nitrogen (mg/100 gm) in the two seasons. As for organic and NPK fertilizer at was found that both fertilizers increased significantly yield characters in comparison with control but the increase of NPK was more than organic fertilizer. The interaction (30 Gy × NPK fertilizer) produced the highest mean values of most characters.

  5. Response of maize to poultry manure and mineral fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of mineral fertilizer, poultry manure, and their combination on maize was evaluated in a pot experiment. Six treatments viz 0, 4, 8, 12 tons of poultry manure (PM) ha-1, 60-40-40 kg NPK ha-1 (NPK) and 2 t PM ha-1+30-20-20 Kg NPK ha-1 (2 t + 1/2 NPK) were used in a completely randomized design. Root dry matter of the 2 t+1/2 NPK was greater than that of the 4 t ha-1 and control, and similarly to that of the NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Shoot biomass showed a similar trend as the root dry matter. The NPK treatments and 12 t PM ha-1, rate had high shoot-root ratios. Although the NPK outyielded the other treatments in grain weight, it did differ significantly from that of the 2 t + 1/2 NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Thousand grain weight values did not differ statistically among treatments. The harvest index indicated a higher efficiency of dry matter partitioning into the sink in the combined treatment than in the 4 and 8 t PM ha-1, rates. For practical purposes and from economic point of view, 4 t PM ha1 may be recommended while the combined treatment is promising. Poultry manure appeared more advantageous in supplying C and N to the subsequent crop as more C and N remain in the soil after the maize harvest than mineral fertilizer. The 12 t PM ha-1 rate retained over 40% more C than the mineral fertilizer rate. Further studies, mineral fertilizer rate. Further studies, especially in field situations, are recommended (au)

  6. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The Wroc?aw version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  7. Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plantha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

  8. MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK) amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM ...

  9. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  10. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  11. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral. The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial. Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral. Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante.

  12. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife contraception, managers may need to consider the possibility that many species and populations can compensate for reduction in fecundity, and this could minimize any reduction in population growth rate.

  13. Doses de NPK em viveiro de Hevea spp. na obtenção de plantas aptas para enxertia em latossolo amarelo textura média, na Ilha do Mosqueiro - PA / Levels of NPK on nursery of Hevea spp on the development of plants ready for grafting in a sandy clay loamy yellow latosol, in Mosqueiro Island - PA, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos, Viégas; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de determinar as doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio mais adequadas para obtenção de plantas aptas para enxertia em viveiro de seringueira, instalou-se um experimento em Latossolo Amarelo textura média na Ilha do Mosqueiro-PA. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso c [...] om duas repetições obedecendo ao arranjo fatorial 33 Foram utilizadas as doses de 0-2,1-4,2 g/planta de N; 0-3,5-7,0 g/planta de P2O5; 0-1,4-2,8 g/planta de K2O e dose constante de 0,8 g/planta de MgO, empregando-se como fontes, respectivamente, sulfato de amônio, superfosfato triplo, cloreto de potássio e sulfato de magnésio. Os resultados foram obtidos duzentos e vinte dias após a instalação do experimento, sendo realizadas as seguintes avaliações: análises químicas do solo e folhas, altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e plantas aptas para a enxertia. Pelos resultados obtidos chega-se à conclusão que as doses mais adequadas foram 330 kg/ha (4,6 g/p) de N, 340 kg/ha (4,8 g/p) de P2O5 e 190 kg/ha (2,7 g/p) de K2O, aliadas a dose constante de 60 kg/ha (0,8 g/p) de MgO, propiciando um índice de aproveitamento de oitenta e sete porcento de plantas aptas para enxertia. Abstract in english With the purpose of determining the most adequate levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for the production of plants ready for grafting in nursery, a trial was carried out in a sandy clay loamy yellow Latosol in Mosqueiro Island-PA, Brazil. It was used a randomized block design with two repli [...] cations following a factorial design of 33. The levels applied were of 0-2.1-4.2 g/plant of N; 0-3-5-7-0 g/plant of P2O5; 0-1.4-2.8 g/plant of K2O and a permanent level of 0.8 g/plant of MgO, the sources applied were, respectively, ammonium sulfate, triple superphosphate, potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate. The results were abtained two-hundred and twenty days after the beginning of the trial, the following evaluations were made: chemical analysis of soil and leaves, plants height, stem diameter, dry matter weight of aerial parts and plant ready for grafting. Based on the overall results od the study it was concluded that the adequate levels were 330 kg/ha (4.6 g/plant) of N; 340 kg/ha (4.8 g/plant) of P2O5 and 190 kg/ha (2.7 g/plant) of K(2)0, together with the permanent level of 60 kg/ha (0.8 g/plant) of MgO, producing a rate of profit of eighty-seven percent of plant ready for grafting.

  14. The Influence of Varieties and Planting Systems on the Peach Tree Growth, Productivity and NPK Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. MADJAR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the effect of two organo-mineral fertilizers: root fertilizer C011 and foliar fertilizer 411 bio-ionic liquids, on some vegetative and productive features of five new peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] varieties introduced in Romania: ‘Earlirich’, ‘Royal Estate’, ‘Rubirich’, ‘October Star’ and ‘Late Luka’, grafted on GF 677 rootstock. The experimental plot located on a reddish preluvosol, have been established in 2008 with four planting systems: Tatura trellis, V planting system, Sibari Y and Vertical axe with different nutrition area/tree. Fertilization was applied on the beggining of June and August, 2010 and 2011 on the soil, locally on the tree rows (C011 and by foliar spraying (411. Trees vegetative growth was compared at the end of the vegetation period by number of fruit buds per unit trunk surface section (CM/TSS with significant differences between types of crowns and the biggest values for ‘Rubirich’; the total shoots length with significant differences between varieties. The influence of fertilization on trees productivity was apreciated by analyzing the yield and some typical productivy indexes. The studied parameters including the NPK uptake, have been significantly influenced by the variety 3.39% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2010 and 2.75% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2011 in Tatura trellis planting system.

  15. Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadam, Mina Zarghami; Shoor, Mahmud

    2013-01-01

    The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida). The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose) recorded the highest plant height, number o...

  16. External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertilizers containing phosphate have been used worldwide in increasing quantities in order to replenish natural nutrients, which are being continuously depleted from the soil by virtue of farming activities. Phosphate rocks together with potassium ores and nitrogenous compounds are the main raw materials used for industrial fertilizer production. Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphogypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in soil samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were estimated. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and external dose rate due to natural gamma background at various locations around the plant were also measured. (author)

  17. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  18. [Proteomics of rice leaf and grain at late growth stage under different nitrogen fertilization levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shu-ju; Zhao, Min; Xiang, Xiao-liang; Wei, Dao-zhi

    2010-10-01

    Taking super-rice Liangyoupeijiu as test material, and by the method of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), this paper studied the changes in the leaf and grain proteomics of the variety at its late growth stage under different levels of nitrogen fertilization (1/2 times of normal nitrogen level, 20 mg x L(-1); normal nitrogen level, 40 mg x L(-1); 2 times of normal nitrogen level, 80 mg x L(-1)), with the biological functions of 16 leaf proteins, 9 inferior grain proteins, and 4 superior grain proteins identified and analyzed. Nitrogen fertilization could affect and regulate the plant photosynthesis via affecting the activation of photosynthesis-related enzymes and of CO2, the light system unit, and the constitution of electron transfer chain at the late growth stage of the variety. It could also promote the expression of the enzymes related to the energy synthesis and growth in inferior grains. High nitrogen fertilization level was not beneficial to the synthesis of starch in superior grain, but sufficient nitrogen supply was still important for the substance accumulation and metabolism. Therefore, rational nitrogen fertilization could increase the photosynthesis rate of flag leaves, enhance the source function, delay the functional early ageing, and promote the grain-filling at late growth stage. PMID:21328945

  19. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers / Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Donizetti Tomaz, Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira, Novais; Víctor Hugo, Alvarez V.; José Maria Moreira, Dias; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque, Villani.

    1609-16-01

    Full Text Available A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânico [...] s e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial). Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral). Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante. Abstract in english Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fe [...] rtilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral). The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.

  20. [Effects of fertilization level on diurnal variation of gas exchange of young Eucalyptus grandis leaf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-ping; Wang, Jing-yan; Wang, Dong; Hu, Ting-xing; Chen, Hong-zhi; Gong, Wei

    2010-11-01

    Different levels (0, 90, 180, and 270 g per tree) of compound fertilizer containing 15% N, 15% P2O5, and 15% K2O were applied to young Eucalyptus grandis to study the diurnal variations of its leaf stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), and vapor pressure deficit on leaf surface (Vpdl) as well as the variation of leaf chlorophyll content, aimed to approach the relationships of E. grandis photosynthesis with fertilization and environmental factors. In all treatments, the diurnal variation of Pn presented a single-peak curve, with the peak at 14:00 and not showing midday depression. The Gs, Tr, and Vpdl showed the similar trend with Pn, while the Ci had a minimum value at 14:00. The WUE demonstrated a double-peak curve, with the first and second peak occurred at 10:00 and 14:00, respectively. Comparing with the control, the mean values of Gs, Pn, Tr, WUE, and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents under fertilization increased by 4.6%-15.9%, 7.8%-21.8%, 4.8%-11.6%, 3.2%-8.8%, 15.5%-62.0%, 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the increment increased with fertilization level. By contrast, the mean values of Ci and VPdl decreased by 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the decrement increased with fertilization level. The Gs, Pn, and Tr were significantly correlated with air temperature, relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and also, the Gs was significantly correlated with Pn and Tr. It was suggested that fertilization could promote E. grandis growth and enhance its WUE and biological carbon sequestration, and air temperature, RH, PAR, and Gs were the main factors causing the diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration of E. grandis. PMID:21360993

  1. Pineapples cultivated by conventional and organic methods in a soil from banana plantation. A comparative study of soil fertility, plant nutrition and yields

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, C.E.; Carracedo Torres, A. E.; IGLESIAS, E.; Martínez, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study on conventional and organically grown pineapples cultivated in a soil from a banana plantation has been carried out in the Canary Islands. Garden waste compost was used as fertilizer in the organic treatment and current NPK fertilization in the conventional one. Soil pH, and available Ca and Mg were higher with the compost. "D" leaf N. K. Ca and Mg levels of plants from the conventional treatment exceeded those from the organic one. but only N seemed to influence ...

  2. Income, Mortality and Fertility in Latin America: Country Level Performance, 1960-1990 Income, Mortality and Fertility in Latin America: Country Level Performance, 1960-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Londoño

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available That higher levels of national income per capita are associated with better health conditions and lower fertility is more than evident; recent analyses provide quantification of the magnitude of the effects and adduce strong evidence for its causal nature (at least for health. This paper extends prel'ious analyses by assessing regional and temporal differences in the income - health/fertility relationship (differences are pronounced and by using deviations from this estimated relationship it constructs measures of performance at five year intervals from 1960 to 1990 for 19 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Performance for each country on under-5 mortality and total fertility rates. relative to other Latill American countries and controlling for income levels. Changes in performance, from one five-year period to the next, are highlighted in order to pose questions about the response of performance to changes in policy. Some results are expected (e.g. the relatively good performance of Colombia and Costa Rica for much of the period; other results are surprising (e.g. the sharp deterioration in performance of Argentina and Chile in the late 1980s. Health expenditures are then used to predict performance levels in 1990; for under-5 mortality rates, public sector expenditures on health are found to have a significant beneficial effect. The magnitude of the estimated effect is substantial: Over 10,000 child deaths in 1990 would have been averted in Latin America if public sector expenditures on health increased from 3.5% to 4.0% of CDP while holding total expenditures constant. That higher levels of national income per capita are associated with better health conditions and lower fertility is more than evident; recent analyses provide quantification of the magnitude of the effects and adduce strong evidence for its causal nature (at least for health. This paper extends prel'ious analyses by assessing regional and temporal differences in the income - health/fertility relationship (differences are pronounced and by using deviations from this estimated relationship it constructs measures of performance at five year intervals from 1960 to 1990 for 19 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Performance for each country on under-5 mortality and total fertility rates. relative to other Latill American countries and controlling for income levels. Changes in performance, from one five-year period to the next, are highlighted in order to pose questions about the response of performance to changes in policy. Some results are expected (e.g. the relatively good performance of Colombia and Costa Rica for much of the period; other results are surprising (e.g. the sharp deterioration in performance of Argentina and Chile in the late 1980s. Health expenditures are then used to predict performance levels in 1990; for under-5 mortality rates, public sector expenditures on health are found to have a significant beneficial effect. The magnitude of the estimated effect is substantial: Over 10,000 child deaths in 1990 would have been averted in Latin America if public sector expenditures on health increased from 3.5% to 4.0% of CDP while holding total expenditures constant.

  3. Nitrogen and Crude Proteins in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva under Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa CVETKOVIc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the influence of different organic and mineral fertilization treatments and post-harvest treatments on the content of nitrogen and crude proteins in the edible part of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva. A field trial (2003-2005 was set up in a hilly part of Croatia according to the Latin square method with four types of fertilization (control, 50 t ha-1 stable manure, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30, while treatments involved harvested fresh beetroot and stored fresh beetroot. The highest dry weight (DW content was determined in climatologically favourable 2004 (average 14.8% DW and in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (15.6% DW in harvested beetroot. In 2004 and 2005, the highest levels of nitrogen and crude proteins in harvested beetroot were determined in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (2.41 and 2.43 g N kg-1 in fresh weight and 15.07 and 15.21 g crude proteins kg-1 in fresh weight, respectively. Regardless of fertilization treatment or studied year, nitrogen and crude protein contents were higher in stored than in harvested beetroot, by 12% on average. The lowest crude protein content was determined in treatment with stable manure what confirmed that protein content decreased by organic fertilization. It can be concluded that beetroot lost some water during the storage period, which increased its content of nitrogen and crude proteins in fresh weight and thus increased the nutritional quality of beetroot as a functional food.

  4. EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaad DERBALA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

  5. ONION YIELD AS AFFECTED BY FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH AMINO AND HUMIC ACIDS UNDER NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed A. Kandil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nutrient foliar spraying such as amino and humic acids under nitrogen fertilizer levels on growth, yield and keeping quality of onion bulbs cv. Giza 20. Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The obtained results showed that foliar spraying with humic acid resulted in highest growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as TSS %, dry matter and total weight loss percentages at storage period  compared with the control treatment. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels up to 214.2 kg N/ha significantly increased growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as total weight loss percentages at storage period. In addition, fertilization with 71.4 kg N/ha significantly increased TSS and dry matter percentages. It could be recommended that spraying with humic acid and adding 214.2 kg N/ha maximize onion bulb yield under the environmental conditions of Gharbeia Governorate. The interaction between nutrients spraying and nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly affected foliage fresh weight, total weight loss % after 1, 2, 3 and 5 months.

  6. The historical fertility transition at the micro level: Southern Sweden 1815-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Bengtsson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We know a great deal about the historical fertility transition at the macro level. The dominating focus on the macro level in previous research on the fertility transition means, however, that to a large extent we lack knowledge about details of the decline and empirical tests of the leading explanatory frameworks. Objective: Our aim is to explore socioeconomic fertility differentials in an industrializing community, to gain insight about the details and discuss possible mechanisms. The study starts well before industrialization and finishes at the end of the transition. Methods: We use longitudinal individual-level data from the Scanian Economic-Demographic Database, which contains demographic as well as socioeconomic information, including occupation, landholding, and income. In the analysis we use hazard regressions with shared frailty at the family level. Results: The transition involved not only parity-specific stopping but also spacing. While the upper social strata had higher fertility prior to the transition, they started to control their fertility earlier, by the 1880s, and also more consistently. Farmers, the middle class, and skilled workers followed in the decades after, and unskilled workers with some additional delay. Conclusions: These findings are partly inconsistent with several of the major explanations in the literature, such as mortality decline, increased female labor force participation, and a quantity-quality trade-off, but consistent with an innovation process where new ideas and attitudes about family limitation spread from the elite to other social groups. Comments: Further studies are required to empirically test the innovation-diffusion theory.

  7. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, 226Ra and 232Th series, their decay products and 40K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2–106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6–9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21–607.3±14 Bq kg?1, respectively. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Raeq in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43 Bq kg?1 and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19 Bq kg?1, which are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg?1 adopted from . The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those the limits of those used worldwide. - Highlights: ? Mmeasured activity levels of natural radionuclides in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Saudi Arabia. ? Determined heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents. ? Activity of natural radionuclides in chemical fertilizer higher than in organic fertilizer. ? RAeq in chemical and organic fertilizers ranged between 34.07 and 161.43 Bq kg?1.

  8. Gas exchange in massai grass under five nitrogen fertilization levels during establishment and regrowth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Neves, Lopes; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Magno José Duarte, Cândido; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco, Pompeu; Rodrigo Gregório da, Silva; José Wellington Batista, Lopes; Francisco Ronaldo Belém, Fernandes; Francisco Marcus Lima, Bezerra.

    1862-18-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gas exchange in the massai grass during establishment and regrowth cycles in a greenhouse, using five nitrogen (N) fertilization levels. A completely randomized split-plot design of five nitrogen levels (0; 150; 300; 450 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil) was empl [...] oyed with the N levels as plots, and the cycles (establishment, regrowth 1 and 2) as subplots, evaluated with five replicates. We evaluated leaf transpiration (E), leaf temperature (TFOL), leaf photosynthesis rate (A), leaf carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis/transpiration ratio (A/E), photosynthesis/conductance ratio (A/gs), chlorophyll relative index (CRI), and nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI). Growth cycles influenced all physiological characteristics, except for NSI. N fertilization levels affected TFOL, A, CRI and NSI variables, whereas for gs, E, Ci, A/E and A/gs it did not occur. A increased from 6.38 to 10.33 µmol•m-2.s-1, at levels 0 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil, respectively. Gas exchange in the massai grass was favored by nitrogen fertilization, since the cycles amended these characteristics of the grass.

  9. Irrigation timing and fertilizer rate in peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive rain fall might leach nutrients from the soil or cause producers to not supply irrigation to pepper (Capsicum sp.). Fertilizer at 150 or 300 lb/acre of triple 17 NPK, the lower rate is the recommended rate, was supplied to either bell, cv. Jupiter, or non-pungent jalapeno, cv. Pace 105, pe...

  10. Soil pollution state as affected by different soil fertility regulation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of 14 chemical elements was measured in the soil of ten long-term field trials located in different climatic zones of Lithuania. Soil samples were taken from the control (untreated) and anthropogenic (fertilized with mineral NPK and/or organic fertilizers, limed) treatment plots. The samples were analyzed by the AAS method and directly analyzed with X-rays upon fine grinding (for Sr). In the western zone of Lithuania the anthropogenic impact (liming with fertilizing) resulted in statistically significant increase in the content of 4 elements (B, Ni, Sr, Zn). In the eastern zone 3 elements (Cu, Co, Sr) showed significant differences. Soil contamination index was exceeded significantly (up to 2 versus the background levels) only for Sr (2.14 times) in the western zone

  11. Evaluation of Proper Fertilizer Application for Higher Cotton Production in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Soomro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were laid out to assess the yield performance of cotton for four successive years i.e. 1997 to 2000 crop seasons by the application of NPK fertilizers each having three levels (50, 100 and 150. On an average, highest seedcotton yield of 2413 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was fertilized with 150, 50 and 50 kg ha-1f N, P and K respectively. The lowest yield of 1039 kg ha-1 was produced from the control plot where no chemical fertilization was applied. The seedcotton yield was further significantly increased with the application of boron and zinc when applied alone or in combination. The results revealed that balance use of macro as well as micro nutrient elements are essential for harvesting better yields.

  12. Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of 137Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears to be an effective countermeasure (at least in the type of forest used in this study). The reduction of the 137Cs levels in plants and fungi persisted for quite a long period of time

  13. An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

  14. Effect of fertilizer and inoculation on the growth and yield of soybean cv.williams-82 in pot culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot culture experiment in response to different levels of added N fertilizer on soybean cv.Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of Quetta. Fertilizer treatments were applied at the rate zero (control); 23; 25; 50; 75; 100 and 125 kg N/ha plus a constant dose of 60 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha and 30 kg K/sub 2/O/ha in all treatments (except control). These seven fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated pot culture crop. Results showed that nodules were found to be absent in both set of experiments which could be indirectly attributed to either sufficient level of soil NO/sub 3/ (5.10 mm) or deficient level of total Fe (8.25 ppm) and Cu (below detection limit) or might be directly due to any other edaphic or climatic factor(s). Results also showed that in general petiole length, middle leaflet area,' plant height, yield, 100 seed weight (except inoculated fertilized), total number of pods/plant (except non-inoculated fertilized) and pod both set of experiment are significantly different (P > 0.05) as compared with their respective control treatment. While remaining yield attributes viz., one-seeded, two-seeded and three-seeded pods are found as non-significantly different in response to both fertilizer and inoculum treatments. Results further revealed that pots receiving N fertilizer without inoculum mathematically out-yielded (1718 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 100+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-yielded (1912 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 125+60+30 kg NPK/ha. It was also revealed that all growth parameters and most of the yield attributes exhibited significant positive correlation with yield. However, number of seedless and one-seeded pods also exhibited significant but negative association with yield. (author)

  15. Airborne Hyperspectral Images and Ground-Level Optical Sensors As Assessment Tools for Maize Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Quemada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating crop nitrogen (N status with sensors can be useful to adjust fertilizer levels to crop requirements, reducing farmers’ costs and N losses to the environment. In this study, we evaluated the potential of hyperspectral indices obtained from field data and airborne imagery for developing N fertilizer recommendations in maize (Zea mays L.. Measurements were taken in a randomized field experiment with six N fertilizer rates ranging from zero to 200 kg?N?ha?1 and four replications on two different dates (before the second fertilizer application and at flowering in 2012. Readings at ground level were taken with SPAD®, Dualex® and Multiplex® sensors, and airborne data were acquired by flying a hyperspectral and a thermal sensor 300 m over the experimental site. The hyperspectral imagery was used to calculate greenness, chlorophyll and photochemical indices for each plot. The Pearson coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between sensor readings and agronomic measurements. A statistical procedure based on the N-sufficient index was used to determine the accuracy of each index at distinguishing between N-deficient and N-sufficient plots. Indices based on airborne measurements were found to be as reliable as measurements taken with ground-level equipment at assessing crop N status and predicting yield at flowering. At stem elongation, the reflectance ratio, R750/R710, and fluorescence retrieval (SIF760 were the only indices that yielded significant results when compared to crop yield. Field-level SPAD readings, the airborne R750/R710 index and SIF760 had the lowest error rates when distinguishing N-sufficient from N-deficient treatments, but error reduction is still recommended before commercial field application.

  16. Response Of Sesame To Gamma Irradiation And Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels On Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted in an Extension field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate during 2009 and 2010 seasons to investigate the influence of four gamma-irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) and five N fertilizer levels (zero, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Kg N/fad.), on yield and it's attributes of sesame cultivar Giza 32. Gamma irradiation doses were arranged randomly in the main plots, while the five N fertilizer levels were assigned to the sub-plots. Decreasing gamma irradiation doses from 30 to 20 and 10 Gy, consistently and significantly increased plant height (cm), height to the first fruiting branch (cm), fruiting zone length (cm), number of branches and capsules/plant, 1000-seeds weight (g), seed weight(g /capsule), seed weight(g /plant), seed yield (kg/fad.) seed oil content (%) as well as oil yield (kg/fad.). Increasing N fertilizer level up 100 Kg/fad., significantly increased plant height (cm), height to the first fruiting branch (cm) fruiting zone length (cm), number of branches and capsules/plant. 1000-seeds weight (g), seed weight (g/capsule), seed weight/ plant (g), seed yield (kg/fad.) and oil yield (kg/fad.)

  17. Effects of Long Term Application of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Soil Organic Carbon and Physical Properties in Maize–Wheat Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babbu Singh Brar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Balanced and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers may enhance the accumulation of soil organic matter and improves soil physical properties. A field experiment having randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted for 36 years at Punjab Agricultural University (PAU, Ludhiana, India to assess the effects of inorganic fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM on soil organic carbon (SOC, soil physical properties and crop yields in a maize (Zea mays–wheat (Triticum aestivum rotation. Soil fertility management treatments included were non-treated control, 100% N, 50% NPK, 100% NP, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + Zn, 100% NPK + W, 100% NPK (-S and 100% NPK + FYM. Soil pH, bulk density (BD, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity, aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD and infiltration were measured 36 years after the initiation of experiment. Cumulative infiltration, infiltration rate and aggregate MWD were greater with integrated use of FYM along with 100% NPK compared to non-treated control. No significant differences were obtained among fertilizer treatments for BD and EC. The SOC pool was the lowest in control at 7.3 Mg ha?1 and increased to 11.6 Mg ha?1 with 100%NPK+FYM. Improved soil physical conditions and increase in SOC resulted in higher maize and wheat yields. Infiltration rate, aggregate MWD and crop yields were positively correlated with SOC. Continuous cropping and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased soil C sequestration and crop yields. Balanced application of NPK fertilizers with FYM was best option for higher crop yields in maize–wheat rotation.

  18. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saime, Guzel; Meltem, Tanriverdi.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels o [...] f leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  19. Evaluation of some lupin mutants under different irrigation intervals and nitrogen fertilizer levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was carried out during the two seasons of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 at the experimental farm belonging to the plant research department, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority in Inshas to evaluate four lupin mutant lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4) along with their original mother varieties giza 1 and giza 2 under different levels and nitrogen fertilizer levels. The results indicated that seed yield/ plant and its effective components number and weight of pods/plant were significantly higher in all the mutant lines as compared to their parents either in the first or second seasons. Concerning the effect of irrigation intervals on yield and its components for developed mutants and their mother varieties as well as the results gave an evidence that the wider interval showed the lesser values for yield and most of yield components. Obtained data also revealed that yield attributes of lupin mutants and their parents were affected by applying nitrogen fertilizer. However, the application of 20 or 40 kg N/fad. Mostly increased yield and yield components of the different genotypes for both growing seasons. The third interaction of genotypes x irrigation x N fertilizer was significant for all studied characters in the two growing seasons

  20. BIOMASS AND WOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Sclerolobium paniculatum IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri da Rocha Marmo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work studied the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics ofSclerolobium paniculatum Vogel var. subvelutinum wood of a plantation of 18 years old, under different levels of soil fertilization. Theinfluences of fertilization in the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics showed no significantresults. The results showed an average production of biomass per hectare of 92.55t. The results disclose that the cultivated carvoeiro,with 18 years old, have fibers with 14.03mm of diameter; 3.41mm of thickness and 708mm length; basic specific gravity of 0.52g/cm3;83.84% of volatile material; 15.65% of fixed carbon; calorific power of 4,671kcal/kg.

  1. Effect of levels P and K fertilizer on growth and yield of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkum, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of P and K levels on growth and yield of oil palm were studied at the Agricultural and Technology College Plantation in Trang province in October, 1993 using eight-year-old palms planted on the Natham soil series (fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults at the spacing of 8.5 x 8.5 x 8.5 m. A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The four treatments consisted of the combinations of two fertilizers: P (2 levels; 0.4, 0.8 kg P2O5/palm/year and K (2 levels; 1.2, 2.4 kg K2O/palm/year. All treatments were applied the same rate of N (0.8 kg N/palm/year. The growth and oil palm yield were recorded for 4 years. The results showed clear effects of high P and K levels on growth of oil palm. Although the number of fronds did not differ, leaf area, leaf dry matter weight and leaflets of 17th frond tended to increase. The high K level tended also to give an increased FFB yield in years 2, 3 and 4. However, the effect of P levels on FFB yield of oil palm varied over the years. Considering a suitable rate of fertilizer application in terms of economic return, the low fertilizer rate (P 0.4 kg P2O5/palm/ year, K 1.2 kg K2O/palm/year and N 0.8 kg N/palm/year gave the highest profit, although it resulted in the lowest FFB yield.

  2. Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafeel Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two varieties of canola (Brassica napus L. Rainbow and Con I were treated with different levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 90 and 120 N kg ha -1 as urea before sowing and with split application of these levels before sowing and at the time of flower initiation. The data for plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of root as well as shoot and number of flowers each for per plant showed an increasing trend as negating the difference of time of fertilizer application their application.

  3. County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Commercial Fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987-2006

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer, for both farm and nonfarm uses, for the conterminous United States, for...

  4. Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

  5. Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis study focuses on the fertility levels and trends of Iranian women aged10-49 years during three decades, 1967-1996. Information was collected by interviewing a systematiccluster sample of 13,253 households. The basic date of concern was the date of each live born childfor a sample of women in reproductive age and whether the live born was alive at the time of thestudy. The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to becalculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates werefound for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels areprobably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately afterthe 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 haddropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96. This declinewas probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularlysince 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a babyboom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the comingdecades.FrenchCette étude porte sur les niveaux et les tendances de fertilité chez les Iraniennes âgées de 10 à 49 ans sur une période de trente ans, soit de 1967-1996. L'information a été recueillie en interviewant un échantillon en grappes systématique de 13 253 ménages. La principale date qui nous intéresse est la date de naissance de chaque enfant vivant pour un échantillon de femmes en âge de procréer et le fait que l'enfant soit toujours en vie au moment de l'étude. La nature détaillée des données recueillies pour chaque naissance a permis d'établir les taux de fertilité pour les périodes précises avant le sondage pour les années civiles précises. Les taux de fertilité étaient supérieurs pour les périodes de 10 à 15 ans et de 15 à 20 ans avant le sondage. Ces taux élevés sont sans doute attribuables à des changements socio-économiques favorisant une plus grande fertilité immédiatement après la révolution de 1979. Cependant, les résultats de ce sondage indiquent qu'entre 1967 et 1996, l'ISF est passé de 6,38 à 2.88 (ISF avait été établi à partir du comportement procréateur des années 1992-96. Cette chute avait probablement été causée par le fait que les femmes se mariaient plus tard et à des changements dans la politique favorisant la régulation des populations, surtout depuis 1987. Malgré ce déclin éventuel de la fertilité des dernières années, l'Iran s'attend, au cours des prochaines décennies, à une explosion démographique une fois que les enfants nés entre 1976 et 86 auront atteints l'âge de procréer.

  6. 12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) ?mol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) ?mol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

  7. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, A., E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit 71452 (Egypt); Althoyaib, S.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-01-15

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th series, their decay products and {sup 40}K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring {gamma}-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5{+-}5.2-106.3{+-}7.5, 5.1{+-}1.6-9.9{+-}3.2. and 462.6{+-}21-607.3{+-}14 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra{sub eq} in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43 Bq kg{sup -1} and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19 Bq kg{sup -1}, which are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1} adopted from . The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mmeasured activity levels of natural radionuclides in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Saudi Arabia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activity of natural radionuclides in chemical fertilizer higher than in organic fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA{sub eq} in chemical and organic fertilizers ranged between 34.07 and 161.43 Bq kg{sup -1}.

  8. Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida. The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose recorded the highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes such as number of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plot, flower yield/plant, flower yield/plot. The early flower bud initiation, 50 percent flowering and more flowering duration was achieved in the treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose. Application of Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose registered significantly higher quality parameters such as flower diameter.

  9. MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE

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    Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM + NPK amendments showed lower accumulation of heavy metals and higher yield. Plants grown in NPK and N amended soil showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and lower yield compared to the control. Higher uptake of heavy metals in plants under NPK and N amendments, led to increase in the antioxidants enzymes, but reductions in photosynthesis rate, growth and yield. The results suggest that the application of FYM alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers may be recommended as cost effective technique for reducing the availability of heavy metals in waste water irrigated soil.

  10. Adubação mineral e orgânica e a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae em cebola Mineral and organic fertilization and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adubação mineral e orgânica sobre a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola, Allium cepa L., foi avaliado na Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina, entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram níveis de adubação mineral com N, P2O5 e K2O em dose recomendada e três vezes a recomendada, adubação orgânica e a testemunha foi a ausência de adubação. Os tratamentos foram as seguintes doses de nutrientes: 1 30 + 120 + 60kg ha-1 de NPK; 2 90 + 360 + 180kg ha-1 de NPK; 3 75kg ha-1 de N; 4 225kg ha-1 de N; 5 80kg ha-1 de P2O5; 6 240kg ha-1 de P2O5; 7 60kg ha-1 de K2O; 8 180kg ha-1 de K2O; 9 75kg ha-1 de N + 80kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 10 225kg ha-1 de N + 240kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 11 37,5kg ha-1 de N + 40kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; testemunha sem adubação. Nenhuma das fontes e níveis de adubação apresentaram nível populacional de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo.The effect of the mineral and organic fertilization on onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind., population density was evaluated at Ituporanga Experiment Station, EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between August and December 1998. The treatments were different levels of mineral fertilization with N, P2O5 and K2O at recommended rate and three times recommended rate, the organic fertilization and without fertilization was check. The treatments in nutrient rate were: 30 + 120 + 60kg NPK ha-1; 90 + 360 + 180kg NPK ha-1; 75kg N ha-1; 225kg N ha-1; 80kg P2O5 ha-1; 240kg P2O5 ha-1; 60kg K2O ha-1; 180kg K2O ha-1; 75kg N ha-1 + 80kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 225kg N + 240kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 37,5kg N + 40kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; check without fertilizer. The onion thrips population density was similar among treatments with fertilizer and the check without fertilization. The mineral fertilization didn’t increase significantly onion thrips incidence.

  11. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. PMID:21906958

  12. Influence of education levels on dissemination of soil fertility management information in the central highlands of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Njiru; Jayne Njeri Mugwe; Franklin Somoni Mairura; Monicah Mucheru-Muna; Serah Wairimu Kimaru-Muchai

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate links between researchers and farmers has resulted in low uptake of research advances recommended to improve food security in the central highlands of Kenya. Access to timely and accurate information by extension agents and farmers is paramount in dissemination of soil fertility management practices. Hence, the study sought to investigate the effect of education levels on communication channels used to disseminate soil fertility technologies in the Central highlands of Kenya. Quest...

  13. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level of two newly developed farms in Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of soil and plants were carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels of two newly developed farms in western desert area, Egypt. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy in which a shielded high purity germanium detector has been used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide contents in some commercial fertilizers have been determined. The results of analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/Kg for 238U, 0.73 -162.16 Bq/Kg for 232Th and 10.22- 23845.24 Bq/Kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low activity concentrations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/Kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/Kg) were quite similar, while that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/Kg) was the highest for plant samples. Some of the results obtained were higher than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values for the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration were found to be 1.91-1027 n Gy/h and 4.02-1840.98 Bq/Kg, respectively, for fertilizers samples. For soil and plant samples, the results were 11.86-415.29 n Gy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/Kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively, and the banana plant contained the largest values. The present study presents actual data from investigations of the plant-soil transfer of the primordial radio nuclides for some fruits growing at these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflected its great uptake to the fruits. The observed plant-soil factors were varied widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not endanger the health safety of the produced food

  14. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones.

  15. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-09-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. PMID:23726145

  16. Efficiency of soil and fertilizer nitrogen in relation to rice variety and application time, using 15N labelled fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the investigation of efficient use of fertilizer nitrogen NPK simple trials were carried out using newly bred Tongil line(japonica indica hybrid selection) and the leading local varieties with sulfur coated urea in fields for two years. The yield of Tongil line was higher than that of leading local varieties by 16% in the cool year and 23% in warm year with high solar radiation from NPK simple trials including SCU and 2-split application which were carried in 130 fields at 32 locations. Warm year increased yield by 9% in Tongil but only 3% in the local than the cool year did. Optimum nitrogen level was higher in Tongil by 3.8kg in the cool year and 5.5kg in warm year than for the local. Yearly variation of optimum nitrogen in the same variety was greater than varietal variation in the same year. Two-split application resulted in 1 to 2% of inconsistent yield variation. Sulfur coated urea increased yield by average 2 to 4% even at 20% reduced rate of nitrogen. It was remarkablly effective in saline (27-39%), virgin (20%) and unmatured (10%)soils. (Author)

  17. Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

  18. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintained—the periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also, states with higher nonfarm-to-total fertilizer ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus tended to have higher urban land-use percentages.

  19. Influence of education levels on dissemination of soil fertility management information in the central highlands of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Njiru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate links between researchers and farmers has resulted in low uptake of research advances recommended to improve food security in the central highlands of Kenya. Access to timely and accurate information by extension agents and farmers is paramount in dissemination of soil fertility management practices. Hence, the study sought to investigate the effect of education levels on communication channels used to disseminate soil fertility technologies in the Central highlands of Kenya. Questionnaires were used to elicit information from 105 extension agents and 240 farmers. About 50.5% of the extension officers were certificate holders while 29.5% were diploma holders from agricultural institutes. Majority of the farmers had attained primary education (59.6% while 25.8% and 9.2% had attained secondary and post secondary education, respectively. Research institutions were the most accessible sources of information on soil fertility management practices by extension agents while internet and scientific conferences were the least scored as accessible sources of soil fertility management information by extension agents. Education levels significantly influenced preference of individual approach methods by farmers. There was a significant positive relationship between education and accessibility of internet as a source of information on green manure. The implication of the study was that education levels influenced the mode of communication used in the transfer of soil fertility research outputs to the end users. Consequently, it is extremely important to consider education levels in selection of dissemination pathways used in agriculture.

  20. Influence of Both Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Productivity of Barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influences of gamma irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) as well as nitrogen fertilizer levels (zero, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/fad) on growth, yield and yield components of barley cultivar Giza 123 were studied during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. The study was conducted in an extension field at Belbees District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Irradiation with the lowest gamma does gave the highest value for each of emergence/m2, plant height at heading (cm), flag leaf area at heading (cm2), spike length (cm), number of grains/spike and weight of grains/spike. Nitrogen application significantly increased emergence/m2, plant height, flag leaf area (cm2), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2 as well as grain, straw and biological yields (kg/fad). Accepted September 2013.

  1. Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

  2. Influência de lâminas de água e adubação mineral na nutrição e produtividade de arroz de terras altas Influence of water levels and mineral fertilization on nutrition and yield of upland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. C. Crusciol

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Para recomendações de adubação mais racionais, é fundamental o conhecimento das exigências nutricionais da cultura do arroz, nos diversos sistemas de cultivo. Objetivando estudar a influência de lâminas de água na nutrição e exportação de nutrientes pelo arroz de terras altas, cultivar IAC 201, sob dois níveis de adubação, foram instalados experimentos em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em Selvíria (MS, nos anos agrícolas de 1994/95 e 1995/96. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da precipitação natural e de quatro lâminas de água fornecidas por aspersão. A lâmina L2 foi baseada no coeficiente de cultura (Kc do arroz de terras altas. As lâminas L1 e L3 foram definidas como 0,5 e 1,5 vez os Kcs utilizados em L2, respectivamente, e na lâmina L4 foi adotado Kc = 1,95 durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Em 1995/96, foram utilizados os mesmos tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as subparcelas constituídas por duas doses de adubação (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 de N, 90 de P2O5 e 30 de K2O, e AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 de N, 180 de P2O5 e 60 de K2O. A menor disponibilidade de água durante a fase vegetativa e reprodutiva proporcionou redução na produção de matéria seca, nos teores e quantidades de nutrientes acumuladas na parte aérea. O sistema irrigado por aspersão, independentemente da lâmina utilizada, proporcionou maior produtividade de grãos e exportação de nutrientes. Em solos com teores adequados de nutrientes para o sistema de sequeiro, não há resposta ao aumento da adubação mineral pelo arroz no sistema irrigado por aspersão, apesar da maior extração de nutrientes.In order to achieve more sound fertilizer recommendations, knowledge about nutritional requirements of rice in different growing systems is fundamental. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of water levels on nutrition and nutrient exportation by upland rice (cultivar IAC 201 under two levels of mineral fertilizer. Experiments were conducted in the growing seasons of 1994/95 and 1995/96 on a Typic Haplustox, in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments were five water levels: natural rain and four water levels provided by sprinkler irrigation. Water level 2 (L2 was based on the crop coefficient (Kc for upland rice. L1 and L3 were then defined as 0.5 and 1.5 times the Kcs used in L2, respectively. For water level 4 (L4, Kc = 1.95 was used during the entire plant cycle. The same treatments were applied in 1995/96 in a split-plot scheme. The subplots consisted in two NPK-fertilization levels (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 of N, 90 of P2O5, and 30 of K2O; and AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 of N, 180 of P2O5, and 60 of K2O. Low water availability during the vegetative and reproductive phases decreased the dry matter yield, nutrient contents, and nutrient uptake. Sprinkler irrigation increased grain yield and nutrient exportation, independent of the water level. In soils with appropriate nutrient levels for the dryland system, the irrigated rice did not respond to increased mineral fertilization, despite the larger nutrient uptake.

  3. Deterministic modeling of nutrients (NPK 15-15-15) transport in unsaturated homogeneous sandy-loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of inorganic fertilizers to increase crop yield on the same piece of land is being practiced in most part of the world in recent times as a result of population growth and urbanization. Inorganic fertilizers readily supply plants with the required nutrients in a very short time after application. Application of inorganic fertilizers on the field, if not managed properly can have devastating effects on the environment. When nutrient does not get to plants roots at the right time or travels beyond the reach of plant roots, it causes groundwater pollution and financial loss to farmers as plants do not fully use the nutrients applied. The need to understand how nutrients from inorganic fertilizers are transported in soil is essential to ensure maximum utilization of these nutrients and minimize the harmful effects that can result from their application on the field. Mathematical modeling and simulation techniques are very important in any attempt to understand and predict the transport of nutrients in soils. This research presents mathematical models of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer nutrients transport in an unsaturated homogeneous sandy loam soil. In the thesis, a convection dispersion equation (CDE) was developed (as the governing equation) for the nutrient transport and analytical solution based on Laplace transform technique and numerical solution based on implicit finite difference method were obtained to determine the concentration distribution of nitrate, potassium and phosphorous from inorganic NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer. Solution algorithms for Matlab programming were developed and implemented for generating results for analysis. The analytical and the numerical solution gave similar results for the concentration distribution of the nutrients in soil with respect to both depth and time. The results that were obtained indicated that for analytical or numerical solutions nitrate was the most mobile nutrient in soil among the three nutrients considered in the work, but none of the three nutrients leached beyond the depth of interest (100 cm from the soil surface), since no concentration of the three nutrients was recorded at the 100 cm depth. (au)

  4. Study on the effect of temperature and the level of nitrogenase fertilizer on formation dynamics of nitrate in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of temperature and application level of nitrogenase fertilizer on the formation dynamics of nitrate in soil were studied with the isotope tracer CO(15NH2)2 by planting spinages in pot culture. the dynamics model of nitrate in soil after applying urea was established as: C = A(e-ket-e-kat). With temperature of 10 degree C, the model was as follows: C = 1-e-kat. The results showed that temperature had an obvious effect on the formation and degradation velocity of nitrate in soil but the application level of nitrogenase fertilizer had no significant effect on them

  5. The influence of tillage systems, fertilization and plant protection levels on weed infestation in winter rye cultivated on light soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional and ploughless tillage systems upon infestation in two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on light soil. Before harvest winter rye there was determined weed infestation of square-frame method. There were estimated weed species composition and air dry matter of weeds in two randomly selected place. Number of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds and dry matter of weeds was higher on the objects with ploughless tillage system compared with conventional tillage. Intensive fertilization and plant protection decreased number of dicotyledonous weeds in canopy of winter rye. Conventional tillage system decreased Apera spica-venti occurrence in a canopy of winter rye and increased number of Plantago major plants. Intensive level of fertilization and plant protection decreased weed infestation first of all through Matricaria maritima.

  6. Heterogeneidade do solo sob diferentes adubações na cultura do milho Soil heterogeneity under different fertilizer levels in maize crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir dos dados de um experimento bifatorial em parcelas subdivididas no delineamento inteiramente casualidade, com três formas de adubação nas parcelas principais, e com duas cultivares de milho, com 10 repetições (20 subparcelas, foram estudados: a variabilidade entre as subparcelas agrupadas em diferentes tamanhos, após subtrair-se o efeito da causa de variação cultivar; e o índice de heterogeneidade do solo para cada repetição das formas de adubação. Estas consistiram em: FA1 - adubação recomendada para rendimento de grãos menor do que 3,0t/ha; FA2 - adubação recomendada para rendimento maior do que 6,0t/ha e tratamento das sementes com Zn; e FA3 - igual a FA2, mais a incorporação ao solo de um composto orgânico. Analisando a variância dos diferentes tamanhos de parcela, observou-se uma relação entre o tamanho da parcela e a forma de adubação, sendo que, para o menor tamanho (5m² a FA1 apresentou a menor variância, e para o maior tamanho (25m² , não houve diferença significativa entre as adubações. Pela estimativa do índice de heterogeneidade do solo das formas de adubação, conclui-se que a inclusão do adubo orgânico intensifica a variabilidade existente no solo, quando comparado com adubos químicos.This experiment was based on data obtained from a factorial experiment with a split-plot design in which three sou fertility levels (FL were assigned as main plots, and two maize varieties as 20 sub-plots. The study was conducted to evaluate the variability among sub-plots grouped with different sizes after subtraction of the variety effect, as well as the soil heterogeneity index for each replication of the soil fertility level. The soil fertility levels were: FL1 - fertilization recommended for grain yields up to 3.0 t ha-1 ; FL2 - fertilization for up to 6.0 t ha-1 plus Zn treated seeds; and FL3 - equal to FL2 plus incorporation of an organic compost into the soil. Comparing the the variance between different plot sizes was observed interaction between plot size and fertility level. The smallest plot size (5m² and FL1 showed the smallest variance. However, for fertilitv level no statistic difference was observed when 25m² plot size was used. The estimation of the soil heterogeneity index due to soil fertilization level indicates that the addition of organic mather increases the variability as compared to the addition of mineral fertilizers.

  7. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g?1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg?1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g?1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

  8. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  9. Effects of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level on clinical pregnancy rate via In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Aghahosseini, Marziyeh; Asgharifard, Homa; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Tehrani Banihashemi, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism may adversely affect In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcomes. However the cutoff of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for diagnosis and treatment is controversal. The aim of this study was to find the association of clinical pregnancy rate with regard to TSH levels in women undergoing IVF.

  10. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. EKUNWE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  11. Evaluation Of Compost Fertilizer "Zarkhez" In Conjunction With Chemical Fertilizers For Rice And Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam John; Muhammad Khalid; Farooq Javed

    1998-01-01

    Experiments conducted to evaluate a compost fertilizer "Zarkhez" showed that effect of compost alone (2000 kg/ha and 4000 kg/ha) on number of tillers, 1000-grain weight, yield and NPK uptake by rice and wheat was almost similar to control, whereas, significant improvements were observed when combination of compost and chemical fertilizers were applied. Maximum yield of paddy (4.25 t ha-1) and wheat (2.61 t ha-1) were obtained with 4000 kg ha-1 compost + chemical fertilizers (150-75-0 kg ha-1,...

  12. Effect of biochar on the properties of loamy sand Spodosol soil samples with different fertility levels: A laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizhiya, E. Ya.; Buchkina, N. P.; Mukhina, I. M.; Belinets, A. S.; Balashov, E. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of biochar on the properties of a loamy sand Spodosol with different fertility level in the ploughed horizon has been studied in a 60-day laboratory experiment. It has been found that the application of biochar resulted in a significant increase of the soil water content in the range of soil-water potential from -5 to -50 kPa, a significant decrease of the total shrinkage of the soil with high level of fertility after three wetting-drying cycles, and the accumulation of a significantly higher content of nitrates in the soil. At a water content of 21%, less favorable conditions for the denitrification development were formed in the soil with high level of fertility than in the medium-fertile soil, which resulted in lower cumulative N2O emission from the former. The addition of biochar resulted in no significant changes in the cumulative emission of CO2 from the studied soil but significantly reduced the emission of N2O from the soil at the simultaneous addition of biochar and clover residues.

  13. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N2-fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  14. New complex fertilizer 'Suprodit' to obtain safe agricultural productions on contaminated lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaevich Ratnikov, Alexander; Sergeevich Anisimov, Vyacheslav; Nikoaevna Anisimova, Lidiya; Georgievich Sviridenko, Dmitry; Jurievna Balanova, Olesya

    2015-04-01

    One of the reclamation techniques to reduce the accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in the crop is the use of natural sorbents, industrial deposits of which are located in the contaminated areas or at distances that allows one to organize cheap their delivery to the application site. More promising reclamation technique is the use of new types of complex fertilizers, the main components of which are special sorbents of natural or artificial origin. New complex fertilizer of prolonged action - "SUPRODIT", containing in addition to nutrients highly efficient mineral and organic sorbents, was developed by specialists of the RIRAE. The feedstock for mineral sorbent was Tripoli (finely porous siliceous mineral) from local field (Kaluga region), organic sorbent - peat. The "SUPRODIT"composition: N - 8-11%; P2O5 - 11-13 %; K2O - 11-17%, organic matter and 30-40%, respectively. The effect of a single application of complex fertilizer will be maintained for two or more growing seasons. Received RF patent for the invention "Method of production of complex fertilizer of prolonged action". In a series of field experiments on sod-podzolic sandy loam soil it was shown that the application of "SUPRODIT" at dose of 800 kg/ha to soil contaminated with dehydrated sewage sludge (DSS), significantly reduces heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) content in a crop of oats and barley due to the sorption properties of this fertilizers. Thus, Cd accumulation in the oats grain decreased 1.3 times, barley grain - 1.5 times, Ni - 1.5 times for barley and oats; Pb - 1.8 and 1.7 times respectively opposite to variant where the DSS was applied only. "SUPRODIT" reduces the negative effects of HM on the growth and development of plants, and limits the accumulation of 137Cs and HM in biomass. The 137Cs content in the biomass of barley in the variant of jointly added to soil of 137Cs and "SUPRODIT" decreased by 8.9 times in comparison with control and 4.4 times compared with standard fertilizers (NPK). The Cd accumulation by barley grain in sod-podzolic soil, contaminated with Cd6, Zn600, Cu390 mg/kg, when applying "SUPRODIT" was 2.5 times less than after industrial fertilizers (NPK and nitrophoska) application; the accumulation of Zn - 1.5 and 1.9 times less; the accumulation of Cu - 1.6 and 1.5 times less in comparison with NPK and nitrophoska, respectively. Applying of "SUPRODIT" constrain the accumulation of 137Cs in barley grain 1.2-1.3 times more efficiently than NPK and nitrophoska. Use "SUPRODIT" in technologies of cultivation of fodder crops on contaminated land in the districts of the Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation allow us to get a feed corresponding to acceptable levels on the content of 137Cs at a density of contamination 500-920 kBq/m2, which ensures that the milk will fit to corresponding maximum permissible concentration.

  15. Long-term effects of cropping systems and fertilization on crop production, soil characteristics and nitrogen cycling in the Guinean and Sudanian savannah zones of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term effects of annual fallow and two grain legumes, namely groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on soil N, fertilizer N recovery and yield of subsequent non-fixing crops were investigated in two ecological savannah zones of West Africa. The effects of fallow and groundnut on sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and cotton (Gossypium sp) were studied using a 10-year (1993-2003) field experiment at the agronomic research station of Farako-Ba (4 deg. 20' West, 11 deg. 6' North and 405 m altitude) in Guinean savannah zone Burkina Faso. A factorial 3x8 design in a split plot arrangement was used. Three crop rotations (cotton-groundnut-Sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) were used as first factor and 8 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+crop residues, NPK+dolomite, PK+crop residues, PK+manure, PK+compost, PK and control) were applied as second factor. In the Sudanian savannah zone, a 5-year (1995-1999) field experiment was laid down at the research station of Kouare (11 deg 59' North, 0 deg. 19' West and 850 m altitude). A factorial of three cropping systems (cowpea-sorghum, fallow-sorghum and mono cropping of sorghum) as a first factor and 4 fertilizer treatments (mineral NPK fertilizer, NPK+dolomite, PK+manure and a control) as a second factor in a split plot design was used. In the Guinean savannah zone, grain yields of succeeding sorghum increased from 547 kg ha-1 in continuous sorghum to 912 and 1021 kg> in continuous sorghum to 912 and 1021 kg ha-1 in fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations respectively. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N at sowing. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 19% for the continuous sorghum to 32 and 51% for the fallow-sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum respectively. Soil organic carbon increased from 0.36% in continuous sorghum to 0.39 and 0.54% in cotton-groundnut-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, continuous sorghum and cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotations decreased soil organic carbon. Only fallow-sorghum rotation maintained soil organic carbon, exchange acidity and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Manure applications increased soil organic carbon, total N and available P. Except for the fallow-sorghum rotation, other rotations increased aluminum saturation and decreased soil pH compared to original soil. Manure or dolomite applications decreased exchange acidity and maintained soil pH and base saturation at same levels like those of original soil. Cotton-groundnut-sorghum rotation was the most efficient for the Guinea savannah zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer plus one t ha-1 of dolomite can be recommended for cotton and sorghum. Alternatively mineral PK fertilizer combined with 3 t ha-1 cattle manure can be applied to sorghum. Only mineral NPK fertilizer can be used on groundnut. In the Sudanian savannah zone, sorghum grain yields increased by 75 and 100% when sorghum was rotated with fallow or cowpea respectively, compared to mono cropping of sorghum. Soils of fallow-sorghum and cowpea-sorghum rotations supplied 17 and 90% more N to succeeding sorghum compared to the mono cropping system of sorghum. The N fertilizer use efficiency increased from 17% for the continuous sorghum to 22 and 26% for the cowpea-sorghum and fallow-sorghum rotations respectively. Compared to the original soil, all cropping systems decreased soil organic carbon and increased aluminum saturation. All cropping systems decreased soil pH and increased aluminum saturation compared to original soil. Cowpea-sorghum rotation was the most efficient cropping system in the Sudanian zone. In this cropping system, mineral NPK fertilizer associated with one t ha-1 of dolomite or 3 t ha-1 of manure must be applied to sorghum. But only recommended mineral NPK fertilizer can be applied for cowpea. (author)

  16. The effect of fertilization levels and genetic deployment on soil organic matter chemistry and turnover in managed loblolly pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J. G.; Jokela, E. J.; He, D.; Hockaday, W. C.; Schuur, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics were examined for two managed loblolly pine forests (Pinus taeda L.) located in north-central Florida on sandy Spodosols. The study designs were split-plots with the whole plots designated as fertilization levels, and the split-plots full-sib families of loblolly pine. The forests were aged 9 and 10 years at sampling. Roots, wood, and charcoal were hand-picked from SOM and density fractionation (1.6 g/ml) used to further separate SOM into a light (LF) and heavy fraction (HF). LF turnover rates were estimated using radiocarbon and LF chemistry determined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Family or fertilization level effects on the mass of SOM components were not significant at both sites. The largest proportions of SOM were in the LF (83% and 85%) and wood (6% and 9%). Varying in relative contributions were charcoal (2% and 3%) and the HF (4% and 1%) while fine dead roots were between 1-2% of total SOM. Higher fertilization levels generally depressed fine root (<1 mm) biomass, but whether the effect was significant varied with family and soil horizon. The turnover rate for one family under low fertilization was significantly slower (14 yrs) than the other treatments. This treatment also had a greater proportion of lignin, and given the slow turnover, the results suggest this lignin derived from the previous stand. At the other site lignin and lipids differed significantly (p<0.05) between families. These results suggest that tree genetics in forests can influence SOM chemistry, but that family and the degree of fertilization have little net effect on SOM chemistry and turnover.

  17. Impact of fertilization and granular insecticides on the incidence of tobacco aphid, myzus persicae (sulz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were conducted on the control of tobacco aphid, Myzus persicase (Sulz) with four granular insecticides, viz, Furadan 3% G, Diazinon 5% g, Thiodan 5% g and Larsban 5% g, with and without NPK fertilization. The aphid population was significantly higher in the fertilized plots compared to the non-fertilized ones. All the four insecticides significantly reduced the aphids density compared to the check. Furada 3% gave best results for the control of this pest. (author)

  18. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da correção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus, cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and 128 for the 50, 100 and 150% recommended fertilizer rates. The NPK fertilizer levels, keeping c

  19. Apple fruit quality, yield and leaf macronutrients content as affected by fertilizer treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Milo& #353; evi& #263; ; N, Milo& #353; evi& #263; .

    Full Text Available During two years we have investigated main fruit quality traits, yield and leaf nutrient content at 120 days after full bloom (DAFB) of ,Idared, and ,Melrose, apples on M.9 rootstock when fertilized with complex NPK (15:15:15) alone, and mixture with natural zeolite (Agrozel) and/or cattle manure. R [...] esults showed that fruit quality has been strongly affected by cultivars, whereas fertilizer treatments influenced only yield per tree. Moreover, significant impact of cultivar and fertilizer treatment on leaf P, K and Mg was found. Leaf of ,Melrose, contained higher P and K content, and lower Mg content than those of ,Idared,. In ,Melrose,, NPK alone increased leaf P, whereas in ,Idared, , mixture of NPK+Agrozel and NPK+Manure promoted leaf P, K and Mg content. According to DOP and EDOP indexes, excessive leaf Mg content was found, and deficiency of the rest of nutrients. ,Melrose, exhibited better balanced nutritional values for nutrients as compared to ,Idared,, whereas NPK+M promoted better balanced nutritional values than other treatments.

  20. Apple fruit quality, yield and leaf macronutrients content as affected by fertilizer treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Milo& #353; evi& #263; ; N, Milo& #353; evi& #263; .

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During two years we have investigated main fruit quality traits, yield and leaf nutrient content at 120 days after full bloom (DAFB) of ,Idared, and ,Melrose, apples on M.9 rootstock when fertilized with complex NPK (15:15:15) alone, and mixture with natural zeolite (Agrozel) and/or cattle manure. R [...] esults showed that fruit quality has been strongly affected by cultivars, whereas fertilizer treatments influenced only yield per tree. Moreover, significant impact of cultivar and fertilizer treatment on leaf P, K and Mg was found. Leaf of ,Melrose, contained higher P and K content, and lower Mg content than those of ,Idared,. In ,Melrose,, NPK alone increased leaf P, whereas in ,Idared, , mixture of NPK+Agrozel and NPK+Manure promoted leaf P, K and Mg content. According to DOP and EDOP indexes, excessive leaf Mg content was found, and deficiency of the rest of nutrients. ,Melrose, exhibited better balanced nutritional values for nutrients as compared to ,Idared,, whereas NPK+M promoted better balanced nutritional values than other treatments.

  1. Bacterial diversity in Greenlandic soils as affected by potato cropping and inorganic versus organic fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund; Pedas, Pai Rosager

    2014-01-01

    Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems will in the near future be exposed to severe environmental stresses due to global warming. For example, the microbial community structure and function may change as a result of increased temperatures. In Greenland, agriculture is carried out in the Subarctic regions with only limited pest management, despite the presence of plant pathogenic fungi. The microbial community composition in agricultural soils, which plays an important role for soil and plant health and for crop yield, may be affected by the use of different fertilizer treatments. Currently, only limited research has been performed on the effects of these treatments on bacterial communities in Arctic and Subarctic agricultural soils. The major objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of conventional (NPK) and organic (sheep manure supplemented with nitrogen) fertilizer treatments on bacterial diversity, nutrient composition and crop yield in two Greenlandic agricultural soils. An effect of fertilizer was found on soil and plant nutrient levels and on crop yields. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences did not reveal any major changes in the overall bacterial community composition as a result of different fertilizer treatments, indicating a robust microbial community in these soils. In addition, differences in nutrient levels, crop yields and bacterial abundances were found between the two field sites and the two experimental growth seasons, which likely reflect differences in physical-chemical soil parameters. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Growth index in massai grass under different levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Neves, Lopes; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco, Pompeu; Magno José Duarte, Cândido; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Rodrigo Gregório da, Silva; Francisco Ronaldo Belem, Fernandes.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth index of massai grass during two regrowth cycles in a greenhouse under five levels of nitrogen (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg N/dm³ of soil) and eight growth ages (5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26 days) in a split-plot design with five replications. The following [...] variables were evaluated: net assimilation rate, herbage growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio and specific leaf area. The effect of nitrogen was detected on the variables net assimilation rate (regrowths 1 and 2), leaf area ratio (regrowth 1), leaf weight ratio (regrowths 1 and 2), specific leaf area (regrowths 1 and 2) and herbage growth rate (regrowths 1 and 2). The growth ages influenced the relative growth rate (regrowth 2) and the net assimilation rate (regrowth 2). The net assimilation rate presented linear effect, estimated in 0.70 and 2.86 g/m² leaf.day-1 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively (regrowth 1). For each milligram of N/dm³ added, the leaf area ratio was reduced in 0.0000258 m² leaf/g plant (regrowth 1). The herbage growth rate was estimated in 1.38 and 37.02 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 1), and 4.37 and 32.20 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 2) for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively. The massai grass' growth is favored by nitrogen fertilization, and little do the growth ages affect the growth index of the plants.

  3. Productivity and Quality of Sugar Beet as Affecting by Sowing Methods, Weed Control Treatments and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels

    OpenAIRE

    El-maghraby, Samia S.; Said, E. M.; Attia, A. N.; Seadh, S. E.; Ibrahim, M. E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out at Kafr El-Hamam Research Station, Zagazig district, Sharkia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons to study the effect of sowing methods (manual and mechanical), weed control treatments (one hoeing, Goltix 70 WG (metamitron), Goltix+one hoeing and two hoeing) and nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 80 and 100 kg N/fed) on yield, its components and quality of sugar beet cv. Hanrike. The obtained results could...

  4. Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo?ena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Ba?cyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘?l?za’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

  5. Future fertility in low fertility countries

    OpenAIRE

    Basten, Stuart; Sobotka, Toma??; Zeman, Kry?tof

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses results of the global survey of experts on the future of low fertility in low-fertility countries. The survey was coordinated by the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital as a part of an effort to produce global argumentbased population projections by age, sex and level of education. First we give an overview of fertility changes in major low-fertility regions. Next we outline main theoretical arguments and review a wide range of factors contributing...

  6. Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorzelany J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force causing bean damage and bean deformation up to crack.

  7. Effects of Different Fertilizer Application Level on Growth and Physiology of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on BRIS Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazandy Abdul-Hamid

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is one of the most potential annual crop planted throughout the world. Being fastgrowing and multipurpose, it has been utilized as a substitute of jute and, more recently, as raw product for the productionof pulp and paper. With strong and long fiber yield, mass production of Kenaf throughout Malaysia is critical. Theutilization of less fertile soils such as BRIS soils is important to increase the Kenaf production throughout Malaysia. Thus,the objective of this study was to determine the effects of different level fertilizer application on growth and physiology ofKenaf planted on BRIS soils. V36 variety was used and planted in three different plots by treatments with fertilizersnamely high (1960 kg/ plot, medium (1260 kg/ plot and low (700 kg/ plot respectively. Each plot comprises 106,000trees where trees were planted on 20 lines. There were contrasting results on the effects of fertilizer on growth andphysiology of Kenaf in the dry (41 days and wet season (64 days. Significant effects were only observed for diameter,height, leaf number and area during the wet season. Similar results were also found for biomass. The increasing trendswith increasing the rates of fertilizer were observed in the wet season for growth and biomass parameters. The correlationanalyses between total aboveground biomass with diameter and height were more pronounced in the wet season. AGR,RGR and EG calculated from the differences between the dry and wet season readings for aboveground biomass showedthat the higher rate of fertilizer recorded the higher values of AGR and RGR. However, no trend was observed for EG.

  8. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70% and KNO3 - zeolite (30%. Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

  9. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK / Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos, Bernardi; Carlos Guarino, Werneck; Patrick Gesualdi, Haim; Nélio das Graças de Andrade da Mata, Rezende; Paulo Renato Perdigão, Paiva; Marisa Bezerra de Mello, Monte.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por [...] 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1) ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z) e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK), e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP). Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura. Abstract in english The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibb [...] le tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1) with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant) of a NPK-enriched zeolite, which was a mix of H3PO4/apatite-zeolite (70%) and KNO3 - zeolite (30%). Results indicated that the supply of nutrients through the mineral zeolite enriched with NPK added to the organic substrate was a viable alternative for citrus rootstock production in protecting environment. The supply of 6,4 g of enriched zeolite significantly increased dry matter production, leaf area, height and steam diameter. These increases were 37,5% in relation to the control without zeolite. N, P and K foliar levels increased with zeolite enriched with NPK. Chlorophyll levels were related to N levels, pointed out to be a useful tool for Rangpur Lime nutritional status evaluation.

  10. Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration. PMID:25884713

  11. Differences in Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Carbon Resulting From Long-Term Fertilization Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1–3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4–6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3–52.6% and 9.4–64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration. PMID:25884713

  12. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  13. Effect of inorganic fertilizers and municipal solid waste manure on some soil physical properties in cotton-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil for three consecutive years (2002-2005) to study the effects of combined use of chemical fertilizers (NPK) and organic manure (municipal solid waste manure-MSWM) on soil organic matter, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, and yields of crops in cotton (Desi)-wheat cropping system. After three years, organic matter content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil increased (42-68%)to 7.1-8.4 g kg from an initial level of 5.0 g kg with out any significant interaction between two fertilizer doses, three management techniques and six seasons except for dose x season interaction where higher organic matter contents were found after each cotton harvest by site-specific fertilizer application. In general, the bulk density of the surface soil increased un-impressively with the time by unique use of fertilizers and decreased gradually by application of integrated plant nutrients management (IPNM) technique using MSWM with or without pesticides/herbicides use. Porosity of soil increased (2.5 %) by applying IPNM technique compared to unique use of chemical fertilizers. Penetration resistance was increased with unique use of fertilizers to a level of 0.80 M Pa from initial value of 0.74 MPa. Presumably due to higher intrinsic bulk density of the soil. Over the three years, on an average, the MSW manured and fertilized plots (IPNM with pesticides/herbicides use ) produced higher i.e. 2% and 11% increase in seed cotton and whea% and 11% increase in seed cotton and wheat grain yields respectively than did the plots receiving chemical fertilizers. Neglecting herbicides/pesticides application decreased (4-5%) seed cotton yield. (author)

  14. Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth of Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kafeel Ahmed; Nuhammad Iqbal; Abid Nisar Ahmad; Iftikhar Ahmed; Ghulam Yasin

    1999-01-01

    Two varieties of canola (Brassica napus L.) Rainbow and Con I were treated with different levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 90 and 120 N kg ha -1) as urea before sowing and with split application of these levels before sowing and at the time of flower initiation. The data for plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of root as well as shoot and number of flowers each for per plant showed an increasing trend as negating the difference of time of fertilizer application their app...

  15. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alvarez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetraborato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana.In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replications, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1 NPK (control, 2 NPK + Fe, 3 NPK + B, 4 NPK + Cu, 5 NPK + Mn, 6 NPK + Zn, 7 NPK + Mo, 8 NPK + Mg and 9 NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

  16. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: IX - Experimentos preliminares com micronutrientes / Fertilizer experimeits with sugar cane: IX - Preliminary results with minor elements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Alvarez; A. C. P., Wutke.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos era três experimentos para verificar possíveis deficiências de micronutrientes e de magnésio em solos tipos terra-roxa-misturada e massapê-salmourão, cultivados há mais de quinze anos com cana. Foram feitas aplicações de sulfato ferroso, tetrabor [...] ato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de manganês, sulfato de cobre, sulfato de zinco e molibdato de amônio, nos sulcos de plantio, na presença de NPK. Nos solos massapê-salmourão, os micronutrientes boro, molibdênio, ferro e cobre determinaram aumentos na produção de cana. Abstract in english In this paper are presented the results obtained with three experiments on the application of minor elements and magnesium to sugar cane, on soils known as "terra-roxa-misturada" and "massapê-salmourão" which for many years had been cultivated with this graminea. The treatments with four replication [...] s, in randomized blocks, were as follows: 1) NPK (control), 2) NPK + Fe, 3) NPK + B, 4) NPK + Cu, 5) NPK + Mn, 6) NPK + Zn, 7) NPK + Mo, 8) NPK + Mg and 9) NPK + (Fe + B + Cu + Zn + Mg + Mn + Mo). The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superfosfate and potassium chloride at the rates of 150 kg/N, 100 kg/P2O5 and 150 kgK2O per hectare. The elements were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. The results indicated that boron, iron, copper and molybdenum gave a yield increase in the soil massapê salmourão, whereas ou "terra-roxa-mistura da", effects were not significant.

  17. Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphate fertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan, Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphate fertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) (about 80 hectares), 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF) farm and Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI) (about 100 hectares). These all soils were situated in the urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimation was gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farms result the presence of Potassium (40K), Cesium (137Cs), and Uranium (238U). The average amount of radioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6

  18. Recovery of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Growth of Cotton as Affected by Various Levels of Flooding

    OpenAIRE

    A. W. Soomro; A.R. Soomro; G. H. Mallah

    1999-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of temporary water logging on the growth and development of cotton and the recovery of nitrogen applied as urea fertilizer, with 3 water treatments i.e. control (W1), moderate flooding (W2), and severe flooding (W3). The studies concluded that flooding greatly reduced the growth characteristics of the cotton plant such as height, number of leaves, fruiting points and plant dry matter. Recovery of nitrogen applied as urea was signi...

  19. Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Cowdung in Combination with Foliar Spray of Chemicals on Jute Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Absar, N.; Mondal, H.; Md. Ibrahim; Sayeed, A.; Hossain, M. S.; Islam, A.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was performed in the experimental land of the Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi during the period of April-May, 2007 and 2008. The physical and chemical characteristics of jute fibre under different foliar treatments were investigated at mature stage. The results showed significantly increase in most of the chemical composition under different foliar treatments. Moisture content, dry matter and ash contents of jute fibre obtained from experimental land compared to thos...

  20. Influence of NPK fertilization on the yield of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Carvalho Santos; Antonio Alves de Melo Filho; Habdel Nasser Rocha da Costa; Francisco dos Santos Panero; Hosana Carolina dos Santos Barreto; Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa; Hélio Tonini; Rita de Cássia Pompeu de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a species of eucalyptus with potential for establishment of planted forests in the savannah area of Roraima. Little is known about the appropriate management of E. camaldulensis in the conditions of the savannah of Roraima, and for this reason, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the production of essential oil of the species. The experiment was conducted in ½ 43 fractional factorial design...

  1. Phytometric Assessment of Fertility of Roadside Soils and Its Relationship with Major Nutrients.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akbar, K. F.; Hale, W.H.G.; Šerá, Božena; Ashraf, I.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 5 (2012), s. 1141-1145. ISSN 1230-1485 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11040 Keywords : roadside verges * soil fertility * phytometric assessment * NPK analyses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2012

  2. Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, I.; Kahiluoto, H.

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of P fertilisation on the function of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) measured as P transport to flax. Two methods were applied to soil from a long-term field experiment with NaHCO3-extractable soil P levels of 24 and 50 mg kg(-1) in an experiment under controlled conditions: i) Measurement of plant growth and P uptake in the presence or absence of the fungicide benomyl and ii) measurement of hyphal P transport from a root-free compartment labelled with P-32. Benomyl successfully prevented mycorrhizal function. The absolute contribution of AMF to plant P uptake was of the same magnitude with or without P fertilisation at 27 days after sowing. Therefore, even though plants grown at the higher soil P level had greater P uptake, the relative contribution of AMF to P uptake was greater at the lower P level than at the higher P level (77 and 49% of total P uptake, respectively). The AMF in P-fertilized soil transported less P-32 from the root-free compartment to the plant after 23 days than the AMF in unfertilized soil, but this difference disappeared in plants harvested after 27 and 32 days. The production of hyphae was largely similar in both fertilization treatments, indicating that the capacity for P uptake and transport by hyphae of the two AMF communities was similar.

  3. Differential responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term fertilization in a New England salt marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnneBernhard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, new questions have arisen about population and community dynamics and potential interactions between AOA and ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB. We investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on AOA and AOB in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Falmouth, MA, USA to address some of these questions. Sediment samples were collected from low and high marsh habitats in July 2009 from replicate plots that received low (LF, high (HF, and extra high (XF levels of a mixed NPK fertilizer biweekly during the growing season since 1974. Additional untreated plots were included as controls (C. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amoA genes revealed distinct shifts in AOB communities related to fertilization treatment, but the response patterns of AOA were less consistent. Four AOB operational taxonomic units (OTUs predictably and significantly responded to fertilization, but only one AOA OTU showed a significant pattern. Betaproteobacterial amoA gene sequences within the Nitrosospira-like cluster dominated at C and LF sites, while sequences related to Nitrosomonas spp. dominated at HF and XF sites. We identified some clusters of AOA sequences recovered primarily from high fertilization regimes, but other clusters consisted of sequences recovered from all fertilization treatments, suggesting greater physiological diversity. Surprisingly, fertilization appeared to have little impact on abundance of AOA or AOB. In summary, our data reveal striking patterns for AOA and AOB in response to long-term fertilization, and also suggest a missing link between community composition and abundance and nitrogen processing in the marsh.

  4. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  5. Effect of Potassium and Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Biomass of Some Halophytes Grown under High Levels of Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Noaman, Maher N.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out at Nahshala Farm, about 50 km from Al-Ain, UAE during the 2001/2002 growing seasons, using five halophyte species; Spartina sp., Distichlis palmeri., Paspalum vaginatum, Juncus roemerianus and Batis maritima, under six levels of N and K fertilizer combinations irrigated with salinity water of 20 g L-1. The objectives of the experiment were twofold; 1) to find out the optimum rate of potassium and nitrogen under such high salinity stress and 2) to study the r...

  6. Impact of criticality level on safety of accelerator driven systems with conventional Mox and advanced fertile free fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of Accelerator Driven Systems are currently investigated in Europe: with conventional MOX fuel (of e.g. Superphenix type) for demonstration and experimental purposes; and with Advanced Fertile Free Fuels for nuclear waste burning. Usually a similar subcriticality level is assumed acceptable in the both cases: with keff being around 0,95 - 0,97. In the paper, analyses of protected and unprotected (i.e. with and without accelerator shutdown) transients are performed for a wider range of initial (at the beginning of the transient) keff values to assess corresponding advantages and disadvantages (from the safety point of view) for the both types of ADS. (authors)

  7. Effect of various levels of nitrogen fertilizer on some vegetative growth attributes of pea ( pisum sativum L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive growing years on few growth characteristics of four pea cultivars viz., Arkel, Climax, Green Feast and Olympia in response to different levels of N fertilizer under the climatic conditions of district Mastung, Balochistan. Six N fertilizer levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha/sup -1/) plus a constant dose of 60+40 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/ O ha/sub -1/ were prepared, and designated as T/sub 1/ to T/sub 7/, respectively. These N levels were applied to each sub-plot (except T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) in two split doses first at the time of flowering and second at the time of pod formation to quantify how much N fertiliser's required by different pea cultivars to realize the highest growth and yield. Results exhibited that in response to various levels of added N fertilizer, all mentioned growth attributes were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). However, cultivars response was found significant only for secondary branches plant/sub -1/, plant height and shoot moisture contents. A maximum number of primary branches plant/sup -1/ (6.94), secondary branches plant/sub -1/ (10.72), plant height (69.77 cm), number of leaves plant/sup -1/ (19.75), leaf length (11.81 cm) and shoot moisture contents (571.0 g kg/sup -1/) was recorded with application of 100 kg N ha/sup -1/. The interaction between fertilizer and pea cultivars was found non-significant for all mentioned attributes in the trial. Results further revealbutes in the trial. Results further revealed that all growth parameters were slightly to highly significant and positively correlated among themselves as well as with their fresh pod yields. These attributes could be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the fresh pod yield and also for breeding purposes in peas. (author)

  8. Bayesian modeling of the level and duration of fertility in the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, D B

    2001-12-01

    Time to pregnancy studies that identify ovulation days and collect daily intercourse data can be used to estimate the day-specific probabilities of conception given intercourse on a single day relative to ovulation. In this article, a Bayesian semiparametric model is described for flexibly characterizing covariate effects and heterogeneity among couples in daily fecundability. The proposed model is characterized by the timing of the most fertile day of the cycle relative to ovulation, by the probability of conception due to intercourse on the most fertile day, and by the ratios of the daily conception probabilities for other days of the cycle relative to this peak probability. The ratios are assumed to be increasing in time to the peak and decreasing thereafter. Generalized linear mixed models are used to incorporate covariate and couple-specific effects on the peak probability and on the day-specific ratios. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is described for posterior estimation, and the methods are illustrated through application to caffeine data from a North Carolina pregnancy study. PMID:11764245

  9. A Rapid Technique for Prediction of Nutrient Release from Polymer Coated Controlled Release Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Shengsen Wang; Alva, Ashok K.; Yuncong Li; Min Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Controlled release fertilizers (CRF) are produced with different rates and durations of nutrient release to cater to different crops with wide ranges of nutrient requirements. A rapid technique is needed to verify the label specifications of nutrient release rate and duration. Polymer-coated urea (PCU) (43% nitrogen [N]) and polymer-coated N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K) (PC_NPK; 14-14-14) fertilizer products were used in this study. Soil incubation of the above CRF products at 25? showed ...

  10. Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlegel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are now reporting the effects of ocean acidification on a broad range of marine species, processes and systems. Many of these are investigating the sensitive early life-history stages that several major reviews have highlighted as being potentially most susceptible to ocean acidification. Nonetheless there remain few investigations of the effects of ocean acidification on the very earliest, and critical, process of fertilization, and still fewer that have investigated levels of ocean acidification relevant for the coming century. Here we report the effects of near-future levels of ocean acidification (??0.35 pH unit change on sperm swimming speed, sperm motility, and fertilization kinetics in a population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from western Sweden. We found no significant effect of ocean acidification – a result that was well supported by power analysis. Similar findings from Japan suggest that this may be a globally robust result, and we emphasise the need for experiments on multiple populations from throughout a species' range. We also discuss the importance of sound experimental design and power analysis in accurate interpretation of non-significant results.

  11. Near-future levels of ocean acidification do not affect sperm motility and fertilization kinetics in the oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlegel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are now reporting the effects of ocean acidification on a broad range of marine species, processes and systems. Many of these are investigating the sensitive early life-history stages that several major reviews have highlighted as being potentially most susceptible to ocean acidification. Nonetheless there remain few investigations of the effects of ocean acidification on the very earliest, and critical, process of fertilization, and still fewer that have investigated levels of ocean acidification relevant for the coming century. Here we report the effects of near-future levels of ocean acidification (??0.35 pH unit change on sperm swimming speed, sperm motility, and fertilization kinetics in a population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from western Sweden. We found no significant effect of ocean acidification – a result that was well-supported by power analysis. Similar findings from Japan suggest that this may be a globally robust result, and we emphasise the need for experiments on multiple populations from throughout a species' range. We also discuss the importance of sound experimental design and power analysis in meaningful interpretation of non-significant results.

  12. Rice-wheat Response to Integrated Nutrient Management With Special Emphasis on Zinc Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Yaseen, M; Hussain, T; Hakeem, A; Nasir Mahmood

    1999-01-01

    Data on rice crop showed that yield and yield contributing parameters were significantly affected by various nutrient combinations and sources. NPK + GM + ZnSO4 gave the best results. It was followed by NPK + FYM + ZnSO4 while without GM or FYM, Zn-chelate performed better than ZnSO4. Foliar spray of ZnSO4 was found inferior among all the sources and methods of zinc application. Grain yield of follow-up wheat crop was statistically similar in all the fertilizer combinations, however, straw yi...

  13. Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Petter, F. A.; Madari, B. E.; Silva, M. A. S.; Carneiro, M. A. C.; Melo Carvalho, M. T.; Marimon, B.; Pacheco, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar made from Eucalyptus on soil fertility, and on the yield and development of upland rice. The experiment was performed during two years in a randomized block design with four replicates, in a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. Four doses of NPK 05-25-15, annually distributed in stripes (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha(-1)), and four doses of biochar (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha(-1)), applied once in the first year alone or with NPK were evaluate...

  14. Productivity and quality of sugar beet as affecting by sowing methods, weed control treatments and nitrogen fertilizer levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadh, S E; Attia, A N; Said, E M; El-Maghraby, Samia S; Ibrahim, M E M

    2013-08-01

    Two field experiments were carried out at Kafr El-Hamam Research Station, Zagazig district, Sharkia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons to study the effect of sowing methods (manual and mechanical), weed control treatments (one hoeing, Goltix 70 WG (metamitron), Goltix+one hoeing and two hoeing) and nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 80 and 100 kg N/fed) on yield, its components and quality of sugar beet cv. Hanrike. The obtained results could be summarized as follows; Mechanical sowing method of sugar beet significantly surpassed the traditional sowing method in root and foliage fresh weights/plant, root/top ratio, root length and diameter, root, top and sugar yields/fed in both seasons. Sowing methods showed significant effect on TSS, sucrose and purity percentages in both seasons, except purity% in the second season. Controlling weeds by two hand hoeings significantly recorded the highest values of root, top and sugar yields/fed and its components and purity percentage in both seasons. However, the highest percentages of TSS and sucrose were achieved from controlling weed by one hand hoeing in both seasons. Fertilizing sugar beet plants with 100 kg N/fed significantly increased yields and its components and markedly recorded the highest values in both seasons. From the obtained, it can be concluded that sowing sugar beet using mechanical sowing method (planter machine), controlling weeds by hand hoeing and mineral fertilizing with 100 kg N/fed could be recommended in order to maximize its productivity and quality under the environmental conditions of Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. PMID:24505998

  15. Productivity and Quality of Sugar Beet as Affecting by Sowing Methods, Weed Control Treatments and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia S. El-Maghraby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out at Kafr El-Hamam Research Station, Zagazig district, Sharkia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons to study the effect of sowing methods (manual and mechanical, weed control treatments (one hoeing, Goltix 70 WG (metamitron, Goltix+one hoeing and two hoeing and nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 80 and 100 kg N/fed on yield, its components and quality of sugar beet cv. Hanrike. The obtained results could be summarized as follows; Mechanical sowing method of sugar beet significantly surpassed the traditional sowing method in root and foliage fresh weights/plant, root/top ratio, root length and diameter, root, top and sugar yields/fed in both seasons. Sowing methods showed significant effect on TSS, sucrose and purity percentages in both seasons, except purity% in the second season. Controlling weeds by two hand hoeings significantly recorded the highest values of root, top and sugar yields/fed and its components and purity percentage in both seasons. However, the highest percentages of TSS and sucrose were achieved from controlling weed by one hand hoeing in both seasons. Fertilizing sugar beet plants with 100 kg N/fed significantly increased yields and its components and markedly recorded the highest values in both seasons. From the obtained, it can be concluded that sowing sugar beet using mechanical sowing method (planter machine, controlling weeds by hand hoeing and mineral fertilizing with 100 kg N/fed could be recommended in order to maximize its productivity and quality under the environmental conditions of Sharkia Governorate, Egypt.

  16. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Juriši?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  17. Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  18. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

  19. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae) y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Fco, Di Stefano; Luis A, Fournier.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis [...] de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años), en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna), la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas). Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (?²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002), probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos. Abstract in english Natural regeneration of woody species in a Costa Rican plantation of Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae) and the effect of P and NPK fertilization. Forest plantation management strategies, including the selection of species, may have positive or negative effects over plant regeneration in the trop [...] ics. in this case, understory woody plants density and richness were studied in Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica, in a monoculture of Vochysia guatemalensis (ten year old plantation). Nineteen 80 m²plots, with several fertilization treatments (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/plant of P, and NPK, during the first years, P placed once at the hole) in a completely randomized factorial design, were analyzed. Afterwards, the NPK fertilizer was increased from 150 to 200 g/ plant/year until the plantation was six year old. The plots, established after the coffee plantation was eliminated, had a minimum management schedule, basically the elimination of herbaceous vegetation once or twice a year during the first three years, and a tree thinning when the plantation was four year old, to increase spacing from 2x2 to 4x4 m. All woody vegetation taller than 0.5 m was tallied. A total of circa 10 000 ind/ha, distributed in 90 species, were found, mostly native of the region, some identified for forestry use, others important for the fauna. The majority of the species had low relative densities and frequencies. Sixteen percent of the plants reached heights greater than 2.5 m. Several factors seem to explain this regeneration pattern: a canopy with an intermediate openness, a low intensity forestry management, the nearness of the plantation to a mature forest fragment, and that the Vochysia plantation substituted a coffee plantation where soil conservation strategies and an annual fertilization management plan were applied. Finally, plots with only P had significantly higher species richness and abundance (?2=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002) probably because the trees in this treatment were less developed (when compared with the others). Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1): 111-118. Epub 2009 November 30.

  20. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años, en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna, la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas. Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (?²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002, probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos.Natural regeneration of woody species in a Costa Rican plantation of Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae and the effect of P and NPK fertilization. Forest plantation management strategies, including the selection of species, may have positive or negative effects over plant regeneration in the tropics. in this case, understory woody plants density and richness were studied in Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica, in a monoculture of Vochysia guatemalensis (ten year old plantation. Nineteen 80 m²plots, with several fertilization treatments (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/plant of P, and NPK, during the first years, P placed once at the hole in a completely randomized factorial design, were analyzed. Afterwards, the NPK fertilizer was increased from 150 to 200 g/ plant/year until the plantation was six year old. The plots, established after the coffee plantation was eliminated, had a minimum management schedule, basically the elimination of herbaceous vegetation once or twice a year during the first three years, and a tree thinning when the plantation was four year old, to increase spacing from 2x2 to 4x4 m. All woody vegetation taller than 0.5 m was tallied. A total of circa 10 000 ind/ha, distributed in 90 species, were found, mostly native of the region, some identified for forestry use, others important for the fauna. The majority of the species had low relative densities and frequencies. Sixteen percent of the plants reached heights greater than 2.5 m. Several factors seem to explain this regeneration pattern: a canopy with an intermediate openness, a low intensity forestry management, the nearness of the plantation to a mature forest fragment, and that the Vochysia plantation substituted a coffee plantation where soil conservation strategies and an annual fertilization management plan were applied. Finally, plots with only P had significantly higher species richness and abundance (?2=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002 probably because the trees in this treatment were less developed (when compared with the others. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 111-118. Epub 2009 November 30.

  1. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on morphological and biochemical traits of some Apiaceae crops under arid region conditions in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID ALI KHALID

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Khalid KA. 2013. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on morphological and biochemical traits of some Apiaceae crops under arid region conditions in Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 15-20. Arid regions in Egypt are characterized by poor nutrients content and unfavorable environmental conditions which negatively affect growth and productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants including anise, coriander and sweet fennel. So the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of different levels of N, namely 0 (control, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 used as ammonium sulphate [(NH42SO4] (20% N, on selected morphological and biochemical characteristics of anise, coriander and sweet fennel plants cultivated under arid regions conditions during two successive seasons. The most effective dose of nitrogen was 200 kg ha-1 of N, resulting in a positive increase in vegetative growth characters and content of essential oil, fixed oil, total carbohydrates, soluble sugars, protein and nutrients (NPK.

  2. THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ON YIELDS OF GLADIOLUS FLOWERS TO THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE YEAR 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lamban

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of chemical fertilizers NPK complex based (1: 1: 1 on "Development vigorous growth of wild gladiolus, namely" the number of leaves per plant, increasing their length, the total length of the rod floriferous, the total number of blue flowers "have on the rod under the climatic conditions of 2013 beer.

  3. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or for shrinkage, which presented: ¦b = 650kg/cm2, E = 59.877kg/cm2, ¦c = 296kg/cm2 e ¦n = 131kg/cm2. Control treatment showed highest values for shear strength and compression parallel to grain. Too many branches in all trees and also too many knots in lumber were observed. Pruning is recommended for homogeneous planting of Sclerolobium paniculatum to avoid knots in order to be produced wood of superior quality.

  4. Nutrient Composition of Selected Sweet Potato [Ipomea batatas (L) Lam] Varieties as Influenced by Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Ukom; P.C. Ojimelukwe; D.A. Okpara

    2009-01-01

    Total ß-carotene content of four varieties of Sweet potatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] as influenced by different levels of nitrogen fertilizer were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) The proximate composition and mineral contents were also determined. The nitrogen fertilizer treatments were combinations of four levels of 0kgN/ha(control), 40 kgN/ha, 80 kg/Nha, 120 kgN/ha on the four varieties of Sweet potato; white-fleshed TIS87/0087 and TIS8164, orange-fleshed Ex-I...

  5. Biodegradation of 2,6-Dichlorophenol Wastewater in Soil Column Reactor in the Presence of Pineapple Peels-Derived Activated Carbon, Palm Kernel Oil and Inorganic Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E. Agarry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential effects of palm kernel oil (PKO, pineapple peels derived-activated carbon (PPAC and NPK fertilizer (20:10:10 as amendment agents on the natural bioattenuation of 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP in tropical agricultural soil were investigated. The effect of PPAC dosage on 2,6-DCP biodegradation was also studied. Column reactors containing soil were spiked with 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP wastewater (300 mg/l and amended with PKO, NPK fertilizer and PPAC alone or in combinations. The rates of 2,6-DCP biodegradation were studied for a remediation period of 42 days under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a positive relationship between the rate of 2,6-DCP biodegradation, bacterial growth rate and presence of NPK fertilizer and PPAC (alone or in combination in soil column microcosms contaminated with 2,6-DCP. The 2,6-DCP biodegradation data fitted well to the first-order kinetic model. The model revealed that 2,6-DCP contaminated-soil microcosms amended with NPK fertilizer and PPAC (alone or in combination had higher biodegradation rate constants (k as well as lower half-life times (t1/2 than soil column microcosms amended with PKO and unamended soil (natural attenuation remediation system. Thus, the use of combined NPK fertilizer and activated carbon (NPK + PPAC to enhance 2,6-DCP degradation in the soil could be one of the severally sought bioremediation strategies of remediating natural ecosystem (environment contaminated with organic chemicals.

  6. [Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of fulvic acid from the long-term located fertilization in black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ping; Wei, Dan; Zhou, Bao-Ku; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Xi-Lin; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Shu-Ling

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of long-term located fertilization on soil fulvic acid (FA), in this study, four soil samples were taken from black soil with long-term located fertilization (about 30 year) in Harbin, Heilongjiang province. The fertilization treatments included control (CK), N, P and K fertilization (NPK), horse manure (OM), combination of organic manure and chemical fertilizations (MNPK). Soil FA was extracted from the samples and purified. The excitation, emission, synchronous, and three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM) characteristics of the FA were determined. The excitation, emission and synchronous scan spectra all indicated that the main peaks of FA in the NPK treatment exhibited a significantly blue shift compared with CK, while those of MNPK, OM treatment caused a red shift to some extent. 3DEEM spectra of FA in all treatments exhibited four peaks (peak a, peak b, peak c, and peak d), compared with FA in CK, the wavelengths shift tendency of peak a, peak b, and peak c of FA 3DEEM in NPK, MNPK and OM treatments were similar to that of traditional spectra in FA. In order to provide quantitative information of FA humification degree in different treatments, we investigated the fluorescence index f450/500 (FI), area integration (A370-600 nm, A1 370-412 nm, A4 538-600 nm). Compared with CK, the f450/500, ratio of A1/A in NPK and A4/A in MNPK treatment increased by 4.62%, 6.12%, 7.22%, respectively. However, the f450/500, the ratio of A1/A in MNPK and A4/A in NPK treatment decreased by 3.86%, 15.31%, and 7.22% respectively. This indicated that NPK application gave a lower degree of FA humification, and combination of organic manure and chemical fertilizations would lead to a greater degree of FA aromatization in black soil with long-term located fertilization than CK. PMID:22250551

  7. Short Communication: Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

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    Nasim-Akhtar*, M. Tufail, Muhammad Yousuf Hussain and Muhammad Akram

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Primordial radioactivity in soil depends upon the type, origin and the amount of phosphatefertilizers applied to it. Certain selected cultivated soils of the third largest city of Pakistan,Faisalabad were probed for the values of radioactivity contamination because of the use of phosphatefertilizers. The soils selected for this study were the farms of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture andBiology (NIAB (about 80 hectares, 120 hectares of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF farmand Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI (about 100 hectares. These all soils were situated inthe urban area of Faisalabad. The technique exercised in order for the natural radioactivity estimationwas gamma ray spectrometry, which revealed that the existence of radioactivity in soils of these farmsresult the presence of Potassium (40K, Cesium (137Cs, and Uranium (238U. The average amount ofradioactivity due to the presence of 40K in the NIAB, AARI, and UAF were 650.50, 642.6 and 659.50 Bqkg-1, respectively. For 232Th contamination, the averaged values found were 57.52, 55.80 and 63.0 Bqkg-1 for AARI, NIAB and UAF farms, respectively. For 238U, the average values were 36.51, 30.60 and39.8 Bq kg-1 for all the above farms, respectively. For 137Cs (nuclear fall the averaged value in all theinvestigated farms was 2.50, 2.43 and 2.60 Bq kg-1, respectively. The existence of 137Cs in the soilsamples of the investigated farms shows that these farms might have received the nuclear fall from manmade sources. Its absorbed dose in air for NIAB, AARI and UAF farms amounted to 49.52, 47.55 and52.99 nGy kg-1, respectively. The values of Radium equivalent activity were 159.74, 145.01 and 163.67Bqkg-1, respectively. The calculated annual effective doses for the selected agricultural farms were0.96, 0.95 and 0.98 mSvy-1, respectively. External and Internal radioactive radiation hazard index forall the investigated farms were also calculated, which were less than one. This result leads to theinformation that the existing radiation contamination in the soils of the investigated farms is not animmediate hazard to the labourers/general public who are in contact with these farms. However, if thecultivation of these farms with the use of artificial fertilizers goes on then with time, in future the soilsof these farms may pose a risk for the general public.

  8. Valor nutritivo dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça adubados com nitrogênio e sob lotação rotacionada = Nutritive value of Tanzania and Mombaça grasses fertilized with nitrogen under rotational stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A adubação de pastagens aumenta a produção de forragem e a taxa de lotação, mas o alimento deve conter nutrientes necessários à produção por animal satisfatória . O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses crescentes de N (101,5; 145; 188,5 e 232 kg ha-1, mantendo relação de N-P-K de 1-0,07-1, sobre a composição química e adigestibilidade dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça, sob lotação rotacionada. O experimento foi realizado na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, segundo delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 3 repetições. A composição química e a digestibilidade dos capins Tanzânia e Mombaça pouco variaram, exceto o conteúdo de FDN nas folhas e a digestibilidade dos colmos, maiores no capim-Tanzânia, antes do pastejo. A adubação nitrogenada aumentou os conteúdos de PB ea digestibilidade, sem alterar as frações fibrosas , atestando que a adubação é requisito básico para a intensificação da produção animal em pastagens.Pasture fertilization increase s forage production and stocking rate. However, forage should contain enough nutrients to animal production . The aim of this work was to evaluate increas ing doses of N (101.5; 145.0; 188.5, and 232.0 kg ha-1, keeping N-P-K relation 1-0.07-1, on chemical composition and digestibility of Tanzania and Mombaça grasses under rotational stocking . The experiment was conducted atFaculdade of Ciências Agrárias and Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, following a randomized block design with three replications. Both chemical composition and digestibility presented low variation between Tanzania and Mombaça grasses, except for NDF content of leaves and digestibility of stems, which were found higher levels as to Tanzaniagr ass, before grazing. Nitrogen fertilization increasedprotein content and digestibility without affecting fiber, testifying that fertilization is an essential operation to animal production on pastures.

  9. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  10. Amelioration of Indian urban air pollution phytotoxicity in Beta vulgaris L. by modifying NPK nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution levels are increasing at an alarming rate in many developing countries, including India and causing a potential threat to crop production. Field experiments were conducted to examine the impact of urban air pollutants on biomass (yield) and some physiological and biochemical parameters of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var. All Green) that grew from germination to maturity at seven periurban sites of Allahabad city having different concentrations of air pollutants under different levels of nutrients. The 6 h daily mean NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations varied from 2.5 to 42.5, 10.6 to 65 and 3.5 to 30.8 ?g m-3, respectively at different locations. Levels of air pollution showed significant negative correlations with photosynthetic pigments, protein, ascorbic acid and starch contents and catalase activity of palak leaves. A significant negative correlation was found for total biomass with SO2 (r = -0.92), NO2 (r = -0.85) and O3 (r = -0.91) concentrations. The increased fertilizer application (N, P and K) over the recommended dose resulted in a positive response by reducing losses in photosynthetic pigments and total biomass. This study proved that ambient air pollution of Allahabad city is influencing negatively to the growth and yield of palak plants. - Air pollution caused adverse impact on growth and biomass accumulation of Beta vulgaris L. plants while higher fertility levels showed rts while higher fertility levels showed reduced yield losses

  11. The Spread of Education and Fertility Decline: A Thai Province Level Test of Caldwell's "Wealth Flows" Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Bruce; Hadden, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    Uses 1960-80 census data for 69 nonmetropolitan provinces of Thailand to assess theories of fertility decline. Finds that, congruent with Caldwell's theory, fertility reductions were greatest where mass education was most widespread, but aspects of political-economic and ecological theories were also supported. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  12. Produção de morangos a partir de fertilizantes alternativos em pré-plantio Pre-planting fertilization effects on strawberry fruit yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Kleinick Vignolo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar doses de fertilizantes alternativos na adubação de pré-plantio quanto à produção de frutos de morangueiro. Os tratamentos foram baseados em doses de adubação NPK (kg ha-1 recomendada para a cultura do morangueiro em que as doses de torta de mamona (TM, fosforita alvorada (FA e cloreto de potássio (KCl variaram de acordo com a recomendação da análise de solo. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento em blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as cultivares dispostas na parcela e as adubações na subparcela. Foi utilizado um esquema fatorial 2x4, em que o fator cultivar apresentou dois níveis: 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real', e o fator adubação de pré-plantio, quatro níveis. As avaliações realizadas foram produção de frutos por planta, massa seca da parte aérea e índice de clorofila. A cultivar 'Camarosa' apresentou maior número e massa de frutos por planta e maior massa seca da parte aérea. A cultivar 'Camino Real' apresentou maior massa média por fruto e maior índice de clorofila. Com relação às doses de adubação de pré-plantio que propiciaram maior número e massa de frutos por planta, foram 1.937kg ha-1 e 1.713kg ha-1 de adubo, respectivamente.The study aimed to evaluate the doses of alternative fertilizer pre-planting fertilization on strawberries yield. The treatments were based on doses of NPK (kg ha-1 recommended for strawberry culture in which the doses of castor bean (TM, phosphorite dawn (FA and potassium chloride (KCl varied according to the recommendation of the soil analysis. The treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design at split plots with cultivars in the plot and fertilization in the sub-plot. It was used a factorial 2x4 arrangement, in which the cultivar factor had two levels: 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real', and the pre-planting fertilizer factor with four levels. The evaluations were fruit yield per plant, shoot dry mass and chlorophyll content. 'Camarosa' cultivar showed a greater number and weight of fruits per plant and higher dry mass shoots. Cultivar 'Camino Real' had the largest average per fruit and increased chlorophyll content. Regarding the fertilization rates of pre-planting, which fostered a greater number and weight of fruits per plant, it was 1937kg ha-1 and 1713kg ha-1 of fertilizer, respectively.

  13. Influence of Various Types of Organic Manures and Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Biomass Yield and Nutrient Content of Napier-Bajra Hybrid Grass

    OpenAIRE

    C. Bandeswaran*, L. Radhakrishnan and M. Murugan

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the response of Napier-bajra hybrid grass that was subjected to treatment with 3 different types of organic manures and 3 different levels of inorganic nitrogen (20kgN/acre, 40kgN/acre and 60kgN/acre) as fertilizer. Organic manure (farm yard manure, bio digested slurry and poultry manure) @ 4 tons/acre as basal manure increased the fodder biomass in a dose-dependent manner when used in combination with a nitrogen-containing fertilizer. We estimated biomass yield ...

  14. Effects of foliar feeding under different soil fertilization conditions on the yield structure and quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis?aw Chwil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse foliar feeding of winter wheat cv. ‘Kobra’ in combination with different soil fertilization treatments with calcium and magnesium compounds. The foliar fertilizers INSOL PK + 5% urea solution and EKOSOL U were applied 3 times during the during the growing season in four soil fertilization treatments: control without fertilization, NPK, NPK + MgSO4 × 7H2O, and NPK + CaO + MgO. The investigations involved a 3-year field experiment established on medium soil with a pH of 4.2 in 1 mole KCl × dm-3 and with the granulometric composition of clayey silt. The soil was characterised by a low content of available phosphorus and potassium as well as a very low content of sulphur and magnesium. The foliar fertilizers applied and the soil fertilization treatments had a varied effect on the yield parameters, the macronutrient content in grain and straw, and the content and quality of gluten. Among the soil fertilization treatments, the best production results and quality parameters of winter wheat were obtained after the application of the dose with magnesium lime. The foliar fertilizers had a greater impact on yield and gluten content than on the mineral composition of winter wheat grain and straw.

  15. [Effects of long-term fertilization on organic carbon functional groups in black soil as revealed by synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qing-He; Dong, Pei-Bo; Li, Cui-Lan; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2012-10-01

    A 20 years (1984-2004) stationary field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers (N or NPK) alone or in combination with low (0.125 kg x hm(-2)) or high dose of corn stalk (0.25 kg x hm(-2)) on organic carbon functional groups in black soil using synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (C-1s NEXAFS). Compared with the control (CK) treatment, the aromatic C and the carboxyl C of soil increased, whereas the aliphatic C, the carbonyl C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio decreased after the application of chemical fertilizer alone. After the application of chemical fertilizations in combined with corn stalk, the aromatic C decreased while the aliphatic C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio increased as compared to N or NPK fertilizer treatment. And the change tendency was more obvious with the increase in the dose of corn stalk applied. Regardless of corn stalk application, the aromatic C, the aliphatic C, and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio were all higher for NPK than for N fertilizer treatment. The above results indicated that, compared with the no-fertilizer control treatment, the application of chemical fertilizers alone resulted in the relative proportion of aromatic compounds increased whereas that of aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds decreased. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds was higher after the application of chemical fertilizers with than without corn stalk, with high than with low dose of corn stalk, and with NPK than with N fertilization. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy could characterize in situ the changes of organic carbon functional groups in soil under long-term stationary fertilization. PMID:23285902

  16. Fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK e seus efeitos sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis O. 'Valência' Fertigation with different doses of NPK and its effect on fruit yield and quality of valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZA HELENA DUENHAS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Pratânia, Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK aplicadas por meio de um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão na cultura da laranja em comparação com a adubação convencional irrigada e não irrigada. A avaliação dos efeitos da irrigação e da fertirrigação na cultura foi feita com base na produção e qualidade dos frutos colhidos, na análise de solo da camada de 0-20 cm e na análise de folhas. Os tratamentos não influenciaram significativamente a produtividade de acordo com a análise estatística realizada, embora se tenha observado uma tendência de maior produtividade nos tratamentos de fertirrigação para uma mesma dose. A análise de qualidade dos frutos não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os teores de alguns dos elementos obtidos na análise de solo apresentaram diferenças significativas proporcionadas pela irrigação e/ou modo de aplicação dos fertilizantes à cultura. A análise de folhas diferiu quanto aos teores de Ca, Mg e K.The experiment was carried out in Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the municipal district of Pratânia, State of São Paulo, with the objective of studying the effect of fertigation with different rates of applied NPK through a microsprinkler irrigation system for an orange crop in comparison with conventional fertilization with and without irrigation. The evaluation of the irrigation and fertigation effects on the crop was done considering the production and quality of the fruits, the 0-20 cm layer soil analysis and the leaves analyzes. The treatments did not influence the productivity significantly, although a tendency of larger productivity was observed for the fertigation treatments. The quality of the fruits was also not affected. The results of soil analysis indicated differences for some of the elements due to the irrigation either/or way of fertilizers application. The leaves analyses differed as the Ca, Mg and K tenors.

  17. Fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK e seus efeitos sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis O.) 'Valência' / Fertigation with different doses of NPK and its effect on fruit yield and quality of valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUIZA HELENA, DUENHAS; ROBERTO LYRA, VILLAS BÔAS; CLÁUDIO MÁRCIO PEREIRA DE, SOUZA; CARLOS RENATO ALVES, RAGOZO; LEONARDO THEODORO, BULL.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Pratânia, Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK aplicadas por meio de um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão na cultura da laranja em comparação com a adubação conven [...] cional irrigada e não irrigada. A avaliação dos efeitos da irrigação e da fertirrigação na cultura foi feita com base na produção e qualidade dos frutos colhidos, na análise de solo da camada de 0-20 cm e na análise de folhas. Os tratamentos não influenciaram significativamente a produtividade de acordo com a análise estatística realizada, embora se tenha observado uma tendência de maior produtividade nos tratamentos de fertirrigação para uma mesma dose. A análise de qualidade dos frutos não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os teores de alguns dos elementos obtidos na análise de solo apresentaram diferenças significativas proporcionadas pela irrigação e/ou modo de aplicação dos fertilizantes à cultura. A análise de folhas diferiu quanto aos teores de Ca, Mg e K. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out in Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the municipal district of Pratânia, State of São Paulo, with the objective of studying the effect of fertigation with different rates of applied NPK through a microsprinkler irrigation system for an orange crop in comparison with conventional [...] fertilization with and without irrigation. The evaluation of the irrigation and fertigation effects on the crop was done considering the production and quality of the fruits, the 0-20 cm layer soil analysis and the leaves analyzes. The treatments did not influence the productivity significantly, although a tendency of larger productivity was observed for the fertigation treatments. The quality of the fruits was also not affected. The results of soil analysis indicated differences for some of the elements due to the irrigation either/or way of fertilizers application. The leaves analyses differed as the Ca, Mg and K tenors.

  18. Nitrogen fixed by wheat plants as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels and Non-symbiotic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic nitrogen is required for all egyptian soils for wheat. Free living and N 2-fixing microorganisms are able associate closely related with the roots of geraminacae. Pot experiment studies were carried out to examine the response of wheat plants to inoculation with Azospirillum Brasilense and Azotobacter Chroococcum, single or in combination, under various levels of ammonium sulfate interaction between both the inoculants increased straw or grain yield as well as N-uptake by wheat plants with increasing N levels. Results showed that grains of wheat plants derived over 19,24 and 15% of its N content from the atmospheric - N 2 (Ndfa) with application of 25,50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil in the presence of + Azospirillum + azotobacter. The final amount of N 2-fixers. The highest values of N 2-fixed were observed with mixed inoculants followed by inoculation with Azospirillum and then azotobacter. The recovery of applied ammonium sulfate-N was markedly increased by inoculation with combined inoculants, but less in uninoculated treatments. Seeds inoculated with non-symbiotic fixing bacteria could be saved about 25 kg N without much affecting the grain yield. i fig., 4 tabs

  19. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  20. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO / ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enio, Marchezan; Vandro Rogério, Vizzotto; Marta Gomes da, Rocha; Eduardo Londero, Moojen; José Henrique Souza da, Silva.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização das áreas de várzea na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul limita-se basicamente ao cultivo do arroz irrigado, permanecendo em pousio durante o inverno devido à deficiência de drenagem natural. A melhoria do sistema de drenagem pode ser obtida através do nivelamento da área, da corre [...] ção do microrelevo, associado ao estabelecimento de drenos superficiais. Assim, foi desenvolvido um trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a produção animal em área de terras baixas sistematizada, cultivada com espécies forrageiras de inverno, as quais foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de adubação. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em solo classificado como PLANOSSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, unidade de mapeamento Vacacaí. A área foi sistematizada em desnível de aproximadamente 0,06%, e as espécies forrageiras foram: azevém (Lolium multiflorum), trevo branco (Trifolium repens) e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus), cultivadas em consorciação. Adotaram-se como tratamentos três níveis de adubação: 50%, 100% e 150% da recomendação oficial, sendo utilizada calagem para corrigir o pH para 5,5. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, totalizando seis parcelas de 0,5ha cada uma. Utilizaram-se terneiros de 8 a 10 meses de idade, em pastejo contínuo, com carga inicial média de 480kg ha-1 de peso vivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: ganho médio diário de peso por animal, carga animal, ganho de peso vivo ha-1, digestibilidade in vitro, proteína bruta, composição botânica e taxa média de acúmulo de matéria seca das forrageiras. O resíduo de matéria seca (MS) ha-1 da pastagem manteve-se ao redor de 1000kg, e a taxa média de acúmulo de MS ha-1dia-1 das forrageiras foi de 19,9kg. O ganho médio diário foi de 1016g animal-1 dia-1, com carga média de 738,6kg ha-1 peso vivo e ganho de peso de 469,7 kg ha-1. O número de dias de pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare. Abstract in english The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction [...] associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), white clover (Trifolium repens) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and 128 for the 50, 100 and 150% recommended fertilizer ra

  1. Soil nutrient dynamics as influenced by organomineral fertilizers and tea seedlings nutrient uptake in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ipinmoroti, R.R.; G.O. Adeoye; Iremiren, G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Cocoa husk, cow dung, poultry droppings, siam weed - Chromolaena odorata and tea fluff are common farm wastes in Nigeria. They were used as manures as sole and in combination with inorganic fertilizer as organominerals (OMF), compared to NPK (5:l:1) a reference fertilizer, to supply 150 kg N ha-l to potted tea seedlings in the open nursery space at Ibadan (lowland ecology) and Kusuku (highland ecology) of Nigeria. The manure based fertilizer treatments resulted in significantly (Pc0.05) highe...

  2. Influence of Gamma Irradiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Gemmeiza-9 Wheat Cultivar Yield and its Attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted in an Extension field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate during two winter successive seasons, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 to investigate the influence of four gamma irradiation doses (0,10,20 and 30Gy) and 6 nitrogen fertilizer levels (0,25,50,75,100 and 125 KgN/fad,) , on yield and it's attributes of bread wheat cultivar Gemmeiza-9 The obtained results indicated that, wheat grains irradiated with low dose (10Gy) of Gamma radiation surpassed the other tow irradiation doses (20 and 30 Gy) and the control in each of plant height(cm), spike length (cm), Flag leaf area(cm2)at heading ,number of spikes /m2 , number of spikelets /spike, number of grains / spikelet, grain weight/spike(g) , grain weight/spikelet (mg), 1000- grains weight(g), grain, straw and biological yields/fad. Each increment in nitrogen supply caused significant increase in each above mentioned yield and yield components studied

  3. A Study on the Radioactivity Level in Raw Materials, Final Products and Wastes of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mahbubur R. Bhuiyan; Debasish Paul; Md. Idris Ali; Md. Abu Haydar; Md. Abdus Samad; Sheikh Mohammad A. Islam

    2012-01-01

    A study on the detection of probable radionuclides and their activity concentrations in the raw material (phosphate rock), final product (fertilizer) and waste samples collected from all the phosphate fertilizer factories (total two factories—A Diammonium Phosphate, DAP and a Triple Super Phosphate, TSP factory) in Bangladesh were carried out. A total of seven types of samples (grossly divided into solid and liquid types); liquid waste, waste-mixed river water, normal river water, phosphate...

  4. Serum inhibin B and follicle-stimulating hormone levels as tools in the evaluation of infertile men : significance of adequate reference values from proven fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Petersen, JØrgen H

    2004-01-01

    Inhibin B and FSH levels in 289 idiopathic infertile men were compared with reference materials consisting of 303 proven fertile men (reference group 1) and 307 healthy men from the general population with unknown fertility status (reference group 2). The diagnostic power of these two serum markers of spermatogenesis was evaluated by the use of receiver operating characteristic plot analysis, and an example of how both markers can be used simultaneously in a bivariate reference chart is presented. Inhibin B levels were significantly lower and FSH levels were significantly higher in the infertile men, compared with either reference group, but with significant overlap, especially with reference group 2. Nevertheless, approximately 50% of the infertile men had an inhibin B or FSH, respectively, below the 2.5 percentile or above the 97.5 percentile of reference group 1, whereas only approximately 25% of the infertile men had an inhibin B or FSH, respectively, below the 2.5 percentile or above the 97.5 percentile of reference group 2. Fourteen and 11% of reference group 2 had an inhibin B or FSH, respectively, below the 2.5 percentile or above the 97.5 percentile of reference group 1, suggesting that a significant number of individuals from the general population with unknown fertility but otherwise healthy may actually be subfertile. In conclusion, 1) proven fertile men constitute the most appropriate reference group in the evaluation of the FSH-inhibin B axis; the sensitivity of these markers to identify infertility increased by approximately 20% when fertile men rather than men from the general population were used as control group; 2) FSH alone had a slightly higher positive predictive value than inhibin B alone, but the positive predictive value were highest when both markers of spermatogenesis were used in an inhibin B/FSH ratio; and 3) a bivariate reference chart is a valuable objective tool in the simultaneous evaluation of FSH and inhibin B as two interrelated markers.

  5. Agronomic performance of wheat cultivars in response to nitrogen fertilization levels / Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de trigo em resposta a doses de adubação nitrogenada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovani, Benin; Elesandro, Bornhofen; Eduardo, Beche; Eduardo Stefani, Pagliosa; Cristiano Lemes da, Silva; Cilas, Pinnow.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O lançamento de cultivares, com diferentes exigências nutricionais e potencial produtivo inviabilizam recomendações generalizadas de adubação nitrogenada para a cultura do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi de avaliar os efeitos de doses de adubação nitrogenada (ausência de fertilização, 60, [...] 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N) sobre o desempenho agronômico de seis cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.), em duas safras agrícolas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. A resposta às doses empregadas foi avaliada através das metodologias em gráfico biplot AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction) e GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction) e regressão polinomial. Há variabilidade genética quanto à resposta a adubação nitrogenada, no conjunto de cultivares avaliados. Os maiores incrementos em produtividade ocorreram em condições mais adequadas de precipitação pluvial. O maior desempenho dos componentes do rendimento foram associados às maiores doses de adubação nitrogenada. Abstract in english The release of wheat cultivars with different nutritional demands and yield potential hinders generalized recommendations for nitrogen fertilization. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N) on the agronomic performa [...] nce of six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) in two harvests. A randomized block factorial design with three replications was used. The response to fertilization levels was evaluated through AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction) and GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction) biplot graphic methodologies and polynomial regression. There was genetic variability in response to nitrogen fertilization in the cultivars studied. The biggest increases in yield were observed under a more suitable water regime. The higher performance of yield components was associated with higher nitrogen fertilization levels.

  6. Agronomic performance of wheat cultivars in response to nitrogen fertilization levels=Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de trigo em resposta a doses de adubação nitrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lemes da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of wheat cultivars with different nutritional demands and yield potential hinders generalized recommendations for nitrogen fertilization. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N on the agronomic performance of six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. in two harvests. A randomized block factorial design with three replications was used. The response to fertilization levels was evaluated through AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction and GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction biplot graphic methodologies and polynomial regression. There was genetic variability in response to nitrogen fertilization in the cultivars studied. The biggest increases in yield were observed under a more suitable water regime. The higher performance of yield components was associated with higher nitrogen fertilization levels.O lançamento de cultivares, com diferentes exigências nutricionais e potencial produtivo inviabilizam recomendações generalizadas de adubação nitrogenada para a cultura do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi de avaliar os efeitos de doses de adubação nitrogenada (ausência de fertilização, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N sobre o desempenho agronômico de seis cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., em duas safras agrícolas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com três repetições. A resposta às doses empregadas foi avaliada através das metodologias em gráfico biplot AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction e GGE (Genotype main effects and Genotype x Environment interaction e regressão polinomial. Há variabilidade genética quanto à resposta a adubação nitrogenada, no conjunto de cultivares avaliados. Os maiores incrementos em produtividade ocorreram em condições mais adequadas de precipitação pluvial. O maior desempenho dos componentes do rendimento foram associados às maiores doses de adubação nitrogenada.

  7. Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco José

    2014-07-01

    A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm- 2 (750 ?m spot size), 2.0 ?s delay time and 5.0 ?s integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg- 1 Cd, 2 mg kg- 1 Cr and 15 mg kg- 1 Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers.

  8. The Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yassini

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 10% of Iranian couples wishing to have a child experience some types of infertility which may impose a considerable psychological burden on them. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the level of anxiety and depression among infertile couples undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment cycles in Iran. Methods: Fifty infertile couples that who undergoing IVF (n=25 or ICSI (n=25 cycles were considered for this descriptive cross-sectional study. Also, 25 married couples (18-40 years old with history of fertility served as control subjects. All husbands and wives were examined by means of Beck Depression and Spielberger Anxiety Inventories. Results: Comparing with controls, the highest rates of moderate and severe anxiety, were observed in women undergoing IVF (76% and 12%, respectively; P<0.05. However, the rate of depression among women in IVF group was comparable to women undergoing ICSI. Also, the highest rates of severe depression and anxiety were demonstrated among housewives (23.9% and 11%, respectively. The lowest rates of severe anxiety and depression were observed in husbands participated in either IVF or ICSI cycles. In addition, illiterates, compared with educated couples, undergoing IVF or ICSI program were shown to have the highest rates of both depression and anxiety. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of anxiety and depression were higher in women, especially housewives, undergoing IVF or ICSI cycles than control subjects. Also, men showed lower rates of anxiety and depression than women undergoing IVF or ICSI. Therefore, this can provide useful information and guidance for health professionals working with infertile patients. KeyWords: anxiety, depression, infertility, IVF, ICSI, Iran

  9. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Alessandra A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3 of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  10. Efeito da calagem e adubação da seringueira no estado nutricional e produção de borracha seca Effect of liming and fertilization on nutritional state and dry rubber production of rubber-tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonias de Castro Virgens Filho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da calagem e da adubação NPK no estado nutricional e na produção de borracha seca do clone RRIM 600. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram testados duas testemunhas (sem adubação e sem calagem; sem adubação e com calagem, e seis tratamentos com calagem e adubação (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 e N2P2K2. Os níveis anuais de NPK utilizados corresponderam a 40 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 de K2O. Nas subparcelas foram utilizados os sistemas de explotação ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre os teores de N, P, S, Cu e Zn nas folhas. A aplicação de N, nas duas doses, não elevou o seu teor nas folhas. O aumento nas doses de K2O na presença de N2P2 promoveu decréscimo no teor de zinco. A maior produção de borracha seca (1.778,9 kg ha-1, na média dos três anos, foi obtida no tratamento N2P2K1 + calagem nos dois sistemas de explotação.The effects of lime and NPK application on nutritional state and dry rubber production of clone RRIM 600 were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized split-plot with four replicates. In the plots were tested two controls (without fertilizer and without lime; without fertilizer and with lime and six treatments with lime and NPK fertilization (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 and N2P2K2. The two sub-treatments were the following tapping systems: ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S1 and ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S2. The NPK levels used, in kg ha-1 y-1, were represented by 40 and 80 of N; 17.5 and 35.0 of P2O5 and 0, 33.2 and 66.4 of K2O. There was a significant effect of treatments on the N, P, S, Cu and Zn content in leaves. The N applied to soil up to the second dosage was not enough to increase the N level in leaves. Increasing the application of K2O, in the presence of N2P2, promoted a linear decreasing effect on the Zn level. The highest rubber yield (1,778.9 kg ha-1, as an average of the three years, was obtained with the treatment N2P2K1 plus liming, under both tapping systems.

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from rape field as affected by nitrogen fertilizer management: A case study in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Jinshui; Zhao, Jinsong; Ruan, Leilei; Malghani, Saadatullah

    2011-03-01

    Agricultural soils are one of the major sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2O) emission. Red soil, one of the typical agricultural soils in sub-tropical China, plays an important role in the global N 2O flux emissions. To determine its N mineralization potential, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a rape field under red soil at the experimental station of Heshengqiao at Xianning, Hubei, China. To estimate N-induced N 2O flux, we examined N 2O flux during the growth stages of the rape field including four treatments: fertilizer PK (N0), fertilizer NPK (60 kg N ha -1) (N1), fertilizer NPK (120 kg N ha -1) (N2), fertilizer NPK (240 kg N ha -1) (N3). There were distinct variations in soil N 2O fluxes (from 0.16 to 0.90 kg N ha -1), with higher values being observed during the spring and autumn while low values were observed during winter season. Among different treatments, N fertilization significantly increased the N 2O fluxes, with highest fluxes from N3 while lowest values being observed from N0 treatment. This suggested increased microbial activity in response to increased N fertilizer application. It was interesting to note that fertilizer-induced emissions decreased as the applied fertilizer amount was increased. During the whole growing season, N 2O flux did not correlate with soil temperature, but it significantly correlated to other environmental variables; water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NO 3--N and NH 4+-N contents, which suggests the need for efficient water use and low inorganic nitrogen fertilizer management practices.

  12. Response of Sweet Potato to Integrated Effect of Chemical and Natural Phosphorus Fertilizer and Their Levels in Combination with Mycorrhizal Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abd El-Fattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices based on combinations of biofertilizer and inorganic or natural sources of fertilizer would produce vigor growth and more sustainable yield than either using biofertilizer or inorganic fertilizer alone. In this respect, two field trials were performed in 2007 and 2008 summer seasons to determine the growth, root quantity and quality response of sweet potato to chemical and natural Phosphorus (P fertilizer (superphosphate and rock phosphate under four levels of P in combination with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM fungi inoculation treatment and their integrated effects. The obtained results showed superior growth, increased total and marketable yield, in addition improved root quality (total sugars, total carotene, total soluble solids and carbohydrates with superphosphate comparing with natural rock phosphate. Application of the highest level of P (100% P2O5 enhanced vine length, leaves number and vine fresh weight. Also, increased root quantity and quality traits. Inoculation plants with VAM-fungi significantly increased productivity and improved root organic composition. Integrated effects between either superphosphate under the recommended level (100% P2O5 or between VAM-fungi inoculation under the same level exhibited improving in plant growth and yield production. Sweet potato plants tended to reveal their best quality performance when superphosphate is applied combined with VAM-fungi inoculation treatment. In general, the obtained results indicated that for increasing sweet potato root production and quality, a combination between superphosphate at the recommended P level and VAM-fungi inoculation treatment was the best. The integrated effect between superphosphate and VAM-fungi was better than either using inorganic or bio-phosphate fertilizer alone.

  13. Efeito de lodo de esgoto na fertilidade de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar / Effect of sewage sludge on the fertility of a Paleudult soil cultivated with sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio Cesar da, Silva; Antonio Enedi, Boaretto; Ronaldo Severiano, Berton; Helder Bazaglia, Zotelli; Carlos Alberto, Pexe; Elaíne Mendonça, Bernardes.

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de 0, 20 e 40 Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto, na presença e ausência de fertilizante mineral (NPK) na fertilidade e nos teores de metais pesados de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, cultivado com cana-de-açúcar. Amostras de solo foram [...] coletadas aos 146, 272 e 484 dias após o plantio da cultura de cana-de-açúcar e foram submetidas à análise de fertilidade pelo método do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, incluindo a determinação do S, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb e Zn. O lodo de esgoto diminuiu a acidez do solo e forneceu Ca, P, S e Zn, principalmente. Seus efeitos foram de curta duração, restringindo-se a um ano agrícola. Os teores dos metais pesados das amostras de solo tratado foram maiores que os da testemunha, mas menores que os valores considerados perigosos ao ambiente. Abstract in english Effects of sewage sludge applied to sugarcane, alone (0, 20 and 40 Mg ha-1) or combined with mineral fertilizer (NPK), on a Paleudult soil fertility and on the soil heavy metal were evaluated. Soil samples were collected at 146, 272 and 484 days after the sugarcane was planted. Routine analysis for [...] soil fertility evaluation using the resin extraction procedure was performed and S, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were also analyzed. Sewage sludge decreased soil acidity and was a source of Ca, P, S and Zn, mainly, but its effects on soil properties lasted only one crop season. Sewage sludge application increased soil heavy metal contents but not to levels considered harmful to the environment.

  14. El riego y fertilización en la calidad postcosecha del zapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn]. / The irrigation and fertilization on postharvest quality of sapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn].

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. R., Vallejo-Pérez; D., Nieto-Ángel; M. T., Martínez-Damián; J. A., Mora-Aguilera; D., Téliz-Ortiz; C., Nava-Díaz.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del riego y fertilización sobre la calidad en postcosecha del zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota). Árboles de 20 años de edad provenientes de semilla fueron sometidos a dos frecuencias de riego por gravedad: tradicional (cada 10 días) y controlado a 20 milibares (cada 3 días); además, [...] se evaluaron cuatro mezclas de nitrógeno (N), fósforo (P) y potasio (K): 0, 1, 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK al año, divididas en seis aplicaciones bimestrales. Las variables evaluadas en pulpa de frutos en madurez fisiológica (MF) y madurez comercial (MC) fueron: acidez, sólidos solubles totales (SST), firmeza, color (L,a,b), fenoles y carotenoides totales, pérdida de peso (PP) y concentración de NPK. El riego controlado a 20 mb mejoró la apariencia física de la pulpa (aumento del brillo) en MC e incrementó la concentración de carotenoides. La fertilización, también aumentó la concentración de carotenoides en frutos, mejorando su calidad y además, la pérdida de peso por transpiración fue menor respecto a los frutos de árboles no fertilizados. 2 kg de NPK causó mayor luminosidad en MC y 1.5 kg de NPK produjeron frutos con pulpa más roja. La disminución de la firmeza en frutos con MF causado por la fertilización con 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK, condiciona a un manejo cuidadoso del producto durante su cosecha y evitar heridas y golpes que afecten el proceso normal de maduración. Abstract in english The effect of irrigation and fertilization on post harvest quality of zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota) was evaluated. Twenty year-old trees developed from seed were irrigated at two frequencies: traditional (every 10 days) and 20-millibares controlled (every 3 days). Irrigation was combined with four [...] fertilization rates 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg of NPK per tree. Evaluated variables on fruits at physiological (MF) and commercial maturity (MC) were the followings: acidity, total soluble solids (SST), firmness, color (L, a, b), phenols and total carotenoids, weight loss (WL) and NPK concentration. The 20 mb-controlled irrigation improved pulp appearance (brightness) during MC and increased carotenoid concentration. Fertilization improved fruit quality, increasing carotenoid concentration and reducing weight loss by transpiration. In addition, 2 kg NPK treatment resulted in higher brightness of fruits at MC and 1.5 kg NPK produced fruits with dark red pulp. The fact that firmness of fruits on MF was reduced by applying 1.5 and 2.0 kg NPK requires careful handling of sapote fruit during harvest season avoiding lesions and buises that may affect the normal ripening process.

  15. Colonização micorrízica e fertilidade do solo submetido a fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada em Brachiaria brizantha / Mycorrhizal colonization and soil fertility under different sources and levels of nitrogen fertilization on Brachiaria brizantha

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavia Cristina, Delbem; Márcia Helena, Scabora; Cecílio Viega, Soares Filho; Reges, Heinrichs; Tiago Augusto, Ferrari; Ana Maria Rodrigues, Cassiolato.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A viabilização e aumento da produção de novas cultivares podem ser obtidos com a prática da adubação nitrogenada. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o efeito de fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada, em profundidades, na colonização micorrízica e na fertilidade do solo com Brachiaria brizantha [...] cv. Xaraés. O delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados e os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, envolvendo três fontes de nitrogênio (ureia, sulfato de amônio e ajifer-L40), quatro doses (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1) estudadas em duas profundidades (0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m), com três repetições. Por parcela, as amostras compostas, por cinco amostras simples de solo, foram coletadas, peneiradas, homogeneizadas e destinadas às análises. O uso do ajifer e da ureia proporcionou maior produtividade de massa seca da parte aérea de B. brizantha cv. Xaraés. Em contrapartida, esta sofre redução à medida que as doses se elevaram. A melhor dose de adubação foi a aplicação de 100 kg ha-1 de N. As doses mais elevadas de N, na camada 0 a 0,10 m de profundidade, determinam acidificação do solo e reduzem os valores de MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB e V%. A esporulação, mas não colonização micorrízica, é sensivelmente estimulada em elevadas doses. Abstract in english The feasibility and increase in the production of new cultivars can be obtained with the practice of nitrogen fertilization. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of sources and levels of nitrogen fertilization, concerning the depths, on the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization and [...] soil fertility when covered by Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés. A randomized blocks design was used and the treatments were under a 3 x 4 factorial scheme, regarding three nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, and ajifer-L40) and 4 nitrogen levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg ha-1), studied at 2 different depths (0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m), with 3 replications. In each plot, the soil samples, composed of 5 simple samples, were collected, sieved, homogenized and sent for analysis. The use of ajifer and urea promoted higher production of shoot dry matter of B. brizantha cv. Xaraés. On the other hand, this dry matter showed reduction with the increase of N doses. The best fertilization dose was 100 kg ha-1 of N. The increasing doses of N employed, on the depth of 0-0.10 m, resulted in soil acidification and decreased the levels of MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB and V%. Sporulation, but not mycorrhizal colonization, was stimulated by higher applied dosages.

  16. Converging strategies by farmers and scientists to improve soil fertility and enhance crop production in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Saidou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Farmer perception, indigenous knowledge, extensive cassava, earthworm casts, arbuscular mycorrhiza, crop rotation, nutrient uptake, soil fertility, co-research, land tenure.Farmers in the transitional zone of Benin claim that extensive cassava cropping and prior cotton fertiliser enhance yield of subsequent maize. To cope with labour shortage, farmers have adapted fertiliser practices by mixing NPK-SB and urea. We agreed with farmers through a Stakeholder Learning Group to study the...

  17. Soil fertility dynamics in a semiarid basin: impact of scale level in weighing the effect of the landscape variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arid and semi-arid Mediterranean soils are particularly sensitive to degradation processes, and soil fertility could play important role in restoration/conservation practices. Our objective was to study the relationships between soil and landscape at different scales in order to understand the main drivers of soil fertility on a semiarid catchment. A stratified sampling plan was carried out to take soil and landscape representative variability. Multivariate statistic techniques were used to elucidate the relationship between both. The results showed that soil fertility are positively related with density of vegetation and topographical conditions favourable to soil moisture at small scale, while negatively with topographical factors that contributed erosion dynamic on ero debility lithologies at medium and large scale. (Author) 8 refs.

  18. Natural selection on age-specific fertilities in human females: comparison of individual-level fitness measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käär, P; Jokela, J

    1998-12-22

    Lifetime reproductive success and timing of reproduction are key components of life-history evolution. To understand the evolution of reproductive schedules, it is important to use a measure of fitness that is sensitive both to reproductive quantity and reproductive timing. There is a contradiction between the theory, which mainly focuses on the rate measures of fitness (r and lambda), and empirical studies, which mainly use lifetime reproductive success (LRS), or some of its correlates, as a fitness measure. We measured phenotypic selection on age-specific fertilities in three pre-modern human populations using individually estimated finite rate of increase, er (lambda). We found that lambda and lifetime reproductive success ranked individuals differently according to their fitness: for example, a female giving birth to four children at a young age may actually have a higher fitness than a female giving birth to six children at a greater age. Increase in fertility at the young age classes (15-19 years) was favoured by selection, but the intensity of selection on fertility was higher in the older age classes (20-30 years), where the variance in fertility was highest. Hence, variation in fertility in the older age classes (20-30) was actually responsible for most of the observed variation in fitness among the individuals. Additionally, more than 90% of variation in fitness (lambda) was attributable to individual differences in LRS, whereas only about 5% of all variation in fitness was due to differences in the reproductive schedule. The rate-sensitive fitness measure did not significantly challenge the importance of total fertility as a component of fitness in humans. However, the rate-sensitive measure clearly allowed more accurate estimation of individual fitness, which may be important for answering some more specific questions. PMID:9921680

  19. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether an additional foliar calcium application influenced the same parameters. Subsequently, the effect of the various treatments on the germination of the obtained seeds was explored. Two identical experiments (A and B) were carried out with five concentrations of nutrient solutions corresponding to an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.25 mS·cmL1, 2.50 mS·cmL1, 3.75 mS·cmL1, 5.00 mS·cmL1, and 6.25 mS·cmL1. Additionally, plants were sprayed with a 0.5% foliar-applied calcium solution or deionized water (control) three times during the experimental period. In Expt. A, the concentration of fertilizer significantly affected seed production. Number of flower heads and seed weight were not influenced by the dose of fertilizer, but plant biomass and number of seeds were significantly reduced at the highest concentration (6.25 mS·cmL1). In Expt. B, the fertilizer concentration did not affect number of flower heads and seed number, but seed weight and plant biomass were significantly reduced at the highest fertilizer concentration. In both experiments, the seeds germinated slower and less seeds germinated when plants had received the largest amount of fertilizer (6.25 mS·cmL1). In none of the experiments did applied calcium affect the number of flowers, seed production, seed weight, or the total biomass. Our data indicate that seed producers of G. hybrida should not apply standard fertilizer in a concentration higher than corresponding to an EC of ’1.25 mS·cmL1. It would have been valuable if we also had included a treatment with a lower EC value like 0.75 mS·cmL1 to improve the estimate of the optimal EC level from a curved function for the seed production and quality parameters.

  20. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea / Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Felippe, Ratke; Adriana, Verginassi; Débora de C, Basto; Hélber S, Morgado; Milena RF de, Souza; Eliana Paula, Fernandes.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lent [...] a e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola), 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®)),3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N®)) e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®)), e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas, matéria seca de folhas e os teores de nitrogênio foliar. As doses de diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta mostraram regressões polinomiais significativas para a produção de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula e teores de nitrogênio foliar, sendo que neste ultimo parâmetro avaliado, o Entec 26® não obteve regressão polinomial significativa. A produção de matéria seca de folhas de rúcula mostrou regressões lineares não significativas. As máximas produções de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula foram obtidas com as doses de 600 kg ha-1; 490 kg ha-1; 765 kg ha-1 e 462 kg ha-1 de N com o uso de uréia, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® e Super N®, respectivamente. Abstract in english Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 ( [...] agricultural urea), 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®)),3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N®)) and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®)). Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.

  1. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felippe Ratke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 (agricultural urea, 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®,3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N® and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®. Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola, 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®,3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N® e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®, e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas, matéria seca de folhas e os teores de nitrogênio foliar. As doses de diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta mostraram regressões polinomiais significativas para a produção de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula e teores de nitrogênio foliar, sendo que neste ultimo parâmetro avaliado, o Entec 26® não obteve regressão polinomial significativa. A produção de matéria seca de folhas de rúcula mostrou regressões lineares não significativas. As máximas produções de matéria fresca de folhas de rúcula foram obtidas com as doses de 600 kg ha-1; 490 kg ha-1; 765 kg ha-1 e 462 kg ha-1 de N com o uso de uréia, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® e Super N®, respectivamente.

  2. The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onifade, OS.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha, four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P, NPK (20 : 10 : 10, and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS. Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm, density (plants/m2 and spread (cm were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Sampling for yield estimation in each plot was done at 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Mean plant height with respect to seed rate, fertilizer type and growth stage significantly (P 2000 kg DM/ha. Application of SSP, NPK and CAN gave more total DM yields than the unfertilized control plot respectively by about 69, 75 and 75 %. Total DM yield varied from 1024 kg DM/ha when T. procumbens was harvested at an earlier stage (6 WPS to 2130 kg DM/ha at a later harvest (12 WPS. The main CP of leaf was significantly (P <0.05 affected by ail the treatments imposed.

  3. Comportamento dos milhos H. 6999, asteca e catêto em três níveis de adubação e três espaçamentos, em São Paulo / Behavior of three corn varieties planted at three fertilizer levels and three spacings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G. P., Viégas; J. de, Andrade Sobrinho; W. R., Venturini.

    Full Text Available São discutidos neste trabalho os resultados de 32 ensaios de variedades x espaçamento x adubação realizados no ano agrícola 1959-60, em São Paolo, instalados com o propósito de estudar o comportamento do H. 6999, Asteca e Catêto, plantados nos espaçamentos de 20, 30 e 40 cm entre plantas, nos níveis [...] 0, 1 e 2 de adubação. A dose 1 correspondeu a 25-68-22,5 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O. Feita a análise estatística de cada ensaio, foram reunidos de acôrdo com os grandes tipos de solos do Estado de São Paulo, efetuando-se a seguir a análise por grupos e de todo o conjunto. A produção média dos 12 ensaios localizados em solos do arenito Bauru foi de 3557 kg/ha. O H. 6999 deu 452 kg/ha mais do que o Asteca e êstes, em média, 1091 kg/ha mais do que Catêto, a mais alta diferença assinalada nos quatro grupos estabelecidos. Entre espaçamentos, a diferença foi de 746 kg/ha, linear e altamente significativa. Houve efeito linear significativo da adubação correspondente a 1271 kg/ha. A produção média nos 8 ensaios realizados em solos massapê e salmourão foi de 3154 kg/ha. O H. 6999 superou o Asteca de 683 kg/ha; a média dêstes ultrapassou a do Catêto em 676 kg/ha. O efeito linear para espaçamento foi de 400 kg/ha. A diferença entre dose 0 e 2 de adubos foi de 1 240 kg/ha. A média de produção dos 8 ensaios efetuados em terra-roxa e roxa-misturada foi de 4 275 kg/ha, superando a de todos os outros grupos. O H. 6999 produziu 600 kg/ha mais que Asteca, e êstes em média, 824 kg/ha mais do que Catêto. O efeito linear para espaçamento foi de 726 kg/ha, significativo no nível de 0,1% de probabilidade. O efeito linear da adubação foi de 1448 kg/ha, também altamente significativo. A média de produção para os 4 ensaios conduzidos em solos do Terciário e do Glacial foi de 3 086 kg/ha. O H. 6999 superou o Asteca em 534 kg/ha e, a média dêstes, a do Catêto em 468 kg/ha. O efeito do espaçamento foi de 370 kg/ha, linear e altamente significativo. Os tratamentos com a dose 2 de adubos superaram significativamente os sem adubo em 1 214 kg/ha. A produção média geral dos 32 ensaios foi de 3577 kg/ha. No total, o H. 6999, com uma dose de adubos, produziu quase o dôbro da variedade Catêto não adubada. Abstract in english This paper reports the results of 32 yield trials carried out in different localities, covering - Massapê, Terra Roxa, Arenito Bauru, Glacial and Terciário - great types of soils in the State of São Panlo. The experimental design was a 3³ with the following treatments: three varieties - Cateto, Aste [...] ca and H. 6999; three populations 50, 33 and 25 thousand plants per hectare; and three fertilizer levels - 0, 1 and 2. Dosis 1 corresponds to 25-68-22.5 kg/ha of NPK. Each plot was 30 m². Statistical analyses of each trial and also of the groups of experiments were made to test main effectB and interactions. According to the adopted model, Y = m + v + a + e + va + ve + ae + l+ lv-f-la + le + lev + lva + lea + b (1) + E. m was the general average, v, a, e, and l, i, e, variety, fertilization, spacing, location and their interactions; b(1), replication effect within localities and E the residual error including some high order interactions. Linear and quadratic components for a and e were orthogonally decomposed; V1 being Cateto against H. 6999 + Asteca and v2 being H. 6999 against Asteca. The average variation coefficient was 15 per cent; only in 4 of the 32 trials was the variation coefficient larger than 20 per cent. On the average the double cross hybrid H. 6999 outyielded significantly the variety Asteea by 572 kg/ha. Asteca + H. 6999 were 834 kg/ha better than Cateto. An increase of 843 kg/ha was obtained with a population of 50,000 plants over the treatment which corresponds to 25,000 plants per hectare. The average response to fertilisation did not differ for the great types of soils. A significant linear effect of 1,300 kg/ha measured from level 0 to level 2 was recorded; also a quadratic significant response was verified, indicating that the ma

  4. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed.Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001) and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01), respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS). In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032) and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafoll305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients (Author).

  5. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Their Application Time on Yield and Some Agronomic Traits of Rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401 in Winter Cultivation in Guilan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rabiee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the proper nitrogen fertilizer rates and its application times for achieving high grain and oil yields of rapeseed cultivar, Hyola 401, a research was carried out in paddy fields of Rice Research Institute of Iran in Rasht during two cropping seasons. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The experimental factors were pure nitrogen fertilizer rate at five levels of 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 Kg ha-1 and fertilizer application times at five levels of all fertilizer at planting; 1/3 at planting + 2/3 in stem elongation; 1/3 at planting + 1/3 in stem elongation + 1/3 before flowering; 1/3 in 3-4 leaf stages + 1/3 in stem elongation +1/3 before flowering; 1/4 at planting + 1/4 in 3-4 leaf stages + 1/4 in stem elongation + 1/4 before flowering. The results of statistical analyses showed that from amony nitrogen rates, application of 240 Kg N ha-1 and 180 Kg N ha-1 with average production of 2505 Kg ha-1 and 2596 Kg ha-1 respectively showed the highest grain yield and were in the same group. of Nitrogen application times, application of 1/3 at planting + 1/3 in stem elongation + 1/3 before flowering had the highest grain and oil yields with average of 2155.3 Kg ha-1 and 9865 Kg ha-1, respectively. Maximum oil percentage was observed in control treatment (without N-fertilizer application and the highest oil yield was obtained for nitrogen rates of 180 and 240 Kg ha-1. Also, the highest growth period was observed for the treatment of 240 Kg nitrogen with 206.3 days. The results showed that nonsignificant difference exists between the nitrogen rates of 180 and 240 Kg ha-1 in grain and oil yields. Therefore, the rate of 180 Kg ha-1 is recomended due to less fertilizer consumption and prevention of destructive effect on the environment

  6. Amelioration of NPK on Metals Polluted Bare and Vegetated Sites of Trelogan Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Anwer, M.; Irshad Hussain; Mcneilly, T.; Putwain, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out at Trelogan lead/zinc mine waste in North Wales, England with the amelioration of N, P, K. NP, NK, PK and NPK in bare and vegetated areas. In seven treated plots of bare mine area, the seedlings of three species, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris and Anthoxanthum odoratum differed significantly (p = 0.01). Similarly dry weight of four species, F. rubra, A. capillaris, A. odoratum and Cladonia sp. (a lichen) in vegetated treated plots also differed si...

  7. DETERMINACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES NIVELES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN PAPA (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA) DIACOL CAPIRO EN UN SUELO CON PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA / DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA) DIACOL CAPIRO IN A SOIL WITH PROPERTIES ANDICAS OF SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jairo Yovani, Rios Quinchoa; Sonia del Carmen, Jaramillo Villegas; Luis Hernán, González Santamaría; José Miguel, Cotes Torres.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La fertilización es una labor que cumple con la necesidad de suplementar a la planta, los nutrientes no satisfechos por el suelo en su condición de fertilidad natural. Por muchas décadas se han utilizado dosis deficientes que conducen a bajas producciones, y en ocasiones dosis excesivas de fertiliza [...] ntes químicos que pueden generar problemas ambientales. La fertilización con nutrientes secundarios (Ca, Mg, S) y el micronutriente B, han sido poco estudiadas en el cultivo de papa, razón por la cual se evaluó, en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín), el efecto de diferentes dosis de estos nutrientes en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena) de la variedad DIACOL Capiro en un suelo con propiedades ándicas de Santa Rosa de Osos. Se utilizaron dosis bajas, moderadas y altas de NPK, Ca, Mg, B y S, y se encontró una respuesta positiva en rendimiento a las aplicaciones crecientes de NPK (500, 1.500 y 3000 kg ha-1), también se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso de los tubérculos de primera y segunda categoría, mientras que los tubérculos de tercera y cuarta categoría no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las interacciones entre Ca, Mg, B y S no tuvieron efecto apreciable sobre el rendimiento de los tubérculos, ya que en la mayoría de los casos solo se observaron los efectos simples de dichos elementos. Abstract in english The fertilization is a work that fulfills the supplementary to the plant nutritional necessities that are not satisfied by the soil, in its condition of natural fertility. For many decades faulty doses has been used that take to low productions, and in occasions excessive doses of chemical fertilize [...] rs that lead to environmental problems. The fertilization with nutritious secondary (Ca, Mg, S) and the micronutrient B, has been little studied in potato crop in Colombia; for this reason, we evaluated, in the Centro de Investigacion e Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal Paysandú of the La Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín), the effect of different doses of these nutrients, in a cultivation of potato of the variety DIACOL Capiro in a soil with andics properties of Santa Rosa de Osos. Low, moderate and high doses of NPK, Ca, Mg, B and S, was used, and it was a positive result in yield to the growing applications of NPK (500, 1.500 and 3000 kg ha-1), significant differences were also presented in weight in the tubers of first and second category, while the tubers of third and quarter category did not present significant differences. The interactions among Ca, Mg, B and S didn’t have appreciable effect on the yield of the tubers, since in most of the alone cases one observes the simple effects of this elements.

  8. Mixed fertilizers incorporated in organic polimer matrix and pressed in tablets as means of enhancing the nutrients productive use in increased crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of increasing productive use of fertilizer nutrients in crops an admixture of brown coal dust containing up to 40 % carbon ammonia lignosulfonate with 50 % lignoles dry matter as binding agent were used to press water soluble fertilizer sources with a total of N+P2O5+K2O content of up to 26 % in tablets. These may be manufactured at different N:P2O5:K2O ratios as for instance 1:1:1; 1:0.75:0.50 etc. Brown coal and coal refuse dust were used as matrix for inclusion while lignosulfonates served for binding the ingredients when pressing them in tablets of 15-20 g dry mass each. These were tested in accurate field experiments to compare the agronomic effectiveness of equal amounts of NPK in tablets with equivalent rates of powdered sources of nutrients in the same chemical forms. NPK pressed in tablets were applied locally along the plant row, while the powdered mixed fertilizer have been thoroughly mixed in the ploughed layer. Accurate field experiments have pointed out the higher agronomical effectiveness of NPK pressed in tablets as compared to equal amounts of NPK powdered and thoroughly mixed into the ploughed layer of soil. Indicators were higher yield increases per nutrient unit and higher degrees of apparent productive use of nutrients in crops. Refs. 4 (author)

  9. Effects of growth patterns and dietary protein levels during rearing of broiler breeders on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and offspring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; van den Brand, H; Hendriks, W H

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growth patterns and dietary crude protein levels during rearing in broiler breeder females on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and offspring performance. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used, with 2 growth patterns to reach a target body weight at 20?wk of age of 2,200 g (standard = standard growth pattern) or 2,400 g (high = high growth pattern), and 3 dietary protein levels (high = crude protein, high), (medium = crude protein, medium), and low = crude protein, low). Fresh egg composition and organ development in hatchlings were determined. Offspring of the different groups were reared until an age of 34 d and feed intake, body weight gain, mortality, and carcass composition were determined. In 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders compared to standard growth pattern breeders, fertility and hatchability of set eggs were increased; embryonic mortality between d 1 and 9 was decreased whereas hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected. Breeders fed the medium crude protein diet showed a decreased hatchability of fertile eggs caused by an increased embryonic mortality between d 18 and 21 compared to breeders fed the high crude protein and low crude protein diets. Offspring of 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders tended (P = 0.059) to have a higher body weight at d 34 than offspring of standard growth pattern breeders, which was achieved by a tendency to a higher body weight gain (P = 0.057). Offspring of breeders fed the medium and low crude protein diet showed a higher feed intake between d 18 and 27 and during the total growth period, as compared to offspring of high crude protein breeders. Male broilers of low crude protein breeders had higher breast meat yield than male broilers of high crude protein breeders, while breast meat yield of female broilers was not affected by dietary protein levels. This experiment showed that a higher growth pattern during the rearing period increased fertility, decreased embryonic mortality, and improved offspring performance in young breeders, whereas decreased dietary protein level had no or less pronounced effects on these traits. PMID:25681474

  10. RESPUESTA DE LA PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.) VARIEDAD DIACOL CAPIRO A LA FERTILIZACIÓN EN UN ANDISOL DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO, COLOMBIA / EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L.) DIACOL CAPIRO VARIETY UNDER ANDISOL FROM EAST ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edison David, Tabares Patiño; Sonia, Jaramillo Villegas; Luis Hernán, González Santamaría; José Miguel, Cotes Torres.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la respuesta de la fertilización en papa DIACOL Capiro se evaluaron diferentes niveles de Ca (0, 3, 5 y 9 cmolc kg-1), Mg (0, 0,7; 1,4 y 3 cmolc kg-1), B (0, 0,5, 1,0 y 2,0 mg kg-1) y S (0, 10, 20 y 40 mg kg-1), con tres niveles de NPK, (relación 1:2:2) en dosis de 500, 1.500 y [...] 3.000 kg ha-1. Para ello se utilizó un diseño central compuesto modificado sobre 80 parcelas experimentales de 1 m2. Para determinar las concentraciones de estos elementos en el suelo, se realizaron incubaciones de suelo y se obtuvieron eficiencias de 0,17; 0,83; 0,79; 0,90; 0,10 y 0,53 para P, K, Ca, Mg, B y S, respectivamente. Hubo una respuesta positiva a las dosis crecientes de NPK, cuyos promedios de producción total fueron 7,54; 9,34 y 11,39 kg m-2. Sin embargo, la relación costo/beneficio, indica que las dosis adecuadas para la fertilización química de la papa Diacol Capiro en este suelo, están alrededor de 1.500 kg ha-1 y no justifica la aplicación de las dosis más altas de fertilizante, dado que al duplicarlas solo se logra un incremento del 22% en la producción total y no se observaron diferencias significativas en la producción de tubérculos de mayor valor comercial. Las aplicaciones de Ca y Mg no siempre presentaron efectos positivos sobre la producción en los diferentes niveles de fertilización evaluados. Las adiciones de B y S mostraron reducción en la producción con diferencias significativas, por posible desbalance en la solución nutritiva del suelo, dado que la materia orgánica adicionada, suple las deficiencias de microelementos y el S. Abstract in english This research was carried out for evaluate the response to fertilization in andic soils of the potato variety DIACOL Capiro. Different levels of Ca (0, 3, 5 y 9 cmolc kg-1), Mg (0, 0.7, 1.4 and 3 cmolc kg-1), B (0, 0,5, 1,0 and 2,0 mg kg-1) and S (0, 10, 20 y 40 mg kg-1) with three levels of NPK, (g [...] rade 1:2:2) in 500, 1.500 and 3.000 kg ha-1 dose where evaluated. A modified central composite design was used and 80 experimental plots of 1 m2 were established. In order to determinate the concentrations of these elements in the soil solution, there were made incubations with different dose of these elements and the application efficiency were P: 0.17, K: 0.83, Ca: 0.79, Mg: 0.90, S: 0.53 and B: 0.10. The yield was partitioned in four categories by size tuber. The levels of NPK showed a positive response for total yield with averages 7.54, 9.34 and 11.39 kg m-2 for 500, 1.500 and 3.000 kg ha-1 of NPK, respectively.. Differences among the tuber size categories, more of 6 cm, 2-4 cm and less of 2 cm , were significant, but in the 4-6 cm category it did not have significant differences. The Ca and Mg applications showed unpredictable effects over the production in the different fertilization levels evaluated. The use of B and S did show significant differences in the production for the studied soil.

  11. Colonização micorrízica e fertilidade do solo submetido a fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada em Brachiaria brizantha = Mycorrhizal colonization and soil fertility under different sources and levels of nitrogen fertilization on Brachiaria brizantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cristina Delbem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A viabilização e aumento da produção de novas cultivares podem ser obtidos com a prática da adubação nitrogenada. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o efeito de fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada, em profundidades, na colonização micorrízica e na fertilidade do solo com Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés. O delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados e os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, envolvendo três fontes de nitrogênio (ureia, sulfato de amônio e ajifer-L40, quatro doses (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 estudadas em duas profundidades (0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, com três repetições. Por parcela, as amostras compostas, por cincoamostras simples de solo, foram coletadas, peneiradas, homogeneizadas e destinadas às análises. O uso do ajifer e da ureia proporcionou maior produtividade de massa seca da parte aérea de B. brizantha cv. Xaraés. Em contrapartida, esta sofre redução à medida que as doses se elevaram. A melhor dose de adubação foi a aplicação de 100 kg ha-1 de N. As doses mais elevadas de N, na camada 0 a 0,10 m de profundidade, determinam acidificação do solo e reduzem os valores de MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB e V%. A esporulação, mas não colonização micorrízica, é sensivelmente estimulada em elevadas doses.The feasibility and increase in the production of new cultivars can be obtained with the practice of nitrogen fertilization. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of sources andlevels of nitrogen fertilization, concerning the depths, on the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization and soil fertility when covered by Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés. A randomized blocks design was used and the treatments were under a 3 x 4 factorial scheme, regarding three nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, and ajifer-L40 and 4 nitrogen levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg ha-1, studied at 2 different depths (0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m, with 3 replications. In each plot, the soil samples, composed of 5 simple samples, were collected, sieved, homogenized and sent for analysis. The use of ajifer and urea promoted higher production of shoot dry matter of B. brizantha cv. Xaraés. On the other hand, this dry matter showed reduction with the increase of N doses. The best fertilization dose was 100 kg ha-1 of N. The increasing doses of N employed, on the depth of 0-0.10 m, resulted in soil acidification and decreased thelevels of MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB and V%. Sporulation, but not mycorrhizal colonization, was stimulated by higher applied dosages.

  12. Maduración y calidad de frutos de mango 'Kent' con tres niveles de fertilización / Ripening and fruit quality of mango 'Kent' with three levels of fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    René, García Martínez; Alfredo, López Jiménez; Crecenciano, Saucedo Veloz; Samuel, Salazar-García; Javier, Suárez Espinosa.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El programa anual de fertilización juega un papel importante en el manejo del huerto y de su eficiencia dependen, en gran medida, la producción y calidad de los frutos. Una fertilización balanceada considera la cantidad de nutrientes disponibles en el suelo, incluyendo los que utiliza el árbol para [...] su desarrollo y los que son removidos por la producción de fruto, lo que asegura el suministro adecuado de macro y micro elementos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto del programa de fertilización sobre los cambios en las variables relacionadas con la maduración y calidad de frutos de mango 'Kent', a partir de un experimento instalado en un huerto de comercial en Acaponeta, Nayarit, México, donde se aplicaron tres niveles de fertilización ((g árbol-1): normal (381 de N, 367 de P2O5, 296 de K2O, 688 de Ca, 84 de Mg, 14 de Fe, 9 de Mn, 5 de Zn y 45 de B), alta (50% más de cada elemento de la dosis normal) y control (sin fertilización). Las dosis de fertilización afectaron la concentración nutrimental del fruto. Se presentaron diferencias en los perfiles de la intensidad respiratoria, firmeza, sólidos solubles totales (SST), ácido cítrico, ácido ascórbico y relación azúcar/ácido, asimismo, la presencia de nitrógeno en los niveles de fertilización normal y alta, aumentó la tonalidad verde del color de fondo de los frutos. Se concluyó que, la calidad y vida de anaquel de los frutos fue afectada por los niveles de fertilización aplicados. Abstract in english The annual fertilization program plays an important role in the management of the garden and its efficiency depend largely, production and fruit quality. A balanced fertilization consider the amount of nutrients available in the soil, including those used by the tree for their development and they a [...] re removed by the production of fruit, ensuring adequate supply of macro and micro elements. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fertilization program on changes in the variables related to the maturation and fruit quality of mango 'Kent' from an experiment installed in a commercial orchard in Acaponeta, Nayarit, Mexico, where three levels of fertilization were applied (g tree-1): regular (381 de N, 367 de P2O5, 296 de K2O, 296, 688 Ca, 84 Mg, Fe 14, 9 Mn, 5 Zn and 45 B), high (50% more of each element of the regular dose) and control (without fertilization). The fertilization affected the nutrient concentration of fruit. Differences were presented in profiles the total respiratory rate, firmness, soluble solids (TSS), citric acid, ascorbic acid and sugar/acid ratio also the presence of nitrogen in levels of regular and high fertilization increased the green hue of the background colour of the fruits. It was concluded that the quality and shelf life of fruits was affected by fertilization levels applied.

  13. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens) / Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christina da Silva, Wanderley; Ricardo Tadeu de, Faria; Maurício Ursi, Ventura.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da utilização do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL) aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com adubação orgânica e química foi avaliado no desenvolvimento de mudas de areca bambu. Os tratamentos foram T1= sem adubação (testemunha); T2= T2= EPL 0,1%; T3= EPL 0,2%; T4= NPK-20-5-20; T5= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0 [...] ,1%; T6= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,2%; T7= torta de mamona; T8= torta de mamona + EPL 0,1% e T9= torta de mamona + EPL 0,2%. As soluções de EPL foram 0,1% e 0,2%, aplicados 100 mL por vaso, quinzenalmente. O adubo químico NPK 20-5-20 foi aplicado trimestralmente e a torta de mamona, adubo orgânico utilizado, foi aplicado mensalmente (ambos 40 g por vaso). A altura da planta, o número de folhas e o número de brotações foram avaliados após um ano do início do experimento. A adubação orgânica isolada e com adição de EPL (T7, T8 e T9) proporcionou maiores alturas de planta e maior número de folhas. A adubação orgânica com a adição de EPL 0,1 e 0,2% produziu mais brotos. Para todas as variáveis, a adubação química com e sem o EPL foram menos efetivas que a adubação orgânica com EPL e os tratamentos com EPL isoladamente foram menos efetivos que os tratamentos com adubação orgânica. Abstract in english The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL) on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control), T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, [...] T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fertilizer was applied at three month intervals and castor bean cake organic fertilizer was applied once a month (40 g per pot for both). Plant height and the number of leaves and shoots were evaluated one year after the beginning of the trial. The organic fertilizer on its own and with EPL (T7, T8 and T9) produced the tallest plants and highest number of leaves. Organic fertilizer with 0.1 and 0.2% EPL produced the most shoots. For all variables, chemical fertilizer, both with and without EPL, was less effective than organic fertilizer with EPL and treatment with only EPL was less effective than treatment with organic fertilizer.

  14. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens=Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control, T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fertilizer was applied at three month intervals and castor bean cake organic fertilizer was applied once a month (40 g per pot for both. Plant height and the number of leaves and shoots were evaluated one year after the beginning of the trial. The organic fertilizer on its own and with EPL (T7, T8 and T9 produced the tallest plants and highest number of leaves. Organic fertilizer with 0.1 and 0.2% EPL produced the most shoots. For all variables, chemical fertilizer, both with and without EPL, was less effective than organic fertilizer with EPL and treatment with only EPL was less effective than treatment with organic fertilizer.O efeito da utilização do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com adubação orgânica e química foi avaliado no desenvolvimento de mudas de areca bambu. Os tratamentos foram T1= sem adubação (testemunha; T2= T2= EPL 0,1%; T3= EPL 0,2%; T4= NPK-20-5-20; T5= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,1%; T6= NPK-20-5-20 + EPL 0,2%; T7= torta de mamona; T8= torta de mamona + EPL 0,1% e T9= torta de mamona + EPL 0,2%. As soluções de EPL foram 0,1% e 0,2%, aplicados 100 mL por vaso, quinzenalmente. O adubo químico NPK 20-5-20 foi aplicado trimestralmente e a torta de mamona, adubo orgânico utilizado, foi aplicado mensalmente (ambos 40 g por vaso. A altura da planta, o número de folhas e o número de brotações foram avaliados após um ano do início do experimento. A adubação orgânica isolada e com adição de EPL (T7, T8 e T9 proporcionou maiores alturas de planta e maior número de folhas. A adubação orgânica com a adição de EPL 0,1 e 0,2% produziu mais brotos. Para todas as variáveis, a adubação química com e sem o EPL foram menos efetivas que a adubação orgânica com EPL e os tratamentos com EPL isoladamente foram menos efetivos que os tratamentos com adubação orgânica.

  15. Influence of Various Types of Organic Manures and Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Biomass Yield and Nutrient Content of Napier-Bajra Hybrid Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bandeswaran*, L. Radhakrishnan and M. Murugan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to test the response of Napier-bajra hybrid grass that was subjected to treatment with 3 different types of organic manures and 3 different levels of inorganic nitrogen (20kgN/acre, 40kgN/acre and 60kgN/acre as fertilizer. Organic manure (farm yard manure, bio digested slurry and poultry manure @ 4 tons/acre as basal manure increased the fodder biomass in a dose-dependent manner when used in combination with a nitrogen-containing fertilizer. We estimated biomass yield in terms of fresh matter yield and dry matter yield. We estimated the nutrient content in terms of percentages of crude protein and crude fibre in the grass that was subjected to different treatments. Our results show that biomass yield was significantly higher when organic manures were used in combination with maximum level (60 kg/acre of inorganic nitrogen application. The crude protein content was comparable between the 3 types of organic manures and increased in a dose dependent manner to the level of inorganic nitrogen used. The crude fibre content was significantly (P<0.05 higher when poultry manure was used as organic manure and was not influenced by the level of inorganic nitrogen application. There was no significant difference in the palatability of grass fed to the sheep. The cost of production of the grass decreased at higher levels of nitrogen application. From this study, was conclude that inorganic nitrogen @ 60 kg/acre and organic manure @ 4 tons/acre yields significantly higher fodder biomass and that nitrogen- containing fertilizer is a critical component required for economical production of Napier- bajra hybrid grass.

  16. Fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada na atividade microbiana e fertilidade do solo cultivado com Brachiaria brizantha / Sources and levels of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and fertility in soil cropped with Brachiaria brizantha

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavia Cristina, Delbem; Márcia Helena, Scabora; Cecílio Viega, Soares Filho; Reges, Heinrichs; Carlos Alberto, Crociolli; Ana Maria Rodrigues, Cassiolato.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens geralmente perdem seu potencial produtivo e vigor de rebrota nos primeiros anos, frequentemente associada à falta de adubação nitrogenada. O objetivo deste foi verificar o efeito de fontes e doses de adubação nitrogenada na atividade microbiana (carbono da biomassa microbiana e carbono [...] do CO2 liberado) e na fertilidade do solo cultivado com Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 4, envolvendo três fontes de nitrogênio (uréia, sulfato de amônio e Ajifer-L40) e quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1), nas profundidades 0 - 0,10 e 0,10 - 0,20 m, com três repetições. O aumento nas doses de nitrogênio, na camada 0,0 a 0,10 m de profundidade, reduziu os valores de pH, MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB e V%. O Ajifer e a uréia elevaram os valores de Ca2+ na camada 0,10 - 0,20 m, e as doses de 100 e 200 kg ha-1 aumentaram os valores de Mg2+ e SB. Em doses elevadas o sulfato de amônio acidificou o solo. A perda de carbono pela elevada atividade microbiana pode estar relacionado ao estresse metabólico devido à acidificação do solo. A aplicação de 100 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio acarretou as menores perdas de carbono pela atividade microbiana. Abstract in english Pastures usually lose their yield potential and re-growth energy in a few years, most often due to the lack of nitrogen fertilization. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of sources and levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, under microbial activity (carbon of microbial biomass and c [...] arbon released as CO2) and fertility of soil cropped with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés. The experimental design was randomized, organized under a 3 x 4 factorial scheme, with three nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate and Ajifer-L40) and four nitrogen levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg ha-1), analyzed on two depths (0 - 0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m), with 3 replications. The higher levels of N doses, the 0 - 0.10 m depths, reduced the values of pH, MO, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SB and V%. Ajifer and urea resulted in higher values of Ca2+, in the depths of 0.10 - 0.20 m, and the values of Mg2+ and SB exhibited high values with the doses of 100 and 200 kg ha-1 levels of N. The higher levels of ammonium sulfate resulted in soil acidification. Soil carbon loss, due to the high microbial activity, could be the result of metabolic stress caused by soil acidification. The application of 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen was the best fertilizing level, considering the smaller loss of soil carbon by microbial activity.

  17. Use of slow-release fertilizer on the production of sweet potatoes plantlets in tray

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    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of plantlets in containers generally requires the use of fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of sweet potato in styrofoam trays using slow-release fertilizer. The experiment was carried out, under a screen-protected nursery, in a factorial scheme 5x5, with five doses of slow-release fertilizer NPK 19-06-10 (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 g per 25 kg de substrate and five times of plantlets permanence in tray (14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting the cuttings. The number and dry matter of roots and leaves were evaluated. The number of roots was not influenced by fertilizer addition. In general, there is not damage to plantlets growth until the highest dose used. Therefore, the fertilizer addition increases the sweet potato plants growth and the dose of 200 g per 25 kg of substrate is responsible for the best results.

  18. [On adolescent fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongracz, T

    1987-10-01

    A comparative analysis of adolescent fertility in Hungary is presented. It is noted that, in comparison to 29 other developed countries, the fertility rate of Hungarian women under age 18 is exceeded only by that of black Americans. Factors related to the high rate of adolescent fertility in Hungary include the high proportion of married women aged 15-19, induced abortion, agricultural employment, conservative attitudes toward sexuality, pronatalist policies, high rates of adolescent economic activity, high alcohol consumption levels, and lack of contraceptive knowledge among the young. PMID:12268786

  19. Productivity and Soil Health of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Field as Influenced by Organic Manures, Inorganic Fertilizers and Biofertilizers under High Altitudes of Eastern Himalayas

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    Manoj Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in three consecutive summer seasons of 2005 to 2007 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on soil health and productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. under rainfed condition. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with eight nutrient management practices (combinations of organic manures viz, farm yard manure (FYM, poultry manure (PM, vermicompost (VC and inorganic fertilizers in main plots and seed tuber treatment with three biofertilizers (Azotobactor, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB and Azotobactor + PSB in sub plots. The results showed that 50 % of the recommended dose of NPK through inorganic + 50% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN through organic manures (FYM, PM or VC or 100% recommended dose of NPK through inorganic fertilizers alone favorably influenced the tuber yield, nutrient uptake, soil fertility and paid higher returns compared to other treatments. Seed treatment with Azotobactor + PSB proved better in tuber yield, nutrient uptake and recorded higher returns as compared to sole treatment of either Azotobactor or PSB. Three years pooled result revealed that integrated application of 50 % of recommended NPK through inorganic and 50 % RDN through PM recorded significantly highest tuber yield (22.73 t/ha closely followed by 100 % recommended NPK through inorganic (22.20 t/ha which were 228 % and 223 % respectively, higher than control. Integrated application of inorganic and organic fertilizers and seed treatment with Azotobactor + PSB biofertilizers improved tuber yield, nutrient uptake, and gave higher return as compared to other treatment combinations. Total organic carbon (TOC, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC, available N, P, and K status of the soil after 3 years were maximum when 50 % recommended dose of NPK were applied through inorganic and remaining 50 % RDN through PM.

  20. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra A., Souza; Raquel L., Boscariol; David H., Moon; Luis E.A., Camargo; Siu M., Tsai.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcadores moleculares foram utilizados para estudar os efeitos do nitrogênio mineral na expressão fenotípica de QTLs associados ao número de nódulos (NN) e à resistência a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli em feijoeiro. Linhagens recombinantes obtidas do cruzamento BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 foram aval [...] iadas em casa-de-vegetação, sob dois níveis de adubação nitrogenada (0 e 5 mM de NH4NO3). A resistência ao patógeno foi avaliada pela medição da área foliar lesionada (DLA) e o NN por meio de contagem direta. Análises de variância foram empregadas para detectar associações significativas entre características quantitativas e genótipos das linhagens em 85 loci marcadores distribuídos em 12 grupos de ligação (LG). Sob a condição de ausência de N mineral, foram encontradas associações significativas entre 15 marcadores distribuídos em 7 LG para NN e 11 marcadores em 5 LG para DLA, explicando 34 e 42% da variação fenotípica destas características, respectivamente. Na presença de N, foram detectadas somente cinco associações significativas para NN e oito para DLA, explicando 28 e 26% da variação fenotípica de cada respectiva característica. Alguns QTLs foram detectados somente na ausência de N, evidenciando o efeito deste elemento na expressão destes QTLs. Entretanto, em alguns QTLs associados a NN, a contribuição dos alelos parentais foi dependente da concentração de N utilizada. Quatro QTLs foram encontrados associados tanto a número de nódulos como resistência a Xanthomonas, sugerindo um controle genético comum do feijoeiro à infecções bacterianas. Por outro lado, a expressão fenotípica de alguns QTLs não foi significativamente afetada pelo nível de nitrogênio utilizado. A estabilidade destes QTLs é interessante do ponto de vista de um programa de melhoramento voltado para o desenvolvimento de cultivares adaptadas a condições variáveis de fertilidade de solo. Abstract in english Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN) and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT- [...] 93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3) of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA) and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG) and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  1. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsozué, D.; Nghonda, J. P.; Mekem, D. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), direct seeding (DS) and tillage seeding (TS) on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK + 25 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK + 50 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK + 100 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC) were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC), resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea) and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha-1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha-1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha-1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F3. pH values were 5.2 to 5.7 under DMC, 4.9 to 5.3 under DS and TS, and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were high in the control sample and the DMC than in the others systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low soil pH values.

  2. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

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    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  3. Nutrição e produtividade da nogueira-macadâmia em razão do parcelamento da adubação mineral / Nutrition and yield of macadamia nut tree as a result of split application of mineral fertilizer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos José, Perdoná; Adriana Novais, Martins; Eduardo, Suguino; Sally Ferreira, Blat; Rogério Peres, Soratto.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de nutrientes durante o ano pode influenciar o desempenho da nogueira-macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia). Contudo, não existem informações sobre a resposta dessa cultura ao parcelamento da adubação nas condições brasileiras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do par [...] celamento da adubação mineral na nutrição, produtividade e qualidade de frutos da nogueira-macadâmia. O experimento foi conduzido, durante três anos agrícolas, num Latossolo Vermelho, em Jaboticabal, SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. O experimento foi constituído por quatro formas de parcelamento da adubação NPK (T1 - uma única aplicação, em outubro; T2 - duas aplicações, em outubro e dezembro; T3 - três aplicações, em outubro, dezembro e fevereiro; e T4 - quatro aplicações, em outubro, dezembro, fevereiro e abril). O parcelamento da adubação NPK proporcionou maiores teores de N nas folhas que a aplicação em dose única, mas não interferiu nos teores dos demais nutrientes. A produtividade da nogueira-macadâmia foi incrementada de forma similar com o parcelamento da adubação NPK em duas, três ou quatro vezes, entre outubro e abril, em comparação à aplicação única em outubro. A taxa de recuperação de amêndoas não foi interferida pelo parcelamento da adubação NPK. Abstract in english Nutrient availability during the year can affect the performance of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia). However, there is no information about this crop responses to split application of fertilizer under Brazilian conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of splitting the appli [...] cation of chemical fertilizers on the nutrition, yield, and quality of nuts of the macadamia nut tree. The experiment was conducted over three growing seasons on an Oxisol in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A randomized complete block design with five replications was used. The NPK fertilization treatments were T1 - a single application in October; T2 - two applications, in October and December; T3 - three applications in October, December, and February; and T4 - four applications, in October, December, February, and April. Split application of a chemical source of NPK fertilizer resulted in higher N concentration in the leaves than single application, but it did not affect the concentration of other nutrients. The nut yield was increased when NPK application was split into two, three, or four times from October to April, as compared to single application in October. The recovery rate of nut kernels was not affected by splitting the application of NPK fertilizer.

  4. Vascularização das glândulas adrenais em galinhas da linhagem NPK (Gallus gallus domesticus) / Vascularization of chickens adrenal glands in NPK lineage (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Coutinho do, Amaral; Marcelo Ismar, Santana; Pedro Primo, Bombonato; Frederico Ozanan, Carneiro e Silva; Hildebrando Gomes, Benedicto.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares viscerais, que freqüentemente mostram suficientes variações para diferenciação entre famílias e ordens, utilizamos 34 galinhas da linhagem NPK, com idade aproximada de 10 semanas, eutanasiadas com dose de gás anestésic [...] o, tendo marcado seus contingentes arteriais com solução aquosa de Neoprene Látex ¨450¨ a 50 %, corada com corante específico e fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10 %, para estudar a vascularização das glândulas adrenais. Assim, os resultados indicam que as glândulas adrenais são órgãos pares, dispostos um em cada antímero, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e médio-cranialmente aos rins. Nos dois antímeros, as glândulas adrenais receberam vasos oriundos das artérias adrenais homólogas provenientes da artéria renal cranial e da aorta descendente (ramos diretos). Independentemente da origem, o número de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variou de acordo com o antímero, sendo de 1 a 4 para o antímero esquerdo, e de 1 e 3 para o direito. Quanto maior o número de artérias totais e ramos emitidos pelas artérias adrenais contralaterais destinados a um antímero, maior será o número de ramos destinados pelas mesmas ao antímero oposto. Abstract in english Aiming at knowing the visceral vascular arrangements which frequently show huge variation to be differentiated in families and orders, we used 34 NPK chickens, aged at approximately 10 weeks, euthanized with a dose of anaesthetic gas, with arterial contingents marked with an aqueous 50 % Neoprene La [...] tex ¨450¨ solution, colored with a specific coloring agent and fixed in an aqueous 10% formaldehyde solution, to study adrenal gland vascularization. The results indicated that the adrenal glands are paired organs, positioned in each antimer, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs and medio-cranially to the kidneys. In the two antimers, the adrenal glands receive vessels originating from the homologous adrenal arteries that come from the cranial renal artery and from the descending aorta (right branches). Regardless of their origin, the number of branches destined to the adrenal glands varied according to the antimer, totaling 1 to 4 for the left antimer, and 1 to 3 for the right one. The higher the number of total arteries and branches emitted by the contralateral adrenal arteries destined to an antimer, the higher the number of branches they destine to the opposite antimer.

  5. A Study on the Radioactivity Level in Raw Materials, Final Products and Wastes of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industries in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur R. Bhuiyan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on the detection of probable radionuclides and their activity concentrations in the raw material (phosphate rock, final product (fertilizer and waste samples collected from all the phosphate fertilizer factories (total two factories—A Diammonium Phosphate, DAP and a Triple Super Phosphate, TSP factory in Bangladesh were carried out. A total of seven types of samples (grossly divided into solid and liquid types; liquid waste, waste-mixed river water, normal river water, phosphate rock, phosphate fertilizer, solid waste and normal soil; were analyzed under this study. Raw material samples were collected only from the TSP fertilizer factory. Fertilizer, solid and liquid waste samples were collected from both the factories under study. Moreover, normal soil and natural surface water samples from the suitable areas adjacent to the factories were also collected for the comparison purpose. The samples were analyzed by gamma ray spectrometry technique using a Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe detector of 40% relative efficiency. The analysis of the samples showed that only natural radionuclides such as 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were present in the samples and no traces of artificial radioactivity were found in any of the samples. 40K was found below the detection limit in some samples. The analysis of the samples in the case of TSP fertilizer factory showed that the average activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th and 40K in raw materials were 851.27 ± 7.10, 19.63 ± 6.57 and 54.06 ± 5.93 Bq/kg, respectively, in final product 211.90 ± 4.74, 42.48 ± 10.56 Bq/kg and ND (Not Detected, respectively, in solid waste 187.49 ± 4.88, 70.06 ± 11.76 and 289.27 ± 40.24 Bq/kg, respectively and in liquid waste 6.26 ± 0.63, 10.01 ± 1.39 Bq/L and ND, respectively. The measured results in the case of samples collected from DAP fertilizer factory showed that the average activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th and 40K in the final product were 17.31 ± 3.92, 69.74 ± 9.88 and 48.46 ± 17.22 Bq/kg, respectively, in solid waste 24.47 ± 4.15, 164.62 ± 11.08, 191.52 ± 33.74 Bq/kg, respectively and in liquid waste 3.59 ± 1.05, 37.08 ± 3.30 Bq/L and ND, respectively. Considering the stored raw materials and wastes the part of the ambient environment of the factory, radium equivalent activity, radiation hazard index and external annual effective dose to the workers and public due to these materials were also calculated and compared with world average values.

  6. PRODUCCIÓN DE ABONOS ORGÁNICOS CON LA UTILIZACIÓN DE ELODEA (Egeria densa) PRESENTE EN LA LAGUNA DE FÚQUENE / PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS WITH ELODEA (Egeria densa) PRESENT ON THE FUQUENE LAGOON

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iveth, Caro Lara; Zulma, Romero Otálora; Rodrigo, Lora Silva.

    2009-06-30

    Full Text Available La elodea (Egeria densa), un problema para lagos y lagunas en Colombia, puede ser materia prima para la producción de abonos orgánicos de bajo costo y de buena calidad. Para emplearla en la obtención de abonos orgánicos, se elaboraron fertilizantes a partir de seis formulaciones, así: 1) Elodea 50% [...] cal dolomítica 20% levadura 5% melaza 5% gallinaza 20%. 2) Elodea 60% cal dolomítica10% levadura 3% melaza 8% gallinaza 19%. 3) Elodea 70% cal dolomítica 15% levadura 2% melaza 3% gallinaza 10%. 4) Formulación 1 + lombricompuesto; 5) Formulación 2 + lombricompuesto y 6) Formulación 3 + lombricompuesto. Para cada uno de los abonos, se determinó el contenido total de N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, carbón oxidable total, coliformes y relación C:N. Bajo condiciones de invernadero, se evaluó el efecto de los abonos en un Andisol sobre el cultivo de lechuga e igualmente, se monitoreó la temperatura y el pH a través del periodo de producción de los abonos. En general, el contenido de los elementos analizados y la relación C:N cumplen los requisitos para estos abonos. Hubo efecto significativo del contenido entre formulaciones y en el bioensayo para rendimiento entre formulaciones y dosis, siendo la formulación tres la de más alto rendimiento. De igual manera hubo efecto significativo de fuentes y de dosis en el contenido de N-P-K en la lechuga. El pH de los seis abonos fue de 7,00 a 7,30, considerado apropiado. Se demostró la factibilidad de producción de abonos orgánicos de buena calidad a partir de elodea. Abstract in english Elodea (Egeria densa), a problem in lakes and lagoons of Colombia, could be a raw material to produce cheap and good quality organic fertilizers. To evaluate the elodea for organic compost production, fertilizers were elaborated with six formulations: 1) Elodea 50% dolomitic lime 20% yeast 5% melass [...] e 5% hene manure 20%. 2) Elodea 60% dolomitic lime 10% yeast 3% melasse 8% hene manure 19%. 3) Elodea 70% dolomitic lime 15% yeast 2% melasse 3% hene manure 10%. 4) Formulation 1 + earthworm fertilizer. 5) Formulation 2 + earthworm fertilizer. Formulation y 6) Formulation 3 + earthworm fertilizer. For each fertilizer the total content of N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, CaO, total oxidised carbon, coliforms and C:N were analyzed. Under greenhouse conditions the effect of the fertilizers were evaluated in an Andisol and with lettuce as indicator. During production of the fertilizer temperature and pH were observed. The results showed significant effect of the elements among organic fertilizer. The composition of these fertilizers was according to the requisites for Colombian Organic Fertilizers. The greenhouse experiment showed significant effect of sources and levels on yield and N-P-K content of the lettuce. In general, the formulation three was the best. The pH of the fertilizers varied from 7.0 to7.3, considered adequate. The feasibility to produce good quality organic fertilizers from elodea was demonstrated.

  7. Growth, Yield and Water Use Effeciency of Forage Sorghum as Affected by Npk Fertilizer and Deficit Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Mohamed M.; Alva, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress (DS) is an important limiting factor for crop growth and production in some regions of the world. Limitation in water availability precludes optimal irrigation in some production regions. Therefore, investigations on the interaction of other factors to mitigate the DS to varying degree are important. Two field experiments were conducted in the experimental farm of the National Research Centre, Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, during 2004 and 20...

  8. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key features of reform appear to be political stability, public sector programs, and supply of contraception through the health service. PMID:12319914

  9. Use of organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer in a modern planting system to increase the productivity of vanilla plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanilla is a plant belonging to the orchid family and native to Mexico. In Malaysia, research and cultivation of vanilla plants are becoming more popular and intensive because the plant has a high commercial value. Fertilizing of vanilla plants is important to enhance the nutrients needed by the plants for growth and vanilla pod production. In 1999, research in MARDI showed that the use of chemical fertilizer NPK (15:15:15) was suitable for vanilla plants. For plants that have not produced vanilla pods foliar fertilizer must be sprayed and foliar fertilizer application must be reduced at pod production stage. The fertilizer programme is almost similar to those of other vanilla producing countries such as Indonesia and Mexico. In Indonesia, studies on organic farming of vanilla have been conducted. They have produced chemical-free vanilla fertilizer products such as Bio-Fob, Bio-TRIBA and Organo TRIBA Compost. We in Malaysian Nuclear Agency conducted a study on the effects of organic and bio fertilizers on vanilla at the vanilla experimental plot. This plot adopts the modern system of vanilla planting. The study involved the use of organic and bio fertilizer products produced in Nuclear Malaysia such as Organik NF, plant growth promoter and phosphate solubiliser and imported commercial orchid mycorrhizal bio fertilizer from Korea. The application of these fertilizers is by placing the fertilizers on the planting media in poly bags with replications according to the treatments. Observations were made weekly for 15 weeks by measuring of parameters including the bud growth and leaf number. These data are plotted in graphical form for evaluation.(author)

  10. Comparison of the Phenolic Compounds, Carotenoids and Tocochromanols Content in Wheat Grain under Organic and Mineral Fertilization Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Wojtkowiak; Arkadiusz St?pie?; Alicja Faron; Ma?gorzata Ta?ska; Iwona Konopka

    2012-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the effect of mineral (NPK) and organic-based fertilizers such as compost (C), manure (FYM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) on the appearance (dimensions and color) of spring wheat kernels and on the total content in grain of main its phytochemicals (polyphenols, carotenoids and tocochromanols) and phenolic acids composition. Total phenolic compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay after alkaline hydrolysis of grain and carotenoids were ana...

  11. Crecimiento de vara perlilla (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) en respuesta a fertilización y altura de corte / Growth of "vara perlilla" (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) in response to fertilization and clipping height

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Concepción, Mendoza-Bautista; Miguel Á., López-López; Dante A., Rodríguez-Trejo; Alejandro, Velásquez-Martínez; Fortino, García-Moreno.

    2012-11-15

    Full Text Available Vara perlilla (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) se emplea para elaborar escobas rústicas y artesanías navideñas. Actualmente se aprovechan sus poblaciones naturales y se cultiva. Sin embargo, se carece de información suficiente del manejo de la especie. Con el objetivo de determinar los efectos [...] de tres niveles de fertilización y dos alturas de corte se realizó este estudio en una plantación de tres años. El diagnóstico nutrimental se hizo con la metodología Tendencias de Concentración y se usó para diseñar la fórmula de fertilización. Se aplicaron los nutrimentos que resultaron limitativos. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con seis tratamientos derivados de la combinación de las alturas de corte (6 y 12 cm) y las fórmulas de fertilización (testigo, Mn-Zn y NPK+Mn-Zn). Se evaluaron número de rebrotes, diámetro y longitud de rebrotes, diámetro promedio de rebrotes por arbusto, longitud promedio de rebrotes por arbusto y biomasa aérea, antes y seis meses después de la fertilización. La biomasa y la longitud de rebrotes mostraron efecto de la fertilización (p Abstract in english 'Vara perlilla' (Symphoricarpos microphyllus H. B. K.) is used to elaborate rustic brooms and Christmas handcrafts. Currently, its natural populations are used and it is cultivated. However, there is a lack of sufficient information regarding species management. With the objective of determining the [...] effects of three levels of fertilization and two clipping heights, this study was carried out in a three-year plantation. The nutritional diagnosis was performed by using the Trends in Concentration method which was used to design a fertilization formula. Nutrients that turned out to be limiting were applied. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with six treatments derived from the combination of clipping heights (6 and 12 cm) and fertilization formulas (control, Mn-Zn and NPK+Mn-Zn). The number of resprouts, diameter and length of resprouts, average diameter of resprouts per shrub, average length of resprouts per shrub and aerial biomass were evaluated, before and six months after fertilization. The biomass and the length of resprouts showed an effect from fertilization (p

  12. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the atmospheric dispersion model NPK-PUFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early repression phase of a large-scale nuclear accident real-time air dispersion modelling is an integral part of the quantitative risk estimate on which a countermeasure strategy is based. Due to the stochastic and chaotic nature of the atmosphere the calculation of air dispersion is complicated and the accuracy of the spatial and temporal distributions is limited due to uncertainties in the algorithms, model parameters, and atmospheric input. A lack of knowledge of the magnitude and composition of the radioactive release into the environment will further add significantly to the uncertainty in the overall result of the calculation. A clear understanding of uncertainties in the model and the model parameters is of key importance in the decision process. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of uncertainties in the Dutch atmospheric dispersion model, NPK-PUFF. Uncertainties due to the meteorological fields are not all taken into account in this study. (orig.)

  13. Comparative performance and profitability of two corn hybrids with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of NPK and organic manures on growth and yield of two maize hybrids. Experiment comprised of two factors (H) hybrids (H/sub 1/: FHY-421 and H/sub 2/: FHY-434) and (F) four fertilizer types, viz. F/sub 1/: inorganic fertilizer (control) NPK at the rate 120:60:50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/, F/sub 2/ poultry manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/, F/sub 3/: FYM at the rate 20 t ha/sup -1/ and F/sub 4/: bio-fertilizer at the rate 30 g kg/sup -1/ seed So, the treatments comprised of T/sub 1/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 1/), T/sub 2/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 3/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 1/), T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 5/ (F/sub 3/ + H/sub 1/, T/sub 6/ (F/sub 3/ + H/sub 2/), T/sub 7/ (F/sub 4/ + H/sub 1/), and T/sub 8/ (F/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/). As the experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement, it was observed that although FHY-434 with inorganic fertilizer NPK at the rate 120:60:50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ i.e. T/sub 2/ (F/sub 1/ + H/sub 2/) produced maximum plant height (212.30 cm), number of grains cob/sup -1/ (606.60), 1000-grain weight (310.90 g ), grain yield (8.44 t ha/sup -1/) and net profit (As. 85803 ha/sup -1/), followed by FHY -434 with poultry manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/ i.e. T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/) in the same parameters, yet T/sub 4/ (F/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/) with net profit As. 83764 ha/sup -1/ is being advocated for organic cultivation for long term and sustainable producttion for long term and sustainable production keeping in WTO scenario, as it produced grain yield 8.91 t ha/sup -1/. (author)

  14. The influence of N-fertilization regimes on N2O emissions and denitrification in rain-fed cropland during the rainy season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhixin; Zhu, Bo; Zeng, Zebin

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization regimes on N2O emissions and denitrification rates were evaluated by in situ field incubation experiments with intact soil cores and the acetylene block technique. Intact soil cores were collected from long-term field experiments involving several N fertilization regimes, including single synthetic N fertilizer (N), organic manure (OM), synthetic N, P, K fertilizer (NPK), organic manure with synthetic fertilizer (OMNPK), crop straw residue with synthetic fertilizer (SRNPK) and no nitrogen fertilizer (NF). N2O was sampled from the head space of the cylinders to determine the daily N2O emission and denitrification rate. The results showed that the N2O emissions were greatly influenced by the specific fertilization regime even when the same nitrogen rate was applied. The mean N2O emissions and denitrification rates from the N, OM, NPK, OMNPK and SRNPK treatment were 2.22, 2.66, 1.94, 2.53, 1.67 and 4.63, 5.96, 4.15, 5.41, 3.65 mg per m(2) per day, respectively. The application of OM significantly increased the N2O emission and denitrification compared to the application of NPK because of the high soil organic carbon (SOC) content of OM. However, SRNPK increased the SOC content and decreased the N2O emissions significantly compared to the OM and OMNPK treatments because the addition of crop straw with a high C/N ratio to soil with a low inorganic N content induced N immobilization. The contents of soil nitrate and ammonium were the main limiting factors for N2O emissions in a positive regression as follows: Ln (N2O) = 2.511 + 1.258 × Ln ([NH4(+)] + [NO3(-)]). Crop straw residue combined with synthetic fertilizer is recommended as an optimal strategy for mitigating N2O emissions and denitrification-induced N loss in rain-fed croplands. PMID:25220444

  15. Use of Cocopeat and Zeolite as a Seedling Media for Cocoa and Its Response to Some Levels of Available Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leizy Free Agustin F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, cocoa pod husk is commonly collected as heap nearby processing facilities or in the field and being considered as waste. To minimize the negative impact of the husks and to obtain added value an effort to develop the husk into granule fertilizer has been carried out. Fresh cocoa pod husk was hulled to obtain organic paste, then mixed with 5% zeolite and 5% rock phosphate powder (w/w. The mixture was kept for 2 weeks prior to granulation. The granules were characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests of the granules were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedlings as indicator plants. The tests were set according to completely randomized design and the treatments were arranged factorially. The evaluated treatments consisted of rates of granules and rates of inorganic fertilizer applications. The granules were applied at 7 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 g/seedling. The granule treatments were combined with application of inorganic compound fertilizer at rates of 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15. The inorganic fertilizers were applied four times during experiment. The results indicated that the granule has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, and high content of organic carbon and phosphorus. The growth of coffee and cocoa seedlings increased due to application of granules derived from cocoa pod husk. Responses of coffee and cocoa seedlings to granule application conformed to quadratic equations. The optimum application rate of granules was 14.5 g/seedling for Robusta coffee seedlings and 14.6 g/seedling for cocoa seedlings. Granule application may replaced role of inorganic fertilizer to increase growth of cocoa and coffee seedling.Key words: Cocoa pod husk, organic waste, seedling growth, zeolite, rock phosphate, minerals, Theobroma cacao L., Coffea canephora. 

  16. Sistema de blocos prensados e doses de adubo de liberação lenta na formação de porta-enxerto cítrico / Pressed blocks system and slow release fertilizer levels for citrus rootstock formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes, Serrano; Cláudia Sales, Marinho; Deborah Guerra, Barroso; Almy Júnior Cordeiro de, Carvalho.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à restrição que os tubetes impõem ao crescimento lateral do sistema radicular, o uso de materiais orgânicos prensados está sendo utilizado para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção do porta-enxerto cítrico limoeiro 'Cravo' no sistema de blo [...] cos prensados até a repicagem, e o efeito deste sistema e de doses de um fertilizante de liberação lenta sobre o crescimento desse porta-enxerto até o ponto de enxertia. Avaliaram-se três sistemas de produção até a repicagem: em tubetes preenchidos com substrato comercial composto por casca de pínus; em tubetes preenchidos com substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v); e em "blocos prensados" constituídos pela prensagem do substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v). Da repicagem à enxertia, foram empregadas cinco doses de Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14): 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g planta-1. As mudas provenientes do sistema de blocos prensados atingiram o ponto de repicagem e o de enxertia mais rapidamente que as produzidas em tubetes. No ponto de enxertia, estas apresentaram maiores médias de diâmetro de caule e massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. O sistema utilizado na produção do porta-enxerto também interferiu na resposta das mudas à adubação empregada. Abstract in english Due to the restriction that the stiff plastic tubes impose to the lateral growth of the root system, the use of pressed organic materials has been proposed for the production of forests species seedlings. The research was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the production of rootstock 'Ran [...] gpur' lime tree in pressed blocks until the transplant, and the effect of those systems were evaluated and doses of slow release fertilizer on the growth of that rootstock until the grafting point. Three production systems were evaluated: in stiff plastic tubes filled up with commercial substrate composed by pinus bark; in stiff plastic tubes filled up with substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse and industrial sugarcane plant residues, (3:2;v:v); and production in "pressed blocks" constituted by the press of the substrate used in the system 2. From transplant at the grafting point, five doses of Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14) were used: 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g plant-1. Compared to the seedlings grown in tubes, seedlings coming of the system of pressed blocks reached the transplant and the grafting point more quickly. In the grafting point they resulted in rootstocks with larger stem diameter, larger root and aerial part dry matter. The system used in the production of the rootstock also interfered in the answer of the plants to the employed manuring.

  17. Calidad nutritiva de Brachiaria humidicola con fertilización orgánica e inorgánica en suelos ácidos / Nutritive value of Brachiaria humidicola with organic and inorganic fertilization in acid soils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.M.M., Jiménez; L., Granados; J., Oliva; J., Quiroz; M., Barrón.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de fertilizante orgánico e inorgánico sobre la calidad nutritiva de Brachiaria humidicola, en tres épocas climáticas del año a los 21, 28 y 35 días de crecimiento. El estudio se condujo sobre una pradera localizada en suelos ácidos. [...] Los efectos principales estudiados fueron: época climática (E), sequía, lluvias e invierno; tipo de fertilizante (TF), sin fertilizante, fertilizante inorgánico (150-60-00 NPK) y orgánico (15-4,8-8,4 NPK); edad de corte 21, 28 y 35 días y sus interacciones. Se utilizaron tres réplicas por tratamiento. Las variables estudiadas fueron: proteína bruta (PB), digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca (DIMS), fibra detergente neutro (FDN) y digestibilidad de la FDN (DFDN). Los efectos principales estudiados y sus interacciones afectaron (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic fertilization on nutritive value of Brachiaria humidicola during three climatic seasons at the 21, 28 and 35 days old of growth. The study was carried out on grassland in acid soil. The main effects were climatic season [...] (E), dry, rainfall and winter; kind of fertilizer (TF), without fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (150-60-00 NPK) and organic fertilizer (15-4,8-8.4 NPK); age of harvest (21, 28 y 35 days) and their interactions. Three replicate were used by treatment. The response variables were crude protein (PD), digestibility in situ of the dry matter (DIMS), neutral detergent fiber (FDN) and digestibility of the FDN (DFDN). The main effects studied and their interactions affected (p

  18. How do cowpea and groundnut improve soil N fertility and yields of succeeding sorghum crop in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso (West Africa)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out in a weakly acid (pH H2O 6.5) Ultisol at Farako-Ba (4 deg 20' West, 11 deg 6' North and 405 m altitude) in the Guinean savannah zone of Burkina Faso to study the beneficial effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on grain yield of succeeding sorghum. The first experiment was a factorial of three crop rotations (cowpea-sorghum, groundnut-sorghum and sorghum-sorghum) as first factor and five fertilizer treatments (NPK fertilizer, NPK+ dolomite, NPK+ manure, NK+ phosphate rock and a control) as second factor in a split plot design with a randomised block arrangement and four replications. Soil mineral N, nematode infection and fertilizer N recoveries were studied during three years (2000 to 2002). Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in cowpea and groundnut was measured in the second year (2001) with 15N isotopic dilution method using a non-fixing cowpea as reference crop. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) varied from 27 to 34%. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the Ndfa varied from 52 to 56%. Compared to mineral NPK fertilizer alone, legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when NPK fertilizer was combined with dolomite or manure. Compared to water-soluble phosphate, phosphate rock increased BNF by cowpea. Highest responses to N fertilizer applications were found when sorghum was rotated with legue found when sorghum was rotated with legumes and the lowest in mono cropping of cereals. Compared to mono cropping of cereals (maize-sorghum or sorghum-sorghum), sorghum produced 2.9 and 3.1 times more grain yields when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively. In a second experiment, the response of a succeeding sorghum to N fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies (NFE) of the two legumes and nematode infection in the soil and roots of the succeeding sorghum were studied. The NFE of groundnut (35 kg N ha-1) was higher than that of cowpea (25 kg N ha-1). However, soil and succeeding sorghum roots were most infected by nematodes in cowpea-sorghum rotation while groundnut in the rotation decreased nematode infections. The high NFE of groundnut compared to cowpea indicated that positive effect of groundnut on nematode suppression was accounted in NFE as N effect. A better use of N fertilizer was observed in legume-sorghum rotations. In continuous sorghum, fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) was 20% whereas NUEs in cowpea-sorghum and groundnut-sorghum rotations were 28 and 37% respectively. The soils of legume-sorghum rotations contained more mineral N (40-50% more than the monocropping control), thus increasing soil N supply to succeeding sorghum compared to mono cropping of sorghum. The highest total N uptake by sorghum was found in legume-sorghum rotations. It was estimated from the response curves that 51 and 58 kg N ha-1 should be applied to sorghum when it was rotated with groundnut or cowpea respectively to achieve optimum grain yields of 2,000 kg ha-1. Recommended NPK fertilizer should be applied to the two legumes. Best results were obtained when legumes received NPK fertilizer plus dolomite or manure. But the local phosphate rock can be used as source of P on groundnut. (author)

  19. Response of Seed Yield and its Components of Safflower to Sowing Dates, Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Times of Foliar Application with Milagrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.S. El-Hety

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high productivity of safflower is outcome of many agronomical practices such as sowing dates, N-levels and times of foliar fertilization. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing dates (1st Sept., 1st Oct. and 1st Nov., N-levels (40, 60 and 80 kg N fed-1 and times of foliar application with Milagrow (without, one and two times on seed yield of safflower. Each sowing date was practiced in separate experiment. Every experiment was carried out in strip plot design with three replications. Sowing safflower at 1st October gave the highest values of seed yield and its components in both seasons. The lowest means of seed yield and its components were resulted from sowing at 1st September in both seasons. Raising N-levels markedly accompanied with obvious increase in all studied characters in both seasons. Application of 80 kg N fed-1 significantly resulted in the highest values of all studied characters of safflower. Spraying safflower plants with Milagrow two times after 30 and 70 days from sowing produced the highest values of seed yield and its components in both seasons. On the other wise, control treatment gave the lowest values of these characters in both seasons. From the obtained data, it can be concluded that sowing safflower on 1st October and mineral fertilizing with 80 kg N fed-1 beside twice foliar application with Milagrow as a natural growth promoter in order to maximizing its seed yield and its components under the environmental conditions of Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

  20. Efecto de bocashi y fertilizantes de liberación lenta en algunas propiedades de suelos con maíz / Effect of Bocashi and slow release fertilizers on some soil properties with corn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angélica, Bautista-Cruz; Gricel, Cruz Domínguez; María de las Nieves, Rodríguez-Mendoza.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó el efecto de la aplicación individual o combinada de composta (bocashi, B) y fertilizantes de liberación lenta (FLL) sobre algunas propiedades de suelos de terraza y valle cultivados con maíz (Zea mays L.) en la región Mixteca del estado de Oaxaca, México. Se utilizó un [...] diseño completamente al azar con 7 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones: control, sin fertilización (C); fertilización convencional (90-46-00 NPK) (FC); B; FLL1 [Multigro 6®, 21-14-10 NPK]; FLL2 [Multigro 3®, 24-05-14 NPK]; B+FLL1; B+FLL2. En el suelo de valle el pH disminuyó y el contenido de P disponible aumentó con FLL2. En el suelo de terraza el pH disminuyó con FLL2, y el contenido de P disponible incrementó con B+FLL2. El carbono de la biomasa microbiana (CBM) incrementó con B en ambos suelos. El efecto significativo de la interacción fertilización × tipo de suelo indicó que la respuesta del P disponible y CBM a la fertilización estuvo condicionada por el tipo de suelo. Los resultados sugieren que la aplicación individual de FLL2 y B puede mejorar el pH, el P disponible y el CBM en suelos cultivados con maíz. Abstract in english In this study the effect of individual or combined application of compost (bocashi, B) and slow-release fertilizers (FLL) on some soil properties of terrace and valley, cultivated with maize (Zea mays L.) in the Mixteca region from the state of Oaxaca, Mexico was determined. A completely randomized [...] design with 7 treatments and 4 replications was used: control without fertilization (C); conventional fertilizer (90-46-00 NPK) (FC); B; FLL1 [Multigro 6®, 21-14-10 NPK]; FLL2 [Multigro 3®, 24-05-14 NPK]; B + FLL1; B + FLL2. On the soil from the valley, pH decreased and the content of available P increased with FLL2. On terrace soil, pH decreased with FLL2, and content of available P increased with B + FLL2. The microbial biomass carbon (CBM) increased with B in both soils. The significant effect of fertilization × soil type interaction indicated that the response of available P and CBM to fertilization was influenced by the soil type. The results suggest that individual application of FLL2 and B can improve pH, available P and CBM in soils cultivated with maize.

  1. Association between fertilin beta, protamines 1 and 2 and spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein mRNA levels, fertilization ability of human spermatozoa, and quality of preimplantation embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawe? P Jagodzi?ski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization involves a series of cellular interactions culminating in the fusion of gamete membranes, creating a zygote and then an embryo. During the process of human fertilization in vivo or in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF, sperm must be capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction, binding to the zona pellucida (ZP, and penetrating the ZP to fuse with the oolema. The key role in this process is played by fertilin beta. Protamines and histones are the proteins that bind to sperm chromatin and contribute in chromatin remodeling during early spermiogenesis. It has been suggested that these proteins may also participate in successful fertilization and embryo development. Using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR reaction (QR-PCR methods and zygote and embryo scoring, we compared fertilin beta, protamine 1 (PRM1, protamine 2 (PRM2, spermatid-specific linker histone 1 (HILS1 mRNAs levels, in vitro fertilization ability of mature spermatozoa, and quality of embryos obtained from in vitro fertilization (IVF. We found significantly lower contents of fertilin beta transcript in spermatozoa from patients in which IVF fertilization failed (p<0.001. We also noticed a correlation between high levels of fertilin beta and increased quality of embryos (p<0.05. We observed an increase in PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels in spermatozoa obtained from patients with successful in vitro fertilization versus compared to the number of these transcripts isolated from spermatozoa of patients in which in vitro fertilization failed (P<0.001, (P<0.001, respectively. We found direct correlation between PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels to the quality of embryos (r=0.31, P=0.012, (r=0.31, P=0.011, respectively. The differences in HILS1 mRNA contents between these two groups were not statistically significant (P>0,05. We did not observe an association between HILS1 transcript contents and quality of embryos (r=0.22, P=0.076. We suggest that fertilin beta and protamines contribute not only to successful fertilization, but may have an important impact in development of preimplantation embryos.

  2. Effectiveness of complex fertilizers of new generation on radioactive contaminated lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.

    2012-04-01

    The basic and general remediation principles of agricultural lands affected by technological contamination are presented. One of the perspective method of soil fertility rising is ap-plication of natural clays and minerals. This is the most effective measure on contaminated lands. We can reduce the uptake of 137Cs in 3-5 times because of retention of radionuclides in crystal structures of minerals and its transformation in unapproachable form for plants. Nowdays a special attention pays to sorbents. The stores of natural sorbents (trepel and pa-lygorskit clay) are founded in a grate amount in Kaluga region. A complex sorbent has been developed and on its basis a fundamentally new compound manufactured which combines properties of both sorbent and complex long-acting fertilizer ("Suprodit") that contains NPK (patent on the invention No. 2336257). The base of complex sorbent is SiO2 enriched mineral - trepel. Complex sorbent is a mixture of hydrothermally processed permutite and silicagel with significant sorption properties for radionuclides. This sorbent may be used for fertility rising of the contaminated lands and grain yield, and also for reducing of pollutants uptake. The most effectiveness of "Suprodit" was on fodder lands contaminated with 500-920 kBk137Cs/m2. It has been found that the use of resource-saving technologies with using "Suprodit" increased the yield of barley by 10-40% and the productivity of sowing grasses by 4-5 times. "Suprodit" decreased the concentration of 137Cs in sowing grasses by 1,8-4,0 times. It has been studied the effect of "Suprodit" and industrial fertilizers (NPK and «nitropfoska») on the biological activity of soddy-podzolic soil, contaminated of 137Cs (100 kBk/kg). "Suprodit" increased the CO2 emission rate on radioactively contaminated soil by 1,5 times in comparison with NPK and «nitropfoska», accordingly.

  3. Estudos sobre a alimentação mineral do cafeeiro XXVII. Efeito da adubação N, P e K no teor de macro e micro nutrientes do fruto e na qualidade da bebida do café / Studies on mineral nutrition of coffee tree. XXVII. Effect of N, P, K and fertilization on macro and micro nutrients content in the bean and in the quality of the coffee beverage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H. V., Amorim; A. A., Teixeira; R. S., Moraes; A. J., Reis; F. Pimentel, Gomes; E., Malavolta.

    Full Text Available O efeito da adubação N, P e K na composição mineral do grão (macro nutrientes, B e Zn) e na qualidade da bebida (prova de xícara) foi estudado. Utilizou-se um ensaio de adubação NPK, 3x3x3 plantado em 1955 em Ribeirão Preto, S. P. As amostras foram colhidas a dedo, despolpadas e degomadas no mesmo d [...] ia. Verificou-se que somente a adubação nitrogenada aumentou significativamente o teor de N no grão. Altos niveis de K na adubação diminuíram o teor de B e de Zn no grão. O teor de N no grão foi correlacionado negativamente com a qualidade da bebida. A adubação potássica quando excessiva prejudicou a qualidade da bebida mas de uma maneira não consistente. O aumento da produção causado pela adubação nitrogenada e potássica compensam economicamente o pequeno prejuízo causado na qualidade da bebida, que não chega a ser de 0,5 grau na escala utilizada. Abstract in english In this third year of work, research was carried out concerning the effect of N, P and K fertilization on the mineral composition of the coffee bean and in the quality of the beverage. The material employed was obtained form a NPK,2³ and NPK,3³ factorial experiment from two different regions. In Pir [...] acicaba, Coffea arábica L. var. "Bourbon Vermelho" was the plant source, and "Mundo Novo" in Ribeirão Preto. The main findings are as follows: a) N content in the bean was raised by the application of N in the soil in both regions. The use of K increased the level of K in the bean in Piracicaba but not in Ribeirão Preto. The level of total P was not affecte by P fertilization in both regions. b) The higher doses of KC1 decreased the B and Zn content in the bean. c) Fruits collected in treatments where N and K were used gave significant lower quality beverage in Piracicaba and in Ribeirão Preto. d) It was found a negative and significant correlation (at 1% level) between N content in the bean and the quality of the beverage, for both varieties and regions. For K the correlation was not significant in both regions. It was speculated that probably the chlorine of KC1 may be the factor which affect the quality of the beverage. e) The great increase in production (yield) where N and K were applied compensats economically the small decrease in the quality of the beverage of the pulped coffee.

  4. Abortamento de frutos da nogueira macadâmia sob influência da adubação mineral / Macadamia nut abortion as affected by mineral fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos José, Perdoná; Eduardo, Suguino; Adriana Novais, Martins; Rogério Peres, Soratto.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A nogueira macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia) apresenta elevada taxa de abortamento de frutos. A nutrição desequilibrada pode ser um dos fatores que contribui para isso. Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar a influência de doses de N e do parcelamento da adubação NPK, de cobertura, na redução do [...] abortamento de frutos da nogueira macadâmia. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, durante três anos agrícolas, num Latossolo Vermelho, em Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo. O primeiro experimento foi constituído por cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1) e quatro repetições. O segundo experimento foi constituído por quatro formas de parcelamento da adubação NPK (T1: outubro T2: outubro + dezembro, T3: outubro + dezembro + fevereiro e T4: outubro+dezembro + fevereiro + abril) e cinco repetições. A maior parte dos frutos (77,7 %) foi abortada no início de seu desenvolvimento. A aplicação de N, bem como o parcelamento da adubação NPK de cobertura, pelo menos em duas vezes (outubro e dezembro), não alteraram o número de frutos abortados por planta de macadâmia, mas, por aumentarem o número total de frutos emitidos e reduzirem a percentagem de abortamento, proporcionaram maior produtividade de nozes. Abstract in english Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) has a high nut abortion rate. Unbalanced nutrition may be one of the factors that contributes to this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of N doses and the split application of NPK fertilizers on fruit abortion of macadamia nut. Two experi [...] ments were conducted during three growing seasons on an Oxisol, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The first experiment consisted of five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 yr-1) and four replications. The second experiment consisted of four splitting modes of NPK fertilizers (T1: October, T2: October + December, T3: October + December + February and T4: October + December + February + April) and five replications. Most fruits (77.7%) aborted earlier in their development. The N application and the split fertilization of NPK as topdress for at least twice (October and December), did not affect the number of aborted fruits per macadamia tree, but, by increasing the total number of set fruits and reducing the percentage of abortion, provided higher nut productivity.

  5. Vermicomposting Leachate (Worm Tea) as Liquid Fertilizer for Maize (Zea mays L.) Forage Production

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Gomez Roberto Carlos; Luc Dendooven; Gutierrez-Miceli Federico Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how dilution of vermicompost Leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected maize plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m-1, contained 834 mg K+ L-1, 247 mg NO3-1 L-1 and 168 mg PO43– L-1, was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65% germi...

  6. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Hawa Z E Jaafar; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  7. Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to 0.25 mm) of red soils after the long-term fertilization, and the organic matter was the most important colloid material for macroaggregates. We conclude that the long-term, appropriate application of chemical fertilizer and the combination with organic manure were the most effective measures to improve soil structure and organic carbon contents in red soil regions.

  8. [Sustainability of crop yields in China under long-term fertilization and different ecological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-fang; Xu, Ming-gang; Zhang, Hui-min; Zhang, Shu-xiang; Zhang, Wen-jü

    2010-05-01

    By using sustainable yield index (SYI), this paper analyzed the sustainability of maize, rice, and wheat yields at 20 long-term fertilization experiment sites in China under different fertilization system and ecological conditions. The SYI value of test crops varied significantly with fertilization system, crop kind, effective accumulated temperature, and sunshine hour. Irrespective of fertilization, the SYI value of rice was generally higher than that of maize and wheat. Under long-term no fertilization, the SYI values of rice, wheat, and maize were lower, being 0.55, 0.44, and 0.43, respectively. Fertilization, especially a combined application of NPK and manure, promoted the sustainability of crop yields, with the SYI values of rice, wheat, and maize being 0.66, 0.58, and 0.57, respectively. Under the application of N and NK, the SYI values ranged in 0. 36-0. 47. SYI value > 0.55 represented the better sustainability of crop yields, while SYI SYI values, especially that of maize. Under no fertilization, maize had the largest variation of SYI value, followed by wheat, and rice. Our results indicated that a combined application of chemical fertilizers with manure benefited high and stable yielding, being the optimal fertilization mode for maintaining the sustainability of grain yield. PMID:20707111

  9. Within-canopy nitrogen and photosynthetic gradients are unaffected by soil fertility in field-grown Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Tarryn L; Kelly, Natalie; Adams, Mark A; Warren, Charles R

    2007-11-01

    A significant and well-supported hypothesis is that increased growth following nitrogen (N) fertilization is a function of the relationships among photosynthesis, tissue N content and the light environment-specifically, the within-canopy allocation of N among leaves and the within-leaf allocation of N between Rubisco and chlorophyll. We tested this hypothesis in a field trial that included annual applications of N,P,K fertilizer (from planting) to a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation growing on uniform leached sands. Growth of 4-year-old E. globulus increased significantly in response to fertilization. Leaf N and phosphorus concentrations were 0.1-0.5 g m(-2) and 0.4-0.5 g m(-2) higher in fertilized trees compared to unfertilized trees, respectively. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) at the maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)) was between 0.2 and 0.4 mol m(-2) s(-1) higher in fertilized trees, but A(max) and the concentration of Rubisco (Rub(a)) were unaffected by fertilization. This seeming paradox, where there was no response of A(max) to fertilization despite increases in g(s) and leaf N concentration, was explained by reduced in vivo specific activity of Rubisco in fertilized trees. Acclimation to light, measured by redistribution of N between Rubisco and chlorophyll, was unaffected by fertilization. Distribution of leaf N followed irradiance gradients, but A(max) did not. Maximum photosynthetic rate was correlated with leaf N concentration only in unfertilized trees. These findings indicate that the relationships among photosynthesis, N and the light environment in E. globulus are affected by N,P,K fertilization. PMID:17669750

  10. Effect of Different Levels of Fertilizer Nano_Iron Chelates on Growth and Yield Characteristics of Two Varieties of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.: Varamin 88 and Viroflay

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    AlirezaLadan Moghadam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate effect of different concentrations of iron chelate Nano fertilizer on growth and performance of two kinds of Spinach, an experiment was performed as a plan of completely random plot in three alternations and in study field of Khazra Company in 2012. First studied factor was different types of Spinach including Varamin 88 and Viroflayand second studied factor was different concentrations of fertilizer (0, 2 and 4 ppt, respectively. Nano fertilizer solution injection was performed in early morning when plant had 8-13 leaves. Results show that wet weight and maximum leaf area index is influenced by concentration of iron chelate Nano fertilizer and dry weight is influenced by both type of Spinach and concentration of Nano fertilizer. Using 4 kg/ha Nano fertilizer causes 58 and 47% increase inwet weight and maximum leaf surface index, respectively comparing to use of no fertilizer. Using 4 kg/ha Nano fertilized leaded to maximum value of aerial organs dry weight for Sugar beet type and minimum value was obtained for treating both types of Spinach without using fertilizer. Studying leaf area index trend and growth rate diagrams indicate that Nano fertilizer has a positive effect on all plant growth steps.

  11. Phycological Effects of Eutrophication with Fertilizers in Nike Lake, Nigeria

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    Nkechinyere Onyekwere Nweze

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture around Nike lake uses fertilizers. Fertilizers are known to cause eutrophication of water bodies and associated algal blooms whose consequences may be deleterious to the environment and man. We investigated ex situ to assess the effect of the nutrients on the algal flora and show the impact of farm land runoffs on aquatic environment. The lake water was analysed for initial nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; and algal content using standard methods. The fertilizer sources used by the farmers—NPK (20:10:10 and 15:15:15; urea and poultry drops, were used in the study to enrich the lake water in concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 1.0 and 2.0 g/L in three replicates respectively. A control was set up without the fertilizer sources and the set up was left on a laboratory bench and monitored for 36 days. Cyanobacteria (blue green algae, Chlorophyta (green algae and Bacillariophyta (diatoms were encountered and their population increased with time and increase in concentration of fertilizers. The following taxa were encountered—Gloeocapsa, Anabaena, Oscillatoria (blue-green algae; Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Closterium, Pediastrum, Ankistrodesmus, Selenastrum, Scenedesmus, Staurastrum (green algae; Pinnularia and Navicula (diatoms some of which are notable bloom forming species.

  12. Association between follicular fluid levels of HMGB1 protein and outcomes in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, SAIJIAO; YIN, TAILANG; LI, WEI; YANG, JING; XU, WANGMING; ZHOU, DANNI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between follicular fluid (FF) levels of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and the reproductive outcome in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). FF samples were collected from the ovarian follicles (?14 mm) of 143 infertile patients that had undergone IVF/ICSI, and the HMGB1 expression levels were determined using ELISA. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were applied to analyze the results. Significantly increased levels of HMGB1 protein (7.38±2.02 vs. 6.14±2.52 ng/ml; P<0.01), endometrial thickness on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (10.3±1.3 vs. 9.7±1.7 mm; P<0.01) and retrieved oocyte counts (11.68±6.51 vs. 11.00±6.34; P<0.01) were observed in the pregnant group when compared with the non-pregnant group. Conversely, the level of luteinizing hormone on the day of hCG administration was significantly reduced in the pregnant group compared with the non-pregnant group (0.92±1.78 vs. 1.78±2.03 pmol/l, P<0.01). The ROC curve indicated a significant association between the FF level of HMGB1 protein and the pregnancy rate, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.673 (0.581–0.765; P<0.01). In addition, the HMGB1 protein level was shown to have a significant positive correlation with the endometrial thickness (r=0.170; P<0.05). Therefore, the present study indicated that the FF levels of HMGB1 protein are increased in pregnant patients and are positively correlated with endometrial thickness. Thus, FF levels of HMGB1 may be a useful factor for predicting the outcome of IVF/ICSI treatments.

  13. Predictors of In Vitro Fertilization Outcomes in Women with Highest Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels ?12 IU/L: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lina N.; Jun, Sunny H.; Drubach, Nathalie; Dahan, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors predictive of outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels ?12 IU/L on basal testing, undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted at Stanford University Hospital in the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Center for 12 months. Women age 21 to 43 undergoing IVF with highest FSH levels on baseline testing were included. Donor/Recipient and frozen embryo cycles were excluded from this study. Prognostic factors evaluated in association with clinical pregnancy rates were type of infertility diagnosis and IVF stimulation parameters. Results The current study found that factors associated with clinical pregnancy were: increased number of mature follicles on the day of triggering, number of oocytes retrieved, number of Metaphase II oocytes if intracytoplasmic sperm injection was done, and number of embryos developed 24 hours after retrieval. Conclusions Our findings suggest that it would be beneficial for women with increased FSH levels to attempt a cycle of IVF. Results of ovarian stimulation, especially embryo quantity appear to be the best predictors of IVF outcomes and those can only be obtained from a cycle of IVF. Therefore, increased basal FSH levels should not discourage women from attempting a cycle of IVF. PMID:25867175

  14. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE CENOURA EM SOLO DE MINERAÇÃO DE CALCÁRIO SOB DIFERENTES INTENSIDADES LUMINOSAS E ADUBAÇÕES / GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF CARROT SEEDS IN LIMESTONE MINING SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES AND FERTILIZATIONS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo, C. Cavatte; João, B. Zonta; José, C. Lopes; Leandro, T. de Souza; João, H. Zonta; Rithiely P, Q. Cavatte.

    Full Text Available Dentre as condições ideais para germinação, o tipo de solo é muito importante, pois, interfere não apenas na germinação das sementes mas, também, no desenvolvimento pós-seminal. Além da adubação, outro fator importante na emergência e crescimento das mudas é a luminosidade devido sua influência em p [...] rocessos como a fotossíntese. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adubação com esterco bovino, torta de filtro e vinhaça, bem como da luminosidade na germinação e vigor de sementes de cenoura, em solo de mineração de calcário. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em 2005, em Alegre-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 13 x 3 (adubações x luminosidades) e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de solo de mineração de calcário enriquecido ou não com adubação e 3 níveis de luminosidade. A adubação teve influência direta nas plântulas, pois, as menores intensidades (13.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1) aumentaram a germinação e altura destas, enquanto as maiores intensidades (1192.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1) aumentaram a velocidade de germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca. A adubação com os 3 materiais orgânicos e NPK proporcionou maior altura e matéria seca às plantas. Abstract in english The ideal conditions for germination such as the soil type are very important in agriculture. Besides interfering into germination of the seeds they also affect their development after germination. Another important factor in emergency and growth of the seedlings is the brightness, due to its influe [...] nce on the photosynthesis processes. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fertilization with cattle manure, sugarcane powder and vinase, as well as from the brightness on both germination and vigor of carrot seeds in limestone mining soil. The experiment was conducted during the year 2005, under greenhouse conditions, in Alegre county-ES. The entirely randomized design with a factorial scheme 13 x 3 (fertilizations x brightness) and four replicates was used. The treatments consisted of limestone mining soil either enriched or unenriched with fertilization and subjected to three brightness levels. The brightness directly affected the germination and the development of the carrot plantlets, whereas the lower bright intensities (13.8 µmol photons m-2s-1) increased either germination and plantlet heights and the higher ones (1192.8 µmol photons m-2s-1) increased the germination speed and the dry matter accumulation. The fertilization with those organic materials and NPK provided better results for height and dry matter of the plantlets.

  15. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE CENOURA EM SOLO DE MINERAÇÃO DE CALCÁRIO SOB DIFERENTES INTENSIDADES LUMINOSAS E ADUBAÇÕES GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF CARROT SEEDS IN LIMESTONE MINING SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES AND FERTILIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Cavatte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as condições ideais para germinação, o tipo de solo é muito importante, pois, interfere não apenas na germinação das sementes mas, também, no desenvolvimento pós-seminal. Além da adubação, outro fator importante na emergência e crescimento das mudas é a luminosidade devido sua influência em processos como a fotossíntese. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adubação com esterco bovino, torta de filtro e vinhaça, bem como da luminosidade na germinação e vigor de sementes de cenoura, em solo de mineração de calcário. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em 2005, em Alegre-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 13 x 3 (adubações x luminosidades e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de solo de mineração de calcário enriquecido ou não com adubação e 3 níveis de luminosidade. A adubação teve influência direta nas plântulas, pois, as menores intensidades (13.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1 aumentaram a germinação e altura destas, enquanto as maiores intensidades (1192.8 µmol fótons m-2s-1 aumentaram a velocidade de germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca. A adubação com os 3 materiais orgânicos e NPK proporcionou maior altura e matéria seca às plantas.The ideal conditions for germination such as the soil type are very important in agriculture. Besides interfering into germination of the seeds they also affect their development after germination. Another important factor in emergency and growth of the seedlings is the brightness, due to its influence on the photosynthesis processes. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fertilization with cattle manure, sugarcane powder and vinase, as well as from the brightness on both germination and vigor of carrot seeds in limestone mining soil. The experiment was conducted during the year 2005, under greenhouse conditions, in Alegre county-ES. The entirely randomized design with a factorial scheme 13 x 3 (fertilizations x brightness and four replicates was used. The treatments consisted of limestone mining soil either enriched or unenriched with fertilization and subjected to three brightness levels. The brightness directly affected the germination and the development of the carrot plantlets, whereas the lower bright intensities (13.8 µmol photons m-2s-1 increased either germination and plantlet heights and the higher ones (1192.8 µmol photons m-2s-1 increased the germination speed and the dry matter accumulation. The fertilization with those organic materials and NPK provided better results for height and dry matter of the plantlets.

  16. Effect of Different Levels of Fertilizer Nano_Iron Chelates on Growth and Yield Characteristics of Two Varieties of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Varamin 88 and Viroflay

    OpenAIRE

    AlirezaLadan Moghadam; Hesam Vattani; Nasim Baghaei; Narges Keshavarz

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate effect of different concentrations of iron chelate Nano fertilizer on growth and performance of two kinds of Spinach, an experiment was performed as a plan of completely random plot in three alternations and in study field of Khazra Company in 2012. First studied factor was different types of Spinach including Varamin 88 and Viroflayand second studied factor was different concentrations of fertilizer (0, 2 and 4 ppt, respectively). Nano fertilizer solution injection wa...

  17. Níveis de vibração e choques em diferentes estradas durante o transporte de ovos férteis / Levels of vibration and shock on different roads during transportation of fertile eggs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aérica C., Nazareno; Iran J. O. da, Silva; Afrânio M. C., Vieira; Frederico M. C., Vieira; Késia O. S., Miranda.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis de vibração e choques podem, devido ao transporte, afetar a qualidade dos ovos férteis. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi caracterizar e avaliar a influência das estradas sobre os níveis de vibração e choques no transporte dos ovos férteis. A pesquisa foi conduzida na empresa integradora avíco [...] la no estado de São Paulo, por meio do acompanhamento de três carregamentos em diferentes estações do ano (primavera, verão e outono). Um caminhão climatizado do tipo baú foi utilizado, com capacidade para 592 caixas de ovos, totalizando em média 90.840 ovos. As avaliações dos níveis de vibração (m s-2) e choques nas estradas de terra e asfalto foram registradas por meio de quatro acelerômetros da marca Hobo. Para o nível de vibração o delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente aleatorizado com esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 4. Para o número de choques o delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente aleatorizado com esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Os piores níveis de vibração e choques da carga ocorreram no sentido vertical. A estrada de asfalto ofereceu as piores condições para o transporte de ovos. As perdas no transporte ultrapassaram 1% e são atribuídas às trincas e quebra dos ovos. Abstract in english The levels of vibration and shock due to transport can affect the quality of fertile eggs. The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the influence of roads on the levels of vibration and shock in the transport of fertile eggs. The survey was conducted in the poultry integrator compan [...] y in the State of São Paulo, by tracking shipments in three different seasons (spring, summer and autumn). An air-conditioned trunk was used, with a capacity of 592 boxes of eggs, totaling an average of 90,840 eggs. The evaluation of vibration levels (m s-2) and shocks on unpaved and asphalt roads were recorded by four accelerometers brand Hobo. For the vibration level, the experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 x 2 x 4 factorial. For the number of shocks the experimental design was completely randomized with a factorial 3 x 2. The worst levels of vibration and shock load occurred in the vertical direction. The asphalt road provided the worst conditions for the transport of eggs. The transport losses exceeded 1%, which are attributed to cracks and breakage of eggs.

  18. INFLUENCE OF NPK AND LIME APLICATION ON ERVA-MATE GROWTH, ROOT-ROT SEVERITY AND SOIL FUNGI POPULATION1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the influence of the application of NPK and liming doses in the soil, on the growth of Erva-mate, the severity of rot-root and the fungi population of the soil. To do so, an experiment was installed at the green house, in the Forest Nursery of UFSM, using an experimental design completely randomized factorial 4x3x4 (Factor F: Fusarium spp. inoculation; Factor C: soil limestone; Factor A: NPK doses , totaling 48 treatments. The seedlings were cultivated in vases containing 2 kg of soil, classified as ‘Red-Yellow Argisoil’ (clay soil. At the end of the experiment was measured the stem diameter, height of the aerial part, leaves number, aerial dry biomass, root dry biomass and total dry biomass of the seedlings. Also, the soil was collected, from each treatment, for the chemical analysis and the counting of the fungi population. It was observed that the association among application of NPK and liming in the soil hampered the development of Erva-mate seedlings. The analysis of some variables suggests that the limestone absence provided greater resistance of seedlings to the attack of Fusarium spp. or the severity of Fusarium spp. was reduced in lower pH. The fungi population of the soil presented varied behavior depending on the applied treatments.

  19. Influence of nitrate fertilization on Cd uptake and oxidative stress parameters in alfalfa plants cultivated in presence of Cd

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Hattab; S, Hattab; H, Boussetta; M, Banni.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant nutrients might affect the activity and bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil -plant environment thus their accumulation in the plant. Little is known about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on cadmium (Cd) uptake by alfalfa "Medicago sativa". This work aims to characterize the oxidat [...] ive status, the physiological stress parameters and the Cd uptake in alfalfa + Medicago sativa ; exposed to Cd and supplied with nitrogen fertilizers. The experiment was carried out in a green house with alfalfa grown in Cd-polluted soil (3.6 ppm) and amended with two different fertilizers: without NO3- (PK) or with NO3- (NPK) in a sand:peat (v:v) mixture. The following parameters were monitored: Chlorophyll content, Photosynthesis rate, Catalase (CAT) activity, Thiobarbutiric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS) content and Cd bioaccumulation. It was found that NPK fertilization increased mean Cd uptake as well as plant biomass in Cd-exposed plants. Nitrogen supply was also effective in reduction Cd-induces phytotoxicity (Photosynthetic pigments and rate) and oxidative stress alterations. Our results suggest that nitrogen supply may improve the uptake rate of Cd by alfalfa and provide new insights on the importance of nitrogen fertilization towards future phytoremediation applications using alfalfa.

  20. Efeito da solarização, adubação química e orgânica no controle de nematóides em alface sob cultivo protegido Effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on the control of nematode on greenhouse lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene G da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da solarização do solo associados à adubação no controle de nematóides e na produtividade da alface cultivar "Verônica" foram avaliados em solo naturalmente infestado. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, um com e outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica mais NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com filme plástico transparente. A população de nematóides foi avaliada em duas camadas (0-10 cm e 10-20 cm, e as coletas de solo foram feitas em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento; após a solarização; após a colheita. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com medidas no espaço e no tempo (5 adubações x 2 camadas x 3 épocas, e a comparação entre experimentos foi feita pela análise conjunta. O efeito da solarização sobre o controle de nematóides dependeu da adubação e camada do solo. A solarização reduziu a população de nematóides na camada de 0-10 cm em todos os tratamentos de adubação. A solarização associada ao NH4 reduziu a diversidade na camada de 10-20 cm. A solarização combinada às adubações orgânica, N-NH4, NPK e orgânica mais NPK reduziu de maneira eficiente o número de galhas, o número de massas de ovos e a população de nematóides fitoparasitas nas raízes, em especial de Meloidogyne spp. Solarização combinada à adubação orgânica apresenta potencial para controle de nematóides e redução do uso de agrotóxicos.The effect of soil solarization and fertilization was evaluated for nematode control in 'Veronica' lettuce in naturally infested soil. The two greenhouse experiments consisted of five fertilization treatments: organic fertilization; ammoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; NPK fertilization; organic and NPK fertilization; control (without fertilization, in solarized and non-solarized soils. In the solarized plot the soil was covered during 132 days with transparent plastic film. The nematode populations were evaluated in two layers (010 cm and 10-20 cm with soil collections done at three times (before solarization; after solarization; and after harvest. The experimental design was of sub-subdivided blocks plots with assessments in space and time (5 fertilization x 2 depths x 3 times. The effect of solarization on nematode control was dependent on fertilization and soil depth. Solarization reduced nematodes population at 0-10 cm depth in all the fertilization treatments. Solarization associated to ammoniacal nitrogen reduced nematode diversity at 10-20 cm depth. Solarization associated to organic, ammoniacal nitrogen, NPK and organic + NPK fertilization reduced efficiently gall numbers, egg masses number and phytoparasitic nematodes, specially Meloidogyne spp., in lettuce roots. Solarization associated to organic fertilization has a potential to be used in nematode control and to reduce pesticides application.

  1. Topdressing fertilization with nitrogen and potassium levels in sweet-potatoAdubação de cobertura na batata-doce com doses combinadas de nitrogênio e potássio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced fertilizations with N and K often increase the performance of crops, however, when there is absence of one of these nutrients in poor soils, can reduce crop response to fertilization with the other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of sweet-potato, the amount of sweetpotato without quality, and leaf nutrients analysis, of sweet-potato crop fertilized with N and K. The trial was conducted in farming for commercial production, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, during February-June 2007, in a dystrophic Ultisol of medium texture. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with four replications, on factorial 4 x 4: levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 (urea source combined with levels of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg K2O ha-1 (KCl source, applied to 39 days after planting of the crop. The sweet-potato is responsive to topdressing application with nitrogen and potassium, however, the greatest increases in productivity occur when doses of N and K are combined. Fertilization with N and K not increase the amount of sweet-potato without quality marketing. The highest increase in productivity of sweet-potato is reached with topdressing combined with 100 kg N ha-1 plus 120 kg K2O ha-1. A adubação balanceada de N e K frequentemente aumenta o desempenho das lavouras, contudo, a falta de um desses nutrientes em solos deficientes pode levar a decréscimos na resposta ao outro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de batata-doce comercializável, a quantidade de raízes tuberosas para descarte e a diagnose foliar de lavoura de batata-doce adubada com N e K. O experimento foi realizado em lavoura comercial, em Presidente Prudente-SP, de fevereiro a junho de 2007, em um Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com 0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 de N (uréia, em interação com 0, 30, 60 e 120 kg ha-1 de K2O (KCl, aplicados em cobertura aos 39 dias após o plantio. A cultura da batata-doce é responsiva à adubação nitrogenada e potássica de cobertura, porém, os maiores incrementos de produtividade são alcançados com as doses de N e K combinadas. A adubação de cobertura com N e K não acarreta em aumento da quantidade de raízes tuberosas impróprias para a comercialização. O maior incremento de produtividade da batata-doce é alcançado com a adubação de cobertura combinada com 100 kg de N ha-1 mais 120 kg de K2O ha-1.

  2. Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with plant growth, nodulation, and shoot npk in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with different root and shoot growth, nodulation and shoot NPK parameters was studied in three legumes viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora. The three test legume species showed different patterns of root and shoot growth, nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and shoot N, P and K content. Different mycorrhizal structures viz. mycelium, arbuscules and vesicles showed different patters of correlation with different studied parameters. Mycelial infection showed an insignificantly positive correlation with root and shoot dry biomass and total root length. Maximum root length was however, negatively associated with mycelial infection. Both arbuscular and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with shoot dry biomass and different parameters of root growth. The association between arbuscular infection and maximum root length was significant. All the three mycorrhizal structures showed a positive correlation with number and biomass of nodules. The association between arbuscular infection and nodule number was significant. Mycelial infection was positively correlated with percentage and total shoot N and P. Similarly percentage N was also positively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. By contrast, total shoot N showed a negative association with arbuscular as well as vesicular infections. Similarly both percentage and total shoot P were negatively correlated with l shoot P were negatively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. All the associations between mycorrhizal parameters and shoot K were negative except between vesicular infection and shoot %K. (author)

  3. Preliminary studies on morphological diversity of coconut (cocos nucifera L.) seedlings by organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments at Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers amendments on the growth parameters of coconut seedlings in field at the Coastal Agricultural Research Station, Karachi. The seedling height and number of leaves were significantly high in treatment T7 (Neem seed powder) (27.62 +- 8.74) and treatment T5 (NPK) (27.18 +- 8.60). The maximum number of the roots was observed in T1 (NPK + Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (2.26 +- 0.71) and T3 (NPK + Gliricidia sepium) (1.69 +- 0.53), where as minimum roots was recorded in T8 (Control) (0.94 +- 0.29). The maximum number of leaves was observed in T4 (Neem seed powder + Gliricidia sepium) (1.49 +- 0.47) and T1 (1.31+- 0.41). The results showed the beneficial effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on seedlings. The work indicated morphological diversity of seedlings at the nursery stage to help the growers in choosing planting materials for their gardens in coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan. (author)

  4. "Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.

    2012-12-01

    Chinese farmers have a very long history of using manures in their fields. Owing to the long-term addition of manures, an anthropogenic layer was formed on the top of original soil profile (drab soil) in Guanzhong Plains on the south edge of the Loess Plateau, North China. This soil is named the Manural Loessial soil (or Lou soil, "Lou" means the different stories of a building in Chinese). The depth of anthropogenic layer is in range of about 30 to 100 cm depth, which has a close relationship with the soil productivity. This fertile agricultural soil has sustained the agriculture in the region for millenniums. We had determined the organic carbon (SOC) in 7 soil profiles, and found that the depths of anthropogenic layer of were in range of 40 to 71 cm (averaging 59 cm). And the anthropogenic layer became shallower as the profile was far from the village due to less manure application. The organic C stocks in this layer accounted for 69% of organic C stocks in 0-100 cm soil profiles. Organic C stocks in Lou soil was higher than that in the newly cultivated soil developed from loess parent materials. Our 30-day incubation experiment found that addition of synthetic N fertilizer significantly increased the decomposition of SOC in the soils. However, The decomposition rate of SOC in the soil added with manure and inorganic fertilizers for 18-yr (MNPK soil) was significantly lower than in the soils added without fertilizer or inorganic fertilizers (NF soil, and NPK soils). The half-life of the organic C in MNPK soils was also slower than the NF soil, and NPK soil. It indicates that long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves the stabilization of soil organic C. Long-term cultivation has not only increased organic C stocks, but also stabilization of organic C in soil profile. It provides us a unique sample to study the mechanism of accumulation and stabilization of organic C in soil to balance agricultural production and C sequestration in a warming earth. Our micro-plot experiment with 15N-labeled fertilizer in the long-term fertilizer trial found that the use efficiency of N fertilizer (NUE) in MNPK soil was higher than the NPK soil and NF soil in both wheat-summer fallow and winter wheat and summer corn rotation system. However, the N fertilizer losses in MNPK soil was lower than the NPK soil and NF soil in the two systems. We concluded that the long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves N synchrony between the supply and crop demand, and reduces its loss. Since the 1980s, however, the application of manure to arable fields has declined in Guanzhong Plain, and in other parts of China, due to the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers, and labor costs to apply manure. The nutrient input of the arable fields are heavily dependent on inorganic fertilizers. It changes the biogeochemical cycling of the ecosystem, and results in a series of problems, including eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission, and nitrate leaching. Therefore, we need to find the alternatives to solve the problems, to conserve this old anthropogenic soil while producing enough food to feed the growing population.

  5. Leaching versus input of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in different fertilizer regimens in Christmas tree stands of Abies nordmanniana in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram

    2006-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) fertilization and deposition on nutrient leaching were assessed in four Danish Nordmarm fir Christmas tree stands on former arable land. NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer type was applied in doses between 0 and 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Deposition of N, K and Mg varied between 16 and 21 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), 2 and 10 kg K ha(-1) year(-1), and 2 and 3 kg Mg ha(-1) year(-1). The concentration of NO3-N in the soil water on the sandy sites was characterized by notable pulses contrasting the mitigated peaks on the clayey site. In general, the soil water concentrations and leaching reflected the fertilization, except for K at one clayey site. Mean annual leaching of NO3-N ranged from approximately 6 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the control treatment to 235 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1) fertilizer treatment. In the treatment with the commonly used 300 kg NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer NO3-N leaching was estimated to be approximately 46 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Annual leaching of N was described in a general model based on the fertilizer input. K and Mg leaching were distinctly more site specific than was N leaching. The magnitude of NO3-N leaching caused by application of 300 kg NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer was between the leaching amounts observed in traditional Danish forestry and Danish agriculture.

  6. Effects of Increasing Levels of N Fertilization on Yields and Nutrient Content of Different Barley Varieties Grown under Arid Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Ulker, M.; Karsli, M. A.; Akdenyz H.; Oral, E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of N levels on chemical composition and energy content of different barley varieties grown under north Anatolian arid condition. Experiment was established as a split-plot design in a randomized complete block, with three replications. Five different winter type barley varieties (Blbl 89, Tarm 92, Tokak 157/37, Yesevi 93 and Aday 1) were utilized. Five nitrogen levels (0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg ha 1) were also applied to each variety. Barley w...

  7. France: High and stable fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Clémentine Rossier; Ariane Pailhé; Laurent Toulemon

    2008-01-01

    The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countri...

  8. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when education and training of children increases. Quality is substituted for quantity. The neoclassical model that "the capital-labor ratio and the degree of capital deepening" is affected by population growth is examined as well as the modern approach, and the implications are expressed, i.e., intergenerational transfers and parental altruism. PMID:12285413

  9. Comportamento da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus) sob diferentes níveis de adubação fosfatada e de sombreamento / Study of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) under levels of phosphoric fertilization and shading

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta C.M., Nemoto; Pedro L.C.A., Alves; Robinson A., Pitelli; Luiz R.P., Nemoto.

    Full Text Available O trabalho, instalado e conduzido em casa de vegetação da FCAV, campus de Jaboticabal, UNESP, teve por objetivos estudar os efeitos de diferentes doses de adubação fosfatada (0, 33,5, 67,0 e 100,5 ppm de P2O5) e níveis de sombreamento (0, 30, 50 e 70%) sobre parâmetros de crescimento de tiririca (Cy [...] perrus rotundus). Quatro tubérculos previamente brotados foram colocados em cada vaso com capacidade para três litros de solo. Utilizou-se Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro textura média, moderado, distrófico, peneirado. Para efeito de análise estatística, os vasos (parcelas) foram dispostos num esquema inteiramente casualisado, com quatro repetições. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o efeito prejudicial do sombreamento sobre o desenvolvimento da tiririca. Já ao nível de 30%, o sombreamento causou redução na densidade das plantas , principalmente por reduzir o número de bulbos + tubérculos. Em conseqüência, houve redução no acúmulo de matéria seca nas diferentes partes da planta, redução esta mais acentuada no sistema subterrâneo (bulbos + tubérculos + raízes), causando incremento nas relações PA/B+T+R e B+T/R. A adubação fosfatada, no entanto, incrementou os parâmetros de crescimento da espécie, principalmente no desenvolvimento das manifestações epígeas, refletido tanto pelo aumento em número quanto em acúmulo de matéria seca. Abstract in english This research was carried out under greenhouse conditions at the College of Agriculture, campus of Jaboticabal, UNESP, with the objective of studying the effects of different levels of phosphoric fertilization (0, 33.5, 67.0 and 100.5 ppm P2O5) and shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 70% of light intercep [...] tion) on some growth parameters of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). The tubers emerged were placed (in numbers of 4) in plastic pots containing three liters of dark Red Latossoil (soil), medium texture, being previously screened. The experiment was land out in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed the detrimental effect of shading on purple nutsedge development; at a level of 30% shading there was a reduction in plant density, mainly due to a reduction in the number of bulds and tubers. As a consequence there was a reduction in the dry matter accumulation in the subterranean parts (bulbs, tubers and roots), causing na increase in the ratios PA/B+T+R and B+T/R. Phosphoric fertilization, however, increased the growth parameters of the species, mainly in the development of the PA by na increase in the number and dry matter accumulation.

  10. The different surrogate measures of adiposity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with different surrogate measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones were measured in 260 male partners of pregnant women at a university hospital andrology centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that all adiposity markers were negatively related to sex hormone-binding globulin and total testosterone levels. After adjustment for covariates a high BF%, WC and WHtR were negatively associated with total sperm count. The BF% was also negatively related to semen volume. These significant changes occurred from a BF% ? 23.4%, WC > 98 cm and WHtR > 0.54. Next to these changes the BMI was not related to sperm parameters. This study shows that semen quality is affected by central adiposity and confirms earlier findings that adiposity markedly changes serum sex hormone levels. Further studies are required to find out what is the best body composition marker showing most clearly the relationships between adiposity, semen characteristics and sex hormone levels. PMID:25598148

  11. Fertility, education and development: further evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Dreze, Jean; Murthi, Mamta

    2000-01-01

    There has been a significant decline in fertility in many parts of India since the early 1980s. This paper reexamines the determinants of fertility levels and fertility decline, using panel data on Indian districts for 1981 and 1991. We find that women's education is the most important factor explaining fertility differences across the country and over time. Low levels of child mortality and son preferences also contribute to lower fertility. By contrast, general indicators of modernization a...

  12. Recommendation of soil fertility levels for willow in the southern highlands of Santa Catarina Classes recomendáveis de fertilidade do solo para a produção de vime no Planalto Sul Catarinense

    OpenAIRE

    Tássio Dresch Rech; Flávio Zanette; João Claudio Zanatta; Névio João Nuernberg; Dieter Brandes

    2012-01-01

    The species Salix x rubens is being grown on the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina since the 1940s, but so far the soil fertility requirements of the crop have not been assessed. This study is the first to evaluate the production profile of willow plantations in this region, based on the modified method of Summer & Farina (1986), for the recommendation of fertility levels for willow. By this method, based on the law of Minimum and of Maximum for willow production for the conditions on the So...

  13. The Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Yassini, M.; Ma, Khalili; Hashemian, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Approximately 10% of Iranian couples wishing to have a child experience some types of infertility which may impose a considerable psychological burden on them. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the level of anxiety and depression among infertile couples undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment cycles in Iran. Methods: Fifty infertile couples that who undergoing IVF (n=25) or ICSI (n=25) cycles were considered for this descriptive cross-sectional study. A...

  14. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer level on the grain yield, some qualitative and technological indices of Triticum aestivum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Foto Kashta

    2014-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels on five bread wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design, having four replications, plot size of 10 m2. N doses used were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha. The grain production of each variant was analyzed for the following traits: grain yield, thousand kernels weight, test weight, protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation (SDS), as indirect indices ...

  15. Evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in Central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Nájera; Y, Tapia; C, Baginsky; V, Figueroa; R, Cabeza; O, Salazar.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to carry out an evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in central Chile. Soil samples were collected from 31 maize fields for macro- and micronutrient analysis; additionally a crop manag [...] ement survey was carried out in each field. These data were used to identify the range of critical soil-test concentrations of nutrients and the relationships among these soil fertility parameters; to assess the relationship between maize yields and nutrient status of soils; to evaluate the current fertiliser practices of farmers comparing them with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertiliser model calculations; and to analyse whether The results showed that there was a dominance of neutral-alkaline soils with low organic matter and N levels, and high P, cations and micronutrient levels. Regression analysis explained at least 59% of the variation in maize yields, when soil pH and available zinc (Zn) content were identified as the most important variables controlling maize yield. Results suggest that in neutral-alkaline soils cultivated with maize and high inputs of N-P-K, there may be a maize yield response to Zn applications. It was found that most farmers over-fertilised with N (from 60 to 360 kg N ha-1) and P (from10 to 120 kg P2O5 ha-1), converting maize fields in an important non-point source of pollution of water bodies in Central Chile.

  16. Evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in Central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Nájera; Y, Tapia; C, Baginsky; V, Figueroa; R, Cabeza; O, Salazar.

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to carry out an evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in central Chile. Soil samples were collected from 31 maize fields for macro- and micronutrient analysis; additionally a crop manag [...] ement survey was carried out in each field. These data were used to identify the range of critical soil-test concentrations of nutrients and the relationships among these soil fertility parameters; to assess the relationship between maize yields and nutrient status of soils; to evaluate the current fertiliser practices of farmers comparing them with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertiliser model calculations; and to analyse whether The results showed that there was a dominance of neutral-alkaline soils with low organic matter and N levels, and high P, cations and micronutrient levels. Regression analysis explained at least 59% of the variation in maize yields, when soil pH and available zinc (Zn) content were identified as the most important variables controlling maize yield. Results suggest that in neutral-alkaline soils cultivated with maize and high inputs of N-P-K, there may be a maize yield response to Zn applications. It was found that most farmers over-fertilised with N (from 60 to 360 kg N ha-1) and P (from10 to 120 kg P2O5 ha-1), converting maize fields in an important non-point source of pollution of water bodies in Central Chile.

  17. Implementation of the long-range atmospheric transport model NPK-PUFF, version 1.0, in the Dutch EPR-organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the nuclear power station in Chernobyl, KNMI and RIVM developed a model for the long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides. This model, the RIVM/KNMI PUFF model, is in use for application in the National Plan for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (NPK, abbreviated in Dutch). The PUFF-model is used at KNMI and RIVM. However, differences exist between the two versions of the model due to new model developments. It is therefore decided to create a new version of the PUFF model, the NPK-PUFF model. This model combines the best elements of the two versions, especially in the use of the more detailed HIRLAM- and ECMWF-meteorological data. The NPK-PUFF model is now operational at KNMI and RIVM. However, before the model can be used in the NPK it is necessary to check whether the two operational versions of the NPK-PUFF model give similar results. This report describes the tests performed and the results. The tests consist of a calculation for a hypothetical release on 17 November 1994, using different combinations of meteorological data, and a calculation with actual data in June 1997. Various criteria are used to compare the results and to accept or reject the results. The results of the two operational versions of the NPK-PUFF model appeared to be similar. The differences in model results were small and the deviations were not systematically. For some calculations, at a few moments the criteria were not fulfilled completely. However, a were not fulfilled completely. However, these deviations are considered not to be crucial. With these results, it is proposed to accept the NPK-PUFF model, version 1.0, for application in the National Plan for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response. 7 refs

  18. Efecto de labranza, humedad y fertilización en el rendimiento de frijol y la patogenicidad de Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid / Effects of tillage, moisture and fertilization on the yield of the common bean and the pathogenicity of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Krystal, Lira-Méndez; Jaime Roel, Salinas-García; Arturo, Díaz-Franco; Netzahualcóyotl, Mayek-Pérez.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. causa la 'pudrición carbonosa' en frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y otros cultivos y afecta el crecimiento y el rendimiento de grano. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de cuatro niveles de labranza (barbecho, destronque-bordeo, subsuelo-bordeo [...] , cero), dos de humedad (temporal, riego) y dos de fertilización (química, 40-20-00 NPK; biológica con la micorriza Glomus intraradices) en el rendimiento de grano de la variedad Negro INIFAP en 2006 y 2007 en Río Bravo, México y en la patogenicidad de M. phaseolina. Los experimentos se establecieron en arreglo de tratamientos en parcelas subdivididas con tres repeticiones. Un aislamiento de M. phaseolina se obtuvo de plantas colectadas en cada unidad experimental y su patogenicidad se midió en semillas de cinco variedades de frijol (Azufrado Tapatío, Bayo Madero, Flor de Mayo Bajío, Negro Altiplano y Negro INIFAP). El riego y G. intraradices incrementaron el rendimiento de grano 144% y 12% respecto al temporal y la fertilización química, respectivamente. Los aislamientos de M. phaseolina de parcelas con riego, fertilización química, subsuelo-bordeo y barbecho fueron más agresivos en frijol. La aplicación de micorrizas y la labranza de conservación promueven la sostenibilidad del suelo y también podrían constituirse en medidas de manejo integrado de M. phaseolina en frijol. Abstract in english The fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid causes the 'charcoal rot' disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other crops and reduces plant growth and grain yield. In this work we determined the effects of four tillage levels (moldboard plow, shred-bedding, subsoil-bedding, no or zer [...] o tillage); two levels of soil moisture (rainfed, irrigated) and two of fertilization (chemical, using the formula 40-20-00 NPK; biological, using the mycorrhiza Glomus intraradices) in grain yield of the variety Negro INIFAP during 2006 and 2007 in Río Bravo, Mexico as well as the pathogenicity of M. phaseolina. Experiments were established in a subdivided plot treatment arrangement with three replications. One isolate of M. phaseolina was obtained from plants collected in each experimental unit and the pathogenicity was determined in seeds of five common bean cultivars (Azufrado Tapatío, Bayo Madero, Flor de Mayo Bajío, Negro Altiplano, and Negro INIFAP). Irrigation and G. intraradices increased grain yield by 144% and 12%, in comparison to with rainfed conditions and chemical fertilization, respectively. The M. phaseolina isolates from irrigated, chemically fertilized and with subsoil-bedding or moldboard plow tillage were more aggressive in bean seeds. The application of mycorrhiza and conservative tillage promote soil sustainability and they could be used as integrated management measures of M. phaseolina in common beans.

  19. Efecto de labranza, humedad y fertilización en el rendimiento de frijol y la patogenicidad de Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid Effects of tillage, moisture and fertilization on the yield of the common bean and the pathogenicity of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Lira-Méndez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. causa la 'pudrición carbonosa' en frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y otros cultivos y afecta el crecimiento y el rendimiento de grano. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de cuatro niveles de labranza (barbecho, destronque-bordeo, subsuelo-bordeo, cero, dos de humedad (temporal, riego y dos de fertilización (química, 40-20-00 NPK; biológica con la micorriza Glomus intraradices en el rendimiento de grano de la variedad Negro INIFAP en 2006 y 2007 en Río Bravo, México y en la patogenicidad de M. phaseolina. Los experimentos se establecieron en arreglo de tratamientos en parcelas subdivididas con tres repeticiones. Un aislamiento de M. phaseolina se obtuvo de plantas colectadas en cada unidad experimental y su patogenicidad se midió en semillas de cinco variedades de frijol (Azufrado Tapatío, Bayo Madero, Flor de Mayo Bajío, Negro Altiplano y Negro INIFAP. El riego y G. intraradices incrementaron el rendimiento de grano 144% y 12% respecto al temporal y la fertilización química, respectivamente. Los aislamientos de M. phaseolina de parcelas con riego, fertilización química, subsuelo-bordeo y barbecho fueron más agresivos en frijol. La aplicación de micorrizas y la labranza de conservación promueven la sostenibilidad del suelo y también podrían constituirse en medidas de manejo integrado de M. phaseolina en frijol.The fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid causes the 'charcoal rot' disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and other crops and reduces plant growth and grain yield. In this work we determined the effects of four tillage levels (moldboard plow, shred-bedding, subsoil-bedding, no or zero tillage; two levels of soil moisture (rainfed, irrigated and two of fertilization (chemical, using the formula 40-20-00 NPK; biological, using the mycorrhiza Glomus intraradices in grain yield of the variety Negro INIFAP during 2006 and 2007 in Río Bravo, Mexico as well as the pathogenicity of M. phaseolina. Experiments were established in a subdivided plot treatment arrangement with three replications. One isolate of M. phaseolina was obtained from plants collected in each experimental unit and the pathogenicity was determined in seeds of five common bean cultivars (Azufrado Tapatío, Bayo Madero, Flor de Mayo Bajío, Negro Altiplano, and Negro INIFAP. Irrigation and G. intraradices increased grain yield by 144% and 12%, in comparison to with rainfed conditions and chemical fertilization, respectively. The M. phaseolina isolates from irrigated, chemically fertilized and with subsoil-bedding or moldboard plow tillage were more aggressive in bean seeds. The application of mycorrhiza and conservative tillage promote soil sustainability and they could be used as integrated management measures of M. phaseolina in common beans.

  20. Application of mineral fertilizers in Bulgaria and their efficiency on the slightly leached chernozems of the Dobroudja region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past years the agriculture in Bulgaria is undergoing a process of reconstruction and structural changes. The utilization of mineral fertilizers has gradually increased since 1948 and reached its summit in 1981 when about 227 kg/ha NPK have been used. Nowadays these norms have been were and in 1996 they were only 35 kg/ha at the expense of applying N-fertilizers mainly in wheat. The efficiency of the applied nutrients was estimated on slightly leached chernozem in the period 1967-1997. The regular long term fertilization of N120P60K0 had a favorable effect on grain yield in an agronomical and economic aspect (5070 kg/ha). The highest grain yield was received at fertilization with N120P120K120 (5230 kg/ha). Refs. 4 (author)

  1. Effect of neem cake/fertilizers on symbiotic and non-symbiotic N2 fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neem cake amendment in soil at 1.3% no adverse effect on the population of four symbiotic Rhizobium species viz., japonicum, R. leguminosarum, R. Phaseoli and R. Fredii and three non-symbiotic free living nitrogen fixers bacteria viz., Pseudomonas diazotrophicus, Klebsiella planticola and Enterobacter cloacae. Neem cake extracted with n-hexane stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species in vitro, whereas Neem cake expeller extracted neither inhibited nor stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species except for R. Fredii, whose was slightly retarded. The fertilizers (urea, NPK and DAP) had no adverse effect on these bacteria even at the dosage ten times higher the recommended dose. (author)

  2. INFLUÊNCIA DE SUCESSIVOS CULTIVOS COM ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA SOBRE O TEOR DE PROTEÍNA DE UMA CULTIVAR DE MILHO (Zea mays L. INFLUENCE OF SUCCESSIVE CULTURES WITH ORGANIC FERTILIZATION ON PROTEIN LEVEL OF A CORN CULTIVAR (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Neve R. Guimarães

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O milho é utilizado principalmente como fonte de energia, tendo como característica proteínas pobres em usina e triptofano. Seu conteúdo protéico cresce com incrementos nas adubações nitrogenadas. A pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a influência de sucessivos cultivos com adubação orgânica, na variação do teor de proteína nos grãos de milho, variedade Demétria/EA-UFG, uma cultivar rústica, própria para cultivos com adubação orgânica. Foi observado efeito significativo a cada dois cultivos sucessivos (teste de Tukey a 5 % de probabilidade.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Adubação orgânica; proteína; esterco.

    The corn grain is mainly used as energetic source, due to low levels of lisin and triptofane in protein. The corn protein level increases with nitrogenous fertilization. This study was carried out to verify the influence of successive cultures with organic fertilization on protein level of corn grain. The Demetria/EA/UFG cultivar is rustic and adapted to organic fertilization. It was observed significant effect every two successive cultures (Tukey 5% probability.

    KEY-WORDS: Organic fertilizer; protein; manure.

  3. Partição de biomassa seca e nutriente em minicepas de eucalipto influenciada pela adubação NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Carvalho Neto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986615O estado nutricional da planta-matriz é de grande importância para a manutenção do seu vigor vegetativo, o que determina a produção de brotos e também os índices de enraizamento e velocidade de formação das raízes, uma vez que os macronutrientes e os micronutrientes estão envolvidos nos processos bioquímicos e fisiológicos vitais à planta. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a partição de biomassa seca e nutriente em minicepa de eucalipto em solução nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetação. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4x4x41/2, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições. Os tratamentos se constituíram de quatro doses dos nutrientes de N (50; 100; 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de ureia, P (7,5; 15; 30 e 60 mg L-1 na forma de ácido fosfórico e K (50; 100; 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de cloreto de potássio em solução nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente, para a biomassa seca das miniestacas e biomassa seca da parte aérea e raiz das minicepas com efeito linear decrescente, com o aumento das doses de N. A dose de 50 mg L-1 de N proporcionou maior acúmulo de biomassa seca das miniestacas e minicepas. A distribuição percentual da biomassa seca e dos nutrientes na biomassa seca das miniestacas, parte aérea e raízes das minicepas variou em relação às doses de N. A extração de macronutrientes pelas miniestacas de 6 cm na dose de 50 mg L-1 de N seguiu a seguinte ordem decrescente de N > S > P > K > Ca > Mg e micronutrientes de Cu > B > Mn > Fe > Zn.

  4. Efeito da adubação NPK sobre o período de imaturidade da seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATAGLIA ONDINO CLEANTE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] à adubação NPK visando recomendá-la no período de formação dos seringais. Relata os resultados do experimento em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico no município de Matão (SP. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4 com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O. Até 104 meses de idade das plantas, avaliaram-se o perímetro do caule 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal, efetuando-se análises de solo e folhas em diversas épocas. Observou-se, a partir de 24 meses de idade, pouco mais de um ano depois do início das aplicações efeito linear da adubação potássica sobre o perímetro do caule e, a partir de de 48 meses, com freqüência, a interação NK linear. Usando como indicador de desenvolvimento a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para K e, em algumas poucas épocas, também paraN. O período de imaturidade, apesar de afetado significativamente apenas pela adubação potássica, mostrou-se dependente do equilíbrio dos nutrientes. Adubações desequilibradas podem retardar até em 15 meses o tempo de imaturidade, comparando-se os melhores e os piores tratamentos. Na ausência de adubação potássica, verificou-se um efeito antagônico dos nutrientes N e P. Adubações potássicas foram essenciais para garantir a antecipação do início da fase produtiva.

  5. Mycorrhizal effectiveness on physic nut as influenced by phosphate fertilization levels / Eficiência micorrízica no pinhão-manso sob diferentes doses de adubação fosfatada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elcio Liborio, Balota; Oswaldo, Machineski; Alexandra, Scherer.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a cultura do pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) tem despertado grande interesse pelo seu alto potencial na produção de matéria prima para a produção de biocombustíveis. Apesar de sua adaptabilidade às condições de baixa fertilidade do solo, as plantas requerem a correção da acidez d [...] o solo e a adição de considerável quantidade de fertilizantes para alta produção de frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a efetividade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em mudas de pinhão-manso em diferentes doses de P no solo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando solo arenoso (LVd) autoclavado como substrato em vasos com capacidade de 4 kg. Foram avaliados em um delineamento completamente casualizado - em um esquema fatorial, com quatro repetições - os tratamentos de fungos micorrízicos (controle, Gigaspora margarita ou Glomus clarum) e a adição de P (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg kg-1 de solo). O experimento foi conduzido por 180 dias. A inoculação micorrízica proporcionou aumento no crescimento das plantas, nos teores de P e na eficiência de absorção de P pelas raízes nas baixas doses de P. O pinhão-manso apresentou decréscimo no quociente de utilização de P com o aumento da adição de P. O índice de eficiência de utilização de P aumentou nas menores doses e diminuiu nas altas doses de adição deste nutriente. A colonização micorrízica e a esporulação foram influenciadas negativamente pela adição de P. A mais alta eficiência micorrízica ocorreu entre as concentrações de 7,8 e 25 mg kg-1 de P no solo. O pinhão-manso respondeu positivamente à adição de P, indepedentemente da presença micorrízica. Abstract in english In recent years, physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) has attracted attention because of its potential for biofuel production. Although it is adapted to low-fertility soils, physic nut requires soil acidity corrections and addition of a considerable amount of fertilizer for high productivity. The objecti [...] ve of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (control without AMF inoculation, Gigaspora margarita inoculation or Glomus clarum inoculation) on increasing growth and yield of physic nut seedlings under different rates of P fertilization (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 P soil) in greenhouse. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, block in a factorial scheme design with four replications. The physic nut plants were harvested 180 days after the beginning of the experiment. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased physic nut growth, plant P concentration and root P uptake efficiency at low soil P concentrations. The P use quotient of the plants decreased as the amount of P applied increased, and the P use efficiency index increased at low P levels and decreased at high P levels. Mycorrhizal root colonization and AMF sporulation were negatively affected by P addition. The highest mycorrhizal efficiency was observed when the soil contained between 7.8 and 25 mgkg-1 of P. The physic nut plants responded strongly to P application, independent of mycorrhizal inoculation.

  6. Long-term effects of single potassium fertilization on 137Cs levels in plants and fungi in a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the long-term effects of a single application of potassium (K) fertilizer (100 kg K ha-1) in 1992 on 137Cs uptake in a forest ecosystem in central Sweden. 137Cs activity concentrations were determined in three low-growing perennial shrubs, heather (Calluna vulgaris), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and in four wild fungal species (Cortinarius semisanguineus, Lactarius rufus, Rozites caperata and Suillus variegatus). Uptake of 137Cs by plants and fungi growing on K-fertilized plots 17 years after application of the K fertilizer was significantly lower than in corresponding species growing in a non-fertilized control area. The 137Cs activity concentration was 21-58% lower in fungal sporocarps and 40-61% lower in plants in the K-fertilized area compared with the control. Over the study period, this decrease in 137Cs activity concentration was more consistent in plants than in fungi, although the effect was statistically significant and strongly pronounced in all species. The effect of K fertilization in reducing 137Cs activity concentration in fungi and plants decreased over time but was still significant in 2009, 17 years after fertilization. This suggests that application of K fertilizer to forests is an appropriate and effective long-term measure to decrease radiocaesium accumulation in plants and fungi. - Research highlights: ? Effects ofngi. - Research highlights: ? Effects of potassium fertilizer on 137Cs uptake by plants and fungi are investigated. ? 137Cs activity concentrations in forest plants decreased even within the first year. ? The most significant reduction occurred over the first 7-8 years. ? The reduction in fungi was less pronounced, but still statistically significant.

  7. Content of nitrates in potato tubers depending on the organic matter, soil fertilizer, cultivation simplifications applied and storage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaroslaw, Pobere& #380; ny; Elzbieta, Wszelaczy& #324; ska; Dorota, Wichrowska; Dariusz, Jaskulski.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates naturally occur in plant-based food. Nitrates content in consumable plant organs is small and should not raise concern provided that the recommended fertilization and harvest terms of the original plants are observed. The aim was to determine the effect of the application of various organic [...] matter of soil fertilizer and simplifications in growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on the content of nitrates in the tubers of mid-early cultivar 'Satina' after harvest and after 6-mo of storage. Introducing cultivation simplification involves limiting mineral fertilization by 50% as well as chemical protection limitation. The soil fertilizer was used: 0.6 (autumn), 0.3 (spring), and 0.3 L ha-1 (during the vegetation period). The content of nitrates, was determined with the use of the ion-selective method (multi-purpose computer device CX-721, Elmetron). The lowest amount of nitrates was recorded in the tubers from the plots without the application of organic matter with a 50% rate of mineral fertilization with soil fertilizer (120.5 mg kg-1 FW). The use of varied organic matter resulted in a significant increase in the content of nitrates in tubers and the lowest effect on their accumulation was reported for straw. The soil fertilizer used significantly decreased the content of nitrates in tubers by 15% for 100% NPK and 10.4% for 50% NPK. After 6-mo storage, irrespective of the experiment factors, the content of nitrates decreased in the fertilization experiment by 26% and in the experiment with a limited protection - by 19.9%.

  8. Establishing a soil reference system for fertility assessment and monitoring at plot level in the highlands of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe D. Calalang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the crop production areas of Miarayon Village, along the volcanic footslope of Mt. Kalatungan, Talakag, Bukidnon, Philippines. The elevation range of the longitudinal toposequence is 1,900 to 1,300 m asl. Production areas in the intermediate part of the toposequence (Salsalan are located at about 1,600 to 1,400 m asl and in the lower part (Mambuaw at 1,400 to 1,300 m asl. A total of 24 plots (12 in each location which were planted to potatoes, carrots and corn were investigated. Soils are “Andic” Cambisol in open and convex positions and “Andic” Umbrisol in concave positions and toeslopes. The soil pH values ranged from 5.0-5.9. TOC and TN content were medium to high (4.1-8.9% and 0.30-0.80% respectively with C/N ratios from 8-15. Range values of available Ca, Mg, K and Na were 1.9-11.24, 0.16-2.14 and 0.20-1.13, 0.04-0.13 cmol+kg-1, respectively. Top soil horizon exchangeable Al in Mambuaw was higher than in Salsalan. The differences in TN, C/N ratio and available K levels between the two locations were very highly significant, TOC was highly significant and for soil pH and available Ca and sum of bases, their disparities were significant. Available Mg and Na did not differ between the two sites. Mean potato yield in Salsalan was 8.97 tha-1 more than in Mambuaw. Mean carrot yield in Salsalan was 2.39 tha-1 lesser than in Mambuaw. Mean corn yield in Salsalan was higher than in Mambuaw by 0.29 tha-1 only. Correlations between potato yields with TOC, TN, and available Ca were highly significant while soil pH and K were significant. There was no relationship detected between potato yields and Mg and Na. There was no association detected between carrot yields with topsoil nutrient levels. Correlations were noted in corn yields with available Ca, Mg and K.

  9. Adubação orgânica, mineral e organomineral e sua influencia no crescimento da helicônia em Garanhuns-PE Organic, mineral and organomineral fertilization and its influence on the growth of heliconia in Garanhuns, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josabete SB Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As helicônias se destacam pela beleza e variedade de formas e cores e estão entre as flores tropicais mais comercializadas no mundo. Foi avaliado o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de Heliconia psittacorum x H. spathocircinata, cv. Golden Torch, quanto à adubação orgânica e mineral. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro dosagens de adubo (testemunha (T1 solo local; esterco de boi (T2; adubo mineral NPK (T3 e esterco de boi + NPK (T4, em dez repetições. Foram avaliados a altura da planta, número de brotações, época do florescimento, número, tamanho e peso das inflorescências. A combinação da adubação mineral (NPK e orgânica (esterco (organomineral afetou significativamente a altura das plantas, apresentando um aumento de mais de 23% quando comparada com o controle aos 330 dias após o plantio. Aos seis meses de cultivo, todas as plantas exibiam um crescimento bastante homogêneo e vigoroso, sem sintomas visuais de deficiência nutricional, evidenciando que a adubação química associada ao esterco bovino (organomineral é a mais recomendada para o cultivo de helicônia cv. Golden Torch. Essa cultivar pode ser bem adaptada às condições de Garanhuns.Heliconia stands out for its beauty and variety of shapes and colors and this plant is among the most traded tropical flowers in the world. We eva