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Desempenho do gergelim em função da adubação NPK e do nível d fertilidade do solo = Sesame performance in function of NPK fertilizer and levels of soil fertility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do gergelim, em condições de safrinha, em doses crescentes de NPK e diferentes níveis de fertilidade do solo. Foram instalados dois experimentos: um em casa-de-vegetação e outro a campo. Em casa-devegetação, utilizou-se fatorial 6 x 2, distribuído em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso,com quatro repetições. O primeiro fator constou de seis doses do adubo 04:14:08; o segundo, de dois tipos de solo (baixa e alta fertilidade). O experimento a campo constou de seis tratamentos (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg ha-1 do adubo 04-20-10), distribuídos emblocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A adubação com 04:14:08, quando em solo de baixa fertilidade, promoveu aumento na altura das plantas, desde o início até o final do ciclo, enquanto, em solo de alta fertilidade, as respostas foram evidenciadas apenas nos primeiros43 dias de crescimento. A adubação ainda promoveu aumento no peso de matéria seca das hastes e das vagens, no número de vagens e na produção de grãos, em solo de baixa fertilidade, atingindo produção máxima de grãos na dose de 550 kg ha-1 do adubo 04:14:08. No campo, não houve resposta da adubação com relação à produção de matéria seca e rendimento de grãos cultivados na safrinha.The objective of this work was to evaluate sesame performance to NPKfertilizer and different levels of soil fertility. Two experiments were conducted: one in a greenhouse and another in field conditions. In the greenhouse, the study used a completely randomized design, in a 6 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. The first factor was six fertilization levels of 04:14:08, and the second two soil types (low and high fertility). The experiment in field conditions used randomized blocks with 6 treatments (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1 of 04-20-10 fertilizer 04:20:10) and 4 replications. The fertilization with 04:14:08 in low fertility soil promoted greaterheight of the plants from the beginning until the end of the cycle, whereas in ground of high fertility responses were evident only in the first 43 days of growth. The fertilization resulted in an increase in sesame grain yield when cultivated in low fertility soil, reaching maximum values in the dose of 550 kg ha-1 of 04:14:08 fertilizer. In field conditions, there was no response from fertilization with respect to the dry matter and yield of sesame grains cultivated in second crop conditions.

Adriano Perin; Danilo José Cruvinel; José Waldemar da Silva

2010-01-01

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Growth and Marketable Green Pod Yield Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) under Varying Levels of NPK Fertilizers  

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An Experiment to assess the effect of different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) on morphological traits of local pea variety was conducted at Vegetable Seed Farm ARI, Sariab, Quetta during the year 2000-2001. The fertilizer treatments comprised control, 25-0-0, 25-60-0, 25-0-60, 25...

A. A. Kakar; M. Saleem; Rahim Shah; S. A. Qaim Shah

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Growth and Marketable Green Pod Yield Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) under Varying Levels of NPK Fertilizers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Experiment to assess the effect of different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) on morphological traits of local pea variety was conducted at Vegetable Seed Farm ARI, Sariab, Quetta during the year 2000-2001. The fertilizer treatments comprised control, 25-0-0, 25-60-0, 25-0-60, 25-60-60, 50-0-0, 50-90-0, 50-0-90, 50-90-90, 75-0-0, 75-120-0, 75-0-120, and 75-120-120, Kg NPK/ 4m2 in a Randomized Complete Block Design. The maximum plant height (46.30 cm), number of branches per plant (5.60), number of pods per plant (33.10), pod length (8.49 cm), seed per pod (6.00), pod yield per plant (188.43 gms), total marketable green pod yield per plot (6.02 kg) and per hectare yield (5.01 m.t), were recorded in treatment 75-120-120 or 75-120-0, Kg NPK ha -1, which displayed maximum green pod yield due to increase in pod per plant and pod length. It was further noted that an additional K did not increase the yield. Mean square attributable to treatment differed highly significant for all the quantitative traits showing the importance of fertilizer treatment in influencing morphological characteristics of pea plant.

A. A. Kakar; M. Saleem; Rahim Shah; S. A. Qaim Shah

2002-01-01

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Effect of Different Levels of N.P.K Fertilizers on the Yield and Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

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Full Text Available The data obtained revealed that maximum plant height (422 cm), number of flowers (532), number of fruits per tree (940), fruit length (19.11 cm) and average fruit yield per tree (61.22 kg) were recorded in 1.5-1.5-0.75 NPK kg/plant. Maximum plant girth (78 cm) and maximum fruit weight (133.5 g) was found in 1.5-0.75-00 NPK kg/plant. Whereas, maximum number of inflorescence/ shoot (23.7) was recorded in 00-00-00 NPK kg/plant. Key words: Manqo, Manqifera indica, flowers, fruits, yield

Shakeel Ahmed; Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Abdul Ghaffoor; Kashif Waseem; Saif-ur-Rehma

2001-01-01

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Diferentes combinações de NPK na produção do feijão-vagem em solo orgânico álico do Vale do Ribeira (SP)/ Influence of different levels of NPK fertilizers on the yield of pole snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivando-se verificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 e 354-576-558 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O respectivamente) na produção do feijão-vagem, cv. Teresópolis, desenvolveu-se um experimento na Estação Experimental de Pariquera-Açu em solo orgânico álico de alta acidez. Nas condições do experimento, verificou-se apenas resposta linear e positiva altamente significativa para os seguintes caracteres estudados: produtividade total de v (more) agens, produtividade de vagens comerciáveis e número total de vagens. Desse modo, as maiores produtividades em peso e número de vagens, em magnitude, foram obtidas quando se utilizou a dose máxima de NPK. Abstract in english A trial was carried out at the Experimental Station of 'Pariquera-Açu', State of São Paulo, Brazil, on an organic soil, of high acidity (pH = 4.9), to determine the influence of four levels of fertilizers (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 and 354-576-558 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O respectively) on the yield of pole snap beans, cultivar Teresópolis. The results showed that the pod yield increased with the increasing levels of fertilizers applied (linear effect). The highest yie (more) ld of snap bean pods was obtained at the levels of 354-576-588kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, respectively. The results also showed that the average weight of pods remained constant and the number of pods increased linearly with the fertilizer levels.

Ishimura, Issao; Feitosa, Celi Teixeira; Lisbão, Rogério Salles; Passos, Francisco Antonio; Fornasier, João Baptista; Noda, Massaharu

1985-01-01

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Diferentes combinações de NPK na produção do feijão-vagem em solo orgânico álico do Vale do Ribeira (SP) Influence of different levels of NPK fertilizers on the yield of pole snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivando-se verificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 e 354-576-558 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O respectivamente) na produção do feijão-vagem, cv. Teresópolis, desenvolveu-se um experimento na Estação Experimental de Pariquera-Açu em solo orgânico álico de alta acidez. Nas condições do experimento, verificou-se apenas resposta linear e positiva altamente significativa para os seguintes caracteres estudados: produtividade total de vagens, produtividade de vagens comerciáveis e número total de vagens. Desse modo, as maiores produtividades em peso e número de vagens, em magnitude, foram obtidas quando se utilizou a dose máxima de NPK.A trial was carried out at the Experimental Station of 'Pariquera-Açu', State of São Paulo, Brazil, on an organic soil, of high acidity (pH = 4.9), to determine the influence of four levels of fertilizers (0-0-0, 118-192-186, 236-384-372 and 354-576-558 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O respectively) on the yield of pole snap beans, cultivar Teresópolis. The results showed that the pod yield increased with the increasing levels of fertilizers applied (linear effect). The highest yield of snap bean pods was obtained at the levels of 354-576-588kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, respectively. The results also showed that the average weight of pods remained constant and the number of pods increased linearly with the fertilizer levels.

Issao Ishimura; Celi Teixeira Feitosa; Rogério Salles Lisbão; Francisco Antonio Passos; João Baptista Fornasier; Massaharu Noda

1985-01-01

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[Aedes aegypti oviposition in response to NPK fertilizers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fertilizers are mineral associations intended to bring to the plants nutritive complements necessary to their growth. Modern fertilizers (NPK) combine the three basic elements which are the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). In this study, we investigated in tunnel apparatus the influence of aqueous solutions containing low, moderate and high concentrations of NPK on the oviposition of Aedes aegypti. The results showed that the solutions containing moderate concentrations (NK = 17-33 mg/l and P = 23-47 mg/l) attracted significantly more gravid females than distilled water (P < 0.001). Conversely, the solutions containing either low or high concentrations of NPK (NK = 8 mg/l and P = 12 mg/l; NK = 50 mg/I and P = 70 mg/l) did not induce significant attraction (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that NPK fertilizers may influence the egg-laying behaviour of Ae. aegypti in field situations.

Darriet F; Corbel V

2008-03-01

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Effect of Different Levels of N.P.K Fertilizers on the Yield and Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The data obtained revealed that maximum plant height (422 cm), number of flowers (532), number of fruits per tree (940), fruit length (19.11 cm) and average fruit yield per tree (61.22 kg) were recorded in 1.5-1.5-0.75 NPK kg/plant. Maximum plant girth (78 cm) and maximum fruit weight (133.5 g) ...

Shakeel Ahmed; Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Abdul Ghaffoor; Kashif Waseem; Saif-ur-Rehma

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Yield and Distribution/Uptake of Nutrients of Dioscorea rotundata Influenced by NPK Fertilizer Application  

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Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted in 2005 and 2006 at Evboneka to determine the optimum level of NPK requirement for yield and nutrient composition of D. rotundata for the forest ultisol location. Fresh tuber yield, dry matter accumulation, percentage of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content of leaves and tubers at various stages and crude protein content of harvested tubers were evaluated under five levels (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kilogramme per hectare (kg ha-1) of NPK fertilizer using randomized complete block design. NPK fertilizer application significantly increased all the tested parameters. The optimum level of NPK for successful production of white guinea yam was 300 (45 kg N + 20.37 kg P + 37.35 kg K) kg ha-1 in a forest ultisol that been under cultivation for at least two years.

Kolawole Edomwonyi LAW-OGBOMO; Samson Uduzei REMISON

2009-01-01

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Varietal Response to Varying Doses of NPK Fertilizer  

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A field experiment was laid out to assess the yield performance of two cultivars under ten fertilizer (NPK) treatments during 1992, 1993 and 1994 crop seasons at CRS, Ghotki Sindh. On an average, highest seed cotton yield of 2062 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was fertilized with 112,...

A. R. Soomro; M. H. Channa; G. H. Kalwar; A. A. Channa; G. N. Dayo; A. H. Memon

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Response of Cotton to Various Doses of NPK Fertilizers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cotton is an economically important crop and experiments to determine its response to rates of fertilizers have always been an important part of research. Thus a field experiment was laid out to assess the yield performance of cotton under ten fertilizer (NPK) treatments during 1997, 1998 and 1999 c...

A. W. Soomro; A. R. Soomro; A. S. Arain; G. H. Tunio; M. S. Chang; A. B. Leghari; M. R. Magsi

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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions.

Martín-Ortiz D; Hernández-Apaolaza L; Gárate A

2010-07-01

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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to a zinc fertilizer applied as zinc lignosulfonate adhered to a NPK fertilizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy as Zn fertilizers for wheat of zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) products adhered to NPK was evaluated by three plant experimental designs. In the first and second assays, wheat plants were grown under controlled conditions with perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate, respectively. Shoot dry matter and Zn concentration showed that NPK + ZnLS was a better Zn source for wheat than NPK + ZnSO(4) under our experimental conditions. A third experiment was conducted under field conditions on a calcareous soil with a low Zn level. Wheat samples were taken at five growth stages of the crop. Although at early stages NPK + ZnLS was the most efficient source of Zn, at harvest no significant differences among treatments were found. Despite that, NPK + ZnLS showed evidence of being a useful Zn source for wheat crop under calcareous conditions. PMID:20527916

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2010-07-14

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Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia  

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Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20) exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

Jelena Milinovi?; Vesna Luki?; Snežana Nikoli?-Mandi?; Dimitrije Stojanovi?

2008-01-01

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[Aedes aegypti oviposition in response to NPK fertilizers].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertilizers are mineral associations intended to bring to the plants nutritive complements necessary to their growth. Modern fertilizers (NPK) combine the three basic elements which are the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). In this study, we investigated in tunnel apparatus the influence of aqueous solutions containing low, moderate and high concentrations of NPK on the oviposition of Aedes aegypti. The results showed that the solutions containing moderate concentrations (NK = 17-33 mg/l and P = 23-47 mg/l) attracted significantly more gravid females than distilled water (P 0.05). These findings suggest that NPK fertilizers may influence the egg-laying behaviour of Ae. aegypti in field situations. PMID:18416252

Darriet, F; Corbel, V

2008-03-01

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Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS) no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva) e três níveis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha) de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10). Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacific apresentaram frutos com maior peso médio do que Flora-Dade, Max e Diva. O número de frutos por planta aumentou com a elevação do nível de adubação de 2,0 para 3,5 t/ha, enquanto que o peso médio de frutos diminuiu, sem alterar a produção. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciais aos níveis de adubação, em relação ao peso médio de frutos.The objective of this work was to study the effect of cultivar, NPK fertilization and the interaction on yield components of fresh market tomatoes. The experiment was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1995/96 season. Five cultivars (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific and Diva) and three fertilization levels (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 t/ha) of NPK (3.6-7.2-10) were used. The treatments were displayed under a factorial scheme, in a randomized complete block design, with three repetitions. Empire and Pacific cultivars showed higher average fruit weight than Flora-Dade, Max and Diva. The number of fruits per plant increased with the elevation of fertilization levels from 2.0 to 3.5 t/ha, while the average fruit weight diminished, without changing yield. The cultivars showed differential response to fertilization levels, in relation to average fruit weight.

Paulo Renato Z. Santos; Arione S. Pereira; Cláudio José S. Freire

2001-01-01

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Response of Rice Line PB-95 to Different NPK Levels  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to observe the effect of applying N, P and K fertilizers at different rates and combinations on growth and yield of rice line PB-95. The fertilizer treatments comprised the T1 (control), T2 (0-75-75), T3 (60-75-75), T4(120-75-75), T5 (180-75-75), T6 (120-0-75), T7 (120-500-75), T8 (120-100-75), T9 (120-75-0), T10 ((120-75-50) and T11 (120-75-100) NPK kg ha-1. The results showed that application of NPK significantly increased the crop yield and maximum paddy and straw yield were obtained from plot fertilized @ 120-100-75 NPK kg ha-1. Harvest Index was highest at control, N physiological efficiency index and N fertilizer efficiency decreased with increasing N levels. Similarly, P physiological efficiency index decreased while P fertilizer efficiency increased with increasing P levels.

K.H. Awan; A.M. Ranjha; S.M. Mehdi; M. Sarfraz; G.Hassan

2003-01-01

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Effect of Seed Rate and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Wheat Variety Punjnad-1  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted for two consecutive crop seasons at Agronomic Research Station, Bahawalpur during Rabi 2000-2001 to 2001-2002 to evaluate maximum yield potential of wheat variety punjnad-1 as affected by various seeding rates 75, 100, 125 and 150 kg ha-1 and NPK levels 0-0-0, 100-50-0, 150-100-50 and 200-100-50 kg ha-1. Maximum wheat grain yield of 4293 kg ha-1 was recorded with fertilizer, level of 150-100-50 NPK kg ha-1 with seeding rate of 125 kg ha-1. It was closely followed by same fertilizer level with seeding rate of 100 kg ha-1 by giving 4287 kg grain yield ha-1 which showed that equally good results were obtained with fertilizer dose of 150-100-50 kg ha-1. It showed that higher dose of NPK fertilizer induce more tillering and grain weight in wheat plants under low seed rate which compansate reduction in grin yield. In both seasons increasing fertilizer levels NPK upto 150-100-50 kg ha-1 with seeding rate of 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 significantly and linearly enhance wheat grain yield while reduction in yield was obtained beyond this fertilizer dose and seeding rate.

M.S. Cheema; M. Akhtar; Liaquat Ali

2003-01-01

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NPK Fertilizers for Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Productivity in Alfisols of Southern Districts of Tamil Nadu  

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To optimize the NPK fertilizers requirements with hybrid rice (CORH 2) and graded levels of NPK during (Pishanam) wet season (September 2000 to January 2001), a field experiment was conducted in Alfisols of Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu. The experiment was laid ...

S. Krishnakumar; R. Nagarajan; S.K. Natarajan; D. Jawahar; B.J. Pandian

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Response of Potato Crop to Various Levels of NPK  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different doses of NPK on growth and yield of potato crop. Five different combinations of NPK with control were studied. Results revealed that the fertilizer application increased the potato yield significantly (29-110%) over control (21 t ha-1). The highest % of marketable tubers (87.33) and yield (44.1 t ha-1) was obtained when 200:150:75 NPK kg ha-1 was applied.

Nizamuddin; M. Masud Mahmood; Khalid Farooq; Shahid Riaz

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Process for the preparation of a granular NPK fertilizer and granular NPK fertilizers obtained by this process  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Granular NPK-fertilizers are prepared by granulating a liquid mixture obtained by adding a solid, particulate potassium salt to a liquid ammoniumnitrate containing phase, which either contains ammoniumphosphate or to which this is not added. The potassium salt particles have an average size no greater than 55 µ, while less than 1%wt are larger than 150 µ, and are added at a temperature between 5 and 40°C. The resulting granules show an excellent storage-stability.

Hoogendonk Johan Willem; Lucassen Servatius Jozef

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Process for the preparation of a granular NPK fertilizer and granular NPK fertilizers obtained by this process  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Storage-stable nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium fertilizer granules and prills are made by adding to a molten or aqueous solution mixture of ammonium nitrate and ammonium phosphate, a particulate potassium salt, typically potassium chloride, in which the particles have an average size no greater than 55 microns and less than 1% by weight of the particles are larger than 150 microns. The potassium salt is added without the need for preheating and at a temperature of between 5 DEG and 40 DEG C. to the mixture where it is simultaneously converted. The resulting mixture is granulated or prilled into NPK fertilizer particles.

HOOGENDONK JOHAN W; LUCASSEN SERVATIUS J

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Response of Cotton to Various Doses of NPK Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available Cotton is an economically important crop and experiments to determine its response to rates of fertilizers have always been an important part of research. Thus a field experiment was laid out to assess the yield performance of cotton under ten fertilizer (NPK) treatments during 1997, 1998 and 1999 crop seasons. On an average, highest seedcotton yield of 2434 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was fertilized with 75, 50 and 50 kg ha-1 of N, P and K respectively followed by 100 nitrogen, 50 phosphorus and 50 potash kg ha-1 where seedcotton yield of 2403 kg ha-1 was obtained. The lowest yield of 1053 kg ha-1 was produced from the control plot where no chemical fertilization was applied. The results reveal that balance use of above nutrient elements are essential for harvesting better yields.

A. W. Soomro; A. R. Soomro; A. S. Arain; G. H. Tunio; M. S. Chang; A. B. Leghari; M. R. Magsi

2000-01-01

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Varietal Response to Varying Doses of NPK Fertilizer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was laid out to assess the yield performance of two cultivars under ten fertilizer (NPK) treatments during 1992, 1993 and 1994 crop seasons at CRS, Ghotki Sindh. On an average, highest seed cotton yield of 2062 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was fertilized with 112, 56 and 50 kg ha-1 of N, P, and K respectively followed by 112 nitrogen, zero phosphorus and 50 potash kg ha-1 where seed cotton yield of 1933 kg ha-1 was obtained. The lowest yield of 1283 kg ha-1 was produced from the control plot where no chemical fertilization was done. The highest yielding variety GH-3 produced 1751 kg ha-1 seed cotton followed by Shaheen (1657 kg ha-1).

A. R. Soomro; M. H. Channa; G. H. Kalwar; A. A. Channa; G. N. Dayo; A. H. Memon

2000-01-01

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NP/NPK fertilizer granules comprised of ammonium phosphate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Granular fertilizer solids comprising ammonium phosphate, advantageously particulate NP/NPK fertilizers, are prepared by (i) granulating a liquid/dry solids admixture of fertilizer values in a granulation zone, (ii) next transferring said admixture to, and drying same, in a drying zone, (iii) while simultaneously injecting into said drying zone a jet spray of a slurry of ammonia neutralized acid values discharged from a pipe reactor, such that (iv) said jet spray directly impinges upon drying particles of wet solids transferred from said granulation zone, and whereby (v) dried final product simultaneously results therefrom, and (vi) then recovering a fraction of said dried final product, while (vii) recycling another fraction thereof, as dry solids, to said granulation zone.

MORAILLON PHILIPPE

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Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK/ NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ?Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), na Fazenda (more) Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP), em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação. Abstract in english The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee plantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plan (more) tations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

GALLO, PAULO BOLLER; RAIJ, BERNARDO VAN; QUAGGIO, JOSÉ ANTONIO; PEREIRA, LUIS CARLOS ESTEVES

1999-01-01

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Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ?Catuaí?, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP), em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ?Mundo Novo?, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ?Catuaí? tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação.The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the traditional coffee blocks, on a tree basis. This research aimed at evaluating the NPK fertilization effects on two high tree density coffee plantations, one with the Mundo Novo variety e other with the Catuaí variety, under comercial production. Two 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) factorial experiments were conducted in coffee plantations under full production, in Santo Antônio and Samambaia farms, both at Mococa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the first farm, the coffee variety was Mundo Novo and the spacing was of 2.0 x 1.0 m. In the second case, the variety was Catuaí and the spacing was 1.5 x 1.0 m. The rates of nutrients applied were the following: nitrogen - 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg. ha-1 of N as urea; phosphorus - 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg. ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate; and, 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg. ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride. The fertilization was split into four applications during the rainy season, starting in 1989. Four harvests were recorded for each location, from 1991 to 1994. At the Santo Antônio farm, the application of N reduced yields, which is unusual. In this case the initial soil sampling detect medium contents of P and high contents of K. The N leaf content was high for samples taken in 1992 and 1993. In the experiment at the Samambaia farm there was a significant effect of P fertilization, which is also unexpected. The results point to the need to fertilize coffee plantations taking into account the P and K contents of the soil and N contents of leaves. The results allow to conclude that coffee fertilization using standard NPK formulas, in higt tree density systems, can depress production when there is excess shade. Fertilizer needs should be determined taking into consideration soil analysis for P and K leaf analysis for N, and prescribing amounts to be applied on an area basis.

PAULO BOLLER GALLO; BERNARDO VAN RAIJ; JOSÉ ANTONIO QUAGGIO; LUIS CARLOS ESTEVES PEREIRA

1999-01-01

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Effect of Hydrophilic Gel and NPK Fertilizer on the Main Notrient Characteristics of Polianthes tuberosa  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To get high flower production of tuberose, growing media and NPK fertilizer proportion was determined accurately by polynomial regression quadratic equation (PRQE) in four element. The partial derivative from polynomial regression equation (Y_6) was utilized for estimating the maximum production of tuberose flower. Results revealed coding level X_1=-1.695, X_2=-1.122, X_3=0.311 and X_4=1.151, which are converted into doses of trial factors, are KD-1-Hydrophilic gel/sandy-soil (HG/SS)=0.652%, (NH_4)_2SO_4=14.39 (G·M~(-3)), Ca(H_2PO_4)_2·H_2O=25.75 (g·m~(-3)), and K_2SO_4=25.89 (g·m~(-3)). Therefore, Y_(max)=28.79 (number of flower·m~(-2)). Results revealed that plant height was significantly influenced by the application of three major nutrients. However, number of leaves/plant increased non-significantly with the increasing level of NPK and HG/SS. Number of bulks/clump was also influenced by N, P and K as well as HG/SS. Application of higher levels of NPK showed profound effect on increasing flower production (number of spikes·m~(-2)), and number of florets/spike. Therefore, higher doses of NPK are recommended for higher production of flower.

Zhao Jiuzhou; Chen Jiemin; Zhou Aiqin; Wang Aihua

2002-01-01

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EFEITO DE NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO NPK NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO COMUM (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) EM ALGUNS SOLOS DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS, NA PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE CALAGEM EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER LEVELS IN COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), IN SOME SOILS OF GOIÁS STATE, IN PRESENCE AND ABSENCE OF LIME  

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Full Text Available Níveis de adubação NPK foram testados na presença e ausência de calagem, em experimentos instalados em Caturaí, Pontalina e Itauçu, no Estado de Goiás, para a cultura do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. "Rico 23". Os níveis de adubação usados foram 10-20-5, 20-40-10, 30-60-15 e 40-80-20 kg/ha de NPK, além de uma testemunha sem adubação e sem calagem e outra testemunha sem adubação e com calagem. Em Caturaí houve reaplicação da adubação (no 2° ano), enquanto em Itauçu não foi feita a calagem. Esses experimentos foram conduzidos em blocos ao acaso, em Itauçu, e em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas em Caturaí e em Pontalina, tendo dois níveis de calagem nas parcelas e cinco níveis de adubação nas sub-parcelas, nos anos agrícolas de 1970/71 e 1971/72 em Caturaí, 1971/72 em Pontalina e 1972/73 em Itauçu. Estatisticamente, houve resposta significativa para tratamentos-níveis de adubação em Caturaí (1970/71), em Pontalina (1971/72 ) e em Itauçu (1972/73) e para calagem e níveis de adubação somente em Caturaí (1971/72) . Não foi constatado efeito significativo para a interação tratamentos x calagem. A calagem foi de 3.000 kg/ha de calcário moído, produzido em Itaberaí, Goiás. In this study are presented the results of the field experiments carried out at Caturaí, Pontalina and Itauçu, Goiás, Brazil, with crop bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Rico-23, in 1970/71, 1971/72 and 1972/73. Were tested the treatments: 10-20-5; 20-40-10; 30-60-15 and 40-80-20 kg/ha at NPK, beyond, a fertilizer and lime control without and other fertilizer control without, but, with 3.000 kg/ha of lime. There was significance for subtreatment (levels of fertilizer NPK) at three locations, while, treatments (lime) and subtreatments were significant at Caturaí (year 2 - 1971/72). The best production of bean was obtained with lime for Caturaí; 40-80-20 with and without lime for Pontalina; and 30-60-15 without lime for Itauçu.

Raimundo Jacinto Martins da Silva; Gil Santos; Luiz Carlos da Silva Neiva; Domingos Tiveron Filho

2007-01-01

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Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower as Affected by Various NPK Levels  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine N, P and K requirements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown under Bahawalpur irrigated conditions on medium heavy loam soil. Four levels of N (0,60,120,180 kg NPK ha-1) four levels of P2O5 (0,30,60,90 kg NPK ha-1) and four levels of K2O ( 0,60,120,180 kg NPK ha-1) in combinations were put to test. Data collected on seed yield and yield components were subjected to standard statistical analysis. The crop indicated positive/significant response to N, P and K application. Significant positive correlation was observed between seed yield and head size. Optimum fertilizer requirement computed was 120-90-60 kg NPK ha-1 for sunflower crop under experimental condition.

Nazakat Nawaz; G.Sarwar; M. Yousaf; T. Naseeb; Amir Ahmad; M. J. Shah

2003-01-01

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Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93) em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa"). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³), com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N), fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5) e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O), aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N) e potássio (K) e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P). As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate). A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³) was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per plot and double border rows. Treatments were composed of four rates of nitrogen (0 to 400 kg N ha-1 year-1), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1) and potassium (0 to 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1), applied in stripes and divided in five annual applications. The fertilizers used were: calcium nitrate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride. Plants were cultivated in a 2 × 1 m array, and periodically evaluated in relation to diameter of main stem, number of offshoots and percentage of plants with offshoots. In this sandy and low fertility soil, peach palm growth responses in relation to N and K amendments were linear and positive. Initial responses were observed three months after fertilizer application. No isolated effects of P fertilization, nor significant interactions among fertilizers were observed. Maximum growth responses were reached with 400 kg N ha-1 year-1, 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 year-1 and 200 kg K2O ha-1 year-1.

Marilene Leão Alves Bovi; Gentil Godoy Jr.; Sandra Heiden Spiering

2002-01-01

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NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on the foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred.

Basso, C. (Empresa Catarinense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria S/A (Brazil)); Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia)

1983-01-01

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Proceedings: International Workshop-NPK Fertilizer Production Alternatives. Held in Madras/Bombay, India in February 1988.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proceedings of an international workshop on fertilizers are presented. Topics include: Role of NPK fertilizers in optimizing agricultural production; Fertilizer products and farmer needs; Review of the fertilizer situation in Asia and the Pacific with...

J. J. Schultz E. D. Frederick

1988-01-01

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Effect of Different NPK Levels on the Growth and Yield of Kohlrabi (Brassica caulorapa L.) at Northern Areas of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Effect of seven different NPK levels on the growth and yield of Kohlrabi was investigated. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied alone as well as in various combinations and had a significant effect on various plant growth and yield parameters. Maximum tuber weight (430.80 g) tuber diameter (10.23 cm), number of leaves per plant (14.38) and tuber yield (25850 kg ha-1) was recorded in plots fertilized with 160-120-160 kg NPK ha-1. It can be concluded that NPK @ 160-120-60 kg ha-1 was found to be the best fertilizer dose for the higher yield of Kohlrabi.

Sher Ahmed; Fayaz Ahmed; Faridullah; Munir Hussain

2003-01-01

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Parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro/ Split application of NPK fertilizers on pineapple  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um experimento foi desenvolvido em Agudos (SP), num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne'. Foram estudados os seguintes esquemas de fracionamento da adubação NPK: T1 (testemunha) -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 120, em nov/95; 250, em jan/96 e 120, em mar/96); T2 -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O e (more) m jun/95; 120, em nov/95; 160, em jan/96 e 210, em mar/96); T3 -- N e K parcelados em três aplicações (90 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 180, em nov/95 e 280, em jan/96); T4 -- N e K parcelados em cinco aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 110, em nov/95; 160, em jan/96; 110, em mar/96 e 110, em maio/96); T5 -- diferiu do T1 pelo número maior de aplicações de K (cinco) e, do T4 pelo menor número de aplicações de N (quatro); nesses cinco tratamentos (T1 a T5), todo o P foi aplicado no plantio (maio/95); T6 -- N e K parcelados como no T1 e P em duas aplicações (50% no plantio e 50% em jan/96). Os frutos, colhidos 21 meses após o plantio, tiveram sua massa média e qualidade influenciadas pela forma de parcelamento da adubação com N e K; de outro modo, o fracionamento da adubação fosfatada não influenciou a produção. O parcelamento com aplicação mais tardia de N (cinco aplicações, até 12 meses após o plantio-T4) aumentou a produção, contudo, teve efeito negativo sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos. Abstract in english A field experiment was carried out on an Alfisol in São Paulo State, Brazil, with the objective of investigating the effects of split application of NPK fertilizer on pineapple ('Smooth Cayenne') yield and fruit quality. Six patterns of split application of fertilizers were tested as follows: T1 (control) -- N and K rates split in four applications (60 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jun/95; 120 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Nov/95; 250 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jan/96 and 120 kg ha¹ o (more) f N and K2O in Mar/96); T2 -- N and K rates split in four applications (60 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jun/95; 120 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Nov/95; 160 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jan/96 and 210 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Mar/96); T3 -- N and K rates split in three applications (90 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jun/95; 180 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Nov/95 and 280 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jan/96); T4 - N and K split in five applications (60 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jun/95; 110 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Nov/95; 160 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jan/96; 110 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Mar/96 and 110 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in May/96); T5 - differed from T1 due to five applications of N; all P fertilizer was applied at planting (mai/95) in these treatments (T1 to T5); T6 - differed from T1 due to split application of P (50% at planting and 50% in Jan/96). Fruit weight and quality were influenced by split application of N and K. Differently, split application of P has no effect on fruit production. The split of N rate in five applications produced heavier fruits, but the effect of late application of N on fruit quality was negative due to a decrease of soluble solids content.

TEIXEIRA, LUIZ ANTONIO JUNQUEIRA; SPIRONELLO, ADEMAR; FURLANI, PEDRO ROBERTO; SIGRIST, JOSÉ MARIA MONTEIRO

2002-04-01

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Parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro Split application of NPK fertilizers on pineapple  

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Full Text Available Um experimento foi desenvolvido em Agudos (SP), num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do parcelamento da adubação NPK em abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne'. Foram estudados os seguintes esquemas de fracionamento da adubação NPK: T1 (testemunha) -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 120, em nov/95; 250, em jan/96 e 120, em mar/96); T2 -- N e K parcelados em quatro aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 120, em nov/95; 160, em jan/96 e 210, em mar/96); T3 -- N e K parcelados em três aplicações (90 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 180, em nov/95 e 280, em jan/96); T4 -- N e K parcelados em cinco aplicações (60 kg ha¹ de N e de K2O em jun/95; 110, em nov/95; 160, em jan/96; 110, em mar/96 e 110, em maio/96); T5 -- diferiu do T1 pelo número maior de aplicações de K (cinco) e, do T4 pelo menor número de aplicações de N (quatro); nesses cinco tratamentos (T1 a T5), todo o P foi aplicado no plantio (maio/95); T6 -- N e K parcelados como no T1 e P em duas aplicações (50% no plantio e 50% em jan/96). Os frutos, colhidos 21 meses após o plantio, tiveram sua massa média e qualidade influenciadas pela forma de parcelamento da adubação com N e K; de outro modo, o fracionamento da adubação fosfatada não influenciou a produção. O parcelamento com aplicação mais tardia de N (cinco aplicações, até 12 meses após o plantio-T4) aumentou a produção, contudo, teve efeito negativo sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos.A field experiment was carried out on an Alfisol in São Paulo State, Brazil, with the objective of investigating the effects of split application of NPK fertilizer on pineapple ('Smooth Cayenne') yield and fruit quality. Six patterns of split application of fertilizers were tested as follows: T1 (control) -- N and K rates split in four applications (60 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jun/95; 120 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Nov/95; 250 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jan/96 and 120 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Mar/96); T2 -- N and K rates split in four applications (60 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jun/95; 120 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Nov/95; 160 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jan/96 and 210 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Mar/96); T3 -- N and K rates split in three applications (90 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jun/95; 180 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Nov/95 and 280 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jan/96); T4 - N and K split in five applications (60 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jun/95; 110 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Nov/95; 160 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Jan/96; 110 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in Mar/96 and 110 kg ha¹ of N and K2O in May/96); T5 - differed from T1 due to five applications of N; all P fertilizer was applied at planting (mai/95) in these treatments (T1 to T5); T6 - differed from T1 due to split application of P (50% at planting and 50% in Jan/96). Fruit weight and quality were influenced by split application of N and K. Differently, split application of P has no effect on fruit production. The split of N rate in five applications produced heavier fruits, but the effect of late application of N on fruit quality was negative due to a decrease of soluble solids content.

LUIZ ANTONIO JUNQUEIRA TEIXEIRA; ADEMAR SPIRONELLO; PEDRO ROBERTO FURLANI; JOSÉ MARIA MONTEIRO SIGRIST

2002-01-01

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BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION  

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Full Text Available Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity) in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1%) and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0%) and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

G.R Tortella; O Rubilar; M Cea; C Wulff; O Martínez; M.C Diez

2010-01-01

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BIOSTIMULATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOBEDS WITH NPK FERTILIZER ON CHLORPYRIFOS DEGRADATION TO AVOID SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Degradation of the insecticide chlorpynfos (160 a.i mg kg-1) using a biomix of a biobed system biostimulated with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) was investigated. Three concentrations of the fertilizer (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% ww-1) were evaluated on chlorpynfos degradation, TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol) accumulation and biological activity of the biomix. The chlorpynfos was dissipated efficiently (>75%) after 40 days of incubation and no additional dissipation was obtained (more) with increasing concentration of NPK after 20 days of incubation. TCP accumulation occuned in all evaluated NPK concentrations and its concentration increased with the increment of NPK addition raising the probability of leaching of this compound. Biological activity (FDA and ligninolytic enzyme activity) in the biomix increased by the NPK presence in all evaluated concentrations. The DGGE analyses showed that combined treatments with lower amounts of NPK (0% and 0.1%) and chlorpynfos showed no significant modifications in the microbial community in the biomix. However, combined overdoses of NPK (0.5 and 1.0%) and chlorpynfos caused significant modifications in the bacterial communities that could be associated with TCP degradation reduction in the biomix. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated that the biomix prepared with Andisol and biostimulated with NPK nutrient can be recommended in biobeds as a viable alternative of chlorpyrifos dissipation avoiding soil and water contamination probability.

Tortella, G.R; Rubilar, O; Cea, M; Wulff, C; Martínez, O; Diez, M.C

2010-01-01

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Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Spacing on the Yield of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceratia M)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field trail was conducted to assess the effect of different plant spacing (S1=50 cm, S2=75 cm and S3=100 cm) and NPK doses (T1= control, T2=104-54-104, T3=124-74-124, T4=144-94-144 and T5=164-114-164 kg per hectare) on the growth and yield of bottle gourd. The NPK fertilizer doses has significant ...

Nek Dara Jan; Nek Dara Jan; Nek Dara Jan; Kashif Waseem; Mohammad Saleem Jillani

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Effect of Different Npk Levels on the Growth and Yield of Three Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties  

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Full Text Available Three different Onion varieties i.e. Faisalabad Early, Phulkara and Shah Alam were compared at different NPK levels. Varieties, NPK levels and their interaction significantly affected plant height, leaf length, number of leaves per plant bulb diameter, marketable yield and total yield per hectare. Shah Alam variety at the fertilizer level of 150:100:50 NPK kg ha-1 gave the best results with regard to number of leaves per plant (17.57), bulb survival (93.53%), bulb diameter (7.40 cm), marketable yield (3.25 kg plot-1), culls percentage (5.24%) and total yield (13.20 t ha-1), while Phulkara variety gave the best results with regard to plant height (56.17 cm) and leaf length (50.27cm) under the same fertilizer level. However, the highest benefit cost ratio of 2.55 was obtained by Shah Alam at the fertilizer level of 120:50:50 NPK kg ha-1 as this treatment was not significantly different from that of 150:100:50 NPK kg ha-1. So the highest net return was obtained at 120:50:50 NPK kg ha-1.

Abdul Ghaffoor; Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Ghulam Khaliq; Kashif Waseem

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Effect of Slow Release NPK Fertilizer Sources on the Nutrient use Efficiency in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)  

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Full Text Available Nutrient losses due to leaching, volatilization and fixation and the activated risk of nitrate leaching after fertilizer addition to the soil may be reduced through the use of slow-release fertilizers. Turmeric, a long duration and high yielding commercial crop consumes greater amount of nutrients from the soil as well as from applied fertilizers for a prolonged period. A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient use efficiencies of newly formulated slow release NPK sources in turmeric during 2001-2002. These are recent introduction which are in the form of tablets, mixtures and coated ammonium phosphate, which contains all the three major nutrients in them, which were tested in comparison with conventional or standard fertilizer materials at three NPK levels viz., 75, 100 and 125% of recommended dose. The results indicated that nutrient use efficiencies viz., agronomic efficiency, apparent recovery and partial factor productivity were significantly enhanced by the application of tablet forms of NPK sources than other slow release forms as well as standard fertilizer materials.

R. Jagadeeswaran; V. Murugappan; M. Govindaswamy

2005-01-01

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Effect of Various NPK Fertilizer Doses on the Growth, Seed Yield and Oil Content of Brassica  

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Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted to observe the effect of different fertilizer doses (0-0-0, 30-20-10, 60-40-20, 90-60-30, and 120-80-40 NPK Kg-ha on growth, yield and oil content of Toria Selection (Brassica compastrist L.) brassica variety at Z.A. Bhutto Agricultural College, Dokri, Pakistan. Application of 120-80-40 and 90-60-30 NPK Kg-ha fertilizer doses equally showed efficiency of producing taller plants, more branches, increased number of siliqua, lengthy siliqua, bold seeds in siliqua, and heavier seed index, which in-turn increased seed yield and oil content of the crop. Thus, it is recommended that Toria Selection brassica variety should be fertilized with 90-60-30 or 120-80-40 NPK Kg-ha for maximum yield and oil content.

F.C. Oad; S.M. Qayyum; N.L. Oad; A.W. Gandahi; G.N. Sohu; G.Q. Chandio

2001-01-01

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Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experi (more) ment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

Oloyede, F.M

2012-09-01

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Growth, yield and antioxidant profile of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) leafy vegetable as affected by NPK compound fertilizer  

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Full Text Available Pumpkin young leaf is an underutilized leafy vegetable in the Southwestern Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide information on the influence of NPK fertilizer on the agronomic performance and antioxidant concentration of pumpkin leafy vegetable for the purpose of enhancing its cultivation and popularizing its utilization. The experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008, at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Compound fertilizer, NPK /15:15:15/ was used and added as ring dressing in four levels; 0, 90, 180, 270 kg/ ha-1. Data were recorded for several growth and leaf yield parameters. At the seventh week after planting, the harvested young leaves extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds concentration using different antioxidant assays. The significant highest estimates for vine length, leaves number, stem diameter, number of branches and number of tendrils per plant and total young leaf yield were resulted from plants treated with 180 and 270kg/ha-1. It is concluded that 180 kg/ha-1 of NPK fertilizer is required for optimal yield and antioxidant composition of pumpkin leafy vegetable.

F.M Oloyede

2012-01-01

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Physiology, phenology and yield of sunflower (autumn) as affected by NPK fertilizer and hybrids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn, 2000 and 2001. The response of sunflower hybrids (SF-187 and Parsun-1) were studied using low medium and high rate of NPK (0, 50, 100,150 kg ha/sup -1/) in factorial design with split plot arrangements. Days to R1 (button stage), R4 (inflorescence begins to open), R5.8 (80% anthesis) and R9 (physiological maturity) stages significantly (P

2010-01-01

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NPK Fertilizers for Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Productivity in Alfisols of Southern Districts of Tamil Nadu  

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Full Text Available To optimize the NPK fertilizers requirements with hybrid rice (CORH 2) and graded levels of NPK during (Pishanam) wet season (September 2000 to January 2001), a field experiment was conducted in Alfisols of Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu. The experiment was laid out with 14 treatments of NPK combinations. The results indicated that among the treatments, application of 150:75:50 kg N: P2O5: K2O ha-1 had registered the higher grain yield of hybrid rice. The 150:50:50 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha-1 fertilizer treatment had the higher total Phosphorus and K uptake. The N, P2O5 and K2O doses, respectively 200: 75:75; 200:10:100 and 200:50:75 kg ha-1 resulted in higher soil available N, P and K, irrespectively in post harvest soils after the CORH2 rice hybrid. The physical optimum levels for getting the maximum grain yield for the medium duration rice hybrid CORH2 was found to be 151:66:57 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha-1. The economic optima for N, P2O5 and K2O are 149:62:56 kg ha-1, respectively for obtaining the highest grain yield.

S. Krishnakumar; R. Nagarajan; S.K. Natarajan; D. Jawahar; B.J. Pandian

2005-01-01

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Effect of compost, nitrogen salts, and NPK fertilizers on methane oxidation potential at different temperatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of compost, nitrogen salts, and nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium (NPK) fertilizers on the methane oxidation potential (MOP) of landfill cover soil at various temperatures were assessed. For this, we used batch assays conducted at 5°C, 15°C, and 25°C with microcosms containing landfill cover soil slurries amended with these elements. Results indicated variable impacts dependent on the type of amendment and the incubation temperature. For a given incubation temperature, MOP varied from one compost to another and with the amount of compost added, except for the shrimp/peat compost. With this latter compost, independent of the amount, MOP values remained similar and were significantly higher than those obtained with other composts. Amendment with most of the tested nitrogen salts led to similar improvements in methanotrophic activity, except for urea. MOP with NPK fertilizer addition was amongst the highest in this study; the minimum value obtained with NPK (20-0-20) suggested the importance of P for methanotrophs. MOP generally increased with temperature, and nutrient limitation became less important at higher temperatures. Overall, at each of the three temperatures tested, MOP with NPK fertilizer amendments provided the best results and was comparable to those observed with the addition of the shrimp/peat compost. The results of this study provide the first evidence of the following: (1) compost addition to improve methanotrophic activity in a landfill cover soil should consider the amount and type of compost used and (2) the importance of using NPK fertilizers rather than nitrogen salts, in enhancing this activity, primarily at low temperatures. One can also consider the potential beneficial impact of adding these elements to enhance plant growth, which is an advantage for MOP.

Jugnia LB; Mottiar Y; Djuikom E; Cabral AR; Greer CW

2012-03-01

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Effect of compost, nitrogen salts, and NPK fertilizers on methane oxidation potential at different temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of compost, nitrogen salts, and nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium (NPK) fertilizers on the methane oxidation potential (MOP) of landfill cover soil at various temperatures were assessed. For this, we used batch assays conducted at 5°C, 15°C, and 25°C with microcosms containing landfill cover soil slurries amended with these elements. Results indicated variable impacts dependent on the type of amendment and the incubation temperature. For a given incubation temperature, MOP varied from one compost to another and with the amount of compost added, except for the shrimp/peat compost. With this latter compost, independent of the amount, MOP values remained similar and were significantly higher than those obtained with other composts. Amendment with most of the tested nitrogen salts led to similar improvements in methanotrophic activity, except for urea. MOP with NPK fertilizer addition was amongst the highest in this study; the minimum value obtained with NPK (20-0-20) suggested the importance of P for methanotrophs. MOP generally increased with temperature, and nutrient limitation became less important at higher temperatures. Overall, at each of the three temperatures tested, MOP with NPK fertilizer amendments provided the best results and was comparable to those observed with the addition of the shrimp/peat compost. The results of this study provide the first evidence of the following: (1) compost addition to improve methanotrophic activity in a landfill cover soil should consider the amount and type of compost used and (2) the importance of using NPK fertilizers rather than nitrogen salts, in enhancing this activity, primarily at low temperatures. One can also consider the potential beneficial impact of adding these elements to enhance plant growth, which is an advantage for MOP. PMID:21894478

Jugnia, Louis-B; Mottiar, Yaseen; Djuikom, Euphrasie; Cabral, Alexandre R; Greer, Charles W

2011-09-06

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Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil  

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Full Text Available he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to August 2009. Experimental design used was a factorial in a completely randomized design. The first factor was hucalci concentration, consisted of 10% (H1), 20% (H2), and 30% (H3). The second factor was zeolite concentration, consisted of 25% (Z1), 50% (Z2), 75% (Z3), and 100% (Z4). NPK fertilizer (without coating) used as a control. The results showed that hucalci and zeolite had a capability to increase water adsorption and to retard the release of N, P, K. The coated NPK with hucalci 30% and zeolite 100% had the highest quality in water absorption, water retention and release of nutrients.

Sulakhudin; Abdul Syukur; Bambang Hendro Sunarminto

2011-01-01

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Macronutrientes em mudas de citros cultivadas em vasos em resposta à adubação NPK/ Macronutrients in citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis) sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia) foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita com o objetivo de avaliar-se os efeitos do fornecimento de N, P e K sobre os teores de macronutrientes do porta-enxerto e das mudas. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/5)5³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta) de N (more) : 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Determinaram-se os teores totais de N, P e K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas novas e velhas, raízes e caule e a extração de N, P e K. Os teores de N relacionaram-se diretamente e os de P e K inversamente com a adubação nitrogenada. Os teores de Ca, Mg e S relacionaram-se positivamente até as doses intermediárias de N utilizadas. Houve efeito inibitório do fertilizante potássico sobre a absorção de Ca e Mg. A acumulação de NPK pelos porta-enxertos foi em torno de 30% pelas raízes e 70% pela parte aérea. Abstract in english 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees (Citrus sinensis) budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia) were grown in containers using pine bark, vermiculite and perlite as substracts with the objective of evaluating the NPK fertilization effect on macronutrient levels. The experiment was a complete (1/5) 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75 (more) ; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Young and old leaves, root and stem total nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and NPK accumulation were evaluated. Tissue N concentration was directly and P and K concentrations were inversely related to nitrogen fertilization. Calcium, Mg and S concentrations increased up to the intermediate N fertilization rates. K fertilizer inhibited Ca and Mg absorption by plants. Rootstock NPK accumulated as 30% in roots and 70% in shoot.

Bernardi, Alberto Carlos de Campos; Carmello, Quirino Augusto de Camargo; Carvalho, Sérgio Alves de

2000-12-01

51

Macronutrientes em mudas de citros cultivadas em vasos em resposta à adubação NPK Macronutrients in citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available Mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis) sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia) foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita com o objetivo de avaliar-se os efeitos do fornecimento de N, P e K sobre os teores de macronutrientes do porta-enxerto e das mudas. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/5)5³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta) de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Determinaram-se os teores totais de N, P e K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas novas e velhas, raízes e caule e a extração de N, P e K. Os teores de N relacionaram-se diretamente e os de P e K inversamente com a adubação nitrogenada. Os teores de Ca, Mg e S relacionaram-se positivamente até as doses intermediárias de N utilizadas. Houve efeito inibitório do fertilizante potássico sobre a absorção de Ca e Mg. A acumulação de NPK pelos porta-enxertos foi em torno de 30% pelas raízes e 70% pela parte aérea.'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees (Citrus sinensis) budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia) were grown in containers using pine bark, vermiculite and perlite as substracts with the objective of evaluating the NPK fertilization effect on macronutrient levels. The experiment was a complete (1/5) 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Young and old leaves, root and stem total nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and NPK accumulation were evaluated. Tissue N concentration was directly and P and K concentrations were inversely related to nitrogen fertilization. Calcium, Mg and S concentrations increased up to the intermediate N fertilization rates. K fertilizer inhibited Ca and Mg absorption by plants. Rootstock NPK accumulated as 30% in roots and 70% in shoot.

Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi; Quirino Augusto de Camargo Carmello; Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

2000-01-01

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Growth and Yield Responses of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Genotypes to Nitrogen Fertilizer (NPK) Application in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The effects of compound fertilizer (NPK) application on growth and yields of cowpea genotypes were investigated in a field study at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin in the Southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. The study was designed as a series of factorial experiments in split-plot arrangements with four replications and were carried out in the late cropping seasons (August to December) of 2002 to 2004. Ten cowpea genotypes were evaluated at fertilizer levels ranging from 0 to 300 kg fertilizer (NPK) ha-1 (equivalent to 0-0-0 to 60-30-30 kg N-P-K ha-1). Results show that fertilizer application resulted in significant improvement in plant height, number of leaves per plant and reduced days to flowering, but no significant effect on total number of flowers produced. Application of fertilizer resulted in significant decreases in nodule production. Yield components and grain yield were significantly enhanced by the application of fertilizer at 150 kg ha-1 (i.e., 30 kg N, 15 P2O5 and 15 K2O ha-1), but significant fertilizerxgenotype effect indicated differential genotype responses to fertilizer application which may have significant practical implications for field production. It was therefore concluded that the application of fertilizer to cowpea is beneficial although in small quantity and genotype dependent.

Y.A. Abayomi; T.V. Ajibade; O.F. Sammuel; B.F. Saadudeen

2008-01-01

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Effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on total antioxidant capacity of soil and amaranth leaves (Amaranthus cruentus L.)  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was set up in 2007 in a split-plot design to investigate the effect of various NPK fertilizer doses on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh leaf tissue of the Polish amaranth varieties Rawa and Aztek, cultivated for seed, and of the soil they were cultivated on. The experiment was conducted with three replicates. The following combinations of macroelement doses were applied: I: N – 50 , P – 40, K – 40 kg ha-1; II: N – 90, P – 60, K – 60 kg ha-1; and III: N – 130, P – 70, K – 70 kg ha-1. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the soil and amaranth leaves was determined using the method described by Rice-Evans and Miller, as modified by Bartosz. Organic carbon content was determined as well. In most of the cases the fertilization (NPK) caused an increase in total antioxidant capacity of the soil under amaranth cultivation. The highest total antioxidant capacity in the soil examined (compared with the control) was found with combination III of NPK fertilizers for soil under Rawa cultivation, and with combination I for the Aztek soil. The total antioxidant capacity of amaranth per unit fresh leaf mass was dependent on the variety and on the doses of the macroelements applied. The highest total antioxidant capacity in Rawa per unit fresh leaf mass was observed with combination III, while for the Aztek variety the highest TAC was found with combination I. Statistical analysis showed significant dependencies between TAC of the soils and leaves and the level of fertilization, as well as between the TAC of the soil and of amaranth leaves.

B. Skwary3o-Bednarz; A. Krzepi3ko

2009-01-01

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Bioremediation in Mangrove Sediments Impacted by Oil Using Two Types of Fertilizers NPK and OSMOCOTE, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Bioremediation is a technique applied to several environmental impacts, among which the ones generated by petroleum derivatives, through the introduction of microorganisms into the environment, or creating optimal conditions for them to develop. The present study aimed to evaluate the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons through the biostimulation technique in the mangrove sediment impacted by petroliferous activities, testing the potentiality of two fertilizers (NPK and OSMOCOTE) as accelerating agents of the biodegradation of petroleum components, under experimental conditions. In order to understand the bioremediation process it was used the quantification of nutrient contents, the percent of saturated, aromatic and NSO hydrocarbons, and the behavior of saturated compounds along the entire experiment, besides the monitoring of physical and chemical parameters. Chromatographic profiles characterized a major degradation of saturated hydrocarbons at the units with NPK, presenting a better efficiency of this fertilizer in the tested biostimulation process.

Danusia Ferreira Lima; Olívia Maria Cordeiro Oliveira; Manoel Jeronimo Moreira Cruz; Jorge Alberto Triguis; Antonio Fernando de S. Queiroz

2012-01-01

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NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol/ Adubação NPK no crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em Neossolo Quartzarênico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A adubação balanceada é importante para o crescimento das plantas. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) é uma espécie sobre a qual as informações são escassas, sendo muito recentes ensaios com adubação. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pinhão-manso em resposta às doses de NPK em casa de vegetação em um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, bem como estimar os níveis críticos de P e K no solo e de N, P e K na mat (more) éria seca da parte aérea até 120 dias de avaliação. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema de fatorial fracionado (4 x 4 x 4)½, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições, totalizando 96 parcelas experimentais, sendo as doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 300 mg dm-3) na forma de ureia; as de P (0, 45, 90 e 180 mg dm-3), na forma de superfosfato triplo; e as de K (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg dm-3), na forma de cloreto de potássio. Após 120 dias, as plantas foram colhidas e as seguintes variáveis avaliadas: altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, teor de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e atributos químicos do solo. As mudas de pinhão-manso responderam à adubação NPK na fase de inicial de crescimento; a resposta para o N foi negativa, sem a necessidade de aplicação desse nutriente. A dose recomendada foi de 55 mg dm-3 de P e 67 mg dm-3 de K. Os níveis críticos, correspondentes às doses recomendadas, foram de 13 mg dm-3 para P e 74 mg dm-3 para K no solo (Mehlich-1). Os teores de N, P e K na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de pinhão-manso foram de 37,4, 2,1 e 35,3 g kg-1, respectivamente. Abstract in english Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional (more) factorial design (4 x 4 x 4)½, totalizing 32 treatments with three replicates, 96 experimental plots and N rates (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg dm-3) as urea; P rates (0, 45, 90 and 180 mg dm-3) as triple superphosphate and K rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3) as potassium chloride. After 120 days, the plants were harvested and some variables evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, macro and micronutrient levels in plant shoots, and soil chemical properties. The physic nut seedlings responded to NPK fertilizer in the initial growth phase; the response to N was negative. The recommended P and K rates were 25 and 67 mg dm-3, respectively. The critical levels, corresponding to the recommended P rate were 13 and 74 mg dm-3 for K in soil (Mehlich-1). The N, P and K levels in the shoot dry matter of physic nut were 37.4, 2.1 and 35.7 g kg-1, respectively.

Souza, Patrícia Teixeira de; Silva, Enilson de Barros; Grazziotti, Paulo Henrique; Fernandes, Luiz Arnaldo

2011-04-01

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Comparison of Different Methods of Fertilizer (NPK) Application  

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Full Text Available To compare the different methods of fertilizer application viz. broadcast, banding and placement, two research trials were conducted the results indicated that in the autumn, 1998 trial, highest yield (18.56 t ha?1) was recorded in T3 (placement) followed by 15.94 t ha-1 in T2 (banding) and lowest (12.22 t ha?1) in T1 (broadcast). It was noted that 52% yield was increased with placement and 30% with banding over broadcast method of fertilizer application. Similarly in autumn 1999, maximum yield (15.67 t ha?1) was recorded in T3 (placement) followed by 13.9 t ha?1 in T2 (banding) and minimum (11.56 t ha?1) in T1 (broadcast). Using banding and placement method of fertilizer application, 20.24 and 35.55% increase in potato yield was recorded over broadcasting of fertilizer, respectively. A significant difference was found in the three methods of fertilizer application.

Muhammad Masud Mahmood; Khalid Farooq; Amjad Hussain; Raham Sher

2002-01-01

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Foliar sprays of NPK fertilizers induce systemic protection against Puccinia sorghi and Exserohilum turcicum and growth response in maize.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One spray of 0.1 M aqueous solutions of NPK fertilizers on the upper sides of maize leaves 1, 2, and 3, 2–4 h prior to inoculation, induced systemic resistance (ISR) against northern leaf blight (NLB) caused byExserohilum turcicum andPuccinia sorghi which were developed on leaves 4, 5, 6, and 7. ISR was expressed as a reduction in the number and area of lesions ofE. turcicum and in the number of sporulating or non-sporulating pustules ofP. sorghi on leaves 4, 5, 6, and 7. The reduction in the number of NLB lesions ranged from 51% (KH2PO4) to 69% (K2HPO4) and their size reduction ranged from 73% (KNO3) to 91% (K2HPO4) as compared with water prayed plants. The reduction in the number of pustules ofP. sorghi ranged from 66 to 77%. Fertilizers consisting of various combinations of N, P and K in every case induce similar levels of protection in either host-pathogen system. The induced protection was evident regardless of the leaf position or the rate of NPK accumulation in the upper protected leaves. High fresh weight was detected in the induced plants which expressed the greatest induced protection against NLB and common rast. The possible dual use of NPK fertilizers — to supply nutrients to plants foliarly and at the same time to activate the mechanism(s) for induction of systemic protection toP. sorghi andE. turcicum in maize — is discussed.

Reuveni R; Reuveni M; Agapov V

1996-05-01

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Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Spacing on the Yield of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceratia M)  

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Full Text Available A field trail was conducted to assess the effect of different plant spacing (S1=50 cm, S2=75 cm and S3=100 cm) and NPK doses (T1= control, T2=104-54-104, T3=124-74-124, T4=144-94-144 and T5=164-114-164 kg per hectare) on the growth and yield of bottle gourd. The NPK fertilizer doses has significant effect on days to germination, fruit weight (gm), fruit volume (ml), number of fruits per vine, vine length (cm) and yield per hectare (tones). Increasing NPK fertilizer doses also increased the above mentioned parameters. Maximum yield (20.403 t ha-1) was obtained from T5 (164-114-164). Plant spacing had significant influence on days to germination, fruit weight (gm), fruit volume (ml,) number of fruits per vine, vine length (cm) and yield per hectare. Increasing plant spacing increased all the above mentioned parameters, except yield per hectare. Maximum yield (19.709 t ha-1) was obtained from S1 (50 cm).

Nek Dara Jan; Nek Dara Jan; Nek Dara Jan; Kashif Waseem; Mohammad Saleem Jillani

2000-01-01

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COMPETITION FOR NITROGEN BETWEEN SPRING WHEAT AND SPRING BARLEY IN THE CONDITIONS OF VARIOUS NPK FERTILIZATION  

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Full Text Available In pot experiment, carried out according to the additive pattern on medium soil fertilized with standard and 50% higher dose of NPK, the effect of competitive interactions between spring wheat and spring barley was estimated on nitrogen accumulation in the above-ground mass, with the distinction of stems, leaves, and spikes. Studies included three series, which were carried out in years 2003-2004 in five periods set by the rhythm of development of barley in pure sowing, namely in phases: emergence (BBCH 10-13), tillering (23), straw shooting (32), earing (55), and ripening (87-89). In a mixture, both cereals accumulated less nitrogen in the above-ground mass than in pure sowing starting from the tillering phase until the end of growth. In wheat, the decrease to a similar degree included straws, leaves and spikes, and in barley during earing it was more clearly marked in straws and leaves, and during ripening in spikes. Doses of mineral fertilization with NPK had no effect on nitrogen accumulation by barley and wheat grown in pure and mixed sowing. Competition for nitrogen between cereals started in the tillering phase and grew until the earing phase, after which it decreased slightly. Almost in the entire period of common growth, barley demonstrated to be a stronger competitor than wheat in nitrogen gaining. On bedding richer in NPK, competitive interactions between barley and wheat were more intensive than on poorer one.

Kinga Treder; Maria Wanic

2011-01-01

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Effect of different levels of foliar fertilization with NPK micronutrients more in the productivity of winter maize in Dourados Region, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Efeito de diferentes níveis de adubação foliar com NPK mais micronutrientes na produtividade do milho safrinha na Região de Dourados/MS  

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Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of foliar fertilization on the agronomic characteristics of corn plants, irrigated by a system of irrigation by sprinkler. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD), from 23 September 2008 to February 20, 2009 using a multinutrient liquid fertilizer NPK plus micronutrients. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine doses of liquid fertilizer (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2.0 L ha –1) and four replications. The corn plants were evaluated during the experiment between growth stages R3 to R6 characterized by the state of the dough and physiological maturity, respectively. The variables studied were plant height, height of ear insertion, number of grains per ear and yield. The foliar provided to increase the height of corn plants, reducing the height of insertion of the ears, increasing the number of grains per ear and yield. The estimated dose of 1.15 L ha-1 provided the best results on the variables analyzed.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar nas características agronômicas de plantas de milho, irrigado por um sistema de irrigação por aspersão convencional. O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), no período de 23 setembro de 2008 a 20 fevereiro de 2009 utilizando-se um fertilizante líquido multinutriente NPK + micronutrientes. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados, com nove doses do fertilizante líquido (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,5; 1,75 e 2,0 L ha-1) e quatro repetições. As plantas de milho foram avaliadas no decorrer do experimento entre os estádios fenológicos R3 à R6 caracterizados pelo estado de grão farináceo e maturação fisiológica respectivamente. As variáveis analisadas foram altura de plantas, altura de inserção das espigas, número de grãos por espiga e produtividade. A adubação foliar proporcionou aumento da altura das plantas de milho, redução da altura de inserção das espigas, aumento do número de grãos por espiga e da produtividade. A dose estimada de 1,15 L ha-1 proporcionou os melhores resultados sobre as variáveis analisadas.

Guilhereme Augusto Biscaro; Eber Augusto Ferreira do Prado; Anamari Viegas de Araujo Motomiya; Antonio Dias Robaina

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Efeito da combinação de três níveis de espaçamento, três de adubação com NPK e três de tratamento com inseticida, sôbre a produção de amendoim/ Combined effects of spacings, NPK fertilizers and insecticide treatments in peanut production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Experiências fatoriais de amendoim com três níveis de espaçamento, três de adubação com NPK e três de pulverização com inseticida foram conduzidas em 1960-61 no Estado de São Paulo. Em média de seis experiências, a adubação proporcionou o maior aumento de produção. A redução do espaçamento também teve efeito satisfatório, ao passo que a pulverização com inseticida pouco aumentou a produção média, pois só apareceram insetos nocivos em duas das e (more) xperiências. Observações em três experiências mostraram a inconveniência de aplicar o fósforo e o potássio segundo o método tradicional - nos sulcos de plantio. Abstract in english A series of factorial experiments was performed in 1960-61 in State of São Paulo to compare the effects of three levels of spacing, three of NPK fertilizer and three of insecticide treatment in the production of peanuts (Arachis hypogaeaL). As an average of six experiments, the best yield increase was obtained with NPK fertilizers. Increasing plant population also induced satisfactory increase, whereas the average response to the insecticide treatment was small. A reduct (more) ion in the stand of three experiments was observed and was associated to application of fertilizers in contact with the peanut seed.

Tella, Romeu de; Canecchio Filho, Vicente; Rocha, José Luiz V. da; Coral, Fausto J.; Campana, Mário P.; Freire, E. S.

1971-01-01

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Efeito da combinação de três níveis de espaçamento, três de adubação com NPK e três de tratamento com inseticida, sôbre a produção de amendoim Combined effects of spacings, NPK fertilizers and insecticide treatments in peanut production  

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Full Text Available Experiências fatoriais de amendoim com três níveis de espaçamento, três de adubação com NPK e três de pulverização com inseticida foram conduzidas em 1960-61 no Estado de São Paulo. Em média de seis experiências, a adubação proporcionou o maior aumento de produção. A redução do espaçamento também teve efeito satisfatório, ao passo que a pulverização com inseticida pouco aumentou a produção média, pois só apareceram insetos nocivos em duas das experiências. Observações em três experiências mostraram a inconveniência de aplicar o fósforo e o potássio segundo o método tradicional - nos sulcos de plantio.A series of factorial experiments was performed in 1960-61 in State of São Paulo to compare the effects of three levels of spacing, three of NPK fertilizer and three of insecticide treatment in the production of peanuts (Arachis hypogaeaL). As an average of six experiments, the best yield increase was obtained with NPK fertilizers. Increasing plant population also induced satisfactory increase, whereas the average response to the insecticide treatment was small. A reduction in the stand of three experiments was observed and was associated to application of fertilizers in contact with the peanut seed.

Romeu de Tella; Vicente Canecchio Filho; José Luiz V. da Rocha; Fausto J. Coral; Mário P. Campana; E. S. Freire

1971-01-01

63

Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae/ Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria diazotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e (more) 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas as características de crescimento e nutricionais das plantas. O crescimento do milho foi influenciado pela adubação, mas foi reforçado pela combinação com a bactéria, que resultou em aumentos significativos na matéria seca da parte aérea (7 %) e área foliar (9 %), quando comparado com as das plantas não inoculadas. Os resultados indicaram incrementos no acúmulo de N (11 %), P (30 %) e K (17 %), em plantas de milho, em resposta à inoculação bacteriana em conjunto com NPK, quando comparado com os das plantas que apenas receberam adubação. A estabilidade e maior consistência da resposta da planta hospedeira para bacterização, na presença de fertilização química, apontam para uma ferramenta biotecnológica promissora para melhorar o crescimento inicial e adaptação de plantas de milho ao ambiente de cultivo. Abstract in english The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK (more) applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7%) and leaf area (9%) when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%), P (30%) and K (17%) of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.

Baldotto, Marihus Altoé; Baldotto, Lílian Estrela Borges; Santana, Rogério Batista; Marciano, Cláudio Roberto

2012-12-01

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Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae  

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Full Text Available The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7%) and leaf area (9%) when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%), P (30%) and K (17%) of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria diazotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas as características de crescimento e nutricionais das plantas. O crescimento do milho foi influenciado pela adubação, mas foi reforçado pela combinação com a bactéria, que resultou em aumentos significativos na matéria seca da parte aérea (7 %) e área foliar (9 %), quando comparado com as das plantas não inoculadas. Os resultados indicaram incrementos no acúmulo de N (11 %), P (30 %) e K (17 %), em plantas de milho, em resposta à inoculação bacteriana em conjunto com NPK, quando comparado com os das plantas que apenas receberam adubação. A estabilidade e maior consistência da resposta da planta hospedeira para bacterização, na presença de fertilização química, apontam para uma ferramenta biotecnológica promissora para melhorar o crescimento inicial e adaptação de plantas de milho ao ambiente de cultivo.

Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Rogério Batista Santana; Cláudio Roberto Marciano

2012-01-01

65

Acúmulo de NPK e sódio na mamoneira sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada/ Accumulation of NPK and sodium in castor bean under saline stress and nitrogen fertilization  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com água de diferentes salinidades e doses de nitrogênio, sobre a acumulação de NPK e sódio na parte aérea da mamoneira, em experimento conduzido em lisímetros. Utilizou-se aleatorização em bloco em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com três repetições, estudando-se os cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água (CEa), variando de 0,4 a 4,4 dS m-1, associados a cinco doses de nitrogênio (50 a 150% (more) da recomendada). Os teores de NPK e de sódio na cv. BRS Energia foram maiores nas folhas que no caule e entre as épocas de avaliação, aos 120 dias após a semeadura (DAS) em relação aos 46 DAS. Nas folhas os teores acumulados aos 46 DAS, variou na sequência K > Na > N > P e aos 120 DAS K > N > Na > P; enquanto no caule variaram em ambas as épocas, a ordem foi Na > K > P ? N e em função da CEa e K> Na> P ? N em função das doses de N aos 46 DAS níveis crescentes de CEa promoveram aumento no teor de Nfolha e Kfolha assim como o incremento da adubação com N inibiu o teor de Na folha; aos 120 DAS o maior teor de Nfolha foi obtido com a CEa de 4,4 dS m-1 e a dose de N de 150%, já o teor de Kfolha e Kcaule foi obtido na dose de 150% de N enquanto o teor de P não foi influenciado por nenhum fator estudado. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water of different salinities and doses of nitrogen fertilization on accumulation of NPK and sodium in the aerial parts of the castor bean, the experiment was conducted in lysimeters. A randomized block design in 5 x 5 factorial arrangement with three replications was used, and the effects of electrical conductivity of water (ECw) varying from 0.4 to 4.4 dS m-1 associated with nitrogen dose (50 to 150% o (more) f recommended dose) were studied. The NPK and sodium contents in the aerial parts of to plant in the leaves in comparison to stems and evaluation times 120 days after sowing (DAS) > 46 DAS. In leaves the content at 46 DAS varied according to following sequence K > Na > N > P and at 120 DAS K > N > Na > P while in the stem in both study periods it accumulated in the order Na > K > P ? N under water salinity and K > Na > P ? N depending on nitrogen fertilization. At 46 DAS, the increasing levels of ECw caused an increase in the Nleaf and Kleaf and nitrogen dose inhibited Na leaf content. At 120 DAS the highest content of Nleaf was obtained in treatment ECw 4.4 dS m-1 and in dose of 150% N while the contents of Kleaf and Kstem were obtained in the dose of 150% N. The P content was not affected by any of the studied factors.

Nobre, Reginaldo G.; Soares, Lauriane A. dos A.; Gheyi, Hans R.; Lima, Geovani S. de; Lourenço, Givanildo da S.; Soares, Saulo da S.

2013-10-01

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Effect of Seed Rate and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Wheat Variety Punjnad-1  

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The study was conducted for two consecutive crop seasons at Agronomic Research Station, Bahawalpur during Rabi 2000-2001 to 2001-2002 to evaluate maximum yield potential of wheat variety punjnad-1 as affected by various seeding rates 75, 100, 125 and 150 kg ha-1 and NPK levels 0-0-0, 100-...

M.S. Cheema; M. Akhtar; Liaquat Ali

67

A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles  

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Full Text Available The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS) nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release systems. However, there are no attempts to explore the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as controlled release for NPK fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of NPK fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and zeta-potential. The FTIR results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements N, P and K. The stability of the CS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of nitrogen and potassium than with the addition of phosphorus, due to the higher anion charge from the calcium phosphate than the anion charges from the potassium chloride and urea. The mean diameter increase of the CS-PMAA nanoparticles in suspension with the addition of different compounds indicated that the elements are being aggregated on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles.

2010-01-01

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Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization  

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Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m[sup 2] frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

1994-01-01

69

Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs.

1994-01-01

70

Efecto de fertilización con n-p-k y la distancia de siembra sobre el rendimiento de la cebolla (allium cepa l.) Effect of N-P-K fertilization and planting distance on onion (Allium cepa L.) yield  

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Full Text Available Se establecieron cuatro dosis de fertilización con N-P-K y cuatro distancias de siembra en un diseño de parcelas divididas con subunidades en cuadrado latino, para estudiar su efecto sobre el tamaño y el rendimiento del bulbo de cebolla Texas Grano 438. El diámetro del bulbo se comportó como una característica dependiente de la fertilización y la distancia de siembra. Con las dosis menor (150-44-166 kg/ha de N-P-K, respectivamente) el máximo diámetro se logró en la distancia 12 x 20 cm mientras que con las dosis mayores lo fue en la distancia 10 x 20 cm. Al variar la distancia desde 6 x 20 cm hasta 12 x 20 cm se modificó significativamente la altura y el peso fresco del bulbo, lográndose los valores máximos en la distancia 10 x 20 cm. No se detectaron diferencias entre las dosis del fertilizante. El rendimiento por unidad de área presentó respuestas inversamente proporcionales a las distancias de siembra.The effect of four doses of N-P-K and four plant spacing on size and yield of Texas Grano 438 onion bulb was studied in a latin square design. Bulb diameter was dependent on fertilization and plant spacing. At the 12 x 20 cm spacing, maximum diameters were obtained with the lowest level of fertilization (150-44-166 kg/ha N-P-K, respectively) while with higher dose the maximum diameter was found at the 10 x 20 cm plant spacing. When spacing was changed from 6 x 20 cm to 12 x 20 cm, the bulb's height and fresh weight were significantly modified, obtaining maximum values at the 10 x 20 cm. No differences were found for fertilizer dose. Yield per area unit showed results in indirect proportion to plant spacing.

Ana Viloria; Lis Arteaga; Lisbeth Diaz; Douglas Delgado

2003-01-01

71

Evaluation of Bread Wheat on Different Fertilizer Levels  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at Student`s Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam during Rabi 2000-2001. Seven treatments viz.T1(00-00-00) control,T2 (100-50-50 NPK),T3 (120-60-50 NPK),T4 (140-70-50 NPK), T5 (160-80-50 NPK), T6 (180-90-50 NPK) and T7 (200-100-50 NPK) were tested to assess the effect of fertilizer levels on the yield and yield contributing characters of wheat variety T.J.-83. The fertilizer levels of NPK (T6) recorded significantly maximum weight of 1000 grains (43.19 g), biological yield (10833.3 Kg ha-1) and grain yield (3930 Kg ha-1). Results suggested that the combinations of 160-80-50 and 180-90-50 NPK Kg ha-1 produced satisfactory grain yield of wheat and could be recommended as farmers guideline.

M.I. Rajput; Z.A. Soomro; S.A. Siddiqui

2004-01-01

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Comparative Effect of City Finished Compost and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Availability of Phosphorus to Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)  

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Full Text Available A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the comparative effect of city finished compost and NPK fertilizer on the growth and availability of phosphorus to radish (Raphanus sativus L.). An air dried sandy loam soil was mixed with five rates of city finished compost (CFC) equivalent to 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 ton ha–1 and three rates of NPK fertilizer equivalent to 50% (N-P-K = 69-16-35 kg ha–1), 100% (N-P-K = 137-32-70 kg ha–1 K) and 150% (N-P-K = 206-48-105 kg ha–1). Four plants were harvested at 45 days of growth and remaining one plant was harvested at 90 days of growth and separated into leaves and bulbs. After harvest, soil samples were collected from each pot to measure soil pH and available P extracted by Olsen, Mehlich-3, Kelowna and Bray & Kurtz-1 extractants. The growth parameters (length of leaves and bulbs, fresh and dry weight of leaves and bulbs), relative dry matter yield, plant P concentrations, P uptake by radish, soil pH, and available P increased by the rates of CFC and NPK fertilizer treatments. Among the treatments, growth performance of radish was better with the highest rate of 40 t ha–1 CFC treatments. The results obtained from the 5 and 10 t ha–1 CFC treatment were comparable with the results of 50% and 100% NPK fertilizer treatments respectively. Similar effects of amendments were obtained in the case of plant P concentration, uptake of P by plant, soil pH and available soil P concentration. Available P and soil pH showed very strong and positive correlation (P –1 city finished compost could be used instead of 100% to obtain similar yield and to improve soil conditions.

Ashoka Sarker; Md. Abul Kashem; Khan Towhid Osman

2012-01-01

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Influence of Npk Inorganic Fertilizer Treatment on the Proximate Composition of the Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth)  

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Full Text Available The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h-1 treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p<0.05) increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p<0.05) decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant’s leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

G.G.E. Osuagwu; H.O. Edeoga

2013-01-01

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INFLUENCE OF COMPOST, MICROORGANISMS AND NPK FERTILIZER UPON GROWTH, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L.  

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Full Text Available The performance of compost and microorganisms was compared with standard, commercial rates of NPK fertilizers with respect to the growth, chemical composition and essential oil production of Rosmarinus officinalis L. In two successive seasons, plants treated by a mixture of compost and microorganisms showed a significant increase in vegetative growth, total N, P and carbohydrate content and essential oil production. The findings clearly indicate that compost and microorganisms could replace conventional NPK fertilizers in the cultivation of rosemary, and consequently minimize environmental pollution by these compounds.

Mohamed Ewis ABDELAZIZ; Robert POKLUDA; Mohamed Mahmoud ABDELWAHAB

2007-01-01

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Effect of N and NPK fertilizers on early field performance of narrow-leaved ash, Fraxinus angustifolia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of fertilization in the first growing season on early survival and growth of narrow-leaved ash (NLA) (Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. oxycarpa) was evaluated throughout the first 3 years of growth in Adapazari, Turkey. A randomized complete block design with four replications was established to investigate fertilization effects. Granular N urea [46%, (NH2)2CO, NH2-N] and NPK (15/15/15%; NH3-N, P2O5, K2O) fertilizers were applied in mid-May of the first growing season. Fertilization treatments per tree were control, 67 g NPK (equal to 10/10/10 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 133 g NPK (20/20/20 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 33 g urea N (15 g N tree(-1)) and 54 g urea N (25 g N tree(-1)). After three growing seasons under these fertilizer treatments, 98% of trees were still viable. Compared to the control treatment, fertilization had a large and positive effect on diameter and height growth during the first 3 years of growth. However, since there were no significant differences among the fertilized plots in terms of tree diameter and height growth, addition of P and K to the fertilizer regime was not beneficial. The results show that N fertilization in the first growing season has the potential to improve early field growth of narrow-leaved ash. PMID:20648820

Cicek, Emrah; Yilmaz, Faruk; Yilmaz, Murat

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Effect of N and NPK fertilizers on early field performance of narrow-leaved ash, Fraxinus angustifolia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of fertilization in the first growing season on early survival and growth of narrow-leaved ash (NLA) (Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. oxycarpa) was evaluated throughout the first 3 years of growth in Adapazari, Turkey. A randomized complete block design with four replications was established to investigate fertilization effects. Granular N urea [46%, (NH2)2CO, NH2-N] and NPK (15/15/15%; NH3-N, P2O5, K2O) fertilizers were applied in mid-May of the first growing season. Fertilization treatments per tree were control, 67 g NPK (equal to 10/10/10 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 133 g NPK (20/20/20 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 33 g urea N (15 g N tree(-1)) and 54 g urea N (25 g N tree(-1)). After three growing seasons under these fertilizer treatments, 98% of trees were still viable. Compared to the control treatment, fertilization had a large and positive effect on diameter and height growth during the first 3 years of growth. However, since there were no significant differences among the fertilized plots in terms of tree diameter and height growth, addition of P and K to the fertilizer regime was not beneficial. The results show that N fertilization in the first growing season has the potential to improve early field growth of narrow-leaved ash.

Cicek E; Yilmaz F; Yilmaz M

2010-01-01

77

Efficiency of a NPK fertilizer with adhered zinc lignosulfonate as a zinc source for maize (Zea mays L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a NPK fertilizer (8:15:15) with a Zn lignosulfonate (ZnLS) adhered as Zn source for maize plants. This product was compared in three experimental designs with the same NPK fertilizer with ZnSO(4) adhered and with no Zn adhered. The first and the second assays were carried out in a growth chamber by using perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate and the third experiment was raised in two calcareous fields. In general, growth chamber experiments showed that plants treated with NPK + ZnLS presented the highest dry weight and Zn concentrations in shoots. Also at field experiments, the Zn concentration in shoots was significantly high in plants treated with NPK + ZnLS. The grain harvested showed that this treatment gave the highest values in one location, but in the other no significant differences were observed. Although further research is required, we can conclude that NPK + ZnLS product could be a suitable source of Zn for maize crops. PMID:19761209

Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

2009-10-14

78

Desenvolvimento de mudas de citros cultivadas em vaso em resposta à adubação NPK/ Development of citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis) sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia) em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/5)5³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta) de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3, (more) 75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e o K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Avaliaram-se a produção de material seco das folhas, raízes, caule, parte aérea e total; área foliar, relação raízes/parte aérea; altura de plantas; volume radicular, relação área foliar/material seco para os porta-enxertos e as mudas, e o diâmetro do caule para os porta-enxertos. Funções de resposta foram ajustadas e os níveis de nutrientes foram calculados. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de fertilizantes que levaram às melhores respostas para produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência'/'Cravo' sobre o porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' foram: N, 9,85; P, 2,86; K, 7,99 g por plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the NPK fertilizer effect on 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery tree (Citrus sinensis) development, budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia) in a protected environment using containers with Pinus bark, vermiculite and perlite substrates. The experiment consisted of a complete (1/5) 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five conc (more) netrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Leaf, root, stem, shoot and total dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, leaf area, plant height, root system volume; leaf area dry matter ratio stem diameter were evaluated. Response functions were adjusted and nutrient rates for maximum yield are presented. Results showed that fertilizer level that lead to the best 'Valencia' sweet orange on Rangpur lime nursery tree response was (g per plant): N, 9.85; P, 2.86; K, 7.99.

Bernardi, Alberto Carlos de Campos; Carmello, Quirino Augusto de Camargo; Carvalho, Sérgio Alves de

2000-12-01

79

Desenvolvimento de mudas de citros cultivadas em vaso em resposta à adubação NPK Development of citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis) sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia) em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/5)5³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta) de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e o K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Avaliaram-se a produção de material seco das folhas, raízes, caule, parte aérea e total; área foliar, relação raízes/parte aérea; altura de plantas; volume radicular, relação área foliar/material seco para os porta-enxertos e as mudas, e o diâmetro do caule para os porta-enxertos. Funções de resposta foram ajustadas e os níveis de nutrientes foram calculados. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de fertilizantes que levaram às melhores respostas para produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência'/'Cravo' sobre o porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' foram: N, 9,85; P, 2,86; K, 7,99 g por plantas.The objective of this research was to evaluate the NPK fertilizer effect on 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery tree (Citrus sinensis) development, budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia) in a protected environment using containers with Pinus bark, vermiculite and perlite substrates. The experiment consisted of a complete (1/5) 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Leaf, root, stem, shoot and total dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, leaf area, plant height, root system volume; leaf area dry matter ratio stem diameter were evaluated. Response functions were adjusted and nutrient rates for maximum yield are presented. Results showed that fertilizer level that lead to the best 'Valencia' sweet orange on Rangpur lime nursery tree response was (g per plant): N, 9.85; P, 2.86; K, 7.99.

Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi; Quirino Augusto de Camargo Carmello; Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

2000-01-01

80

EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH OF SAPROPHYTIC FUNGI IN ALLUVIAL SOIL  

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Full Text Available The influence of different NPK fertilizer rates on the developement of the saprophytic fungi of the alluvial soil planted with plum culture has been studied over the three-year period (2003 – 2005). The trial was set up in the experimental plum orchard established by Fruit Research Institute ?a?ak (Serbia) and at the laboratory of Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agronomy ?a?ak (Serbia). The soil was treated with 8:16:24 + 3% of MgO mineral fertilizer in the following treatment variants: variant N1 – 400 kgha-1; variant N2 – 600 kgha-1; variant N3 – 800 kgha-1 and variant N4 –1000 kgha-1, all treatment variants being applied in three replications. Unfertilized soil served as the control. The size of the trial plot was 68 m2. The effect of the studied mineral fertilizer rates was determined three times over the growing season. It was checked by identification of the number of saprophytic fungi by the indirect rarefaction method on Czapek nutritive medium. The results of the study suggested that the number of the saprophytic fungi varied by different fertilizer rates, periods of sampling and years of study. The application of fertilizers brought about increase in the number of the saprophytic fungi. Of all studied treatment variants, the one with highest nitrogen rate (variant N4) exhibited the strongest effect. The influence of the applied fertilizer was highest over the third sampling period. Furthermore, the effect thereof was highest in 2003. The application of 600 kgha-1 of mineral fertilizer resulted in the highest plum yield.

Marijana PEŠAKOVI?; Dragutin ?UKI?; Leka MANDI?; Rade MILETI?

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Phosphate solubilizers enhance NPK fertilizer use efficiency in rice and legume cultivation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been reported that phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) are the most promising bacteria among the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); which may be used as biofertilizers for plant growth and nutrient use efficiency. Moreover, these soil micro-organisms play a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and other nutrients. Through this study, the management of nutrient use efficiency by the application of PSB was targeted in order to make the applied nutrients more available to the plants in the rice (Oryza sativa) and yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata) cultivation. Results have shown that the treatments with PSB alone or in the form of consortia of compatible strains with or without the external application of chemical NPK gave more germination index (G. I.) from 2.5 to 5 in rice and 2.7 to 4.8 in bean seeds. They also showed a higher growth in both shoot and root length and a higher biomass as compared to the control. This gives us an idea about the potentiality of these PSB strains and their application in rice and yardlong bean cultivation to get a better harvest index. Their use will also possibly reduce the nutrient runoff or leaching and increase in the use efficiency of the applied fertilizers. Thus, we can conclude that the NPK uptake and management can be improved by the use of PSB in rice and yardlong bean cultivation, and their application may be much more beneficial in the agricultural field.

Duarah I; Deka M; Saikia N; Deka Boruah HP

2011-12-01

82

Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L) on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol) and Lagos state university LASU) Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol) were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1) control (no fertilizer), (2) pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB) 100%, (3) PGB + NPK (75:25), (4) PGB + NPK (50:50), (5) Kola Pod Husk (KPH) 100%, (6) KPH + NPK(75:25), (7) KPH + NPK(50:50) and (8) NPK(100%) were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were assessed in the second and third planting periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in four replications. Data were analyzed using ANOVA Test. Due to the high N status of the soil in Ikorodu (sandy clay loam) its uptake was significantly (p<0.05) higher (87.1%) than that of LASU. The KPH and PGB had the highest potential in A. cruentus production. At Ikorodu site, KPH + NPK (75:25) had the nutrient uptake while at LASU, PGB + NPK (75:25) was optimum. KPH + NPK (75:25) gave highest N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake in A. cruentus

E.A. MAKINDE; L.S. AYENI; S.O. OJENIYI

2011-01-01

83

Efeito da adubação NPK sobre o período de imaturidade da seringueira Effect of NPK fertilization on the immature phase of rubber tree  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] à adubação NPK visando recomendá-la no período de formação dos seringais. Relata os resultados do experimento em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico no município de Matão (SP). O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4) com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O. Até 104 meses de idade das plantas, avaliaram-se o perímetro do caule 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal, efetuando-se análises de solo e folhas em diversas épocas. Observou-se, a partir de 24 meses de idade, pouco mais de um ano depois do início das aplicações efeito linear da adubação potássica sobre o perímetro do caule e, a partir de de 48 meses, com freqüência, a interação NK linear. Usando como indicador de desenvolvimento a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para K e, em algumas poucas épocas, também paraN. O período de imaturidade, apesar de afetado significativamente apenas pela adubação potássica, mostrou-se dependente do equilíbrio dos nutrientes. Adubações desequilibradas podem retardar até em 15 meses o tempo de imaturidade, comparando-se os melhores e os piores tratamentos. Na ausência de adubação potássica, verificou-se um efeito antagônico dos nutrientes N e P. Adubações potássicas foram essenciais para garantir a antecipação do início da fase produtiva.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Müell. Arg.] to NPK fertilization in order, to improve fertilizer recommendation during the immature phase of this crop. It reports the results obtained from an experiment conducted on a podzolic soil at Matão, State of São Paulo, Brazil. It was a randomized block design in a fractionated factorial experiment 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) using 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 of N, P2O5 e K2O. Fertilizers were applied every year starting eight months after planting. During the experimental period evaluations of trunk girth 1.20 m above the budgrafting union was measured at each four months. The percentage of plants able for tapping and the period of immaturity were calculated from girth measurements. Soil and plant analysis were performed at several ages. Plant responses to potassium fertilizations were observed starting at 24 months of plant age. Linear NK interaction was frequently observed after 48 months of plant age. Considering the percentage of plants able for tapping, responses were linearly and statistically significant for K fertilization, while N responses were observed in some ocasions. The immaturity period of the crop was significantly affected only by K fertilizers. Besides of this observation, the analysis of the response surface showed that the immaturity period was very dependent on equilibrated relations among nutrients. Unbalanced relations of NPK can delay up to 15 months the beginning of tapping, considering differences between the best and worst treatments. In the absence of K fertilization there was an antagonistic effect of N and P. Potassium fertilization was essential to reduce the immaturity period.

ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA; WAGNER RODRIGUES DOS SANTOS; PAULO DE SOUZA GONÇALVES; IVO SEGNINI JUNIOR; MÁRIO CARDOSO

1999-01-01

84

Effect of Spacing and NPK Fertilizer on the Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons with the aim of assessing the effect of spacing and NPK fertilizer on the yield and yield components of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Treatments consisted of four spacing (60x30 cm, 90x30 cm, 60x60 cm and 75x45 cm) and four NPK rates (0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) in a split plot design with plant spacing allocated to main plots and fertilizer in sub plots. The treatments were replicated three times to give a total of forty eight sub plots. Parameter such as number of fruits per plant, length of fruit, fresh weight of fruits per hectare and dry weight of fruits per hectare were measured. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) as described by Gomez and Gomez and treatment means were separated using Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results showed that yield and yield components such as number of fruits per plant and length of fruit were not significantly affected by spacing in 2007. However, significant difference was obtained at 52 DAS in 2008. Number of fruits per plant and length of fruits were significantly affected by fertilizer levels. In 2008, there was significant interaction in respect to fresh weight of fruits per hectare. Also, there was significant interaction between spacing and fertilizer in respect to dry weight of fruits per hectare in 2007 and 2008. The results indicated that spacing of 90x30 cm and application of 150 kg ha-1 (22.5 kgN, 22.5 kg P2O5 and 22.5 kg K2O5) of NPK gave the highest yield of okra in Mubi.

C.B. Philip; A.A. Sajo; K.N. Futuless

2010-01-01

85

The effects of NPK fertilization for nine years on boreal forest vegetation in northwestern Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant productivity is limited by mineral nutrient availability in many boreal forest ecosystems. This study is an analysis of the growth responses of components of a boreal plant community, cryptogams, herbaceous and woody perennials, the dominant shrubs Salix glauca (grey willow) and Betula glandulosa (bog birch) and the dominant tree Picea glauca (white spruce), to the addition of an NPK fertilizer over a nine-year period. The study was carried out in a low-nutrient boreal forest ecosystem in the Yukon territory in northwestern Canada. The following predictions were tested: (1) that there would be an overall increase in abundance (measured either as cover, density, or dry mass) of all components of the vegetation, (2) that vegetation composition would change as more competitive species increased in abundance, and (3) that initial community changes in response to fertilization would be transient. In general, all predictions were found to be true. Species composition changed rapidly in response to fertilizer. Graminoids (e.g. Festuca altaica) and some dicots (e.g. Mertensia paniculata and Achillea millefolium) increased in cover, while other dicots (e.g. Anemone parviflora), dwarf shrubs (e.g. Arctostaphylos uvaursi), bryophytes and lichens declined. There was a significant increase in the growth rate of the two dominant shrubs and of Picea, but not in the cone crop or seed production by Picea. Surveys after 1 or 2 years showed responses by the vegetation but more stable patterns of response did not emerge until after 5 or 6 years. There were consistent and directional changes in the percent cover of some of the herbaceous species on control plots. Growth rates of Salix and Betula varied considerably from year to year, independently of treatment. Long-term studies are essential if we are to understand the role of nutrient limitation in this ecosystem 49 refs, 9 figs, 7 tabs

Turkington, R.; John, Elizabeth [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Botany; Krebs, C.J.; Sinclair, A.R.E.; Smith, J.N.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Dale, M.R.T.; Boutin, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Nams, V.O. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Boonstra, R. [Toronto Univ., Scarborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Life Sciences; Martin, K. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences

1998-06-01

86

Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK = Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF), colmos (MSC) e total (MST), teor de proteína bruta (PB), N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic RedYellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY) evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP) and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães Teles; Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro; Ismail Soares; Elzania Sales Pereira; Pedro Zione de Souza; João Avelar Magalhães

2011-01-01

87

Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Cowdung in Combination with Foliar Spray of Chemicals on Jute Fibre  

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Full Text Available The experiment was performed in the experimental land of the Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi during the period of April-May, 2007 and 2008. The physical and chemical characteristics of jute fibre under different foliar treatments were investigated at mature stage. The results showed significantly increase in most of the chemical composition under different foliar treatments. Moisture content, dry matter and ash contents of jute fibre obtained from experimental land compared to those of control jute fibre after application of NPK-fertilizers and cowdung in combination with foliar spray. The moister content of jute fibre decreased whereas ash content increased significantly under different treatments. The moisture and ash contents of jute fibre were varied between 12 to 14% and 0.5 to 0.7%, respectively. On the other hand the dry matter content of jute fibre increased slightly under different treatments. The aqueous extract, fatty and waxy matter, pectic matter, ?-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin contents and tensile strength of jute fibre as compared to those of control were as follows: The maximum increase of aqueous extract 20.65% (treatment T2), the maximum increase of fatty and waxy 22.54% (treatment T2), pectic matter 5.49% (treatment T6), ?-cellulose 61%, hemicellulose 29%, lignin contents 7.29% (treatment T6) and tensile strength 15.55%.

A. Islam; M.S. Hossain; A. Sayeed; Md. Ibrahim; H. Mondal; N. Absar

2010-01-01

88

Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth), cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa"), durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N), fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 ) e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O), em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação). As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993), quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m) tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE), com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente). A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra) foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente), enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha). Doses crescentes de potássio (K) apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97) na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente). Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK), exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N.The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in perennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was studied under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5) and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O) doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993), when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing) were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE), with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively). The interaction GE x PO (sample position) was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively), while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³ in the within row, and 6.84 g/dm³ between rows). There was a positive linear response to appl

Marilene L. A. Bovi; Sandra H. Spiering; Antonia Marlene M. Barbosa

1999-01-01

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Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK/ Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de tr (more) ês progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth), cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem) em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa"), durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N), fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 ) e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O), em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação). As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993), quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m) tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE), com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente). A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra) foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente), enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha). Doses crescentes de potássio (K) apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97) na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente). Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK), exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N. Abstract in english The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in perennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was studied (more) under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N), phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5) and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O) doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993), when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing) were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE), with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively). The interaction GE x PO (sample position) was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively), while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³ in the within row, and 6.84 g/dm³

Bovi, Marilene L. A.; Spiering, Sandra H.; Barbosa, Antonia Marlene M.

1999-11-01

90

Yield Performance of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) cv. Barimung-4 as Influenced by Rhizobium Inoculation and NPK Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Regional Agricultural Research Station of Barisal, Bangladesh during the Kharif season of the year 2000 to find the optimum fertilizer rate for summer mungbean cv. Barimung-4 in an attempt to maximize the yield potential. In this regard, various combinations of NPK fertilizers and Rhizobium inoculation (N20P40K20 kg ha?1, P40K20 kg ha?1, N20K20 kg ha?1, N20P40 kg ha?1, N20 kg ha?1, Rhizobium + P40K20 kg ha?1, Rhizobium, and control) were imposed to the experimental plots. Results revealed that Barimung-4 produced the maximum seed (1270.21 kg ha?1) and straw yields (2434.36 kg ha?1) when the crop was fertilized with N20P40K20 kg ha?1 followed by Rhizobium + P40K20 kg ha?1 (1220.30 and 2406.14 kg ha?1, respectively. The lowest seed and straw yields were obtained from the control (887.01 and 1864.68 kg ha?1, respectively). Different plant characteristics such as plant height, branches/plant, pods/plant, pod length, seeds/pod, 1000-seed weight and harvest index increased significantly due to the application of various combinations of NPK fertilizers and Rhizobium inoculation over the control.

M.A. Rahman; N. Islam; A. Islam; M.K. Hassan; M.M.R. Talukder

2002-01-01

91

Effect of Different Npk Levels on the Growth and Yield of Three Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties  

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Three different Onion varieties i.e. Faisalabad Early, Phulkara and Shah Alam were compared at different NPK levels. Varieties, NPK levels and their interaction significantly affected plant height, leaf length, number of leaves per plant bulb diameter, marketable yield and total yield per hectare. S...

Abdul Ghaffoor; Muhammad Saleem Jilani; Ghulam Khaliq; Kashif Waseem

92

Manejo da cultura do híbrido de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN : 01 para melhoria na qualidade do fruto com menor aplicação de adubação NPK/ Management of the papaya crop of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN : 01 of 'Formosa' group for fruit quality improvement and less NPK fertilizer application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de alguns aspectos do manejo da cultura do mamoeiro como espaçamento e nível de adubação NPK, sobre alguns atributos de qualidade dos frutos do híbrido do grupo 'Formosa' UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., em Linhares-ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre pl (more) antas (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,70 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão da empresa (PE); A2 = 100% PE; A3 = 120% PE; A4 = 140% PE, e A5 = 160% PE), e três períodos de avaliação (junho, agosto e outubro de 2007). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa (PE) consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P2O5) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K2O), respectivamente. Foram analisados a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a concentração de sólidos solúveis (SS), o pH, a acidez titulável (AT) e a razão SS/AT da polpa. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de médias. Os resultados mostram que, entre as condições de espaçamento e níveis de adubação NPK testados, o melhor desempenho foi obtido pelas combinações E1A1 ou E2A1, os quais devem ser adotadas para o manejo do híbrido UC01. Os tratamentos resultaram em frutos com atributos de qualidade superiores, além de proporcionar redução nos gastos com adubação NPK e menor impacto ambiental em função da aplicação excessiva de adubo no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of some aspects of the management of the crop as spacing and level of NPK fertilizer application on some quality attributes of fruits of the papaya hybrid of 'Formosa' group UENF/CALIMAN-01(UC01). The experiment was conducted in the farm Caliman Agrícola S.A., in Linhares -E. S. We used the randomized complete block design, with factorial arrangement, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1,80 m; E2 = 2,25 m (more) ; E3 = 2,70 m), five levels of conventional NPK (A1 = 80% of the company's standard; A2 = 100% of the standard; A3 = 120% of the standard; A4 = 140% of the standard; and A5 = 160% of the standard) and three evaluation periods (June, August and October 2007). The standard NPK fertilizer company consists of 350, 105 and 660 kg/ha/year of ammonium sulphate (20% of N), superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. We evaluated the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the concentration of soluble solids (SS), pH, acidity (TA) and the ratio SS /TA of the pulp. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and mean test. The results show that among the conditions of spacing and NPK fertilizer levels tested, the best performance was obtained by combinations E1A1 or E2A1, which should be adopted to manage the hybrid UC01. These treatments resulted in fruits with superior quality attributes, in addition to these management practices provide a reduction in spending on NPK fertilizer and a smaller environmental impact according to excessive application of fertilizer in the soil.

Fontes, Renata Venturim; Viana, Alexandre Pio; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Vieira, Henrique Duarte

2012-03-01

93

Effects of Rates and Split Application of Compound NPK Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Three Amaranthus Species in Nigeria Guinea Savanna  

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Full Text Available Field trials were conducted at two sites in Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru-Zaria, Nigeria, to determine the effect of five rates (0, 125, 2501, 2502 and 500 kg ha-1) of compound fertilizer (NPK 27:13:13) on the growth (root and shoot dry weight) and grain yield of three Amaranthus species. The Amaranthus species include: A. hybridus, A. spinosus and A. hybridus var. cruentus. The plants were sampled weekly between 4 and 7 Weeks After Planting (WAP) and the second dose of the fertilizer (for 125 and 2502 kg ha-1) was applied at 5 WAP. The best growth in the Amaranthus species resulted from 500 kg ha-1 NPK treatment at 4 and 5 WAP and from 2502 kg ha-1 NPK treatment at 6 and 7 WAP. The 2501 kg ha-1 NPK application also produced slightly higher values in growth parameters than 125 kg ha-1 at 4 and 5 WAP, but this situation was reversed at 6 and 7 WAP. The overall data showed that, 2502 kg ha-1 NPK treatment produced higher shoot growth and grain yield than the other treatments. Amaranthus hybridus had the highest shoot growth and total dry weight ha-1 than the other species. Amaranthus hybridus var. cruentus also produced the highest total grain weight per hectare than the other species. This study showed that, the split in contrast to sole application of NPK fertilizer rates can be of greater economic benefit in Amaranthus production.

S.O. Alonge; F.O. Alonge; S.P. Bako; J.D. Olarewaju; O.B. Adeniji

2007-01-01

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Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L) on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria  

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The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol) and Lagos state university LASU) Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol) were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1) control (no fertilizer), (2) pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB) 100%, (3) PGB + NPK...

E.A. MAKINDE; L.S. AYENI; S.O. OJENIYI

95

Growth of Tea Seedlings Affected by Different Levels and Application Methods of NPK and Urea  

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In this very experiment to find out the effect of NPK & Urea with different levels (4 & 8 2.gm/sqm.) and application methods i.e., broadcast & foliar spray on tea (Camellia sinensis L) seedlings in the nursery of National Tea Research Inst. Shinkiari during March to December 1999. Seedling fo...

A. Waheed; A. Jamal; F.S.Hamid; N. Ahmad

96

Estado nutricional e características de crescimento do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi' cultivado em latossolo amarelo distrófico em função da adubação com NPK Nutritional status and growth caracteristics of pineapple in dystrophic yellow latosol 'Jupi' cultivated in fucntion of NPK fertilization  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação da fórmula 20:05:20 de NPK no crescimento das folhas e frutos e no estado nutricional do abacaxizeiro. Foram utilizadas mudas do tipo filhote do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi', com peso médio de 250 g, plantadas em vasos contendo 13 dm³ de Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico. Os tratamentos consistiram de 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g de NPK, na proporção de 20:05:20, aplicados em três parcelamentos de 20%, 40% e 40% da dose aos 45, 120 e 240 dias, após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O peso médio do fruto foi influenciado pela dose de adubo, com valor significativamente maior para peso do fruto sem coroa, na dosagem de 93 g de adubo. Com a elevação das doses de adubo os teores de brix e acidez titulável aumentaram, enquanto a relação brix/acidez titulável apresentou redução.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of NPK on the growth of leaves and fruits and nutritional status of pineapple. Slips of pineapple'Jupi', with weight of 250 g were planted in vessel with13 dm³ of dystrophic Yellow Latosol. The treatment consisted of 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g of NPK (20:05:20) divided in three applications (20%, 40% and 40%) of the dose after 45, 120 and 240 days. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block outline, with four replications. The mean weight of the fruit was influenced by NPK doses. The highest fruit weight was obtained in the fruit without crown and fertilization of NPK with 93 g. With the increase of doses of NPK, the brix tenors and total titled acidity increased while the relation brix/titled acidity decreased.

Ruimário Inácio Coelho; José Carlos Lopes; Almy Júnior Cordeiro de Carvalho; José Augusto Teixeira do Amaral; Frederico de Pina Matta

2007-01-01

97

Process for making solid-particle products, in particular NP/NPK granulated fertilizers containing ammonium phosphates  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Granular fertilizer solids comprising ammonium phosphate, advantageously particulate NP/NPK fertilizers, are prepared by (i) granulating a liquid/dry solids admixture of fertilizer values in a granulation zone, (ii) next transferring said admixture to, and drying same, in a drying zone, (iii) while simultaneously injecting into said drying zone a jet spray of a slurry of ammonia neutralized acid values discharged from a pipe reactor, such that (iv) said jet spray directly impinges upon drying particles of wet solids transferred from said granulation zone, and whereby (v) dried final product simultaneously results therefrom, and (vi) then recovering a fraction of said dried final product, while (vii) recycling another fraction thereof, as dry solids, to said granulation zone.

Moraillon Philippe

98

Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil  

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Full Text Available characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat crop in both experiments. The soil under investigation was calcareous in nature, having a high pH (8.2), low in organic matter (8200 mg kg-1), and deficient in N (300 mg kg-1), P (7.5 mg kg-1) and Zn (6.2 mg kg-1). Boiler ash was rich inmicronutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and also contained sufficient amount of Ca, Mg, Na, S, K and P. Consequently, total porosity of soil, available P, S and K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu content in soil, increased with the levels of boiler ash application.On the other hand, dry bulk density declined which is a positive effect. ECe and pH of the soil was minutely increased. Yields and most of the yield components of wheat crop in pots, as well as in the field experiment, also increased due to boiler ashapplication. It is recommended that application of boiler ash @ 50 t ha-1 will result in enhanced yield of wheat in calcareous soil.

Muhammad Jamil Khan; Muhammad Qasim

2008-01-01

99

Studies on Sugarcane-Sunflower Intercropping System at Different Geometrical Patterns and NPK Levels During Autumn Planting  

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Full Text Available Studies on the feasibility of intercropping sunflower (SF) in sugarcane (SC) under different geometrical patterns and fertilizer doses were conducted. Experiment comprised of three fertilizer levels viz., 140:100:100, 160:120:150 and 180:140:200 and seven geometrical pattern viz., sole sugarcane (SC), one row of sugarcane + one row of sunflower (SC 1 row + SF 1 row), SC 2-row strip + SF 1 row, SC 2-row strip + SF 2-rows, SC 3-row strip + SF 2-rows, SC 3-row strip + SF 3-rows, and sole SF. The main effect for fertilizer doses were statistically significant for all the parameters examined. The best performance for all the parameters was shown by the fertilizer application at the rate of 180:140:200 (NPK kg ha-1). The planting geometries differed significantly in affecting the yield parameters of the component crops. The planting geometry of 1SC+1SF gave the second highest net return of Rs.51307 after the sole crop of sugarcane in 1995 and the highest net return of Rs.51084 in 1996 followed by sole crop of sugarcane with net return of Rs.50296. This geometry produced the highest net return and caused the highest reduction in weed biomass thus it helped in avoiding weed control through chemicals, which bring about environmental pollution and hence it is recommended in autumn planted sugarcane for higher income.

Abdul Aziz Khakwani; Haji Khalil Ahmad; Gull Hassan; Fateh Ullah Khan

2001-01-01

100

Adubação da cana-de-acúcar: XIV. Adubação NPK em latossolo roxo NPK fertilizer experiments of sugar cane on dusky red latosol soils  

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Full Text Available São apresentados e discutidos os resultados de dezenove ensaios de adubação de cana-de-açúcar, efetuados em latossolo roxo, em diferentes regiões paulistas. Adotou-se um delineamento fatorial 3³ para N, P e K, procurando-se avaliar a reação da cultura a esses nutrientes em áreas exploradas havia alguns anos com cana e em outras em início de exploração. A variedade utilizada foi a CB 41/76, plantando-se de janeiro a março de 1958. Foram aplicados 0,90 e 180kg/ha de N; 0,80 e 160kg/ha de P2O5 e 0,100 e 200kg/ha de K2O. Houve respostas significativas a nitrogênio em dez casos, a fósforo em nove e a potássio em dezesseis. A produção média sem adubo, em todos os ensaios, foi de 82,9t/ha. As doses máximas dos adubos proporcionaram aumentos médios de 15,2t/ha para nitrogênio, de 10,0t/ha para fósforo e de 21,3t/ha para potássio. O ajuste de funções de respostas aos resultados permitiu a verificação de que combinações mais econômicas dos nutrientes estão muito acima das recomendações correntes. As respostas da cultura à adubação estiveram diretamente relacionadas com a produtividade máxima econômica (r = 0,773**). Foi possível identificar relação direta entre respostas a N e produtividade (r = 0,695**), de respostas a N com o teor de matéria orgânica no solo (r = 0,677**) e de fósforo com o teor de P no solo, determinado pelo método da resina trocadora de íons (r = 0,709**).Nineteen 3³ NPK factorial experiments with sugar cane were carried out in 1958/59 on dusky red latosol soils of various sugar plant owned lands, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The amounts of nutrients applied corresponded to: 0, 90 and 180 kg/ha of N; 0, 80 and 160kg/ha of P(2)0(5); and 0, 100 and 200kg/ha of K2O. The experiments were separated in two types of areas, based on former soil use: one group in areas where sugar cane was cultivated over ten years, and the other group in areas where which sugar cane had never been cultivated. The results were in accordance with former management, indicating residual effect of phosphorus applications and potassium depletion on the areas former cultivated with sugar cane. However, responses to nitrogen could not be related to former soil usage. Responses of sugar cane to nitrogen were related to soil organic matter (r = 0.695**) and to phosphorus with resin extractable P (r = 0.709**), but the response to potassium fertilizer was not related to soil K (r = 0.284 n.s). With adjusted response functions, the optimal economical amount of nutrients were shown to be in general, higher than the current recommendations. Yield increases promoted by NPK were directly related to the maximum economic yield (r = 0.773**).

Raphael Alvarez; Antônio Carlos Pimentel Wutke; Hermano Vaz de Arruda; Bernardo Van Raij; Antônio Carlos Gomes; Frederico Zink

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Exigências nutricionais da grápia em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico: efeito da adubação NPK no teor de nutrientes nos tecidos Nutritional demand of grápia in Paleaudalf soil: effect of NPK fertilization on content of nutrients in the tissues  

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Full Text Available A grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride) é uma espécie florestal nativa de ampla utilidade na indústria madeireira, motivo pelo qual, atualmente, encontra-se em processo de extinção. Em trabalho prévio, utilizando-se um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, foi demonstrado que o crescimento de plantas jovens de grápia respondeu à adubação de N, P e K com dose de máxima eficiência técnica estimada em, respectivamente, 70, 80 e 80mg kg-1. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar o efeito da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes e micronutrientes dos tecidos de plantas de grápia. Em condições de casa de vegetação, foram realizados 27 tratamentos de adubação em esquema trifatorial completo (3x3x3), representados por três níveis (0, 40 e 80mg kg-1) de N, de P e de K. A parcela experimental foi constituída de um vaso com 3,5kg de Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico e duas plantas. Aos 140 dias após a emergência das plantas, avaliou-se o crescimento e os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes da grápia. Os resultados sugerem que os teores adequados de nutrientes nas folhas de plantas jovens de grápia, para se obter de 80 a 100% da produção de biomassa, sejam: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.Grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride) is a Brazilian forest species with great interest for timber-trade, and nowadays due to deforestation, it has been considered in extinction process. In the previous paper, it was shown that the NPK fertilization, respectively at 70, 80 and 80mg kg-1 of a Paleudalf soil, significantly increased the growth of young plants of grápia. The present work is aimed at characterizing the effects of the NPK fertilization on macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the tissues of grápia. At glasshouse conditions, 27 fertilization treatments were used in a complete trifactorial scheme (3x3x3), represented by the combination of three levels (0, 40 and 80mg kg-1) of N, of P and of K. As experimental unit, pots with 3.5kg of a Paleudalf soil and two plants were used. At 140 days after plant emergence, plant growth and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in leaves, stem and roots were evaluated. The data suggest that the adequate nutrient contents in leaves of young plants of grápia, envision to obtain 80 to 100% of biomass production, were: N=2,5 a 3,0%; P=0,1 a 0,18%, K=1,6 a 2,1%, Ca=0,60 a 0,75%, Mg=0,2 a 0,3%; Cu=1,5 a 2,5mg kg-1, Zn=50 a 85mg kg-1, Fe=100 a 150mg kg-1 e Mn=250 a 400mg kg-1.

Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso; Marco Aurélio de Freitas Fogaça; Flávio Zancheti; Roni Paulo Fortunato; Evandro Luiz Missio

2007-01-01

102

Response of Two Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Varieties to Sowing Date and NPK Fertilizer Rate in a Semi-Arid Environment: Yield and Yield Attributes  

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In order to determine the optimum sowing date and NPK fertilizer rate for two groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties for best yield performance and to improve their production, field trials were conducted during the 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons at Samaru, Nigeria. The treatments were com...

H.M.B. Bala; V.B. Ogunlela; N.C. Kuchinda; B. Tanimu

103

Comparative Effect of City Finished Compost and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Availability of Phosphorus to Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)  

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A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the comparative effect of city finished compost and NPK fertilizer on the growth and availability of phosphorus to radish (Raphanus sativus L.). An air dried sandy loam soil was mixed with five rates of city finished compost (CFC) equivalent to 0, 5, 1...

Ashoka Sarker; Md. Abul Kashem; Khan Towhid Osman

104

Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O(3) concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O(3).

Singh P; Agrawal M; Agrawal SB

2009-03-01

105

Performance of Some Snap Bean Varieties as Affected by Different Levels of Mineral Fertilizers  

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Full Text Available This study was designed in order to evaluate the growth and yield performance of some French bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) i.e. Royal Nel, Duel, Coby and Julia and their responses to different levels of NPK fertilization. The four mentioned varieties were fertilized with four NPK levels i.e. 20: 32: 24; 30: 48: 36; 40: 64: 48; or 50: 80: 54. Data showed that cvs. Royal Nel and Coby recorded the highest values in vegetative growth while cv. Julia was the lowest. Increasing the level of NPK resulted in a positive response in the vegetative growth. Coby and Royal Nel cultivars recorded the highest and lowest pod yield, respectively. Early and exportable yields were about 10 and 71% of total yield, respectively. Yield increased as the level of NPK increased meanwhile, pod quality i.e. pod length, thickness and fiber content were not significantly affected by the level of NPK application. With the same pattern of response to NPK level, genotype of each cultivar was the predominant factor in the interactive response.

Abdel-Mawgoud; M. EL-Desuki; S.R. Salman; S.D. Abou-Hussein; A.M.R.

2005-01-01

106

Rendimiento de una plantación comercial de cacao ante diferentes dosis de fertilización con npk en el sureste del estado táchira, venezuela Effect of NPK fertilization on yield of a commercial plantation of cocoa at the southeast of Táchira State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available La carencia de fertilización adecuada es mencionada como una de las causas de los bajos rendimientos del cacao en Venezuela. Para determinar la respuesta de una plantación comercial ubicada en el sureste del estado Táchira fueron realizados dos experimentos. Los tratamientos fueron establecidos a partir de la dosis de laboratorio (DL) de NPK según el análisis de suelo. El primer ensayo tuvo una duración de un año y se evaluaron cinco dosis (100 % DL, 50 % DL, 200 % DL, 400 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante). El segundo ensayo se realizó durante tres años y se evaluaron tres dosis (100 % DL, 200 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante). En ambos ensayos se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con seis repeticiones y parcelas experimentales de seis árboles. Sólo en una de las cuatro evaluaciones se detectó efecto del fertilizante sobre el peso de la cosecha. Se concluye que diversos factores, entre los cuales probablemente participe la alta variabilidad existente en las plantaciones de cacao del país, así como la presencia de un alto nivel freático estacional, habrían influido en la escasa respuesta de las plantas a la fertilización con NPK.The low yields in cocoa in Venezuela are associated with lack of fertilization. Two experiments were performed in a commercial plantation in the southeast of Táchira State to determine the response to several doses of fertilization. The treatments were established based on laboratory dose (LD) of NPK estimated from soil analysis. The first trial was run for one year and the following five doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 50 % LD, 200 % LD, 400 % LD and a control without fertilization). The second trial lasted three years and three doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 200 % LD, and a non fertilized control). A complete randomized block design, with six replications and six-tree plots, was used in each experiment. Only one out of the four evaluations showed effect of the fertilizer on the crop yield. It is concluded that several factors, among which the high tree variability that usually exists within cocoa plantations in the country, along with the presence of a seasonal shallow water table, probably affected the tree response to the NPK fertilizer.

Luis E. Sánchez F.; Dercy Parra; Erbert Gamboa; José Rincón

2005-01-01

107

Process for the production of NPK fertilizers resistant to smoldering decomposition at elevated temperatures  

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The invention relates to a method of preventing smoldering decomposition of multiple-nutrient fertilizers containing ammonium nitrate at elevated temperatures by treatment of the granulated, dried and screened fertilizer with ammonia.

HAHN HEINRICH; KURANDT HANS-FRIEDRICH

108

Efeito da densidade de plantas e da adubação NPK na produção inicial de palmito de pupunheira Effect of density and fertilization NPK on heart-of-palm production of peach palm  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da densidade de plantas e doses de adubação na produção de palmito de pupunheira, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Yuricam, Rio Preto da Eva (AM). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, sendo avaliados os fatores: densidade de plantas (10.000; 5.000 e 3.333 plantas ha-1) e doses de adubação NPK (0-0-0; 112,5-12,5-90; 337,5-38-270; 225-90-180, 225-25-180 em kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente). Os resultados do primeiro ano de produção de palmito, em termos de estipes colhidas, para efeito das doses de adubação NPK, foram: 225-90-180 (66 %); 225-25-180 (57 %); 337,5-38-270 (50 %); 112,5-12,5-90 (26 %); 0-0-0 (1 %) - os números entre parênteses indicam os percentuais de plantas coletadas em relação às plantadas - e para efeitos de densidade: 3.333 plantas ha-1 (58 %); 5.000 plantas ha-1 (28 %); 10.000 plantas ha-1 (40 %). O tempo médio para extração de palmito foi menor na densidade de 3.333 plantas ha-1 (18,4 meses) e na dose de adubação NPK de 225-90-180 (18,1 meses). O efeito simples da adubação NPK dentro da densidade de 10.000 plantas ha-1 com a adubação 225-90-180 e 225-25-180 apresentou maior produção de palmito, com 841 e 779 kg ha-1, e de 1.154 e 1.223 kg ha-1 de estipe tenro, respectivamente, nas duas adubações.The effect of density and fertilization on heart-of-palm yield of peach palm under field conditions was determined at Yuricam farm, in Rio Preto da Eva counnty, state of Amazonia, Brazil. The experiment was installed in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of the planting density (10,000; 5,000 and 3,333 plants ha-1) and N, P2O5 and K2O doses (0-0-0; 112.5-12.5-90; 337.5-38-270; 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1). The results of the first year of production showed that regarding the NPK doses the stem harvest followed the order: 225-90-180 (66 %); 225-25-180 (57 %); 337.5-38-270 (50 %); 112.5-12.5-90 (26 %); 0-0-0 (1 %) - number in parenthesis indicate the percentage of plants harvested in relation to those that were planted - and for the planting density: 3.333 plants ha-1 (58 %); 10.000 plants ha-1 (40 %); 5.000 plants ha-1 (28 %). The shortest average period for extracting the heart-of-palm was obtained with a density of 3.333 plants ha-1 (18.4 months) and at NPK dose of 225-90-180 kg ha-1 (18.1 months). The main NPK effect within the 10.000 plants ha-1 density with a fertilization employing 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1 of NPK allowed to obtain the highest heart-of-palm yield, which reached 841 and 779 kg ha-1 and 1.154 and 1.223 kg ha-1 of soft stem, respectively, for the two fertilizations.

Kaoru Yuyama; Wanders B. Chávez F.; Bianca G. Pereira; Ildelfonso A. Silva

2005-01-01

109

Rendimiento de una plantación comercial de cacao ante diferentes dosis de fertilización con npk en el sureste del estado táchira, venezuela/ Effect of NPK fertilization on yield of a commercial plantation of cocoa at the southeast of Táchira State, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La carencia de fertilización adecuada es mencionada como una de las causas de los bajos rendimientos del cacao en Venezuela. Para determinar la respuesta de una plantación comercial ubicada en el sureste del estado Táchira fueron realizados dos experimentos. Los tratamientos fueron establecidos a partir de la dosis de laboratorio (DL) de NPK según el análisis de suelo. El primer ensayo tuvo una duración de un año y se evaluaron cinco dosis (100 % DL, 50 % DL, 200 % (more) DL, 400 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante). El segundo ensayo se realizó durante tres años y se evaluaron tres dosis (100 % DL, 200 % DL y un testigo sin fertilizante). En ambos ensayos se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con seis repeticiones y parcelas experimentales de seis árboles. Sólo en una de las cuatro evaluaciones se detectó efecto del fertilizante sobre el peso de la cosecha. Se concluye que diversos factores, entre los cuales probablemente participe la alta variabilidad existente en las plantaciones de cacao del país, así como la presencia de un alto nivel freático estacional, habrían influido en la escasa respuesta de las plantas a la fertilización con NPK. Abstract in english The low yields in cocoa in Venezuela are associated with lack of fertilization. Two experiments were performed in a commercial plantation in the southeast of Táchira State to determine the response to several doses of fertilization. The treatments were established based on laboratory dose (LD) of NPK estimated from soil analysis. The first trial was run for one year and the following five doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 50 % LD, 200 % LD, 400 % LD and a control without f (more) ertilization). The second trial lasted three years and three doses were evaluated (100 % LD, 200 % LD, and a non fertilized control). A complete randomized block design, with six replications and six-tree plots, was used in each experiment. Only one out of the four evaluations showed effect of the fertilizer on the crop yield. It is concluded that several factors, among which the high tree variability that usually exists within cocoa plantations in the country, along with the presence of a seasonal shallow water table, probably affected the tree response to the NPK fertilizer.

Sánchez F., Luis E.; Parra, Dercy; Gamboa, Erbert; Rincón, José

2005-04-01

110

Effects of soil moisture contents and rates of NPK fertilizer application on growth and fruit yields of pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes  

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Full Text Available Pot experiments were conducted during the dry periods of 2007 and 2008 in a crop pavilion at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. The experiments evaluated the comparative responses of three pepper genotypes (‘Tatashe’ (Capsicum annum, L); ‘Rodo’ and ‘Shombo’ (C. frutescens, L.) to three soil moisture levels (25, 50 and 100% available moisture) and four rates of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg/ha.) application. The experiments were designed as factorial in RCB and laid out in split-plots (2007) or split-split-plots (2008) with factorial combinations replicated three times. Data collected included plant growth and fruit yield parameters such as plant height, number and area of leaves per plant, number of flowers per plant, reproductive efficiency, number and weights (fresh and dry) of marketable fruits per plant. All data collected were analysed using the analysis of variance (AOV) and significant means were separated by the least significant differences at five percent probability level (L.S.D0.05) Results showed that plant growth parameters of plant height, number and area of leaves per plant and number of flowers per plant were significantly decreased by low soil moisture content, and were significantly increased with the application of fertilizer up to 400 kg N/ha. Number and weights of marketable fruits were also decreased by low soil moisture and increased by the application of fertilizer up to 400 kg N/ha. Comparative water stress tolerance analysis using reduction in number and fresh weight of fruit and drought susceptibility index (SI) showed that Tatashe (C. annum ) was more tolerant than Rodo and Shombo both of which genotypes of C. frutescens. Conclusively, results of the study showed that pepper is significantly negatively affected by inadequate soil moisture with appreciable genotypic variations. The results also showed that pepper can benefit significantly from the application of increased fertilizer provided the soil moisture is adequate.

Abayomi et al.

2012-01-01

111

Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Farmyard Manure on Nut Production of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)  

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Full Text Available During the present studies it was found that coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) had a good response to fertilizers. The maximum yield of 658 nuts was obtained by the application of 700 g Urea+270 g DAP+1600 g MOP. The results also indicated that the application of fertilizers helped to increase nut yield in coconut.

P.A. Baloch; M. Moizuddin; M. Imam; B.A. Abro; J.A. Lund; A.H. Solangi

2004-01-01

112

Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Farmyard Manure on Nut Production of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)  

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During the present studies it was found that coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) had a good response to fertilizers. The maximum yield of 658 nuts was obtained by the application of 700 g Urea+270 g DAP+1600 g MOP. The results also indicated that the application of fertilizers helped to increase nut ...

P.A. Baloch; M. Moizuddin; M. Imam; B.A. Abro; J.A. Lund; A.H. Solangi

113

A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles  

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The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS) nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled...

114

Evaluation of NPK 8-30-20 with gypsum addition compared to fertilization employed in the region for the production of potato (Solanumtuberosum L.)  

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Full Text Available Different forms of fertilizer management are employed by potato farmers, and from time to time, it appears a receipt to fertilize the crop. However, one should pay special attention to nutrition and fertilization of the potato as the relative demand of fertilizer per unit area in culture is high. The objective was to evaluate the use of NPK 8-30-20 with the addition of gypsum compared to NPK 4-14-8 (regional standard treatment) in the production of potato. The study was conducted at the Research Unit in Potato Production and Microclimate on Agriculture, Campus CEDETEG at UNICENTRO in Guarapuava - PR. The treatments were: T1 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8, T2 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum; T3 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20, T4 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum, T5 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of plaster to make up the difference between fertilizer. The cultivation of potato was held on December 23, 2008 and the cultivar used was Agatha. The seed used was Generation 01 and tubers of class II. The density used was 50.000 tubers per hectare. The experimental design was completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated the productivity and classification of tubers of the size and incidence and severity of common scab (Streptomyces spp.) and silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani Dur. And Mont.) in the tubers. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and mean comparison by Tukey test (5%). Classification of the tubers was performed according to the diameter classes of the Ordinance No. 69 MAP of February 21, 2005. The use of manure at 5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum and 1.75 t ha-1 of 8-30-20 NPK plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum causes the best results of yield of potato tubers and better classification. The application of gypsum was important to reduce the incidence of common scab independent of the formulation and application of NPK without addition of gypsum predisposes the crop to a higher incidence of scabies.Diferentes formas de manejo da adubação são empregadas pelos bataticultores, sendo que, de tempos em tempos, surge uma fórmula para adubar a cultura. Porém, deve-se dar especial atenção à adubação e nutrição da cultura da batata, pois a demanda relativa de fertilizantes por unidade de área na cultura é elevada. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola comparado a adubação NPK 4-14-8 (tratamento padrão regional) na produção da cultura da Batata. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade de Pesquisa em Produção de Batata e Microclima para a Agricultura, no Campus CEDETEG da Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste – UNICENTRO em Guarapuava – PR. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: T1 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8; T2 - 3,5 t ha-1 de NPK 4-14-8 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T3 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20; T4 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de 3 t ha-1 de gesso; T5 - 1,75 t ha-1 de NPK 8-30-20 mais a aplicação de gesso para suprir a diferença entre os fertilizantes. O plantio da cultura da batata foi realizado no dia 23 de dezembro de 2008 e a cultivar utilizada foi a Ágata. A semente utilizada foi de Geração 01 e tubérculos de classe II. A densidade de plantio utilizada foi de 50.000 tubérculos por hectare. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Avaliou-se a produtividade e a classificação dos tubérculos de acordo com o tamanho e incidência e severidade da Sarna Comum (Streptomyces spp.) e Sarna Prateada (Helminthosporium solani Dur. e Mont.), sobre os tubérculos. A análise estatística foi realizada por análise de variância e teste de comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey (5%). A Classificação dos tubérculos foi realizada de acordo com as classes de diâmetro da portaria nº 69 do MAPA de 21 de fevereiro de 2005. O uso de adubação com 5 t ha-1 de

Sidnei Osmar Jadoski; Marcio Furlan Maggi; Adenilsom dos Santos Lima; Douglas Jobim Vieira; Rafael Wazne

2010-01-01

115

Respuesta del litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en el norte de Oaxaca, México/ Response of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) to NPK fertilization in northern Oaxaca, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la respuesta de litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) a la fertilización con NPK en árboles de la var. 'Brewster' de seis años plantados al norte de Oaxaca, en el periodo 2009 - 2011. Se usaron seis proporciones (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 y 125 %) de la dosis 50-130-50 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 y K2O como tratamientos; adicionalmente se probaron otros tres tratamientos: dosis 100 % + 3.6 t ha-1 de composta, dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 de elementos menores, y dosis 100 % + 18 kg ha (more) -1 de elementos menores + 720 kg ha-1 de Ca (OH)2. La primera fertilización se aplicó en noviembre de 2009 pero no se encontró respuesta a la fertilización en 2010. En 2010 y 2011 la fertilización se dividió en dos partes. La primera mitad se aplicó el 30 de agosto de 2010, y la otra mitad el 11 de febrero de 2011. Los resultados que aquí se reportan son del periodo 2010 - 2011. Las concentraciones foliares mayores de N, P y K se obtuvieron al inicio de la yema floral con las dosis mas altas de fertilización. La mayor floración y el mayor rendimiento de fruta se lograron con la dosis 100 % de N-P-K + elementos menores que superó (P ? 0.05) al testigo. El mayor contenido de clorofila foliar se obtuvo con el tratamiento 125 %, en comparación con el testigo. Los mayores valores de peso de materia seca de brotes vegetativos y de área foliar se lograron con el tratamiento 100 % + composta. El contenido de N foliar correlacionó con el rendimiento de brotes y con área foliar (r = 0.72 y r = 0.65, respectivamente). Se concluye que los árboles de litchi fertilizados con NPK, composta y elementos menores, aumentaron su concentración foliar de N, P y K, cantidad de flores, rendimiento de fruta, color verde de las hojas, biomasa de nuevos brotes y área foliar. No se encontró respuesta del litchi a la aplicación de hidróxido de calcio. Abstract in english Responses of six years old litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees cv. 'Brewster' to NPK fertilization at north of Oaxaca state were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Six dosage treatments (0, 25, 50 75, 100 and 125 %) of the 50-130-50 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O were used. Additional treatments were: 100 % dosage + 3.6 t ha-1 of compost, 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients, and 100 % + 18 kg ha-1 of micronutrients + 720 kg ha-1 of Ca(OH)2. The first fertilization was applied on (more) November 2009, but no response was obtained in 2010. In 2010 and 2011 the fertilization was divided in two parts. The first half was applied in August 30, 2010, and the other in February 11, 2011. The results reported here correspond to the 2010 - 2011 period. Highest concentrations of N, P and K in the leaves at the flower bud stage were obtained with the highest dosages. The highest amounts of flowers and fruit yield compared to the control were observed with 100 % of NPK + micronutrients. Highest chlorophyll contents were found with the 125 % dosage. The highest values of new shoots dry weight and leaf area were obtained with the 100 % dosage + compost. Positive correlations between foliar nitrogen with new shoots weight and leaf area (r = 0.72 and r = 0.65, respectively), were found. It is concluded that litchi trees fertilized with NPK , compost and micronutrients increased N, P and K concentration in the leaves, amount of flowers, fruit yield, green color of leaves, new shoots weight and leaf area. No response to calcium hydroxide application was observed in litchi trees.

Maldonado Peralta, Ramiro; Trinidad Santos, Antonio; Téliz Ortíz, Daniel; Velasco Velasco, Vicente A.; Volke Haller, Víctor H.

2012-09-01

116

Growth of Tea Seedlings Affected by Different Levels and Application Methods of NPK and Urea  

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Full Text Available In this very experiment to find out the effect of NPK & Urea with different levels (4 & 8 2.gm/sqm.) and application methods i.e., broadcast & foliar spray on tea (Camellia sinensis L) seedlings in the nursery of National Tea Research Inst. Shinkiari during March to December 1999. Seedling for their plant height (cm), number of leaves, root length & root weight (gms) were observed. In the treatments of T4 & T5 Urea @ 8 & 4 gm/sq.m (foliar spray) was found significant among each others in plant height, number of leaves, root length and root weight. However number of leaves and root weight were non-significant among each other`s. The seedlings treated in T2 and T3 by NPK as broadcast @ 8 .8 & 4 gm/sq.m for (plant height, root length & root weight) were remained non-significant among each others except number of leaves and root weight respectively. Where as T1 (control) remained non-significant among all the treatments in all parameters. Urea @ 8 & 4 gm/sq.m (foliar spray) showed the best performance in all the parameters statistically.

A. Waheed; A. Jamal; F.S.Hamid; N. Ahmad

2001-01-01

117

RESPOSTA DA SERINGUEIRA CLONE RRIM 600 À ADUBAÇÃO NPK EM SOLO PODZÓLICO VERMELHO-AMARELO RESPONSES OF RUBBER TREE CLONE RRIM 600 TO NPK FERTILIZATION ON RED YELLOW PODZOLIC SOIL  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo, que teve por objetivo determinar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] à adubação NPK durante o período de formação do seringal, relata os resultados de experimento com o clone RRIM 600 em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo de textura arenosa, no município de Avaí (SP), Brasil. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4), com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicados no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das plantas. Avaliou-se o perímetro do caule a 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a cada quatro meses, e calculou-se a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal em cada parcela. Efetuaram-se análises de solo aos 27 e 51 meses de idade das plantas e análises de folhas, anualmente, no verão. A partir de 60 meses de idade das plantas, aproximadamente três anos após o início das adubações, observou-se efeito linear da adubação nitrogenada sobre o perímetro do caule. A adubação fosfatada teve efeito linear a partir da idade de 72 meses e a interação NP linear foi consistente depois de 75 meses. Usando como indicador a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para as adubações nitrogenada e potássica. O período de imaturidade foi abreviado até em oito meses, comparando-se o tratamento sem adubação com os de melhor desempenho. Adubações desequilibradas, como no tratamento 0-80-120, provocaram retardamento até de 12 meses no período de imaturidade em relação ao tratamento de melhor desempenho (120-120-120). Um ano depois da interrupção da aplicação de fertilizantes, no fim do experimento, não se observou efeito residual dos tratamentos sobre os indicadores de crescimento utilizados.The response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss.) Muell.Arg.], clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization during the immature stage was evaluated on a sand soil at Avaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Randomized block, closing with fractionated factorial experiment 1/2(4 x 4 x 4) was used to test 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg.ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, applied from the second to the eighth years after planting. Trunk girth at 1.20 m above the budgrafting union was measured every four months. The percentage of plants able for tapping and the immaturity period were calculated from girth measurements. Soil analysis were performed at 27 and 51 months after planting and leaf analysis every year. Responses to nitrogen fertilization started to be observed from 60 months, aproximately three years after the beginning of fertilizer applications. Linear effect of phosphorus and NP interaction started at ages of 72 and 75 months respectively. Responses to K fertilization was not detected for trunk girth. Considering the percentage of plants able for tapping, responses were linearly and statistically significant for N and K fertilization. The immaturity period of the crop was reduced eigth months when non fertilized plots were compared to those with the best relations of NPK. Delay of immaturity period up to twelve months was observed considering the best treatments and those with unbalanced relations of NPK. Fertilizer responses disappeared one year after stopping fertilizer applications.

ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA; WAGNER RODRIGUES DOS SANTOS; TOSHIO IGUE; PAULO DE SOUZA GONÇALVES

1998-01-01

118

Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK  

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Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS) em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares) x 4 (doses de NPK), em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha). A MS verde (MSV) em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente) do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente). A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 %) do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %). A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS) não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM) and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça) under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average height of residue of 30 cm. A complete randomized block design was used with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial with three field replications. The fertilization doses corresponded to the reduction of 30 % and the increase of 30 and 60% in relation to a standard dose of 145; 21.6; and 180 kg/ha of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively (assuming the contents of 1.2, 0.08, and 1.2% of N, P, and K in DM, to reach an estimated DM production of 12000 kg/ha). There was a linear effect of fertilization doses on green DM (GDM) before and after grazing. The cv. Mombaça exhibited higher herbage mass before and after grazing (9183 and 5279 kg/ha of GDM, respectively) than the cv. Tanzania (6275 and 3808 kg/ha of GDM, respectively). The proportion of leaf blade in the GDM available was lower in the cv. Tanzania (51%) than in the cv. Mombaça (54 %). The tiller density was not affected by the fertilization doses. However, the increase in tiller weight due to fertilizer doses was responsible for the higher GDM production. The senesced DM did not vary between cultivars, with a mean value of 3108 kg/ha. In general, higher rates of fertilization resulted in greater GDM accumulation rate and higher losses of GDM by trampling. The cv. Mombaça showed a greater response potential to fertilization than the cv. Tanzania with stocking rates of 6.2 and 4.0 UA/ha, respectively.

Danilo Gusmão de Quadros; Luís Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues; Vanildo Favoretto; Euclides Braga Malheiros; Valdo Rodrigues Herling; Allan Kardec Braga Ramos

2002-01-01

119

Response of Two Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Varieties to Sowing Date and NPK Fertilizer Rate in a Semi-Arid Environment: Yield and Yield Attributes  

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Full Text Available In order to determine the optimum sowing date and NPK fertilizer rate for two groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties for best yield performance and to improve their production, field trials were conducted during the 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons at Samaru, Nigeria. The treatments were composed of factorial combinations of three sowing dates (mid-June, end-June and mid-July), three NPK fertilizer rates (10 kg N+13 kg P+13 kg K ha-1, 20 kg N+26 kg P+26 kg K ha-1 and 30 kg N+39 kg P+39 kg K ha-1) and two varieties (SAMNUT-22 and SAMNUT-23). Fertilizer rates x sowing dates constituted the main plot while varieties were assigned to the sub-plot as the experiment was laid out in split-plot design with four replications. Delaying of groundnut sowing till mid-July caused a 27.3% decline in number of pods per plant. When sowing was delayed until end of June or mid-July, pod, seed and haulm yields declined 44.9, 45.2 and 23.5%, respectively relative to sowing in mid-June. However, parameters such as number of pods per plant, pod yield and seed yield were not influenced significantly by fertilizer rate. Variety SAMNUT-23 produced significantly more pods per plant and higher pod, seed and haulm yields than SAMNUT-22. Significant interactions were observed between the treatment factors for most yield attributes. In most cases variety was a function in the response of the parameters to treatments. It was found that when SAMNUT-23 was sown in mid-June it significantly out-performed SAMNUT-22. We conclude that early sowing enhanced positive response of pod yield to NPK fertilizer application while the optimum sowing date for good yield performance in both varieties is mid-June.

H.M.B. Bala; V.B. Ogunlela; N.C. Kuchinda; B. Tanimu

2011-01-01

120

Effect of different levels of NPK (15:15:15) on the growth and yield of maize in rainforest agro-ecological zone  

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Full Text Available The effect of different levels of NPK (15:15:15) to the growth and yield of maize was carried out in rainforest agroecological zone. The data collected at weekly intervals were plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight, ear length and 100 seeds weight. The initial soil test value showed that the location fell within the pH range (pH 6.0 – 6.5) at which maize cultivation is suitable. There were significant differences among treatments for plant height, number of leaves and leaf area at 2,4,6,8 and10 weeks after planting. Also, the results showed that there were significant differences (P? 0.05) among treatments used for fresh weight, ear length and 100 seeds weight of maize. At 0.15kg level of fertilizer application, the highest mean values of 78.3, 15.7 and 19.7g for fresh weight after harvest, ear length and 100 seed weight of maize per plant were recorded. The result of this study showed that there were significant differences among different fertilizer and 0.15kg level of fertilizer application performed better than other levels evaluated. Thus, 0.15kg level of fertilizer application can be recommended to the farmers who are interested in growing maize in rainforest agroecological zone.

Obidiebube et al.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels  

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A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

2009-03-15

122

Adubação do milho: XXXIII - Influência do fósforo, do potássio e da adubação com NPK sôbre algumas características das plantas e das espigas Fertilizer experiments with corn: XXIII- Influence of P, K, and NPK on certain plant and ear characters  

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Full Text Available A influência do fósforo, do potássio e da adubação com NPK sôbre algumas características do milho, foi estudada em duas experiências conduzidas por vários anos em Campinas. Os efeitos dêsses nutrientes, que foram muito grandes sôbre as produções de grãos, manifestaram-se aumentando o número de plantas que chegaram à maturidade, o tamanho destas e a proporção das que possuiam espigas, bem como o pêso das espigas e seu rendimento porcentual em grãos. Não obstante a grande influência que tiveram sôbre a maioria das características estudadas, as adubações pouco modificaram as porcentagens de grãos das espigas; contudo, nos canteiros que receberam igual tratamento essas porcentagens variaram de ano para ano. Baseados nesses resultados, os autores sugerem medidas para avaliar, com razoável aproximação, as produções de grãos nas experiências em que não fôr possível determiná-las para cada canteiro.The influence of P, K, and NPK on some plant and ear characters was studied in two experiments conducted for various years at Campinas. The effects of the mentioned nutrients, which were very high on the total grain yields, manifested by increasing the number of plants which attained maturity, their size and the proportion of those bearing ears, as well as the weight of the ears and their shelling percentages. While the fertilizers affected considerably most of the characteristics studied, they modified only slightly the shelling percentage; however, irrespectively of the treatments, these percentages varied remarkably in the different years. Based on these results the authors suggest means for estimating the grain yields in outlying experiments, where the determination of the shelling percentage for each plot is frequently impracticable.

G. P. Viégas; E. S. Freire

1961-01-01

123

Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses.

Suz LM; Martín MP; Fischer CR; Bonet JA; Colinas C

2010-06-01

124

Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses. PMID:20033737

Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, José A; Colinas, Carlos

2009-12-24

125

Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK/ Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS) em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares) x 4 (doses de NPK), em blocos compl (more) etos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha). A MS verde (MSV) em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente) do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente). A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 %) do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %). A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS) não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM) and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça) under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average height of residue of 30 cm. A complete randomized block design was used with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial with three field replications. The fe (more) rtilization doses corresponded to the reduction of 30 % and the increase of 30 and 60% in relation to a standard dose of 145; 21.6; and 180 kg/ha of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively (assuming the contents of 1.2, 0.08, and 1.2% of N, P, and K in DM, to reach an estimated DM production of 12000 kg/ha). There was a linear effect of fertilization doses on green DM (GDM) before and after grazing. The cv. Mombaça exhibited higher herbage mass before and after grazing (9183 and 5279 kg/ha of GDM, respectively) than the cv. Tanzania (6275 and 3808 kg/ha of GDM, respectively). The proportion of leaf blade in the GDM available was lower in the cv. Tanzania (51%) than in the cv. Mombaça (54 %). The tiller density was not affected by the fertilization doses. However, the increase in tiller weight due to fertilizer doses was responsible for the higher GDM production. The senesced DM did not vary between cultivars, with a mean value of 3108 kg/ha. In general, higher rates of fertilization resulted in greater GDM accumulation rate and higher losses of GDM by trampling. The cv. Mombaça showed a greater response potential to fertilization than the cv. Tanzania with stocking rates of 6.2 and 4.0 UA/ha, respectively.

Quadros, Danilo Gusmão de; Rodrigues, Luís Roberto de Andrade; Favoretto, Vanildo; Malheiros, Euclides Braga; Herling, Valdo Rodrigues; Ramos, Allan Kardec Braga

2002-06-01

126

Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn/ Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, pois os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido fol (more) iar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1)x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn), um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro). Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas. Abstract in english Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tissues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N: (more) P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1)x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn), a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application). Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

Nava, Ivair André; Gonçalves Junior, Affonso Celso; Nacke, Herbert; Guerini, Valdir Luiz; Schwantes, Daniel

2011-10-01

127

Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn  

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Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, pois os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1)x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn), um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro). Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas.Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tissues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1)x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn), a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application). Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double application of the treatments released Cd, Pb and Cr into the soybean plants and experiment.

Ivair André Nava; Affonso Celso Gonçalves Junior; Herbert Nacke; Valdir Luiz Guerini; Daniel Schwantes

2011-01-01

128

Influence of NPK fertilization on the yield of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Influência da adubação NPK no rendimento do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a species of eucalyptus with potential for establishment of planted forests in the savannah area of Roraima. Little is known about the appropriate management of E. camaldulensis in the conditions of the savannah of Roraima, and for this reason, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the production of essential oil of the species. The experiment was conducted in ½ 43 fractional factorial design, that evaluated four doses of N (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1), P (0, 30, 60, 120 kg ha-1) and K (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1). One year after planting, the yield of essential oil was determined in fresh leaves, with extraction performed by the method of hydrodistillation in Clevenger type system. The yield of essential oil was changed mainly due to fertilization, increasing from 0.43 to 0.62% as it increased the doses of P. These values were within the range of 0.3 to 2.8% in the literature to yield essential oil in fresh leaves of E. camaldulensis. The highest oil yield was observed with a dose of 120 kg ha-1 phosphorus.O Eucalyptus camaldulensis é uma espécie de eucalipto com potencial para estabelecimento de florestas plantadas no cerrado de Roraima. Pouco se sabe a respeito do manejo adequado do E. camaldulensis nas condições do cerrado de Roraima e, por essa razão, foi instalado um experimento para avaliar os efeitos das doses de nitrogênio (N), fósforo (P) e potássio (K) na produção de óleo essencial da espécie. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento fatorial fracionário ½ 43, no qual foram avaliadas quatro doses de N (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1), P (0, 30, 60, 120 kg ha-1) e K (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1). Um ano após o plantio, o rendimento de óleo essencial foi determinado em folhas frescas, com extração realizada por meio do método de hidrodestilação com sistema tipo Clevenger. O rendimento de óleo essencial foi alterado principalmente em função da adubação fosfatada, aumentando de 0,43 a 0,62% na medida em que aumentaram as doses de P. Esses valores estiveram dentro da faixa de 0,3 a 2,8% encontrada na literatura para rendimento de óleo essencial em folhas frescas de E. camaldulensis. O maior rendimento de óleo foi observado com a dose de 120 kg ha-1 de fósforo.

Ricardo Carvalho Santos; Antonio Alves de Melo Filho; Habdel Nasser Rocha da Costa; Francisco dos Santos Panero; Hosana Carolina dos Santos Barreto; Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa; Hélio Tonini; Rita de Cássia Pompeu de Sousa

2011-01-01

129

Mobility and retention of micronutrients in soil : Part III. Investigation on the influence of various external factors, NPK-fertilizers and soil amending agents on the mobility and retention of manganese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the mobility and retention of manganese through Sindri red sandy clay loam of pH 7.4 and Ranchi clay loam of pH 5.6 have been carried out using the radiotracer 54Mn. The vertical distribution of manganese in these soils showed almost sharp fall upto a depth of 12 to 14 cm and thereafter it tended to attain the saturation. Variations have been marked in the degrees of manganese retention at the top surface layers of the concerned soils. Influence of various NPK fertilizers and soil amending agents, at various application levels, have been studied on the mobility, retention and leaching loss of manganese in the prementioned soils. Marked variations have been recorded and discussed. (author)

1980-02-20

130

Mobility and retention of micronutrients in soil: Part III. Investigation on the influence of various external factors, NPK-fertilizers and soil amending agents on the mobility and retention of manganese  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations on the mobility and retention of manganese through Sindri red sandy clay loam of pH 7.4 and Ranchi clay loam of pH 5.6 have been carried out using the radiotracer /sup 54/Mn. The vertical distribution of manganese in these soils showed a sharp fall up to a depth of 12 to 14 cm and thereafter it tended to attain saturation. Variations have been marked in the degree of manganese retention at the top surface layers of the concerned soils. Influence of various NPK fertilizers and soil amending agents, at various application levels, have been studied on the mobility, retention and leaching loss of manganese in the prementioned soils. Marked variations have been recorded and discussed.

Das, S.K.; Santikari, A.K.; Banerji, K.C. (Fertilizer (Planning and Development) India Ltd., Sindri)

1980-12-01

131

Response of Thatta–10 Sugarcane variety to Soil and Foliar Application of Zinc Sulphate (Zn SO4. 7 H 2 O) Under Half and Full Doses of NPK Fertilizer  

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Field experiment was conducted to asses the effect of soil and foliar application of zinc under half and full doses of NPK fertilizers on the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane variety Thatta -10 on silty clay soil at NSCRI, farm Thatta during the year 2000-2001. Significant increase over contro...

R.N. Panhwar; H.K. Keerio; Y.M. Memon; S. Junejo; M.Y. Arain; M. Chohan; A.R. Keerio; B.A. Abro

132

Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

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Full Text Available Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1). Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1) than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cultivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm), siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm), y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja) y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1). La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE), así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE) fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150) que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK.

Abdul Rehman; M Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad Ehsan Safdar; Safdar Hussain; Naeem Akhtar

2011-01-01

133

Produtividade do milho em resposta a adubação com NPK e Zn em argissolo vermelho-amarelo eutrófico e latossolo vermelho eutroférrico Corn productivity as an answer to fertilization with NPK and Zn on eutrophic red-yellow argissol and red eutroferric latossol  

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Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar os componentes de produção e a produtividade da cultura do milho em função da adubação, com diferentes doses de Zn (Zinco), e NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio), realizou-se este trabalho nos municípios de Palotina - PR, em Argissolo Vermelho - Amarelo eutrófico e Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 3x3 constituindo três doses de adubação NPK: sem adubação; uma vez (30-100-50 kg ha-1), e duas vezes a recomendação de adubação (60-200-100 kg ha-1), com base na análise do solo. Outro fator em estudo foi o Zn, em diferentes doses: 0,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg dm-3. As parcelas corresponderam a 3,6 m de largura por 6 m de comprimento. Foram semeadas 4 linhas espaçadas com 0,9 m, utilizando-se como parcela útil as 2 linhas centrais, descartando-se 1,5 m de bordadura. A população de plantas foi de 6,5 sementes, por metro linear. Com relação à adubação de NPK (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio), obteve-se aumento significativo para os componentes: número de grãos, massa de 1000 grãos e a produtividade, sendo a dose 60-200-100 kg ha-1 a que proporcionou os melhores resultados no Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico e no Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico, proporcionou aumento significativo na massa de 1000 grãos e na produtividade. Em relação à adubação com o Zn, não obteve-se aumento significativo, nos dois solos, entre os tratamentos para os componentes avaliados e a produtividade. Com este trabalho, pode-se concluir que a adubação com NPK aumentou a produtividade da cultura nos dois solos e na adubação com Zn não se obteve diferenças de produtividade, para a cultura do milho.It's with the purpose of evaluating the production components and the corn crop productivity due fertilization with different doses of Zn (Zinc) an NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), this research has been done over the municipalities of Palotina-PR, on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol and Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, on Red Eutroferric Latossol. The treatments were arranged on a factorial scheme 3x3 constituting three doses of fertilization NPK: no fertilization, once (30-100-50 kg ha-1) and twice the fertilization recommended (60-200-100 kg ha-1), based on the soil analysis. Another factor under studying was the Zn in different doses: 0,0; 5,0 and 10,0 mg dm-3. Such parcels were corresponded to 3,6 m width by 6 m length. It were sowed 4 spaced lines with 0,9 m, using as a useful parcel the 2 central lines discarding 1,5 m of edging. The plant population was about 6,5 seeds by linear meter. Considering the NPK fertilization it was gotten a considerably increase for the components of seeds number, 1000 seeds mass and the productivity, being the dose 60 - 200 - 100 kg ha-1 the one that has given the best results on Red Eutroferric Latossol and on Eutrophic Red-Yellow Argissol that has given a considerably increase on the 1000 seeds and productivity. According to the fertilization with Zn, it has not given a considerably increase on both soils among the treatments for the evaluated components and productivity. With this word it can be concluded that the fertilization with NPK increased the crop productivity on both soils while the fertilization with Zn differences were not gotten over corn crop productivity.

Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior; Ricardo Robson Trautmann; Nilton Garcia Marengoni; Ossival Lolato Ribeiro; Alexandre Leseur dos Santos

2007-01-01

134

Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels/ Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cultivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm), siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm), y plantación (more) en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm entre las hileras de una franja) y cuatro combinaciones de NPK (control 0-0-0; dosis baja 200-100-100; dosis media 250-125-125, y dosis alta 300-150-150 kg ha-1). La eficiencia de uso de fertilizantes (FUE), así como la eficiencia del uso del N (NUE) fue significativamente menor con la dosis más alta de fertilizante (300-150-150) que con las dosis baja o media. Eficiencia de absorción de N fue mayor con la dosis fertilizante media y demostró ser un buen indicador del rendimiento de grano. Entre los métodos de siembra, plantación en camellones resultó en una mayor extracción de unidades foliculares, NUE, y la eficiencia de absorción de N. El mayor rendimiento de grano, la utilidad neta y la relación costo-beneficio se registraron en el cultivo sembrado en camellones con dosis media de fertilizante. Métodos de siembra no afectaron significativamente los parámetros de calidad del grano. Contenido de aceite de semillas, proteína y almidón fueron los más bajos con el control. A partir de entonces, el contenido de aceite de semilla continuó disminuyendo, mientras que la proteína y el almidón de semillas aumentaron con cada incremento de fertilizantes NPK. Abstract in english Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); N (more) PK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1). Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1) than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.

Rehman, Abdul; Farrukh Saleem, M; Ehsan Safdar, Muhammad; Hussain, Safdar; Akhtar, Naeem

2011-12-01

135

Effect of different levels of n. p. k. (20:10:10) fertilizer on the growth and yield of six okra cultivars in Asaba soils  

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Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the effect of different levels of N.P.K fertilizer on six cultivars of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Data collected at different sampling periods included plant height, total leaf area, number of pods and fresh weight of pods. The application of N.P.K 20:10:10 at 250kg/ha level was significantly different from others in growth and yield parameters. Higher mean values were observed with 250kg/ha level followed by 150kg/ha. Cultivar LD – 88 performed better in number of pods and fresh pod weight. Other cultivars had areas where they performed well. The application of 250kg/ha level of N.P.K.20:10:10 fertilizer is appropriate in attaining high pod yield in Asaba and Cultivar LD-88 showed the best performance in Asaba soil.

Achebe U.A. et al.

2013-01-01

136

Crecimiento y extracción de N-P-K por plantas de pimentón (Capsicum annuum L.) abonadas con estiércol de pollo en Quíbor, estado Lara Growth and N-P-K removal in chicken manure fertilized bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available El crecimiento de los cultivos depende en gran medida de una adecuada nutrición mineral, por lo que la extracción de nutrientes que ellos hacen es la base para establecer los programas de fertilización. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento, estado nutricional y los niveles de extracción de N, P y K en plantas de pimentón abonadas con dosis altas de estiércol de pollo. El ensayo se realizó en el campo experimental del INIA en Quibor, estado Lara, utilizando el híbrido Enterprise, el cual se trasplantó a una distancia de 0,35 m entre plantas y 1,20 m entre hileras. Cada parcela estuvo constituida por 4 hileras de 11 plantas cada una. Las parcelas fueron repetidas seis veces. El crecimiento inicial, expresado como altura y peso seco de las plantas, fue lento y el mismo aumentó rápidamente a partir de los 45 días después de la siembra (dds) mostrando un comportamiento normal en este cultivo. Se detectó una tendencia general al incremento de la concentración de N y K en el tejido vegetal durante el ciclo de crecimiento. A los 90 dds la mayor concentración de N y K existió en las hojas (41,7 y 39,3 mg.g-1), mientras que la mayor concentración de P se encontró en los frutos (3,7 mg.g-1). Cada planta extrajo, en promedio, 1,749 g N, 0,137 g P y 1,725 g K, reflejando similares niveles de extracción para el nitrógeno y el potasio, pero mucho menores para el fósforo. La proporción de extracción fue de 12:1:12 para el N:P:K, respectivamente.Crops growth depends strongly on appropriate mineral nutrition, so plant nutrient removal creates the basis for many fertilization programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, nutritional status, and N-P-K removal of bell pepper plants fertilized with high dose of chicken manure. The essay was carried out at the Experimental Station of INIA in Quíbor, Lara State, Venezuela, by using the Enterprise hybrid, which was transplanted at 0.35 m within and 1.20 m between rows. Six plots were conformed by four rows with 11 plants each. The initial growth, expressed as plant height and dry weight, was low but it increased rapidly since the mid cycle (45 DAS) following a normal trend for this crop. Overall trend of N and K tissue levels increased during the plant cycle. In 90-day old plants the highest N and K levels were found in leaves (41.7 and 39.3 mg.g-1) while the highest P level was found in fruits (3.7 mg.g-1). As an average, each plant removed from the soil 1.749 g N, 0.137 g P and 1.725 g K, showing similar values for nitrogen and potassium, but much lower for phosphorus. The nutrient removal ratio was 12:1:12 for N:P:K, respectively.

A Escalona; R Pire

2008-01-01

137

Influência da adubação foliar com NPK nos teores de cálcio e magnésio encontrados em órgãos do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.)/ Influence of the foliar spraying with NPK in ca and mg levels in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L. raça Latifolium)  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido em vasos, nas condições de casa de vegetação da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" em Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no ano de 1975/76; para estudar o efeito de pulverização foliares com N, P, K sobre os teores de Ca e Mg em órgãos do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. raça Latifolium) Cv. IAC - 13-1. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, segundo esquena fatorial 2x3³ em três repetições. Sen (more) do três os nutrientes (N, P, K) em três dosagens (0, 1, 2) aplicados em quatro (A1) e oito (A2) pulverizações foliares. As doses, com seus valores médios empregados em quatro pulverizações foram: N0=0; N1=0,44; N2=0,88; P0=0; P1=0,05; P2=0,10; K0=0; K1=0,33; K2=0,66; em oito pulverizações foram: N0=0; N1=0,91; N2=1,82; P0=0; P1=0,10; P2=0,20; K0=0; K1=0,70; K2=1,40 em kg/ha. Os produtos empregados foram: NH4NO3, NaH2PO4H2O e o KCl como fonte de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente. A avaliação dos tratamentos foi feita baseando-se nos teores de cálcio e magnésio determinados nas raízes, caules, folhas velhas e folhas novas do algodoeiro. Pode-se concluir que: o nitrogênio aplicado via foliar provocou diminuição nos teores de cálcio e magnésio nas folhas velhas e folhas novas. As pulverizações foliares não afetaram os teores de magnésio dos caules. Quatro pulverizações foliares de nutrientes causaram maiores teores de cálcio nos caules e magnésio nas raízes, do que oito pulverizações. Abstract in english This research was carried out in greenhouse of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975/76; to study the influence of NPK spraying on leaves about composition of Ca and Mg in parts of cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum L. raça Latifolium) Cv. IAC 13-1. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Blocks with the treatments combined in a 2 x 3³ factorial with 3 replications. The treatments were: spraying-two (4 an (more) d 8) fertilizers-three (N, P, K) in three levels (0, 1, 2). This three levels had the following averages according to the numbers of spraying, sweh as: four spraying: N0 = 0; N1 = 0,44; N2 = 0,88; P0 = 0; P1 = 0,05; P2 = 0,10; K0 = 0; K1 = 0,33; K2 = 0,66; eight spraying: N0 = 0; N1 = 0,91; N2 = 1,82; P0 = 0; P1 = 0,10; P2 = 0,20; K0 = 0; K1 = 0,70, K2 = 1,40. The levels are expressed in kg/ha and the source of fertilizers used were: NH4NO3, NaH2PO4H2O and KCl for N, P2O5 and K2O respectively. The evaluation of the treatments were done based upon the percentage of Ca and Mg in dry matter of roots, stalls, young leaves and old leaves. The following conclusions could be drawn from this research: The N caused reduction of Ca and Mg levels in old and young leaves. The nutrients sprayings did not caused the Mg levels in the stalks. The plants with four spraying treatments had graster Ca levels in stalks and Mg levels in roots than with eight spraying treatments.

Souza, Augusto Ferreira de; Brasil Sobrinho, Moacyr de O.C.

1987-01-01

138

Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca) Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops  

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Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%.Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety) were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

Ademar Espironelo; José Romano Gallo; Arquimedes Lavorenti; Toshio Igue; Ruter Hiroce

1986-01-01

139

Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo. Parte II - Efeito do calcário e de vários adubos/ Effect of lime, manure, green manure, and NPK-fertilizers on the yields of sweet potatoes  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Entre 1945 e 1950 foram conduzidas quatro experiências em solos ácidos, duas em Campinas (terra-roxa) e duas em Tupi Paulista (solo do Glacial), para estudar os efeitos, sôbre a batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam.), das aplicações de 3 t/ha de calcário, 50 t/ha de estêrco e duas adubações com 60-1 00-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O, sendo uma exclusivamente mineral e outra organomineral. Além dêsses tratamentos, que constituiram um esquema fatorial 4X2, tôdas as experiê (more) ncias tiveram um tratamento extra, com adubação verde na ausência do calcário. Isolada, a calagem não trouxe aumentos de produção; no presença do estêrco, porém, ela provocou, em quatro experiências, aumentos correspondentes a 5, 12, 20 e 84%. Sòmente três das experiências permitiram estudar as respostas ao corretivo na presença das adubações NPK, mineral e organomineral: no primeiro caso elas foram -26, +26 e +34%; no segundo, -29, -20 e +21%. Os efeitos do estêrco foram sempre elevados, principalmente na presença do calcário, quando alcançaram +104, +148, +158 e +254%. Embora menores que as do estêrco, as respostas às adubações com NPK (em três experiências) também foram muito boas, mas nem sempre a presença do calcário lhes foi favorável: as da adubaçâo mineral, de +62, +62 e +88% na ausência do calcário, passaram, na sua presença, respectivamente para +94, +34 e +144%; as da adubação organomineral, de +148, +94 e +74 % na ausência, passaram para +67, +73 e + 104% na presença do corretivo. Quanto à adubação verde, no conjunto, das quatro experiências seu efeito foi quase igual ao do estêrco. Na dose empregada, o estêrco levou ao solo muito maiores quantidades de nutrientes que as adubações com NPK. O método de aplicação destas, que foi o usado naprática - ou seja, colocando-as, no momento do plantio, em contacto com as mudas - parece também ter concorrido para reduzir-lhes o efeito. As depressões causadas pela colagem são atribuídos à conhecido influência nociva da "overliming". Em duas experiências cujos solos foram analisados opas a colheita, verificou-se que a calagem elevou o pH de 5,6 o 6,7, em média, mas reduziu opreciàvelmente as disponibilidades de fósforo assimilável, sobretudo nos tratamentos adubados com NPK. Abstract in english This paper reports the results of four experiments with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) to study the effects of liming, two different NPK-fertilizers, manure and green-manuring on different areas of two localities of the State of São Paulo. Liming alone did not increase the yields. In the presence of manure, its effects corresponded to +5, +12, +20, and +48%, but in the presence of the NPK-fertilizers they varied from satisfactory to negative. The responses to manu (more) re were always very high, principally in the presence of lime. Although not sa large, the effects the NPK-fertilizers were also very good, bul the presence of lime, which enhanced them in some cases, in other coses depressed them considerably. The results of green-manuring were almost equal to those of manure. In the dosage used, manure supplied the soil with much larger quantities of nutrients than the NPK-fertilizers. The method of application of the latter - at planting time and in contact with the cuttings - contributed also to reduce their effectiveness. Regarding the yield reduction caused by liming, they are attributed to the so-called overliming injury. The study of the soils of two trials showed that in the limed the pH averaged only 6.7, ut the quantities of available phosphorus were appreciably reduced, especially in the treatments with the NPK-fertilizers.

Camargo, A. Paes de; Freire, E. S.; Venturini, W. R.

1962-01-01

140

Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo. Parte II - Efeito do calcário e de vários adubos Effect of lime, manure, green manure, and NPK-fertilizers on the yields of sweet potatoes  

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Full Text Available Entre 1945 e 1950 foram conduzidas quatro experiências em solos ácidos, duas em Campinas (terra-roxa) e duas em Tupi Paulista (solo do Glacial), para estudar os efeitos, sôbre a batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam.), das aplicações de 3 t/ha de calcário, 50 t/ha de estêrco e duas adubações com 60-1 00-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O, sendo uma exclusivamente mineral e outra organomineral. Além dêsses tratamentos, que constituiram um esquema fatorial 4X2, tôdas as experiências tiveram um tratamento extra, com adubação verde na ausência do calcário. Isolada, a calagem não trouxe aumentos de produção; no presença do estêrco, porém, ela provocou, em quatro experiências, aumentos correspondentes a 5, 12, 20 e 84%. Sòmente três das experiências permitiram estudar as respostas ao corretivo na presença das adubações NPK, mineral e organomineral: no primeiro caso elas foram -26, +26 e +34%; no segundo, -29, -20 e +21%. Os efeitos do estêrco foram sempre elevados, principalmente na presença do calcário, quando alcançaram +104, +148, +158 e +254%. Embora menores que as do estêrco, as respostas às adubações com NPK (em três experiências) também foram muito boas, mas nem sempre a presença do calcário lhes foi favorável: as da adubaçâo mineral, de +62, +62 e +88% na ausência do calcário, passaram, na sua presença, respectivamente para +94, +34 e +144%; as da adubação organomineral, de +148, +94 e +74 % na ausência, passaram para +67, +73 e + 104% na presença do corretivo. Quanto à adubação verde, no conjunto, das quatro experiências seu efeito foi quase igual ao do estêrco. Na dose empregada, o estêrco levou ao solo muito maiores quantidades de nutrientes que as adubações com NPK. O método de aplicação destas, que foi o usado naprática - ou seja, colocando-as, no momento do plantio, em contacto com as mudas - parece também ter concorrido para reduzir-lhes o efeito. As depressões causadas pela colagem são atribuídos à conhecido influência nociva da "overliming". Em duas experiências cujos solos foram analisados opas a colheita, verificou-se que a calagem elevou o pH de 5,6 o 6,7, em média, mas reduziu opreciàvelmente as disponibilidades de fósforo assimilável, sobretudo nos tratamentos adubados com NPK.This paper reports the results of four experiments with sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) to study the effects of liming, two different NPK-fertilizers, manure and green-manuring on different areas of two localities of the State of São Paulo. Liming alone did not increase the yields. In the presence of manure, its effects corresponded to +5, +12, +20, and +48%, but in the presence of the NPK-fertilizers they varied from satisfactory to negative. The responses to manure were always very high, principally in the presence of lime. Although not sa large, the effects the NPK-fertilizers were also very good, bul the presence of lime, which enhanced them in some cases, in other coses depressed them considerably. The results of green-manuring were almost equal to those of manure. In the dosage used, manure supplied the soil with much larger quantities of nutrients than the NPK-fertilizers. The method of application of the latter - at planting time and in contact with the cuttings - contributed also to reduce their effectiveness. Regarding the yield reduction caused by liming, they are attributed to the so-called overliming injury. The study of the soils of two trials showed that in the limed the pH averaged only 6.7, ut the quantities of available phosphorus were appreciably reduced, especially in the treatments with the NPK-fertilizers.

A. Paes de Camargo; E. S. Freire; W. R. Venturini

1962-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of NPK Fertilizers and Cowdung in Combination with Foliar Spray of Chemicals on the Growth and Quality of Jute Plant  

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Full Text Available The experiment was performed in the experimental land of the Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi during the period of April-May, 2000 and 2001. The physicochemical compositions of jute leaves under different foliar treatments were investigated at the mature stage. The results obtained showed significantly increase in most of the chemical composition under different treatments. The soil of the cultivated land as well as jute leaves obtained from experimental land became less acidic as compared to those of control field after application of NPK-fertilizers and cowdung in combination with foliar spray. The highest percentage of increase of jute plant and physico-chemical composition of leaves as compared to those of control were as follows: length of jute plant 38.35%, area of jute leaf 160.00%, specific gravity 6.48%, dry matter 27.78%, ash content 18.55%, total chlorophyll 42.17%, total sugar 69.47%, reducing sugar 48.15%, non-reducing sugar 72.90%. Only the moisture content of jute leaves from control jute plant was about to higher as compared to that from experimental jute leaves.

Anwarul Islam; Abu Sayeed; Nurul Absar; Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal; Shamsul Alam

2003-01-01

142

Yield Performance of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) cv. Barimung-4 as Influenced by Rhizobium Inoculation and NPK Fertilizers  

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A field experiment was conducted at the Regional Agricultural Research Station of Barisal, Bangladesh during the Kharif season of the year 2000 to find the optimum fertilizer rate for summer mungbean cv. Barimung-4 in an attempt to maximize the yield potential. In this regard, various combinations o...

M.A. Rahman; N. Islam; A. Islam; M.K. Hassan; M.M.R. Talukder

143

NPK Trial on Onion (Allium cepa L.)  

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A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum doze of NPK fertilizers for the onion (Allium cepa L.), variety Phulkara on a loamy soil. The bed size was 4.5 x 4.0 m. Six fertilizer treatments were tested in RCBD for the height of plant (cm), number of leaves plant-1, si...

N.A. Deho; M.R. Wagan; M.K. Baloach; I. Rajpar; M.I. Keerio

144

Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

2013-01-01

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Effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols for the Growth and Yield of Caisim  

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Full Text Available The effectiveness of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1) on the growth and yield of caisim (Brassica sp.) was examined in the greenhouse of Indonesian Soil Research Institute in Bogor. The completely randomized design (CRD) was performed to examine the effects of Commercial Biofertilizer 1 (CBF1) on Fertilization Efficiency in Ultisols. The treatments were consists of 10 combinations between NPK-recommendation (NPK-rec) and CBF1, with six replications. The experiment was conducted from August to October 2009. The result showed that CBF I increased the yields of caisim when combining by fertilizer NPK-rec, while giving CBF1 alone did not significantly increases yields compare to control (without fertilizer). Giving ¾ dosage NPK-rec. + CBF1 had RAE value 163%, indicating the effectiveness of CBF1 was optimum, that it reduce the need of NPK fertilizer by 25% by providing the increasing of yield 63% compared to NPK rec. The higher the level of NPK-rec. the lower the efficiency of fertilization. CBF1 had given effectives on yields when it was combined by inorganic fertilizer. However, when it was not combined with inorganic fertilizers, it would harm plants and decreased the soil nutrients. The influence of biofertilizer in plants were predictable unpredictable, while the influent of inorganic fertilizers were predictable.

Ea Kosman Anwar; Subowo Gitosuwondo

2011-01-01

146

Response of four cultivars of pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) to different levels of N. P. K. fertilizer in rainforest agroecological zone  

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Full Text Available The response of four cultivars (Red hot pepper, 52 Zugande, 40 FNHVIA and 41 FNHVIG) of pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) to different rates (0, 260, 310 and 360 kg/ha) of N.P.K fertilizer was investigated in rainforest agroecological zone. The parameters collected were, number of fruits, size of fruits, number of seeds, total yield (g), fresh (g) and dry weight (g). The results of showed that the plants treated with 360kg/ha level of N.P.K. fertilizer performed better than other levels both in growth and yield. The fresh weight at 360kg/ha N.P.K. fertilizer was 197.00g/plant and was significantly different from other treatments. The Red hot pepper cultivar was significantly different from other cultivars in yield with the value of 256g/plant followed by cultivar, 40 FNHVIA with 168g/plant. Cultivar, 52 Zugande performed better than other cultivars for the number seeds per fruit. Significantly interaction effect between fertilizer levels and cultivars of pepper were observed in yield parameters. The interaction of cultivar Red hot pepper and 360kg/ha level of fertilizer produced the highest number of fruits and the largest fresh weight per plant. Red hot pepper proved to be superior over other cultivars used and it should be recommended to farmers in this agroecological zone.

Obidiebube et al.

2012-01-01

147

Effects of Pruning Levels and Fertilizer Rates on Yield of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.)  

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Full Text Available Appropriate canopy management and proper application of fertilizer under different growing conditions and agronomic practices can obtain reliable yield of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pruning level in first year and fertilizer rate of combined NPK in the first and second years on growth and yield of three-year old physic. A split plot design with four replications was used. Three pruning levels of 50, 75 and 90 cm from the ground were assigned in main plots and combinations of NPK fertilizers at the rates of 0, 312.5 and 625 kg ha-1 were arranged randomly in subplots. All pruning levels from the ground did not have significant effects on branch number and branch length (cm), whereas application of fertilizer did increase branch number and branch length especially at the rate of 312.5 kg ha-1. Harvest in the second year gave higher yield (1,559 kg ha-1) than did in the first year (1,180 kg ha-1) for all treatments, suggesting that it is not necessary to prune physic nut every year in commercial plantations. It is recommended to prune the three-year old physic nut at 70 cm from the ground. Pruning at 90 cm from the ground is possible but not at 50 cm. it is also recommended to apply fertilizer to the three-year old physic nut under rainfed conditions at the rate not exceeding 312.5 kg ha-1 and this should be based on soil analysis. Application of higher rates depressed yield.

B. Suriharn; J. Sanitchon; P. Songsri; T. Kesmala

2011-01-01

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Alterações em atributos químicos de um solo submetido à adubação e cultivado com videira 'Niagara Rosada'/ Changes on some soil chemical properties due to npk fertilization for 'Nigara Rosada' grapevine  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar alterações em atributos químicos do solo, causadas pela adubação com NPK em videira 'Niagara Rosada', coletaram-se amostras de solo provenientes de um experimento de campo executado em Louveira (SP), durante quatro ciclos de produção. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2(4³), com tratamentos constituídos pelas combinações de doses de N (0; 65; 130 e 195 kg/ha de N), P (0; 60; 120 e 180 (more) kg/ha de P2O5) e K (0; 45; 90 e 135 kg/ha de K2O) aplicados em cada ciclo de produção. As doses de N, P e K foram aplicadas em forma fracionada, empregando-se como fontes NH4NO3, superfosfato triplo e KCl, respectivamente. Na implantação do experimento, em agosto de 2005, e após quatro safras, em novembro de 2008, foram coletadas amostras de solo de 0 a 20 cm e de 20 a 40 cm de profundidade, determinando-se valores de pH (CaCl2), o teor de matéria orgânica, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al e calculada a soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases. Avaliaram-se, também, a produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos e das bagas. A adubação nitrogenada em videira determinou incrementos significativos na acidez do solo. Doses baixas de P e K foram suficientes para manter o teor de P e de K do solo no mesmo nível da amostragem inicial, após quatro ciclos de produção. A produtividade e as características físicas dos cachos não foram influenciadas pela adubação com N, P e K. A adubação com N, P e K em vinhedos com alta disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo, condição comum na região de Louveira e Jundiaí, implica prejuízo econômico ao produtor, eleva os teores de nutrientes no solo acima das necessidades da cultura, podendo, ainda, aumentar o risco de contaminação ambiental. Abstract in english Soil samples were analyzed with the objective of investigating changes on some soil chemical properties due to NPK fertilization of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine. The samples were collected in a field experiment carried out in Louveira, Brazil, during four crop seasons. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial 1/2(4³). The treatments were rates of N (0, 65, 130, and 195 kg/ha of N as NH4NO3), P (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha of P2O5 as triple superphosphate) and (more) K (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg/ha of K2O as KCl) applied at each crop season. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) availability some chemical properties (organic matter, pH CaCl2, H+Al and base saturation) were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation (August, 2005) and after four production cycles (November, 2008). Soil samples were collected from layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Fruit yield and some physical characteristics of bunches and berries were evaluated. Soil pH decreased with increasing in N rates. Low rates of P and K were sufficient to maintain soil P and K at the same concentration as found prior to the experiment. Grapevine production was not affected by NPK fertilization. The application of NPK fertilizers in vineyards with soils with high nutrient availability implies economic losses and environmental contamination risk.

Teixeira, Luiz Antonio Junqueira; Tecchio, Marco Antonio; Moura, Mara Fernandes; Terra, Maurilo Monteiro; Pires, Erasmo José Paioli; Hernandes, José Luiz

2011-09-01

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Adubação NPK e tamanho da batata-semente no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade de plantas de batata/ NPK fertilization and potato tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato plants  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A cultura da batata demanda alto investimento para a sua implantação. Dentre os insumos responsáveis pelo alto custo da lavoura, destacam-se os fertilizantes e a semente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o efeito de doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-sementes no crescimento, produtividade e rentabilidade da cultura da batata. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura comercial de batata em Guarapuava-PR, a partir de dezembro de 2010. Os tratamentos f (more) oram constituídos de 0, 2, 4 e 6 t ha-1 do fertilizante mineral 4-14-08 (parcela) e batatas-semente do tipo I e III (subparcela), arranjados em esquema de parcela subdividida, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Foram avaliados o comprimento da haste principal, número de hastes, índice de área foliar, massa fresca e número de tubérculos, aos 24, 41 e 57 dias após a emergência, além de quantificar a produtividade comercial e o número de tubérculos no período da colheita. Calculou-se também a máxima eficiência técnica e econômica das doses de fertilizantes. Não houve interação significativa entre doses de fertilizantes e tamanhos de batata-semente em nenhuma característica analisada. As doses de fertilizantes influenciaram todas as características analisadas, sendo que, de modo geral, as maiores doses resultaram em maiores valores das características. Entretanto, as doses de fertilizantes influenciaram com menor intensidade o número de hastes, que foi a característica mais influenciada pelo tamanho da batata-semente, sendo maior em plantas oriundas de sementes do tipo I. O tamanho da batata-semente não influenciou a produtividade de tubérculos. Observou-se aumento da produtividade de tubérculos com o aumento da dose de fertilizante até 4,2 t ha-1, porém a máxima eficiência econômica foi atingida com 3,5 t ha-1 de fertilizante. Conclui-se, portanto, que a utilização da dose de 3,5 t ha-1 e batatas-semente do tipo III resultaram na melhor opção econômica para o produtor. Abstract in english Potato crops need high investment for its establishment. Among the inputs responsible for the high crop cost, fertilizers and seeds stand out. We identified the effect of fertilizer doses and tuber seed size on growth, yield and profitability of potato crop. The experiment was carried out in a commercial potato field at Guarapuava, Paraná state, Brazil, beginning on December 2010. The treatments were 0, 2, 4 and 6 t ha-1 of mineral fertilizer (main plot) and potato seeds (more) of type I and III (sub plot), arranged in a split-plot with three blocks. The analyzed characteristics were main stem length, number of stems, leaf area index, fresh weight and number of tubers at 24, 41 and 57 days after emergence, and marketable yield, number of tubers and maximum technical and economical doses of fertilizers at harvest. There was no significant interaction between fertilizer doses and potato seed tuber size for any analyzed characteristic. The doses of fertilizer influenced all the analyzed plant characteristics, where, in general, the higher dose resulted in higher values of the characteristics. However, the dose of fertilizers had low effect on the number of stems, which was the most influenced characteristic by the seed size; it was higher in plants from seed type I. The size of tuber seeds did not influence tuber yield. Tuber yield increased with increasing doses of fertilizer up to the dose of 4.2 t ha-1, but the maximum economic efficiency was achieved with 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizer. It is concluded, therefore, that the use of 3.5 t ha-1 of fertilizers and potato-seed type III resulted in the best economic option for the growers.

Queiroz, Luiz Raphael de M; Kawakami, Jackson; Muller, Marcelo ML; Oliari, Ires Cristina R; Umburanas, Renan C; Eschemback, Vlandiney

2013-03-01

150

The Effect of NPK Application in Different Proportions on the Growth and Yield of Spring Maize  

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Full Text Available Fertilizer levels were kept at 0, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N/ha with a constant dose of 100 kg/ha of phosphorus and potash. Maize variety Sunehri was used as a source of trial. Treatment (200-100-100 kg NPK ha-1 ) seems to be most appropriate to get increased grain yield under the Faisalabad conditions. More precise studies of this nature however, are recommended to be carried out for further confirmation.

Muhammad Maqsood; Riazat Ali; Nazakat Nawaz; Nadeem Yousaf

2000-01-01

151

NPK Trial on Onion (Allium cepa L.)  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum doze of NPK fertilizers for the onion (Allium cepa L.), variety Phulkara on a loamy soil. The bed size was 4.5 x 4.0 m. Six fertilizer treatments were tested in RCBD for the height of plant (cm), number of leaves plant-1, single plant weight, bulb diameter (horizontal and vertical), bulb size (Volume) and yield ha-1. Compared to other fertilizer treatments, the application of 80 N + 60 P2O5 + 40 K2O (kg ha-1) produced more leaves and largest bulb size and gave the highest onion yield (kg ha-1).

N.A. Deho; M.R. Wagan; M.K. Baloach; I. Rajpar; M.I. Keerio

2002-01-01

152

Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)  

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Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí.Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado; Anísio Azzini; Celi Teixeira Feitosa; Armando Petinelli; Arruda Veiga

1984-01-01

153

Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária/ Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com (more) menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí. Abstract in english Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P (more) fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

Salgado, Antonio Luiz de Barros; Azzini, Anísio; Feitosa, Celi Teixeira; Petinelli, Armando; Veiga, Arruda

1984-01-01

154

Process for the production of NPK fertilizers containing ammonium nitrate, chloride and dicalcium phosphate which are smoulder-proof, even at elevated temperatures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method of preventing smoldering decomposition of multiple-nutrient fertilizers containing ammonium nitrate at elevated temperatures by treatment of the granulated, dried and screened fertilizer with ammonia.

Hahn Heinrich Dr.; Kurandt Hans-Friedrich Dr.

155

Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: II - micronutrients/ Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: II - micronutrientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Sob maior nível tecnológico, cultivares de feijão com maior potencial produtivo possivelmente exigem maior quantidade de micronutrientes. Porém, no Brasil há carência de informações sobre extração e exportação de micronutrientes pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a extração e a exportação de micronutrientes (B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn) pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação N (more) PK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação NPK, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Maiores níveis de adubação NPK aumentaram a extração de micronutrientes pelos dois cultivares; no entanto, 100 % adubação NPK recomendada proporcionou extração média de 167 g de B, 58 g de Cu, 1.405 g de Fe, 1.213 g de Mn e 211 g de Zn por hectare. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, em ambos os cultivares, ocorreu no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), ou seja, de 42 a 55 dias, após a emergência (DAE). A quantidade de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn exportada foi dependente, principalmente, do nível de adubação NPK utilizado, com valores por hectare variando de 38 a 90 g de B, 12 a 26 g de Cu, 222 a 568 g de Fe, 234 a 467 g de Mn e 40 a 96 g de Zn. Abstract in english Where the level of agricultural technology is higher, common bean cultivars with a higher yield potential possibly require greater amounts of micronutrients. In Brazil however, there is a lack of information about the micronutrient extraction and exportation by the main grown cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NP (more) K fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. Higher levels of NPK fertilization increased micronutrient extraction by both cultivars, and treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization extracted on average 167 g B, 58 g Cu, 1,405 g Fe, 1,213 g Mn and 211 g Zn per hectare. Regardless of the treatment, the highest demand period for B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in both cultivars occurred at the R7 stage (pod formation), i.e. 42 to 55 days after emergence (DAE). The amount of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn exported depended mainly on the level of NPK fertilization used, with values per hectare ranging from 38 to 90 g of B, 12 to 26 g of Cu, 222 to 568 g of Fe 234 to 467 g of Mn, and 40 to 96 g of Zn.

Fernandes, Adalton Mazetti; Soratto, Rogério Peres; Santos, Letícia Andriani dos

2013-08-01

156

INSTALLATION OF FORAGE SPECIES AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL DEPTH AND CONTACT WITH NPK FERTILIZER FORMULATION INSTALAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIE FORRAGEIRA EM RAZÃO DA PROFUNDIDADE NO SOLO E CONTATO COM FERTILIZANTE FORMULADO NPK  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The sowing association of grass forages and grain producing species increases the soil occupation efficiency and makes possible the crop-livestock rotation. However, limitations do exist, such as sowing the seeds of forage species in unfavorable conditions of germination and emergence. The objective of this research is the evaluation of the emergence and production of Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar MG-5 fitomass, as a function of manuring and sowing depth. Seeds were deposited in soil columns submitted to the absence and presence of manure, equivalent to 300 kg ha-1 of the formulation 08-28-16, in four depths (0. 0 cm; 2.5 cm; 5.0 cm; and 10.0 cm), in a complete blocks design, with four replications, in the 2 x 4 factorial scheme. The maximum emergence of B. brizantha cv. MG-5 was observed when sowing at 2.5 cm depth in the soil. The surface sowing of B. brizantha is not the most appropriate. However, if necessary, seeds should not be mixed with fertilizer. The mixture of fertilizer and seeds harmed the B. brizantha establishment. However, surviving individuals overcame the negative fertilizer effect through higher mass yielding.KEY-WORDS: Grass forage; saline effect; crop-livestock rotation. Na semeadura consorciada de espécies forrageiras e lavouras produtoras de grãos, aumenta-se a eficiência de ocupação do solo, possibilitando a Integração Agricultura-Pecuária. Porém, existem limitações, como, por exemplo, a deposição das sementes de espécies forrageiras em condições desfavoráveis de germinação e emergência. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a emergência e a produção de fitomassa de plântulas de B. brizantha cv. MG-5, em razão da adubação e profundidade de semeadura. As sementes foram depositadas em colunas de solo, submetidas à ausência e presença de adubação, equivalente a 300 kg ha-1 de 08-28-16, em quatro profundidades (0,0 cm; 2,5 cm; 5,0 cm; e 10,0 cm), em um delineamento em blocos completos, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 4. Para que haja maior potencial de emergência da Brachiaria brizantha, é preciso realizar a semeadura da espécie forrageira a 2,5 cm de profundidade no solo. A semeadura superficial de B. brizantha não é a mais adequada. Porém, caso haja necessidade de realizá-la, não deve ser feita com as sementes misturadas ao adubo. A mistura do adubo às sementes prejudicou o estande da B. brizantha. Contudo, os indivíduos remanescentes da espécie forrageira superaram o efeito negativo do fertilizante, produzindo maior fitomassa. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Gramínea forrageira; efeito salino; integração agricultura-pecuária. Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

José Salvador Simoneti Foloni; Ceci Castilho Custódio; Fabrício Percinoto Pompei; Márcia Regina Vivan

2009-01-01

157

INSTALAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIE FORRAGEIRA EM RAZÃO DA PROFUNDIDADE NO SOLO E CONTATO COM FERTILIZANTE FORMULADO NPK INSTALLATION OF FORAGE SPECIES AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL DEPTH AND CONTACT WITH NPK FERTILIZER FORMULATION  

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Full Text Available Na semeadura consorciada de espécies forrageiras e lavouras produtoras de grãos, aumenta-se a eficiência de ocupação do solo, possibilitando a Integração Agricultura-Pecuária. Porém, existem limitações, como, por exemplo, a deposição das sementes de espécies forrageiras em condições desfavoráveis de germinação e emergência. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a emergência e a produção de fitomassa de plântulas de B. brizantha cv. MG-5, em razão da adubação e profundidade de semeadura. As sementes foram depositadas em colunas de solo, submetidas à ausência e presença de adubação, equivalente a 300 kg ha-1 de 08-28-16, em quatro profundidades (0,0 cm; 2,5 cm; 5,0 cm; e 10,0 cm), em um delineamento em blocos completos, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 4. Para que haja maior potencial de emergência da Brachiaria brizantha, é preciso realizar a semeadura da espécie forrageira a 2,5 cm de profundidade no solo. A semeadura superficial de B. brizantha não é a mais adequada. Porém, caso haja necessidade de realizá-la, não deve ser feita com as sementes misturadas ao adubo. A mistura do adubo às sementes prejudicou o estande da B. brizantha. Contudo, os indivíduos remanescentes da espécie forrageira superaram o efeito negativo do fertilizante, produzindo maior fitomassa. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Gramínea forrageira; efeito salino; integração agricultura-pecuária. Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The sowing association of grass forages and grain producing species increases the soil occupation efficiency and makes possible the crop-livestock rotation. However, limitations do exist, such as sowing the seeds of forage species in unfavorable conditions of germination and emergence. The objective of this research is the evaluation of the emergence and production of Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar MG-5 fitomass, as a function of manuring and sowing depth. Seeds were deposited in soil columns submitted to the absence and presence of manure, equivalent to 300 kg ha-1 of the formulation 08-28-16, in four depths (0. 0 cm; 2.5 cm; 5.0 cm; and 10.0 cm), in a complete blocks design, with four replications, in the 2 x 4 factorial scheme. The maximum emergence of B. brizantha cv. MG-5 was observed when sowing at 2.5 cm depth in the soil. The surface sowing of B. brizantha is not the most appropriate. However, if necessary, seeds should not be mixed with fertilizer. The mixture of fertilizer and seeds harmed the B. brizantha establishment. However, surviving individuals overcame the negative fertilizer effect through higher mass yielding.KEY-WORDS: Grass forage; saline effect; crop-livestock rotation.

José Salvador Simoneti Foloni; Ceci Castilho Custódio; Fabrício Percinoto Pompei; Márcia Regina Vivan

2009-01-01

158

LIMING AND FERTILIZING FOR MAHOGANI (Switenia macrophylla King. ) SEEDLING FORMATION  

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Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important phases of the cultivation of forest species. Seedlings ofappropriate quality are fundamental in the growth and development of the species. In the production of seedlings, the substratum isfundamental for the good development of the plants. However, the subsoil in general, is acid and it contains low levels of nutritious.The acidity of the soil and the deficiency of nutrients can be corrected through liming and mineral fertilization. The objective of thepresent work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of the fertilization of the soil for the production of mahogany seedlings. Theexperiment was carried out in the period of 120 days, in the Federal University of Amazonas, UFAM. The experimental design wasrandomized complete blocks with statistical analysis in split plot. The plots were composed with eight treatments and four repetitionsand the subplots were eight sampling times of the plants. The treatments were control (natural soil), liming, corrective phosphate,fertilizing with NPK, liming + corrective phosphate, corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK, liming + fertilizing with NPK andliming + corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK. It was concluded that the associated liming and corrective phosphate and withthe fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium promoted the smallest levels of exchangeable aluminum and the largestlevels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in the soil. These levels of nutrients in the soil caused larger levels ofnutrients in the plants, providing larger growth rate. The liming, corrective phosphate and fertilizing are a fundamental practices inthe formation of mahogany seedlings.

Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci; Patrícia Aparecida de Souza; Nelson Venturin; Jocilene Galúcio Barros

2007-01-01

159

Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK  

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Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo) e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília), para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòmente o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral.Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minutiflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

Shiro Miyasaka; E. S. Freire; Toshio Igue; J. Teófilo Sobrinho; Luiz D'Artagnan de Almeida

1967-01-01

160

Características fisicas e químicas do látex e crescimento da seringueira em função da calagem e da adubação NPK em dois sistemas de explotação/ Latex physical and chemistry characteristics and growth of rubber tree as a function of lime and NPK fertilization in two tapping systems  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de diferentes combinações de NPK, com e sem calagem, sobre as características físicas e químicas do látex e as condições de explotação da seringueira (Hevea sp.), clone RRIM 600, foi conduzido um experimento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas contendo oito tratamentos: sem adubação e sem calagem (T1), sem adubação e com calagem (T2), N1P1K0 + calagem (T3), N2P2K0 + calagem (T4), N1P1K1 + calagem (T5), N2P2K1 + cal (more) agem (T6), N1P1K2 + calagem (T7) e N2P2K2 + calagem (T8). Nas duas subparcelas, foram utilizados os seguintes sistemas de explotação: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y com quatro repetições. As doses utilizadas corresponderam a 0, 40 e 80 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, 0, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o incremento no perímetro do tronco não foi influenciado pelo efeito da interação entre 'adubação+calagem' vs. 'sistemas de explotação'. O aumento da espessura da casca foi afetado pelos tratamentos 'N0P0K0+calagem' e 'calagem+adubação', quando comparado com o tratamento 'N0P0K0 sem calagem'. Plantas submetidas ao tratamento N1P1K0 + calagem e ao sistema ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y apresentam maiores concentrações de sacarose no látex. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluated physiological latex characteristics and the tapping systems of the clone RRIM 600 of rubber tree (Hevea sp.) an experiment was conducted with continuous supply NPK fertilizers with or without lime. The experiment was conducted in a randomized split-plot design with eight treatments: without fertilizer and without lime (T1), without fertilizer and with lime (T2), N1P1K0 + lime (T3), N2P2K0 + lime (T4), N1P1K1 + lime (T5), N2P2K1 (more) + lime (T6), N1P1K2 + lime (T7) e N2P2K2 + lime (T8). In the two sub-treatments the following tapping systems were used: (S1) ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e (S2) ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y with four replicates. The rates used were 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 y-1; 0, 17.5 e 35.0 kg ha-1 y-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33.2 e 66.4 kg ha-1 y-1 de K2O. The interaction of fertilizer with or without lime versus tapping system did not affect trunk girth increment. The bark thickness was significantly increased with liming, and N1P1K0 and tapping system ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5% 10/y increased latex saccharose concentration.

Virgens Filho, Adonias De Castro; Moreira, Adônis; Castro, Paulo Roberto de Camargo e

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

MAXIMIZING SUGAR BEET YIELDS WITH DECREASING MINERAL FERTILIZATION POLLUTION  

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Full Text Available In order to increase sugar beet productivity beside decreasing mineral fertilization pollution two field experiments were carried out at El-Garayda Village, Bialla Center, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. This study aimed to determine the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers levels (100, 75 and 50% decrease from recommended dose) and foliar fertilization treatments as follows; control treatment, spraying with water, Melagrow, Amino-Power and Melagrow + Amino-Power on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cv. Gloria growth, yield components, yield and quality parameters. A strip plot design with four replications was used. The results showed that increasing NPK levels from 50 up to 100% of the recommended dose significantly affected all studied characters in both seasons. Application 100% of the recommended dose of NPK (80 kg N + 30 kg P2O5 + 48 kg K2O/fed) was the most effective treatment on yield. Foliar fertilization treatments significantly affected all studied characters, except purity % in both seasons. Spraying with Melagrow + Amino-Power solution produced highest values of all studied characters. Maximum values of sugar beet growth, yields and its components could be achieved by fertilizing with 100% of the recommended dose of NPK and spraying with Melagrow + Amino-Power. It can be recommended that mineral fertilization with 75% of the recommended dose of NPK and spraying with Melagrow + Amino-Power, which exceeded yields and root quality upon mineral fertilizing with 100% of the recommended dose of NPK + without spraying, and also possibility to reduce agriculture costs and mineral fertilization pollution.

SEADH S.E.

2012-01-01

162

Eficiencia de uso de n-p-k en una asociación de maíz (zea mays l.) Y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan l. Millspaugh) con o sin fertilización Use efficiency of N-P-K intercropping system of corn Zea mays L. and pigeonpea Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh with or without fertilization  

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Full Text Available RESUMEN La práctica del monocultivo representa una de las principales causas de los desequilibrios en el ambiente y en el suelo en la depresión de Quíbor, en el estado Lara, Venezuela. Con el objeto de ofrecer alternativas de producción se estudió la eficiencia de uso de N, P y K en plantas de maíz y quinchoncho, conducidas como monocultivo o en asociación, sin fertilización o con aplicación de 120 kg·ha-1 N y 30 kg·ha-1 P, en un ensayo tipo aditivo en bloques al azar con cinco repeticiones. Se determinó la acumulación de estos elementos en las etapas de desarrollo vegetativo, floración y maduración de frutos así como la eficiencia de absorción y conversión en términos absolutos para la etapa de maduración. Se encontró una mayor absorción de N y K en el maíz asociado en comparación con el monocultivo. El quinchoncho mostró una mayor acumulación de N y P en el monocultivo, y el asociado resultó desfavorecido independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizante. La eficiencia de conversión absoluta presentó tendencias opuestas a la absorción, siendo superior para el maíz monocultivo respecto al asociado, mientras que en el quinchoncho ocurrió lo contrario, el asociado tuvo una mejor eficiencia de conversión absoluta para la elaboración de granos. Los valores de la relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET) por elemento, calculados con base en las eficiencias de absorción y conversión de N, P y K, indicaron ventajas de las asociaciones sobre los monocultivos, independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizanteABSTRACT An experiment was conducted in Quíbor Valley, Lara State, Venezuela, to evaluate the use efficiency of the elements N, P and K in plants of maize and pigeonpea sewed as monocrops or intercrops. Plants were grown without fertilizer application, or under 120 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen and 30 kg·ha-1 of phosphorus. It was measured the absorption of nutrients during plant vegetative growth, flowering and fruit maturation, along with the efficiency of absorption and conversion in absolute terms during the maturation stage, using a randomized block design with five replications. The results showed a higher absorption of N and K in intercropping corn in comparison with sole crop. In pigeonpea, there was a higher accumulation of N and P in the sole crop plot, and the intercropping was more affected independently of the fertilizer application. Efficiency of absolute conversion had opposed tendencies when it was compared to the absorption, therefore corn in monocrop was superior to the intercrop. In pigeonpea opposite result was observed. The land equivalent ratio (LER) for N-PK, based on their absorption and conversion efficiencies, indicated advantages of intercropping over the sole crop regardless of the fertilizer application

Ana Isabel Quiroz; Douglas Marín

2007-01-01

163

Radionuclides uptake and mineral fertilization in a grassland of Carnic Alps (NE Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radionuclides in a mountain mown grassland (elevation 800 m) of NE Italy has been carried out by considering different levels of NPK chemical fertilization. The grassland, belonging to the order Arrhenatheretalia, was subjected to factorial experimental design of fertilizers application with three levels of each fertilizer supplied. Two mowings were made every year; at the end of June and the beginning of September. This paper shows the effect of fertilizers on Cs-137 vegetation uptake after the Chernobyl accident. (author).

1990-01-01

164

Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor  

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Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron), Aretit (dinoseb acetate), Gesatop 50 (simazine) was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha) on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v). An increase of ß-carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (ß-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

Wies?aw Wójcik; Anna Sykut

1983-01-01

165

Restauração de cultura decadente de fórmio, plantada e mantida sem adubação, mediante o emprêgo de calcário, resíduos de desfibragem, estêrco e NPK mineral Restoration of an old and never fertilized Phormium tenax plantation by means of lime, organic and mineral fertilizer applications  

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Full Text Available A possibilidade de restaurar uma cultura decadente de fórmio, plantada sem adubo e assim mantida durante quatorze anos, foi estudada em uma experiência realizada no Estado de São Paulo. A reação aos tratamentos, inicialmente pequena, cresceu progressivamente, e, no terceiro e último corte efetuado, o melhor tratamento (calcário + esterco + NPK) proporcionou aumento de 10,9 t/ha de folhas frescas, correspondente ao dôbro da produção obtida sem calcário e sem adubo.The possibility of restoring an old and decadent Phormium tenax plantation was studied in an experiment conducted in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The responses to the treatments tested were initially small, but they grew progressively, so that in the third and last harvest the yield increase due to the best treatment (lime + manure + NPK fertilizer) reached 10.9 tons of leaves per hectare, corresponding to 196 per cent of the yield obtained in the control plots. The results indicate that the restoration is technically possible, but the experiment was not sufficiently prolonged to allow the study of the economical side of the method used.

G. A. de Paiva Castro; Dirceu Ciaramello; W. R. Venturing; E. S. Freire; L. C. Pinto de Toledo

1969-01-01

166

Restauração de cultura decadente de fórmio, plantada e mantida sem adubação, mediante o emprêgo de calcário, resíduos de desfibragem, estêrco e NPK mineral/ Restoration of an old and never fertilized Phormium tenax plantation by means of lime, organic and mineral fertilizer applications  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A possibilidade de restaurar uma cultura decadente de fórmio, plantada sem adubo e assim mantida durante quatorze anos, foi estudada em uma experiência realizada no Estado de São Paulo. A reação aos tratamentos, inicialmente pequena, cresceu progressivamente, e, no terceiro e último corte efetuado, o melhor tratamento (calcário + esterco + NPK) proporcionou aumento de 10,9 t/ha de folhas frescas, correspondente ao dôbro da produção obtida sem calcário e sem adubo. Abstract in english The possibility of restoring an old and decadent Phormium tenax plantation was studied in an experiment conducted in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The responses to the treatments tested were initially small, but they grew progressively, so that in the third and last harvest the yield increase due to the best treatment (lime + manure + NPK fertilizer) reached 10.9 tons of leaves per hectare, corresponding to 196 per cent of the yield obtained in the control plots. The r (more) esults indicate that the restoration is technically possible, but the experiment was not sufficiently prolonged to allow the study of the economical side of the method used.

Castro, G. A. de Paiva; Ciaramello, Dirceu; Venturing, W. R.; Freire, E. S.; Toledo, L. C. Pinto de

1969-01-01

167

Competição de fórmulas NPK para a batatinha  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com objetivo de eleger a fórmula de adubo mais lucrativa para a cultura da batatinha (Solarium tuberosum, L.), realizaram-se dois experimentos na Alta Sorocabana, uma das regiões bataticultoras do Estado de São Paulo. Entraram em competição cinco fórmulas NPK (6-16-12, 5-13-9, 6-15-6, 5-10hl0 e 3-11-9). A fórmula 5-10-10 se destacou sôbre as demais nos dois ensaios, tanto na produção de batatas, comerciais como na produção total, proporcionando também, maior renda líquida. Abstract in english This paper deals with two experiments on potato fertilization carried out in a sandy soil of Alta Sorocabana region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Five NPK fertilizers (6-16-12, 3-11-9, 5-10-10, 6-15-6 and 5-13-9) were compared for two periods in a year, applying 1,650 kg per hectare of each one. The results showed that the 5-10-10 mixture yielded more than other fertilizers, and it was economically best.

Nakagawa, Júlio; Scoton, Luiz Carlos; Neptune, A. M. Louis

1966-01-01

168

Production of NPK fertilizers through the nitro-phosphate (or ODDA) process with conversion of calcium nitrate and recirculation of nitrogen and phosphorous effluents  

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The company uses the Nitrophosphate (ODDA) process with conversion of calcium nitrate and recirculation of nitrogen and phosphorous effluents. The nitrophosphate process includes nitric acid digestion of phosphate rock and deep cooling precipitation of calcium nitrate with subsequent conversion into fertilizer products. The nitrophosphate process includes the use of waste CO2 from an NH3 plant and avoids the use of sulfur. 1.1 tons of steam and 35 kg of oil is saved per ton of P205 by this process. A wide range of commercial phosphate rocks may be used in the process. The Norsk Hydro Nitrophosphate products are not subject to self-sustaining decomposition.

NONE

1981-12-31

169

Soil Fertility Problems in Cetnral Rechna Doab  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the fertility status of soil in the central Rechna Doab area. Fertility of the whole Central Rechna Doab area was low, Phosphorus in particular was low in all soils, and some soil samples were Potassium deficient while few were low in nitrogen. The situation can be brought to medium fertility level by using proper amount of NPK on the basis of soil test evaluation. However, a high fertility level can only be achieved by all round efforts on scientific basis.

Muhammad Arshad; Abida Akram

1999-01-01

170

Eficiencia de uso de n-p-k en una asociación de maíz (zea mays l.) Y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan l. Millspaugh) con o sin fertilización/ Use efficiency of N-P-K intercropping system of corn Zea mays L. and pigeonpea Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh with or without fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish RESUMEN La práctica del monocultivo representa una de las principales causas de los desequilibrios en el ambiente y en el suelo en la depresión de Quíbor, en el estado Lara, Venezuela. Con el objeto de ofrecer alternativas de producción se estudió la eficiencia de uso de N, P y K en plantas de maíz y quinchoncho, conducidas como monocultivo o en asociación, sin fertilización o con aplicación de 120 kg·ha-1 N y 30 kg·ha-1 P, en un ensayo tipo aditivo en bloques (more) al azar con cinco repeticiones. Se determinó la acumulación de estos elementos en las etapas de desarrollo vegetativo, floración y maduración de frutos así como la eficiencia de absorción y conversión en términos absolutos para la etapa de maduración. Se encontró una mayor absorción de N y K en el maíz asociado en comparación con el monocultivo. El quinchoncho mostró una mayor acumulación de N y P en el monocultivo, y el asociado resultó desfavorecido independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizante. La eficiencia de conversión absoluta presentó tendencias opuestas a la absorción, siendo superior para el maíz monocultivo respecto al asociado, mientras que en el quinchoncho ocurrió lo contrario, el asociado tuvo una mejor eficiencia de conversión absoluta para la elaboración de granos. Los valores de la relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET) por elemento, calculados con base en las eficiencias de absorción y conversión de N, P y K, indicaron ventajas de las asociaciones sobre los monocultivos, independientemente de la aplicación de fertilizante Abstract in english ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted in Quíbor Valley, Lara State, Venezuela, to evaluate the use efficiency of the elements N, P and K in plants of maize and pigeonpea sewed as monocrops or intercrops. Plants were grown without fertilizer application, or under 120 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen and 30 kg·ha-1 of phosphorus. It was measured the absorption of nutrients during plant vegetative growth, flowering and fruit maturation, along with the efficiency of absorption and conve (more) rsion in absolute terms during the maturation stage, using a randomized block design with five replications. The results showed a higher absorption of N and K in intercropping corn in comparison with sole crop. In pigeonpea, there was a higher accumulation of N and P in the sole crop plot, and the intercropping was more affected independently of the fertilizer application. Efficiency of absolute conversion had opposed tendencies when it was compared to the absorption, therefore corn in monocrop was superior to the intercrop. In pigeonpea opposite result was observed. The land equivalent ratio (LER) for N-PK, based on their absorption and conversion efficiencies, indicated advantages of intercropping over the sole crop regardless of the fertilizer application

Quiroz, Ana Isabel; Marín, Douglas

2007-08-01

171

Pengaruh Kombinasi NPK dan Pupuk Kandang terhadap Sifat Tanah dan Pertumbuhan serta Produksi Tanaman Caisim  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted in Keputran village, Tanggamus District, Lampung Province. The aim of this study was to examine a proper combination of NPK fertilizer and chicken manure for the vegetable crops, especially chinese mustard (Brassica campetris Var. Chinensis L.) in order to increase the production. A randomized completely block design was used in this experiment with ten treatments and three replications. The results showed that the application of chicken manure with the dosage of less than 5 Mg ha-1 combined with NPK fertilizer did not effective to affect the increasing of growth and production of chinese mustard. Meanwhile, application of chicken manure more than 5 Mg ha-1 combined with NPK fertilizer was significantly affected the growth, production of chinese mustard and soil properties i.e. total-C, total-N, available P , exchangeable K, and humic and fulvic acid. The application of chicken manure effective to reduce NPK fertilizer. The best yield was found in using 50% of NPK fertilizer and 50% of chicken manure (10 Mg ha-1).

Sarno

2009-01-01

172

Multiple Equilibria between Fertility Rates and Pension Levels Based on the Target Level of Government Debt  

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Full Text Available We show that when the government has a target debt level, multiple equilibria exist in the relationship between fertility rates and pension levels. One is associated with a high fertility rate and a high pension level. The other is associated with a low fertility rate and a low pension level. If the government fails to provide adequate security for individuals during their retirement years, it would result in a failure of coordination between the government and individuals.

Hideki Nakamura; Masaya Yasuoka

2011-01-01

173

Gross alpha and beta activities and trace heavy elemental concentration levels in chemical fertilizers and agricultural farm soils in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The gross alpha (?) and beta (?) activities and trace heavy elemental concentrations have been determined in Single Super Phosphate (SSP) and Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium (NPK) fertilizers samples used for agricultural purposes in Nigeria. Cultivated farm soil samples from two regions (north and south) in the country and samples of phosphate rocks were also analyzed for gross ? and ? radioactivity and elemental concentrations. The beta activity concentration in the NPK (15-15-15) fertilizers was found to vary from 2410.0 ± 80.0 Bq·kg–1 to 4560 ± 140.0 Bq·kg–1, between 1340.0 ± 70.0 Bq·kg–1 and 1440.0 ± 70.0 Bq·kg–1 in the Single Super phosphate fertilizers while in the farm soil it ranged between 360.0 ± 40.0 Bq·kg–1 to 570.0 ± 50.0 for the north samples and 200.0 ± 50.0 to 230.0 ± 20 Bq·kg–1 for the south samples. The alpha activities in the NPK fertilizers was found to vary from 20.0 ± 10.0 to 90.0 ± 20.0 Bq·kg–1, in the SSP it varied from 60.0 ± 20.0 to 100.0 ± 20.0 Bq·kg–1 while in the soil samples it varied from 8.0 ± 6.0 to 40.0 ± 10.0 Bq

N. N. Jibiri; K. P. Fasae

2013-01-01

174

The effect of long-term fertilization with organic or inorganic fertilizers on mycorrhiza-mediated phosphorus uptake in subterranean clover.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pot experiment was conducted with soil from a long-term (74-year) fertilization field experiment to compare the effects of organic and mineral fertilizers on mycorrhiza formation in clover, and mycorrhiza-mediated plant P uptake. Five treatments were selected from the field experiment representing different forms and levels of P. Mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and P uptake were estimated by comparing plants grown in untreated soil containing indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, with plants grown in pasteurized soil. Short-term versus residual effects of fertilizer/manure were also measured by comparing treatments with or without fertilizers added at the start of the pot experiment. Mycorrhiza formation was greatest in soil that had received no P for 74 years, followed by soil having received 30 or 60 Mg ha-1 farmyard manure (FYM), and soil having received 25 or 44 kg P ha-1 in NPK fertilizers. Plant growth and P uptake were severely reduced in the absence of AM fungi for all mineral fertilizer treatments. In contrast, plants growing in soil that had received FYM grew equally well or better when non-mycorrhizal. Recent additions of NK fertilizer and FYM had no effect on mycorrhiza formation, while additions of NPK led to reduced colonization. It thus seems that moderate quantities of FYM have less adverse effects on AM than equivalent amounts of nutrients in NPK fertilizers, a phenomenon that is most likely due to a temporal difference in P availability and its gradual release that balance plant demand.

Joner EJ

2000-01-01

175

Effect of Mineral Fertilization and Sowing Rate on Chemical Composition of Two Linseed Cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of two levels of mineral fertilization (90 and 180 kg NPK/ha) and three sowing rates (300, 600 and 900 germinating seeds per 1 m2) on chemical composition of two linseed cultivars (Opal and Hungarian Gold) differing ...

Klimek-Kopyra A.; Zajac T.; Micek P.; Borowiec F.

176

Evaluation of Proper Fertilizer Application for Higher Cotton Production in Sindh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two field experiments were laid out to assess the yield performance of cotton for four successive years i.e. 1997 to 2000 crop seasons by the application of NPK fertilizers each having three levels (50, 100 and 150). On an average, highest seedcotton yield of 2413 kg ha-1 was obtained...

A. W. Soomro; A. S. Arain; A. R, Soomro; G. H. Tunio; M. S. Chang; A. B. Leghari; M. R. Mags

177

Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF), colmos (MSC) e total (MST), teor de proteína bruta (PB), N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic Red Yellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY) evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP) and determination of the contents of N, P and K. In general, fertilization promoted beneficial effects on the grass, whose level of 360-370-360 g pot-1 of NPK, respectively, provided 95% of the highest total DMY. The maximum yields were obtained with the application of 373, 407 and 317 mg dm-3 of N for total, leaf, and stem DM, respectively. The levels of N led to increased levels of leaf CP. The concentrations of leaf CP were higher than the concentration found in the stems.

Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães Teles; Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro; Ismail Soares; Elzania Sales Pereira; Pedro Zione de Souza; João Avelar Magalhães

2011-01-01

178

Respostas da mandioca à adubação NPK e calagem em solos arenosos do noroeste do Paraná Cassava response to npk and liming in sandy soils of northwest Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos de campo, em áreas de pastagens degradadas, no período de 1991-92, nos municípios de Paranavaí e Altônia, região noroeste do Paraná, em Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro de baixa fertilidade, originários da formação geológica do arenito Caiuá, com o objetivo de avaliar as respostas da mandioca (Manihot esculenta L.) na produção de raízes e as características químicas do solo à adubação mineral NPK e à calagem. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com 19 tratamentos e quatro repetições, aplicando-se nitrogênio (0, 20, 40 e 60 kg ha-1 de N), fósforo (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 de P2O5), potássio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de K2O) e calcário (0, 850, 1.700 e 2.550 kg ha-1). A produção de raízes de mandioca não apresentou respostas à calagem, adubação nitrogenada e potássica. A adubação potássica não contribuiu para elevar os teores de K no solo. A adubação fosfatada aumentou a produção de raízes de mandioca e os teores de P no solo após o seu cultivo, sendo considerada essencial na produção de mandioca nos dois solos arenosos estudados do noroeste do Paraná.Two field experiments were carried out during 1991-92 in Paranavaí and Altônia cities, Northwest of the State of Paraná, Brazil, in order to evaluate the yield response of cassava and soil chemical characteristics to NPK fertilizers and liming. On sandy Dark Red Podzol, soils have low fertility originated from geological formation of "Caiuá" sandstone. The experimental design was a randomized block with nineteen treatments and four replications. Treatments comprised nutrient rates of nitrogen (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1); phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1); potassium (0, 40 ,80 and 120 kg ha-1); and lime (0, 850, 1,700 and 2,550 kg ha-1). Yield of cassava roots was not influenced by liming and nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Potassium fertilizer did not contribute to increase the soil K levels. The P fertilizing increased cassava root production, P content in the soil after cassava cultivation, and was considered as essential in the cassava roots production in both sandy soils of the Northwest of Paraná.

Jonez FidalskI

1999-01-01

179

Respostas da mandioca à adubação NPK e calagem em solos arenosos do noroeste do Paraná/ Cassava response to npk and liming in sandy soils of northwest Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos de campo, em áreas de pastagens degradadas, no período de 1991-92, nos municípios de Paranavaí e Altônia, região noroeste do Paraná, em Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro de baixa fertilidade, originários da formação geológica do arenito Caiuá, com o objetivo de avaliar as respostas da mandioca (Manihot esculenta L.) na produção de raízes e as características químicas do solo à adubação mineral NPK e à calagem. O delineament (more) o estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com 19 tratamentos e quatro repetições, aplicando-se nitrogênio (0, 20, 40 e 60 kg ha-1 de N), fósforo (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 de P2O5), potássio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de K2O) e calcário (0, 850, 1.700 e 2.550 kg ha-1). A produção de raízes de mandioca não apresentou respostas à calagem, adubação nitrogenada e potássica. A adubação potássica não contribuiu para elevar os teores de K no solo. A adubação fosfatada aumentou a produção de raízes de mandioca e os teores de P no solo após o seu cultivo, sendo considerada essencial na produção de mandioca nos dois solos arenosos estudados do noroeste do Paraná. Abstract in english Two field experiments were carried out during 1991-92 in Paranavaí and Altônia cities, Northwest of the State of Paraná, Brazil, in order to evaluate the yield response of cassava and soil chemical characteristics to NPK fertilizers and liming. On sandy Dark Red Podzol, soils have low fertility originated from geological formation of "Caiuá" sandstone. The experimental design was a randomized block with nineteen treatments and four replications. Treatments comprised n (more) utrient rates of nitrogen (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1); phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1); potassium (0, 40 ,80 and 120 kg ha-1); and lime (0, 850, 1,700 and 2,550 kg ha-1). Yield of cassava roots was not influenced by liming and nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Potassium fertilizer did not contribute to increase the soil K levels. The P fertilizing increased cassava root production, P content in the soil after cassava cultivation, and was considered as essential in the cassava roots production in both sandy soils of the Northwest of Paraná.

FidalskI, Jonez

1999-08-01

180

Working levels in the phosphate fertilizer plant in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Phosphate rocks used for production of phosphate fertilizers contain various concentrations of radioactive elements. The principal radionuclides are from the 238U and 3Th decay series and 40K. In classic phosphoric acid process, concentrations of uranium and radium were disrupted, with uranium appearing primarily in the finished product (fertilizer) and radium favoring the gypsum. Since the activity mass concentrations of uranium and radium in phosphate fertilizers are several times higher than in average soil, they constitute an additional source of radiation exposure for workers and members of public. One of the source of exposure to the population in the vicinity of phosphate fertilizer plant (PFP) results from inhalation of radon daughters. For the reason the investigations of the hazards were undertaken in the fertilizer plant in Croatia, and the radon daughter concentrations in different atmospheres are discussed in this paper. Working levels were measured as 'grab samples' at several stations on-site and off-site of the PFP. The average mean values of working levels are presented. (author)

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Use of Gypsum to Increase Fertilizer Efficiency on Normal Soils  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on maize and wheat under normal soil conditions at Qalla, Charsadda and Tarnab, Peshawar irrigated with canal water to evaluate the effect of gypsum application on the efficiency of NPK fertilizers. Gypsum was applied @ 0, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 with two levels of fertilizers i.e. recommended dose of NPK (120,90, 60 kg ha-1) and half dose (60, 45 and 30 kg ha-1) respectively. Maximum grain (3605 kg ha-1) and stalk (9922 kg ha-1) yield of maize was recorded at Qalla by the application of recommended dose of NPK with 1000 kg gypsum ha-1. The NPK with 500 kg gypsum ha-1 ranked second in this respect. Half dose of the NPK without any gypsum gave minimum grain (2248 kg ha-1) and stalk (3435 kg ha-1) yield. The yields were non- significantly different at Tarnab under the same treatment compared with that of Qalla. During the second year, the soil conditions improved and yield of grain (2883 kg ha-1) as well as stalk (15833 kg ha-1) was better at both sites. Wheat yield was non-significantly different at Tarnab. Uptake of different ions was variable. Uptake of P, K, Zn and Cu decreased while that of Mn and Fe increased during the second year. Maximum yield of maize grain (2883 kg ha-1) and stalk (15833 kg ha-1) with half dose and wheat grain (3605 kg ha-1) and stalk (12910 kg ha-1) was obtained by application of 1000 kg ha-1 gypsum with full dose of NPK.

Banaras H. Niazi; Izhar-ul-Haq; M. Salim; Manzoor Ahmad

2003-01-01

182

Influence of Various Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.)  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90 kg ha -1) and phosphorus (0, 30, 60 kg ha -1) with a constant dose of potash (30 kg ha -1) on the growth and yield of chilli cultivar, sanam. The fertilizers used for nitrogen, phosphorus and potash were urea (46 % N), single super phosphate (18 % P2O5) and potassium sulphate (50 % K2O). The data recorded revealed that there was a significant difference in days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of branches per plant, plant height (cm), number of fruits per plant, length of fruit (cm) and total yield (kg ha -1). Minimum days to flowering (42 days) and days to fruiting (54 days) were recorded in plots fertilized with (30-60-30 kg NPK ha -1) and (30-30-30 kg NPK ha -1) respectively. Maximum number of branches per plant (10.00), plant height (98.27 cm), number of fruits per plant (51.73) and total yield (7679.66 kg ha -1) was recorded in plots fertilized with 90-60-30 kg NPK ha -1. However, maximum length of fruit was recorded at fertilizer level of 60-30-30 kg NPK ha -1. The differences in survival %age and single fruit weight were non significant. It is suggested that chilli cv. sanam should be fertilized with 90-60-30 kg NPK ha -1 under the agroclimatic conditions of Peshawar.

Nisar Naeem; Irfan Muhammad; Jehangir Khan; Ghulam Nabi; Niaz Muhammad; Noor Badshah

2002-01-01

183

Formas de adição de zinco a um formulado NPK e seu efeito sobre a produção de milho/ Zn rates and sources, added to a NPK granule formulation, and their effect on corn production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de fontes, doses e formas de adição de zinco a um formulado NPK sobre a produção de grãos e matéria seca de milho em um solo de cerrado da região de Uberlândia, MG. Quatro doses de zinco foram aplicadas ao solo (0, 1, 2 e 4 kg de Zn ha-1), através de três formas (ZnO-incorporado, FTE BR-12-incorporado e FTE BR-12-gramilado) adicionadas a um formulado NPK (4-30-10). O ZnO e as Fritas em pó foram incorpora (more) dos ao formulado durante a fabricação, antes da granulação. Um tratamento adicional de FTE previamente granulado e depois misturado ao formulado, também foi testado. Os resultados mostraram que o zinco agregado ao adubo NPK não teve efeito sobre a produção de grãos de milho, nem tampouco sobre a produção de matéria seca, independentemente da dose ou da fonte empregada. Os teores de Zn na folha do milho aumentaram significativamente com as doses de Zn aplicada, sendo o ZnO incorporado ao granulo do formulado NPK, o tratamento que apresentou os mais altos teores. Por sua vez, o FTE em pó incorporado no granulo do formulado e o FTE previamente granulado e posteriormente misturado ao formulado não diferiram entre si quanto aos teores de Zn na folha. Abstract in english Zinc rates and sources added to a NPK granulated fertilizer was observed on corn crop cultivated on a soil originally under "cerrado" vegetation from Uberlândia, MG region. Four zinc rates (0, 1 , 2 e 4 kg ha-1) derived from three types of zinc sources (ZnO-incorporated, FTE BR-12-incorporated and granule FTE BR-12) were used. The ZnO and the "Fritted Trace Elements" (FTE BR-12) were incorporated to the fertilizer before granulation. An additional treatment with granule (more) FTE and later blended to the NPK fertilizer was also tested. The results showed that Zn incorporated to the NPK fertilizer did not increase grain yield and dry matter yield. Zinc in the leaf tissue increased with the applied Zn rates, and the ZnO incorporated into de NPK fertilizer showed the highest Zn concentration. The FTE incorporated into the NPK granules and the granulated FTE blended with NPK were similar with respect to Zn availability to the corn crop, evaluated by the Zn concentration in the leaves.

Korndörfer, G.H.; Alcantara, C.B.; Horowitz, N.; Lana, R.M.Q.

1995-12-01

184

Formas de adição de zinco a um formulado NPK e seu efeito sobre a produção de milho Zn rates and sources, added to a NPK granule formulation, and their effect on corn production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de fontes, doses e formas de adição de zinco a um formulado NPK sobre a produção de grãos e matéria seca de milho em um solo de cerrado da região de Uberlândia, MG. Quatro doses de zinco foram aplicadas ao solo (0, 1, 2 e 4 kg de Zn ha-1), através de três formas (ZnO-incorporado, FTE BR-12-incorporado e FTE BR-12-gramilado) adicionadas a um formulado NPK (4-30-10). O ZnO e as Fritas em pó foram incorporados ao formulado durante a fabricação, antes da granulação. Um tratamento adicional de FTE previamente granulado e depois misturado ao formulado, também foi testado. Os resultados mostraram que o zinco agregado ao adubo NPK não teve efeito sobre a produção de grãos de milho, nem tampouco sobre a produção de matéria seca, independentemente da dose ou da fonte empregada. Os teores de Zn na folha do milho aumentaram significativamente com as doses de Zn aplicada, sendo o ZnO incorporado ao granulo do formulado NPK, o tratamento que apresentou os mais altos teores. Por sua vez, o FTE em pó incorporado no granulo do formulado e o FTE previamente granulado e posteriormente misturado ao formulado não diferiram entre si quanto aos teores de Zn na folha.Zinc rates and sources added to a NPK granulated fertilizer was observed on corn crop cultivated on a soil originally under "cerrado" vegetation from Uberlândia, MG region. Four zinc rates (0, 1 , 2 e 4 kg ha-1) derived from three types of zinc sources (ZnO-incorporated, FTE BR-12-incorporated and granule FTE BR-12) were used. The ZnO and the "Fritted Trace Elements" (FTE BR-12) were incorporated to the fertilizer before granulation. An additional treatment with granule FTE and later blended to the NPK fertilizer was also tested. The results showed that Zn incorporated to the NPK fertilizer did not increase grain yield and dry matter yield. Zinc in the leaf tissue increased with the applied Zn rates, and the ZnO incorporated into de NPK fertilizer showed the highest Zn concentration. The FTE incorporated into the NPK granules and the granulated FTE blended with NPK were similar with respect to Zn availability to the corn crop, evaluated by the Zn concentration in the leaves.

G.H. Korndörfer; C.B. Alcantara; N. Horowitz; R.M.Q. Lana

1995-01-01

185

FERTILIZERS COMPOSITION CONTAINING HUMINE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to production of fertilizers and may be applied in production of both liquid and granulated organic mineral fertilizers containing humine, a product of organic origin.@The invention claims novel fertilizers composition containing product of organic origin - humine. The composition contains nitrogenous, phosphatic and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and organic material comprising humine, the components ratio being as follows (in mass ():@Mineral fertilizers (NPK) 15-28@Organic material, comprising humine 40-70@Among them, soluble humine substances @(expressed as humic acids) 0,1-0,6.@The source of humine is peat and sludge. The replacement of peat extrahents - ammonia andpotassium carbonate with soda, and of synthetic mineral nitrogeneous, phosphatic and potassium fertilizers with natural raw materials - phosphorite powder, bone meal and amino acids, allows to obtain ecological fertilizers suitable for ecological agriculture.

VENSKUNAS VYTAUTAS; ANCUTA ANDREJUS EDVARDAS; MAZEIKA ROMAS; CIGIENE ALDONA; PRANCKIETIENE IRENA

186

Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients/ Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de feijoeiro, sob níveis de adubação: I - macronutrientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O uso de cultivares com maior potencial produtivo e a adoção de maior nível tecnológico têm possibilitado a obtenção de elevadas produtividades de grãos da cultura do feijão, o que provavelmente alterou a demanda por nutrientes dessa cultura. No entanto, quase não existem informações sobre as quantidades e as épocas do ciclo em que os nutrientes são mais exigidos pelos principais cultivares utilizados. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a extração e a exp (more) ortação de macronutrientes pelos cultivares de feijão Pérola e IAC Alvorada, sob diferentes níveis de adubação NPK, em um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, no município de Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis tratamentos referentes a um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois cultivares e três níveis de adubação NPK (PD0 - 'Pérola' sem adubação, PD1 - 'Pérola' com 50 % da adubação recomendada, PD2 - 'Pérola' com 100 % da adubação recomendada, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' sem adubação, AD1- - 'IAC Alvorada' com 50 % da adubação recomendada e AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' com 100 % da adubação recomendada) e as subparcelas, por sete épocas de coletas no decorrer do ciclo. Sob maiores níveis de adubação NPK, ambos os cultivares apresentaram as maiores produtividades de grãos, extração e exportação de macronutrientes, porém sem diferirem entre si. Os tratamentos com 100 % da adubação NPK recomendada apresentaram maior extração de macronutrientes, com quantidades médias por hectare de 140 kg de N; 16,5 kg de P; 120 kg de K; 69 kg de Ca; 17,9 kg de Mg; e 16,3 kg de S. Independentemente do tratamento, a época de maior demanda por N, P, K, Ca e Mg ocorreu dos 45 aos 55 dias após emergência (DAE), ou seja, no estádio R7 (formação das vagens), enquanto as maiores taxas de absorção de S concentraram-se entre os 55 e 65 DAE. Mais de 70 % do P, entre 58 e 69 % do N, 40 e 52 % do S, 40 e 48 % do K e 35 e 45 % do Mg absorvidos ao longo do ciclo foram exportados com os grãos, enquanto menos de 15 % do Ca foi exportado Abstract in english The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most demanded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and (more) IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot) design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization) and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S). Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE), i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation), while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % o

Soratto, Rogério Peres; Fernandes, Adalton Mazetti; Santos, Letícia Andriani dos; Job, André Luiz Gomes

2013-08-01

187

Onion Response to Applied N,P and K Fertilizers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two field trials were conducted to study the onion response to various doses of N, P and K fertilizers. Plant height, bulb diameter, single bulb weight and total marketable bulb yield increased significantly by the NPk fertilizer treatments. Plots treated with 90:60:80 kg NPK/ha, displayed significa...

Nasir R. Khan; A. Hameed Ansari; Lubna S. Rajput; U. Usmani Khail; F.C. Oad; G.N. Sohu

188

Bio-economics of autumn planted sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under different NPK applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were undertaken to evaluate the response of autumn planted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to different levels of N, P and K fertilizers at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during, 2004 and 2005. Treatments comprised five N levels (0, 60. 90, 120 and 150 kg ha/sup -1/), five P levels (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/), four K levels (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha/sup -1/) in different combinations and two hybrids viz. FH-314 (standard height) and FH-245 (semi dwarf). Hybrid FH-314 produced significantly higher achene yield (2725.41 kg ha/sup -1/) than that of FH-245. There was a progressive increase in achene yield and yield components With increasing levels of N, P and K. The highest achene yield (3023 kg ha/sup -1/) and highest net benefit (Rs.19743) was obtained when the crop was fertilized at the rate 120:90:60 kg NPK ha/sub -1/. (author)

2008-01-01

189

Impact of Various Combinations of NPK on the Growth, Yield and Quality Parameters of Rose  

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Full Text Available A trial was conducted to observe the effect of various combinations of NPK on the performance of rose, during the year 1996-97. The data was recorded and analyzed for plant growth yield and quality attributes. The data recorded in this trail indicates that days to sprouting, number of branches per bush and days to flowering were non-significant. Whereas, all other parameters remained significant with different doses of NPK fertilizers. Maximum flowers per plant (20 Flowers), longest pedicle length (5.85 cm), largest flower size (8.08 cm) and maximum petals per flower (50.38) were recorded in T6 treatment viz. (20-00-12) gm of NPK per plant. Maximum flower duration (4.45 days) and flower vase life (3.08 days) were also recorded in the same treatment.

Abdul Ghaffoor; Mussarat Shaheen; Mohammad Iqbal; Kashif Waseem; Mohammad Amjad Nadeem

2000-01-01

190

Nitrate leaching during establishment of willow (Salix viminalis) on two soil types and at two fertilization levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of willow in short rotation is expected to result in low nitrate leaching losses as is the case with other permanent crops. However, there is a risk of leaching of nitrate during establishment when the plant cover is limited. Nitrate leaching was followed for three years from the establishment in 1993 of willow (Salix viminalis) at two sites, a coarse sand at Jyndevad and a loamy sand at Foulum. Two levels of nitrogen, 0 or 75 kg N/ha in NPK, were applied annually, though only 38 N/ha was applied in the first year. Leaching was calculated from usually weekly measurements of the nitrate concentration in soil solution and relating with the amount of percolation based on measured precipitation and changes in the soil water content over the sampling periods. Mean leaching for the three periods 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-96 amounted to respectively 142, 61 and 0 kg N/ha at Foulum and to 130, 9 and 4 kg N/ha at Jyndevad. The high leaching in the first year was caused by an unusually high content of mineral N in the soil at the start of the experiment. The absence of any leaching 1995-96 at Foulum was due to very low precipitation and a consequent lack of percolation. For the first period (1993-94) the fertilized treatment increased leaching by 32 kg N/ha compared to no fertilizer as a mean of the two sites, while the difference for the following two periods was reduced to 1-2 kg N/ha. It is concluded that application of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of planting of willows, while in the following years 75 kg N/ha can be given without risk of increased leaching. (Author)

1996-07-03

191

Nitrate leaching during establishment of willow (Salix viminalis) on two soil types and at two fertilization levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of willow in short rotation is expected to result in low nitrate leaching losses as is the case with other permanent crops. However, there is a risk of leaching of nitrate during establishment when the plant cover is limited. Nitrate leaching was followed for three years from the establishment in 1993 of willow (Salix viminalis) at two sites, a coarse sand at Jyndevad and a loamy sand at Foulum. Two levels of nitrogen, 0 or 75 kg N/ha in NPK, were applied annually, though only 38 N/ha was applied in the first year. Leaching was calculated from usually weekly measurements of the nitrate concentration in soil solution and relating with the amount of percolation based on measured precipitation and changes in the soil water content over the sampling periods. Mean leaching for the three periods 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-96 amounted to respectively 142, 61 and 0 kg N/ha at Foulum and to 130, 9 and 4 kg N/ha at Jyndevad. The high leaching in the first year was caused by an unusually high content of mineral N in the soil at the start of the experiment. The absence of any leaching 1995-96 at Foulum was due to very low precipitation and a consequent lack of percolation. For the first period (1993-94) the fertilized treatment increased leaching by 32 kg N/ha compared to no fertilizer as a mean of the two sites, while the difference for the following two periods was reduced to 1-2 kg N/ha. It is concluded that application of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of planting of willows, while in the following years 75 kg N/ha can be given without risk of increased leaching. (Author)

Mortensen, Joergen; Nielsen, Keld Hauge; Joergensen, Uffe [Research Centre Foulum, Crop Physiology and Soil Science Dept., Tjele (Denmark)

1998-12-31

192

Nitrate leaching during establishment of willow (Salix viminalis) on two soil types and at two fertilization levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of willow in short rotation is expected to result in low nitrate leaching losses as is the case with other permanent crops. However, there is a risk of leaching of nitrate during establishment when the plant cover is limited. Nitrate leaching was followed for three years from the establishment in 1993 of willow (Salix viminalis) at two sites, a coarse sand at Jyndevad and a loamy sand at Foulum. Two levels of nitrogen, 0 or 75 kg N/ha in NPK, were applied annually, though only 38 N/ha was applied in the first year. Leaching was calculated from usually weekly measurements of the nitrate concentration in soil solution and relating with the amount of percolation based on measured precipitation and changes in the soil water content over the sampling periods. Mean leaching for the three periods 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-96 amounted to respectively 142, 61 and 0 kg N/ha at Foulum and to 130, 9 and 4 kg N/ha at Jyndevad. The high leaching in the first year was caused by an unusually high content of mineral N in the soil at the start of the experiment. The absence of any leaching 1995-96 at Foulum was due to very low precipitation and a consequent lack of percolation. For the first period (1993-94) the fertilized treatment increased leaching by 32 kg N/ha compared to no fertilizer as a mean of the two sites, while the difference for the following two periods was reduced to 1-2 kg N/ha. It is concluded that application of nitrogen should be avoided in the year of planting of willows, while in the following years 75 kg N/ha can be given without risk of increased leaching. (Author)

Mortensen, Joergen; Nielsen, Keld Hauge; Joergensen, Uffe [Research Centre Foulum, Crop Physiology and Soil Science Dept., Tjele (Denmark)

1998-07-01

193

Fertilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertilization-the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism-is the culmination of a multitude of intricately regulated cellular processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, fertilization is highly efficient. Sperm become fertilization competent after undergoing a maturation process during which they become motile, and the plasma membrane protein composition is reorganized in preparation for interaction with the oocyte. The highly specialized gametes begin their interactions by signaling to one another to ensure that fertilization occurs when they meet. The oocyte releases prostaglandin signals to help guide the sperm to the site of fertilization, and sperm secrete a protein called major sperm protein (MSP) to trigger oocyte maturation and ovulation. Upon meeting one another in the spermatheca, the sperm and oocyte fuse in a specific and tightly regulated process. Recent studies are providing new insights into the molecular basis of this fusion process. After fertilization, the oocyte must quickly transition from the relative quiescence of oogenesis to a phase of rapid development during the cleavage divisions of early embryogenesis. In addition, the fertilized oocyte must prevent other sperm from fusing with it as well as produce an eggshell for protection during external development. This chapter will review the nature and regulation of the various cellular processes of fertilization, including the development of fertilization competence, gamete signaling, sperm-oocyte fusion, the oocyte to embryo transition, and production of an eggshell to protect the developing embryo. PMID:22872482

Marcello, Matthew R; Singaravelu, Gunasekaran; Singson, Andrew

2013-01-01

194

Fertilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fertilization-the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism-is the culmination of a multitude of intricately regulated cellular processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, fertilization is highly efficient. Sperm become fertilization competent after undergoing a maturation process during which they become motile, and the plasma membrane protein composition is reorganized in preparation for interaction with the oocyte. The highly specialized gametes begin their interactions by signaling to one another to ensure that fertilization occurs when they meet. The oocyte releases prostaglandin signals to help guide the sperm to the site of fertilization, and sperm secrete a protein called major sperm protein (MSP) to trigger oocyte maturation and ovulation. Upon meeting one another in the spermatheca, the sperm and oocyte fuse in a specific and tightly regulated process. Recent studies are providing new insights into the molecular basis of this fusion process. After fertilization, the oocyte must quickly transition from the relative quiescence of oogenesis to a phase of rapid development during the cleavage divisions of early embryogenesis. In addition, the fertilized oocyte must prevent other sperm from fusing with it as well as produce an eggshell for protection during external development. This chapter will review the nature and regulation of the various cellular processes of fertilization, including the development of fertilization competence, gamete signaling, sperm-oocyte fusion, the oocyte to embryo transition, and production of an eggshell to protect the developing embryo.

Marcello MR; Singaravelu G; Singson A

2013-01-01

195

To evaluate the efficacy of zinc sulphate mixed with phosphate and potash fertilizer on the grain yield of wheat (tritium aestivum L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A field experiment was conducted to evaluate yield response of wheat cv, BK-2002 at various fertilizer levels, at farmer, fields of District Mianwali during consecutive years 2006-07 and 2007-08. Six levels of ZnSo/sub 4/ mixed with NPK were evaluated in farmer's fields in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. All doses of znSo/sub 4/ along with Departmental recommended dose of NPK (114-84- 62 kg ha/sup-l/) revealed a linear increase in, plant height, number of tillers/m/sup 2/, number of spikelets /spike. number of grains/spike, 1000 grains weight (g) and yield (kg ha/sup-1/) of wheat variety BK-2002 were recorded. Maximum yield of wheat was recorded when it was subjected to 22.5 kg ho/sub -1/ 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ Departmental recommended dose of NPK fertilizer. The study indicated the potential role of ZnSo/sub 4/ in enhancing the growth and yield of wheat in arid climate and that 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ (22.5 kg ha/sub -1/) + Departmental recommended dose of NPK, (fertilizer might be the optimum level (T5) for the production of wheat in arid climate. (author)

196

EFFECT OF MILK UREA AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON FERTILITY INDICES IN COWS  

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Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of milk urea and protein levels in four consecutive lactations on fertility indices of Blackand- White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, milk recorded in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province has been made. Poorer fertility indices were found in first-calf heifers and second lactation cows receiving energy-deficient diets and in older (third and fourth lactation) cows receiving excess dietary protein and energy. Best fertility was found in young cows fed excess protein (>3.60%) regardless of milk urea levels, and in older cows having lower and optimum levels regardless of protein levels. Cow fertility is differentiated more by milk protein levels than by urea content. Fertility parameters were poorer in first and second lactation cows than in older cows. The coefficients of correlation between milk urea and protein levels and fertility indices were very low, with the only significant differences between protein content vs. calving interval and reproductive rest period.

Malgorzata JANKOWSKA; Anna SAWA; Wojciech NEJA

2011-01-01

197

Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pirolygneous extract on vegetative development palm phoenix (Phoenix roebelenii)Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas de palmeiras fênix (Phoenix roebelenii)  

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Full Text Available The effect of the use of chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pirolygneous extract (EPL) was evaluated in the width and number of leaves of seedlings of phoenix palms. The plants were fertilizer with organic castor bean, chemical fertilizer NPK 20-05-20 formula and EPL concentrations of 0,1 and 0,2%. The length of the longest leaf and leaf number were evaluated monyhly for one from the start of the experiment. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test at 5% significance level. Treatment organic fertilizer and EPL 0,1% + organic fertilization increased the number of leaves of palm phoenix plants. Mineral fertilizer NPK combined or not with EPL provided no increases in length and number of leaves. The EPL itself did not change the parameters. O efeito da utilização da adubação química, da adubação orgânica e do extrato pirolenhoso (EPL) foi avaliado no comprimento e número de folhas de mudas de palmeiras fênix. As plantas receberam adubação orgânica com torta de mamona, química com o fertilizante mineral NPK na fórmula 20-05- 20 e EPL nas concentrações de 0,1 e 0,2%. O comprimento da maior folha e o número de folhas foram avaliados mensalmente durante um ano desde o início do experimento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste Tukey, a 5% de significância. O tratamento adubação orgânica isolada e adubação orgânica +EPL promoveu aumento no comprimento e no número de folhas das plantas de palmeiras fênix. O fertilizante mineral NPK, combinado ou não com o EPL, não proporcionou incrementos no comprimento e número de folhas das plantas. O EPL isoladamente não alterou os parâmetros avaliados.

Christina Silva Wanderley; Ricardo Tadeu Faria; Maurício Ursi Ventura

2012-01-01

198

Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e níveis de adubação sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato em folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01/ Different planting spacings and fertilization levels on the activity of nitrate reductase in leaves of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e de níveis de adubação NPK sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato (RN) nas folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 , visando a sugerir possível ajuste em seu manejo de adubação nitrogenada, no sentido de maximizar a eficiência do uso do nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., no município de Linhares - ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento e (more) statístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,8 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,7 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão; A2 = 100% padrão da empresa; A3 = 120% do padrão; A4 = 140% do padrão, e A5 = 160% do padrão) e cinco períodos de avaliação (meses de março a julho). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K), respectivamente. Os dados obtidos para a atividade da RN foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e teste de médias. Dentre os tratamentos testados, o nível A1 (80% do padrão), independentemente do espaçamento, poderia ser indicado no manejo do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01, pois em todos eles a atividade da redutase do nitrato, em praticamente todos os períodos avaliados, apresentou valores adequados, ou até mesmo superiores aos encontrados na literatura em cultivares de mamoeiro. A redução da adubação NPK pôde ser justificada, uma vez que não houve diferença na produtividade das plantas entre os tratamentos avaliados. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different planting spacings and levels of NPK manuring on the activity of the nitrate reductase (NR) in the leaves of the papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, aiming to suggest possible adjustment in the handling of nitrogen fertilization, in the sense of maximizing the efficiency of the use of the nitrogen. The experiment was driven in the Caliman Agrícola S.A. farm, in the municipal district of Linhares- ES. A complete (more) block design, factorial, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1.8 m, E2 = 2.25 m and E3 = 2.7 m), five levels of NPK conventional manuring (A1 = 80% of the standard, A2 = 100% of the company standard, A3 = 120% of the standard, A4 = 140% of the standard and A5 = 160% of the standard) and five evaluation periods ( from March to July) was used. The standard of the company NPK manuring consists of 350, 105 and 660 Kg ha-1year -1 of sulfate of ammonium (20% of N), simple superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. The data obtained for the activity of NR were submitted to a variance analysis and average test. Among the tested treatments, A1 (80% of standard), independent of the spacing, could be indicated in the handling of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, because in all of them the activity of the nitrate reductase in, practically, all of the appraised periods, presented appropriate values, or even, superiors to the ones found in the literature for the papaya tree. The reduction of NPK fertilization could be justified, once that did not have difference in the productivity of the plants among the evaluated treatments.

Fontes, Renata Venturim; Viana, Alexandre Pio; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Silva, Diolina Moura; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; Silva, Mariela Mattos da

2010-12-01

199

Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e níveis de adubação sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato em folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 Different planting spacings and fertilization levels on the activity of nitrate reductase in leaves of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e de níveis de adubação NPK sobre a atividade da redutase do nitrato (RN) nas folhas do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01 , visando a sugerir possível ajuste em seu manejo de adubação nitrogenada, no sentido de maximizar a eficiência do uso do nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., no município de Linhares - ES. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico experimental em blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial, com três espaçamentos de plantio entre plantas (E1 = 1,8 m; E2 = 2,25 m, e E3 = 2,7 m), cinco níveis de adubação NPK convencional (A1 = 80% do padrão; A2 = 100% padrão da empresa; A3 = 120% do padrão; A4 = 140% do padrão, e A5 = 160% do padrão) e cinco períodos de avaliação (meses de março a julho). O padrão de adubação NPK da empresa consiste em 350; 105 e 660 kg ha-1ano-1 de sulfato de amônio (20% de N), superfosfato simples (18% de P) e cloreto de potássio (60% de K), respectivamente. Os dados obtidos para a atividade da RN foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e teste de médias. Dentre os tratamentos testados, o nível A1 (80% do padrão), independentemente do espaçamento, poderia ser indicado no manejo do híbrido de mamoeiro UENF/CALIMAN-01, pois em todos eles a atividade da redutase do nitrato, em praticamente todos os períodos avaliados, apresentou valores adequados, ou até mesmo superiores aos encontrados na literatura em cultivares de mamoeiro. A redução da adubação NPK pôde ser justificada, uma vez que não houve diferença na produtividade das plantas entre os tratamentos avaliados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different planting spacings and levels of NPK manuring on the activity of the nitrate reductase (NR) in the leaves of the papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, aiming to suggest possible adjustment in the handling of nitrogen fertilization, in the sense of maximizing the efficiency of the use of the nitrogen. The experiment was driven in the Caliman Agrícola S.A. farm, in the municipal district of Linhares- ES. A complete block design, factorial, with three planting spacings among plants (E1 = 1.8 m, E2 = 2.25 m and E3 = 2.7 m), five levels of NPK conventional manuring (A1 = 80% of the standard, A2 = 100% of the company standard, A3 = 120% of the standard, A4 = 140% of the standard and A5 = 160% of the standard) and five evaluation periods ( from March to July) was used. The standard of the company NPK manuring consists of 350, 105 and 660 Kg ha-1year -1 of sulfate of ammonium (20% of N), simple superphosphate (18% of P) and potassium chloride (60% of K), respectively. The data obtained for the activity of NR were submitted to a variance analysis and average test. Among the tested treatments, A1 (80% of standard), independent of the spacing, could be indicated in the handling of the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN-01, because in all of them the activity of the nitrate reductase in, practically, all of the appraised periods, presented appropriate values, or even, superiors to the ones found in the literature for the papaya tree. The reduction of NPK fertilization could be justified, once that did not have difference in the productivity of the plants among the evaluated treatments.

Renata Venturim Fontes; Alexandre Pio Viana; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Diolina Moura Silva; Sabrina Garcia Broetto; Mariela Mattos da Silva

2010-01-01

200

Effect of fertilizers on Cd uptake of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential Cd hyperaccumulator.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of three amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cvs. K112, R104, and K472) and the effect of application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizer on Cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) Cd. All three amaranth cultivars had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(-1) in roots, resulting in average bioaccumulation factors ranging from 17.7 to 29.7. Application of N, NP, or NPK fertilizers usually increased Cd content in leaves but decreased Cd content in stem and root. Fertilizers of N or NP combined did not substantially increase dry biomass of the 3 cultivars, leading to a limited increment of Cd accumulation. NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 2.7-3.8, resulting in a large increment of Cd accumulation. Amaranth cultivars (K112, R104, and K472) have great potential in phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation and little effect on Cd uptake by fertilization. PMID:22567702

Li, Ning Yu; Fu, Qing Lin; Zhuang, Ping; Guo, Bing; Zou, Bi; Li, Zhi An

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effect of fertilizers on Cd uptake of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential Cd hyperaccumulator.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of three amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cvs. K112, R104, and K472) and the effect of application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizer on Cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) Cd. All three amaranth cultivars had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(-1) in roots, resulting in average bioaccumulation factors ranging from 17.7 to 29.7. Application of N, NP, or NPK fertilizers usually increased Cd content in leaves but decreased Cd content in stem and root. Fertilizers of N or NP combined did not substantially increase dry biomass of the 3 cultivars, leading to a limited increment of Cd accumulation. NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 2.7-3.8, resulting in a large increment of Cd accumulation. Amaranth cultivars (K112, R104, and K472) have great potential in phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation and little effect on Cd uptake by fertilization.

Li NY; Fu QL; Zhuang P; Guo B; Zou B; Li ZA

2012-02-01

202

Integrated nutrient management by using farmyard manure and fertilizers in potato-sunflower-paddy rice rotation in the Punjab.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rotation experiment was conducted on an alluvial soil at Central Potato Research Station, Jalandhar, India between 1994 and 1999 to develop an integrated nutrient management programme for a potato-sunflower-paddy rice rotation. It tested 10 fertilizer treatments that combined application of 50, 100 and 150% of the recommended rates of inorganic nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) with farmyard manure (FYM) and in some cases zinc. Potatoes were the most nutrient-responsive crop followed by paddy rice and sunflower. The responses of potatoes to both P and K were greater in frost and late blight years. In these experiments potatoes required NPK at 150% of the currently recommended rate for maximum tuber production (i.e. they required 270 kg N, 52 kg P and 150 kg K/ha). Application of FYM at 30 t/ha with 270 kg of inorganic N/ha (FYM+N) was less effective than the use of NPK at 150% of the currently recommended rate. Application of K to replace that removed in the harvested crop was more effective in potatoes than giving K at 100 or 150% of the currently recommended rate. Sunflowers grown after potatoes that had received NPK at 150% of the currently recommended rate or with the FYM+N treatment required only half of the currently recommended rate of NPK for maximum yield (i.e. they required 23 kg N, 7 kg P and 13 kg K/ha), whereas paddy rice, grown as a third crop, required the full amount of NPK at the currently recommended rate (i.e. 120 kg N, 26 kg P and 67 kg K/ha). Application of K to adjust for its removal did not benefit sunflowers or paddy rice. Zinc had no direct effect on potatoes or any residual effects on the succeeding sunflower and paddy rice crops. The effects of the FYM+N treatment were cumulative, especially on potatoes which were the most responsive crop, whereas those involving the application of NPK at 150% of the currently recommended rate were not. Also, the NPK fertility of the soil was enhanced and more organic carbon was present following the FYM+N treatment than with NPK fertilizers applied at the currently recommended rate. Application of P resulted in a build-up of P but none of the treatments, even the applications of K to adjust for its removal, maintained the K status of the soil at its initial level.

Roy SK; Sharma RC; Trehan SP

2001-11-01

203

Híbridos de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cultivados sob Níveis Crescentes de Adubação: Rendimento, Proteína Bruta e Digestibilidade in Vitro Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Hybrids Cultivated under Increasing Fertilization Levels: Yield, Crude Protein and in Vitro Digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, os teores de proteína bruta (PB) e a digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (DIVMS) de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215), cultivados sob quatro níveis de adubação NPK. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial 5 x 4 com quatro repetições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram altas produções médias de MS/ ha e resposta linear positiva, em função da adubação, ressalvando a alta produtividade (15,47 t/ha) nas parcelas sem adubação, em função da fertilidade do solo e das condições climáticas. Os híbridos apresentaram respostas diferenciadas quanto aos teores de PB, em função da adubação, predominando respostas quadráticas, determinando o comportamento quadrático da produção de proteína bruta. A DIVMS e a produção de matéria seca digestiva apresentaram respostas lineares positivas em função da adubação, sendo a produção de matéria seca digestível fortemente correlacionada (0,91**) com o aumento da produção de MS/ha.The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage yield, crude protein (CP) contents and dry matter (DM) in vitro digestibility of five forage sorghum hybrids (AG-2002, AG-2005E, AG-X202, AG-X213 e AG-X215), cultivated under four NPK fertilization levels. A randomized blocks design, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates, was used. The evaluated hybrids showed high average DM/ha yield and positive linear answer in function of fertilization, except for the high productivity (15.47 t/ha) in the plots without fertilization, in function of soil fertilization and climatic conditions. The hybrids showed different answers for the CP contents, according to the fertilization, in a quadratic way, determining the quadratic behavior for the crude protein yield. IVDMD and digestive dry matter yield showed positive linear answers in function of fertilization, and the digestible dry matter yield was highly correlated (0.91**) with the increase of DM/ha yield.

Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto; José Antônio Obeid; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Magno José Duarte Cândido; Lídia Ferreira Miranda

2002-01-01

204

Low-level nuclear waste tested for fertilizer value  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The nuclear power industry keeps coming up with proposals for getting rid of radioactive waste - burying it deep in the ground, sinking it at sea and even sending it into space reports Common Cause magazine under a headline, The Latest in Recycling. At its Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, Kerr-McGee manufactures fuel for nuclear power plants, generating a low-level radioactive liquid waste product called raphinate. After processing to remove radioactive substances, Kerr-McGee has gotten approval from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to use the nitrogen-rich residue as a fertilizer - but not to market it. As a result, Kerr-McGee is reported to be buying up thousands of acres of land on which to spread raphinate. The acreage is used to grow hay, which the company has gotten an okay to sell. The recycling effort hasn't exactly won neighborhood friends for the company, noted Common Cause. According to Kerr-McGee's corporate communications direct, When you say to somebody, Sequoyah Fuels is putting nuclear waste (on farmland), people jump up a wall

1987-01-01

205

Growth Response of Cotton Cultivars under Different N P Fertilizer Levels  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted at Cotton research section, Agriculture research institute Tando Jam, The experimental was in RCBD with three Replications. Treatments comprised of three Cotton cultivars (TH- 41/83, TH- 35/83 and Rehmani) and 10 fertilizer levels. The result indicated that the plant height was significantly affected by NP fertilizer level. All NP levels increased plant height over control. The sympodial branches were significantly affected by NP fertilizer levels. The combination of NP Levels resulted Greater number of bolls per plant over control.

Z. A. Abbasi; M. B. Abro

2002-01-01

206

Efeito do NPK, via foliar, no conteúdo de nutrientes das folhas do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.)/ NPK effect, in foliar spraying, on the nutrients composition of cotton leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido em vasos, nas condições de casa de vegetação da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1975/76. O objetivo foi verificar a influência de pulverizações foliares com NPK na composição de N, P, K nas folhas velhas e folhas novas do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv. IAC-13-1. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 3³, em três repetiçõ (more) es; sendo dois números de pulverizações (4 e 8), três macronutrientes (N, P, K) em três dosagens (0, 1,2). Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso com duas plantas. Os tratamentos utilizados constam da Tabela 1 . Os níveis com seus valores médios de N, P2O5 e K2O utilizados em 4 pulverizações: N0=0,N1=0,44,N2=0,84; P0=0, P1= 0,05, P2=0,09; K0=0,K1=0,33,K2=0,66, em 8 pulverizações, N0=0,N1=0,91,N2=1,87; P0=0,P1=0,10, P2=0,20; K0=0,K1=0,70, K2=1,40 em kg/ha, sendo fontes de nutrientes o NH4N0(3), NaH2P0(4)H(2)0 e KCl para N, P(2)0(5) e K(2)0 respectivamente. Os parâmetros empregados na avaliação dos tratamentos foram: teores de N, P, K em folhas velhas e novas do algodoeiro. Nas condições dos experimentos pode-se tirar as seguintes conclusões: A aplicação do efeito quadrático nos seus teores encontrados nas folhas novas apenas em 8 pulverizações, provocando aumento dos teores de P nas folhas velhas. Os algodoeiros não tratados com N revelaram maior teor de K na matéria seca das folhas velhas. O P causou diminuição dos teores de N nas folhas velhas e novas; aumentou os teores de P nas folhas velhas, quando em presença de N. O K aumentou o P nas folhas velhas e novas, diminuiu, porém, o seu teor nas folhas velhas. Abstract in english This research was carried out in greenhouse situated in the Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975/76, to study the influence of NPK spraying on leaves, on the NPK com position in leaves to cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv. IAC-13-1. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Blocks with the treatments combined in a 2 x 3³ factorial with 3 replications. The treatments were: spraying-two (4 and 8), fertilizers three (more) (N,P,K) in three levels (0,1,2). This three levels had the following averages according to the number of spraying, such as: four spraying - N0 = 0, N1 = 0,44, N2 = 0,84; P0 = 0, P1= 0,05, P2 = 0,09; K0 = 0, K1 = 0,33, K2 = 0,66; eight spraying - N0 = 0; N1 = 0,91, N2 = 1,87; P0 = 0, P1 = 0,10, P2 = 0,20; K0 = 0, K1 = 0,70, K2 = 1,40. The levels are expressed in Kg/ha and the source of fertilizers used were; NH4NO3; NaH2PO5H2O and KC1 for N, P(2)0(5) and K(2)0 respectively. The evaluation of the treatments were done based upon: percentage of N, P, K dry matter of young leaves and old leaves. The following conclusions could be drawn from this research: the N caused increase in P level in old leaves. The cotton plants no treated with N increased the percentage of K in old leaves. The P caused reduction in N levels in old and young leaves; increased the P levels in old leaves in N presence. The K increased the P leavel in old and young leaves, descreased the K levels in old leaves.

Souza, Augusto Ferreira de; Brasil Sobrinho, Moacyr de O.C.

1987-01-01

207

Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk) to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk) located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region), on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content) were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution): 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O). Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK) were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing). Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that, from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1), since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield) did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1).

Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

2012-01-01

208

The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

1999-01-01

209

Nutrient and Bacterial Levels in Common Contiguous Soils With and Without Poultry Litter Fertilization  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Mid-South US, poultry litter is a valuable resource traditionally used to fertilize hay fields and pastures, but also used for small grains and row crops. Levels of nutrients and bacteria in litter, and nutrients in litter-fertilized (LF) soil are well documented, but less is known of litter...

210

Effects of Pruning Levels and Fertilizer Rates on Yield of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Appropriate canopy management and proper application of fertilizer under different growing conditions and agronomic practices can obtain reliable yield of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pruning level in first year and fertilizer ra...

B. Suriharn; J. Sanitchon; P. Songsri; T. Kesmala

211

Response of Wheat Yield Components to Type of N-Fertilizer, their Levels and Application Time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of N-type fertilizers on the yielding components of wheat (Triticum aestivm L.), applied at sowing, vegetative and boot stage. Spike population and number of grains per spike had a significant linear increased with increase in fertilizer levels. Grain weight remained unaffected by fertilizer levels. Types of fertilizer (Ammonium sulphate and Ammonium nitrate) had no significant effect on spike population, number of grain and 1000 grain weight. Split dose (50 kg N ha-1) of fertilizer application at sowing and vegetative stage (S1 + S2) or at vegetative and boot stage (S2 + S3) significantly increased number of productive tillers per unit area. Generally 50 kg N ha-1 applied at boot stage increased grain weight, while number of grains per spike showed no response to split application at any growth stage.

Mohammad Tariq Jan; Sanaullah Khan

2000-01-01

212

Waste Water Evaporation Process for Fertilizer Production Technology by the ODDA Method. Compendium on Low- and Non-Waste Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

NPK fertilizers, a nitro-phosphate type fertilizer, is produced through the Norsk-Hydro-ODDA technology. This technology has been modified to incorporate an effective wastewater evaporator system which reduces the amount of contaminated cooling water disc...

1982-01-01

213

Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i) whithout fertilizer as the control, (ii) with manure fertilizer, and (iii) with NPK fertilizer. Data was experimentally collected by planting chili in several plots treated by manure, with three replications. The field experiment was conducted in Gathak Village, Karangnongko Sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java. The data collected consist of the total population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, nitrogen content in soil and the chili yield. The primary data of research were analyzed using ANOVA test and followed by LSD test, with the degree of significance by 95% .The results showed that the manure fertilizer can increase the population of bacteria as many as 0.02% (Azotobacter) and 0.46% (Azospirillum) when they were compared to the control one. So that it can increase the soil fertility when they were used in long time. Therefore increasing the nutrient availability in the soil was occurred. Application of manure fertilizer could increase the total nitrogen content in the soil and it is very useful for the fertilizing of plants.

MUJIYATI; SUPRIYADI

2009-01-01

214

Yield and content in nitrates, minerals and ascorbic acid of leeks and turnips grown under mineral or organic nitrogen fertilizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of mineral NPK fertilizers and organic fertilizers such as manure compost, woodchip compost and blood meal on the yields and the nutritive value of leeks and turnips were compared. Fertilizers were applied on the two crops grown successively in 200-1 containers. Mineral fertilizers, manure compost and blood meal provided equivalent vegetable yields. Contents in dry matter, ascorbic acid and minerals of leeks and turnips were not strongly affected by the different fertilization regimes. The nitrate content of both crops was significantly lower under the application of manure compost and woodchip compost, while mineral fertilizers and blood meal induced similar, higher nitrate levels. The present work thus provides new data showing the usefulness of composts in growing vegetables with low nitrate contents. PMID:2852803

Termine, E; Lairon, D; Taupier-Letage, B; Gautier, S; Lafont, R; Lafont, H

1987-01-01

215

Yield and content in nitrates, minerals and ascorbic acid of leeks and turnips grown under mineral or organic nitrogen fertilizations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of mineral NPK fertilizers and organic fertilizers such as manure compost, woodchip compost and blood meal on the yields and the nutritive value of leeks and turnips were compared. Fertilizers were applied on the two crops grown successively in 200-1 containers. Mineral fertilizers, manure compost and blood meal provided equivalent vegetable yields. Contents in dry matter, ascorbic acid and minerals of leeks and turnips were not strongly affected by the different fertilization regimes. The nitrate content of both crops was significantly lower under the application of manure compost and woodchip compost, while mineral fertilizers and blood meal induced similar, higher nitrate levels. The present work thus provides new data showing the usefulness of composts in growing vegetables with low nitrate contents.

Termine E; Lairon D; Taupier-Letage B; Gautier S; Lafont R; Lafont H

1987-01-01

216

ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS  

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Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T). Singh et al. (1974), Singh (1964), Bhattacharya (1986),Pathak (1999) and Khan and Raeside (1998) have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980) considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

S.B.Bhardwaj; G.C.Sharma; Arun Kumar

2009-01-01

217

Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T) levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including o...

Qin Yingying; Zhao Zhiyi; Sun Mei; Geng Ling; Che Li; Chen Zi-Jiang

218

Investigation of NPK in fertilized and unfertilized vegetables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contents of selected minerals and moisture in Ridge Gourd, Gourd and Brinjal vegetables, collected from house and market of different localities, were determined. In house vegetables from kitchen garden of PCSIR colony the moisture contents were high (90%) as compared to market vegetables of Taj Bagh, Railway workshop Mandy and Singpura Lahore Mandy was 87%, 86.5% and 87.5% respectively. Regarding nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sodium and potassium was high in market vegetables as compared to house samples due to the accumulation of nutrients in soil and crop. (author)

2010-01-01

219

Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions.

Elskens M; Pussemier L; Dumortier P; Van Langenhove K; Scholl G; Goeyens L; Focant JF

2013-06-01

220

Effect of Application of Biofertilizer on the Yield and NPK Uptake of Some Wheat Genotypes as Affected by the Biological Properties of Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of some wheat genotype grains inoculated with Azosperillum brasilense and Azorhizobium caulinodanse on wheat yield and NPK uptake was evaluated under different levels of liquid N-fertilization (0, 50 and 100% from the recommended N Kg/fed). Inoculation with any biofertilizer leads to considerable improvement in wheat grain and straw yield as compared with their respective control. However response differed according to the type of boifertilizers. The superiority related to Azorhizobium inoculation was clear on grain yield followed by inoculum containing a mixture of Azorhizobium and Azosperillum, although the use of Azosperillum gave the lowest response, but it was still higher than the uninoculated plants (control). Increasing levels of nitrogen caused increase in the wheat grain and straw yields, but the response was remarkably high at 100% N. The differences in grain yield became much lower when Azosperillum in combination with decreasing levels of N-fertilizer were used. The relative increase was 4.8% (when Azorhizobium + 100% N were used. At the same time the application of 100% N exceeded using both 100% N + Azosperillum (13.3%) and 100% N + mixture of inoculation (12.54%). Application of 100% N mixed with Azorhizobium + Azosperillum inoculum gave a positive effect and also affected the 1000-grains weight. This response varied according to the wheat varieties especially with Sakha 8 which gave the highest response. Differences in NPK uptake depend on wheat genotype and on different microbial treatments. The application of Azorhizobium +100% N enhanced the mineral uptake followed by mixture of 100% N + (Azosperillum + Azorhizobium) inoculums.

M.I. El-Hawary; I. El-Hawary. Fatma; A.M. El-Ghamry; E. El-Naggar

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

VARIABILITY IN MACROELEMENT CONTENT IN TUBERS OF HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L. AT DIFFERENT NITROGEN FERTILIZATION LEVELS  

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Full Text Available The contents of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sodium were estimated in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosus coming from the field experiment conducted over 2003-2005. The experimental factors were the cultivars of Jerusalem artichoke Albik and Rubik and different nitrogen fertilization levels, against phosphorus and potassium fertilization and the full dose of manure. The cultivar Rubik proved to be more abundant in mineral elements than Albik. The latter was cha-racterized by a higher stability of characteristics. The highest content of nitrogen, calcium and sodium in Jerusalem artichoke tubers was found at the plots fertilized with a dose of 50 kg N·ha-1.

Sawicka B.; Kalembasa D.

2008-01-01

222

Halophytes and Foliar Fertilization as a Useful Technique for Growing Processing Tomatoes in the Saline Affected Soils  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to grow processing tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Heinz) in saline-affected soil of Suez, Egypt compared to others grown on non-saline soil. The work was dimensioned to take advantage of the high potentiality of the wild grown halophyte Zygophyllum coccinium in reducing soil salinity to a tolerable level for tomatoes to produce a satisfactory yield. To avoid salinity increase by adding macronutrient fertilizers to soil, tomato plants grown after Zygophyllum harvest were sprayed with NPK as a complementary technique to meet the plant nutritional requirements. Results showed that growing Zygophyllum sown two months before tomato transplanting could reduce 72.2% of the total soluble salts of the surface layer, lowering EC of the soil suspension by 67.3% and Mg++, Na+ and Cl-ion-concentrations by 77.3, 65 and 69.4%, respectively. As the plants received NPK as foliar fertilization, concentrations of K, Ca and Mg in stems and leaves as well as K and Ca in the fruits were increased. Macronutrients foliar feeding could also decrease concentrations of the harmful ions Na+ and Cl- in the tissues of plants grown on saline affected soil compared to those received no fertilization. Plants grown under saline affected soil conditions produced nearly one-half of the yield produced by those grown under the same soil conditions but received NPK foliar treatments or those grown under non-saline soil conditions and received no fertilization. However, the highest yield was obtained by the plants grown on non-saline soil and received NPK-foliar feeding

Mahmoud M. Shaaban; Mohamed M. El-Fouly; El-Zanaty; A.A. Abou El-Nour; Abdel-Wahab A. Abdel-Maguid

2004-01-01

223

Amelioration of NPK on Metals Polluted Bare and Vegetated Sites of Trelogan Mine  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Trelogan lead/zinc mine waste in North Wales, England with the amelioration of N, P, K. NP, NK, PK and NPK in bare and vegetated areas. In seven treated plots of bare mine area, the seedlings of three species, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris and Anthoxanthum odoratum differed significantly (p = 0.01). Similarly dry weight of four species, F. rubra, A. capillaris, A. odoratum and Cladonia sp. (a lichen) in vegetated treated plots also differed significantly (p = 0.001). Fertilizers did not differed significantly in both bare and vegetated areas.

M. Anwer; Irshad Hussain; T. McNeilly; P.D. Putwain

2001-01-01

224

Effects of fertilization on nitrogen mineralization in soils of the Thyrow soil fertility experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ammonification and nitrification in soil from three variants of the Thyrow soil fertility experiment (NPK, NPK + farmyard manure, NPK + 2 x farmyard manure) were investigated using 15N-ammonium sulfate, liquid manure, slurry, and straw is an incubation experiment (100, 150, 20 0C over 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to the 44-year differentiated fertilization, basic ammonification changes and differs in favor of the variants under farmyard manuring. The differences in the carbon contents of the three plots show particularities specific to the fertilizer and have effects on the mineralization of the fertilizer nitrogen. Nitrogen transformation processes are most intensive in the soil supplied with high amounts of farmyard manure. (author)

1986-01-01

225

Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado/ Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise (more) de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK) e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes. Abstract in english Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK) and lime doses to be used in each tr (more) eatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.

Fonseca, Márcia Bacelar; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; Zonta, Everaldo; Giorni, Victor

2010-06-01

226

Onion Response to Applied N,P and K Fertilizers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted to study the onion response to various doses of N, P and K fertilizers. Plant height, bulb diameter, single bulb weight and total marketable bulb yield increased significantly by the NPk fertilizer treatments. Plots treated with 90:60:80 kg NPK/ha, displayed significantly maximum marketable bulb yield over other treatments. Onion planted on ridges gave significantly better yield over flat planting. It was suggested that for obtaining maximum marketable bulb yield of onion variety, phulkara, the crop may be planted on ridges and fertilized with N, P and K fertilizers.

Nasir R. Khan; A. Hameed Ansari; Lubna S. Rajput; U. Usmani Khail; F.C. Oad; G.N. Sohu

2001-01-01

227

Effect of Organic Fertilizer on Growth and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the effect of organic fertilizer on growth and yield components in rice, an experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009, in randomized block design based on 4 replications. The chicken manure, cow manure and paddy rice were mixed together in 1:1:0.5 ratio to from organic fertilizer. The treatments of organic fertilizer were given in 5 levels (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 ton/ha). At one level organic fertilizer 1.5 ton/ha was mixed with inorganic fertilizers (N-50, P-25, K-25 kg / ha) and recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer-NPK (N=100, P=50, K=50 kg/ha) was used as check. The plants without treatments were served as control. Grain yield and its components were significantly increased in all the treatments over control. The maximum grain yield in 2008 (4335.88 kg/ha) was noted in plants treated with 2 ton/ha organic fertilizer and it was (4662.71 kg/ha) for 2009 for plant treated with combination of chemical fertilizer + 1.5 ton/ha organic fertilizer. An increase in the grain yield at the abovementioned treatments was may be due to the increase of 1000-seed weight, panicle number, number of fertile tiller, flag leaf length, number of spikelet, panicle length and decrease number of hollow spikelet per panicle.

Morteza Siavoshi; shankar laxman laware; Shankar. L. Laware

2011-01-01

228

Feasibility of ocean fertilization and its impact on future atmospheric CO2 levels  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron fertilization of macronutrient-rich but biologically unproductive ocean waters has been proposed for sequestering anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2). The first carbon export measurements in the Southern Ocean (SO) during the recent SO-Iron Experiment (SOFeX) yielded ~900 t C exported per 1.26 t Fe added. This allows the first realistic, data-based feasibility assessment of large-scale iron fertilization and corresponding future atmospheric CO2 prognosis. Using various carbon cycle models, we find that if 20% of the world's surface ocean were fertilized 15 times per year until year 2100, it would reduce atmospheric CO2 by $\\lesssim$15 ppmv at an expected level of ~700 ppmv for business-as-usual scenarios. Thus, based on the SOFeX results and currently available technology, large-scale oceanic iron fertilization appears not a feasible strategy to sequester anthropogenic CO2.

Zeebe, R. E.; Archer, D.

2005-05-01

229

THE OBSERVATIONS ON NPK INTERACTION BETWEEN SOIL AND PLANTS FROM A MEADOW OF AGROSTIS CAPILLARIS WITH FESTUCA RUBRA LOCATED IN THE SUCEAVA PLATEAU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the NPK interaction between soil and plants within a fertilized meadow of Agrostis capillaris with Festuca rubra from the Suceava Plateau. The integral application of nitrogen in doses of 160 kg/ha makes the nutritive equilibrium to be closed to the optimal one in the soils collected during the first mowing and in plants collected during the third mowing. The partition of the same doses in three successive stages (N 53,3 x 3kg/ha) induce favorable (positive) effects of the NPK interaction for the plants collected during the second mowing and in soil sampled during the third mowing.

ALEXANDRINA MURARIU

2004-01-01

230

Desempenho agronômico do milho sob adubação mineral e inoculação das sementes com rizobactérias/ Agronomic performance of maize under mineral fertilizer and seed inoculation with rhizobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Para avaliar o desempenho agronômico da cultura do milho (Zea mays) de segunda safra submetido à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens sob níveis de adubação NPK, um experimento em campo foi conduzido utilizando-se a cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35 cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Foram testados seis tratamentos sob o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0, 1 (more) 25 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados as características fitométricas, os componentes de produção e a produtividade de grãos do milho. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey p Abstract in english To evaluate the agronomic performance of second maize (Zea mays) crop, subjected to inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens under different levels of NPK fertilization, a field experiment was conducted using the cultivar of hybrid maize 30F35 grown in Oxisol. Six treatments were tested in a randomized block design in factorial scheme 3 x 2, with three levels of NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculants (with and without), and four replications. The char (more) acteristics, yield components and productivity were evaluated. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at p

Oliveira, Mariana A. de; Zucareli, Claudemir; Spolaor, Leandro T.; Domingues, Allan R.; Ferreira, André S.

2012-10-01

231

RothC-26.3 model simulating long-term effects of fertilization on changes of soil organic carbon in continuous cultivation of corn in Northeast China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The modeled and measured resutls indicated that no-fertilization treatment led to a continuous decline of SOC during the study period and N and NPK fertilization were inadequate to maintain the SOC level in the plow layer (upper 20cm) unless FYM was added, associating with the current conventional management withno aboveground crop residues returning into the soil. Soil organic carbon could follow the same path of decline if the same management practices maintained. Model results indicate that returning the above-ground crop residues into the soil from 2002 to 2022 increased SOC by 26% in the no-fertilization treatment, 40% in N treatment, 45% in the NPK treatment, and 38% and 46% in the N and NPK with FYM addition treatments, compared to the levels in the corresponding treatments in 2002. The simulation results suggest that the RothC model is a feasible tool to assess SOC trend under different management practices and returning the aboveground crop residues into the soil will lead to a remarkable increase in SOC in the region.

Yang Xueming; Zhang Xiaoping; Fang Huajun; Zhu Ping; Ren Jun; Wang Lichun; Liang Aizhen

2003-01-01

232

Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral). The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial). Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral). Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante.

Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Víctor Hugo Alvarez V.; José Maria Moreira Dias; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque Villani

2010-01-01

233

Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml) was significantly higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml) (p value(more) be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation was associated with sperm membrane destructed and high level of MDA.

Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Pouramir, Mehdi; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Jorsaraei, Sayed Gholam Ali

2009-12-01

234

Response of Triticum aestivum to an Associative Diazotroph Inoculum under Varying Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response of Triticum aestivum to an associative diazotroph inoculum under varying levels of nitrogen fertilizer was studied. Results showed that diazotroph inoculation improved yield and yield components non-significantly. Among NP fertilizer levels 120-50 NP kg ha -1 increased no. of tiller m -2 (397.750), 1000-grains weight (49.800 g), straw yield (7834.250 kg ha -1) and grain yield (4978.750 kg ha -1) significantly. The interaction of both the factors was non-significant, nevertheless, maximum grain yield (5271.250 kg ha -1) was obtained by seed inoculation + 120-50 NP kg ha -1, which was 53 % more over control (No seed inoculation + No fertilizer).

Asrar Mahboob; Muhammad Asghar

2002-01-01

235

Effect of fertilizer and inoculation on the growth and yield of soybean cv.williams-82 in pot culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pot culture experiment in response to different levels of added N fertilizer on soybean cv.Williams-82 was conducted in clay loam soil under the climatic conditions of Quetta. Fertilizer treatments were applied at the rate zero (control); 23; 25; 50; 75; 100 and 125 kg N/ha plus a constant dose of 60 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha and 30 kg K/sub 2/O/ha in all treatments (except control). These seven fertilizer treatments were applied to both non-inoculated and inoculated pot culture crop. Results showed that nodules were found to be absent in both set of experiments which could be indirectly attributed to either sufficient level of soil NO/sub 3/ (5.10 mm) or deficient level of total Fe (8.25 ppm) and Cu (below detection limit) or might be directly due to any other edaphic or climatic factor(s). Results also showed that in general petiole length, middle leaflet area,' plant height, yield, 100 seed weight (except inoculated fertilized), total number of pods/plant (except non-inoculated fertilized) and pod both set of experiment are significantly different (P > 0.05) as compared with their respective control treatment. While remaining yield attributes viz., one-seeded, two-seeded and three-seeded pods are found as non-significantly different in response to both fertilizer and inoculum treatments. Results further revealed that pots receiving N fertilizer without inoculum mathematically out-yielded (1718 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 100+60+30 kg NPK/ha, but inoculated pots out-yielded (1912 kg/ha) in fertilizer dose of 125+60+30 kg NPK/ha. It was also revealed that all growth parameters and most of the yield attributes exhibited significant positive correlation with yield. However, number of seedless and one-seeded pods also exhibited significant but negative association with yield. (author)

2004-01-01

236

[Proteomics of rice leaf and grain at late growth stage under different nitrogen fertilization levels].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taking super-rice Liangyoupeijiu as test material, and by the method of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), this paper studied the changes in the leaf and grain proteomics of the variety at its late growth stage under different levels of nitrogen fertilization (1/2 times of normal nitrogen level, 20 mg x L(-1); normal nitrogen level, 40 mg x L(-1); 2 times of normal nitrogen level, 80 mg x L(-1)), with the biological functions of 16 leaf proteins, 9 inferior grain proteins, and 4 superior grain proteins identified and analyzed. Nitrogen fertilization could affect and regulate the plant photosynthesis via affecting the activation of photosynthesis-related enzymes and of CO2, the light system unit, and the constitution of electron transfer chain at the late growth stage of the variety. It could also promote the expression of the enzymes related to the energy synthesis and growth in inferior grains. High nitrogen fertilization level was not beneficial to the synthesis of starch in superior grain, but sufficient nitrogen supply was still important for the substance accumulation and metabolism. Therefore, rational nitrogen fertilization could increase the photosynthesis rate of flag leaves, enhance the source function, delay the functional early ageing, and promote the grain-filling at late growth stage.

Ning SJ; Zhao M; Xiang XL; Wei DZ

2010-10-01

237

Effects of municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilizer amendments on soil properties and heavy metals distribution in maize plants (Zea mays L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soil amendments based on crop nutrient requirements are considered a beneficial management practice. A greenhouse experiment with maize seeds (Zea mays L.) was conducted to assess the inputs of metals to agricultural land from soil amendments. Maize seeds were exposed to a municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (50 Mg ha(-1)) and NPK fertilizer (33 g plant(-1)) amendments considering N plant requirement until the harvesting stage with the following objectives: (1) determine the accumulation of total and available metals in soil and (2) know the uptake and ability of translocation of metals from roots to different plant parts, and their effect on biomass production. The results showed that MSW compost increased Cu, Pb and Zn in soil, while NPK fertilizer increased Cd and Ni, but decreased Hg concentration in soil. The root system acted as a barrier for Cr, Ni, Pb and Hg, so metal uptake and translocation were lower in aerial plant parts. Biomass production was significantly enhanced in both MSW and NPK fertilizer-amended soils (17%), but also provoked slight increases of metals and their bioavailability in soil. The highest metal concentrations were observed in roots, but there were no significant differences between plants growing in amended soil and the control soil. Important differences were found for aerial plant parts as regards metal accumulation, whereas metal levels in grains were negligible in all the treatments.

Carbonell G; de Imperial RM; Torrijos M; Delgado M; Rodriguez JA

2011-11-01

238

Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers/ Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') em casa de vegetação. Foram utiliza (more) dos: um fertilizante mineral NPK + micronutrientes; uma fonte de Ca na forma de nitrato de cálcio; e dois fertilizantes orgânicos, um preparado com a mistura de farinha de ossos, torta de mamona e cinzas e outro semelhante a esse último adquirido no comércio (comercial). Os fertilizantes orgânicos foram distribuídos sobre a superfície dos vasos a cada dois meses, e os minerais foram aplicados semanalmente no substrato em alíquotas de 25 mL de uma solução contendo 1 g L-1 do respectivo fertilizante. Os resultados demonstraram melhores respostas para uso do fertilizante mineral juntamente com o fertilizante orgânico, apresentando maior produção de matéria seca das plantas em relação ao uso isolado de cada fertilizante (orgânico ou mineral). Os tratamentos que receberam nitrato de cálcio adicionalmente ao fertilizante NPK não apresentaram diferenças significativas em comparação ao uso do fertilizante NPK, provavelmente por deficiência de S, evidenciada na análise mineral dos tecidos. O fertilizante orgânico comercial mostrou teor muito elevado de B, refletindo em sintomas de toxidez, crescimento reduzido e extremidades de folhas mais velhas necrosadas, em todos os tratamentos que receberam esse fertilizante. Abstract in english Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fert (more) ilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral). The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.

Rodrigues, Donizetti Tomaz; Novais, Roberto Ferreira; Alvarez V., Víctor Hugo; Dias, José Maria Moreira; Villani, Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque

2010-10-01

239

[Effects of fertilization level on diurnal variation of gas exchange of young Eucalyptus grandis leaf].  

Science.gov (United States)

Different levels (0, 90, 180, and 270 g per tree) of compound fertilizer containing 15% N, 15% P2O5, and 15% K2O were applied to young Eucalyptus grandis to study the diurnal variations of its leaf stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), and vapor pressure deficit on leaf surface (Vpdl) as well as the variation of leaf chlorophyll content, aimed to approach the relationships of E. grandis photosynthesis with fertilization and environmental factors. In all treatments, the diurnal variation of Pn presented a single-peak curve, with the peak at 14:00 and not showing midday depression. The Gs, Tr, and Vpdl showed the similar trend with Pn, while the Ci had a minimum value at 14:00. The WUE demonstrated a double-peak curve, with the first and second peak occurred at 10:00 and 14:00, respectively. Comparing with the control, the mean values of Gs, Pn, Tr, WUE, and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents under fertilization increased by 4.6%-15.9%, 7.8%-21.8%, 4.8%-11.6%, 3.2%-8.8%, 15.5%-62.0%, 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the increment increased with fertilization level. By contrast, the mean values of Ci and VPdl decreased by 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the decrement increased with fertilization level. The Gs, Pn, and Tr were significantly correlated with air temperature, relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and also, the Gs was significantly correlated with Pn and Tr. It was suggested that fertilization could promote E. grandis growth and enhance its WUE and biological carbon sequestration, and air temperature, RH, PAR, and Gs were the main factors causing the diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration of E. grandis. PMID:21360993

Li, Xiao-ping; Wang, Jing-yan; Wang, Dong; Hu, Ting-xing; Chen, Hong-zhi; Gong, Wei

2010-11-01

240

[Effects of fertilization level on diurnal variation of gas exchange of young Eucalyptus grandis leaf].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different levels (0, 90, 180, and 270 g per tree) of compound fertilizer containing 15% N, 15% P2O5, and 15% K2O were applied to young Eucalyptus grandis to study the diurnal variations of its leaf stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), and vapor pressure deficit on leaf surface (Vpdl) as well as the variation of leaf chlorophyll content, aimed to approach the relationships of E. grandis photosynthesis with fertilization and environmental factors. In all treatments, the diurnal variation of Pn presented a single-peak curve, with the peak at 14:00 and not showing midday depression. The Gs, Tr, and Vpdl showed the similar trend with Pn, while the Ci had a minimum value at 14:00. The WUE demonstrated a double-peak curve, with the first and second peak occurred at 10:00 and 14:00, respectively. Comparing with the control, the mean values of Gs, Pn, Tr, WUE, and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents under fertilization increased by 4.6%-15.9%, 7.8%-21.8%, 4.8%-11.6%, 3.2%-8.8%, 15.5%-62.0%, 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the increment increased with fertilization level. By contrast, the mean values of Ci and VPdl decreased by 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the decrement increased with fertilization level. The Gs, Pn, and Tr were significantly correlated with air temperature, relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and also, the Gs was significantly correlated with Pn and Tr. It was suggested that fertilization could promote E. grandis growth and enhance its WUE and biological carbon sequestration, and air temperature, RH, PAR, and Gs were the main factors causing the diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration of E. grandis.

Li XP; Wang JY; Wang D; Hu TX; Chen HZ; Gong W

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl) detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598-2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h) after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

Raad Obid Hussain; Hayder Hamza Hussain

2011-01-01

242

Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl) detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598-2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than t (more) he world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h) after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

Hussain, Raad Obid; Hussain, Hayder Hamza

2011-08-01

243

Levels of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present study is aimed at the determination of the activity levels of primordial radionuclides in soil from various locations around a phosphate fertilizer plant and also to figure out the external dose rate due to natural gamma background in the area by mapping the dose rates with the geographical co-ordinates within the plant premises

2010-01-01

244

Tomato response to starter fertilizer, polyethylene mulch, and level of soil phosphorus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unmulched and polyethylene-mulched tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown with and without starter fertilizer (SF) in four field experiments. The field varied as to residual P level and the amount of P incorporated before planting. No benefits from SF were obtained on a soil with high residual P that was moderately fertilized with P before transplanting or on a soil with low residual P that was heavily fertilized with P. A positive effect from SF was observed only when residual P was low and no P was broadcast, and this was true in mulched and unmulched plots. No significant SF by mulch interaction was obtained in these experiments even though mulching consistently increased shoot P concentrations and fruit yield. The mulch was beneficial even under conditions where unmulched tomato leaves contained 0.4% P 3 weeks after transplanting, indicating that factors in addition to improved P nutrition are also involved in the mulch effect.

Grubinger, V.P.; Minotti, P.L.; Wien, H.C.; Turner, A.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

1993-03-01

245

EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

Asaad DERBALA; Abdelmonem HASHAD

2013-01-01

246

Nitrogen and Crude Proteins in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva) under Different Fertilization Treatments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the influence of different organic and mineral fertilization treatments and post-harvest treatments on the content of nitrogen and crude proteins in the edible part of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva). A field trial (2003-2005) was set up in a hilly part of Croatia according to the Latin square method with four types of fertilization (control, 50 t ha-1 stable manure, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30), while treatments involved harvested fresh beetroot and stored fresh beetroot. The highest dry weight (DW) content was determined in climatologically favourable 2004 (average 14.8% DW) and in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (15.6% DW) in harvested beetroot. In 2004 and 2005, the highest levels of nitrogen and crude proteins in harvested beetroot were determined in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (2.41 and 2.43 g N kg-1 in fresh weight and 15.07 and 15.21 g crude proteins kg-1 in fresh weight, respectively). Regardless of fertilization treatment or studied year, nitrogen and crude protein contents were higher in stored than in harvested beetroot, by 12% on average. The lowest crude protein content was determined in treatment with stable manure what confirmed that protein content decreased by organic fertilization. It can be concluded that beetroot lost some water during the storage period, which increased its content of nitrogen and crude proteins in fresh weight and thus increased the nutritional quality of beetroot as a functional food.

Marko PETEK; Mirjana HERAK CUSTIC; Nina TOTH; Sanja SLUNJSKI; Lepomir COGA; Ivan PAVLOVIC; Tomislav KARAZIJA; Boris LAZAREVIC; Sasa CVETKOVIc

2012-01-01

247

ONION YIELD AS AFFECTED BY FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH AMINO AND HUMIC ACIDS UNDER NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nutrient foliar spraying such as amino and humic acids under nitrogen fertilizer levels on growth, yield and keeping quality of onion bulbs cv. Giza 20. Two field experiments were conducted at Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The obtained results showed that foliar spraying with humic acid resulted in highest growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as TSS %, dry matter and total weight loss percentages at storage period  compared with the control treatment. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels up to 214.2 kg N/ha significantly increased growth characters, total and marketable yields, total culls and bulb weight as well as total weight loss percentages at storage period. In addition, fertilization with 71.4 kg N/ha significantly increased TSS and dry matter percentages. It could be recommended that spraying with humic acid and adding 214.2 kg N/ha maximize onion bulb yield under the environmental conditions of Gharbeia Governorate. The interaction between nutrients spraying and nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly affected foliage fresh weight, total weight loss % after 1, 2, 3 and 5 months.

Ahamed A. Kandil; Ali E. Sharief; Fathalla H. Fathalla

2013-01-01

248

Parental attitudes toward fertility preservation in boys with cancer: context of different risk levels of infertility and success rates of fertility restoration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To measure the parental attitudes toward fertility preservation in boys with cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Questionnaire survey via regular mail. PATIENT(S): A total of 465 families whose sons were already treated for cancer. INTERVENTION(S): The questionnaire was designed for two groups based on child's age at the time of cancer diagnosis: <12 and ?12 years old. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Descriptive statistics regarding a positive or negative attitude of parents toward fertility preservation options in the context of different risk levels of infertility and success rates of fertility restoration. RESULT(S): The response rate was 78%. Sixty-four percent of parents of boys ?12 years old would agree to store sperm obtained by masturbation and/or electroejaculation, and 54% of parents of boys <12 years old would agree to store a testicular biopsy. If the risk of infertility or the success rate of fertility restoration were ?20%, more than one-fourth of parents would still opt for fertility preservation. CONCLUSION(S): All parents should be counseled about the risks of infertility due to cancer treatment, because many parents want to preserve their son's fertility even if the risk of becoming infertile or the chances on fertility restoration are low.

Sadri-Ardekani H; Akhondi MM; Vossough P; Maleki H; Sedighnejad S; Kamali K; Ghorbani B; van Wely M; van der Veen F; Repping S

2013-03-01

249

The Influence of Varieties and Planting Systems on the Peach Tree Growth, Productivity and NPK Uptake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study presents the effect of two organo-mineral fertilizers: root fertilizer C011 and foliar fertilizer 411 bio-ionic liquids, on some vegetative and productive features of five new peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] varieties introduced in Romania: ‘Earlirich’, ‘Royal Estate’, ‘Rubirich’, ‘October Star’ and ‘Late Luka’, grafted on GF 677 rootstock. The experimental plot located on a reddish preluvosol, have been established in 2008 with four planting systems: Tatura trellis, V planting system, Sibari Y and Vertical axe with different nutrition area/tree. Fertilization was applied on the beggining of June and August, 2010 and 2011 on the soil, locally on the tree rows (C011) and by foliar spraying (411). Trees vegetative growth was compared at the end of the vegetation period by number of fruit buds per unit trunk surface section (CM/TSS) with significant differences between types of crowns and the biggest values for ‘Rubirich’; the total shoots length with significant differences between varieties. The influence of fertilization on trees productivity was apreciated by analyzing the yield and some typical productivy indexes. The studied parameters including the NPK uptake, have been significantly influenced by the variety 3.39% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2010 and 2.75% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2011 in Tatura trellis planting system.

Traian G. MATEI; Florin STANICA; Roxana M. MADJAR

2012-01-01

250

Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH(3) and alpha-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers. PMID:18340443

Shaharoona, Baby; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir A

2008-03-14

251

Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH(3) and alpha-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers.

Shaharoona B; Naveed M; Arshad M; Zahir ZA

2008-05-01

252

Effect of Different Levels of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Protein Content of Wheat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on the growth, yield and protein content of two wheat varieties. Two varieties of wheat were tested. Aghrani and Kanchan with five levels of chemical and organic fertilizer viz. F1 (control), ...

M. Rafiqul Islam

253

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, 226Ra and 232Th series, their decay products and 40K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2–106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6–9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21–607.3±14 Bq kg?1, respectively. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Raeq in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43 Bq kg?1 and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19 Bq kg?1, which are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg?1 adopted from . The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. - Highlights: ? Mmeasured activity levels of natural radionuclides in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Saudi Arabia. ? Determined heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents. ? Activity of natural radionuclides in chemical fertilizer higher than in organic fertilizer. ? RAeq in chemical and organic fertilizers ranged between 34.07 and 161.43 Bq kg?1.

2012-01-01

254

TVA Development of Pan Granulation Processes for Nitrogen Fertilizers.  

Science.gov (United States)

TVA pioneered in fertilizer granulation technology in the early 1950's, and as a result nearly all of the granular NPK fertilizers in the United States are now produced by the TVA continuous ammoniator-granulator process. An adaptation of this process, th...

R. D. Young

1980-01-01

255

Determining optimum fertilizer rates for cotton in Northern Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soils of the major cotton growing zones in Northern Ghana are characterised by low levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sometimes potassium (K). The response of cotton to NPK fertilizer was studied at Nyankpala and Wa in 1991, 1993 and 1994 to determine economic rates for cultivation of the crop. Cotton responded to N, P and K except for K at both locations in 1991 where K was applied alone. The 1993 and 1994 response data at Nyanpkala and Wa were fitted with second order regression functions to generate response curves for the various nutrient elements. The economic optimum for each element was determined from a combination of the first differential of the quadratic functions and the price ratios of cotton and fertilizer materials. At Nyanpkala, the economic optimum across years for N, P and K were 53, 30 and 30 kg ha-1, respectively. The respective values at Wa were 73, 38 and 37 kg ha-1 NPK. Further multilocational on-farm testing is required to establish reliable response curves and economic optimum for each element (au).

2006-01-01

256

Fertilization optimization in the case of the Productiv potato variety through the refinement of the romanian chemical fertilizers in the Targu Secuiesc depression  

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Full Text Available Profitable potato cultures cannot be developed without chemical and/or organic fertilization. The fertilization must assure the best possible valorization of the intensive varieties’ production potential under the ecological conditions existing in the cultivation region. The experiments took place at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Targu Secuiesc in the period 2005-2007. Our research proposed this approach to the aspects of potato fertilization in the case of the Productiv variety, created at the Potato Research and Cultivation Station Targu Secuiesc. To achieve a higher production level, 7 levels of fertilization and 3 types of fertilizers were studied, representing N:P:K rates of 1:0:0 (ammonium nitrate), 1:1:0 (Complex 20:20:0), respectively 1:1:1 (Complex 15:15:15). The highest and most stable productions are achieved by adding nitrogen in doses of 150-200 kg active substance / ha, and the presence of phosphorus and potassium up to these levels provides a maximum production at the application of the binary fertilizer, Complex 20:20:0, as well as at the application of the fertilizer Complex 15:15:15.

Zsuzsanna NEMES; Anca BACIU; Robert MOTICA; Luiza MIKE

2009-01-01

257

Distribution of uranium in soil components of agricultural fields after long-term application of phosphate fertilizers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term application of phosphate fertilizers causes accumulation of U in the surface soil of agricultural fields. We investigated the soil constituents that contribute to the accumulation of U by using chemical extraction methods. Surface soil samples were obtained from upland fields, pastures, and paddy fields cultivated without any phosphate fertilizer (control site), with NPK fertilizer (NPK site), and with both NPK fertilizer and compost (NPK + compost site) for more than 20 years. In addition to the total U (Ut) concentration in soil, the concentrations of pyrophosphate- and acid oxalate-extractable U were determined as a measure of U associated with soil organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in soil, respectively. The total, pyrophosphate-extractable, and acid oxalate-extractable U concentrations were higher in the soil obtained from the NPK and NPK + compost sites than in that obtained from the control site. The difference in the U concentrations between the NPK or NPK + compost site and the control site corresponded with the increased U concentration observed after the application of the phosphate fertilizer or both the fertilizer and compost. In the upland field and pasture soil, the increase in pyrophosphate-extractable U was 83-94% of that in Ut. On the other hand, the increase in acid oxalate-extractable U was 44-58% of that in Ut in the upland field and pasture soil, but it was almost equivalent to the increase in Ut in the paddy soil with NPK. In conclusion, most of the phosphate fertilizer-derived U was either incorporated into the soil organic matter or poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in the surface soil of agricultural fields. Thus, soil organic matter is an important pool of U in upland field and pasture soil, whereas poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals are important pools of U in paddy soil experiencing alternating changes in redox conditions.

2009-02-01

258

Gas exchange in massai grass under five nitrogen fertilization levels during establishment and regrowth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate gas exchange in the massai grass during establishment and regrowth cycles in a greenhouse, using five nitrogen (N) fertilization levels. A completely randomized split-plot design of five nitrogen levels (0; 150; 300; 450 and 600 mg N?dm-3 of soil) was employed with the N levels as plots, and the cycles (establishment, regrowth 1 and 2) as subplots, evaluated with five replicates. We evaluated leaf transpiration (E), leaf temper (more) ature (TFOL), leaf photosynthesis rate (A), leaf carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis/transpiration ratio (A/E), photosynthesis/conductance ratio (A/gs), chlorophyll relative index (CRI), and nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI). Growth cycles influenced all physiological characteristics, except for NSI. N fertilization levels affected TFOL, A, CRI and NSI variables, whereas for gs, E, Ci, A/E and A/gs it did not occur. A increased from 6.38 to 10.33 µmol?m-2.s-1, at levels 0 and 600 mg N?dm-3 of soil, respectively. Gas exchange in the massai grass was favored by nitrogen fertilization, since the cycles amended these characteristics of the grass.

Lopes, Marcos Neves; Lacerda, Claudivan Feitosa de; Cândido, Magno José Duarte; Pompeu, Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco; Silva, Rodrigo Gregório da; Lopes, José Wellington Batista; Fernandes, Francisco Ronaldo Belém; Bezerra, Francisco Marcus Lima

2011-09-01

259

Gas exchange in massai grass under five nitrogen fertilization levels during establishment and regrowth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gas exchange in the massai grass during establishment and regrowth cycles in a greenhouse, using five nitrogen (N) fertilization levels. A completely randomized split-plot design of five nitrogen levels (0; 150; 300; 450 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil) was employed with the N levels as plots, and the cycles (establishment, regrowth 1 and 2) as subplots, evaluated with five replicates. We evaluated leaf transpiration (E), leaf temperature (TFOL), leaf photosynthesis rate (A), leaf carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis/transpiration ratio (A/E), photosynthesis/conductance ratio (A/gs), chlorophyll relative index (CRI), and nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI). Growth cycles influenced all physiological characteristics, except for NSI. N fertilization levels affected TFOL, A, CRI and NSI variables, whereas for gs, E, Ci, A/E and A/gs it did not occur. A increased from 6.38 to 10.33 µmol•m-2.s-1, at levels 0 and 600 mg N•dm-3 of soil, respectively. Gas exchange in the massai grass was favored by nitrogen fertilization, since the cycles amended these characteristics of the grass.

Marcos Neves Lopes; Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda; Magno José Duarte Cândido; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco Pompeu; Rodrigo Gregório da Silva; José Wellington Batista Lopes; Francisco Ronaldo Belém Fernandes; Francisco Marcus Lima Bezerra

2011-01-01

260

Effects of Levels of Sulfur Fertilizer on Growth of Digitaria eriantha Grass  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of sulfur fertilizer application on the quantity and chemical composition of Digitaria eriantha grass. The experiment was conducted at Petchaburi Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Petchaburi, Thailand, during August to October, 2006. Treatments consisted of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai applications in the form of ammonium sulfate and were arranged in randomized complete block with 4 field blocks as replication. Grass was sampled at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of regrowth to determine biomass accumulation over maturation period between and within treatments. The samples of 6-week old grass were subjected to chemical composition evaluation.The results showed that there was a significant linear correlation between levels of S fertilizer application and biomass accumulation of 2-week old grass. Biomass accumulation was significantly increased with the increasing rates of S fertilizer applications (120.56, 176.48 and 200.62 kgDM/rai at 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai, respectively). Sulfur (0.09, 0.17 and 0.18 %DM) and crude protein (6.10, 8.22 and 10.25 %DM) concentrations and crude protein yield (40.48, 61.35 and 76.00 kg/rai) had increased linearly with the increasing levels of sulfur fertilizer application of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai, respectively. The result of this study showed that quality of grass can be improved through S fertilizer application. There is a need for further study on the effect of S application on ruminant performance to improve pasture management. This information can be used to make sensible recommendation for sustainable pasture management for animal production.

Auraiwan Isuwan; Jeerasak Saelim; Somsak Paothong

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

[Correlation between follicle levels of superoxide dismutase and oocyte quality, fertilization rates and embryo development].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The intraovarian oxidative balance is important during oocyte development, and fertilization. It has been proposed that one of the most important enzymes in the follicle is the superoxide dismutase (SOD). OBJECTIVE: To correlate levels and percentage of SOD activity in follicular liquid with quality, fertilization and embryo development in a group of patients submitted to in vitro fertilization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We obtained 120 follicular liquids from oocytes aspirated in 41 patients during an IVF program and then we followed the development of each oocyte separately. We measured the activity and concentration of SOD in the follicular liquid, and we evaluated the following variables: quality and maturity in the oocytes, as well as fertilization rate, segmentation rate and pregnancy. The statistical analysis was made with ANOVA test and Pearson test. RESULTS: In the analysis of the results, we observed a higher percentage of activity in the SOD in oocytes with good quality (3 and 4) in comparison with poor quality oocyte (1 and 2) (89 and 82% vs 75 and 61% p<0.05). We observed higher concentrations and activity of SOD in oocytes with a good fertilization rate and segmentation (p<0.05). When we analyzed the variables in function of pregnancy, we observed that the embryos that were transferred and developed pregnancy had higher concentrations and activity of SOD than embryos that did not develop pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels and high percentage in the activity of SOD are associated with a better quality in the oocyte, and a good embryo development, influenced by the oxidative balance.

Kably Ambe A; Ruiz Anguas J; Carballo Mondragón E; Corona de Lau C; Karchmer Krivitsky S

2004-07-01

262

Emergence and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Maize under Different Tillage Operations and Fertility Levels  

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Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted at Students Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan to observe the emergence of maize and nitrogen use efficiency of the crop under different fertility regimes (0-0, 90-00, 90-60, 90-90, 90-120, 150-00, 150-60, 150-90 and 150-120 NP kg ha-1) applied in the plots plowed through tillage practices with cultivator, chisel and desi plows. The better emergence was obtained with 90-90 NP kg ha-1. The seedling emergence decreased at higher doses of N and P. The interaction of tillage x fertilizer revealed that fertilizer at the rate of 90-150 kg ha-1 and tillage practices with cultivator exhibited higher seedling emergence, while the plots ploughed with chisel plow and desi plow recorded decreased emergence. However, chisel plowing recorded higher fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency than the plots ploughed by cultivator or desi plough. Nitrogen use efficiency at high levels of nitrogen applications was low than in the low rates of N incorporation. It was concluded that tillage practices should be performed with cultivator and 90 kg N ha-1 is suitable combination for seedling emergence and crop yield of maize.

M.H. Siddiqui; F.C. Oad; G.H. Jamro

2006-01-01

263

Microbes influence the fractionation of arsenic in paddy soils with different fertilization regimes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the influence of the microbes on the distribution of arsenic in a Chinese paddy soil under different long-term fertilization treatments. The paddy soil with four long-term fertilization treatments (CK, M, NPK and NPK+M) and three levels of arsenate addition (0, 50, 100 mg As kg(-1) dry soil), were selected to construct microcosms for laboratory incubation. After the incubation, soil samples were sequentially extracted to determine As in various fractions, i.e. water soluble (F0), exchangeable (F1), bound to carbonates (F2), bound to Fe and Mn oxides (F3), bound to organic matter and sulfides (F4), and residual (F5, mineral matrix). Results showed that most of the As was fixed by mineral matrix (F5, ratios ranging from 46.22% to 96.37%), followed by As bound to Fe and Mn oxides (F3, ratios ranging from 3.14% to 28.18%), and the ratios of the other four fractions (F0, F1, F2 and F4) were mostly less than 10%. The microbes in the paddy soil could make As transform from inactive fraction (F5) to relatively active fractions (F0, F1, F2 and F3) and thus increase its environmental risk. With the increase of the As addition levels and with the application of manure or chemical NPK fertilizers, As was distributed more in the relatively active fractions (F0, F1, F2, F3 and F4) in the paddy soil mediated by the microbes. In addition, Fe and Mn oxides could play an important role in decreasing the As leaching potential from the mineral matrix to soil solution and thus abate the As risk to human health.

Li F; Zheng YM; He JZ

2009-04-01

264

Microbes influence the fractionation of arsenic in paddy soils with different fertilization regimes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the influence of the microbes on the distribution of arsenic in a Chinese paddy soil under different long-term fertilization treatments. The paddy soil with four long-term fertilization treatments (CK, M, NPK and NPK+M) and three levels of arsenate addition (0, 50, 100 mg As kg(-1) dry soil), were selected to construct microcosms for laboratory incubation. After the incubation, soil samples were sequentially extracted to determine As in various fractions, i.e. water soluble (F0), exchangeable (F1), bound to carbonates (F2), bound to Fe and Mn oxides (F3), bound to organic matter and sulfides (F4), and residual (F5, mineral matrix). Results showed that most of the As was fixed by mineral matrix (F5, ratios ranging from 46.22% to 96.37%), followed by As bound to Fe and Mn oxides (F3, ratios ranging from 3.14% to 28.18%), and the ratios of the other four fractions (F0, F1, F2 and F4) were mostly less than 10%. The microbes in the paddy soil could make As transform from inactive fraction (F5) to relatively active fractions (F0, F1, F2 and F3) and thus increase its environmental risk. With the increase of the As addition levels and with the application of manure or chemical NPK fertilizers, As was distributed more in the relatively active fractions (F0, F1, F2, F3 and F4) in the paddy soil mediated by the microbes. In addition, Fe and Mn oxides could play an important role in decreasing the As leaching potential from the mineral matrix to soil solution and thus abate the As risk to human health. PMID:19155050

Li, Feng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

2009-01-19

265

Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of 137Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears to be an effective countermeasure (at least in the type of forest used in this study). The reduction of the 137Cs levels in plants and fungi persisted for quite a long period of time

1992-05-00

266

Impact of Row Spacing and Fertilizer Levels (Diammonium Phosphate) on Yield and Yield Components of Canola  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the impact of row spacing (15, 30, 45 and 60 cm) and fertilizer levels (0, 50, 75 and 100 kg ha-1) on canola. The number of pods plant-1, number of grains pod-1, thousand grain weight and grain yield ha-1 was recorded during the study. The highest number of pods (177) Plant-1, number of grains (30), thousand grain weight 0.86 g) and grain yield kg ha-1 (1692) was observed from plots where row spacing was kept at 45 cm. Similarly the highest number of pods (211) Plant-1, number of grains (36), thousand grain weight (1.02) and grain yield kg ha-1 (2270) was observed from plots where fertilizer level was 100 kg ha-1. The maximum yield and yield components were observed at the interaction of 45 cm row spacing and 100 kg DAP ha-1.

Mujtaba Masood; Imran Haider Shamsi; Noorullah Khan

2003-01-01

267

Evaluation of Proper Fertilizer Application for Higher Cotton Production in Sindh  

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Full Text Available Two field experiments were laid out to assess the yield performance of cotton for four successive years i.e. 1997 to 2000 crop seasons by the application of NPK fertilizers each having three levels (50, 100 and 150). On an average, highest seedcotton yield of 2413 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was fertilized with 150, 50 and 50 kg ha-1f N, P and K respectively. The lowest yield of 1039 kg ha-1 was produced from the control plot where no chemical fertilization was applied. The seedcotton yield was further significantly increased with the application of boron and zinc when applied alone or in combination. The results revealed that balance use of macro as well as micro nutrient elements are essential for harvesting better yields.

A. W. Soomro; A. S. Arain; A. R, Soomro; G. H. Tunio; M. S. Chang; A. B. Leghari; M. R. Mags

2001-01-01

268

Effects of (Azotobacter and Azosprillium) Inoculants and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Productivity of Canola (Brassica napus L.)  

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Full Text Available To investigate the effects of inoculants (biofertilizer) and chemical fertilizer on the yield, yield components and seed oil content of canola (Brassica napus L.), a split-plot experimental design with 20 treatments in 4 replications was carried out during 2004-2005 growing season at the Baiecola Agricultural Research Station in the Mazandaran province, Iran. Canola (cv. Hyola 401 hybrid), a high yielding early maturity variety, was grown in rotation after wheat. In the main plots, the biofertilizer treatments were at two different levels: 1) control (no seed inoculation) and 2) seed-inoculation with a combination of three different strains of bacteria Azotobacter chrocooccum and Azosprillium brasilense and Azosprillium lipoferum. In the two sets of 10 sub-plots chemical fertilizers comprising N, P, K and their combinations, NPKS and NPK Zn were applied. The seed yield touched a high of 3741.5 kg h-1 at treatment T20 (Bio + NPK Zn), that corresponded to 257.7 pods per plant and maximum CGR (18.3 g m-2 day-1). The highest weight of 1000 seeds (4.45 g) was obtained at treatment no T19 (Bio + NPK S) which coincided with the maximum TDM (1155 g-2) and maximum LAI (5.06). The maximum branching (4.43 branches per plant) was obtained at treatment T20 (Bio + NPK Zn) showing a 46.2% increase over the control. The maximum oil content 47.73% was obtained at T16 (Bio + NK). The application of inoculation with Azotobacter and Azosprillium helped to increase the yield by 21.17% over the control, raised the number of pods per plant (16.05%), number of branches (11.78%), weight of 1000 grain (2.92%) and the oil content of seeds (1.73%) but decreased (-0.24%) the number of seeds per pod.

Esmaeil Yasari; A.M. Patwardhan

2007-01-01

269

The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Levels on the Straw Nutritive Quality of Malaysian Rice Varieties  

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Full Text Available Samples of straw from two varieties of rice, namely MR 211 and MR 219 which were grown at five levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 120, 160, 200 and 240 kg N ha-1) were collected at harvesting time (MR 211 at 105 DAS; MR 219 at 115 DAS). The straws were separated into leaf (including blade and sheath) and stem fractions and were analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Increases in the level of nitrogen fertilization were found to increase the Crude Protein (CP) in whole straw (p-1 to a maximum level of 84.5 g kg-1 dry matter. It also decreased (pin vitro true organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD) from 0.59 to 0.55, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF). The straw hemicellulose, cellulose, Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), silica, ash and in vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD) were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the nitrogen fertilization level. There were varietal differences in the straw chemical composition, where variety MR 219 had higher NDF, hemicellulose and cellulose (p<0.05) concentration where as variety MR 211 had higher amount of ADL (p<0.01) and silica (p<0.05) in the straw. There were no differences between the varieties in the straw CP, ADF, ash and digestibility. Between the two varieties, MR 219 variety is superior to MR 211 in view of the higher grain production and grain: straw ratio. The result from correlation between agronomic characteristics and straw nutritive quality implies that rice varieties with good agronomic characteristics have potential in yielding straws with better nutritive quality. The result showed that increasing nitrogen fertilization rate could overcome the problem of low protein in rice straw for animal feed.

Hollena Nori; Ridzwan Abdul Halim; Mohd Fauzi Ramlan

2006-01-01

270

Gold nanoparticles elevate plasma testosterone levels in male mice without affecting fertility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

?-Methoxy and ?-aminoethyl poly(ethylene glycol)-modified 14-nm gold nanoparticles can accumulate in mouse testes, pass through the blood-testis barrier, and enter germ cells. Furthermore, PEG-NH2 @AuNP accumulate more easier in the testes and increase plasma T levels. However, these two gold nanoparticle types have no effect on male fertility, fetal survival, or fetal development.

Li WQ; Wang F; Liu ZM; Wang YC; Wang J; Sun F

2013-05-01

271

Effect of Different NP Fertilizer Levels on the Yield of Cotton Cultivars  

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Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 03 replications. Treatments comprised of 03 cotton cultivars (TH- 41/83, 35/83 and Rehmani) and 10 fertilizer levels. It has been observed that cotton cultivar TH- 35/83 gave highest seed cotton yield per plant i.e., 95.13 g, fallowed by TH - 41/83 i.e., 84. 19 g plant-1. While the maximum yield per plant was recorded under fertilizer level 200 -50 kg ha-1 (100.52). Cultivar TH – 41/83 gave highest yield per plot 4.89 kg and 3773.12 kg ha-1. Cultivar Rehmani gave lowest yield i.e. 3.97 kg plot-1 and 3063.25 kg ha-1. It is also investigated that NP, fertilizer level 200-75 kg ha-1, produced maximum cotton yield 4.88 kg plot-1 and 37.65. 40-kg ha-1

Z.A. Abbasi; M.B. Abro

2001-01-01

272

Interaction between different nitrogen fertilizer levels and maize-bean intercropping patterns  

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Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different maize-bean intercropping patterns, and of nitrogen fertilizers on morphologicaland yield related traits, a factorial study based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was performedduring the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in a research filed of Shiraz University, Iran. The first factor of the study wasseven different ratios of Maize-Bean intercropping system (Maize sole cropping, Bean sole cropping, and intercroppingof maize/bean at the ratios of 1/3, 1/1, 2/3, 3/2 and 3/1) and the second factor was three nitrogen (N) fertilizer applicationlevels (0, 100 and 200 kg N/ha). Results showed that with respect to increasing the levels of N fertilizer, the yield ofbean sole cropping decreased but the yield of maize sole cropping increased. On the other hand, in intercropping systemswith N fertilizer application, the yield of both crops increased. Results of total land equivalent ratio (LER) for both cropsshowed that the highest LER value under both 100 and 200 kg N/ha application was that of M1B1 (1 seed of maize after1 seed of bean, consecutively, on a row with same distance). Under no N fertilizer application the highest LER value wasthat of M2B3 (2 seeds of maize after 3 seeds of bean, consecutively, on a row with same distance). Overall, it can be concludedthat M1B1 is the best intercropping pattern in maize-bean intercropping systems and that the application of Nfertilizer can be effective within practical settings of intercropping agriculture, resulting in higher yields.

Hossein Sadeghi*; Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini

2012-01-01

273

Composição química dos grãos de milho em resposta à adubação mineral e inoculação com rizobactérias/ Chemical composition of corn grains in response to mineral fertilization and inoculation with rhizobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Para o aumento da produtividade agrícola no País, são necessários estudos para melhor aproveitamento da adubação mineral, a fim de uma produção de grãos com melhor qualidade nutricional. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor e o acúmulo de proteína, de cinzas e de nutrientes em grãos de milho provenientes de plantas submetidas à inoculação com Pseudomonas fluorescens e cultivadas em diferentes níveis de adubação NPK no solo. Foram testados seis (more) tratamentos, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três níveis de adubação química com NPK (0,125 e 250 kg ha-1) e dois níveis de inoculante à base de P. fluorescens (com e sem), com quatro repetições, sendo instalado em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, utilizando o cultivar de milho híbrido 30F35. Determinaram-se os teores e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, proteína e cinzas dos grãos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english To increase agricultural productivity in the country, studies are needed to improve the utilization of mineral fertilizers in order to produce grains with improved nutritional quality. The study aimed to evaluate the content and accumulation of protein, ash and nutrients in corn grains from plants inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens and grown under different levels of NPK fertilizer in the soil. We tested six treatments in a randomized complete block design in a facto (more) rial 3 x 2, three levels of chemical fertilizer NPK (0, 125 and 250 kg ha-1) and two levels of inoculation using P. fluorecens (with and without), with four replicates, in a Oxisol, using the maize hybrid 30F35. The content and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, protein and ash content of the grains were evaluated. The data were submitted to Anova and means compared by the Tukey test p

Oliveira, Mariana Alves de; Zucareli, Claudemir; Spolaor, Leandro Teodoski; Domingues, Allan Ricardo; Ferreira, André Sampaio

2012-10-01

274

Evaluation of the Performance of Lowland Rice-ratooned Rice-vegetable as Influenced by Fertilizer Rates in Sawah Rice Systems  

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Full Text Available The trial was conducted at the Federal University of Agriculture; Abeokuta, Nigeria in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 cropping season to evaluate the performance of lowland rice-ratooned rice-okra as influenced by fertilizer rates in sawah rice based system. Field was manually cleared and bunded but power tilled, puddled and leveled with inlet and outlet connections for irrigation and drainage. Fertilizer treatments evaluated on lowland rice were 90:45:45, 60:30:30, 45:22.5:22.5 and 30:15:15 NPK kg ha-1 whereas those of ratooned rice were 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha-1. Grain yield, chlorophyll content and plant height at maturity of the main lowland rice were similar. The ratooned rice crop treated with N-fertilizer had similar grain yield. The total grain yield of the two crops of rice ranged between 4.47 and 5.65 t ha-1 year-1. The okra leaf chlorophyll content and okra pod weight obtained from the previous N-fertilizer plot of 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 were similar but significantly higher than those of 0 and 30 kg N ha-1. Thus, fertilizer combination of 30:15:15 kg NPK ha-1 for lowland rice and 60 kg N ha-1 for ratooned rice in sawah rice based production system enhanced the productivity of succeeding okra plant.

S. O. Adigbo; T. Wakatsuki; E. Fabusoro; C. I. Alarima; O. A. Alao; J. N. Odedina; O. R. Adeyemi; T. O. Fabunmi

2012-01-01

275

Natural radioactivity in phosphate rock, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate deposits are generally characterized by enhanced radionuclide concentrations compared to natural levels. The mining and processing of this phosphate ore redistribute radionuclides throughout the environment and introduce them into phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), NPK fertilizers and di-calcium phosphate (DCP). Contents of natural radionuclides from thorium and uranium series, 226Ra, 210Pb and 228Ra, were measured in Brazilian igneous phosphate rock, phosphoric acid, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizer samples, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of U and Th in the same samples. The fertilizers samples which are derived directly from phosphoric acid, MAP and DAP, presented activity concentrations around the detection limits of the counting system for 226Ra (-1), for 228Ra (-1) and for 210Pb (-1). As for U and Th, the concentrations found in MAP and DAP are more significant, up to 374 and 250 Bq x kg-1, respectively. SSP, TSP and NPK, which are obtained by mixing phosphoric acid with different amounts of phosphate rock and NH3, presented higher concentrations of radionuclides, up to 871 Bq x kg-1 for 226Ra, 283 Bq x kg-1 for 228Ra, 1255 Bq x kg-1 for 210Pb, 413 Bq x kg-1 for U and 538 Bq x kg-1 for Th. (author)

2005-01-01

276

BIOMASS AND WOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Sclerolobium paniculatum IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION  

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Full Text Available The present work studied the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics ofSclerolobium paniculatum Vogel var. subvelutinum wood of a plantation of 18 years old, under different levels of soil fertilization. Theinfluences of fertilization in the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics showed no significantresults. The results showed an average production of biomass per hectare of 92.55t. The results disclose that the cultivated carvoeiro,with 18 years old, have fibers with 14.03mm of diameter; 3.41mm of thickness and 708mm length; basic specific gravity of 0.52g/cm3;83.84% of volatile material; 15.65% of fixed carbon; calorific power of 4,671kcal/kg.

Iuri da Rocha Marmo de Oliveira; Ailton Teixeira do Vale; José Teodoro de Melo; Alexandre Florian da Costa; Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

2008-01-01

277

Effects of Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Jatropha curcas L. in an Aeric Tropaquept of Eastern India  

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Full Text Available In recent years Jatropha curcas L. has emerged as a biofuel crop attracting considerable interest of the researchers. The seeds of the plant yield non-edible oil with properties that are well suited for production of biodiesel. However it is still considered a semi-wild plant and systematic crop improvement programmes need to be undertaken to exploit its full yield potential. The present study deals with agronomic trials pertaining to optimum requirements of N:P:K fertilizers for better economic returns. Field experiments were conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the research farm of IMMT, Bhubaneswar, India (20?40? North and 85?50? East) to evaluate the effect of N:P:K fertilizers on the yield attributing characters of Jatropha. Five-year-old standing crop plantation was treated with two levels of N (60 and 50 g/plant), P (80 and 100 g/plant) and K (75 and 60 g/plant), either alone or in combination. Analysis of the results revealed significant differences in growth as well as yield characteristics due to application of inorganic fertilizers. While maximum seed yield (427.21 kg/ha) was recorded in N60 treatment, the seed oil content varied significantly from 32.00% to 35.69% under various regimes of N:P:K applications. Treatment with N50P100K60 and N60 resulted in consistent higher yield of seed oil. Based on the results of growth and yield attributes, application of N fertilizer proved to be beneficial for Jatropha under tropical agroclimatic conditions in an Aeric Tropaquept of eastern India.

Sagar MOHAPATRA; Prasanna Kumar PANDA

2011-01-01

278

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND RATES OF NITROGEN AND SUPRA OPTIMAL LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY SUGARCANE GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS  

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Full Text Available The results of our pervious studies indicated that application of potassium @150 kg K2O ha-1 is effective in achieving economical sugarcane yield and optimum nutrient uptake under saline conditions. Keeping in view these findings, experiments were conducted on salt-affected soils at three sites of Punjab, Pakistan to select a suitable source and rate of N for obtaining optimum sugarcane yield and nutrient uptake from salt-affected soils. The experiments were conducted with two sugarcane varieties, salt tolerant (SPSG-26) and sensitive (CP-77400) using supra optimal level of K (150 kg K2O ha-1) as sulphate of potash SOP, P @ 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 as DAP (diammonium phosphate) and N @100 and 200 kg N ha-1 as urea or calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN). The results showed that cane length and diameter, number of tillers per plant, cane yield and sugar recovery increased with the application of N in both the sugarcane varieties under normal or saline conditions. Sugarcane growth and yield increased with increasing N rate from 100 to 200 kg N ha-1 in case of both urea and CAN. However, CAN as N source was more effective in enhancing sugarcane growth and yield than urea. The concentration of Na+ increased in both the sugarcane varieties due to salinity, however, application of K and N decreased its concentration. The combined application of NPK also significantly reduced Na+ uptake in leaves, however, the best combination observed was DAP+SOP+CAN. It was also observed that salt tolerant variety (SPSG-26) had lesser accumulation of Na+ than that of sensitive one (CP-77400). Application of N fertilizers significantly enhanced the nutrient (K, P, and N) uptake in both the varieties at both N rates (100 and 200 kg N ha-1) under normal as well as saline conditions. However, maximum uptake of nutrients was recorded at the highest dose (200 kg N ha-1) but CAN treated plants performed better than that of urea. On the basis of above results, the application of K as SOP and N as CAN was recommended for salt-affected soils to enhance the sugarcane yield. The salt tolerant variety for higher yield in salt-affected soil is also necessary for improving the cost benefit ratio. The results revealed that if salinity level of soil would exceed 10 dS m-1, considerable reduction in sugarcane yield could occur.

M. YASIN ASHRAF; FAQIR HUSSAIN; JAVED1 AKHTAR; ATTIYA GUL; MARCUSS ROSS; GEORG EBERT

2008-01-01

279

Effect of levels P and K fertilizer on growth and yield of oil palm  

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Full Text Available The effects of P and K levels on growth and yield of oil palm were studied at the Agricultural and Technology College Plantation in Trang province in October, 1993 using eight-year-old palms planted on the Natham soil series (fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults) at the spacing of 8.5 x 8.5 x 8.5 m. A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The four treatments consisted of the combinations of two fertilizers: P (2 levels; 0.4, 0.8 kg P2O5/palm/year) and K (2 levels; 1.2, 2.4 kg K2O/palm/year). All treatments were applied the same rate of N (0.8 kg N/palm/year). The growth and oil palm yield were recorded for 4 years. The results showed clear effects of high P and K levels on growth of oil palm. Although the number of fronds did not differ, leaf area, leaf dry matter weight and leaflets of 17th frond tended to increase. The high K level tended also to give an increased FFB yield in years 2, 3 and 4. However, the effect of P levels on FFB yield of oil palm varied over the years. Considering a suitable rate of fertilizer application in terms of economic return, the low fertilizer rate (P 0.4 kg P2O5/palm/ year, K 1.2 kg K2O/palm/year and N 0.8 kg N/palm/year) gave the highest profit, although it resulted in the lowest FFB yield.

Eksomtramage, T.; Nilnond, C.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Tongkum, P.; Sangkaew, S.

2001-01-01

280

Effect of Different Levels of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Protein Content of Wheat  

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Full Text Available An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on the growth, yield and protein content of two wheat varieties. Two varieties of wheat were tested. Aghrani and Kanchan with five levels of chemical and organic fertilizer viz. F1 (control), F2, F3, F4 and F5. Urea was applied in 2 splits in F1 and in 3 splits in F2 to F4 as per recommendation. In F5, it was applied in 4 equal splits. In F1, inorganic fertilizers were applied @ 100 kg N, 36 kg P, 25 kg K and 20 kg S/ha. In F2 to F5, fertilizers were applied @ 120 kg N, 27 kg P, 83 kg K, 30 kg S and 4 kg Zn/ha. Grain Yield and protein content was higher in Kanchan than Aghrani variety. Among the different levels of fertilizer application, F5 had superior performance on all the parameters, whereas, F1 had the most inferior effect on all the parameters including grain and straw yields. The yield, yield contributing characters and protein content of wheat increased with increase in the levels inorganic fertilizers, addition of composts with fertilizer and also by increasing split application of nitrogen.

M. Rafiqul Islam

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effect of Glycerol Levels on the Motility and Fertility of Kampung Chicken Spermatozoa Frozen in Liquid Nitrogen  

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Full Text Available The use of various levels of glycerol as a cryoprotective agent for freezing kampung chicken semen was examined with respect to intravaginal insemination. There was a significant (P<0.05) effect of various levels of glycerol (4, 8, 12 and 16 %) on motile spermatozoa, but there was no significant effect on fertility. It was concluded that the use of glycerol for preservation of kampung chicken semen in liquid nitrogen gave satisfactory cryopreservative results on motility of thawed kampung chicken spermatozoa, but failed to produce fertile eggs. (Animal Production 9(1): 45-48 (2007) Key Words: glycerol, kampung chicken, semen, fertility, motility, liquid nitrogen

DM Saleh; Sugiyatno

2007-01-01

282

Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996)  

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Full Text Available EnglishThis study focuses on the fertility levels and trends of Iranian women aged10-49 years during three decades, 1967-1996. Information was collected by interviewing a systematiccluster sample of 13,253 households. The basic date of concern was the date of each live born childfor a sample of women in reproductive age and whether the live born was alive at the time of thestudy. The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to becalculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates werefound for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels areprobably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately afterthe 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 haddropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96). This declinewas probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularlysince 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a babyboom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the comingdecades.FrenchCette étude porte sur les niveaux et les tendances de fertilité chez les Iraniennes âgées de 10 à 49 ans sur une période de trente ans, soit de 1967-1996. L'information a été recueillie en interviewant un échantillon en grappes systématique de 13 253 ménages. La principale date qui nous intéresse est la date de naissance de chaque enfant vivant pour un échantillon de femmes en âge de procréer et le fait que l'enfant soit toujours en vie au moment de l'étude. La nature détaillée des données recueillies pour chaque naissance a permis d'établir les taux de fertilité pour les périodes précises avant le sondage pour les années civiles précises. Les taux de fertilité étaient supérieurs pour les périodes de 10 à 15 ans et de 15 à 20 ans avant le sondage. Ces taux élevés sont sans doute attribuables à des changements socio-économiques favorisant une plus grande fertilité immédiatement après la révolution de 1979. Cependant, les résultats de ce sondage indiquent qu'entre 1967 et 1996, l'ISF est passé de 6,38 à 2.88 (ISF avait été établi à partir du comportement procréateur des années 1992-96). Cette chute avait probablement été causée par le fait que les femmes se mariaient plus tard et à des changements dans la politique favorisant la régulation des populations, surtout depuis 1987. Malgré ce déclin éventuel de la fertilité des dernières années, l'Iran s'attend, au cours des prochaines décennies, à une explosion démographique une fois que les enfants nés entre 1976 et 86 auront atteints l'âge de procréer.

Farahani, Mahmood Mahmoodi; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; Mohammad, Kazem

2002-01-01

283

Sowing densities and NPK and liming rates for common bean (cv. Iapar 81) on clayey latosol of Ponta Grossa, Parana State, Brazil /Densidades de semeadura, níveis de adubação NPK e calagem para o feijoeiro (cv. Iapar 81) em latossolo argiloso de Ponta Grossa – Pr  

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Full Text Available With a view to studying the most adequate plant populations and levels of fertilization and liming to the bean crop cultivar IAPAR 81, a field experiment was conducted on a clayey Latosol of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, at the summer sowing season. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme involving four plant populations (100, 200, 300 and 400 thousand plants ha-1) and four rates of fertilization and liming (0.0; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 of the recommended doses) with four replicates. Plant height, grain yield, pod number per plant, grain number per pod and 100 grain-weight were determined. It follows that both, fertilization plus liming and high plant population resulted into higher yields. The maximum economical efficiency was obtained from fertilizer and limestone amounts equivalents to those of the refference dose.Com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento de populações de plantas, níveis de adubação NPK e calagem mais adequados à cultura do feijoeiro cv. IAPAR 81, foi conduzido um experimento de campo em um Latossolo argiloso localizado em Ponta Grossa – PR, na safra das águas 2001/02. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 envolvendo quatro populações de plantas (100, 200, 300 e 400 mil plantas ha-1) e quatro níveis de adubação e correção (0,0 ; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 das doses de fertilizantes e calcário recomendadas), com quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que no solo estudado, tanto a adubação e calagem como o aumento da população de plantas são estratégias eficientes para a obtenção de maior rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro cv. IAPAR 81. A máxima eficiência econômica foi obtida com quantidades de fertilizantes e calcário equivalentes às doses oficialmente recomendadas para a região.

Antonio Barbara de Souza; Messias José Bastos de Andrade; Vandeir Gregório Alves; Fernando Bauml Campagnoli

2004-01-01

284

Effect of Municipal Wastewater with Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Grain Yield and Yield Components in Corn KoSc 704  

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Full Text Available In order to study effects of wastewater with two kind of fertilizers (manure and chemical fertilizer) on grain yield and yield components in corn (KoSc 704) a field experimental was conducted at the university of Zabol in Iran during 2007 growing season. The experiment was conducted as split block design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of two levels of irrigation water (W1 = well water and W2 = wasetewater) in main plot and five levels of fertilizer (F1 = control, F2 = manure: 30 ton ha–1, F3 = manure: 15 ton ha–1, F4 = NPK: 350, 200 and 100 kg ha–1 and F5 = NPK: 175, 100 and 50 kg ha–1) in sub plot. Results showed irrigation with wastewater significantly increased grain yield of corn than usual water. Also, wastewater had positive significantly influence on grain yield and all yield components, but the most effective of wastewater on yield components was on the 1000-seed weight. Among the fertilizer, F4 in all situations had the most effective on the grain yield and yield components and increased them.

Yaser Esmailiyan; Mostafa Heidari; Ahmad Ghanbari

2008-01-01

285

Ensaio de adubação N-P-K em amendoim/ N-P-K fertilizer test with peanuts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente ensaio, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich contendo terra-roxa-misturada, foi instalado com a finalidade de se determinar o efeito dos elementos fertilizantes nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, na produção do amendoim. Empregou-se para êste estudo o delineamento fatorial 3x4x3, contendo cada tratamento três repetições. Foram colhidos separadamente a parte aérea e os frutos e sôbre êstes dois fatôres foi estudada a ação daqueles elementos fertilizant (more) es. Os dados coletados mostram haver semelhança entre os resultados com a produção da parte aérea e a dos frutos. O elemento responsável pela maior produção foi o fósforo, vindo a seguir o nitrogênio; o potássio não teve influência no aumento de produção. Pelos dados obtidos neste experimento deduz-se que a fórmula de adubação que melhores resultados apresentou foi a N1P3, ou sejam, 30 e 240 quilos de N e P2O5 por hectare, respectivamente. Abstract in english The present test was carried out with peanut plants grown in Mitscherlich pots filled with the "terra-roxa-misturada" type of soil. Its objective was to determine the influence of the three major elements, viz. nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the yield. A 3 x 4 x 3 factorial design was employed, each treatment being replicated 3 times. Both the aerial parts of the plants and the fruit were harvested separately and used for statistical analysis. Fruit yield and weig (more) ht of aerial parts showed similar responses to the treatments. Phosphorus increased the yield the most, followed by nitrogen; potash had no influence on yield. According to the results obtained the best formula was N1P3, corresponding to 30 and 240 kg of N and P2O5 per hectare, respectively.

Gargantini, H.; Tella, Romeu de; Conagin, A.

1958-01-01

286

Crop Coefficient (kc) and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of Soybean as Affected by Soil Moisture Stress and Fertility Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiment were conducted to study the crop coefficient (Kc) and water use Efficiency (WUE) of soybean as affected by soil moisture stress and fertility levels at Malir Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University. Tnadojam, Pakistan on silt loam soil. The results revealed that crop efficient (Kc) increased with an increase in the crop age. The Kc was higher proportionate to higher moisture availability. The peak Kc was at 105-125 days after sowing, corresponding with early stage to complete fill stage of soybean crop. Water use efficiency at 5 bar tensions signified the plants under stress and were more efficient in utilizing water for the production of grain. The higher fertility was exhibited through appropriate fertilizer levels which in-turn increased the water use efficiency and compensated water deficiency. Thus, it is recommended that crop coefficient and fertility levels should be identified for obtaining maximum water use efficiency and yield targets.

U.A. Burriro; H.A. Samoon; F.C. Oad; G.H. Jamro

2002-01-01

287

The effect of NPK Compound (6:16:7) on Chemical Soil Properties of Thapic Epiaquands and Cucumber Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of NPK compound (6:16:7) on chemical soil properties of Thapic Epiaquands, growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) has been studied in Punthuk Rejo Village, Karanganyar District. The aims were to study the influence of NPK fertiliser on chemical soil properties, growth and yield of cucumber. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. The treatments were rate of NPK fertilisers including control, NPK standard, 150 kg NPK compound (6:16:7) ha-1, 300 kg NPK compound (6:16:7) ha-1, 450 kg NPK compound (6:16:7) ha-1, 600 kg NPK compound (6:16:7) ha-1, 300 kg NPK compound (6:16:7) ha-1 + ¼ NPK standard, and 300 kg NPK compound (6:16:7) ha-1 + ½ NPK standard. The NPK standard originated from single fertiliser, namely urea, SP-36 and KCl, while the NPK compound was Agrotop, containing 6.15% N, 16.23% P2O5 and 6.87% K2O following named NPK compound (6:16:7). The rate of NPK standard was 100 kg urea ha-1, 100 kg SP-36 ha-1 and 200 kg KCl ha-1 referring to the local recommended fertiliser rate. Application of NPK, both NPK (6:16:7) and NPK Standard, improved the chemical soil properties, namely N, P and K total as well available P. So far, application of 300 kg NPK compound ha-1 significantly increased the number of cucumber fruits and cucumber yield. Compared to the control, the increases were 13% and 44% for the number of cucumber fruits and cucumber yield, respectively. So far, combination of NPK compound (6:16:7) at the rate of 300 kg ha-1 with half recommended rate of NPK standard yielded a significant effect on both the number of cucumber fruits and weight of cucumber. These improvements were comparable to the NPK standard under fully recommended rate. The relative agronomic effectiveness value of combination of NPK (6:16:7) at the rate of 300 kg ha-1 with half recommended rate of NPK standard were about 100%, similar with the value of NPK standard. The economic analysis indicated that NPK standard with recommended application rate and combination of NPK Agrotop at the rate of 300 kg ha-1 with half recommended rate of NPK standard gave high benefit, B/C ratio and IBCR. The B/C ratio and IBCR were higher than one.

Sukristiyonubowo; Ibrahim Adamy Sipahutar; Ishak Achmad

2009-01-01

288

Poder de mercado na indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08), no período de 1993-2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As barreiras à entrada, a concentração observada e a alta de preços dos fertilizantes induziram à desconfiança de possibilidade de exercício do poder de mercado por parte das empresas representativas da indústria brasileira de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08). Esses indícios podem ser condição necessária, porém não suficiente para afirmar a existência e o exercício de fato do poder. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar a conduta das empresas representativas da indústria de fertilizantes NPK (04-14-08), por meio da estimação do parâmetro de conduta médio, ?. O período de análise foi fevereiro de 1993 a dezembro de 2006. A análise do comportamento das firmas baseou-se na teoria da Nova Organização Industrial Empírica. O ? foi estimado via interação da equação de demanda e relação de oferta representativa da indústria. Sob o ?, aplicou­-se o teste de hipótese para conhecer a conduta das firmas. Os resultados não permitiram identificar a existência do poder de mercado, exceto quando foram consideradas apenas as quatro maiores empresas. Entretanto, não foi possível fazer inferências sobre o exercício do poder de mercado das quatro maiores empresas, haja visto que a principal preocupação foi em relação à possibilidade de exercício, e não ao seu exercício de poder de fato.Barriers to the entrance, the concentration observed and the increase of prices of fertilizers had conducted to the diffidence of the possibility of the exercise of market power on part of companies which represent the Brazilian industry of the NPK (04-14-08) fertilizer. These indications can be a necessary condition, however not enough to affirm the existence and the exercise, in fact, of the power. The objective was to identify the behavior of the representative companies of the NPK (04-14-08) fertilizer industry, through the estimate of the average parameter of behavior, ?. The period of analysis was February 1993 until December 2006. The analysis of the behavior of the firms was based on the New Empirical Industrial Organization (Neio) theory. ? was projected through the interaction of the demand equation and the representative supply ratio of the industry. Under ?, the hypothesis test was applied to know the behavior of the firms. Results did not allow identifying the existence of the market power, except when only the four major companies had been considered. However, it was not possible to make inferences on the exercise of the market power of the four major companies, since that the main concern was regarding the possibility of the exercise, and not the exercise in fact.

Graciela Aparecida Profeta; Marcelo José Braga

2011-01-01

289

Identification and characterization of microorganisms from earthworm viscera for the conversion of fish wastes into liquid fertilizer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five bacteria isolated from earthworm viscera and identified as Brevibacillus agri, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Brevibacillus parabrevis by 16S rRNA sequencing were employed in the conversion of fish wastes generated from a restaurant specializing in sliced raw fish into fertilizer. Within 120h after inoculation of autoclaved fish waste with 5.15 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1) mixed isolates, the amount of dry sludge decreased from 29.4 to 0.2g, the pH changed from 7.05 to 5.70, and the cell number reached 6.45 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1). Analyses of an 84-h culture of inoculated fish waste indicated low phytotoxicity in a seed germination test, an amino acid content of 5.71 g 100 g(-1), a low concentration of heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn), and a N/P/K level of 2.33%. Therefore the converted fish waste has the potential for use as liquid fertilizer, although the low NPK level is a concern. This is the first demonstration of the reutilization of fish wastes as a liquid fertilizer.

Kim JK; Dao VT; Kong IS; Lee HH

2010-07-01

290

Identification and characterization of microorganisms from earthworm viscera for the conversion of fish wastes into liquid fertilizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five bacteria isolated from earthworm viscera and identified as Brevibacillus agri, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Brevibacillus parabrevis by 16S rRNA sequencing were employed in the conversion of fish wastes generated from a restaurant specializing in sliced raw fish into fertilizer. Within 120h after inoculation of autoclaved fish waste with 5.15 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1) mixed isolates, the amount of dry sludge decreased from 29.4 to 0.2g, the pH changed from 7.05 to 5.70, and the cell number reached 6.45 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1). Analyses of an 84-h culture of inoculated fish waste indicated low phytotoxicity in a seed germination test, an amino acid content of 5.71 g 100 g(-1), a low concentration of heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn), and a N/P/K level of 2.33%. Therefore the converted fish waste has the potential for use as liquid fertilizer, although the low NPK level is a concern. This is the first demonstration of the reutilization of fish wastes as a liquid fertilizer. PMID:20189380

Kim, Joong Kyun; Dao, Van Thingoc; Kong, In Soo; Lee, Hyung Ho

2010-02-26

291

Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida). The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose) recorded the highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes such as number of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plot, flower yield/plant, flower yield/plot. The early flower bud initiation, 50 percent flowering and more flowering duration was achieved in the treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose). Application of Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose) registered significantly higher quality parameters such as flower diameter.

Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM; Mahmud SHOOR

2013-01-01

292

MANAGEMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL BY USING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS: EFFECT ON PLANT PERFORMANCE  

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Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination leads to variety of harmful effects on soil and plant characteristics. In order to reduce the toxic effects of such substances, an experiment was conducted by FYM, N, NPK, FYM + NPK and FYM + N amendments in the soil from an area irrigated by waste water for more than 20 years. Soil and plant characteristics were compared between fertilizer (FYM, NPK, N and FYM + N, FYM + NPK) amended and non-amended control soil. As compared to the control, plants under FYM and FYM + NPK amendments showed lower accumulation of heavy metals and higher yield. Plants grown in NPK and N amended soil showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and lower yield compared to the control. Higher uptake of heavy metals in plants under NPK and N amendments, led to increase in the antioxidants enzymes, but reductions in photosynthesis rate, growth and yield. The results suggest that the application of FYM alone and in combination with inorganic fertilizers may be recommended as cost effective technique for reducing the availability of heavy metals in waste water irrigated soil.

Anita Singh and Madhoolika Agrawal

2011-01-01

293

Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level of two newly developed farms in Western Desert, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of soil and plants were carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels of two newly developed farms in western desert area, Egypt. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy in which a shielded high purity germanium detector has been used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide contents in some commercial fertilizers have been determined. The results of analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/Kg for 238U, 0.73 -162.16 Bq/Kg for 232Th and 10.22- 23845.24 Bq/Kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low activity concentrations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/Kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/Kg) were quite similar, while that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/Kg) was the highest for plant samples. Some of the results obtained were higher than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values for the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration were found to be 1.91-1027 n Gy/h and 4.02-1840.98 Bq/Kg, respectively, for fertilizers samples. For soil and plant samples, the results were 11.86-415.29 n Gy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/Kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively, and the banana plant contained the largest values. The present study presents actual data from investigations of the plant-soil transfer of the primordial radio nuclides for some fruits growing at these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflected its great uptake to the fruits. The observed plant-soil factors were varied widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not endanger the health safety of the produced food

2006-01-01

294

Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species.

Phuntsho S; Shon HK; Majeed T; El Saliby I; Vigneswaran S; Kandasamy J; Hong S; Lee S

2012-04-01

295

Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones.

Rodriguez-Navas C; Björklund E; Halling-Sørensen B; Hansen M

2013-09-01

296

Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. PMID:23726145

Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

2013-05-29

297

Selenium fertilizers and foliar application, Danish experiments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1963 Se-deficiency was observed for the first time in Denmark in a few sheep in West Jutland. The sheep were cured by injection of "Tokosel", and a survey of the Se-status of Danish fodder crops was initiated. A comprehensive set of data was produced during the early 70's, using the fluorometric method. The survey showed a general Se-deficiency in the whole country, and series of experiments were carried out to elucidate the possibility of raising the selenium level in plants from the native 0.02-0.04 ppm to more than the desired minimum of 0.05 ppm. Three different methods of application were tested: seed pretreatment, fertilizer enrichment, and foliar application. Seed pre-treatment has some disadvantages while the two other methods proved to be efficient and safe in a series of experiments and in tests on a large number of farms all over Denmark. These experiments and tests are discussed in detail. It is concluded that about 120 g Se/ha as sodium selenite, 10 g Se/ha as sodium selenate - both added through PK- or NPK-fertilizers, or foliar application of about 5 g Se/ha are sufficient yearly treatments to raise the native Se content of the Danish crops to levels of 0.05-0.1 ppm.

Gissel-Nielsen G

1986-01-01

298

Efecto de la fertilización con N-P-K sobre el rendimiento y las concentraciones foliares en Aloysia polystachia (Griseb) Moldenke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of fertilization using different dose of N-P-K on biomass production and foliage concentrations of these elements in Aloysia polystachia (Griseb) Moldenke. The experiment was done at Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (Agronomy Faculty) Research Farm (UNNE), Corrientes city (Argentina) during cycle 2003-2004. Three fertilizer supplies were made every 45 days, making mowing and taking samples 40 days after each supply. Eight treatments with three repetitions each, using arrangements with divided plot with mowing time as a main plot and treatment as a sub-unit. Supplied dose were 66 kg·ha-1 of N, 50 kg·ha-1 of P2O5 and 50 kg·ha-1 of K2O. Yield indicators as fresh weight, dry weight, number of leaves and length of branches were evaluated. Also foliage concentrations of these nutrients were determined in each mowing. Nitrogen was determined by Kjeldhal Method, phosphorous by spectrum photometry visible UV (Murphy-Riley Method) and potassium by spectrum photometry of atomic absorption. Fertilization with N-P-K in dose and proved moments didn’t have a considerable effect in biomass production, was observed in general an increment of the same ones in the treatments in that fertilizers were applied.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto que ejerce la fertilización con distintas dosis de N-P-K sobre la producción de masa verde y las concentraciones foliares de estos elementos en Aloysia polystachia (Griseb) Moldenke. El ensayo fue realizado en el Campo Experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (UNNE),Corrientes (Argentina) durante el ciclo 2003-2004. Fueron realizadastres aplicaciones de fertilizantes cada 45 días, realizándose el corte y toma de muestras a los 40 días de cada fertilización.Fueron probados ocho tratamientos con tres repeticiones cada uno,utilizándose un arreglo en parcela dividida con época de corte como parcela principal y tratamiento como subparcela. Fueron aplicados por hectárea 66 kg de N, y 50 kg de P2O5 y K2O,evaluándose indicadores de rendimiento (peso fresco, peso seco,número de hojas y longitud de ramas) y las concentraciones foliares de estos nutrientes para cada corte. El N fue determinado por el Método de Kjeldahl, P por espectrofotometría UV–Visible (Método de Muphy–Riley) y K por espectrometría de absorción atómica.La fertilización con N-PK, en las dosis probadas no tuvo efecto sobre la producción de masa verde, pero sí incrementó las concentraciones foliares de N-P-K en los tratamientos fertilizados.

Schroeder, M.A.; López, A.E.; Delceggio, E.X.N.; Cenóz, P.J.

2007-01-01

299

Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and ?-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and ?-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity) of the roots and the juice was found.

Marek GAJEWSKI; Zenon W?GLAR; Anna SEREDA; Marta BAJER; Agnieszka KUCZKOWSKA; Micha? MAJEWSKI

2010-01-01

300

Impact of Nitrogen Fertilizer, Their Levels, Application Time and Weeding Methods on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of nitrogen fertilizer (80, 100 and 120 kg N ha -1 to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) applied at sowing, early and boot stage and weed control methods (no weeding, hand weeding, chemical applied once and twice). A basal dose of 40 kg N ha -1 was given to all treatments at sowing. Grain weight showed no response to fertilizer, Spike population and number of grains per spike had a positive linear relationship with fertilizer levels. Weed control methods significantly influenced grain weight and number of grains spike -1. Highest grain yield was achieved from single application of Isoproturon and fertilizer applied at the rate of 120 kg N ha -1 in three equal split doses.

Mujtaba Masood; Muhammad Tariq Jan; Imran Haider Shamsi

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

COMPLETE COMPLEX ORGANOMINERAL FERTILIZER (ZEOLITE-3)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: fertilizers. SUBSTANCE: the complete complex organomineral fertilizer consists of organic fertilizer, mineral fertilizer NPK and natural zeolite- containing component. As a zeolitecontaining component fertilizer comprises natural zeolite-containing tripolite including macroelements and trace elements, calcium and magnesium-deoxidizing agents for soil, zeolite-adsorbents taken in the following ratio of components: mineral component NPK : organic component peat : natural zeolite-containing tripolite = (1.7-1.5) : (0.65- 0.75) : (0.65-0.75), respectively, in the following ratio of active components in fertilizer, wt.-%: nitrogen, 6.5-8 phosphorus, 8-10.5 potassium, 8.5-11 calcium. 4-5 magnesium, 0.4-0.5 organic substance peat with humin compounds, 20-25 zeolite-adsorbents, 6-7 and trace elements, mg/kg: manganese, 100-125 boron, 1.5-2 copper, 100-110 zinc, 4-5 cobalt, 0.1-0.2 molybdenum, 0.5-0.6. Prepared fertilizer provides plants with all nutrient substances, reduces soil acidity and provides it using by addition to wells without root burning and without deterioration of the yield quality. EFFECT: valuable properties of fertilizer. 1 tbl, 1 ex

VASIL EV G V

302

Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse.

Adam Langley J; Mozdzer TJ; Shepard KA; Hagerty SB; Patrick Megonigal J

2013-05-01

303

New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source...

Helena Gorecka; Henryk Gorecki; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Marzanna Bara?ska; Izabela Michalak; Agnieszka Zieli?ska

304

Soil nutrient dynamics as influenced by organomineral fertilizers and tea seedlings nutrient uptake in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cocoa husk, cow dung, poultry droppings, siam weed - Chromolaena odorata and tea fluff are common farm wastes in Nigeria. They were used as manures as sole and in combination with inorganic fertilizer as organominerals (OMF), compared to NPK (5:l:1) a reference fertilizer, to supply 150 kg N ha-l to...

Ipinmoroti, R.R.; Adeoye, G.O.; Iremiren, G.O.

305

Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf) Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS) soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration) and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1), medium (1260 kg plot-1) and low (700 kg plot-1) respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo) were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm) were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv) were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency) were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff; Hazandy Abdul-Hamid; Arifin Abdu; Abdul-Latib Senin; W. A.R. Wan-Mohd-Nazri

2011-01-01

306

Influence of education levels on dissemination of soil fertility management information in the central highlands of Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inadequate links between researchers and farmers has resulted in low uptake of research advances recommended to improve food security in the central highlands of Kenya. Access to timely and accurate information by extension agents and farmers is paramount in dissemination of soil fertility management practices. Hence, the study sought to investigate the effect of education levels on communication channels used to disseminate soil fertility technologies in the Central highlands of Kenya. Questionnaires were used to elicit information from 105 extension agents and 240 farmers. About 50.5% of the extension officers were certificate holders while 29.5% were diploma holders from agricultural institutes. Majority of the farmers had attained primary education (59.6%) while 25.8% and 9.2% had attained secondary and post secondary education, respectively. Research institutions were the most accessible sources of information on soil fertility management practices by extension agents while internet and scientific conferences were the least scored as accessible sources of soil fertility management information by extension agents. Education levels significantly influenced preference of individual approach methods by farmers. There was a significant positive relationship between education and accessibility of internet as a source of information on green manure. The implication of the study was that education levels influenced the mode of communication used in the transfer of soil fertility research outputs to the end users. Consequently, it is extremely important to consider education levels in selection of dissemination pathways used in agriculture.

Serah Wairimu Kimaru-Muchai; Jayne Njeri Mugwe; Monicah Mucheru-Muna; Franklin Somoni Mairura; Daniel Njiru

2012-01-01

307

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Levels of Some Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances in Hibiscus sabdariffa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of antinutrients and toxic substances in vegetables limits the derivable benefits from vegetables. The levels of these substances in vegetables are influenced by the nature of soil in which the vegetables are grown. The effect of applied nitrogen fertilizer on the levels of some antinut...

Amanabo Musa; Emmanuel O. Ogbadoyi

308

The radioactivity measurements in soils and fertilizers using gamma spectrometry technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of their mineral content, soils are naturally radioactive and one of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to the extensive use of fertilizers. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclides in local production of phosphate fertilizers to determine the content of radioactivity in several commercial fertilizers produced in Algeria and to estimate their radiological impact in a cultivated soil even for the long-term exposure due to their application. For these purposes, virgin and fertilized soils were collected from outlying Setif region in Algeria and from phosphate fertilizers used in this area. Gamma spectrometry was exploited to determine activity concentration due to naturally occurring (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in five types of samples (two different sorts of fertilizers, virgin and fertilized soils and well water used for irrigation) taken from Setif's areas. The results show that these radionuclides were present in an average concentration of 134.7 ± 24.1, 131.8 ± 16.7, 11644 ± 550 Bq/kg for the first fertilizer NPK and 190.3 ± 30, 117.2 ± 10.3, 5312 ± 249 Bq/kg for the second fertilizer (NPKs). For the virgin and the fertilized soils, the corresponding values were respectively 47.01 ± 7.3, 33 ± 7, 329.4 ± 19.7 Bq/kg and 53.2 ± 10.6, 50.0 ± 7, 311.4 ± 18.7 Bq/kg. For well water, the values were 1.93 and 0.12 Bq/kg; however the third value was below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the representative level index I(?r) for all samples were also calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature. PMID:21334798

Boukhenfouf, Wassila; Boucenna, Ahmed

2011-02-22

309

Use of Gypsum to Increase Fertilizer Efficiency on Normal Soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field experiments were conducted on maize and wheat under normal soil conditions at Qalla, Charsadda and Tarnab, Peshawar irrigated with canal water to evaluate the effect of gypsum application on the efficiency of NPK fertilizers. Gypsum was applied @ 0, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 with two lev...

Banaras H. Niazi; Izhar-ul-Haq; M. Salim; Manzoor Ahmad

310

Determination of Optimum Level of Fertilizer Nitrogen for Varrieties of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigation to compare the growth, yield and protein percentage in grains of two wheat varieties under varying levels of nitrogen were carried out in sandy loam soil. The nitrogen levels comprised 0,50,100,150,200 and 250 kg ha+ while the cultivars were Inqualab-91 and pasban-90. The results showed that the various components of wheat crop such as number of tillers per unit area, spike bearing tillers, grain weight per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and straw yield were affected significantly by different levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen application in the range of 150 to 200 kg ha-1 along with 118 kg P2O5 ha-1 was found to be an optimum does. Nitrogen application beyond range of 150 to 200 kg ha –1 will not be profitable. Protein contents of wheat grain increased with increasing level of nitrogen. Inqualab-91 produced significantly more number of fertile tillers per unit area, 1000-grain weight, higher harvest index and straw yield than Pasban-90. The average grain yield of inqualab-91 was 4.35 t ha-1 and Pasban-90 was 3.66 t ha-1.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry; R. Mehmood

1998-01-01

311

Adubação mineral de Pinus oocarpa schiede/ Mineral fertilization of Pinus oocarpa schiede  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente ensaio refere-se à adubação de Pinus oocarpa Schiede. Foi instalado em solo Latossolo Vermelho Escuro Distrófico originalmente sob vegetação de cerrado, no município de Assis, São Paulo. Através de medições periódicos de altura e DAP (diâmetro à altura do peito) das árvores, foram verificados os efeitos da adubação NPK, calagem, S, B e Zn sob delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Pela análise estatística do (more) s últimos dados de altura e diâmetro, quando as plantas estavam com 3 anos, conclui-se que: a adubação NPK proporcionou um aumento significativo no desenvolvimento das plantas em altura e diâmetro; a adubação NPK + calagem aumentou significativamente a altura; a adubação NPK + calagem + S aumentou significativamente o diâmetro e a aplicação de B e Zn não apresentou efeitos significativos. Abstract in english The present work deals with the mineral fertilization of Pinus oocarpa Schiede. The experiment took place in a Distrophic Dark-Red Latosol, formerly under "cerrado" vegetation in Assis, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The height and D.B.C. (diameter breast height) of the trees were periodically measured in order to check the effects of NPK, liming, S, B and Zn fertilization under experimental delineation of randomized blocks with four repetitions . By means of statistical an (more) alysis of the last height and diameter data on three year-old plants, we can conclude that: NPK fertilization significantly increased the height and diameter of the plants; NPK + liming treatment significantly increased the plants height; NPK + liming + S treatment significantly increased the plants diameter and the application of B and Zn did not exert any effect.

Lopes, M.I.M.S.; Gurgel, M.A. de O.; Garrido, L.M. do A.G.; Mello, F. de A.F. de

1983-01-01

312

Distribution of natural radioactivity through use of phosphate containing fertilizers in agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of the natural radionuclides Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in a number of phosphate fertilizers used in Sweden have been measured. An estimation of the gonad dose to different groups of the population have been done. The average gonad dose from external radiation from phosphate fertilization was 0.0002 mrad/year, with a maximum of 0.005 mrad/year from last 75 years the average was 0.05 mrad/year with a maximum of 0.08 mrad/year assuming total accumulation of radium. The annual consumption of fertilizers increases. In spite of this soil will probably not increase as the use of NP- and NPK-fertilizers increase. NP- and NPK-fertilizers contain less activity than older fertilizers like superphosphate. The result of the investigation is that the extra radiation hazard caused by phosphate fertilizer is very small today

1977-01-01

313

Fertilizante mineral e resíduo orgânico sobre características agronômicas da soja e nutrientes no solo/ Mineral fertilizer and organic waste on soybean crop and soil nutrients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do fertilizante mineral NPK associado ao resíduo orgânico "cama de frango", sobre as características agronômicas da soja bem como os teores de nutrientes em um Cambissolo. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Itutinga, sul de Minas Gerais, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições em esquema de parcela subdividida. A cultivar utilizada no experimento foi a BRS Favorita RR. Os tratamentos aplicados às parcelas (more) foram constituídos por quatro doses de "cama de frango" (0; 3; 6 e 9 Mg ha-1), aplicados em área total. As subparcelas constituíram as cinco doses do fertilizante mineral formulado NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 kg ha-1), aplicados ao sulco de semeadura. A adubação com o fertilizante mineral proporciona aumento na altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, número de legumes por planta e na produtividade de grãos da cultura da soja. A adubação com o resíduo orgânico "cama de frango" eleva a altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, massa de 100 grãos, número de legumes por planta e o rendimento de grãos de soja, porém em doses mais elevadas favorece o acamamento das plantas. A utilização da cama de frango é viável em termos agronômicos e econômicos na cultura da soja. A adição de cama de frango eleva os teores de potássio e enxofre no solo. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral fertilizer NPK associated with the organic waste "poultry litter" on the agronomic characteristics of soybean as well as nutrient levels in the Cambisol. The experiment was carried out in Itutinga, southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in a randomized blocks experimental design with three replications in split-plot. The cultivar used was BRS Favorita RR. The treatments applied to plots consisted on four dose (more) s of "poultry litter" (0; 3; 6 and 9 Mg ha-1), applied in the total area. The subplots were the five doses of mineral fertilizer NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 kg ha-1), applied to the groove seeding. Fertilization with mineral fertilizers provides an increase in plant and first pod height, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean. Fertilization with organic waste "poultry litter" increases the plant and first pod height, weight of 100 grains, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean, however at higher doses favors the lodging of plants. The use of poultry litter is viable in agronomic and economic terms in the soybean crop. The addition of poultry litter increases the contents of potassium and sulfur in the soil.

Carvalho, Everson Reis; Rezende, Pedro Milanez de; Andrade, Messias José Bastos de; Passos, Alexandre Martins Abdão dos; Oliveira, João Almir

2011-12-01

314

Fertilizante mineral e resíduo orgânico sobre características agronômicas da soja e nutrientes no solo Mineral fertilizer and organic waste on soybean crop and soil nutrients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do fertilizante mineral NPK associado ao resíduo orgânico "cama de frango", sobre as características agronômicas da soja bem como os teores de nutrientes em um Cambissolo. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Itutinga, sul de Minas Gerais, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições em esquema de parcela subdividida. A cultivar utilizada no experimento foi a BRS Favorita RR. Os tratamentos aplicados às parcelas foram constituídos por quatro doses de "cama de frango" (0; 3; 6 e 9 Mg ha-1), aplicados em área total. As subparcelas constituíram as cinco doses do fertilizante mineral formulado NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 kg ha-1), aplicados ao sulco de semeadura. A adubação com o fertilizante mineral proporciona aumento na altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, número de legumes por planta e na produtividade de grãos da cultura da soja. A adubação com o resíduo orgânico "cama de frango" eleva a altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro legume, massa de 100 grãos, número de legumes por planta e o rendimento de grãos de soja, porém em doses mais elevadas favorece o acamamento das plantas. A utilização da cama de frango é viável em termos agronômicos e econômicos na cultura da soja. A adição de cama de frango eleva os teores de potássio e enxofre no solo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral fertilizer NPK associated with the organic waste "poultry litter" on the agronomic characteristics of soybean as well as nutrient levels in the Cambisol. The experiment was carried out in Itutinga, southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in a randomized blocks experimental design with three replications in split-plot. The cultivar used was BRS Favorita RR. The treatments applied to plots consisted on four doses of "poultry litter" (0; 3; 6 and 9 Mg ha-1), applied in the total area. The subplots were the five doses of mineral fertilizer NPK 04-30-10 (0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 kg ha-1), applied to the groove seeding. Fertilization with mineral fertilizers provides an increase in plant and first pod height, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean. Fertilization with organic waste "poultry litter" increases the plant and first pod height, weight of 100 grains, number of pods per plant and yield of soybean, however at higher doses favors the lodging of plants. The use of poultry litter is viable in agronomic and economic terms in the soybean crop. The addition of poultry litter increases the contents of potassium and sulfur in the soil.

Everson Reis Carvalho; Pedro Milanez de Rezende; Messias José Bastos de Andrade; Alexandre Martins Abdão dos Passos; João Almir Oliveira

2011-01-01

315

Struvite-based fertilizer and its physical and chemical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes a method to formulate struvite fine powder into pellets that are easy to spread on agricultural land. To evaluate the quality of produced pellets, some chemical and physical properties commonly measured for fertilizers were tested. The findings indicated that the salt index and heavy metal content ofstruvite pellets were significantly lower than those of commercial NPK fertilizers. In addition, the percentage of nutrient released from struvite pellets after 105 days was in the range of 9.6-23.2, 8.4-26.7 and 11.3-32.6% for nitrogen, phosphorous and magnesium, respectively, which is considerably lower than that of commercial NPK fertilizer. Among different formulations between struvite crystals and binders, starch and bentonite were the most efficient in agglomerating struvite powder, leading to an increase in the crush strength to over the recommended limit of >2.5 kgf for fertilizer hardness. PMID:23437670

Latifian, Maryam; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

2012-12-01

316

Struvite-based fertilizer and its physical and chemical properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes a method to formulate struvite fine powder into pellets that are easy to spread on agricultural land. To evaluate the quality of produced pellets, some chemical and physical properties commonly measured for fertilizers were tested. The findings indicated that the salt index and heavy metal content ofstruvite pellets were significantly lower than those of commercial NPK fertilizers. In addition, the percentage of nutrient released from struvite pellets after 105 days was in the range of 9.6-23.2, 8.4-26.7 and 11.3-32.6% for nitrogen, phosphorous and magnesium, respectively, which is considerably lower than that of commercial NPK fertilizer. Among different formulations between struvite crystals and binders, starch and bentonite were the most efficient in agglomerating struvite powder, leading to an increase in the crush strength to over the recommended limit of >2.5 kgf for fertilizer hardness.

Latifian M; Liu J; Mattiasson B

2012-12-01

317

STUDIES OF SHADING LEVELS AND NUTRITION SOURCES ON GROWTH, YIELD  

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Full Text Available Growth and biochemical content of medicinal crops are influenced by agroecosystems characteristics . The objective of this research was to determine the optimum shading level and type of fertilizer as sources of nutrition on the growth, yield, and andrographolide content of sambiloto. The experiment used Split Plot Design with basic design of Randomized Complete Block Design arranged with two treatment factors, with three replications. The first factor as the main plot was shading levels, namely without shading, 25% shading, 50% shading, and 75% shading. The second factor as the sub plot was sources of nutrition reprented by type of fertilizer, namely NPK fertilizer, cow stable fertilizer, and compost fertilizer. The result of research indicated that shading level and the kind of nutrition influenced some growth and yield variables such as number of leaves, number of branches, plant height, plant dry weight and simplisia weight, and andrographolide content. Interaction of shading level at 25% and straw compost fertilizer performed best in growth characteristics, while the highest andrographolide content resulted from the treatment combination of 50% shading level and straw compost fertilizer.

Edi Purwanto; Samanhudi; Sudarmi

2011-01-01

318

Heterogeneidade do solo sob diferentes adubações na cultura do milho Soil heterogeneity under different fertilizer levels in maize crop  

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Full Text Available A partir dos dados de um experimento bifatorial em parcelas subdivididas no delineamento inteiramente casualidade, com três formas de adubação nas parcelas principais, e com duas cultivares de milho, com 10 repetições (20 subparcelas), foram estudados: a variabilidade entre as subparcelas agrupadas em diferentes tamanhos, após subtrair-se o efeito da causa de variação cultivar; e o índice de heterogeneidade do solo para cada repetição das formas de adubação. Estas consistiram em: FA1 - adubação recomendada para rendimento de grãos menor do que 3,0t/ha; FA2 - adubação recomendada para rendimento maior do que 6,0t/ha e tratamento das sementes com Zn; e FA3 - igual a FA2, mais a incorporação ao solo de um composto orgânico. Analisando a variância dos diferentes tamanhos de parcela, observou-se uma relação entre o tamanho da parcela e a forma de adubação, sendo que, para o menor tamanho (5m²) a FA1 apresentou a menor variância, e para o maior tamanho (25m² ), não houve diferença significativa entre as adubações. Pela estimativa do índice de heterogeneidade do solo das formas de adubação, conclui-se que a inclusão do adubo orgânico intensifica a variabilidade existente no solo, quando comparado com adubos químicos.This experiment was based on data obtained from a factorial experiment with a split-plot design in which three sou fertility levels (FL) were assigned as main plots, and two maize varieties as 20 sub-plots. The study was conducted to evaluate the variability among sub-plots grouped with different sizes after subtraction of the variety effect, as well as the soil heterogeneity index for each replication of the soil fertility level. The soil fertility levels were: FL1 - fertilization recommended for grain yields up to 3.0 t ha-1 ; FL2 - fertilization for up to 6.0 t ha-1 plus Zn treated seeds; and FL3 - equal to FL2 plus incorporation of an organic compost into the soil. Comparing the the variance between different plot sizes was observed interaction between plot size and fertility level. The smallest plot size (5m²) and FL1 showed the smallest variance. However, for fertilitv level no statistic difference was observed when 25m² plot size was used. The estimation of the soil heterogeneity index due to soil fertilization level indicates that the addition of organic mather increases the variability as compared to the addition of mineral fertilizers.

Sidinei José Lopes; Lindolfo Storck

1998-01-01

319

Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T) levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L) (n = 187); Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm) on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

Qin Yingying; Zhao Zhiyi; Sun Mei; Geng Ling; Che Li; Chen Zi-Jiang

2011-01-01

320

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Levels of Some Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances in Hibiscus sabdariffa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of antinutrients and toxic substances in vegetables limits the derivable benefits from vegetables. The levels of these substances in vegetables are influenced by the nature of soil in which the vegetables are grown. The effect of applied nitrogen fertilizer on the levels of some antinutrients and toxic substances is investigated with a view to determine the appropriateness or otherwise of the application of nitrogen fertilizer in growing vegetables. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of soil nitrogen levels on soluble and total oxalates, cyanide, nitrate and some micronutrients namely, vitamin C, -carotene (precursor of vitamin A) and mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ca, Na and K) in Hibiscus sabdariffa. The leaves of the vegetable were harvested and analysed at market maturity (vegetative phase) and fruiting (reproductive phase) of the plant development. Results obtained showed that the applied nitrogen fertilizer significantly elevated nitrate and -carotene contents, while it decreases the levels of vitamin C, soluble and total oxalates in the vegetable. The levels of cyanide and mineral elements were not significantly affected by the applied nitrogen fertilizer.

Amanabo Musa; Emmanuel O. Ogbadoyi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Vermicomposting Leachate (Worm Tea) as Liquid Fertilizer for Maize (Zea mays L.) Forage Production  

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Full Text Available We investigated how dilution of vermicompost Leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected maize plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m-1, contained 834 mg K+ L-1, 247 mg NO3-1 L-1 and 168 mg PO43– L-1, was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65% germination index. Vermicompost Leachate diluted to 50% and mixed with 170 g L-1 NPK resulted in the best maize plant development while the dispersant and adherent had no significant effect. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development when diluted, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth.

Garcia-Gomez Roberto Carlos; Luc Dendooven; Gutierrez-Miceli Federico Antonio

2008-01-01

322

Temporal and spatial dynamics in root length density of field-grown maize and NPK in the soil profile  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There have been many studies to examine macronutrient depletion in the rhizosphere under controlled conditions. However, most cereal plants are grown in the field, which requires thorough investigation for nutrient use efficiency and crop yield. A two-year field study was conducted to investigate temporal dynamics of available nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of maize, and changes in root length density (RLD) and soil NPK concentrations in 0–60cm soil profile. The rhizospheric soil was collected by shaking the tightly attached soil after carefully removing the loosely held soil from the roots. During the vegetative growth stage, the RLD changed corresponding to shoot demand for nutrients. Maize plants accumulated NPK asynchronously during the whole growth period. More than 92% of total K was taken up during the vegetative growth stage, while approximately 65% of N and 55% of P were absorbed at the same time. There was significant N depletion in maize rhizosphere along soil profiles at each harvest; however, P or K depletion in maize rhizosphere could not be determined. Consistent with the obvious net K loss from maize plants in late reproductive growth stage, there was a significant K increase in the rhizosphere. These results indicated differential utilization strategies and accumulation patterns of mineral nutrients such as N, P, and K nutrients in the plant–soil rhizospheric system, laying a theoretical base for optimized fertilization practice.

Peng Y; Yu P; Zhang Y; Sun G; Ning P; Li X; Li C

2012-05-01

323

Organochlorine compound levels in fertile and infertile women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was quantify organochlorine compounds in women seeking for infertility treatment (n = 15) and in spontaneously pregnant ones (n = 21). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was applied regarding lifestyle, occupational and reproductive history. Blood samples were collected from both groups. RESULTS: From the pesticides studied, pp'DDE was detected in 100% of infertile women, at higher mean levels than in pregnant women (3.02 mcg/L vs. 0.88 mcg/L; p = 0.001; power of 69%), without correlation with the etiology of infertility. Levels of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were low, with positive samples in 100% in the infertile women for PCBs 138, 153, 180, while in pregnant women, they were 85.7% for congeners 138 and 153. Only PCB180 showed significance, with frequency of 71.4% (p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for female infertility were: age, consumption of untreated water and of canned foods. Exposure to the most prevalent organochlorine compounds described in literature was confirmed in the study, indicating that pp'DDE may adversely influence female fertility.

Bastos AM; de Souza Mdo C; de Almeida Filho GL; Krauss TM; Pavesi T; da Silva LE

2013-07-01

324

Evaluation Of Compost Fertilizer "Zarkhez" In Conjunction With Chemical Fertilizers For Rice And Wheat Production  

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Full Text Available Experiments conducted to evaluate a compost fertilizer "Zarkhez" showed that effect of compost alone (2000 kg/ha and 4000 kg/ha) on number of tillers, 1000-grain weight, yield and NPK uptake by rice and wheat was almost similar to control, whereas, significant improvements were observed when combination of compost and chemical fertilizers were applied. Maximum yield of paddy (4.25 t ha-1) and wheat (2