WorldWideScience
 
 
1

An emulsifiable, non-toxic paste and its production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Patent is pending on an emulsifiable, non-toxic paste used as a cutting fluid for rolling, drawing and stamping of aluminum food packaging. It contains 16.72% olien with a K if less than or equal to190 mg KOH/g, 3.08% saponified triethanolamine, 2.20% solution Na hydroxide with a concentration of 38-39.0%, 20-24% vaseline with a viscosity of 16.6-37.2 cSt/50/sup 0/, 48-54% fresh water and 4-6% ground talc. Example. 16.72 kg of olein with K.if. 190 mg KOH/g is put in an autoclave-mixer (40-50 rpm) and heated to 55/sup 0/. 3.080 kg triethanolamine is added during 10 min of mixing, after which 22 kg of vaseline is then added to the mixture at 35/sup 0/ over 15 min. This yields 44 kg of concentrate, to which 51 kg fresh water is added, heated to 32/sup 0/ with a further addition of 5 kg talc, followed by 30 min of mixing. The result is a thick, homogenous, stable paste with an S.G. of 1.25/20/sup 0/, if Of of 16 mg KOH/g, and 5% ash.

Zotta, M.; Dobrescu, C.; Popescu, A.

1980-08-15

2

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01

3

Degradation of synthetic dye, Rhodamine B to environmentally non-toxic products using microalgae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study a potential freshwater microalgae Coelastrella sp. was selected for degradation of synthetic dye, Rhodamine B in batch culture system. Effect of several physico-chemical parameters that influence the decolorization followed by degradation ability was investigated (inoculum concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature and pH) and optimal experimental condition was ascertained. The optimum operating conditions were found to be [Dye]=100 mg l(-1); [temperature]=30°C; with 10% of inoculum at a pH of 8. Under these conditions, a maximum of 80% decolorization of the dye was achieved in 20 days. Peroxidase activity of the isolate was also determined and it was found to be 2.1 ?mol min mg(-1) of protein. The actual break down of the dye was confirmed by using various analytical techniques such as GC-MS, TLC, FTIR and UV-vis spectral analysis. Small aliphatic chains, small chain alcohols and ketones were obtained after degradation of Rhodamine B. These are the evidences that showed that microalgae play a vital role on dye degradation to non-toxic products effectively.

Baldev E; MubarakAli D; Ilavarasi A; Pandiaraj D; Ishack KA; Thajuddin N

2013-05-01

4

Hazardous jarosite use in developing non-hazardous product for engineering application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jarosite released from zinc metal extraction process is hazardous in nature and its world wide disposal has become a major environmental concern. In this study, an attempt has been made to immobilise and recycle the jarosite released from Hindustan Zinc Limited, India, using CCRs, so called fly ash, and clay soil. Results revealed that the particle size of jarosite was finer than that of CCRs and had higher porosity and water holding capacity due to fine textured materials resulting in high surface area (10,496.18 ± 30.90 cm2/g). Jarosite contain higher concentration of toxic elements (lead, zinc, sulphur, cadmium, chromium and copper) than that of CCRs. Concentrations of radionuclides such as 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in jarosite found less than in CCRs are similar to that of soil. Statistically designed experiments on solidified/stabilised (s/s) sintered jarosite-CCRs products confirmed that the compressive strength of jarosite bricks reached as high as 140 kg/cm2 with 14.5% water absorption capacity at the combination of 3:1 ratio of jarosite and clay, respectively, but, concentrations of all the toxic elements recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-Toxicity Leachate Characteristics Procedure (TCLP) standard are not within the permissible limits. However, it is confirmed that the toxic elements leaching potentials of s/s-sintered products developed using 2:1 jarosite clay ratio with 15% CCRs comply with the USEPA-TCLP limits and also meet the quality for engineering applications

2006-10-11

5

Non-toxic amyloid beta formed in the presence of glypican-1 or its deaminatively generated heparan sulfate degradation products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amyloid beta peptides (mainly A?40 and A?42), which are derived from the amyloid precursor protein, can oligomerize into antibody A11-positive, neurotoxic species, believed to be involved in Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, amyloid precursor protein binds strongly to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1 in vitro and both proteins are colocalized inside cells. In endosomes, amyloid precursor protein is proteolytically processed to yield A? peptides. The heparan sulfate chains of S-nitrosylated glypican-1 proteoglycan are cleaved into anhydromannose-containing di- and oligosaccharides by an NO-dependent reaction in the same compartments. Here we have studied the toxicity of oligomers/aggregates of A?40 and A?42, as well as A?40/42 mixtures that were formed in the presence of immobilized glypican-1 proteoglycan or immobilized heparan sulfate oligosaccharides. Afterwards, A? was displaced from the matrices, analyzed by SDS-PAGE and assayed for A11 immunoreactivity, and for effects on growth of mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells and for membrane leakage in rat cortical neurons. Heparan sulfate generally promoted and accelerated A? multimerization into oligomers as well as larger aggregates that were mostly A11 positive and showed toxic effects. However, non-toxic A? was formed in the presence of glypican-1 proteoglycan or when anhydromannose-containing heparan sulfate degradation products were simultaneously generated. Both toxic and non-toxic A? peptides were taken up by the cells but toxic forms appeared to enter the nuclei to a larger extent. The protection afforded by the presence of heparan sulfate degradation products may reflect a normal intracellular function for the A? peptides.

Cheng F; Ruscher K; Fransson LA; Mani K

2013-09-01

6

A BIODEGRADABLE, BIOCOMPATIBLE AND NON-TOXIC MATERIAL, SHEETS CONSISTING OF SAID MATERIAL AND THE USE THEREOF IN FOOD, PHARMACEUTICAL, COSMETIC AND CLEANING PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic material is disclosed, which may be used to isolate and/or to protect a product from the environment, wherein said material comprises a matrix composed by starch, glycerol and starch nano-crystals dispersed in said matrix. The material may be used in the form of foils, sheets, films, coatings, gels, etc, to isolate and/or to protect a product from the environment. The material may be used to isolate and or to protect food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and cleaning products.

GOYANES SILVIA NAIR; ARANGUREN MARTA INES; GARCIA NANCY LIS; FAMA LUCIA MERCEDES; RIBBA LAURA; DUFRESNE ALAIN

7

Inexpensive non-toxic flocculation of microalgae contradicts theories; overcoming a major hurdle to bulk algal production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are two major energy and cost constraints to bulk production of single cell microalgae for biofuels or feed: expensive culture systems with high capital costs and high energy requirements for mixing and gas exchange; and the cost of harvesting using high-speed continuous centrifugation for dewatering. This report deals with the latter; harvesting by flocculation where theory states that alkaline flocculants neutralize the repelling surface charge of algal cells, allowing them to coalesce into a floc. It had been assumed that with such electrostatic flocculation, the more cells to be flocculated, the more flocculant needed, in a linear stoichiometric fashion, rendering flocculation overly expensive. Counter to theory of electrostatic flocculation, we find that the amount of alkaline flocculant needed is a function of the logarithm of cell density, with dense cultures requiring an order of magnitude less base than dilute suspensions, with flocculation occurring at a lower pH. Various other theories abound that flocculation can be due to multi-valent cross-linking, or co-precipitation with phosphate or with magnesium and calcium, but are clearly not relevant with the flocculants we used. Monovalent bases that cannot cross-link or precipitate phosphate work with the same log-linear stoichiometry as the divalent bases, obviating those theories, leaving electrostatic flocculation as the only tenable theory of flocculation with the materials used. The cost of flocculation of dense cultures with this procedure should be below $1.00/T algae for mixed calcium:magnesium hydroxides.

Schlesinger A; Eisenstadt D; Bar-Gil A; Carmely H; Einbinder S; Gressel J

2012-09-01

8

Production of a non-toxic site-directed mutant of Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin which induces protective immunity in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A panel of ten site-directed mutants of Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin was generated. All of the mutated proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were recognized in immunoblots by a neutralizing mAb raised against wild-type native epsilon-toxin. The cytotoxicity of the site-directed mutated toxins was assayed in vitro against MDCK cells. One mutation resulting in loss of activity in the assay was identified. This non-toxic protein was derived by substituting a proline for the histidine at residue 106 of the toxin. Immunization of mice with the non-toxic mutated epsilon-toxin resulted in the induction of a specific antibody response and immunized mice were protected against 1000 LD50 doses of wild-type recombinant epsilon-toxin.

Oyston PC; Payne DW; Havard HL; Williamson ED; Titball RW

1998-02-01

9

Possibilities for non-hazardous solid waste potential usage in the country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-hazardous solid waste potential usage has been presented by types in the context of EU waste legislation and the harmonisation of the Bulgarian legislative base concerning the EU integration. There have been defined the streams suitable for the social recovered fuels production from waste. The market waste potential usage by origin, production structure, types of process technologies and implementation have been presented.

2006-01-01

10

Crassostrea virginica grazing on toxic and non-toxic diatoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite high abundances of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. over Louisiana oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica; eastern oyster) there have been no documented cases of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in the state. Two possible explanations are that oysters do not readily feed on long pointed chains of Pseudo-nitzschia cells or they discriminate against toxic cells while grazing. To test these hypotheses, short-term grazing experiments were conducted with several diatoms, including the domoic acid (DA)-producing Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (1.31+/-0.057 pg DA cell(-1)) and the non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Thalassiosira weissflogii, and Ditylum brightwellii. Grazing rates on the small centric species T. weissflogii were significantly higher than on the larger and pointier D. brightwellii and either Pseudo-nitzschia species. Grazing on toxic P. multiseries and non-toxic P. delicatissima was not significantly different. Pseudofeces production was higher and feces production was occasionally lower in oysters fed Pseudo-nitzschia spp. than in oysters fed the other two diatoms. Our data demonstrate lower filtration rates of C. virginica on Pseudo-nitzschia spp. relative to the other diatoms tested and comparable filtration on toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. These findings suggest that eastern oysters do not discriminate amongst food types due to DA content. PMID:19835902

Thessen, A E; Soniat, T M; Dortch, Q; Doucette, G J

2009-10-14

11

Crassostrea virginica grazing on toxic and non-toxic diatoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite high abundances of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. over Louisiana oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica; eastern oyster) there have been no documented cases of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in the state. Two possible explanations are that oysters do not readily feed on long pointed chains of Pseudo-nitzschia cells or they discriminate against toxic cells while grazing. To test these hypotheses, short-term grazing experiments were conducted with several diatoms, including the domoic acid (DA)-producing Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (1.31+/-0.057 pg DA cell(-1)) and the non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Thalassiosira weissflogii, and Ditylum brightwellii. Grazing rates on the small centric species T. weissflogii were significantly higher than on the larger and pointier D. brightwellii and either Pseudo-nitzschia species. Grazing on toxic P. multiseries and non-toxic P. delicatissima was not significantly different. Pseudofeces production was higher and feces production was occasionally lower in oysters fed Pseudo-nitzschia spp. than in oysters fed the other two diatoms. Our data demonstrate lower filtration rates of C. virginica on Pseudo-nitzschia spp. relative to the other diatoms tested and comparable filtration on toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. These findings suggest that eastern oysters do not discriminate amongst food types due to DA content.

Thessen AE; Soniat TM; Dortch Q; Doucette GJ

2010-02-01

12

Isocyano compounds as non-toxic antifoulants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The marine sponge Acanthella cavernosa and nudibranchs of the family Phyllidiidae contain isocyanoterpenoids and their related compounds that show potent antifouling activity against cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, while their toxicity to cyprids is weak. To develop non-toxic antifoulants based on isocyanoterpenoids, especially 3-isocyanotheonellin, a total of 36 isocyano compounds have been synthesized. They were evaluated by both antifouling activity and toxicity toward B. amphitrite cyprids, which led some insight into the structure-activity relationships. Since linear alkyl isocyanides showed antifouling activity at nontoxic concentrations, a large amount of 1,1-dimethyl-10-undecyl isocyanide was synthesized, incorporated into paints, and tested for antifouling activity in the field with promising results. Therefore, isocyano compounds were considered as candidate non-toxic antifouling agents.

Nogata Y; Kitano Y

2006-01-01

13

Isocyano compounds as non-toxic antifoulants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The marine sponge Acanthella cavernosa and nudibranchs of the family Phyllidiidae contain isocyanoterpenoids and their related compounds that show potent antifouling activity against cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, while their toxicity to cyprids is weak. To develop non-toxic antifoulants based on isocyanoterpenoids, especially 3-isocyanotheonellin, a total of 36 isocyano compounds have been synthesized. They were evaluated by both antifouling activity and toxicity toward B. amphitrite cyprids, which led some insight into the structure-activity relationships. Since linear alkyl isocyanides showed antifouling activity at nontoxic concentrations, a large amount of 1,1-dimethyl-10-undecyl isocyanide was synthesized, incorporated into paints, and tested for antifouling activity in the field with promising results. Therefore, isocyano compounds were considered as candidate non-toxic antifouling agents. PMID:16805439

Nogata, Y; Kitano, Y

2006-01-01

14

Degradable non-toxic material for gold tees and clay pigeons  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for making a material, which is degradable in water and is non-toxic to animals, comprises mixing (preferred proportions in parenthesis) cereal or potato flour (10-100%), sand or silica (0-70%) and water (5-30%) to form a homogenous paste. The paste is injected into moulds pre-heated to \\-40 deg C and at a pressure of \\-1 bar. The paste is then dried and removed from the moulds by removing the lid and applying air pressure behind the product. The product is painted or varnished using a degradable non-toxic material.

VANDENBOSH GEORGES

15

Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG) than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

Cerci C; Cerci S; Eroglu E; Dede M; Kapucuoglu N; Yildiz M; Bulbul M

2007-01-01

16

Chaetomium globosum, a non-toxic fungus: a potential source of protein (SCP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wheat straw cellulose was used as substrate for single cell protein (SCP) production using C. globosum, a non-toxic fungus. Both untreated and delignified powdered (60 mesh) substrate were used in submerged fermentation. The optimum cultural conditions for maximum conversion of wheat straw into SCP were 5 days, 37C, pH 5.0 and 400 mg/litre nitrogen in the form of sodium nitrate. 18 references.

Kahlon, S.S.; Kalra, K.L.

1986-01-01

17

Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits  

Science.gov (United States)

|Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2011-01-01

18

Non-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Eupatorium semialatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The leaves of Eupatorium semialatum were investigated for the occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Although this type of alkaloids generally occurs in the Eupatorieae, only unusual non-toxic pyrrolizidines of the tussilagin type were identified. All compounds are methyl esters of the corresponding beta-amino acids. PMID:11106842

Lang; Passreiter; Medinilla; Castillo; Witte

2001-02-01

19

Non-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Eupatorium semialatum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The leaves of Eupatorium semialatum were investigated for the occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Although this type of alkaloids generally occurs in the Eupatorieae, only unusual non-toxic pyrrolizidines of the tussilagin type were identified. All compounds are methyl esters of the corresponding beta-amino acids.

Lang G; Passreiter CM; Medinilla B; Castillo J; Witte L

2001-02-01

20

Non-toxic melanin production inhibitors from Garcinia livingstonei (Clusiaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The stem bark of Garcinia livingstonei is used traditionally as a skin lightening agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: To isolate and identify compounds responsible for the observed skin lightening activity of Garcinia livingstonei and to evaluate their cytotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Constituents of the stem bark and fruits of Garcinia livingstonei were isolated using chromatographic techniques and structures were determined using 1D and 2D NMR and MS analysis. MeWo cells were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and impact on melanin levels of extracts and compounds isolated, in vitro. RESULTS: Twelve known compounds, morelloflavone (1), morelloflavone-7?-sulphate (2), guttiferone A (3), sargaol (4), isojacareubin (5), 6-deoxyisojacareubin (6) and in addition to the common triterpenoids, betulin, betulin aldehyde, lupeol, lupenone, euphol and stigmasterol were isolated in this investigation. Morelloflavone, morelloflavone-7?-sulphate and sargaol, were found to be considerably less cytotoxic and more effective as skin lightening agents than hydroquinone. CONCLUSIONS: A range of compounds was isolated from the stem bark and fruit of Garcinia livingstonei. Although the bark extract contained the cytotoxic guttiferone A, it was found to be less toxic than hydroquinone, and morelloflavone, the 7?-sulphate derivative and sargaol show potential for development as depigmentation/skin lightening agents.

Mulholland DA; Mwangi EM; Dlova NC; Plant N; Crouch NR; Coombes PH

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Cysteine as a non toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper alloys in conservation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this work is to examine cysteine as an alternative to benzotriazole (BTA) for the conservation of archaeological objects with bronze disease. Investigation of the two inhibitors involved the use of electrochemical techniques, measurements of weight change in high humidity and comparative studies of colour changes in the corrosion products. The results obtained in this article demonstrate that cysteine could be a non-toxic alternative to BTA. Cysteine performed as well as BTA on pre-corroded coupons with bronze disease in high humidity and showed acceptable results during testing for colour alteration on real archaeological objects.

Gravgaard, Mari; van Lanschot, Jettie

2012-01-01

22

Preliminary evaluation of non-hazardous explosives for security training and testing (NESTT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures can also be obtained through the appropriate choice of substrate. Sensitivity tests on the materials made to date show that they are non-hazardous. One such material is now in use for canine training at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Moody, G.L.; Pruneda, C.O.; Simpson, R.L.; Kury, J.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dumais, D.A. [Aerojet Headquarters, Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

1993-09-01

23

Novel Non-toxic Antifouling/Fouling Release Nanocomposite Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling is a significant environmental problem. Traditional solutions to this problem have involved incorporation of toxic organometallic species into the paint. This approach while effective, is harmful to the environment. The resultant ban on the use of many of these coatings has created a need for alternative systems to control marine fouling. Silicones represent the only class of polymers currently used commercially, due to their inherently low surface energy, glass transition temperature, and modulus, combined with good chemical stability and ease of application. In this talk I will present our efforts to develop a new generation of practical, non-toxic coatings that combine antifouling/fouling release characteristics with good mechanical properties, ease of application and low cost. Specifically we have been focusing on a series of fouling release coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers and nanocomposites. The PDMS copolymers are much stronger than pure PDMS yet they exhibit fouling release performance comparable and, in some cases, better than pure PDMS.

Fang, Jason

2008-03-01

24

Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

25

Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

1995-01-01

26

Development of Non-hazardous Explosives for Security Training and Testing (NESTT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The security force at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely used canines to search for explosives and other contraband substances. The use of threat quantities of explosive for realistic training in populated or sensitive Laboratory areas has not been permitted because of the hazard. To overcome this limitation a series of non-hazardous materials with authentic signatures have been prepared and evaluated. A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and canine (K-9) detection in a Beta Test Program

1996-01-01

27

Development of non-hazardous explosives for security training and testing (NESTT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and K-9 detection in a Beta Test Program.

Kury, J.W.; Simpson, R.I.

1995-06-21

28

Temporal and spatial scales of effects of toxic and non-toxic stressors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estuarine ecosystems are potentially subjected to over 25 types of non-toxic stressors, including sedimentation, nutrients, exotic species, and habitat loss. Many non-toxic stressors operate over entire estuaries. For example, spread of exotics such as Spartina in Willapa Bay, WA may impact much of the intertidal area. Alterations due to toxic pollutants tend to be localized near their inputs. However, trophic transport can spread DDT and PCBs throughout a much wider area. Toxic pollutants are often introduced into the environment rapidly through discharges and spills, and then affect organisms fairly rapidly (within minutes to over a life cycle). The time course for non-toxic stressors is more variable. Some non-toxic alterations are very rapid, such as physical manipulation of habitats (e.g., filling). Alterations to habitats or watershed inputs are gradual, and thus difficult to detect in standard studies. For example, a slight increase in segmentation is difficult to quantify over a few years, but over decades could have major effects on estuarine ecosystems. The duration of effects of toxic pollutants depends upon their dilution, degradation and burial rates, and range from minutes for rapidly diluted soluble pollutants to decades or centuries for recalcitrant pollutants such as DDT. Duration of effects for non-toxic stressors are often ``permanent`` over ecological time for two reasons. Firstly, many non-toxic alterations are due to changes in watersheds, which recover slowly if logged or not at all if native habitat is transformed for development or farming. Secondly, several of the non-toxic stressors, such as invasions of exotics, result in a new, ``stable`` ecological system, so there is no recovery in the sense that pollutants degrade.

Lee, H. II; Specht, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

29

Comparative gene expression in toxic versus non-toxic strains of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. RESULTS: We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis genes in the two existent Alexandrium tamarense EST libraries, we propose that the PSP toxin genes in dinoflagellates might be more different from their cyanobacterial counterparts than would be expected in the case of a recent gene transfer. As a starting point to identify possible PSP toxin-associated genes in dinoflagellates without relying on a priori sequence information, the sequences only present in mRNA pools of the toxic strain can be seen as putative candidates involved in toxin synthesis and regulation, or acclimation to intracellular PSP toxins.

Yang I; John U; Beszteri S; Glöckner G; Krock B; Goesmann A; Cembella AD

2010-01-01

30

A blasting additive that renders wastes non hazardous in lead paint abatement projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maintenance of steel structures often produces abrasive wastes that are considered toxic and hazardous due to the lead content of the old paint system present in spent abrasives. Environmental regulations in the US and Canada effectively preclude on-site treatment and disposal of these wastes, thereby forcing them into costly transport and secure disposal options. The authors have developed an abrasive additive that allows dry or wet blasting to remove old paint systems, but the resultant wastes are considered non-hazardous and are eligible for recycling or non-hazardous waste disposal, both at sharply reduced costs. The agent does not ``mask`` environmental test results, but does produce a stable residue suitable for long term disposal or reuse. Surface conditions after application of abrasives appear to be amenable to virtually all paint systems tested. The process is in use on an estimated 10% of all steel based lead paint abatement projects in the US, and is experiencing considerable growth in market acceptance. The technology may allow disposal cost reductions in excess of 50%.

Clark, R.; Rapp, D.J.; McGrew, M. [TDJ Group, Cary, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

31

Assessment of Cost Impacts of Using Non-Toxic Propulsion in Satellites  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing costs of space missions, the need for increased mission performance, and concerns associated with environmental issues deeply influence propulsion system design and propellant selection criteria. A propellant's performance was defined in the past exclusively in terms of specific impulse and density, but now high-performance, non-toxic, non-sophisticated mono- propellant systems are key drivers, and are considered for development to replace the traditional hydrazine (N2H4) mono-propellant thrusters. The mono-propellants under consideration are propellant formulations, which should be environmentally friendly, should have a high density, equal or better performance and better thermal characteristics than hydrazine. These considerations raised interest specially in the candidates of Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN)-based propellants, Ammoniumdinitramide (ADN)-based propellants, Tri-ethanol (TEAN)-based propellants, Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF)-based propellants, Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-based propellants. A near-term objective in consideration of satellite related process optimisation is to significantly reduce on-ground operations costs and at the same time improve mission performance. A far-term objective is to obtain a system presenting a very high performance, illustrated by a high specific impulse. Moving to a "non-toxic" propulsion system seems to be a solution to these two goals. The sought after benefits for non-toxic spacecraft mono-propellant propulsion are under investigation taking into account the four main parameters which are mandatory for customer satisfaction while meeting the price constraints: - Reliability, availability, maintainability and safety, - Manufacturing, assembly, integration and test, - Launch preparation and support, - Ground support equipment. These benefits of non-toxic mono-propellants can be proven by various examples, like an expected reduction of development costs due the non-toxicity of propellants which might allow "easier" design, reducing some inhibits for ground safety, leading to a shorter development time, and consequently to reduced program costs. Operational costs could be reduced due to the use of non-toxic propellant. Their non-toxicity, in comparison to the traditional propellants, will avoid special safety procedures and also parallelisation of processes during all phases of AIT and launch preparations. The costs directly associated with propellant handling, transport and storage should be lower, also follow-on costs risk is minimised because of the elimination or significant reduction of toxic and carcinogenic characteristics of the propellants. The physical characteristic and properties of some of the propellants formulations mentioned, like a higher density than hydrazine, support the beneficial aspects: a global S/C weight reduction could be achieved due to smaller tanks.

Schiebener, P. J.; Gies, O.; Stuhlberger, J.; Schmitz, H.-D.

2002-01-01

32

Reduction in goiter size by 131I therapy in patients with non-toxic multinodular goiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective follow-up study of 131I treatment was performed in 10 females with non-toxic multinodular goiter. The median dose of 131I given was 20 mCi. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography. The median follow-up period was 26 months. Nine patients had a reduction of goiter size: thyroid volume decreased from 88±14.9 ml to 49±10.9 ml one year after 131I treatment. The relative decrease of goiter size was 48% after one year and 59% after two years. One patients did not respond and was referred for operation. Side effects were mild spontaneously resolving radiation thyroiditis in one patient and subclinical hypothyroidism in four patients. In conclusion, 131I treatment on non-toxic goiter is an effective treatment at the expense of post-radiation hypothyroidism. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

1995-01-01

33

AMAP, the alleged non-toxic isomer of acetaminophen, is toxic in rat and human liver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the well-known hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far, AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in rat and human, the toxicity of APAP and AMAP was tested ex vivo in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) of mouse, rat and human. Based on ATP content and histomorphology, APAP was more toxic in mouse than in rat and human PCLS. Surprisingly, although AMAP showed a much lower toxicity than APAP in mouse PCLS, AMAP was equally toxic as or even more toxic than APAP at all concentrations tested in both rat and human PCLS. The profile of proteins released into the medium of AMAP-treated rat PCLS was similar to that of APAP, whereas in the medium of mouse PCLS, it was similar to the control. Metabolite profiling indicated that mouse PCLS produced the highest amount of glutathione conjugate of APAP, while no glutathione conjugate of AMAP was detected in all three species. Mouse also produced ten times more hydroquinone metabolites of AMAP, the assumed proximate reactive metabolites, than rat or human. In conclusion, AMAP is toxic in rat and human liver and cannot be used as non-toxic isomer of APAP. The marked species differences in APAP and AMAP toxicity and metabolism underline the importance of using human tissues for better prediction of toxicity in man.

Hadi M; Dragovic S; van Swelm R; Herpers B; van de Water B; Russel FG; Commandeur JN; Groothuis GM

2013-01-01

34

Method for culturing disease-free and non-toxic test-tube seedlings by utilizing sweet photo seedling seeds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for culturing disease-free and non-toxic seedlings by utilizing sweet photo seedling seeds, belonging to a method for sexual hybridization and tissue culture of sweet photos. The method comprises the following steps: analyzing parent genetic differences, screening directed hybridization parents, inducing flowering by grafting and dark treatment methods, obtaining sweet photo seedling seeds by sexual hybridization, and rapidly propagating test-tube seedlings from the seedling seeds by combining the tissue culture so as to achieve the aim of culturing the disease-free and non-toxic test-tube seedlings of sweet photos. The invention has the advantages that the disease-free and non-toxic test-tube seedlings of different seedling seed systems of photo sweets can be rapidly obtained by combining the sweet photo seedling seeds and tissue culture of sweet photos, thereby laying a foundation for culturing disease-free and non-toxic seedlings of sweet photos.

QIANG LI; XIN WANG; HONGMIN LI; YIPING XIE; XIUYING LI

35

Non-hazardous waste. Part B. Construction and demolition waste, sewage sludge, timber waste, etc.; Nicht gefaehrliche abfaelle. teil b. baurestmassen, klaerschlamm, holzabfaelle u.a.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mass potential of non-hazardous waste (without municipal waste) is approximately 35.5 million tons per year of which about 61.7% is construction and demolition waste, about 6.5% is waste from water purification, sewage treatment and water utilization, about 9.8% is timber waste, and about 22% are other non-hazardous wastes. In this volume, we tried to give a general but realistic view of the generation of non-hazardous waste in commercial enterprises and industries.

Dreier, P.; Lassnig, D.

1995-06-01

36

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

37

Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

2005-09-02

38

A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The alarming rise in the obesity epidemic and growing concern for the pathologic consequences of the metabolic syndrome warrant great need for development of obesity-related pharmacotherapeutics. The search for such therapeutics is severely limited by the slow throughput of animal models of obesity. Amenable to placement into a 96 well plate, zebrafish larvae have emerged as one of the highest throughput vertebrate model organisms for performing small molecule screens. A method for visually identifying non-toxic molecular effectors of fat metabolism using a live transparent vertebrate was developed. Given that increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) via deletion of CD38 have been shown to prevent high fat diet induced obesity in mice in a SIRT-1 dependent fashion we explored the possibility of directly applying NAD to zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish larvae were incubated with daily refreshing of nile red containing media starting from a developmental stage of equivalent fat content among siblings (3 days post-fertilization, dpf) and continuing with daily refreshing until 7 dpf. Results PPAR activators, beta-adrenergic agonists, SIRT-1 activators, and nicotinic acid treatment all caused predicted changes in fat, cholesterol, and gene expression consistent with a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fat metabolism signal transduction extending from man to zebrafish larvae. All changes in fat content were visually quantifiable in a relative fashion using live zebrafish larvae nile red fluorescence microscopy. Resveratrol treatment caused the greatest and most consistent loss of fat content. The resveratrol tetramer Vaticanol B caused loss of fat equivalent in potency to resveratrol alone. Significantly, the direct administration of NAD decreased fat content in zebrafish. Results from knockdown of a zebrafish G-PCR ortholog previously determined to decrease fat content in C. elegans support that future GPR142 antagonists may be effective non-toxic anti-obesity therapeutics. Conclusion Owing to the apparently high level of evolutionary conservation of signal transduction pathways regulating lipid metabolism, the zebrafish can be useful for identifying non-toxic small molecules or pharmacological target gene products for developing molecular therapeutics for treating clinical obesity. Our results support the promising potential in applying NAD or resveratrol where the underlying target protein likely involves Sirtuin family member proteins. Furthermore data supports future studies focused on determining whether there is a high concentration window for resveratrol that is effective and non-toxic in high fat obesity murine models.

Jones Kevin S; Alimov Alexander P; Rilo Horacio L; Jandacek Ronald J; Woollett Laura A; Penberthy W Todd

2008-01-01

39

Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates on K. mikimotoi were substantially reduced in both copepods while their clearances of G. instiatum remained unaltered, suggesting active prey selection. Video observations of individual prey capture and feeding events showed prey rejection frequencies (caught and then released cells) that did not differ between mixed and mono-specific diets. This suggests that the selection between prey cells occurs prior to capture and that it is based on remote characterization of the cells.

Schultz, Mette; KiØrboe, Thomas

2009-01-01

40

Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants) as well as the perspectives for future research directions.

Jean-Philippe Maréchal; Claire Hellio

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Conception for a non-toxic dust sampling device - SPG 210  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biological hazardous effects of non-toxic dusts and its impact on occupational hygiene as well as the dispersion of physical dust particles at workplaces determine the constructional conception of a suspended dust sampling device. The most important quantities to be measured are gravimetric respirable dust concentration, gravimetric total dust concentration and the relative proportion of fibrogenic components present in respirable dust. The measuring ranges were derived by an analysis of the dispersion of the measurable dust variables in the industries subject to dust pollution and it was concluded that a two-stage sampling device with a relatively large air-flow rate of about 10 m/sup 3//h is required. The essential features of constructing a device of this type are under consideration.

Thuermer, H.

1982-09-01

42

Gallium nitride is biocompatible and non-toxic before and after functionalization with peptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The toxicity of semiconductor materials can significantly hinder their use for in vitro and in vivo applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a material with remarkable properties, including excellent chemical stability. This work demonstrated that functionalized and etched GaN surfaces were stable in aqueous environments and leached a negligible amount of Ga in solution even in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Also, GaN surfaces in cell culture did not interfere with nearby cell growth, and etched GaN promoted the adhesion of cells compared to etched silicon surfaces. A model peptide, "IKVAV", covalently attached to GaN and silicon surfaces increased the adhesion of PC12 cells. Peptide terminated GaN promoted greater cell spreading and extension of neurites. The results suggest that peptide modified GaN is a biocompatible and non-toxic material that can be used to probe chemical and electrical stimuli associated with neural interfaces.

Jewett SA; Makowski MS; Andrews B; Manfra MJ; Ivanisevic A

2012-02-01

43

Gallium nitride is biocompatible and non-toxic before and after functionalization with peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of semiconductor materials can significantly hinder their use for in vitro and in vivo applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a material with remarkable properties, including excellent chemical stability. This work demonstrated that functionalized and etched GaN surfaces were stable in aqueous environments and leached a negligible amount of Ga in solution even in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Also, GaN surfaces in cell culture did not interfere with nearby cell growth, and etched GaN promoted the adhesion of cells compared to etched silicon surfaces. A model peptide, "IKVAV", covalently attached to GaN and silicon surfaces increased the adhesion of PC12 cells. Peptide terminated GaN promoted greater cell spreading and extension of neurites. The results suggest that peptide modified GaN is a biocompatible and non-toxic material that can be used to probe chemical and electrical stimuli associated with neural interfaces. PMID:22019517

Jewett, Scott A; Makowski, Matthew S; Andrews, Benjamin; Manfra, Michael J; Ivanisevic, Albena

2011-10-07

44

Non toxic goiter in the adult population of Genoa: 10 years of experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of non toxic goiter, difuse or nodular, in all Genoa's Country thyroid diseases. The authors have studied one non-random casuistry of 1980 Patients observed from time to time in the last decade in Ambulatory of Nuclear Medicine (Department of Internal Medicine of University of Genoa) working with Section of Hygiene of ASL of Genoa. Of 1980 patients, 1629 (83.63%) were females; 351 (16.37%) were males, aged 14-70 years. The mean age was 42.6 years. First observations regarded only born and old date residents in Genoa never subordinates to surgical. Actinic or pharmacological treatments to the thyroid. All patients have normal circulating hormones and TSH. Every subject was afflicted with un toxic goiter (diffuse, single nodular or multi nodular) assessed by clinical Examination, ultrasonography and thyroid uptake with 99mTc-pertechnetate. This pathology represents now the 66.6% of all thyroid diseases observed. The A.A. emphasized an absolute prevalence of non toxic goiter in females (84.2% of observations). The enclosed tables are created divided the casuistry for age correspondents to the several decades (for the II to VII the wais). By means of the test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov we have shaped two delineating curves the frequencies. Accumulated of feminine and male subjects. The results of our study support a advantage of the Females versus male subjects in the diffuse and in the multi nodular goiter, while in the Struma to Single nodular differences are meaningful absent.

Santaniello B; Lombardo I; Niccolardi ME; Armonino R

2012-03-01

45

Radioiodine therapy of benign non-toxic goitre. Potential role of recombinant human TSH  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This review provides an update on recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH) augmented radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy and outlines its potential role in the treatment of symptomatic benign multinodular non-toxic goitre. In some countries, ¹³¹I has been used for three decades to reduce the size of nodular goitres. The feasibility of ¹³¹I therapy depends on an adequate thyroid ¹³¹I uptake. Based on a two-fold increase in thyroid ¹³¹I uptake, superiority studies have convincingly demonstrated that the absorbed thyroid ¹³¹I dose can be increased without increasing the administered ¹³¹I activity, resulting in a 35-56% amplification of goitre reduction at one-year post radioiodine compared to conventional (without rh-TSH) ¹³¹I therapy. Although patient satisfaction is not improved at one-year, this approach facilitates tracheal decompression and is particularly promising in large goitres. The majority of multinodular non-toxic goitre patients may not require amplified goitre reduction. But as an alternative strategy, rh-TSH allowsup to 80% reduction of the therapeutic ¹³¹I activity while still achieving goitre reduction comparable to that of conventional ¹³¹I therapy and maintaining high patient satisfaction. The dose-reduction (equality) strategy is attractive in terms of minimizing post-therapeutic restrictions and in reducing the potential risk of radiation-induced malignancy. Adverse effects like temporary thyroid swelling and thyroid hormone excess are to a large extent dose-dependent and generally 0.1mg rh-TSH or less is well tolerated. Based on these results we conclude that rh-TSH augmented ¹³¹I therapy is a promising new therapeutic principle allowing the tailoring of an optimal ¹³¹I therapy on the individual level.

Fast, S; Bonnema, S J

2011-01-01

46

PROCESS AND DEVICE FOR PREPARING THE NON-TOXIC SALTS OF 6-METHYL-3,4-DIHYDRO-1,2,3-OXATHIAZIN-4-ON-2,2-DIOXIDE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to a process for preparing acesulfam salts by reacting amidosulfonic acid salts with diketen, yielding an acetoacetamidosulfonic acid salt (I), ring closure is effected under the influence of an at least equivalent amount of SO3, and at least the ring closure reaction is carried out in the presence of an halogenated, aliphatic hydrocarbon as inert solvent. The cyclization product is treated with water and the thus obtained acesulfam-H (II) is converted into a non-toxic salt.; During distillation of the crude solvent developed, once water and low boiling products have been separated and a suffiently pure solvent to be reused to prepare the compounds (I) and/or (II) has been recovered, the remaining solvent-containing distillation residue is directly reintroduced, with no further purification, into the system, downstream of the reaction vessel, in order to effect the ring closure reaction. Also disclosed is a device for carrying out this process.

ROSCHER GUENTER; LITTERER HEINZ; ENGELMANN AXEL; KAUFMANN WOLF-DIETMAR; LAUGWITZ BERND; SCHNABEL HANS-DIETMAR

47

Environmental and socio-economic assessment of co-combustion of coal, biomass and non-hazardous wastes in a full scale power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A European project (COPOWER) was developed to assess the possibility to partially replace the coal used in a 243 MWth Power Plant by biomass and non-toxic wastes for the production of electricity. Three combustion scenarios were studied, based on the combustion tests performed at the Stadtwerke Duisburg Power Plant: Scenario 0 (Sc0) - combustion of coal; Scenario 1 (Sc1) - combustion of coal + Sewage Sludge (SS) + Meat and Bone Meal (MBM); Scenario 2 (Sc2) - coal + SS + Wood Pellets (WP). A socio-economic and environmental assessment was performed. In the environmental point of view, Sc0 was the worst scenario, mainly due to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Sc1 was the best scenario, mainly due to the reduction on the GHG emission, substances that contribute for eutrophication and ozone depletion gases. In the socio-economic point of view, Sc0 was the worst scenario, mainly due to the absence of GHG abatement, and Sc1 was the best scenario due to the best cost of the electricity production and negative cost of avoided emissions.

Morais, J.; N. Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Santos, A.; Mendes, B.; Oliveira, J.F. Santos [Environmental Biotechnology Researching, Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisboa (Portugal)

2008-07-01

48

Long-circulating non-toxic blood pool imaging agent based on hyperbranched polyglycerols.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Currently, in vivo or in vitro(99m)Tc-radiolabelled red blood cells are the standard blood pool imaging agents. Due to risks associated with handling of blood and the problems with the current (99m)Tc shortage, we were interested in a long-circulating biocompatible synthetic macromolecule that would be simple to prepare and could also be used for PET imaging. METHODS: A high molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) of 500 kDa was derivatized to coordinate radioactive gallium and to establish its labelling efficiency, stability and pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: The resulting radiopharmaceutical in kit form was labelled rapidly within a couple of minutes at room temperature, was stable in transferrin and EDTA challenge tests, and was non-toxic in both cell viability and different hemocompatibility assays. A pharmacokinetic biodistribution study showed that the (67)Ga-HPGN was confined to the blood compartment with a biological half life of 50.7h. CONCLUSION: (67)Ga-HPGN is thus a simple to prepare blood pool imaging agent for applications where a long biological half-life is essential, i.e., the diagnosis of internal bleeding. Since radiolabelling of the same kit with (68)Ga was also confirmed, we plan to evaluate it shortly as a PET blood pool imaging agent for cardiac applications.

Saatchi K; Gelder N; Gershkovich P; Sivak O; Wasan KM; Kainthan RK; Brooks DE; Häfeli UO

2012-01-01

49

Baseline toxic mixtures of non-toxic chemicals: "solubility addition" increases exposure for solid hydrophobic chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the question whether hydrophobic organic chemicals exerting no toxicity at their solubility limit (saturation) can form a toxic mixture. Spiking methods generally do not allow testing exactly at saturation without introducing microcrystals. Passive dosing was thus applied to test the acute toxicity of several high melting point PAHs and their mixtures at the respective saturation levels to aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. With the aquatic Daphnia magna, anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene resulted in no or limited acute toxicity (0-20%), whereas binary and tertiary mixtures of these resulted in significant acute toxicity (70-88%). Toxicity of PAHs and their mixtures could be fitted with one (sum) chemical activity-response curve in accordance with a similar mode of toxic action (i.e., concentration addition). The effective chemical activity (Ea-50) of 0.029 and the effective concentration on a lipid basis (EC(lipid, eq.)-50) of 95.7 mM were well within the range for baseline toxicity. Similar mixtures showed less toxicity to the terrestrial Folsomia candida due to steady-state body-burdens being below equilibrium partitioning levels. The results of the present study raise questions about the focus of risk assessment schemes and toxicity testing guidelines on individual substances, since apparently non-toxic chemicals might become toxic in a mixture. PMID:23331084

Smith, Kilian E C; Schmidt, Stine N; Dom, Nathalie; Blust, Ronny; Holmstrup, Martin; Mayer, Philipp

2013-02-01

50

Baseline toxic mixtures of non-toxic chemicals: "solubility addition" increases exposure for solid hydrophobic chemicals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study addresses the question whether hydrophobic organic chemicals exerting no toxicity at their solubility limit (saturation) can form a toxic mixture. Spiking methods generally do not allow testing exactly at saturation without introducing microcrystals. Passive dosing was thus applied to test the acute toxicity of several high melting point PAHs and their mixtures at the respective saturation levels to aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. With the aquatic Daphnia magna, anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene resulted in no or limited acute toxicity (0-20%), whereas binary and tertiary mixtures of these resulted in significant acute toxicity (70-88%). Toxicity of PAHs and their mixtures could be fitted with one (sum) chemical activity-response curve in accordance with a similar mode of toxic action (i.e., concentration addition). The effective chemical activity (Ea-50) of 0.029 and the effective concentration on a lipid basis (EC(lipid, eq.)-50) of 95.7 mM were well within the range for baseline toxicity. Similar mixtures showed less toxicity to the terrestrial Folsomia candida due to steady-state body-burdens being below equilibrium partitioning levels. The results of the present study raise questions about the focus of risk assessment schemes and toxicity testing guidelines on individual substances, since apparently non-toxic chemicals might become toxic in a mixture.

Smith KE; Schmidt SN; Dom N; Blust R; Holmstrup M; Mayer P

2013-02-01

51

Plasma deposition of cubic boron nitride films from non-toxic material at low temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boron nitride has become the focus of a considerable amount of interest because of its properties which relate closely to those of carbon. In particular, the cubic nitride phase has extreme hardness and very high thermal conductivity similar to the properties of diamond. The conventional methods of synthesis use the highly toxic and inflammable gas diborane (B2H6) as the reactant material. A study has been made of the deposition of thin films of boron nitride (BN) using non-toxic material by the plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition technique. The source material was borane-ammonia (BH3-NH3) which is a crystalline solid at room temperature with a high vapour pressure. The BH3-NH3 vapour was decomposed in a 13.56 MHz nitrogen plasma coupled either inductively or capacitively with the system. The composition of the films was assessed by measuring their IR absorption when deposited on silicon and KBr substrates. The hexagonal (graphitic) and cubic (diamond-like) allotropes can be distinguished by their characteristic absorption bands which occur at 1365 and 780 cm-1 (hexagonal) and 1070 cm-1 (cubic). We have deposited BN films consisting of a mixture of hexagonal and cubic phases; the relative content of the cubic phase was found to be directly dependent on r.f. power and substrate bias. (orig.)

1991-12-10

52

Reduction in goiter size by {sup 131}I therapy in patients with non-toxic multinodular goiter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A retrospective follow-up study of {sup 131}I treatment was performed in 10 females with non-toxic multinodular goiter. The median dose of {sup 131}I given was 20 mCi. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography. The median follow-up period was 26 months. Nine patients had a reduction of goiter size: thyroid volume decreased from 88{+-}14.9 ml to 49{+-}10.9 ml one year after {sup 131}I treatment. The relative decrease of goiter size was 48% after one year and 59% after two years. One patients did not respond and was referred for operation. Side effects were mild spontaneously resolving radiation thyroiditis in one patient and subclinical hypothyroidism in four patients. In conclusion, {sup 131}I treatment on non-toxic goiter is an effective treatment at the expense of post-radiation hypothyroidism. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Wesche, M.F.; Tiel-v-Buul, M.M.; Smits, N.J.; Wiersinga, W.M. [Univ. of Amsterdan (Netherlands)

1995-01-01

53

Prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in regularly menstruating women with non-toxic goitre or autoimmune thyroid disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The so called “big-big” prolactin (Prl), also known as macroprolactin is formed by Prl-immunoglobulin (Prl-IgG) complexes and may cause elevation of serum Prl concentrations measured by standard assays, potentially leading to unnecessary investigations and/or treatment. In our study, we have endeavoured to assess the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in euthyroid, regularly menstruating women with thyroid disease, as well as to assess whether autoimmune thyroid disease may result in an increased prevalence of macroprolactinaemia. Material and methods We measured serum Prl in 182 regularly menstruating women aged 32.7?±?7.5 years (mean?±?SD, range 17–46 years) who attended endocrine clinic either for investigation of non-toxic goitre (n?=?86, age 33.2?±?7.8 years) or with autoimmune thyroid disease (n?=?96, age 32.3?±?7.2 years). Autoimmune thyroid disease was defined as raised titre of at least one anti-thyroid antibody [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) and/or anti-TSH-receptor (anti-TSH-R) antibodies]. All women were clinically and biochemically euthyroid, either without or on treatment with L-thyroxine. In those with raised Prl (i.e., above 530 mIU/l) we ruled out the presence of macroprolactinaemia by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method. Results There was no significant age difference between women with and without autoimmune thyroid disease (p?=?0.84). Raised Prl concentrations were found in 10 women with thyroid disease (5.5%), and of those a significant macroprolactinaemia (i.e., reduction of Prl concentrations of more than 60% after PEG precipitation) was found in 9 subjects (4.94%). There were no differences in the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia between women with autoimmune thyroid disease (4 out of 96), and without autoimmune thyroid disease (5 out of 86, p?=?0.75). Conclusions Approximately one out of twenty women with regular menses is likely to have raised serum Prl that is usually caused by the presence of macroprolactinaemia. Though structure of macroprolactin involves Prl-IgG complexes, there is no evidence that autoimmune thyroid disease is associated with raised prevalence of macroprolactinaemia.

Lewandowski Krzysztof C; G?sior-Perczak Danuta; Kowalska Aldona; Lewi?ski Andrzej

2012-01-01

54

Agar well diffusion assay testing of bacterial susceptibility to various antimicrobials in concentrations non-toxic for human cells in culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previously, we showed that microbial susceptibility to antimicrobials in concentrations non-toxic for human cells in culture could be tested using the wet disc topical antimicrobial assay. In this report, wet disc assay and agar well diffusion assay results were compared testing the susceptibility of Ps. aeruginosa isolates from burn patients to concentrations of Polymyxin B non-toxic for cultured cells. Both assays were performed on the same agar plates. No differences in results were observed. Further agar well diffusion assay testing showed that susceptibility/resistance could be demonstrated when testing several antimicrobials in concentrations non-toxic for cultured cells against a variety of bacteria isolated from burn patients. Therefore, the more familiar agar well diffusion as well as the wet disc assay can be used to test microbial susceptibility to these concentrations of antimicrobials.

Holder IA; Boyce ST

1994-10-01

55

Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (approx1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GW{sub peek}, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET. As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4 1/2 months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies. (Author)

Soendergaard, R.

2012-07-01

56

Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au25 clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au+ ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of ?5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f7/2?83.97 eV and Au 4f5/2?87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size ?1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size ?8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at ?674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 ?g ml-1. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR+ve oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au25 clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

2010-02-05

57

Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au{sub 25} nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au{sub 25} clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au{sup +} ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of {approx}5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f{sub 7/2{approx}}83.97 eV and Au 4f{sub 5/2{approx}}87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size {approx}1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size {approx}8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at {approx}674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR{sup +ve} oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au{sub 25} clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor [Amrita Centre for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Cochin, 682 041 (India); Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: manzoor_nanomed@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Technology, DST unit on Nanoscience, Chennai, 600 036 (India)

2010-02-05

58

Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O-2 evolution and CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet MS in cells acclimated to low (7.9) and high pH (8.4 or 8.9). Species-specific differences in the mode of carbon acquisition were found. While extracellular carbonic anhydrase (eCA) activities increased with pH in P. multiseries and S. stellaris, N. navis-varingica exhibited low eCA activities independent of pH. Half-saturation concentrations (K-1/2) for photosynthetic O-2 evolution, which were highest in S. stellaris and lowest in P. multiseries, generally decreased with increasing pH. In terms of carbon source, all species took up both CO2 and HCO3-. K-1/2 values for inorganic carbon uptake decreased with increasing pH in two species, while in N. navis-varingica apparent affinities did not change. While the contribution of HCO3- to net fixation was more than 85% in S. stellaris, it was about 55% in P. multiseries and only approximately 30% in N. navis-varingica. The intracellular content of DA increased in P. multiseries and N. navis-varingica with increasing pH. Based on our data, we propose a novel role for eCA acting as C-i-recycling mechanism. With regard to pH-dependence of growth, the 'HCO3- user' S. stellaris was as sensitive as the 'CO2 user' N. navis-varingica. The suggested relationship between DA and carbon acquisition/C-i limitation could not be confirmed.

Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina

2008-01-01

59

Non-toxic conformer of amyloid ? may suppress amyloid ?-induced toxicity in rat primary neurons: implications for a novel therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 42-mer amyloid ?-protein (A?42) oligomers cause neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously identified the toxic conformer of A?42 with a turn at positions 22-23 ("toxic" turn) to form oligomers and to induce toxicity in rat primary neurons, along with the non-toxic conformer with a turn at positions 25-26. G25P-A?42 and E22V-A?42 are non-toxic mutants that disfavor the "toxic" turn. Here we hypothesize that these non-toxic mutants of A?42 could suppress A?42-induced neurotoxicity, and examined their effects on the neurotoxicity, aggregation, and levels of the toxic conformer, which was evaluated by dot blotting using a monoclonal antibody (11A1) against the toxic conformer. G25P-A?42 and E22V-A?42 suppressed the neurotoxicity and aggregation of A?42 as well as the formation of the toxic conformer. The neurotoxicity induced by A?42 was also significantly reduced by the treatment of 11A1, but not of A?-sequence specific antibodies (6E10 and 4G8). Since recent studies indicate that A? oligomers contain parallel ?-sheet, the present results suggest that the non-toxic mutants of A?42 without the "toxic" turn could prevent the propagation process of the toxic conformer of A?42 resulting in suppression of the formation of the toxic oligomers. This could be a promising strategy for AD therapeutics.

Izuo N; Murakami K; Sato M; Iwasaki M; Izumi Y; Shimizu T; Akaike A; Irie K; Kume T

2013-08-01

60

Relationship between metabolic syndrome and multinodular non-toxic goiter in an inpatient population from a geographic area with moderate iodine deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance predispose individuals to the development of both metabolic syndrome and non-toxic nodular thyroid diseases. AIM: The aim of this observational, cross-sectional study is to evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and multinodular nontoxic goiter in an inpatient population from a geographic area with moderate iodine deficiency. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We examined 1422 Caucasian euthyroid inpatients. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasound of the neck. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed to evaluate single thyroid nodules and dominant nodules ?15 mm in euthyroid multinodular goiter. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the criteria of the American Heart Association/ National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. RESULTS: Of the sample, 277 patients had clinical evidence of multinodular nontoxic goiter, 461 met the criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, and 132 were found to have both conditions. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, nicotinism, parity, alcohol intake, thyroid function, and metabolic syndrome- related pharmacological treatment, metabolic syndrome was found to be an independent risk factor for the occurrence of multinodular non-toxic goiter. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and multi nodular non-toxic goiter was apparent in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of euthyroid inpatients, we demonstrate that metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of multinodular non-toxic goiter in a geographic area with moderate iodine deficiency. We propose that patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome should be screened for the presence of multinodular non-toxic goiter.

Rendina D; De Filippo G; Mossetti G; Zampa G; Muscariello R; Benvenuto G; Vivona CL; Ippolito S; Galante F; Lombardi G; Biondi B; Strazzullo P

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Emulsifying Activity and Stability of a Non-Toxic Bioemulsifier Synthesized by Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A previously reported bacterial bioemulsifier, here termed microbactan, was further analyzed to characterize its lipid component, molecular weight, ionic character and toxicity, along with its bioemulsifying potential for hydrophobic substrates at a range of temperatures, salinities and pH values. Analyses showed that microbactan is a high molecular weight (700 kDa), non-ionic molecule. Gas chromatography of the lipid fraction revealed the presence of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids; thus microbactan may be considered a glycolipoprotein. Microbactan emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons and oils to various extents; the highest emulsification index was recorded against motor oil (96%). The stability of the microbactan-motor oil emulsion model reached its highest level (94%) at 50 °C, pH 10 and 3.5% NaCl content. It was not toxic to Artemia salina nauplii. Microbactan is, therefore, a non-toxic and non-ionic bioemulsifier of high molecular weight with affinity for a range of oily substrates. Comparative phylogenetic assessment of the 16S rDNA gene of Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 with genes derived from other marine Microbacterium species suggested that this genus is well represented in coastal zones. The chemical nature and stability of the bioemulsifier suggest its potential application in bioremediation of marine environments and in cosmetics.

Camacho-Chab JC; Guézennec J; Chan-Bacab MJ; Ríos-Leal E; Sinquin C; Muñiz-Salazar R; De la Rosa-García Sdel C; Reyes-Estebanez M; Ortega-Morales BO

2013-01-01

62

Amelioration of oxidative stress in bio-membranes and macromolecules by non-toxic dye from Morinda tinctoria (Roxb.) roots.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant dyes have been in use for coloring and varied purposes since prehistoric times. A red dye found in the roots of plants belonging to genus Morinda is a well recognized coloring ingredient. The dye fraction obtained from the methanolic extract of the roots of Morinda tinctoria was explored for its role in attenuating damages caused by H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. The antioxidant potential of the dye fraction was assessed through DPPH radical scavenging, deoxyribose degradation and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. It was subsequently screened for its efficiency in extenuating damage incurred to biomembrane (using erythrocytes and their ghost membranes) and macromolecules (pBR322 DNA, lipids and proteins) from exposure to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the non-toxic nature of the dye was supported by the histological evaluation conducted on the tissue sections from the major organs of Swiss Albino mice as well as effect on Hep3B cell line (human hepatic carcinoma). The LC-MS confirms the dye fraction to be morindone. Our study strongly suggests that morindone present in the root extracts of M. tinctoria, in addition to being a colorant, definitely holds promise in the pharmaceutical industry.

Bhakta D; Siva R

2012-06-01

63

Emulsifying Activity and Stability of a Non-Toxic Bioemulsifier Synthesized by Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10.  

Science.gov (United States)

A previously reported bacterial bioemulsifier, here termed microbactan, was further analyzed to characterize its lipid component, molecular weight, ionic character and toxicity, along with its bioemulsifying potential for hydrophobic substrates at a range of temperatures, salinities and pH values. Analyses showed that microbactan is a high molecular weight (700 kDa), non-ionic molecule. Gas chromatography of the lipid fraction revealed the presence of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids; thus microbactan may be considered a glycolipoprotein. Microbactan emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons and oils to various extents; the highest emulsification index was recorded against motor oil (96%). The stability of the microbactan-motor oil emulsion model reached its highest level (94%) at 50 °C, pH 10 and 3.5% NaCl content. It was not toxic to Artemia salina nauplii. Microbactan is, therefore, a non-toxic and non-ionic bioemulsifier of high molecular weight with affinity for a range of oily substrates. Comparative phylogenetic assessment of the 16S rDNA gene of Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 with genes derived from other marine Microbacterium species suggested that this genus is well represented in coastal zones. The chemical nature and stability of the bioemulsifier suggest its potential application in bioremediation of marine environments and in cosmetics. PMID:24065097

Camacho-Chab, Juan Carlos; Guézennec, Jean; Chan-Bacab, Manuel Jesús; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Sinquin, Corinne; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; De la Rosa-García, Susana Del C; Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela; Ortega-Morales, Benjamín Otto

2013-09-13

64

Emulsifying Activity and Stability of a Non-Toxic Bioemulsifier Synthesized by Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A previously reported bacterial bioemulsifier, here termed microbactan, was further analyzed to characterize its lipid component, molecular weight, ionic character and toxicity, along with its bioemulsifying potential for hydrophobic substrates at a range of temperatures, salinities and pH values. Analyses showed that microbactan is a high molecular weight (700 kDa), non-ionic molecule. Gas chromatography of the lipid fraction revealed the presence of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids; thus microbactan may be considered a glycolipoprotein. Microbactan emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons and oils to various extents; the highest emulsification index was recorded against motor oil (96%). The stability of the microbactan-motor oil emulsion model reached its highest level (94%) at 50 °C, pH 10 and 3.5% NaCl content. It was not toxic to Artemia salina nauplii. Microbactan is, therefore, a non-toxic and non-ionic bioemulsifier of high molecular weight with affinity for a range of oily substrates. Comparative phylogenetic assessment of the 16S rDNA gene of Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 with genes derived from other marine Microbacterium species suggested that this genus is well represented in coastal zones. The chemical nature and stability of the bioemulsifier suggest its potential application in bioremediation of marine environments and in cosmetics.

Juan Carlos Camacho-Chab; Jean Guézennec; Manuel Jesús Chan-Bacab; Elvira Ríos-Leal; Corinne Sinquin; Raquel Muñiz-Salazar; Susana del C. De la Rosa-García; Manuela Reyes-Estebanez; Benjamín Otto Ortega-Morales

2013-01-01

65

Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

2003-09-01

66

Start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism in toxic and non-toxic accessions of Jatropha curcas L. and development of a codominant SCAR marker.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty six start codon targeted (SCoT) primers were used for characterization of 48 accessions of Jatropha curcas from different countries and include material with genetic variation for levels of phorbol esters, yield, seed oil content, test weight and plant type. SCoT analysis revealed high polymorphism and 74% of the primers generated polymorphic profiles. The SCoT6 primer discriminated edible and toxic accessions in a single reaction while the SCoT26 and 27 primers produced amplicons specific to toxic and non-toxic accessions, respectively. The polymorphic SCoT markers obtained with these three primers were converted to sequence characterized amplicon regions (SCARs) which resulted in codominant SCARs with SCoT6 primer and dominant SCARs with SCoT 26 and 27 primers. The codominant nature of SCoT6 primer and the resultant SCAR6 primer were validated on intraspecific hybrids derived from a cross between non-toxic and toxic accessions. The accession JP38 from Madagascar was found to be distinct and showed accession specific bands with 9 different SCoT primers. Sequence analysis of polymorphic amplicons obtained with SCoT6 primer showed a 65 bp deletion in accessions with low/zero phorbol esters. Diversity analysis separated the toxic and non-toxic accessions into two groups and the accessions JP29 and JP48 from Mexico formed a third cluster. PMID:23602106

Mulpuri, Sujatha; Muddanuru, Tarakeswari; Francis, George

2013-03-04

67

Start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism in toxic and non-toxic accessions of Jatropha curcas L. and development of a codominant SCAR marker.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty six start codon targeted (SCoT) primers were used for characterization of 48 accessions of Jatropha curcas from different countries and include material with genetic variation for levels of phorbol esters, yield, seed oil content, test weight and plant type. SCoT analysis revealed high polymorphism and 74% of the primers generated polymorphic profiles. The SCoT6 primer discriminated edible and toxic accessions in a single reaction while the SCoT26 and 27 primers produced amplicons specific to toxic and non-toxic accessions, respectively. The polymorphic SCoT markers obtained with these three primers were converted to sequence characterized amplicon regions (SCARs) which resulted in codominant SCARs with SCoT6 primer and dominant SCARs with SCoT 26 and 27 primers. The codominant nature of SCoT6 primer and the resultant SCAR6 primer were validated on intraspecific hybrids derived from a cross between non-toxic and toxic accessions. The accession JP38 from Madagascar was found to be distinct and showed accession specific bands with 9 different SCoT primers. Sequence analysis of polymorphic amplicons obtained with SCoT6 primer showed a 65 bp deletion in accessions with low/zero phorbol esters. Diversity analysis separated the toxic and non-toxic accessions into two groups and the accessions JP29 and JP48 from Mexico formed a third cluster.

Mulpuri S; Muddanuru T; Francis G

2013-06-01

68

Development of SCAR marker specific to non-toxic Jatropha curcas L. and designing a novel multiplexing PCR along with nrDNA ITS primers to circumvent the false negative detection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub, has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel an emerging alternative to petro-diesel. In addition to the commercial value, it is also having medicinal and even high nutritional value to use as animal fodder which is limited due to the toxicity. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety of J. curcas in a mixed population and also for quality control since the toxic components of J. curcas has deleterious effect on animals. In the present study, the efforts were made to generate the specific SCAR marker for toxic and/or non-toxic J. curcas from RAPD markers. Among the markers specific for toxic and non-toxic varieties, four were selected, purified, cloned, sequenced, and designed primers out of which one set of primers NT-JC/SCAR I/OPQ15-F and R could able to discriminate the non-toxic with toxic Jatropha by giving expected 430 bp size amplification in non-toxic variety. Furthermore, novel multiplex PCR was designed using the nrDNA ITS primers to overcome the false negatives. Present work also demonstrates utility of the conserved regions of nrDNA coding genes in ruling out the artifacts in PCR-like false negatives frequently occur in SCAR due to various reasons. The specific SCAR markers generated in the present investigation will help to distinguish non-toxic from toxic varieties of J. curcas or vice versa, and isolated marker along with designed multiplex protocol has applications in quality control for selective cultivation of non-toxic variety and will also assist in breeding and molecular mapping studies.

Mastan SG; Sudheer PD; Rahman H; Reddy MP; Chikara J

2012-01-01

69

Transition to Non-toxic Gunshot Use in Olympic Shooting: Policy Implications for IOC and UNEP in Resolving an Environmental Problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Olympic shooters discharge, annually, thousands of tons of lead shot which pose toxic risks to animals and may pollute both surface and ground waters. Non-toxic steel shot is an acceptable and effective substitute, but International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) rules prevent its adoption. The present policy and rules of the ISSF on lead shot use contravene the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Charter position on environmental protection. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a formal Olympic partner on environmental protection, has no stated policy on contamination from lead ammunition, despite having declared lead a Priority Area for remedial action, and is pressing to remove lead from the global human environment. The IOC Sport and Environment Commission and UNEP could examine the continued use of lead shot ammunition and advise the IOC Executive Board on appropriate changes in policy and rules that could halt the massive lead shot contamination of shooting range environments world-wide. PMID:23529514

Thomas, Vernon George; Guitart, Raimon

2013-03-26

70

Transition to non-toxic gunshot use in Olympic shooting: policy implications for IOC and UNEP in resolving an environmental problem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Olympic shooters discharge, annually, thousands of tons of lead shot which pose toxic risks to animals and may pollute both surface and ground waters. Non-toxic steel shot is an acceptable and effective substitute, but International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) rules prevent its adoption. The present policy and rules of the ISSF on lead shot use contravene the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Charter position on environmental protection. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a formal Olympic partner on environmental protection, has no stated policy on contamination from lead ammunition, despite having declared lead a Priority Area for remedial action, and is pressing to remove lead from the global human environment. The IOC Sport and Environment Commission and UNEP could examine the continued use of lead shot ammunition and advise the IOC Executive Board on appropriate changes in policy and rules that could halt the massive lead shot contamination of shooting range environments world-wide.

Thomas VG; Guitart R

2013-10-01

71

Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aggregation of soluble, monomeric ?- amyloid (A?) to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar A? is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible A? oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of A? aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh), was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. RESULTS: K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against A?42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-?-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic A? oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different A? conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. CONCLUSION: K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

Sharoar MG; Thapa A; Shahnawaz M; Ramasamy VS; Woo ER; Shin SY; Park IS

2012-01-01

72

Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric ?- amyloid (A?) to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar A? is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible A? oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of A? aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh), was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. Results K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against A?42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-?-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic A? oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different A? conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. Conclusion K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

Sharoar Md; Thapa Arjun; Shahnawaz Mohammad; Ramasamy Vijay; Woo Eun-Rhan; Shin Song; Park Il-Seon

2012-01-01

73

Bacillus subtilis natto: a non-toxic source of poly-?-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

It is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of ?-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of this study was to test the effect of ?-PGA (produced by B. subtilis natto ATCC 15245) on the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying and to test the toxigenic potential of B. subtilis natto. 10% ?-PGA was found to protect Lactobacillus paracasei significantly better than 10% sucrose, whereas it showed comparable cryoprotectant activity to sucrose when it was used to protect Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum. Although ?-PGA is known to be non-toxic, it is crucial to ascertain the toxigenic potential of its source, B. subtilis natto. Presence of six genes that are known to encode for toxins were investigated: three component hemolysin (hbl D/A), three component non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheB), B. cereus enterotoxin T (bceT), enterotoxin FM (entFM), sphingomyelinase (sph) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase (piplc). From our investigations, none of these six genes were present in B. subtilis natto. Moreover, haemolytic and lecithinase activities were found to be absent. Our work contributes a biodegradable polymer from a non-toxic source for the cryoprotection of probiotic bacteria, thus improving their survival during the manufacturing process.

2013-01-01

74

Bacillus subtilis natto: a non-toxic source of poly-?-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of ?-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of this study was to test the effect of ?-PGA (produced by B. subtilis natto ATCC 15245) on the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying and to test the toxigenic potential of B. subtilis natto. 10% ?-PGA was found to protect Lactobacillus paracasei significantly better than 10% sucrose, whereas it showed comparable cryoprotectant activity to sucrose when it was used to protect Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum. Although ?-PGA is known to be non-toxic, it is crucial to ascertain the toxigenic potential of its source, B. subtilis natto. Presence of six genes that are known to encode for toxins were investigated: three component hemolysin (hbl D/A), three component non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheB), B. cereus enterotoxin T (bceT), enterotoxin FM (entFM), sphingomyelinase (sph) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase (piplc). From our investigations, none of these six genes were present in B. subtilis natto. Moreover, haemolytic and lecithinase activities were found to be absent. Our work contributes a biodegradable polymer from a non-toxic source for the cryoprotection of probiotic bacteria, thus improving their survival during the manufacturing process. PMID:23829836

Bhat, Aditya R; Irorere, Victor U; Bartlett, Terry; Hill, David; Kedia, Gopal; Morris, Mark R; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Radecka, Iza

2013-07-05

75

Bacillus subtilis natto: a non-toxic source of poly-?-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of ?-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of this study was to test the effect of ?-PGA (produced by B. subtilis natto ATCC 15245) on the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying and to test the toxigenic potential of B. subtilis natto. 10% ?-PGA was found to protect Lactobacillus paracasei significantly better than 10% sucrose, whereas it showed comparable cryoprotectant activity to sucrose when it was used to protect Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum. Although ?-PGA is known to be non-toxic, it is crucial to ascertain the toxigenic potential of its source, B. subtilis natto. Presence of six genes that are known to encode for toxins were investigated: three component hemolysin (hbl D/A), three component non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheB), B. cereus enterotoxin T (bceT), enterotoxin FM (entFM), sphingomyelinase (sph) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase (piplc). From our investigations, none of these six genes were present in B. subtilis natto. Moreover, haemolytic and lecithinase activities were found to be absent. Our work contributes a biodegradable polymer from a non-toxic source for the cryoprotection of probiotic bacteria, thus improving their survival during the manufacturing process.

Bhat AR; Irorere VU; Bartlett T; Hill D; Kedia G; Morris MR; Charalampopoulos D; Radecka I

2013-01-01

76

Discovery of potent, novel, non-toxic anti-malarial compounds via quantum modelling, virtual screening and in vitro experimental validation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing resistance towards existing anti-malarial therapies emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Additionally, many malaria drugs in use today have high toxicity and low therapeutic indices. Gradient Biomodeling, LLC has developed a quantum-model search technology that uses quantum similarity and does not depend explicitly on chemical structure, as molecules are rigorously described in fundamental quantum attributes related to individual pharmacological properties. Therapeutic activity, as well as toxicity and other essential properties can be analysed and optimized simultaneously, independently of one another. Such methodology is suitable for a search of novel, non-toxic, active anti-malarial compounds. Methods A set of innovative algorithms is used for the fast calculation and interpretation of electron-density attributes of molecular structures at the quantum level for rapid discovery of prospective pharmaceuticals. Potency and efficacy, as well as additional physicochemical, metabolic, pharmacokinetic, safety, permeability and other properties were characterized by the procedure. Once quantum models are developed and experimentally validated, the methodology provides a straightforward implementation for lead discovery, compound optimizzation and de novo molecular design. Results Starting with a diverse training set of 26 well-known anti-malarial agents combined with 1730 moderately active and inactive molecules, novel compounds that have strong anti-malarial activity, low cytotoxicity and structural dissimilarity from the training set were discovered and experimentally validated. Twelve compounds were identified in silico and tested in vitro; eight of them showed anti-malarial activity (IC50 ? 10 ?M), with six being very effective (IC50 ? 1 ?M), and four exhibiting low nanomolar potency. The most active compounds were also tested for mammalian cytotoxicity and found to be non-toxic, with a therapeutic index of more than 6,900 for the most active compound. Conclusions Gradient's metric modelling approach and electron-density molecular representations can be powerful tools in the discovery and design of novel anti-malarial compounds. Since the quantum models are agnostic of the particular biological target, the technology can account for different mechanisms of action and be used for de novo design of small molecules with activity against not only the asexual phase of the malaria parasite, but also against the liver stage of the parasite development, which may lead to true causal prophylaxis.

Sullivan David J; Kaludov Nikola; Martinov Martin N

2011-01-01

77

Radiolytic formation of non-toxic Cr(III) from toxic Cr(VI) in formate containing aqueous solutions: A system for water treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toxic hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the form of potassium dichromate was radiolytically reduced to non-toxic trivalent chromium Cr(III) in N(2)O-saturated aqueous solutions containing formate. This reduction by the electron donor (CO(2)H/CO(2)(-)) produced by continuous radiolysis of water, was a linear function of the absorbed dose. This reaction was pH and dose rate dependent. pH was an important parameter in the reduction, as it affects both chemical speciation of Cr(VI) and formate. Possible mechanisms related to dose rate dependence of removal of Cr(VI) are presented. At pH 3 a decrease in the radiation induced reduction of Cr(VI) was observed with increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration. A mechanism to account for this variation is proposed. These findings suggest that irradiation of Cr(VI) solutions in presence of formate can be effective, economical and simple means for treatment of waste water contaminated with hexavalent Cr(VI).

Djouider F

2012-07-01

78

Formation/Fate of reactive metabolites from general anesthetics and a comparison of toxic and non-toxic analogues: a DFT study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chloroform and Halothane are well known hepatotoxic anesthetics for which toxicity is attributed to their reactive metabolites. The molecular level details of reactions leading to the formation of reactive metabolites from chloroform and halothane have not been explored. Potential energy surface (PES) for the formation of phosgene (a toxic intermediate) from Chloroform has been studied using quantum chemical methods. The HOOH mediated reaction of chloroform to give phosgene has been found to be exothermic by 81.24 kcal/mol with a barrier of ~ 3 kcal/mol through the water catalyzed transition sate. The quantum chemical studies on the reactivity profile of phosgene indicated that urea derivatives need to be considered on the mechanism leading to toxicity. Similarly, metabolic pathways of Halothane oxidation have been studied. The C-H bond dissociation energies (BDE) and radical stabilization energies (RSE) for Chloroform and Halothane (< 95 kcal/mol and > 10 kcal/mol) were found to be significantly different for these toxic anesthetics in comparison to their safer analogues (> 100 kcal/mol and < 5 kcal/mol) respectively; thus these parameters can be employed to distinguish toxic and non-toxic general anesthetics. Enthalpy for the Cpd I, a widely used model for CYP450 enzymes, mediated reactions also agreed well with these results.

Bhatia S; Dixit VA; Jangra H; Bharatam PV

2012-01-01

79

Formation/fate of reactive metabolites from general anesthetics and a comparison of toxic and non-toxic analogues: a DFT study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chloroform and Halothane are well known hepatotoxic anesthetics for which toxicity is attributed to their reactive metabolites. The molecular level details of reactions leading to the formation of reactive metabolites from chloroform and halothane have not been explored. Potential energy surface (PES) for the formation of phosgene (a toxic intermediate) from Chloroform has been studied using quantum chemical methods. The HOOH mediated reaction of chloroform to give phosgene has been found to be exothermic by 81.24 kcal/mol with a barrier of ~ 3 kcal/mol through the water catalyzed transition sate. The quantum chemical studies on the reactivity profile of phosgene indicated that urea derivatives need to be considered on the mechanism leading to toxicity. Similarly, metabolic pathways of Halothane oxidation have been studied. The C-H bond dissociation energies (BDE) and radical stabilization energies (RSE) for Chloroform and Halothane (< 95 kcal/mol and > 10 kcal/mol) were found to be significantly different for these toxic anesthetics in comparison to their safer analogues (> 100 kcal/mol and < 5 kcal/mol) respectively; thus these parameters can be employed to distinguish toxic and non-toxic general anesthetics. Enthalpy for the Cpd I, a widely used model for CYP450 enzymes, mediated reactions also agreed well with these results.

Bhatia S; Dixit VA; Jangra H; Bharatam PV

2012-01-01

80

Regulatory T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells contribute to the immune escape of papillary thyroid cancer coexisting with multinodular non-toxic goiter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immunosuppressive lymphocytes, such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), play crucial roles in tumor escape. To investigate the roles of Tregs and pDCs in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) plus multinodular non-toxic goiter (MNG), thyroid tissue and blood samples from 30 patients with PTC plus MNG and 30 MNG alone were analyzed for CD4(+) T cell, CD8(+) T cell, FoxP3(+) Treg, ICOS(+)FoxP3(+) Treg, and pDC numbers by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of the cytokines interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well. Both in thyroid tissue and peripheral blood, the numbers of Foxp3(+) Treg were significantly higher in patients with PTC plus MNG compared to patients with MNG alone; and as a prognostic marker, ICOS(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs represent a stronger predictor of disease progression than the total numbers of Foxp3(+) Tregs. Furthermore, a positive correlation between pDC and ICOS(+)Foxp3(+) Treg numbers in tissue of patients with PTC plus MNG was observed, suggesting that PTC-derived pDCs may induce the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into ICOS(+)Foxp3(+)Tregs. This may be one of the mechanisms underlying tumor escape in PTC plus MNG patients. Our results suggest that Tregs and pDCs together contribute to the tumor escape in patients with PTC plus MNG.

Yu H; Huang X; Liu X; Jin H; Zhang G; Zhang Q; Yu J

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Aislamiento y patogenicidad de un posible Pythium aphanidermatum en Jatropha Curcas L. no tóxica/ Isolation and pathogenicity of a possible Pythium aphanidermatum in Jatropha Curcas L. non toxic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Un cromista, posible Pythium aphanidermatum, fue aislado de semillas y plántulas recién emergidas de semillas de Jatropha curcas L. no tóxica severamente dañadas sembradas en la región tropical de Veracruz, México. Para estudiar su efecto sobre las etapas de pre y post-emergencia, el patógeno aislado fue inoculado en semillas y plántulas de reciente emergencia. Se corroboró un cierto potencial patogénico en la etapa de pre-emergencia, que no fue estadísticamente significativo en la etapa post-emergente a mediano plazo. Abstract in english A chromista, possible Pythium aphanidermatum, was isolated from severely damage seeds and seedlings recently started from Jatropha curcas L. non toxic seeds sown in the tropical area of Veracruz, Mexico. In order to study pathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum effects over pre-emergent and post-emergent stages, seeds and young seedlings were inoculated with the isolated pathogen, and the chromista showed possible pathogenic activity against pre-emergency and recently started post-emergency; however, statistically significant damaged was not found in older seedlings.

Valdés Rodríguez, Ofelia Andrea; García Espinoza, Roberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Odilón; Pérez Vazquez, Arturo

2011-08-01

82

Radiolytic formation of non-toxic Cr(III) from toxic Cr(VI) in formate containing aqueous solutions: A system for water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the form of potassium dichromate was radiolytically reduced to non-toxic trivalent chromium Cr(III) in N(2)O-saturated aqueous solutions containing formate. This reduction by the electron donor (CO(2)H/CO(2)(-)) produced by continuous radiolysis of water, was a linear function of the absorbed dose. This reaction was pH and dose rate dependent. pH was an important parameter in the reduction, as it affects both chemical speciation of Cr(VI) and formate. Possible mechanisms related to dose rate dependence of removal of Cr(VI) are presented. At pH 3 a decrease in the radiation induced reduction of Cr(VI) was observed with increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration. A mechanism to account for this variation is proposed. These findings suggest that irradiation of Cr(VI) solutions in presence of formate can be effective, economical and simple means for treatment of waste water contaminated with hexavalent Cr(VI). PMID:22595544

Djouider, Fathi

2012-05-03

83

Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. 131I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid 131I uptake is mandatory for 131I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid 131I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the 131I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged 131I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented 131I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use

2006-01-01

84

Change in the transfer profile of orally administered tetrodotoxin to non-toxic cultured pufferfish Takifugu rubripes depending of its development stage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the effects of growth (organ development) on tetrodotoxin (TTX) dynamics in the pufferfish body, TTX-containing feed homogenate was administered to 6- and 15-month old non-toxic cultured specimens of the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes at a dose of 40 mouse units (MU) (8.8 ?g)/20 g body weight by oral gavage. After 24 h, the specimens were killed and the skin tissues (dorsal and ventral), muscle, liver, digestive tract, and gonads were separated. TTX content (?g/g) in each tissue, determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, revealed that the TTX distribution profile, particularly the TTX content of the liver, greatly differed between the two ages; the TTX score of 15-month old fish (3.3 ?g/g) was nearly 5-fold that of 6-month old fish (0.68 ?g/g). The total remaining TTX amount per individual (relative amount to the given dose) was 31% in 6-month old fish, of which 71% was in the skin, and 84% in 15-month old fish, of which 83% was in the liver. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) scores, and histologic observations of the gonads and liver suggest that although there is little difference in maturation stage between these two ages, there are clear distinctions in the developmental stage of the liver. The results suggest that the TTX dynamics in T. rubripes are linked to the development of the liver, i.e., the TTX taken up into the pufferfish body via food organisms is eliminated or transferred mainly to the skin in young fish with an undeveloped liver, but as the fish grow and the liver continues to develop, most of the TTX is transferred to and accumulated in the liver.

Tatsuno R; Shikina M; Shirai Y; Wang J; Soyano K; Nishihara GN; Takatani T; Arakawa O

2013-04-01

85

Long-term outcome after radioiodine therapy with adjuvant rhTSH treatment: comparison between patients with non-toxic and pre-toxic large multinodular goitre.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In multinodular goitre (MNG), low radioiodine (RAI) activity after recombinant human (rh) TSH is able to reduce thyroid volume (TV) and improve symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term outcome of RAI after rhTSH treatment in patients who were divided according to their baseline TSH levels. Eighteen patients (69.2 ± 6.1 year) presented non-toxic (TSH >0.3 mIU/l) MNG (TV: 61.0 ± 3.8 ml; group 1), while 13 patients (74.1 ± 7.9 year) had non-autoimmune pre-toxic (TSH <0.3 mIU/l) MNG (TV: 82.6 ± 14.4 ml; group 2). TSH, thyroid hormones, TV (by ultrasonography), body mass index (BMI), symptoms and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated. Treatment induced short-term thyrotoxicosis in both groups, but this was slightly more marked in group 2 than in group 1. The number and severity of adverse events were similar. The follow-up period was 55.3 ± 4.1 months in group 1 and 57.2 ± 5.1 months in group 2. The final TV reduction was similar in groups 1 (63.4 ± 3.6 %) and 2 (57.2 ± 4.6 %) and TV reduction positively correlated only with initial TV. At the last examination, 14 group-1 subjects were on L-T4 therapy, while 2 group-2 subjects were on methimazole. An increase in BMI was noted only in group 2. MNG-related symptoms were significantly reduced in both groups. Symptoms related to sub-clinical hyperthyroidism improved in group 2, while no significant changes in QoL were noted in either group. This study confirms the effectiveness of rhTSH adjuvant treatment in reducing TV after low RAI activities, irrespective of baseline thyroid status. TSH levels <0.3 mIU/l proved to be predictive of a more severe thyrotoxic phase after rhTSH and RAI, while initial TSH levels >0.3 mIU/l were more frequently followed by a need for L-T4 therapy. Compressive symptoms improved in the majority of subjects.

Giusti M; Caorsi V; Mortara L; Caputo M; Monti E; Schiavo M; Bagnara MC; Minuto F; Bagnasco M

2013-04-01

86

Genetic polymorphism in brazilian microcystis spp. (Cyanobacteria) toxic and non-toxic through RFLP-PCR of the cpcBA-IGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The escalating occurrence of cyanobacterial toxic blooms demands a better understanding of genetic variability as an auxiliary expedient in species identification, collaborating with the monitoring of water destined to public supply. This study aimed at the unraveling of genetic polymorphism in the toxic and nontoxic strains of Microcystis (Cyanobacteria) species, isolated from diverse Brazilian localities through the RFLP-PCR technique applied to the c-phycocyanin encoding operon and its intergenic spacer (cpcBA-IGS). Eighteen strains belonging to M. aeruginosa, M. panniformis, M. protocystis and M. wesenbergii, plus two other unidentified strains, were analyzed by means of the morphological and molecular data. The molecular data constituted three groups with low similarity values unrelated to the geographical origin, toxicity or morphospecies. A high genetic variability among the studied populations was unveiled by the results. Brazilian populations of Microcystis spp. displayed high genetic diversity when compared to those from Australia, Japan, United States and Europe. This ample genetic diversity could be observed through the diverse eletrophoretic profiles obtained among the strains from a single species. The presence of toxic and non-toxic strains was observed in the same species, as M. aeruginosa.A ocorrência de florações de cianobactérias tóxicas demanda um melhor entendimento da variabilidade genética como um instrumento auxiliar na identificação de espécies colaborando, assim, com o monitoramento de águas destinadas ao abastecimento público. Este estudo objetivou o conhecimento do polimorfismo genético de linhagens tóxicas e não tóxicas de espécies de Microcystis (Cyanobacteria), isoladas de diversas localidades brasileiras, utilizando a técnica molecular RFLP-PCR para o operon que codifica para a c-ficocianina e seu espaçador intergênico (cpcBA-IGS). Foram analisadas dezoito linhagens pertencentes as espécies Microcystis aeruginosa, M. panniformis, M. protocystis, M. wesenbergii e duas outras não identificadas através de dados morfológicos e moleculares. Os resultados moleculares formaram três agrupamentos com baixos valores de similaridade entre si os quais não foram relacionados à origem geográfica, toxicidade ou morfoespécies. As populações brasileiras de Microcystis spp. apresentaram alta diversidade genética quando comparadas com as da Austrália, Japão, Estados Unidos e Europa. Esta ampla diversidade genética pode ser vislumbrada através de diversos perfis eletroforéticos obtidos entre linhagens de uma mesma espécie. Nós encontramos a presença de linhagens tóxicas e não tóxicas em uma mesma espécie, como em M. aeruginosa.

Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira; Maristela Casé Costa Cunha; Ariadne do Nascimento Moura

2009-01-01

87

Cosmetic composition, useful e.g. for face and body, to fight against skin aging while protecting from weather and pollution, comprises compounds with natural and non-toxic active ingredients  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cosmetic composition comprises compounds with natural and non-toxic active ingredients comprising hydrolates of spice infused plants, minerals or trace elements, preferably zinc, sulfur, copper and magnesium chloride, Maranta arundinacea, cereals (Avena sativa), legumes (Cicer arietinum powder), first cold-pressed extra virgin vegetable oils obtained from organic origin, preferably olive, sesame, macadamia, hazelnut, squash seed, argan and calophylle inophylle, beeswax, shea butter, alpha-tocopherol and essential oils. Cosmetic composition comprises compounds with natural and non-toxic active ingredients comprising hydrolates of spice infused plants, minerals or trace elements, preferably zinc, sulfur, copper and magnesium chloride, Maranta arundinacea, cereals (Avena sativa), legumes (Cicer arietinum powder), first cold-pressed extra virgin vegetable oils obtained from organic origin, preferably olive (Olea europaea), sesame (Sesamum indicum), macadamia (Macadamia intergifolia), hazelnut (Coryllus avellana), squash seed (Curcubito pepo), argan (Argania spinosa) and calophylle inophylle (Calophyllum inophyllum), beeswax, shea butter, alpha-tocopherol, essential oils, preferably Melaleuca alternifolia, Aniba rosaeodora, Rosa damascena, Daucus carota, Lavandula x burnatii or Latilfolia, Picea mariana, Helichrysum gymnocephalum, Artemisia dracunculus, Thymus vulgaris L geranoliferum or Linaloliferum or Thujanoliferum, where the composition does not contain petrochemical derivative. - ACTIVITY : Dermatological. - MECHANISM OF ACTION : None given. No biological data given.

N DIAYE YACINE ISABELLE MONIQUE

88

The non-toxic and biodegradable adjuvant Montanide ISA 720/CpG can replace Freund's in a cancer vaccine targeting ED-B--a prerequisite for clinical development.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have recently shown that immunization against the extra domain-B (ED-B) of fibronectin, using Freund's adjuvant, reduces tumor growth in mice by 70%. In the present study we compare the immune response generated against ED-B using the non-toxic and biodegradable adjuvant Montanide ISA 720/CpG with the response elicited by Freund's adjuvant. Montanide ISA 720/CpG induced anti-ED-B antibodies with higher avidity and less variable levels between individuals than Freund's. Moreover, the duration of the immune response was longer and the generation of anti-ED-B antibodies in naïve mice was faster, when Montanide ISA 720/CpG was used. We conclude that it is possible to replace the mineral oil based adjuvant Freund's with an adjuvant acceptable for human use, which is a prerequisite for transfer of the ED-B vaccine to the clinic. PMID:22079080

Huijbers, Elisabeth J M; Femel, Julia; Andersson, Karl; Björkelund, Hanna; Hellman, Lars; Olsson, Anna-Karin

2011-11-10

89

Hydrogen production by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for PEM fuel cells feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, hydrogen is produced by a hydrolysis process that uses sodium borohydride as a hydrogen carrier and storage media. High purity hydrogen is obtained at low temperatures with high volumetric and gravimetric storage efficiencies; reaction products are non-toxic. The produced hydrogen can ...

90

Amelioration of Acute Mercury Toxicity by a Novel, Non-Toxic Lipid Soluble Chelator N,N'bis-(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide: Effect on Animal Survival, Health, Mercury Excretion and Organ Accumulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The toxic effects of mercury are known to be complex with specific enzyme inhibitions and subsequent oxidative stress adding to the damaging effects. There are likely other factors involved, such as the development of impaired metal ion homeostasis and depletion of thiol and selenium based metabolites such as cysteine and selenium. Much of the toxicity of mercury occurs at the intracellular level via binding of Hg(2+) to thiol groups in specific proteins. Therefore, amelioration of mercury toxicity by the use of chelation would likely be enhanced by the use of a chelator that could cross the cell membrane and the blood brain barrier. It would be most favorable if this compound was of low toxicity, had appropriate pharmacokinetics, bound and rendered mercury cation non-toxic and had antioxidant properties. Herein we report on such a chelator, N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide (NBMI), and, using an animal model, show that it prevented the toxic effects associated with acute exposure induced by injected mercury chloride.

Clarke D; Buchanan R; Gupta N; Haley B

2012-01-01

91

Natural-non-toxic insect repellant  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides an insect repellant solution comprising between 0.3 and 0.7 percent by weight rosemary oil, between 0.05 and 0.3 percent by weight citronella oil and between 0.1 and 0.3 percent by weight table salt. There may also be between 0.07 and 0.7 percent by weight mint oil, between 0.07 and 0.7 percent by weight lemon grass oil, between 0.07 and 0.7 percent by weight thyme oil, between 0.07 and 0.7 percent by weight wintergreen oil and between 7 and 12 percent by weight vinegar.

MEYHOEFER MICHAEL

92

Amino acid sequence and biological characterization of BlatPLA?, a non-toxic acidic phospholipase A? from the venom of the arboreal snake Bothriechis lateralis from Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bothriechis is considered a monophyletic, basal genus of arboreal Neotropical pitvipers distributed across Middle America. The four species found in Costa Rica (B. lateralis, B. schlegeli, B. nigroviridis, B. supraciliaris) differ in their venom proteomic profiles, suggesting that different Bothriechis taxa have evolved diverse trophic strategies. In this study, we isolated a phospholipase A? (PLA?) from B. lateralis venom, aiming at increasing our knowledge on the structural and functional characteristics of group II acidic PLA?s, whose toxic actions are generally more restricted than those displayed by basic PLA?s. The new acidic enzyme, BlatPLA?, occurs as a monomer of 13,917 Da, in contrast to many basic group II PLA?s which associate into dimers and often display myotoxicity and/or neurotoxicity. Its amino acid sequence of 122 residues predicts an isoelectric point of 4.7, and displays significant differences with previously characterized acidic PLA?s, with which it shows a maximum sequence identity of 78%. BlatPLA? is catalytically active but appears to be devoid of major toxic activities, lacking intravenous or intracerebroventricular lethality, myotoxicity, in vitro anticoagulant activity, and platelet aggregation or inhibition effects. Phylogenetic relationships with similar group II enzymes suggest that BlatPLA? may represent a basal sequence to other acidic PLA?s. Due to the metabolic cost of venom protein synthesis, the presence of a relatively abundant (9%) but non-toxic component is somewhat puzzling. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that BlatPLA? could have a role in the pre-digestion of prey, possibly having retained characteristics of ancestral PLA?s without evolving towards potent toxicity. PMID:23872034

Van der Laat, Marco; Fernández, Julián; Durban, Jordi; Villalobos, Eva; Camacho, Erika; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

2013-07-16

93

Amino acid sequence and biological characterization of BlatPLA2, a non-toxic acidic phospholipase A2 from the venom of the arboreal snake Bothriechis lateralis from Costa Rica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bothriechis is considered a monophyletic, basal genus of arboreal Neotropical pitvipers distributed across Middle America. The four species found in Costa Rica (B. lateralis, B. schlegeli, B. nigroviridis, B. supraciliaris) differ in their venom proteomic profiles, suggesting that different Bothriechis taxa have evolved diverse trophic strategies. In this study, we isolated a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from B. lateralis venom, aiming at increasing our knowledge on the structural and functional characteristics of group II acidic PLA2s, whose toxic actions are generally more restricted than those displayed by basic PLA2s. The new acidic enzyme, BlatPLA2, occurs as a monomer of 13,917 Da, in contrast to many basic group II PLA2s which associate into dimers and often display myotoxicity and/or neurotoxicity. Its amino acid sequence of 122 residues predicts an isoelectric point of 4.7, and displays significant differences with previously characterized acidic PLA2s, with which it shows a maximum sequence identity of 78%. BlatPLA2 is catalytically active but appears to be devoid of major toxic activities, lacking intravenous or intracerebroventricular lethality, myotoxicity, in vitro anticoagulant activity, and platelet aggregation or inhibition effects. Phylogenetic relationships with similar group II enzymes suggest that BlatPLA2 may represent a basal sequence to other acidic PLA2s. Due to the metabolic cost of venom protein synthesis, the presence of a relatively abundant (9%) but non-toxic component is somewhat puzzling. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that BlatPLA2 could have a role in the pre-digestion of prey, possibly having retained characteristics of ancestral PLA2s without evolving towards potent toxicity.

Van der Laat M; Fernández J; Durban J; Villalobos E; Camacho E; Calvete JJ; Lomonte B

2013-10-01

94

Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

1996-01-01

95

Indução de resistência à intoxicação por Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) mediante administração de doses sucessivas não tóxicas/ Induction of resistance to Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) poisoning by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de comprovar se doses não tóxicas repetidas de Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. criam resistência à intoxicação, 12 caprinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de seis animais cada. No Grupo 1 foi induzida resistência mediante a administração, durante quatro períodos alternados, de 0,02g/kg das folhas dessecadas de P. aeneofusca durante 5 dias, 0,02g/kg durante 5 dias, 0,03g/kg durante 5 dias e 0,03g/kg por (more) mais 5 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam planta por 10 dias consecutivos e entre o terceiro e quarto período de administração os animais permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir a planta. Um caprino morreu subitamente quando estava recebendo 0,03 g/kg da planta, no terceiro período de administração. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado ao consumo de P. aeneofusca. Quinze dias após a adaptação ao consumo de P. aeneofusca do Grupo 1, os dois grupos receberam P. aeneofusca na dose diária de 0,03g/kg durante 19 dias. A partir do 20º dia de administração continuada a dose diária de P. aeneofusca foi aumentada para 0,04g/kg. Esta dose foi administrada por mais 12 dias. Os animais que mostraram sinais clínicos foram retirados do experimento imediatamente após a observação dos primeiros sinais. Um caprino do Grupo 2 apresentou sinais clínicos de intoxicação e morreu no 12º dia de administração e dois apresentaram sinais clínicos no 24º dia; um se recuperou e outro morreu. Após finalizada esta fase do experimento e para comprovar se os caprinos que não tinham adoecido no Grupo 2 tinham também adquirido resistência, foi introduzido outro grupo com três caprinos. Esses três caprinos (Grupo 3), os cinco caprinos do Grupo 1 e os três sobreviventes do Grupo 2, ingeriram uma dose diária de 0,06g/kg. Os três caprinos do Grupo 3 adoeceram no terceiro dia após o início da ingestão, dois morreram em forma hiperaguda e o outro recuperou-se após 10 dias. Todos os caprinos dos Grupos 1 e 2 ingeriram P. aeneofusca na dose de 0,06g/kg/dia durante nove dias sem apresentar nenhum sinal clínico. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram que a administração de doses não tóxicas repetidas de P. aeneofusca aumentam significativamente á resistência à intoxicação e que esta técnica poderia ser utilizada para o controle da intoxicação por P. aeneofusca e outras espécies de Palicourea com similar toxicidade. Os resultados de pesquisas anteriormente realizados sugerem que a resistência à intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA é devida a proliferação de bactérias que degradam MFA no rúmen. Abstract in english Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. is a toxic plant which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA). With the objective to investigate if repeated non-toxic doses of P. aeneofusca induce resistance to the intoxication by this plant, 12 goats were distributed in two similar groups. In Group 1, resistance was induced by the administration of the dry plant, during four alternate periods: 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.03g/kg during 5 days, and 0.03g (more) /kg during 5 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and the third period, the goats did not ingest P. aeneofusca for 10 days. Between the third and the fourth administration period the goats did not ingest the plant during 15 days. One goat died suddenly during the third administration period when was ingesting 0.03g/kg. The goats from Group 2 were not adapted to the consumption of P. aeneofusca. Fifteen days after the end of the adaptation period in Group 1, both groups ingested dry P. aeneofusca in the daily dose of 0.03g/kg during 19 days. From day 20 the daily dose was increased to 0.04g/kg, which was ingested for 12 days. The goats that showed clinical signs were removed from the experiment immediately after the observation of first signs. One goat from Group 2 showed clinical

Oliveira, Murilo Duarte de; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Carvalho, Fabrício K.L.; Silva, Genilson B.; Pereira, Walkleber S.; Medeiros, Rosane M.T.

2013-06-01

96

Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis.

Silva MA; Testolin RC; Godinho-Castro AP; Corrêa AX; Radetski CM

2011-09-01

97

Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. PMID:21724330

Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

2011-06-15

98

Non-hazardous anticancerous and antibacterial colloidal 'green' silver nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(ethylene glycol) stabilized colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared using the reductive potency of the aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis leaves under ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were well dispersed within a narrow size spectrum (7-14 nm) and displayed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 420 nm and Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure. MTT assay revealed the dose-dependent cytocompatibility and toxicity of the nanoparticles with the L929 normal cell line. On the other hand, the antiproliferative action of the nanoparticles was evaluated on HeLa cell (cancerous cells) line. Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopic imaging indicated the appearance of multinucleate stages with aggregation and nuclear membrane disruption of the HeLa cells post treatment with the nanoparticles. The interaction at the prokaryotic level was also assessed via differential antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Escherichia coli (MTCC 40). Under these perspectives, it is also necessary to observe the environmental impact of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Hence, the dose dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated upon the earthworm species Eisenia fetida. Neither the survival nor the reproduction was affected by the addition of silver nanoparticles up to 1000 ppm. Thus these 'green' silver nanoparticles have promising potential as future materials. PMID:23352940

Barua, Shaswat; Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Das, Pallabi; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Mandal, Manabendra; Karak, Niranjan

2012-12-26

99

Non-hazardous anticancerous and antibacterial colloidal 'green' silver nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poly(ethylene glycol) stabilized colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared using the reductive potency of the aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis leaves under ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were well dispersed within a narrow size spectrum (7-14 nm) and displayed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 420 nm and Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure. MTT assay revealed the dose-dependent cytocompatibility and toxicity of the nanoparticles with the L929 normal cell line. On the other hand, the antiproliferative action of the nanoparticles was evaluated on HeLa cell (cancerous cells) line. Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopic imaging indicated the appearance of multinucleate stages with aggregation and nuclear membrane disruption of the HeLa cells post treatment with the nanoparticles. The interaction at the prokaryotic level was also assessed via differential antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Escherichia coli (MTCC 40). Under these perspectives, it is also necessary to observe the environmental impact of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Hence, the dose dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated upon the earthworm species Eisenia fetida. Neither the survival nor the reproduction was affected by the addition of silver nanoparticles up to 1000 ppm. Thus these 'green' silver nanoparticles have promising potential as future materials.

Barua S; Konwarh R; Bhattacharya SS; Das P; Devi KS; Maiti TK; Mandal M; Karak N

2013-05-01

100

Method and apparatus for producing useful soil products from waste products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method and apparatus for producing a useful soil product from contaminated soil and sludge is disclosed, and wherein the contaminated soil is heated in a primary treatment unit to a temperature above the vaporization temperature but below the auto ignition temperature of the contaminates, so as to volatilize the contaminates. The volatilized contaminates are then delivered to a secondary treatment unit where they are heated to a temperature sufficient to be converted to non-toxic products, such as carbon dioxide and water. The hot purified soil produced in the primary treatment unit is conveyed to a mixing chamber, and sedimentary sludge is also conveyed to the mixing chamber, and during mixing, heat energy is transferred to the sludge so as to heat and substantially sterilize the sludge, and to thereby produce a useful soil product.

WAGNER LARRY R

 
 
 
 
101

Biosurfactant production using mixed cultures under non-aseptic conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of surfactants is of increasing interest for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater and soil. Surfactants increase the accessibility of adsorbed hydrocarbons and mobilize immiscible petroleum hydrocarbons for treatment. Biosurfactants have the advantage of biodegradability and non-toxicity over their synthetic counterparts, and can be produced from renewable sources. In this study the production of biosurfactant from molasses was investigated in continuously stirred batch reactors. The effects of substrate concentration, yeast extract and peptone on biomass accumulation and biosurfactant production were investigated. Biosurfactant production was quantified by surface tension reduction and critical micelle dilution (CMD). Biosurfactant production was directly correlated with biomass production, and was improved with the addition of yeast extract. Centrifugation of the whole broth reduced surface tension. The performance of the biosurfactant produced from molasses under non-aseptic condition is comparable to other published results.

Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.L.; Willson, R.C. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

102

Biosurfactant production using mixed cultures under non-aseptic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of surfactants is of increasing interest for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater and soil. Surfactants increase the accessibility of adsorbed hydrocarbons and mobilize immiscible petroleum hydrocarbons for treatment. Biosurfactants have the advantage of biodegradability and non-toxicity over their synthetic counterparts, and can be produced from renewable sources. In this study the production of biosurfactant from molasses was investigated in continuously stirred batch reactors. The effects of substrate concentration, yeast extract and peptone on biomass accumulation and biosurfactant production were investigated. Biosurfactant production was quantified by surface tension reduction and critical micelle dilution (CMD). Biosurfactant production was directly correlated with biomass production, and was improved with the addition of yeast extract. Centrifugation of the whole broth reduced surface tension. The performance of the biosurfactant produced from molasses under non-aseptic condition is comparable to other published results.

1994-01-01

103

LT-IIb(T13I), a Non-Toxic Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxin, Augments the Capacity of a Ricin Toxin Subunit Vaccine to Evoke Neutralizing Antibodies and Protective Immunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I) is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I) to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab) and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I). While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I) were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®), LT-IIb(T13I) was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I) as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense.

Greene CJ; Chadwick CM; Mandell LM; Hu JC; O'Hara JM; Brey RN 3rd; Mantis NJ; Connell TD

2013-01-01

104

LT-IIb(T13I), a Non-Toxic Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxin, Augments the Capacity of a Ricin Toxin Subunit Vaccine to Evoke Neutralizing Antibodies and Protective Immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I) is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I) to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab) and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I). While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I) were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®), LT-IIb(T13I) was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I) as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense. PMID:23936344

Greene, Christopher J; Chadwick, Chrystal M; Mandell, Lorrie M; Hu, John C; O'Hara, Joanne M; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Connell, Terry D

2013-08-02

105

ADVANCED NON-TOXIC SILICONE FOULING-RELEASE COATINGS  

Science.gov (United States)

This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated and validated the use of the duplex silicone fouling-release coating system developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), for use on boat hulls and power plant cooling water intake tunne...

106

Evaluation of non toxic alkyd primers by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to compare the protective capacity of several alkyd primers pigmented with 12.1 volume percent either of calcium phosphate or micronized zinc phosphate as anticorrosive pigments. A paint containing zinc chromate was used as reference. The performance of these paints on steel was assessed through Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) using a 3% NaCl solution. After 576 hr immersion, the paint with calcium phosphate and specially that with micronized zinc phosphate, showed a better behavior than paint with zinc chromate. Paint rating, using impedance parameters (ionic resistance and capacitance of the paint film, and breakpoint frequency), was in agreement with the visible paint deterioration and corrosion, In addition, there was a good correlation between these parameter and the open circuit corrosion potential of the metallic substrate.

Hernandez, L.S.; Garcia, G. [UASLP, San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Inst. of Metallurgy]|[UNLP, La Plata (Argentina); Lopez, C. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico)

1998-12-31

107

SURFACE TOPOGRAPHIES FOR NON-TOXIC BIOADHESION CONTROL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed herein is an article that includes a first plurality of spaced features. The spaced features are arranged in a plurality of groupings the groupings of features include repeat units the spaced features within a grouping are spaced apart at an average distance of about 1 nanometer to about 500 micrometers each feature having a surface that is substantially parallel to a surface on a neighboring feature each feature being separated from its neighboring feature the groupings of features being arranged with respect to one another so as to define a tortuous pathway. The plurality of spaced features provide the article with an engineered roughness index of about 5 to about 20.

BRENNAN ANTHONY B; LONG CHRISTOPHER JAMES; BAGAN JOSEPH W; SCHUMACHER JAMES FREDERICK; SPIECKER MARK M

108

Properties prediction of non-toxic ice inhibitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toxic de-icing compounds currently employed in jet fuels (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether) dissolve in the water {open_quote}bottoms{close_quote} present in storage tanks, thus producing hazardous waste which requires expensive disposal. The fastest and most cost effective way to develop alternative compounds is to design desirable features theoretically and thus direct the synthesis of those candidates having sought after properties. Empirical and quantum mechanical approaches for partition coefficients calculations, as well as Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSAR) evaluations, were investigated. We demonstrate that molecular orbital calculations have to be used for a reliable prediction of partition coefficients, and moreover that the conformational response to solvent is significant. Although the values of the calculated partition coefficients are not in full agreement with experimental results, the trends are well reproduced. QSAR estimations to elucidate the toxicity of the proposed alternative compounds are reported and assessed. An approach for deriving phase diagrams of a binary mixture is outlined, where molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed on bulk systems consisting of pure water, pure de-icer, and binary mixtures of de-icer and water. Analysis of the NO trajectories yield insights into the de-icing mechanism and form a basis for comparison of different de-icers.

Pachter, R.; Trohalaki, S. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

1996-10-01

109

Shellac: A Non-Toxic Preservative for Human Embalming Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is extremely important to fix and preserve cadavers adequately not only for the sake of anatomical studies but also for the financial justification. However, the difficulties in handling and the problems of preservation of human anatomical preparations and the potential health and safety problems for staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories and the need to comply with increasingly restrictive exposure limits to components of embalming chemicals have led the research team to fashion a new embalming technique. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia through the years 2008-2010. About 10 cadavers were selected from the fridges of the dissection lab of the Anatomy Department; 5 for long-term preservation and five for softening purposes. The procedure involved rinsing the cadavers with the Shellac embalming solution in a pressurized tank, under a pressure of 1.5 bars for 3 days. In this study, it is revealed that there is a remarkably high embalming capacity of Shellac as shown from the well preserved dissected parts and organs in the softened cadavers. The remaining cadavers, intended for long-term preservation, mummified using Shellac could be retained in normal room conditions; whereby it was easy to soften again by simply replacing it inside the softening tank for 2-3 days. The significant use of Shellac throughout the embalming technique, as a less hazardous and financially more viable material, was discussed juxtapose more conventional and known toxic materials used in standard embalming techniques.

Abdulmonem A. Al-Hayani A. Al-Hayani; Raid M. Hamdy; Gamal S. Abd El-Aziz; Mohamed H. Badawoud; Saleh Aldaqal; Yahya Bedir

2011-01-01

110

Environmental guidance documents for exploration, development, Production, and transportation of crude oil and natural gas in texas: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997-March 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following technical report provides a detailed status report of the DOE grant project entitled `Environmental Guidance Documents for Exploration, Development, Production, and Transportation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Texas.` The grant funding allocated is for the purpose of provided the Railroad Commission of Texas (Commission) with resources and capabilities to draft, publish and distribute documents that provide guidance to oil and gas operators on issues concerning oil and gas naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) waste, oil and gas hazardous waste, remediation of crude oil spills, management of non-hazardous oil and gas wastes, and mechanical integrity testing of Class II injection and disposal wells.

Savage, L.

1997-04-25

111

Environmental guidance documents for exploration, development, Production, and transportation of crude oil and natural gas in texas: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997-March 31, 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following technical report provides a detailed status report of the DOE grant project entitled ''Environmental Guidance Documents for Exploration, Development, Production, and Transportation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Texas.'' The grant funding allocated is for the purpose of provided the Railroad Commission of Texas (Commission) with resources and capabilities to draft, publish and distribute documents that provide guidance to oil and gas operators on issues concerning oil and gas naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) waste, oil and gas hazardous waste, remediation of crude oil spills, management of non-hazardous oil and gas wastes, and mechanical integrity testing of Class II injection and disposal wells

1997-01-01

112

Production and characterization of esterase in Lantinus tigrinus for degradation of polystyrene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polystyrene is considered stable to biological degradation. Lantinus tigrinus isolated from wood sample produced esterase in growth medium under normal conditions. However, acidic medium, 37 degrees C temperature, presence of tween 80; and urea and yeast extract in mineral salt medium enhance the production of esterase and specific activity. Purified esterase was active at broad pH range and 45 degrees C. FTIR analysis confirmed that esterase produced by Lantinus tigrinus effectively degraded polystyrene film and broke macromolecules down to non-toxic molecules. This study concludes that the presence of Lantinus tigrinus at dumping sites can be exploited for waste management containing high molecular weight synthetic polymers.

Tahir L; Ishtiaq Ali M; Zia M; Atiq N; Hasan F; Ahmed S

2013-01-01

113

Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis has been discussed with appropriate equipment details. The application of the biosurfactant includes biomedical, cosmetic and bioremediation. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DS10-129 showed significant applications in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in gasoline-spilled soil and petroleum oily sludge. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant enhanced the bioremediation process by releasing the weathered oil from the soil matrices and enhanced the bioavailability of hydrocarbons for microbial degradation. It is having potential applications in the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites.

Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman; Edward Gakpe

2008-01-01

114

[A new benzoquinone-containing antimetastatic product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An orally applicable fermentation product of wheat germ containing 0.04% substituted benzoquinone (MSC) was invented by Hungarian chemists under the trade--name of AVEMAR. The following biological effects of this product were observed. Oral administration (3 g/kg body weight) of MSC enhances blastic transformation of splenic lymphocytes of mice. The same treatment shortens the survival time of skin grafts in co-isogenic mouse skin transplantation model, which points to immune-reconstructive effect of MSC. Highly significant anti-metastatic effect of MSC was observed in three metastasis models (3LL-HH, B16, HCR-25). The antimetastatic activity of MSC--besides the immune reconstitution--may also due to the cell-adhesion inhibitory, cell proliferation inhibitory, apoptosis-enhancing and antioxidant effects, which were also observed in our in vitro experiments. Based on the biological effects of MSC--which is non-toxic, according to subacute toxicology studies--this product may be used as an adjuvant in the therapy of malignant neoplasia and other diseases caused by or following immunedeprivation.

Szende B; Rásó E; Hidvégi M; Tömösköziné FR; Paku S; Prónai L; Bocsi J; Lapis K

1998-11-01

115

[A new benzoquinone-containing antimetastatic product].  

Science.gov (United States)

An orally applicable fermentation product of wheat germ containing 0.04% substituted benzoquinone (MSC) was invented by Hungarian chemists under the trade--name of AVEMAR. The following biological effects of this product were observed. Oral administration (3 g/kg body weight) of MSC enhances blastic transformation of splenic lymphocytes of mice. The same treatment shortens the survival time of skin grafts in co-isogenic mouse skin transplantation model, which points to immune-reconstructive effect of MSC. Highly significant anti-metastatic effect of MSC was observed in three metastasis models (3LL-HH, B16, HCR-25). The antimetastatic activity of MSC--besides the immune reconstitution--may also due to the cell-adhesion inhibitory, cell proliferation inhibitory, apoptosis-enhancing and antioxidant effects, which were also observed in our in vitro experiments. Based on the biological effects of MSC--which is non-toxic, according to subacute toxicology studies--this product may be used as an adjuvant in the therapy of malignant neoplasia and other diseases caused by or following immunedeprivation. PMID:9868904

Szende, B; Rásó, E; Hidvégi, M; Tömösköziné, F R; Paku, S; Prónai, L; Bocsi, J; Lapis, K

1998-11-29

116

Fast, easy ethanolysis of coconut oil for biodiesel production assisted by ultrasonication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel, consistituting an alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is non-toxic and biodegradable and has a low emission profile, is better from environmentally sensitive areas. Research study on alternative fuels is essential for increased energy security. Presently, biodiesel is produced mainly is batch reactor. In this process the required energy is given by heating accompanied by mechanical stirring which has several disadvantages because of time consuming high labour cost. Being methanol is a toxic chemical; the objective of this work is to produce coconut oil ethyl ester by using ultrasonic irradiation. The advantages of ethanol are non-toxic domestic all available, having higher carbon atoms which provide higher heat content. The optical conditions for biodiesel production is the molar ratio oil to ethanol 1:6, KOH catalyst 0.75wt.% of oil and 7min reaction time. The reaction time reduced 15-40 times comparing to the conventional batch processes and found >or=98% biodiesel yield. PMID:19945331

Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Gajendra; Poonam; Singh, C P

2009-10-31

117

Hydrogen production from dimethyl ether using corona discharge plasma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dimethyl ether (DME), with its non-toxic character, high H/C ratio and high-energy volumetric density, is an ideal resource for hydrogen production. In this work, hydrogen production from the decomposition of DME using corona discharge has been studied. The corona discharge plasma decomposition was conducted at ambient conditions. The effects of dilution gas (argon), flow rate, frequency and waveforms on the DME decomposition were investigated. The addition of dilution gas can significantly increase the hydrogen production rate. The highest hydrogen production rate with the lowest energy consumption presents at the flow rate of 27.5Nmlmin{sup -1}. AC voltage is more favored than DC voltage for the production of hydrogen with less energy input. The optimal frequency is 2.0kHz. The hydrogen production rate is also affected by the input waveform and decreases as following: sinusoid triangular>sinusoid>ramp>square, whereas the sinusoid waveform shows the highest energy efficiency. The corona discharge decomposition of DME is leading to a simple, easy and convenient hydrogen production with no needs of catalyst and external heating. (author)

Zou, Ji-Jun; Liu, Chang-Jun [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Yue-Ping [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

2007-01-01

118

Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

2012-07-01

119

Photocatalytic hydrogen production of Co(OH)2 nanoparticle-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanorings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of hydrogen from water using only a catalyst and solar energy is one of the most challenging and promising outlets for the generation of clean and renewable energy. Semiconductor photocatalysts for solar hydrogen production by water photolysis must employ stable, non-toxic, abundant and inexpensive visible-light absorbers capable of harvesting light photons with adequate potential to reduce water. Here, we show that ?-Fe2O3 can meet these requirements by means of using hydrothermally prepared nanorings. These iron oxide nanoring photocatalysts proved capable of producing hydrogen efficiently without application of an external bias. In addition, Co(OH)2 nanoparticles were shown to be efficient co-catalysts on the nanoring surface by improving the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Both nanoparticle-coated and uncoated nanorings displayed superior photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution when compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, showing themselves to be promising materials for water-splitting using only solar light. PMID:23948808

Wender, Heberton; Gonçalves, Renato V; Dias, Carlos Sato B; Zapata, Maximiliano J M; Zagonel, Luiz F; Mendonça, Edielma C; Teixeira, Sérgio R; Garcia, Flávio

2013-08-16

120

Photocatalytic hydrogen production of Co(OH)2 nanoparticle-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanorings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The production of hydrogen from water using only a catalyst and solar energy is one of the most challenging and promising outlets for the generation of clean and renewable energy. Semiconductor photocatalysts for solar hydrogen production by water photolysis must employ stable, non-toxic, abundant and inexpensive visible-light absorbers capable of harvesting light photons with adequate potential to reduce water. Here, we show that ?-Fe2O3 can meet these requirements by means of using hydrothermally prepared nanorings. These iron oxide nanoring photocatalysts proved capable of producing hydrogen efficiently without application of an external bias. In addition, Co(OH)2 nanoparticles were shown to be efficient co-catalysts on the nanoring surface by improving the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Both nanoparticle-coated and uncoated nanorings displayed superior photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution when compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, showing themselves to be promising materials for water-splitting using only solar light.

Wender H; Gonçalves RV; Dias CS; Zapata MJ; Zagonel LF; Mendonça EC; Teixeira SR; Garcia F

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Photocatalytic hydrogen production of Co(OH)2 nanoparticle-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanorings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The production of hydrogen from water using only a catalyst and solar energy is one of the most challenging and promising outlets for the generation of clean and renewable energy. Semiconductor photocatalysts for solar hydrogen production by water photolysis must employ stable, non-toxic, abundant and inexpensive visible-light absorbers capable of harvesting light photons with adequate potential to reduce water. Here, we show that ?-Fe2O3 can meet these requirements by means of using hydrothermally prepared nanorings. These iron oxide nanoring photocatalysts proved capable of producing hydrogen efficiently without application of an external bias. In addition, Co(OH)2 nanoparticles were shown to be efficient co-catalysts on the nanoring surface by improving the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Both nanoparticle-coated and uncoated nanorings displayed superior photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution when compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, showing themselves to be promising materials for water-splitting using only solar light.

Wender H; Gonçalves RV; Dias CS; Zapata MJ; Zagonel LF; Mendonça EC; Teixeira SR; Garcia F

2013-10-01

122

76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

...discussed in the proposed rule, we expect that manure can be processed into a non-waste gaseous fuel (e.g., via anaerobic digestion or gasification processes), as suggested by commenters. This gaseous fuel would also have to satisfy the...

2011-03-21

123

Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A composition and methods for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY); Petrakis, Leon (Port Jefferson, NY)

1998-06-09

124

Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of ?-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

1995-01-01

125

Production of a conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from Citrobacter Vi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was produced by chemically linking Vi, purified from Citrobacter, to the non-toxic mutant diphtheria toxin CRM(197) via an adipic dihydrazide spacer using N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide coupling chemistry. The polysaccharide purification process was developed based on Vi precipitation from culture supernatant with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), solubilization of the CTA-polysaccharide salt with ethanol followed by exchange of the CTA(+) counter ion with Na(+). The purified Vi polysaccharide was fully O-acetylated and with high purity. The conjugation process was optimized to obtain a scalable process that has been used for GMP production at pilot scale of vaccine currently in clinical trials.

Micoli F; Rondini S; Pisoni I; Giannelli C; Di Cioccio V; Costantino P; Saul A; Martin LB

2012-01-01

126

Prevention of quorum-sensing-mediated biofilm development and virulence factors production in Vibrio spp. by curcumin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing occurrence of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio spp. and the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led to a growing interest in finding alternative strategies to prevent vibriosis. Since the pathogenicity of vibrios is controlled in part by quorum-sensing (QS) system, interfering with this mechanism would prevent the pathogenicity of vibrios without developing resistance. Hence, a non-toxic phytochemical curcumin from Curcuma longa was assessed for its potential in reducing the production of QS-dependent virulence factors in Vibrio spp. The obtained results evidenced 88 % reduction in bioluminescence of Vibrio harveyi by curcumin. Further, curcumin exhibited a significant inhibition in alginate, exopolysaccharides, motility, biofilm development and other virulence factors production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and V. harveyi. In in vivo analysis, curcumin enhanced the survival rate of Artemia nauplii up to 67 % against V. harveyi infection by attenuating its QS-mediated virulence. PMID:23354447

Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Sasikumar, Pitchaikani; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Veera Ravi, Arumugam

2013-01-26

127

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in bakery products production. The method envisages preparation of light and dark dough semi-products. Light semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. Dark semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour and flavoured chicory flour produced according to specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seeds oil, sugar, salt, and water. One performs their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures manufacture of a product with improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

128

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in bakery products production. The method envisages preparation of light and dark dough semi-products. Light semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. Dark semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour and flavoured scorzonera flour produced according to specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, and water. One performs their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures manufacture of a product with improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

129

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in bakery products production. The method envisages preparation of light and dark dough semi-products. Light semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. Dark semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol flour produced according to specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, and water. One performs their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures manufacture of a product with improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

130

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in bakery products production. The method envisages preparation of light and dark dough semi-products. Light semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. Dark semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol-sunflower flour produced according to specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seeds oil, sugar, salt, and water. One performs their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures manufacture of a product with improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

131

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is related to food industry, mainly to bakery products production. The method envisages preparation of light and dark dough semi-products. Light semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. Dark semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced according to specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seeds oil, sugar, salt, and water. One performs their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures manufacture of a product with improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

132

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in bakery products production. The method envisages preparation of light and dark dough semi-products. The light semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, soya bean oil, phospholipids, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. The dark semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced according to specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, soya bean oil, sugar, salt, and water. One performs their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures manufacture of a product with improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

133

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology for production of bakery products. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water. Then one performs dough semi-products proofing, alternate placing, twisting, final proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

134

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, phospholipids, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, sugar, salt and water. Then one performs the semi-products proofing, alternate placing, twisting, final proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

135

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in bakery products production. The method envisages preparation of light and dark dough semi-products. Light semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. Dark semi-product contains prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced according to specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seeds oil, sugar, salt, and water. One performs their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures manufacture of a product with improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

136

Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. METHODS: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. RESULTS: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. CONCLUSION: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market.

Fashemi B; Delaney ML; Onderdonk AB; Fichorova RN

2013-01-01

137

Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis.

Röttig A; Wenning L; Bröker D; Steinbüchel A

2010-02-01

138

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

139

Management of by-products from fossil-fired power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world production of by-products from power plants is in excess of 500 Mt/year. Most of it consists of coal fly ash and bottom ash, but an increasing share is made up of by-products from flue gas desulfurization processes. In some countries less than 10% of the by-products are utilized, whereas the utilization ratio is as high as 90% in others. In the EU about half of the by-products is utilized, but according to the EU's policy the degree of utilization should be increased. Coal fly ash can be used in concrete pursuant to the provisions of the European standard EN 450, Fly Ash for Concrete. In addition quality fly ash can be used in the production of cement and gas concrete and in the building industry. Road construction and soil amendment can also make use of this material. Gypsum produced as a result of the flue gas desulfurization process can be used as wall boards, in the building industry and in the production of cement. Also other by-products from the flue gas desulfurization processes can be used for industrial purposes. By-products where utilization is no option will be disposed of. According to the EU's environmental legislation most of the by-products from the power plants are categorized as non-hazardous waste. This papers discusses how to design a landfill deposit for power plant residues in accordance with applicable EU-directives. However, as can be seen from the conclusion it will become increasingly difficult in the future to deposit these residues. This will urge power producers to cooperate with relevant industries to ensure utilization of a larger part of the by-products and to create solutions that will be profitable to both parties.

Kofod, J.

1998-07-01

140

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: one prepares the light semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, linseed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. One prepares darker semi-product the dough whereof contains flavoured yacon flour, prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, linseed oil, sugar, salt and water. One performs their proofing, alternate placing. Prior to baking the product is moulded by way of twisting the light and dark dough semi-products. One repeatedly performs proofing and baking of the semi-products. ^ EFFECT: method allows to produce a product with specific organoleptic properties, improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

 
 
 
 
141

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured dandelion roots flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water. Then one performs preliminary proofing of the semi-products, their alternate placing, twisting, final proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

142

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology of bakery products. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, margarine, phospholipids, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, margarine, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

143

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water. Then one performs preliminary proofing of the semi-products, their alternate placing, twisting, final proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH; KAS JANOV GENNADIJ IVANOVICH

144

USE OF ELECTROLYZED WATER IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to use the properties of electrolyzed water to disinfect breeding halls and to water animals. The aim of the research was to find out whether elektrolyzed water used for desinfication of breedings hall and watering of animals influences selected indicators of the meat quality. Electrolyzed water is produced in a patent-protected device Envirolyte that produces biocide solution using potable water with added NaCl. The technology of production guarantees the product is entirely ecological, biologically fully degradable, non-toxic that can replace traditional chemical agents. Possibilities of disinfection using this solution have been verified directly in stables at the interval of 20, 40, 60 min. after application. Staphylococci and streptococci and enterococci were inactive always after 60 minutes of effect. There was significant decrease in the number of total number of microorganisms. Further, the solution of electrolyzed water was used to water poultry; and the affect on some of the properties of poultry meat, changes in pH, colour and loss of water (dripping) in particular, was observed. Testing was carried out under working conditions in two breeding halls at a time and the technology of electrolyzed water to disinfect premises and to water chickens was used in one of the halls. When the chickens were slaughter mature, the poultry was slaughtered at the standard slaughterhouse and samples (127 pieces) were taken in order to measure pH, colour and loss of water (dripping). The values of pH, colour and loss of water (dripping) ascertained, processed by the T-test did not confirm the hypothesis of the assumed possible differences in occurrence of critical values of these indicators in both groups observed.

Dana Jirotková; Miloslav Šoch; Nad?žda Kernerová; Václav Pálka; Lenka Eidelpesová

2012-01-01

145

Impact of copper exposure on Pseudo-nitzschia spp. physiology and domoic acid production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microalgae have differing sensitivities to copper toxicity. Some species within the genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce domoic acid (DA), a phycotoxin that has been hypothesised to chelate Cu and ameliorate Cu toxicity to the cells. To better characterise the effect of Cu on Pseudo-nitzschia, a toxic strain of P. multiseries and a non-toxic strain of P. delicatissima were exposed to Cu(II) for 96 h (50 ?g l(-1) for P. delicatissima and 50, 100 and 150 ?g l(-1) for P. multiseries). Physiological measurements were performed daily on Pseudo-nitzschia cells using fluorescent probes and flow cytometry to determine the cell density, lipid concentration, chlorophyll autofluorescence, esterase activity, percentage of dead algal cells, and number of living and dead bacteria. Photosynthetic efficiency and O(2) consumption and production of cells were also measured using pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry and SDR Oxygen Sensor dish. The DA content was measured using ELISA kits. After 48 h of Cu exposure, P. delicatissima mortality increased dramatically whereas P. multiseries survival was unchanged (in comparison to control cells). Cellular esterase activity, chlorophyll autofluorescence, and lipid content significantly increased upon Cu exposure in comparison to control cells (24h for P. delicatissima, up to 96 h for P. multiseries). Bacterial concentrations in P. multiseries decreased significantly when exposed to Cu, whereas bacterial concentrations were similar between control and exposed populations of P. delicatissima. DA concentrations in P. multiseries were not modified by Cu exposure. Addition of DA to non-toxic P. delicatissima did not enhance cells survival; hence, extracellular DA does not protect Pseudo-nitzschia spp. against copper toxicity. Results suggested that cells of P. delicatissima are much more sensitive to Cu than P. multiseries. This difference is probably not related to the ability of P. multiseries to produce DA but could be explained by species differences in copper sensitivity, or a difference of bacterial community between the algal species.

Lelong A; Jolley DF; Soudant P; Hégaret H

2012-08-01

146

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol flour which is prepared by extraction of cocoa husks with liquid nitrogen (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

147

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured dandelion roots flour which is prepared by extraction of cocoa husks with liquid nitrogen (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

148

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol-sunflower flour which is prepared by extraction of cocoa husks with liquid nitrogen (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour tones and aroma with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

149

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol flour which is prepared by extraction of lemon peel (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

150

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured dandelion roots flour which is prepared by extraction of pomelo rind (which mixture is produced in accordance with a specified technology), pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. All the components for production of light and dark kinds dough are taken at a specified ratio. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee content in the formula and improve consistency of the end product.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

151

Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick) or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick), and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

C. B. Porciúncula; N. R. Marcilio; I. C. Tessaro; M. Gerchmann

2012-01-01

152

MTB, a non-polluting antiknock additive and a key product for C/sub 4/ processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MTB (methyl tert. butylether) is an increasingly common fuel additive with excellent properties, e.g. higher antiknock rating, higher ignition temperatures (460/sup 0/C), and narrow explosion limits in air (1.7 to 8.4% by volume). It is non-toxic, assures a more complete combustion of the fuel and reduced emissions of CO and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and also reduces the corrosive effect of fuels on metals. MTB can be produced on an industrial scale by converting isobutene with methanol in the liquid phase below 100/sup 0/ on high-acidity, macroporous ion exchanger catalysts. Owing to the high selectivity of the reaction, the petrochemical industry prefers a C/sub 4/ fraction of hydrocarbons, e.g. a C/sub 4/ fraction from naphtha steam cracking in the ethylen production process. The Huels-MTB process is described.

Droste, W.

1987-06-01

153

Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick) or pl (more) ates (0.5 and 1 mm thick), and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

Porciúncula, C. B.; Marcilio, N. R.; Tessaro, I. C.; Gerchmann, M.

2012-06-01

154

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured chicory flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: method allows to produce a product with improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

155

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured scorzonera flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: method allows to produce a product with improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

156

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured oyster plant flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: method allows to produce a product with improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

157

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured scorzonera flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: method allows to produce a product with improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

158

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured oyster plant flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

159

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured chicory flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: method allows to produce a product with improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

160

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: method allows to produce a product with improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH; BELJAKOVA LJUDMILA NIKOLAEVNA

 
 
 
 
161

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured chicory flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

162

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, phospholipids, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, sugar, salt and water. Then one performs their preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

163

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is related to bakery industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: method allows to produce a product with improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

164

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

165

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, phospholipids, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

166

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, amaranth seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

167

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is related to bakery industry. The method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced in accordance with a specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seed oil, sugar, salt and water, their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: method allows to produce a product with improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

168

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. Preparation of a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced according to specified technology, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seed oil, sugar, salt, and water. One performs their proofing, alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

169

Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. RESULTS: Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

Savi GD; Vitorino V; Bortoluzzi AJ; Scussel VM

2013-10-01

170

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes linseed oil and yacon flour which is prepared by extraction of cocoa husks with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of yacon, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for yacon heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from yacon weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of yacon and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. The produced flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. In the light dough composition one uses linseed oil, the dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 linseed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast -4, linseed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

171

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes holy thistle seed oil and dandelion roots flour which is prepared by extraction of cumquat peel with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of dandelion roots, their cutting, drying in microwave field providing for dandelion roots heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from dandelion roots weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of dandelion roots and their cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. The produced flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. The dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 holy thistle seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, holy thistle seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

172

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes holy thistle seed oil and dandelion roots flour which is prepared by extraction of lime peel with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of dandelion roots, their cutting, drying in microwave field providing for dandelion roots heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from dandelion roots weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of dandelion roots and their cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. The produced flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. The dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 holy thistle seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, holy thistle seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

173

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes holy thistle seed oil and oyster plant flour which is prepared by extraction of cumquat peel with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of oyster plant, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for oyster plant heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from oyster plant weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of oyster plant and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. The produced flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. The dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 holy thistle seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, holy thistle seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

174

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes holy thistle seed oil and dandelion roots flour which is prepared by extraction of pomelo peel with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of dandelion roots, their cutting, drying in microwave field providing for dandelion roots heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from dandelion roots weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of dandelion roots and their cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. The produced flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. The dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 holy thistle seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, holy thistle seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

175

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes holy thistle seed oil and oyster plant flour which is prepared by extraction of pomelo peel with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of oyster plant, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for oyster plant heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from oyster plant weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of oyster plant and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. The produced flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. The dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 holy thistle seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, holy thistle seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

176

Methane production from food waste leachate in laboratory-scale simulated landfill.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to the prohibition of food waste landfilling in Korea from 2005 and the subsequent ban on the marine disposal of organic sludge, including leachate generated from food waste recycling facilities from 2012, it is urgent to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy that is eco-friendly, yet economically beneficial. In this study, methane production from food waste leachate (FWL) in landfill sites with landfill gas recovery facilities was evaluated in simulated landfill reactors (lysimeters) for a period of 90 d with four different inoculum-substrate ratios (ISRs) on volatile solid (VS) basis. Simultaneous biochemical methane potential batch experiments were also conducted at the same ISRs for 30 d to compare CH(4) yield obtained from lysimeter studies. Under the experimental conditions, a maximum CH(4) yield of 0.272 and 0.294 L/g VS was obtained in the batch and lysimeter studies, respectively, at ISR of 1:1. The biodegradability of FWL in batch and lysimeter experiments at ISR of 1:1 was 64% and 69%, respectively. The calculated data using the modified Gompertz equation for the cumulative CH(4) production showed good agreement with the experimental result obtained from lysimeter study. Based on the results obtained from this study, field-scale pilot test is required to re-evaluate the existing sanitary landfills with efficient leachate collection and gas recovery facilities as engineered bioreactors to treat non-hazardous liquid organic wastes for energy recovery with optimum utilization of facilities.

Behera SK; Park JM; Kim KH; Park HS

2010-08-01

177

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology for production of bakery products and deal with a method for production of bakery products the method envisages production of light and dark kinds dough containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and prime grade wheat flour, flour of another kind of vegetable raw material, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt and water respectively, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking the method distinctiveness is as follows: in the composition of the dark kind dough one uses holy thistle seeds, girasol-sunflower flour prepared by way of extraction of cocoa beans husks with liquid nitrogen with separating corresponding miscella, preparation of girasol-sunflower, their cutting, drying in microwave field till residual moisture content is about 20% at microwave field power providing for warming girasol-sunflower inside the bits to a temperature of 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content 0.04% of girasol-sunflower weight with simultaneous pressure boost and depressurisation to atmosphere pressure with simultaneous freezing of girasol-sunflower and their cryomilling in medium of released nitrogen and mixing with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13 in the composition of the light kind dough one uses holy thistle seeds the dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 holy thistle seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, holy thistle seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH; BULAEV ANATOLIJ EVGEN EVICH

178

Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel  

Science.gov (United States)

The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

2012-10-01

179

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water. One performs preliminary proofing of dough semi-products, their alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. Girasol flour is prepared by way of orange peel extraction with liquid nitrogen to separate corresponding miscella, preparation of girasol, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for warming girasol until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of girasol and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. Girasol flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

180

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured dandelion roots flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water. One performs preliminary proofing of dough semi-products, their alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. Dandelion roots flour is prepared by way of orange peel extraction with liquid nitrogen to separate corresponding miscella, preparation of dandelion roots, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for warming dandelion roots until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of dandelion roots and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. Dandelion roots flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

 
 
 
 
181

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The method involves production of light and dark kinds dough containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and flour of another kind of vegetable raw material, handling them, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. In the composition of dark kind dough one uses linseed oil and oyster plant flour. Flour is prepared by way of extraction of coriander with liquid nitrogen to separate corresponding miscella. Oyster plant is cut, dried in microwave field till residual humidity is about 20% at microwave field for at least 1 hour, fried, impregnated with separated miscella with extract content 0.04% of oyster plant weight. Microwave field power provides for warming oyster plant inside the bits to a temperature of 80-90C. Oyster plant is frozen and cryomilled. One mixes the produced flour with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. In the composition of the light kind dough one uses linseed oil. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with specific organoleptic properties with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee added to the formula and improve its consistency.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

182

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The method involves production of light and dark kinds dough containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and flour of another kind of vegetable raw material, handling them, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. In the composition of the dark kind dough one uses holy thistle seed oil, oyster plant flour prepared by way of extraction of allspice with liquid nitrogen with separating corresponding miscella. Oyster plant is cut, dried in microwave field till residual humidity is about 20% at microwave field for at least 1 hour, fried, impregnated with separated miscella with extract content equal to 0.04% of oyster plant weight. Microwave field power provides for warming oyster plant inside the bits to a temperature of 80-90C. Oyster plant is frozen and cryomilled in nitrogen medium. One mixes the produced flour with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. In the composition of the light kind dough one uses holy thistle seed oil. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with specific organoleptic properties with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee added to the formula and improve its consistency.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

183

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The method involves production of light and dark kinds dough containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and flour of another kind of vegetable raw material, handling them, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. In the composition of the dark kind dough one uses holy thistle seed oil, scorzonera flour prepared by way of extraction of anise-tree with liquid nitrogen with separating corresponding miscella. Scorzonera is cut, dried in microwave field till residual humidity is about 20% at microwave field for at least 1 hour, fried, impregnated with separated miscella with extract content equal to 0.04% of scorzonera weight. Microwave field power provides for warming scorzonera inside the bits to a temperature of 80-90C. Scorzonera is frozen and cryomilled in nitrogen medium. One mixes the produced flour with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. In the composition of the light kind dough one uses holy thistle seed oil. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to produce a new bakery product with specific organoleptic properties with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee added to the formula and improve its consistency.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

184

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bakery products production technology. The method envisages production of light and dark kinds dough containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and prime grade wheat flour, flour of another kind of vegetable raw material, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt and water respectively, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes amaranth seed oil and yacon flour which is prepared by extraction of pomelo rind with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of yacon, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for yacon heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from yacon weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of yacon and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen and mixing with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. In the composition of the light kind dough one uses amaranth seed oil. Dough is prepared at the following weight ratio of components with accuracy of 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 amaranth seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, amaranth seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 1 ex

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

185

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough. The dough contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and prime grade wheat flour, flour of another kind of vegetable raw material, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt and water. The dough is handled and preliminarily proofed. Then pieces of different kinds of dough are alternately placed, twisted, finally proofed and baked. In the composition of dark kind dough one uses linseed oil and yacon flour. Yacon is prepared, cut, dried in microwave field till residual moisture content is about 20% for no less than 1 hour. Microwave field power ensures warming yacon inside the bits to a temperature of 80-90C. Then yacon is fried and cryomilled in liquid nitrogen and mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a ratio of 1:5 -1:13. In the composition of the light kind dough one uses linseed oil. ^ EFFECT: proposed method allows to produce a new bakery product with specific organoleptic properties with coffee flavour and aroma tones with no coffee added to the formula and improve its consistency.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

186

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes dandelion roots flour which is prepared by extraction of lime peel with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of dandelion roots, their cutting, drying in microwave field providing for dandelion roots heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from dandelion roots weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of dandelion roots and their cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. The produced flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. The dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy +5%: for light kind dough: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 amaranth seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark kind dough: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, amaranth seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

187

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes girasol-sunflower flour which is prepared by extraction of pomelo rind with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of girasol-sunflower, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for girasol-sunflower heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from girasol-sunflower weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of girasol-sunflower and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. The produced flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. The dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy 5%: for light kind dough: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 amaranth seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark kind dough: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, amaranth seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

188

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a light dough semi-product containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and a dark dough semi-product containing a mixture of prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol-sunflower flour, pressed bakery yeast, pumpkin seed oil, sugar, salt and water. One performs preliminary proofing of dough semi-products, their alternate placing, twisting, proofing and baking. Girasol-sunflower flour is prepared by way of pomelo peel extraction with liquid nitrogen to separate corresponding miscella, preparation of girasol-sunflower, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for warming girasol-sunflower until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of girasol-sunflower and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. Girasol-sunflower flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. ^ EFFECT: improved texture and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

189

Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation; Caracterizacao bioquimica e imunologica dos principais produtos gerados pela irradiacao de crotoxina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of {gamma}-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

Nascimento, Nanci do

1995-07-01

190

A non-toxic herbal remedy which enhance lymphocyte activity and cytokine secretion: Ganoderma lucidum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ganoderma lucidum is grown in the deep foliage of South-western China, where it is free from heavy metals and pollutions from populated cities. G. lucidum contains biologically active components, polysaccharides, which have been shown to enhance the immune system. In China, G. lucidum is commonly us...

Liang, H; Loo, WTY; Yeung, BHS; Cheung, MNB; Wang, M; Chen, JP

191

Efficacy of non-toxic surfaces to reduce bioadhesion in terrestrial gastropods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Invasive species are described as the greatest threat to biodiversity, after habitat destruction and climate change, potentially imposing economic impacts and indigenous species impairment. Commonly applied chemical controls present the potential for legacy contamination and non-target organism injury. This study investigated the effects of different substrates and novel topographical surfaces on the behavioral and mechanical associations of the terrestrial gastropod Otala lactea.RESULTS: The gastropod preferentially aestivated on rough glass (61% increase, P < 0.01) relative to smooth glass but avoided a cross-patterned surface tessellation on silicone (82% reduction, P < 0.01) relative to smooth silicone. Significant deviations in turning behavior were found on the cross-patterned topographical surface and hydrophobic Teflon surfaces. The strongest correlation with gastropod adhesion strength to surfaces was found for surface elastic modulus (R = 0.88, P = 0.03), followed by hydrophobicity (R = - 0.71, P = 0.14), but no relationship with roughness (P = 0.36).CONCLUSION: Preliminary data suggest surface roughness controlled aestivation behavior while elastic modulus (surface flexibility) controlled adhesion strength. In spite of greater adhesion to high-modulus materials, surface modulus was not a statistically significant controlling factor on gastropod aestivation preference. Understanding and exploiting the behavioral and mechanistic cues that organisms use while attaching to surfaces may lead to more environmentally benign control approaches. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Chemical Industry.

Kennedy AJ; Vasudevan R; Pappas DD; Weiss CA; Hendrix SH; Baney RH

2010-12-01

192

Efficacy of non-toxic surfaces to reduce bioadhesion in terrestrial gastropods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Invasive species are described as the greatest threat to biodiversity, after habitat destruction and climate change, potentially imposing economic impacts and indigenous species impairment. Commonly applied chemical controls present the potential for legacy contamination and non-target organism injury. This study investigated the effects of different substrates and novel topographical surfaces on the behavioral and mechanical associations of the terrestrial gastropod Otala lactea. RESULTS: The gastropod preferentially aestivated on rough glass (61% increase, P < 0.01) relative to smooth glass but avoided a cross-patterned surface tessellation on silicone (82% reduction, P < 0.01) relative to smooth silicone. Significant deviations in turning behavior were found on the cross-patterned topographical surface and hydrophobic Teflon surfaces. The strongest correlation with gastropod adhesion strength to surfaces was found for surface elastic modulus (R = 0.88, P = 0.03), followed by hydrophobicity (R = - 0.71, P = 0.14), but no relationship with roughness (P = 0.36). CONCLUSION: Preliminary data suggest surface roughness controlled aestivation behavior while elastic modulus (surface flexibility) controlled adhesion strength. In spite of greater adhesion to high-modulus materials, surface modulus was not a statistically significant controlling factor on gastropod aestivation preference. Understanding and exploiting the behavioral and mechanistic cues that organisms use while attaching to surfaces may lead to more environmentally benign control approaches.

Kennedy AJ; Vasudevan R; Pappas DD; Weiss CA; Hendrix SH; Baney RH

2011-03-01

193

Non-Toxic Fumigation and Alternative Control Techniques Against Fungal Colonization for Preserving Archaeological Oil Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, samples were collected from the deteriorated parts of archeological oil painting of Ismael pasha exhibited in Al-Gizyra museum, Egypt. The tested oil painting grounds belonged to the period from beginning of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th in Egypt were analysed and fungal deterioration aspects were examined by different techniques such as Scanning Eectron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The data show that calcium sulphate was the major component of the tested oil painting sample. Brittleness and deep cracks were observed as result of fungal damage. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from the tested Ismael pasha oil painting, belonging to the genera of Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Stemphylium and Trichoderima. The data reveal that Cladosporium cladosporioides contributed the broadest spectra in the tested oil painting. Screening for proteolytic and celluloytic enzyme activities indicate that the genera of Cadosporium, Alternaria and Aspergilli showed the highest significant enzyme activities. Comparative sensitivity to radiation against all isolated fungal species indicate that the treatment of the tested fungal species with diode laser lead to complete inhibition of all tested species after 15 min exposure time. Calcium sulfate at 0.10% concentration lead to the highest dry weight of C. cladosporioides (1.63 g/100 mL), while the change in pH was nearly non-significantly affected with sulphur concentration. Gel electrophoresis patterns of the most radioresistant species (C. cladosporioides) reveal the dramatic loss of essentially all major protein bands after laser irradiation.

Neveen S.I. Geweely

2006-01-01

194

VINEGAR AS A NON-TOXIC AND SAFER WEED CONTROL OPTION  

Science.gov (United States)

Vinegar (acetic acid) is registered as a herbicide for weed control in concrete pavements in Sweden (David Hansson, personal communication). However, there is no scientific literature on the use of vinegar for agricultural purposes available. The objective of this research was to study the efficacy ...

195

Human prefoldin inhibits A? fibrillation and contributes to formation of non-toxic A? aggregates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amyloid-? (A?) peptides represent key players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mounting evidences indicate that soluble A? oligomers mediate the toxicity. Prefoldin (PFD) is a molecular chaperone that prevents aggregation of misfolded proteins. Here we investigated the role of PFD in A? aggregation. First, we demonstrated that PFD is expressed in mouse brain by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and found that PFD is upregulated in AD model APP23 transgenic mice. Then we investigated the effect of recombinant human PFD (hPFD) on A?(1-42) aggregation in vitro, and found that hPFD inhibited A? fibrillation and induced formation of soluble A? oligomers. Interestingly, cell viability measurements using the MTT assay showed that A? oligomers formed by hPFD were 30-40% less toxic to cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells or to primary cortical neurons from embryonic C57BL/6CrSlc mice than previously reported A? oligomers (formed by archaeal PFD) and A? fibrils (p<0.001). Thioflavin T measurements and immunoblotting indicated different structural properties for the different A? oligomers. Our findings show a relation between cytotoxicity of A? oligomers and structure, and suggest a possible protective role of PFD in AD.

Sörgjerd KM; Zako T; Sakono M; Stirling PC; Leroux MR; Saito T; Nilsson P; Sekimoto M; Saido TC; Maeda M

2013-04-01

196

(2-Hydroxyethyl)ammonium Lactates—Highly Biodegradable and Essentially Non-Toxic Ionic Liquids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (2-Hydroxyethyl)ammonium lactates have been prepared by reactions of the corresponding (2-hydroxyethyl) amines with lactic acid and characterized by their 1H NMR, IR, and mass spectra. They have been quantita- tively analyzed by HPLC, and their water contents have been determined by the Karl-Fischer method. The title salts are low-melting solids or viscous liquids, and they belong to the class of polar, hydrophilic ionic liquids. The toxicity and chemical and biological degradation of the synthesized ionic liquids have been evaluated by methods described in European Standards. The measurements showed these ionic liquids to be highly biodegradable and only slightly toxic substances. Condensation reactions of benzaldehyde with ethyl cyanoacetate and with acetophenone have been performed in these materials as solvents. The possibility of simultaneously applying these ionic liquids as both solvents and catalysts for the mentioned reactions has been demonstrated, as well as repeated use of the same ionic liquid for a number of condensation reactions without any purification.

Sanita Pavlovica; Andris Zicmanis; Elina Gzibovska; Maris Klavins; Peteris Mekss

2011-01-01

197

Non-toxicity of water soluble multi-walled carbon nanotube on Escherichia-coli colonies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carboxylic acid functionalized water soluble carbon nanotube (wsCNT) shows no toxic effect against the growth of Escherichia-coli (E. coli), a gram-negative bacteria. Treatment up to 8 microg mL(-1) of wsCNT did not show any toxic effect on E. coli growth that was followed by using bacterial growth kinetics and Spread Plate Technique (SPT). The number of E-coli colonies counts with and without wsCNT showed nearly no change and the bacterial growth kinetics in both the cases showing no toxic effect of wsCNT on the growth of E. coli.

Roy M; Sonkar SK; Tripathi S; Saxena M; Sarkar S

2012-03-01

198

Non-toxicity of water soluble multi-walled carbon nanotube on Escherichia-coli colonies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carboxylic acid functionalized water soluble carbon nanotube (wsCNT) shows no toxic effect against the growth of Escherichia-coli (E. coli), a gram-negative bacteria. Treatment up to 8 microg mL(-1) of wsCNT did not show any toxic effect on E. coli growth that was followed by using bacterial growth kinetics and Spread Plate Technique (SPT). The number of E-coli colonies counts with and without wsCNT showed nearly no change and the bacterial growth kinetics in both the cases showing no toxic effect of wsCNT on the growth of E. coli. PMID:22754977

Roy, Manas; Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta; Saxena, Manav; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

2012-03-01

199

Insilico structural analysis of parasporin 2 protein sequences of non-toxic bacillus thuringiensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The unusual and remarkable property of parasporin 2 of non-insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis is specifically recognizing and selectively targeting human leukemic cell lines. The 37-kDa inactive nascent protein is proteolytically cleaved to the 30-kDa active form that loses both the N-terminal and the C-terminal segments. Accumulated cytological and biochemical observations on parasporin-2 imply that the protein is a pore-forming toxin. To confirm the hypothesis, insilico analysis was performed using homology modeling. The resulting model of parasporin 2 protein is unusually elongated and mainly comprises long ?-strands aligned with its long axis. It is similar to aerolysin-type ?-pore-forming toxins, which strongly reinforce the pore-forming hypothesis. The molecule can be divided into three domains. Domain 1, comprising a small ?-sheet sandwiched by short ?-helices, is probably the target-binding module. Two other domains are both ?-sandwiches and thought to be involved in oligomerization and pore formation. Domain 2 has a putative channel-forming ?-hairpin characteristic of aerolysin-type toxins. The surface of the protein has an extensive track of exposed side chains of serine and threonine residues. The track might orient the molecule on the cell membrane when domain 1 binds to the target until oligomerization and pore formation are initiated. The ?-hairpin has such a tight structure that it seems unlikely to reform as postulated in a recent model of pore formation developed for aerolysin-type toxins. Parasporin 2 (Accession no: BAD35170) protein sequence analysis indicated two different domains namely, aerolysin toxin and clostridium toxin domain based on different database searches (CDD and Pfam). It showed a close similarity with the available PDB template (PDB id: 2ZTB) of parasporin which has cytocidal activity against MOLT-4, HL60 and Jurkat cell lines. Based on the PSI Blast analysis, 3D structures of the domains were predicted by using Swiss model server. Accuracy of the prediction of 3D structure of different domains of parasporin protein was further validated by Ramachandran plot and PROCHECK (G-value). The structure is dominated by ?-strands (67%, S1-12), most of which are remarkably extensive, running all or most of the longer axis of the molecule. This study helped to elucidate the 3D structure of parasporin 2 (Acc. No. BAD35170) which might enable to probe further its specific mechanism of action. Though the similarity is observed in the domain architecture, there is variation in the regions of the domains even among the same group of parasporin 2. Docking of this model structure and experimental structure with specific receptors of the cancer cells will facilitate to explore mechanism of parasporin 2 action and also provide information about its evolutionary relationship with toxic Cry proteins.

Ayyasamy Mahalakshmi; Rajaiah Shenbagarathai

2010-01-01

200

Plant toxic and non-toxic nature of organic dyes through adsorption mechanism on cellulose surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effluents releasing from dyeing industries directly affect the soil, water, plant and human life. Among these dyes, plant poisoning, soil polluting and water polluting nature of organic dyes are not yet identified. The plant poisoning and non-poisoning organic dyes are identified through adsorption mechanism of cationic malachite green (MG) and anionic methyl orange (MO) on brinjal plant root powder (cellulose). The positive ?H(o) (44 kJ mol(-1)) of MG higher than 40 kJ mol(-1) confirmed the adsorption of MG on cellulose is chemisorption and the negative ?H(o) (-11 kJ mol(-1)) less than 40 kJ mol(-1) showed that the adsorption of MO on cellulose is physisorption. The ?G(o) values for the adsorption of MG and MO on BPR are not much increased with increase of temperature which indicated that the adsorption is independent of the temperature. The entropy change for the adsorption of MG and MO has proved that the MG (+?S(o)) has less disorder at the adsorption interface and MO (-?S(o)) has the high disorder at the adsorption interface. The recovery of both dyes has been studied in water at 80°C on BPR surface and observed that the MO recovery is 95% and MG is 10%. The poor desorption of MG is due to the strong chemisorption on BPR (cellulose) surface proves its plant poisoning nature. The high recovery of MO due to physisorption mechanism proves that MO is not poisoning the plant. PMID:21398036

Buvaneswari, Natesan; Kannan, Chellapandian

2011-02-22

 
 
 
 
201

Plant toxic and non-toxic nature of organic dyes through adsorption mechanism on cellulose surface.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effluents releasing from dyeing industries directly affect the soil, water, plant and human life. Among these dyes, plant poisoning, soil polluting and water polluting nature of organic dyes are not yet identified. The plant poisoning and non-poisoning organic dyes are identified through adsorption mechanism of cationic malachite green (MG) and anionic methyl orange (MO) on brinjal plant root powder (cellulose). The positive ?H(o) (44 kJ mol(-1)) of MG higher than 40 kJ mol(-1) confirmed the adsorption of MG on cellulose is chemisorption and the negative ?H(o) (-11 kJ mol(-1)) less than 40 kJ mol(-1) showed that the adsorption of MO on cellulose is physisorption. The ?G(o) values for the adsorption of MG and MO on BPR are not much increased with increase of temperature which indicated that the adsorption is independent of the temperature. The entropy change for the adsorption of MG and MO has proved that the MG (+?S(o)) has less disorder at the adsorption interface and MO (-?S(o)) has the high disorder at the adsorption interface. The recovery of both dyes has been studied in water at 80°C on BPR surface and observed that the MO recovery is 95% and MG is 10%. The poor desorption of MG is due to the strong chemisorption on BPR (cellulose) surface proves its plant poisoning nature. The high recovery of MO due to physisorption mechanism proves that MO is not poisoning the plant.

Buvaneswari N; Kannan C

2011-05-01

202

Nanodiamonds with silicon vacancy defects for non-toxic photostable fluorescent labeling of neural precursor cells  

CERN Multimedia

Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. NPCs labeled with NDs exhibited normal cell viability and proliferative properties consistent with biocompatibility. We conclude that SiVcontaining NDs are a promising biomedical research tool for cellular labeling and optical imaging in stem cell research.

Merson, Tobias D; Aharonovich, Igor; Turbic, Alisa; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Turnley, Ann M

2013-01-01

203

Poly propyl ether imine (PETIM) dendrimer: a novel non-toxic dendrimer for sustained drug delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, an attempt was made to study the acute and sub-acute toxicity profile of G3-COOH Poly (propyl ether imine) [PETIM] dendrimer and its use as a carrier for sustained delivery of model drug ketoprofen. Drug-dendrimer complex was prepared and characterized by FTIR, solubility and in vitro drug release study. PETIM dendrimer was found to have significantly less toxicity in A541 cells compared to Poly amido amine (PAMAM) dendrimer. Further, acute and 28 days sub-acute toxicity measurement in mice showed no mortality, hematological, biochemical or histopathological changes up to 80 mg/kg dose of PETIM dendrimer. The results of study demonstrated that G3-COOH PETIM dendrimer can be used as a safe and efficient vehicle for sustained drug delivery.

Jain S; Kaur A; Puri R; Utreja P; Jain A; Bhide M; Ratnam R; Singh V; Patil AS; Jayaraman N; Kaushik G; Yadav S; Khanduja KL

2010-11-01

204

Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine ({sup 131}I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive {sup 131}I plus lithium (group I+L) or {sup 131}I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, {sup 131}I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after {sup 131}I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after {sup 131}I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, {sup 131}I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low {sup 131}I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

Vannucchi, Guia; Mannavola, Deborah; Dazzi, Davide; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Fugazzola, Laura [Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS (Pad. Granelli), Institute of Endocrine Sciences, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Rodari, Marcello; Tadayyon, Sara [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy)

2005-09-01

205

Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine (131I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive 131I plus lithium (group I+L) or 131I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, 131I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after 131I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after 131I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, 131I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low 131I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

2005-01-01

206

Characterization of an inexpensive, non-toxic and highly sensitive microarray substrate.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An agarose film has been proposed as an efficient substrate for producing microarrays. The original film preparation procedure was simplified significantly by grafting the agarose layer directly onto unmodified microscope glass slides instead of aminated glass slides, and the blocking procedure was replaced with a wash in 0.1x standard saline citrate (SSC) and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) without decreasing the performance of the produced microarrays. Characterization of the grafted agarose film using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the agarose film had a 10-fold increase in surface roughness compared to glass and that the interior of the agarose film was porous, with pore sizes between 100-500 nm. A comparison of hybridization on aldehyde-activated agarose-coated microarray slides and commercial amino-reactive microarray slides showed that aldehyde-activated agarose-coated slides had the highest signal-to-noise ratio of 850, suggesting that the aldehyde-activated agarose microarray slides are suitable in applications where analytes have a wide concentration range. By immobilizing the DNA probes using ultraviolet (UV) light, the signal-to-noise ratio was further increased to 3000 on the agarose microarray slides. The specificity of the UV cross-linked DNA probes was demonstrated using 21 and 25 bp long capture probes, enabling discrimination of target molecules differing in only one base.

Dufva, Hans Martin; Petronis, Sarunas

2004-01-01

207

Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency (more) increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1) indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

Abdel Hameed, R.S.

2011-01-01

208

Opioid growth factor (OGF) for hepatoblastoma: a novel non-toxic treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver malignancy in children, typically diagnosed before age 2. The survival rate for hepatoblastoma has increased dramatically in the last 30 years, but the typical chemotherapeutic agents used for treatment are associated with significant toxicity. In this report, the authors present two cases of hepatoblastoma treated with surgical resection and a novel biotherapeutic regimen that included opioid growth factor (OGF). Case #1 is an infant diagnosed with a large mass on prenatal ultrasound. After subsequent diagnosis of hepatoblastoma, she was treated with one course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy at approximately 1 week of age. Following significant complications from the chemotherapy (neutropenic fever, pneumonia and sepsis), the patient's parents declined further chemotherapy, and the infant was treated with surgical resection and opioid growth factor (OGF)/low dose naltrexone (LDN). She is currently at close to 10 years disease-free survival. Case #2 is a child diagnosed with a liver mass on ultrasound at 20 months of age, later biopsy-proven to represent hepatoblastoma. Due to existing co-morbidities including autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and hypertension, and indications from the biopsy that the tumor might be insensitive to chemotherapy, the parents elected not to proceed with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The patient was treated with surgical resection and OGF/LDN, and is currently at more than 5 years disease-free survival. This case series highlights the need for less toxic treatment options than conventional chemotherapy. Modulation of the OGF-OGF receptor axis represents a promising safe and therapeutic avenue for effective treatment of hepatoblastoma. PMID:23275062

Rogosnitzky, Moshe; Finegold, Milton J; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

2012-12-30

209

Opioid growth factor (OGF) for hepatoblastoma: a novel non-toxic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver malignancy in children, typically diagnosed before age 2. The survival rate for hepatoblastoma has increased dramatically in the last 30 years, but the typical chemotherapeutic agents used for treatment are associated with significant toxicity. In this report, the authors present two cases of hepatoblastoma treated with surgical resection and a novel biotherapeutic regimen that included opioid growth factor (OGF). Case #1 is an infant diagnosed with a large mass on prenatal ultrasound. After subsequent diagnosis of hepatoblastoma, she was treated with one course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy at approximately 1 week of age. Following significant complications from the chemotherapy (neutropenic fever, pneumonia and sepsis), the patient's parents declined further chemotherapy, and the infant was treated with surgical resection and opioid growth factor (OGF)/low dose naltrexone (LDN). She is currently at close to 10 years disease-free survival. Case #2 is a child diagnosed with a liver mass on ultrasound at 20 months of age, later biopsy-proven to represent hepatoblastoma. Due to existing co-morbidities including autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and hypertension, and indications from the biopsy that the tumor might be insensitive to chemotherapy, the parents elected not to proceed with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The patient was treated with surgical resection and OGF/LDN, and is currently at more than 5 years disease-free survival. This case series highlights the need for less toxic treatment options than conventional chemotherapy. Modulation of the OGF-OGF receptor axis represents a promising safe and therapeutic avenue for effective treatment of hepatoblastoma.

Rogosnitzky M; Finegold MJ; McLaughlin PJ; Zagon IS

2013-08-01

210

Caffeine as non-toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper in aqueous solutions of potassium nitrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Different electrochemical methods were employed in order to confirm the ability of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) to inhibit the corrosion processes of copper in aqueous potassium nitrate solutions in the absence and in the presence of chloride. Some experiments were repeated in potassium perchlorate in order to compare the influence of the medium. The interaction between the organic compound and the electrode surface occurs independently of the electrode potential. However, maximum interaction was observed at 0.0 V (Ag/AgCl) in aerated solutions, and at -0.25 V (Ag/AgCl) in deaerated solutions. The presence of the organic compound adsorbed on the electrode surface was confirmed by comparing the voltammograms of copper electrode in the absence and presence of 1.5 mmol L-1 of dissolved caffeine. The same results were observed by comparing polarization curves in the absence and in the presence of caffeine. Anodic currents decrease noticeably in the presence of the organic compound. Chronoamperometric experiments were conclusive to prove the inhibitor capability of caffeine to decrease the corrosion dissolution processes of copper under anodic polarization.

Fallavena, Thuanny; Antonow, Muriel; Gonçalves, Reinaldo Simões

2006-11-01

211

Simple screening method to identify toxic/non-toxic ionic liquids: agar diffusion test adaptation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wide range of ionic liquids (ILs), containing a diverse set of cations, anions and alkyl chain lengths, was screened for their antimicrobial activity toward four microorganisms, Escherichia coli CCT-0355, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-6533, Fusarium sp. LM03 and Candida albicans ATCC-76645. For that purpose an adaptation of the Agar Diffusion test was validated and successfully applied as a rapid screen method to identify toxic ILs, avoiding the use of more complex and expensive techniques. The effects of the cation alkyl chain length were studied, being observed both the "alkyl side chain" effect (increase in antimicrobial activity with the elongation of the alkyl chain) and "cut-off" effect (beyond a given chain length, the toxicity cannot be increased any further). Imidazolium-based ILs have in general, negative effects on the growth of these microorganisms dependent on the anion and alkyl chain length (growth inhibition halo from 1.98±0.04 mm for [C(2)mim]Cl to 39.53±0.81 mm for [C(10)mim]Cl). On the opposite, the phosphonium-based ILs do not seem to have negative effects for the longest alkyl chains (growth inhibition halos between 0.00±0.00 and 7.30±0.42 mm). It was also observed that the alkyl chain, cation family, and anion moiety all have significant effects on the antimicrobial activity these effects being well correlated with the lipophilicity of the ILs tested. The results also show that the microorganisms responses to the diverse ILs tested are dependent on their morphologic differences.

Ventura SP; de Barros RL; Sintra T; Soares CM; Lima AS; Coutinho JA

2012-09-01

212

Simple screening method to identify toxic/non-toxic ionic liquids: agar diffusion test adaptation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of ionic liquids (ILs), containing a diverse set of cations, anions and alkyl chain lengths, was screened for their antimicrobial activity toward four microorganisms, Escherichia coli CCT-0355, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-6533, Fusarium sp. LM03 and Candida albicans ATCC-76645. For that purpose an adaptation of the Agar Diffusion test was validated and successfully applied as a rapid screen method to identify toxic ILs, avoiding the use of more complex and expensive techniques. The effects of the cation alkyl chain length were studied, being observed both the "alkyl side chain" effect (increase in antimicrobial activity with the elongation of the alkyl chain) and "cut-off" effect (beyond a given chain length, the toxicity cannot be increased any further). Imidazolium-based ILs have in general, negative effects on the growth of these microorganisms dependent on the anion and alkyl chain length (growth inhibition halo from 1.98±0.04 mm for [C(2)mim]Cl to 39.53±0.81 mm for [C(10)mim]Cl). On the opposite, the phosphonium-based ILs do not seem to have negative effects for the longest alkyl chains (growth inhibition halos between 0.00±0.00 and 7.30±0.42 mm). It was also observed that the alkyl chain, cation family, and anion moiety all have significant effects on the antimicrobial activity these effects being well correlated with the lipophilicity of the ILs tested. The results also show that the microorganisms responses to the diverse ILs tested are dependent on their morphologic differences. PMID:22742861

Ventura, Sónia P M; de Barros, Rafael L F; Sintra, Tânia; Soares, Cleide M F; Lima, Alvaro S; Coutinho, João A P

2012-06-27

213

Neonatal Hydrocephalus in the Offspring of Rats Fed During Pregnancy Non-Toxic Amounts of Tellurium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the consistency with which a rapidly progressing hydrocephalus internus can be produced in the offspring of rats fed on a diet containing tellurium during pregnancy, this heavy metal appears to be an easy to handle and promising tool for the in...

F. Garro A. Pentschew

1964-01-01

214

Water-stable electrospun collagen fibers from a non-toxic solvent and crosslinking system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cytocompatible and water-stable ultrafine collagen fibers were electrospun by dissolving collagen in a low corrosive ethanol-water solvent and crosslinked by citric acid (CA) with glycerol as the crosslinking extender. Conventional solvents used for electrospinning of collagen either cause denaturation or contain more than 50% salt potentially leading to poor mechanical properties and water stability of the scaffolds. Collagen scaffolds have to be modified by techniques, such as, crosslinking to overcome the limitations in strength and stability. However, the existing crosslinking methods are either cytotoxic or ineffective. In this research, a benign ethanol-water solvent system and an extender-aided CA crosslinking method were developed. The native collagen conformation was retained after electrospinning, and the dry/wet strengths and water stability of fibers were substantially enhanced after crosslinking. The crosslinked electrospun scaffolds could maintain their fibrous structure for up to 30 days in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C. Cells exhibited better attachment and growth on the CA crosslinked collagen fibers than on the glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds.

Jiang Q; Reddy N; Zhang S; Roscioli N; Yang Y

2013-05-01

215

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: bakery product production method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes amaranth seed oil and dandelion roots flour which is prepared by extraction of pomelo peel with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of dandelion roots, their cutting, drying in microwave field providing for dandelion roots heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from dandelion roots weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of dandelion roots and their cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. One mixes the produced flour with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. In the composition of the light kind dough one uses amaranth seed oil. Dough is prepared at the following weight ratio of components with accuracy of 5%: for light kind dough: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 amaranth seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark kind dough: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, amaranth seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

216

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their preliminary proofing, alternate placing, twisting, final proofing and baking. Light dough contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. Dark dough contains prime grade wheat flour and flavoured yacon flour produced according to specified technology and with lime peel usage, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seeds, sugar, salt, and water. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

217

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their preliminary proofing, alternate placing, twisting, final proofing and baking. Light dough contains prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seed oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water. Dark dough contains prime grade wheat flour and flavoured girasol-sunflower flour produced according to specified technology and with lime peel usage, pressed bakery yeast, holy thistle seeds, sugar, salt, and water. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

218

Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production  

Science.gov (United States)

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

2013-01-01

219

Utilization of Jatropha deoiled seed cake for production of cellulases under solid-state fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic waste generated by Jatropha seed cake after utilization of biodiesel on one hand has stimulated the need to develop new technologies to treat the waste and on the other, forced us to reevaluate the efficient utilization of its nutritive potential for production of various high-value compounds and its conversion to non-toxic forms which could be used as animal feed stock. In this study, Jatropha seed cake was used for production of cellulases by new isolate of Thermoascus aurantiacus under solid-state fermentation. The interaction of nitrogen source concentration, moisture ratio, initial pH of the medium and inoculum size was investigated and modelled using response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Under optimized conditions endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase and filter paper activities were found to be 124.44, 28.86, 4.87 U/g of substrate, respectively. Characterization of endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase was done after partial purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by desalting. The endo-?-1,4-glucanase and ?-glucosidase showed maximum activity at 70 °C and pH 4. Saccharification studies performed with different lignocellulosic substrates showed that sugar cane bagasse was most susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The study suggests that Jatropha seed cake can be used as a viable nutrient source for cellulase production without any pretreatment under solid-state fermentation by T. aurantiacus. PMID:22451079

Dave, Bhaumik R; Sudhir, Ankit P; Pansuriya, Mehul; Raykundaliya, Dharmesh P; Subramanian, R B

2012-03-27

220

Utilization of Jatropha deoiled seed cake for production of cellulases under solid-state fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toxic waste generated by Jatropha seed cake after utilization of biodiesel on one hand has stimulated the need to develop new technologies to treat the waste and on the other, forced us to reevaluate the efficient utilization of its nutritive potential for production of various high-value compounds and its conversion to non-toxic forms which could be used as animal feed stock. In this study, Jatropha seed cake was used for production of cellulases by new isolate of Thermoascus aurantiacus under solid-state fermentation. The interaction of nitrogen source concentration, moisture ratio, initial pH of the medium and inoculum size was investigated and modelled using response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Under optimized conditions endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase and filter paper activities were found to be 124.44, 28.86, 4.87 U/g of substrate, respectively. Characterization of endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase was done after partial purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by desalting. The endo-?-1,4-glucanase and ?-glucosidase showed maximum activity at 70 °C and pH 4. Saccharification studies performed with different lignocellulosic substrates showed that sugar cane bagasse was most susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The study suggests that Jatropha seed cake can be used as a viable nutrient source for cellulase production without any pretreatment under solid-state fermentation by T. aurantiacus.

Dave BR; Sudhir AP; Pansuriya M; Raykundaliya DP; Subramanian RB

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds dough containing prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, soya oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and prime grade wheat flour, flour of another kind of vegetable raw material, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt and water respectively, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark dough composition includes amaranth seed oil and yacon flour which is prepared by extraction of cocoa husks with liquid nitrogen to separate according miscella, preparation of yacon, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for yacon heating until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% from yacon weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of yacon and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen and mixing with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. In the composition of the light kind dough one uses amaranth seed oil. Dough is prepared at the following weight ratio of components with accuracy of 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 amaranth seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast - 4, amaranth seed oil - 1.5, sugar - 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula. ^ 1 ex

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

222

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark and light dough compositions include the following components: prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and prime grade wheat flour, flour of another kind of vegetable raw material, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt and water respectively. In the composition of dark kind dough one uses linseed oil and scorzonera flour. Scorzonera flour is prepared by way of cacao husks extraction with liquid nitrogen to separate corresponding miscella, preparation of scorzonera, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for warming scorzonera until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% of scorzonera weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of scorzonera and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. Scorzonera flour is mixed with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. In the light dough composition one uses linseed oil, the dough is prepared at the following components weight ratio with accuracy 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 linseed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast -4, linseed oil - 1.5, sugar 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

223

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: method envisages preparation of light and dark kinds of dough, their handling, preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. The dark and light dough compositions include the following components: prime grade wheat flour, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt, vanillin and water and prime grade wheat flour, flour of another kind of vegetable raw material, pressed bakery yeast, oil, sugar, salt and water respectively. In the composition of dark kind dough one uses linseed oil and yacon flour. Flour is prepared by way of coriander extraction with liquid nitrogen to separate corresponding miscella, preparation of yacon, its cutting, drying in microwave field providing for warming yacon until temperature inside pieces makes 80-90C for at least 1 hour, frying, impregnation with separated miscella with extract content of 0.04% of yacon weight with simultaneous increase of pressure, pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of yacon and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. One mixes yacon flour with prime grade wheat flour at a weight ratio of 1:5 - 1:13. In the composition of the light kind dough one uses linseed oil. Dough is prepared at the following weight ratio of components with accuracy of 5%: for light piece: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 linseed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%, for dark piece: flour mix - 100, pressed bakery yeast -4, linseed oil - 1.5, sugar 15, salt - 1, water till moisture content is 35%. ^ EFFECT: produced product has improved consistence and coffee taste tones and flavour with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

224

BAKERY PRODUCT PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: light dough is prepared at the following weight ratio of components with accuracy of 5%: prime grade wheat flour - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 holy thistle seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 20 salt - 1 vanillin - 0.04 water till moisture content is 35%. Dark dough is prepared at the following weight ratio of components with accuracy of 5%: mixture of prime great wheat flour and girasol-sunflower flour at a weight ratio 1:5 - 1:13 - 100 pressed bakery yeast - 4 holy thistle seed oil - 1.5 sugar - 15 salt - 1 water till moisture content is 35%. Girasol-sunflower flour is prepared by way of extraction of orange peel with liquid nitrogen to separate corresponding miscella. One performs preparing girasol-sunflower, its cutting, drying in microwave field till residual humidity is about 20% at microwave field power providing warming of girasol-sunflower inside the bits to a temperature of 80-90C during at least an hour. One performs roasting, impregnating girasol-sunflower with separated miscella with extract content 0.04% of girasol-sunflower weight with simultaneous increase of pressure. One proceeds with pressure reduction down to atmospheric value with simultaneous freezing of girasol-sunflower and its cryo-grinding in medium of released nitrogen. One performs handling the both kinds dough, its preliminary proofing, alternate placing of pieces of different kinds of dough, twisting, final proofing and baking. ^ EFFECT: product which have improved consistency and coffee taste and flavour tones with no coffee added to the formula.

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

225

Top products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mining Magazine runs a product request system for enquiries about advertisements and product reports. This paper analyses the request responses, listing the most frequently requested products. Product editorial generating the most requests was for gold recovery, however the editorial survey of specific products which generated most requests was one for bottom dump haulers for the coal industry, followed by coal face development and exploration drilling equipment. Advertisements attracting the most interest were for: mining software, filters, trucks, and haulers. Results are also given for product catalogues and advertising campaigns. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Chadwick, J.

1995-01-01

226

Influence of cultivation parameters on growth and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) isolated from Lake Chao (China).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microcystis aeruginosa isolated in 2005 from the shallow eutrophic Lake Chao (Anhui, China) was investigated in terms of growth parameters and microcystin production under varying nutrient concentrations (P, N) and pH values (abiotic factors) as well as under the influence of spent medium of the non-toxic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. (biotic factors). Stimulating effects on growth were observed at the alkaline pH value (10.5), whereas toxin production was significantly increased under phosphate-P limitation (0.6 mg L(-1) medium). Within a broad range of nitrate-N concentrations (41.2-247.2 mg L(-1) medium), no significant influence on cell growth and microcystin production was observed; however, N-starvation resulted in a typical decrease of growth and toxicity. In addition, cryopreservation of M. aeruginosa evidenced the decrease of toxin production by time-dependent exposure with the cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide under thawing conditions without affecting the growth of the cyanobacterial cells.

Krüger T; Hölzel N; Luckas B

2012-01-01

227

Product Jurisdiction  

Science.gov (United States)

Text VersionPage 1. PRODUCT JURISDICTION SLIDE 1 This presentation covers product jurisdiction, or how the FDA decides which ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

228

Review of catalytic supercritical water gasification for hydrogen production from biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is defined as an attractive energy carrier due to its potentially higher energy efficiency and low generation of pollutants, which can replace conventional fossil fuels in the future. The governments have invested huge funds and made great efforts on the research of hydrogen production. Among the various options, supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a most promising method of hydrogen production from biomass. Supercritical water (SCW) has received a great deal of attention as a most suitable reaction medium for biomass gasification because it is safe, non-toxic, readily available, inexpensive and environmentally benign. However, high temperature and pressure are required to meet the minimum reaction condition. Therefore, the high operating cost has become the biggest obstacle to the development of this technology. To overcome this bottleneck, many researchers have carried out intensive research work on the catalytic supercritical water gasification (CSCWG). Based on the previous studies stated in the literature, the authors try to give an overview (but not an exhaustive review) on the recent investigations of CSCWG. Besides, the physicochemical properties of SCW and its contributions in subcritical and supercritical water reaction are also summarized. (author)

Guo, Y.; Wang, S.Z.; Xu, D.H.; Gong, Y.M.; Ma, H.H.; Tang, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

2010-01-15

229

Method for preparing plant-source antibacterial pigment compound preparation for wool products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for preparing a plant-source antibacterial pigment compound preparation for wool products, which comprises the following steps of: (1) washing, air-drying and crushing sumac gallnut, then using water to extract the crushed sumac gallnut to obtain an extract liquor containing antibacterial components, and filtering and performing vacuum evaporation on the extract liquor to obtain initial concentrated solution of an antimicrobial (2) washing, air-drying and crushing a dyeing plant, then extracting the crushed dyeing plant, and filtering and performing vacuum evaporation on the extract liquor to obtain initial concentrated solution of a pigment and (3) mixing the initial concentrated solution of the antimicrobial with the initial concentrated solution of the pigment, uniformly stirring the mixture at the temperature of between 50 and 65 DEG C, and then performing vacuum concentration on the mixture to obtain the plant-source antibacterial pigment compound preparation. The method is simple, has a low cost and wide source of raw materials, and is suitable for industrial production the obtained compound preparation has a lasting antibacterial effect, is non-toxic and harmless to human bodies and is environment-friendly and the compound preparation makes fabrics obtain a good antibacterial effect while having different colors.

SHA FU; SHUNHUA JIA; LIANGFEI LUO; LU WANG; ZONGWEI WANG; ZIZHI YANG; GUOYING ZHAO

230

Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal.

Lin KH; Hsu HT; Ko YW; Shieh ZX; Chiang HL

2009-11-01

231

FOOD PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Firm food products that are suitable for cold use as a spreadable product and for hot use as a frying medium, can be obtained if the products comprise 20 to 80 wt% fat, whereby the fat is present as a clumped fat network. A hydrophilic emulsifier is also present. These products do not show severe spattering when used as a frying medium and are preferably high temperature ambient stable (at temperatures greater than or equal to 25 ·C).

DANIELS Stephen Charles; NORTON Ian Timothy; PELAN Edward G.; WILLIAMS Andrea

232

Food product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Firm food products that are suitable for cold use as a spreadable product and for hot use as a frying medium, can be obtained if the products comprise 20 to 80 wt % fat, whereby the fat is present as a clumped fat network. A hydrophilic emulsifier is also present. These products do not show severe spattering when used as a frying medium and are preferably high temperature ambient stable (at temperatures greater than or equal to 25° C.).

DANIELS STEPHEN CHARLES; NORTON IAN TIMOTHY; PELAN EDWARD G; WILLIAMS ANDREA

233

Product Attachment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th...

Mugge, R.

234

Fat products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economics literature generally considers products as points in some characteristics space. Starting with Hotelling, this served as a convenient assumption, yet with more products being .exible or self-customizable to some degree it makes sense to think that products have positive measure. I deve...

Alexandrov, Alexei

235

Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: Another potential mechanism of immune-suppression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 deg. C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with > 85% inhibition at 1 ?g/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 ?g/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1? (83%) or TNF-? (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity.

2008-06-01

236

CONFECTIONERY PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a confectionery product having a core and a shell, whereby at least the shell is not fat-continuous, said confectionery product containing between 10 and 55 wt. % of fructan and at most 70 wt. % of sucrose. The shell represents between 10 and 90 wt. % of the confectionery product as a whole. The confectionery product preferably has a non-sucrose bulk sweetener such as Isomalt as main component. The invention further relates to a process for preparing a confectionery product, in particular a filled hard candy.

WILLIBALD-ETTLE INGRID; ARENZ MARGIT; DE BONDT VEERLE

237

CONFECTIONERY PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a confectionery product having a core and a shell, whereby at least the shell is not fat-continuous, said confectionery product containing between 10 and 55 wt.% of fructan and at most 70 wt.% of sucrose. The shell represents between 10 and 90 wt.% of the confectionery product as a whole. The confectionery product preferably has a non-sucrose bulk sweetener such as lsomalt as main component. The invention further relates to a process for preparing a confectionery product, in particular a filled hard candy.

WILLIBALD-ETTLE LNGRID; ARENZ MARGIT; DE BONDT VEERLE

238

Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

2008-03-20

239

Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? Forming fluid selection criteria developed for TRISO kernel production. ? Ten candidates selected for further study. ? Density, viscosity, and surface tension measured for first time. ? Settling velocity and heat transfer rates calculated. ? Three fluids recommended for kernel production testing. - Abstract: Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol–gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ?10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

2013-01-01

240

Nanotechnology Based Environmentally Robust Primers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An initiator device structure consisting of an energetic metallic nano-laminate foil coated with a sol-gel derived energetic nano-composite has been demonstrated. The device structure consists of a precision sputter deposition synthesized nano-laminate energetic foil of non-toxic and non-hazardous metals along with a ceramic-based energetic sol-gel produced coating made up of non-toxic and non-hazardous components such as ferric oxide and aluminum metal. Both the nano-laminate and sol-gel technologies are versatile commercially viable processes that allow the ''engineering'' of properties such as mechanical sensitivity and energy output. The nano-laminate serves as the mechanically sensitive precision igniter and the energetic sol-gel functions as a low-cost, non-toxic, non-hazardous booster in the ignition train. In contrast to other energetic nanotechnologies these materials can now be safely manufactured at application required levels, are structurally robust, have reproducible and engineerable properties, and have excellent aging characteristics.

Barbee, T W Jr; Gash, A E; Satcher, J H Jr; Simpson, R L

2003-03-18

 
 
 
 
241

Optimization of fermentation conditions for green pigment production from Bacillus cereus M(1) 16 (MTCC 5521) and its pharmacological application.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Optimal culture conditions for the production of green pigment was investigated. The optimal culture condition for the production of an extracellular green pigment by growing Bacillus cereus M(1) 16 (MTCC 5521) in a complex medium containing (g l(-1) ): Peptone - 4.0, Beef Extract - 9.0, NaCl - 7.0, MgSO4 .7H2 O - 1.0 and KH2 PO4 - 5.0, was as follows pH - 7.0 at 30°C for 72 h in a 5 l fermenter. Aeration rate and agitator speed had no effect on the pigment production. Thin layer chromatogram of the pigment extracted from the fermented broth with chloroform on silica gel GF254 using ethyl acetate and hexane (1:1) as solvent showed three fractions. The major fraction (C3 ) was separated out and identified as 9-methyl-1, 4, 5, 8-tetra-azaphenanthrene. Acute toxicity test revealed the non toxic nature upto a dose of 2000 mg kg(-1) , b.wt., of mice. MTT assay showed the cytotoxic nature in HL60 cells having an IC50 of 2.47 mmol. So, this biopigment may have application in food, textile colorant and pharmaceutical industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Banerjee D; Mondal A; Gupta M; Guha AK; Ray L

2013-08-01

242

Antiproton production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The basic definitions used in the physics literature on particle production are reviewed. The data on anti p production are interpreted in order to provide an estimate of the yield of anti p's from typical target at the antiproton accumulator, including the effects of re-absorption in the target. (orig.)

1984-12-20

243

Topical product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A topical product is provided, which contains supercritical birch bark extract as an active component. The supercritical birch bark extract contains betulin and lupeol as main components. The topical product may further include auxiliary active components, such as tea tree oil, olive oil, camomile oil, allantoin and lanolin. It has a strong antiseptic, healing and regeneration effects.

SAREK JAN; VLK MARTIN

244

Productive Failure  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates an existence proof for "productive failure": engaging students in solving complex, ill-structured problems without the provision of support structures can be a productive exercise in failure. In a computer-supported collaborative learning setting, eleventh-grade science students were randomly assigned to one of two…

Kapur, Manu

2008-01-01

245

Confectionery products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the case of confectionery products (sweets) for human consumption, the confectionery products are to be produced in the form of teeth, in particular human teeth, having root and crown and comprise, for example, a fruit gum mass, foamed sugar, sugar icing, liquorice or chocolate. These teeth are additionally to be coated with a shell of a hard edible substance.

TROLL WOLFGANG DR

246

1-Azaxanthone for use as therapeutic agent, processes for its production and pharmaceutical compositions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention concerns 1-azaxanthone for use as a therapeutic agent, especially as antipyretic/analgesic, antiinflammatory or diuretic agent, bronchodilator and antibronchoconstrictor agent in human or animal therapy or as spasmolytic agent in human and animal therapy in processes of spastic ethiology or in which spasticity is a symptom. The invention also concerns a pharmaceutical composition comprising 1-azaxanthone in association with non-toxic, pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, carriers or adjuvants. The new process for the production of 1-azaxanthone of high purity is characterized in that 2-phenoxynicotinic acid is slowly added to 5-10 times its weight of previously heated 80-85 % (as P2O5) polyphosphoric acid, the reaction mixture is diluted with water and partly neutralized with concentrated alkalihydroxide to a pH value of 2-3. The reaction temperature is 160-200°C. Furthermore the 1-azaxanthone can be produced by reaction of a compound of formula wherein X is Cl, Br or C1-4 alkoxy, and R is halogen, (preferably F) OH or C1-4 alkoxy, with concentrated hydrochlorid or hydrobromic acid under reflux.

Perez Miguel Marquez; Docampo Ricardo Matas; Codina José M. Puigmarti; Moliner José Repolles; Solß Jorge Serra

247

FOOD PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A food product which incorporates polyunsaturated fatty acids and an encapsulated pro-oxidant, said food product having a water activity of 0.75 or less. The pro-oxidants may be metal salts such as copper, manganese, iron and/or zinc salts. Sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fish oil. The present invention is directed especially to nutrition products, such as nutrition bars and soups, sweet powders and other food products, with a water activity (aw) of 0.75 or less, as well as to processes for preparing such products, wherein the products incorporate omega-3 and/or omega-6 and/or other polyunsaturated fatty acids in combination with encapsulated pro-oxidants, such as salts of copper, iron, manganese and zinc.The formulations according to the invention can be expected to have a very good shelf life, yet include polyunsaturated fatty acids which generally have a tendency to oxidize, together with normally pro-oxidant compounds in encapsulated form. Previously, it would have been expected that where pro-oxidants and omega-3 or other unsaturated fatty acids are combined in the same formulation, the fatty acids would oxidize and the shelf life of the food product would be unacceptable.

PALMER ALAN EDWARD; RUDAN BRENDA JEAN; GAUTAM AKHILESH; PATRICK MATTHEW; DAGERATH MICHAEL LYNN

248

FOOD PRODUCT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A food product which incorporates polyunsaturated fatty acids and an encapsulated pro-oxidant, said food product having a water activity of 0.75 or less. The pro-oxidants may be metal salts such as copper, manganese, iron and/or zinc salts. Sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fish oil. The present invention is directed especially to nutrition products, such as nutrition bars and soups, sweet powders and other food products, with a water activity (aw) of 0.75 or less, as well as to processes for preparing such products, wherein the products incorporate omega-3 and/or omega-6 and/or other polyunsaturated fatty acids in combination with encapsulated pro-oxidants, such as salts of copper, iron, manganese and zinc. The formulations according to the invention can be expected to have a very good shelf life, yet include polyunsaturated fatty acids which generally have a tendency to oxidize, together with normally pro-oxidant compounds in encapsulated form. Previously, it would have been ex pected that where pro-oxidants and omega-3 or other unsaturated fatty acids are combined in the same formulation, the fatty acids would oxidize and the shelf life of the food product would be unacceptable.

GAUTAM AKHILESH; PALMER ALAN EDWARD; RUDAN BRENDA JEAN; PATRICK MATTHEW; DAGERATH MICHAEL LYNN

249

Quarkonium production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results on the production of heavy Quarkonia ({psi} and {Upsilon} families) from the HERA and Tevatron colliders are presented. The interpretation of the measurements in terms of perturbative QCD is critically reviewed.

Arnd Meyer

2001-03-28

250

Nutrition Products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a nutrition product comprising a first region comprising at least 10% by weight of said first region of one or more oxidisable materials containing monounsaturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a second region comprising 0.002% to 1.0% by weight of said second region of one or more oxidising materials selected from chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, selenium and zinc and wherein the oxidisable materials and the oxidising materials in the nutrition product are comprised in different regions of the product. The nutrition products have good organoleptic properties and exhibit good stability, both physical and chemical, upon storage. They also provide a convenient way of incorporating the above-mentioned nutrients into the diet.

HUNDSCHEID DANIELLE CHRISTA; NACHUM RAFI; PUPKO DAVID; TER SCHURE EELKE GARBEN; SKLAR RONIT HAYA

251

Hydrocarbon production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes the process for the production of higher hydrocarbons from methane. It comprises reacting a methane containing feed gas by oxidative coupling to form a first product mixture comprises of 1.0-50 mol % CO, 1.0-50 mol % H/sub 2/, 0-50 mol % steam, 1.0-50 mol % C/sub 2/=, and 5.0-80 mol % methane, reacting the first product mixture in a second reaction over a catalyst comprised of both a metal oxide component effective for the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and a shape selective zeolite component effective for the oligomerization of ethylene, and recovering higher hydrocarbons from the product of the second reaction.

Gaffney, A.M.

1989-07-18

252

BIOFUEL PRODUCTION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention relates generally to a biofuel production method wherein the raw material particle size is reduced to 90 micron or less and in subsequent step, the material is contacted with biofuel producing enzyme.

SASTRAATMADJA DUDI DJUHDIA

253

Production operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two volume book set presented discusses successful well completion and obtaining and maintaining effective communication with desired reservoir fluids. Volume one includes: geology for well completions; reservoir engineering for well completion; well testing; primary cementing; well completion design; tubing; downhole production equipment; perforating, completion and workover fluids; and production logging. Volume two includes: problem well analysis; paraffins and asphaltenes; squeeze cementing; sand control; formation damage; surfactants; acidizing; hydraulic fracturing; scale control; corrosion control; workover systems; and workover planning. (JMT)

Allen, T.O.; Roberts, A.P.

1982-01-01

254

Radioisotope production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The types of nuclear reactions for radioisotope production using nuclear reactors and cyclotrons are described. The question of purity and quality control of the products are discussed. (M.C.K.)[pt] Descrevem-se os tipos de reacoes nucleares para producao de radioisotopos em reatores nucleares e em ciclotrons. Discutem-se a questao da pureza e o controle da qualidade dos produtos. (M.C.K.)

1987-01-01

255

Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas. PMID:22782638

Dias, L A S; Missio, R F; Dias, D C F S

2012-08-16

256

Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas.

Dias LA; Missio RF; Dias DC

2012-01-01

257

Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1) determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2) identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk) flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g) resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g). Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

Cunningham Drew S; Koepsel Richard R; Ataai Mohammad M; Domach Michael M

2009-01-01

258

A hot-recycled solid oil shale retorting process for the production of shale oil and specialty chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are studying Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting processes through a series of fundamental studies, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last two years, under an industrial CRADA with four major oil companies, we have completed a series of runs (H10-H27) using the pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The pilot plant, which features no moving parts in critical areas, has been successfully operated for over 100 hours, demonstrating ease of control and reliability of the process. Efficiency is obtained via high throughput, thorough carbon utilization, waste shale heat recovery, improved oil yield and one hundred percent utilization of mined material, including shale fines. We have demonstrated the ability to work with both lean and rich shales (22-38 gallons-per-ton), and environmentally the process has superior behavior producing non-hazardous waste shale, minimal sulfur emissions, lower NO{sub x} emissions and minimum CO{sub 2} production. Fundamental laboratory experiments support the pilot plant efforts with determination of kinetics for pyrolysis, combustion and carbonate decomposition for the process as well as determining specifications for produced raw shale oil. In addition, we have developed the Oil Shale Process (OSP) model to aid in critical thinking and scale up of the HRS process. We have put forth a commercial plant concept which combines the production of refined shale oil, meeting motor fuel specifications, with electric power and specialty chemical production.

Cena, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

259

Bottom production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

2000-03-15

260

Bottom production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

2001-08-29

 
 
 
 
261

Iron(VI) and iron(V): environmentally-friendly oxidants in water and wastewater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summarizes the results of the studies on the treatment of water and wastewater by iron(VI) and iron(V). Fe(VI) and Fe(V) have high oxidizing power, selectivity, and a non-toxic by-product, Fe(III), that makes them environmentally-friendly oxidants. Rates of oxidation increase with a decrease in pH and are related to protonation of Fe(VI) and Fe(V). Oxidation of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing pollutants by Fe(VI) can be accomplished in seconds to minutes with formation of non-hazardous products. Fe(VI) can easily oxidize the amino acid components of microcystins and is a suitable disinfectant for detoxifying toxins in water. The oxidation of pollutants and amino acids with Fe(V) is 3-5 orders of magnitude faster than with Fe(VI). The use of ionizing radiation and photocatalytic techniques in the presence of Fe(VI) results in Fe(V) formation and may have synergistic effects on the oxidation of pollutants and removal of toxins in water and wastewater. (orig.)

Sharma, V.K. [Dept. of Chemistry, Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States)

2003-07-01

262

Aluminium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

263

COMESTIBLE PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a comestible product comprising one or more zones, wherein galactose is the primary sweetener in at least one zone of the comestible product, and whereby the present of galactose stimulates a mouth-watering effect for at least part of the time that the comestible is in the mouth. A method of improving the mouth-watering effect of a comestible comprising incorporating galactose into the comestible is also described, as is a method of preparing the comestible comprising the incorporation of galactose. Also considered is the use of the comestible in the treatment of xerostomia.

TANNER KERRY LOUISE; BUSOLIN ANDRE; MENANTEAU STEPHANIE; BENOIT YANNICK; MOUSTAFA OUSMANE; LIEVEN JEAN-MICHEL; DEMEULEMEESTER PATRICE; MONTAIGNE NATHALIE; LAGACHE SYLVIE

264

COMESTIBLE PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a comestible product comprising one or more zones, wherein galactose is the primary sweetener in at least one zone of the comestible product, and whereby the presence of galactose stimulates a mouth-watering effect for at least part of the time that the comestible is in the mouth. A method of improving the mouth-watering effect of a comestible comprising incorporating galactose into the comestible is also described, as is a method of preparing the comestible comprising the incorporation of galactose. Also considered is the use of the comestible in the treatment of xerostomia.

PHILLIPS KERRY LOUISE; BUSOLIN ANDRE; MENANTEAU STEPHANIE; BENOIT YANNICK; MOUSTAFA OUSMANE; LIEVEN JEAN-MICHEL; DEMEULEMEESTER PATRICE; MONTAIGNE NATHALIE; LAGACHE SYLVIE

265

CHOCOLATE PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates chocolate products comprising a water-in-oil emulsion, characterised in that: the water-in-oil emulsion comprises an aqueous phase dispersed throughout a lipid phase in the form of droplets, said droplets being encapsulated by substantially crystalline shells and in that the aqueous phase comprises a sweetener.

DECLERCQ FABIEN; DE PAEPE JEROEN; SMITH PAUL

266

CONFECTIONERY PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Confectionery product contains a chocolate casing and marshmallow, thus the chocolate casing is executed in the form of cast case, which is filled with marshmallow, and in the center there is biscuit, thus the marshmallow and/or the biscuit is flavored.

BALABAN MERIK

267

Phalen Colliery : production and productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper briefly describes the development, operation, and organization and administration of the Phalen Colliery, Nova Scotia. The Colliery is a drift mining operation under the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The following topics are included: methods of working the seam; transportation systems; colliery development and production systems; underground services; monitoring system; surface layout; and future expectations. 3 figs.

White, G.R. (Cape Breton Development Corporation, Sydney, NS (Canada))

1990-08-01

268

Biogas production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen sulphide (H[sub 2]S) causes corrosion to metal components in biomass conversion plants. Many attempts have been to eradicate H[sub 2]S. The scrubbing method has proved to be expensive because of the need for very high pressure. The filtering method requires continuous or regular washing and changing or replacement of the filters. Adding ferrous chloride (FeCL[sub 2]) to the manure to eradicare the H[sub 2]S is found to be efficient, less labour intensive; time saving and economical. With regard to the increase in gas quantity by the addition of fish-oil-waste and benetonite (bleaching clay) to the manure, the result is every promising. The production of gas is thought to be increased by this means, which is the reason why the production of methane (CH[sub 4]) per. kg. volatile solid (VS) can be doubled. Most important, the whole transaction is economically viable. (AB).

Rockson, J.K.

1992-10-01

269

Geophysical Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geophysical Products Web site is maintained and provided by the USGS Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team, who "devise new methods for understanding the Earth and apply these methods in interdisciplinary research projects to solve pressing earth-system problems." This comprehensive accumulation of resources includes Regional and State Grid and Database Compilations, Magnetic Reports and Surveys, Gravity Reports and Surveys, Electrical Reports and Surveys, MagnetoTelluric Reports and Surveys, Multi-Discipline Reports and Surveys, Geophysical Software, Fact Sheets, Geophysical Products available on CD-ROMS, geophysical links, and more. The single page site, although seemingly limited, does offer a great deal of information that should be of use to researchers and professionals.

270

Hydrogenation products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hydrogenated fish oil is provided having an iodine value of less than 80 ad a trans fatty acid moiety content of less than 40% and either (i) a slip melting point of from 34 to 36°C and a solid contents profile of N20 26 to 32.5%, N30 8 to 12% and N35 < 5%, or (ii) a slip melting point of from 36 to 38°C and a solid contents profile of N20 49 to 56%, N30 21 to 26% and N35 < 15%. The products hve melting points and solid contents profiles which allow the fish oil to be usefully employed in a wide range of edible products in combination with an iodine value of less than 80 and low trans values which can each increase its stability in terms of for example taste keepability.

Van Dijk Cornelis; Van Duijn Gerrit; De Jongh Rudolph Otto

271

Petroleum products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is the first of three volumes devoted to petroleum products and lubricants. This volume begins with standard D 56 and contains all petroleum standards up to D 1947. It contains specifications and test methods for fuels, solvents, burner fuel oils, lubricating oils, cutting oils, lubricating greases, fluids measurement and sampling, liquified petroleum gases, light hydrocarbons, plant spray oils, sulfonates, crude petroleum, petrolatam, and wax.

1987-01-01

272

Product separator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted, nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

1976-01-01

273

Solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis and production of hydrogen and oxygen - Annual report 2006; Photolyse de l'eau et production d'hydrogene et d'oxygene au moyen de l'energie solaire - Rapport annuel 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We pursued studies of solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis cell employing semi-transparent WO{sub 3} photo anode. The stability of the photo anode in different electrolytes has been evaluated. Long term photo-electrolysis runs allowed us to identify solutions of sodium chloride as being the optimum electrolytes for water cleavage in hydrogen and oxygen, with some amount of chlorine formed as a by-product. In particular, the photo-electrolysis of a 0.5 M solution of sodium chloride, which is a composition close to sea water, results in the formation of about 20% of chlorine at the WO{sub 3} photo anode with oxygen remaining the main product. Thus, the sea water appears as an abundant, non-toxic electrolyte suitable for massive hydrogen production via photo-electrolysis. Charge and mass transport are among the main factors determining the efficiency of nanostructured semiconducting photo-electrodes. In contrast with the prevailing current opinion, our results show that it is the migrational/diffusional transport within electrolyte filling the pores of the photo-electrode and not the electron diffusion across the semiconductor matrix which controls the photocurrent-voltage behaviour. Apparently, the only restrictions to the use of relatively thick nanostructured electrodes are the penetration depth of the incident light, the rate of diffusion/migration of the electro active species within the electrode and the conductivity of the electrolyte. (authors)

Augustynski, J.; Jorand Sartoretti, C.; Bilecka, I.; Solarska, R.

2006-11-15

274

Tandem accelerator production of Tb-149 for targeted cancer therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Alpha emitters are ideally suited to targeted cancer therapy of subclinical lesions as alpha particles have a high linear energy transfer (>100 keV{mu}m) which is about 100 times that of a beta particle. As the range in tissue is several cell diameters, it is possible to limit the radiation dose to the normal tissue resulting in higher therapeutic ratio than is possible for beta particles. This offers a considerable advantage as the dose limiting tissue in radionuclide therapy are the stem cells in bone marrow. Currently, the only two actively researched alpha emitting radionuclides are {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Bi. We have produced a new class of alpha emitter, {sup 149}Tb, with a number of useful properties. The main features of {sup 149}Tb are a 17% alpha, 79% electron capture and 4% positron branching ratios, with non toxic daughters. The nuclide also has a number of gamma rays which can be used for imaging and detection during handling. We have produced {sup 149}Tb at ANU using the {sup 141}Pr({sup 12}C,4n){sup l49}Tb reaction and {sup 142}Nd({sup 12}C,5n){sup 149}Dy{yields}{sup 149}Tb with the Tandem accelerator. In addition, a number of other isotopes are generated as a by-product of the reaction which can be useful, but which also contribute to the contamination of the desired product. Peak yields for {sup 149}Tb were found at 67 MeV and 100 MeV respectively. For a current of 1 {mu}A and operating at 5 MeV above the peak yield with a 10 MeV thick target, saturated activities of 2.5 {mu}Ci for Pr and 5.5 {mu}Ci for Nd targets are predicted. This Nd target value compares with a saturated activity of 3.6 {mu}Ci extrapolated from an half hour bombardment of a 14 MeV thick target with a 102 MeV, 0.33 {mu}A beam. With an expected efficacy of 100 times that of {sup 131}I for killing isolated cancer cells, the activity achievable on this accelerator should be adequate for in vitro tests of {sup 149}Tb-labelled monoclonal antibodies against leukemia cells.

Goozee, G.; Allen, B.L.; Iman, S. [St George Hospital Cancer Care Centre, Kogarah, NSW (Australia); Sarkar, S. [Sydney Univ. NSW, (Australia); Leigh, J. [Australian National Univ. Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

1996-12-31

275

Commercial production of the oil absorbent Sea Sweep  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new absorbent has been developed for oil spills. It attracts oil and chemicals and floats on water indefinitely. It is mpm-leaching and can save land and beaches from environmental disasters and can be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner or recycled. The new absorbent is called {open_quotes}Sea Sweep{close_quotes}; extensive research has been done on it under an EPA Small Business Innovation Research grant, Phase I and Phase II. Sea Sweep has been tested for toxicity to the environment. Less than 2 mg/l total organic carbon was found in water in contact with oil saturated Sea Sweep after 30 minutes. No toxicity was measured to any of the marine or freshwater tested species at any test concentrations. Sea Sweep is made from {open_quotes}pin chips,{close_quotes} a waste wood product, using a patented thermolytic process in which the wood is heated to about 300{degrees}C. It is a coarse, free-flowing granular material absorbing from 2.6 to 6.6 g/g of oils and chemicals. While originally designed for marine oil spills, it is also very effective for oil and chemical spills on land or water. Sea Sweep has now reached the stage of limited commercialization. A small (5 tons/day) plant has been built in northern Colorado at a wood recycling plant and it has been operated since January 1993. The plant features an afterburner that destroys the blue haze resulting from pyrolysis of the sawdust so that production is environmentally acceptable. Sea Sweep is marketed in 5, 10 and 25 lb plastic bags and 500 lb drop bags. It is also sold in socks, booms pillows and bilge rats. The company will recycle non-toxic materials for the customer using methods developed under the SBIR grant. Sea Sweep has been features in a number of articles, on television, and in national and international trade shows. The international marketing of Sea Sweep is administered from the corporate offices in Denver. Domestic marketing is administered from the regional office in Chicago.

Reed, T.B.; Mobeck, W.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1993-12-31

276

Synthetic fuels: production and products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A brief primer on synthetic fuels is given. The paper includes brief descriptions of generic conversion technologies that can be used to convert various raw materials such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, peat and biomass into synthetic fuels similar in character to petroleum-derived fuels currently in commerce. Because the subject is vast and the space is limited, references for additional information on synthetic fuel processes and products are also given in the paper.

Singh SP

1985-08-01

277

Hydrogen production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered.Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possíveis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico.

César A. C. Sequeira; Diogo M. F. Santos

2010-01-01

278

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We plan to grow algae, bamboo, sugar cane and corn to make ethanol. The sugar cane will be shredded and its liquids squeezed out for ethanol. The remaining fibers will be shredded and cut to an optimal length for agricultural use. Sugar is a form of fertilizer. These fibers will be cooked in manure tea (stirred even blended to instil fertilizing potency - wider blend of nutrients) and rolled and squeezed and cooked in manure tea (stirred even blended to instil fertilizing potency - wider blend of nutrients) rolled and squeezed (depending on whether the results of such a process - high quality organic fertilizer are worthwhile). The fertilizer can even be pelletized. The tea manure as well as the powdered sugar cane can be used to grow algae. The algae could be bagged with transparent bags and solar panels underneath the bags could further make the most use of the site by both producing energy Solar panel energy a nd algae converted into ethanol. A self brewed medium for algae includes Glucose, Na2HPO4, KH2PO4, NH4Cl, NaCl,MgSO4, CaCl2... The sugar cane fibers as well as the corn shredded husks can also be used to make soil substrate (GP 0.05%) as well as biodegradable seeding and trans planting and all planting pots, biodegradable packaging, bags, imitation cardboard, pulp and paper, envelopes, books, treated with preservatives and mixed with adhesive and compressed to produce a form of gypsum fiber board, faux wood cabinetry, door, frames, posts, exterior finishing, all construction usage, including wood floors, wood ceilings, roofing, shutters, closet doors, faux wood furniture 2%, all housing, all office, all real estate, all condominium s, all sky scrappers, all apartments, all wood finishings, all shelves, (all decorations 5%), all wood decks, all gazebos, all wood structures, all sheds, all extra wood structures (eg. pool house or tree house), The powdered sugar cane fiber and powdered corn husks can be mixed with resi n As well as the 3-dimensional modeling printer, we could also build plastic/resin (perhaps mixed with particle/gypsum board) or glues/adhesives structures. We are the first to make and sell the following novel products because they are to be developed using mix with nano particles or nano fibres or biodegradable substances such as shredded and powdered corn husks) possibly sprayed or spun/woven and) create strong/durable and yet flexible (if need be) and light weight products (where the addition of nano material or the 3 - dimensional model creator can be used to make a better product - or at least a niche). New products include all sportsobjects/accessories, all construction materials and all aeroplane (flying) parts, all boating parts, all electronic parts and accessories, all furnishings, all infrastructure (eg. roads and bridges) materials, carpets, all toys, all fabrics, all frames and cages, all floating devices, all containers, all packaging materials, spray on collagen or other biodegradable structural products for tissue culture, all windows, all metal frames, all mechanical parts, all kitchen ware and utensils, all appliances, all heaters / all air conditioners, skeletal structures, all stationary, all ink - photo and laser and ink jet qualities, all business to consumer, all business to business, all infrastructure products, all hard ware--soft ware-communications products, all coverings, faux constructions and decorati ve objects, all handles, locks, all glass and glass substitutes, all vehicles parts, all consumer products, all industrial parts and machines and safety gears, all cups-spoons-forks- knives-mugs--glasses, all racks, all hangers, all storage bins, lightings - street lamps to candie s to bulbs, furnaces, lawn mower parts, vacuum cleaners, shells for engines, engine part s, indoor/outdoor furnishings and their parts, bricks and mortar - barbeques an d buildings, all wheels, all tires, all inner tubes, chains, cosmetics, toileterties, all wires, all cables, all televisions - all electronic audio/video entertainment products, all construction tools, all elastics, all tethers, a

VOON GERARD

279

MSC, a new benzoquinone-containing natural product with antimetastatic effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

An orally applicable fermentation product of wheat germ containing 0.04% substituted benzoquinone (MSC) has been invented by Hungarian chemists under the trade name of AVEMAR. Oral administration (3 g/kg body weight) of MSC enhances blastic transformation of splenic lymphocytes in mice. The same treatment shortens the survival time of skin grafts in a co-isogenic mouse skin transplantation model, pointing to the immune-reconstructive effect of MSC. A highly significant antimetastatic effect of MSC has been observed in three metastasis models (3LL-HH, B16, HCR-25). The antimetastatic effect of MSC--besides the immune-reconstitution--may also be due to its cell adhesion inhibitory, cell proliferation inhibitory, apoptosis enhancing, and antioxidant characteristics, also observed in our in vitro experiments. It is even more noteworthy that combined treatment with MSC and one of the following antineoplastic agents (5-FU and DTIC)--both in wide use in every day clinical practice--exhibited a significantly enhanced antimetastatic effect in appropriate metastasis models (established from C38 mouse colon carcinoma and B16 mouse melanoma respectively) as compared to the effect elicited by any component of these therapeutic compositions (MSC + 5-FU and MSC + DTIC) administered alone. The results show that the fermented wheat germ extract (MSC) has more than an additive effect and synergistically enhanced the metastasis inhibitory effect of both antineoplastic agents studied till now. It is also worthy of mention that the synchronous treatment with MSC profoundly decreased the toxic side effects of the applied antineoplastic agents (decreased weight loss etc). Based on the biological effects of MSC--shown to be non-toxic by subacute toxicology studies--this product may be used as an adjuvant in the therapy of malignant neoplasia and other diseases caused by or following immune-deficiency. PMID:10850313

Hidvégi, M; Rásó, E; Tömösközi-Farkas, R; Szende, B; Paku, S; Prónai, L; Bocsi, J; Lapis, K

1999-08-01

280

MSC, a new benzoquinone-containing natural product with antimetastatic effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An orally applicable fermentation product of wheat germ containing 0.04% substituted benzoquinone (MSC) has been invented by Hungarian chemists under the trade name of AVEMAR. Oral administration (3 g/kg body weight) of MSC enhances blastic transformation of splenic lymphocytes in mice. The same treatment shortens the survival time of skin grafts in a co-isogenic mouse skin transplantation model, pointing to the immune-reconstructive effect of MSC. A highly significant antimetastatic effect of MSC has been observed in three metastasis models (3LL-HH, B16, HCR-25). The antimetastatic effect of MSC--besides the immune-reconstitution--may also be due to its cell adhesion inhibitory, cell proliferation inhibitory, apoptosis enhancing, and antioxidant characteristics, also observed in our in vitro experiments. It is even more noteworthy that combined treatment with MSC and one of the following antineoplastic agents (5-FU and DTIC)--both in wide use in every day clinical practice--exhibited a significantly enhanced antimetastatic effect in appropriate metastasis models (established from C38 mouse colon carcinoma and B16 mouse melanoma respectively) as compared to the effect elicited by any component of these therapeutic compositions (MSC + 5-FU and MSC + DTIC) administered alone. The results show that the fermented wheat germ extract (MSC) has more than an additive effect and synergistically enhanced the metastasis inhibitory effect of both antineoplastic agents studied till now. It is also worthy of mention that the synchronous treatment with MSC profoundly decreased the toxic side effects of the applied antineoplastic agents (decreased weight loss etc). Based on the biological effects of MSC--shown to be non-toxic by subacute toxicology studies--this product may be used as an adjuvant in the therapy of malignant neoplasia and other diseases caused by or following immune-deficiency.

Hidvégi M; Rásó E; Tömösközi-Farkas R; Szende B; Paku S; Prónai L; Bocsi J; Lapis K

1999-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

A review of current knowledge on toxic benthic freshwater cyanobacteria - Ecology, toxin production and risk management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benthic cyanobacteria are found globally in plethora of environments. Although they have received less attention than their planktonic freshwater counterparts, it is now well established that they produce toxins and reports of their involvement in animal poisonings have increased markedly during the last decade. Most of the known cyanotoxins have been identified from benthic cyanobacteria including: the hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsins, the neurotoxic saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a and dermatotoxins, such as lyngbyatoxin. In most countries, observations of toxic benthic cyanobacteria are fragmented, descriptive and in response to animal toxicosis events. Only a limited number of long-term studies have aimed to understand why benthic proliferations occur, and/or how toxin production is regulated. These studies have shown that benthic cyanobacterial blooms are commonly a mixture of toxic and non-toxic genotypes and that toxin concentrations can be highly variable spatially and temporally. Physiochemical parameters responsible for benthic proliferation vary among habitat type with physical disturbance (e.g., flow regimes, wave action) and nutrients commonly identified as important. As climatic conditions change and anthropogenic pressures on waterways increase, it seems likely that the prevalence of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria will increase. In this article we review current knowledge on benthic cyanobacteria: ecology, toxin-producing species, variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation, their impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and current monitoring and management strategies. We suggest research needs that will assist in filling knowledge gaps and ultimately allow more robust monitoring and management protocols to be developed. PMID:23891539

Catherine, Quiblier; Susanna, Wood; Isidora, Echenique-Subiabre; Mark, Heath; Aurélie, Villeneuve; Jean-François, Humbert

2013-07-04

282

Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. RESULTS: All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5?days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22?days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5?days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4?>?O1?>?O6?>?O5?>?O2?>?O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. CONCLUSIONS: Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5?days of treatment and decreased after 22?days.

Sumalan RM; Alexa E; Poiana MA

2013-01-01

283

Production Of  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of experiments at the CERN OMEGA Spectrometer (WA85,WA94, WA97) have studied the production of strange particles (kaons,, XiGamma,OmegaGammaand their antiparticles) in both nucleus--nucleus and proton--nucleus reactions. Strange (anti-)baryon enhancements at central rapidityhave been reported by WA85 and WA94 in S--W and S--S withrespect to p--A reactions. Recently WA97 has presented a study of XiandOmegaproduced in Pb--Pb and in p--Pb collisions at 160 A GeV/c. Thefirst results suggest a significant enhancementofOmegaover Xi productionwhen going from p--Pb to Pb--Pb. This contribution aims to summarizethe results obtained up to now and to present the latest results fromthe analysis of the Pb--Pb data.1 IntroductionThe study of the strange particle production in high-energy nucleus-nucleuscollisions provides important information on the behaviour of hot and densehadronic matter. The enhanced relative yield of strange and, particularly,multi-s...

E. Andersen; A. Andrighetto; F. Antinori; N. Armenise; D. Barberis; H. Beker; W. Beusch; J. Bohm; E. Cantatore; N. Carrer; M. G. Catanesi; E. Chesi; M. Dameri; G. Darbo; J. P. Davies; A. Diaczek; D. Di Bari; S. Di Liberto; A. Di Mauro

284

Antiangiogenic Effect of Rutin and its Regulatory Effect on the Production of VEGF, IL-1? and TNF-? in Tumor Associated Macrophages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antiangiogenic activity of rutin was studied using in vivo as well as in vitro models. In vivo angiogenic activity was studied using B16F-10 melanoma cell-induced capillary formation in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of rutin significantly inhibited (43.35%) the number of tumor directed capillaries induced by injecting B16F-10 melanoma cells on the ventral side of C57BL/6 mice. Rutin at non-toxic concentrations (5-25 ?g mL-1) inhibited the vessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay. Moreover, rutin was able to inhibit the proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of human endothelial cells, the key steps of angiogenesis. Present studies using Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs) revealed that rutin could suppress the expression and production of VEGF and IL-1? and stimulate the production of TNF-?. Hence, the observed antiangiogenic activity of rutin is related to the regulation of these cytokines and growth factors by TAMs.

C. Guruvayoorappan; Girija Kuttan

2007-01-01

285

Effects of addition glycerol co-product of biodiesel in the thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as secondary coolant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates the effects of glycerol concentration on thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as a secondary coolant in refrigeration systems by expansion-indirect. The processing of triglycerides for biodiesel production generates glycerol as co-product and there are concerns of environmental and economic order on the surplus of glycerol. The addition of glycerol in water alters the colligative and thermophysical properties (melting point, mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity). There are studies that prove the feasibility of using glycerol as an additive and this paper has the goal to verify the changes on properties compared with pure water. This comparison was made from data obtained by the software simulation and they analyzed using graphs and tables. It was shown that glycerol increases the density and dynamic viscosity, and reduces the specific heat and thermal conductivity. This behavior of water-glycerol solution is proportional to the mass concentration of glycerol and it is justified because the glycerol has low values of specific heat, thermal conductivity and high viscosity when compared with water. Despite the losses in the thermophysical properties, glycerol shows its potential application, because of the cryoscopic effect and it is a non-toxic substance at low cost. (author)

Medeiros, Pedro Samuel Gomes; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga; Fontes, Francisco de Assis Oliveira [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Energy Laboratory. Thermal Systems Studies Group], e-mail: cleiton@ufrnet.br

2010-07-01

286

Redeployment-based drug screening identifies the anti-helminthic niclosamide as anti-myeloma therapy that also reduces free light chain production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite recent therapeutic advancements, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and new therapies are needed, especially for the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients. We have screened a panel of 100 off-patent licensed oral drugs for anti-myeloma activity and identified niclosamide, an anti-helminthic. Niclosamide, at clinically achievable non-toxic concentrations, killed MM cell lines and primary MM cells as efficiently as or better than standard chemotherapy and existing anti-myeloma drugs individually or in combinations, with little impact on normal donor cells. Cell death was associated with markers of both apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, niclosamide rapidly reduced free light chain (FLC) production by MM cell lines and primary MM. FLCs are a major cause of renal impairment in MM patients and light chain amyloid and FLC reduction is associated with reversal of tissue damage. Our data indicate that niclosamides anti-MM activity was mediated through the mitochondria with rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and production of mitochondrial superoxide. Niclosamide also modulated the nuclear factor-?B and STAT3 pathways in MM cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that MM cells can be selectively targeted using niclosamide while also reducing FLC secretion. Importantly, niclosamide is widely used at these concentrations with minimal toxicity.

Khanim FL; Merrick BA; Giles HV; Jankute M; Jackson JB; Giles LJ; Birtwistle J; Bunce CM; Drayson MT

2011-10-01

287

Redeployment-based drug screening identifies the anti-helminthic niclosamide as anti-myeloma therapy that also reduces free light chain production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite recent therapeutic advancements, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and new therapies are needed, especially for the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients. We have screened a panel of 100 off-patent licensed oral drugs for anti-myeloma activity and identified niclosamide, an anti-helminthic. Niclosamide, at clinically achievable non-toxic concentrations, killed MM cell lines and primary MM cells as efficiently as or better than standard chemotherapy and existing anti-myeloma drugs individually or in combinations, with little impact on normal donor cells. Cell death was associated with markers of both apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, niclosamide rapidly reduced free light chain (FLC) production by MM cell lines and primary MM. FLCs are a major cause of renal impairment in MM patients and light chain amyloid and FLC reduction is associated with reversal of tissue damage. Our data indicate that niclosamides anti-MM activity was mediated through the mitochondria with rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and production of mitochondrial superoxide. Niclosamide also modulated the nuclear factor-?B and STAT3 pathways in MM cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that MM cells can be selectively targeted using niclosamide while also reducing FLC secretion. Importantly, niclosamide is widely used at these concentrations with minimal toxicity. PMID:22829072

Khanim, F L; Merrick, B A M E; Giles, H V; Jankute, M; Jackson, J B; Giles, L J; Birtwistle, J; Bunce, C M; Drayson, M T

2011-10-21

288

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Identifying Recalled Products Search the Consumer ...

289

NULLJOB product  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ever increasing demand for more CPU cycles for data analysis on our Central VAX Cluster led us to investigate new ways to utilize more fully the resources that were available. A review of the experiment and software development VAX systems on site revealed many unused computing cycles. Furthermore, these systems were all connected by DECnet which would allow easy file transfer and remote batch job submission. A product was developed to allow jobs to be submitted on the Central VAX Cluster but actually to be run on one of the remote systems. The processing of the jobs was arranged, to the greatest extent possible, to be transparent to the user and to have minimal impact on both the Central VAX Cluster and remote systems.

Hughart, N.; Ritchie, D.

1987-05-01

290

CONFECTIONERY PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hard candy which includes at least one acidic component and which shows improved transparency is made by forming a liquid starting material comprising at least one sugar alcohol which is not a monosaccharide sugar alcohol, water, and the acidic component; heating under conditions at which the acidic component does not cause significant hydrolysis of the sugar alcohol to dissolve the acidic component in the liquid and remove at least part of the water; and cooling to form the hard candy. The product has a transmission of: at least 47.8% at 450 mnm; and/or at least 50.9% at 550 nm; and/or at least 52.3% at 650 nm.

SOLDANI CRISTIANA

291

Synthetic musk-based composition, its production and applications  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The composition based on nitrated synthetic musk, contains about 0.5 to 50% by weight with respect to the total composition, of a modifying agent, the complement to 100% being constituted by the nitrated synthetic musk. The modifying agent is a solid non-filmformer, at least partially soluble in lower alcohols and being in addition odorless and non-toxic or non-irritant in contact with human tissue. It is specially useful in the perfumery, washing materials and detergent industries.

DURR LOUIS; LEGRAND FRANCIS

292

Formation of non-toxic A? fibrils by small heat shock protein under heat-stress conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Small heat shock protein (sHsp) is a molecular chaperone with a conserved alpha-crystallin domain that can prevent protein aggregation. It has been shown that sHsps exist as oligomers (12-40 mer) and their dissociation into small dimers or oligomers is functionally important. Since several sHsps are upregulated and co-localized with amyloid-? (A?) in senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), sHsps are thought to be involved in AD. Previous studies have also shown that sHsp can prevent A? aggregation in vitro. However, it remains unclear how the quaternary structure of sHsp influences A? aggregation. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of the quaternary structure of sHsp on A? aggregation using sHsp from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHsp16.0) showing a clear temperature-dependent structural transition between an oligomer (30 °C) and dimer (50 °C) state. A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of SpHsp16.0. In contrast, amyloid fibrils were formed in the presence of dimeric SpHsp16.0. Interestingly, these amyloid fibrils consisted of both A? and SpHsp16.0 and showed a low ThT intensity and low cytotoxicity due to their low binding affinity to the cell surface. These results suggest the formation of novel fibrillar A? amyloid with different characteristics from that of the authentic A? amyloid fibrils formed in the absence of sHsp. Our results also suggest the potential protective role of sHsp in AD under stress conditions.

Sakono M; Utsumi A; Zako T; Abe T; Yohda M; Maeda M

2013-01-01

293

A?(1-42) aggregates into non-toxic amyloid assemblies in the presence of the natural polyphenol oleuropein aglycon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amyloid aggregation starts with the initial misfolding of peptide/protein precursors, with subsequent structural rearrangement into oligomers and protofibrils; the latter eventually organize into fibrils with shared basic structural features, found deposited in amyloid diseases. Mounting evidence indicates early oligomers as the most toxic amyloid species; accordingly, the search of inhibitors of their growth is considered a promising target to prevent amyloid toxicity. We recently showed that oleuropein aglycon, a polyphenol abundant in the extra virgin olive oil, interferes with the aggregation of amylin (involved in type-2 diabetes), eliminating its cytotoxicity. Here we report that oleuropein aglycon also hinders amyloid aggregation of A?(1-42) and its cytotoxicity, suggesting a general effect of such polyphenol. In particular, by using a wide panel of different spectroscopic, immunologic, cell viability and imaging techniques we provide a more detailed description of A?(1-42) structural modifications arising in the presence of the inhibitor and the resulting cytotoxicity. We here report that the polyphenol eliminates the appearance of early toxic oligomers favouring the formation of stable harmless protofibrils, structurally different from the typical A?(1-42) fibrils. We also show that oleuropein aglycon is maximally effective when is present at the beginning of the aggregation process; furthermore, when added to preformed fibrils, it does not induce the release of toxic oligomers but, rather, neutralizes any residual toxicity possibly arising from the residual presence of traces of soluble oligomers and other toxic aggregates. The possible use of this polyphenol as anti-aggregation molecule is discussed in the light of these data.

Rigacci S; Guidotti V; Bucciantini M; Nichino D; Relini A; Berti A; Stefani M

2011-12-01

294

A?(1-42) aggregates into non-toxic amyloid assemblies in the presence of the natural polyphenol oleuropein aglycon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyloid aggregation starts with the initial misfolding of peptide/protein precursors, with subsequent structural rearrangement into oligomers and protofibrils; the latter eventually organize into fibrils with shared basic structural features, found deposited in amyloid diseases. Mounting evidence indicates early oligomers as the most toxic amyloid species; accordingly, the search of inhibitors of their growth is considered a promising target to prevent amyloid toxicity. We recently showed that oleuropein aglycon, a polyphenol abundant in the extra virgin olive oil, interferes with the aggregation of amylin (involved in type-2 diabetes), eliminating its cytotoxicity. Here we report that oleuropein aglycon also hinders amyloid aggregation of A?(1-42) and its cytotoxicity, suggesting a general effect of such polyphenol. In particular, by using a wide panel of different spectroscopic, immunologic, cell viability and imaging techniques we provide a more detailed description of A?(1-42) structural modifications arising in the presence of the inhibitor and the resulting cytotoxicity. We here report that the polyphenol eliminates the appearance of early toxic oligomers favouring the formation of stable harmless protofibrils, structurally different from the typical A?(1-42) fibrils. We also show that oleuropein aglycon is maximally effective when is present at the beginning of the aggregation process; furthermore, when added to preformed fibrils, it does not induce the release of toxic oligomers but, rather, neutralizes any residual toxicity possibly arising from the residual presence of traces of soluble oligomers and other toxic aggregates. The possible use of this polyphenol as anti-aggregation molecule is discussed in the light of these data. PMID:21592051

Rigacci, Stefania; Guidotti, Valentina; Bucciantini, Monica; Nichino, Daniela; Relini, Annalisa; Berti, Andrea; Stefani, Massimo

2011-12-01

295

Biological Product Deviation Reporting - Blood Product Codes  

Science.gov (United States)

... Biological Product Deviation Reporting - Blood Product Codes. DB01 - Whole Blood DB05 - Cryoprecipitated AHF DB06 ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/reportaproblem

296

Candy product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A container (12) that simulates the cone portion of an ice cream cone is filled with a particulate candy (60). The base (28) of a top member (14) is connected to the upper end of the container (12). A hard candy member (16) is formed on a tubular member (32) that extends upwardly from the base (28) of the top member (30). The hard candy member (16) is shaped to simulate the ice cream portion of an ice cream cone. The tubular member (32) is initially closed at its top by a top portion (54) of the hard candy member (16). The hard candy member (16) is licked, sucked and/or chewed upon. When the upper end portion (54) of the hard candy member (16) is consumed, the upper end (56) of the tubular member (32) becomes open. This allows the candy product (10) to be manipulated for the purpose of moving particulate candy (60) out from the container (12), through the tubular member (32) into a person's mouth.

Chan Pak Nin

297

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1994-10-01

298

Investigation of Paenibacillus alvei ARN63 ability for biodemulsifier production: medium optimization to break heavy crude oil emulsion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The demulsifying performance of Paenibacillus alvei ARN63 (P. alvei), as a biodemulsifier-producing bacterium, for breaking water-in-heavy crude oil emulsion has been investigated. The produced lipopeptide biodemulsifier showed the potential to be used in the petroleum industry as an environmentally friendly and non-toxic material. To optimize the biodemulsifier production, the impacts of parameters such as temperature, pH, carbon source and carbon concentration at a constant agitation speed of 180 rpm and with ammonium sulfate as the sole nitrogen source (1.0 g/l) were studied in detail. Several normal paraffin compounds, vegetable oils and motor oil revealed the ability to be used as the carbon source for synthesis of biodemulsifier. The best biodemulsifier production was obtained employing motor oil as the carbon source with a concentration of 42.5 g/l at 37°C and pH 7.0 after 72 h of incubation. Under these conditions, the surface tension of the medium reduced from 58 mN/m to 24.7 mN/m and the biodemulsifier yield reached a value of 2.1 g/l. The demulsification ratio approached 77% and the produced biodemulsifier by P. alvei strain effectively broke water-in-heavy crude oil emulsion. According to biodemulsifier production and growth time course profiles, the biosynthesis was growth associated. Besides, the produced biodemulsifier had good stability during exposure to salinities up to 20%, temperatures up to 80°C and a wide pH range of 2-12. PMID:23660310

Amirabadi, S Sh; Jahanmiri, A; Rahimpour, M R; Nia, B Rafie; Darvishi, P; Niazi, A

2013-04-12

299

The Impact of Nosema apis Z. Infestation of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Colonies after Using Different Treatment Methods and their Effects on the Population Levels of Workers and Honey Production on Consecutive Years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the natural occurance of Nosema apis in honey bee colonies and evaluated of N. apis presence in colonies after medical treatment with fumagillin and thymol in consecutive 3 years period. For this purpose, 208 honey bee colonies randomly selected for detection of N. apis infection from Aegean ecotype of Apis mellifera anatolica, 1 years old queen in April, 2002. The colony development performances and honey yields were evaluated through the years from 2002 to 2004. Infested colonies were classified in 3 groups as tried to be equalized in Nosema infestation level; Fumidil-B, thymol application and control (only sugar syrup feeding). The effects of using period of Fumidil-B, contains fumagillin and thymol on N. apis infected honeybee colonies were researched by determining winter losses, adult bees population, brood and honey production in consecutive years. Also, control group were impacted for same parameters. The adult bee worker population and brood surfaces of treated in both groups (Fumidil-B and thymol) were increased significantly (pNosemiasis prevent agent; cheap, practical and non-toxic in hives for organic honey production. Moreover, with using thymol, residue-free bee products could be handled economically.

Banu Y?cel; Muhsin Do aro lu

2005-01-01

300

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ? - Resources for You Sign up for ...

 
 
 
 
301

Production line for cyclically processing agricultural products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a production line for cyclically processing agricultural products, which comprises a soybean oil production device, a corn oil production device, a garlic oil production device and a biological granular feed production device, wherein the garlic oil production device directly uses garlic waste residue after extracting garlic oil to process garlic powder, and the biological granular feed production device utilizes soybean residue, corn residue and garlic residue which are produced by the soybean oil production device, the corn oil production device and the garlic oil production device during the production of soybean oil, corn oil and the garlic oil respectively as raw materials to produce granular feed. As the production line in the invention can fully utilize waste materials to make biological granular feed while producing the soybean oil, the corn oil and the garlic oil, and can utilize straw and garlic skin residue produced during the production of the garlic oil to produce straw coal, the production line can fully utilize various raw materials, thereby reducing cost and consumption and increasing benefit.

JINGLIN NIE; SHUQING XIAO

302

Laccase production optimization by response surface methodology with Aspergillus fumigatus AF1 in unique inexpensive medium and decolorization of different dyes with the crude enzyme or fungal pellets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, alkaline pretreatment was applied for the enhanced laccase production from rice straw. Various process parameters including sodium hydroxide concentration, pH and fermentation temperature were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Through regression analysis, it was found that laccase activity was well fitted by a quadratic polynomial equation (R(2)=0.998, Adj R(2)=0.995), and the fermentation temperature was the most significant factor influencing laccase activity. The optimized process conditions found were NaOH concentration of 0.39molL(-1), pH 3.12 and temperature 25.43°C, under which laccase activity reached 142,198±3586UL(-1). Further studies were carried out to probe different dyes decolorization ability of laccase produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, A. fumigatus pellets and whole fermentation broth (WFB) using sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw as sole carbon source. Results showed that pure laccase demonstrate limited decolorization ability to all the studied dyes, while crude laccase, A. fumigatus pellets and WFB exhibit significant decolorization ability to all the studied dyes with WFB being the most excellent one. Effectiveness of degradation was confirmed by uv-vis and phytotoxicity studies, which indicated that A. fumigatus transformed the dyes into non-toxic metabolites.

Jin X; Ning Y

2013-09-01

303

Inhibition of interleukin-17-stimulated interleukin-6 and -8 production by cranberry components in human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts participate in periodontal inflammation and destruction, producing interleukin (IL)-6, a regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, and the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8. IL-17, a product of T-helper 17 cells, may play a role in periodontitis by stimulating cytokine production by gingival cells. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is rich in polyphenols, particularly proanthocyanidins, which have antioxidant and other beneficial properties. Cranberry components inhibit pro-inflammatory activities of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophages, gingival fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, but little is known of its effects on IL-17-stimulated cytokine production. The objectives were to determine the effects of IL-17 ± cranberry components on IL-6 and IL-8 production by human gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, was derived from cranberry juice. Human gingival epithelial cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts were incubated with NDM (5-50 ?g/mL), IL-17 (0.5-100 ng/mL), or NDM + IL-17 in serum-free medium for 6 d. IL-6 and IL-8 in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Membrane damage and viability were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase activity released into cell supernatants and activity of a mitochondrial enzyme, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. RESULTS: In both cell lines, IL-17 (? ~5-10 ng/mL) significantly stimulated production of IL-6 (p < 0.005) and IL-8 (p < 0.03). Non-toxic levels of NDM inhibited constitutive IL-6 and IL-8 production by epithelial cells (p ? 0.01) and fibroblasts (p ? 0.03) as well as IL-17-stimulated cytokine production by epithelial cells [IL-6 (maximum ~80% inhibition; p ? 0.0001); IL-8 (maximum ~70% inhibition; p ? 0.03)] and fibroblasts [IL-6 (maximum ~90% inhibition; p ? 0.0001); IL-8 (maximum ~80% inhibition; p ? 0.008)]. CONCLUSION: Cranberry NDM inhibition of constitutive and IL-17-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells suggests that cranberry components could be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat periodontitis. PMID:23441749

Tipton, D A; Cho, S; Zacharia, N; Dabbous, M K

2013-02-27

304

Inhibition of interleukin-17-stimulated interleukin-6 and -8 production by cranberry components in human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts participate in periodontal inflammation and destruction, producing interleukin (IL)-6, a regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, and the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8. IL-17, a product of T-helper 17 cells, may play a role in periodontitis by stimulating cytokine production by gingival cells. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is rich in polyphenols, particularly proanthocyanidins, which have antioxidant and other beneficial properties. Cranberry components inhibit pro-inflammatory activities of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophages, gingival fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, but little is known of its effects on IL-17-stimulated cytokine production. The objectives were to determine the effects of IL-17 ± cranberry components on IL-6 and IL-8 production by human gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, was derived from cranberry juice. Human gingival epithelial cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts were incubated with NDM (5-50 ?g/mL), IL-17 (0.5-100 ng/mL), or NDM + IL-17 in serum-free medium for 6 d. IL-6 and IL-8 in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Membrane damage and viability were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase activity released into cell supernatants and activity of a mitochondrial enzyme, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. RESULTS: In both cell lines, IL-17 (? ~5-10 ng/mL) significantly stimulated production of IL-6 (p < 0.005) and IL-8 (p < 0.03). Non-toxic levels of NDM inhibited constitutive IL-6 and IL-8 production by epithelial cells (p ? 0.01) and fibroblasts (p ? 0.03) as well as IL-17-stimulated cytokine production by epithelial cells [IL-6 (maximum ~80% inhibition; p ? 0.0001); IL-8 (maximum ~70% inhibition; p ? 0.03)] and fibroblasts [IL-6 (maximum ~90% inhibition; p ? 0.0001); IL-8 (maximum ~80% inhibition; p ? 0.008)]. CONCLUSION: Cranberry NDM inhibition of constitutive and IL-17-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells suggests that cranberry components could be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat periodontitis.

Tipton DA; Cho S; Zacharia N; Dabbous MK

2013-02-01

305

DISPENSING CONSUMER PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A system for dispensing consumer products includes a product bin unit a product ejector a product trigger and a controller. The product bin unit includes a product bin an ejector aperture and a trigger aperture. The product ejector is coupled to the product bin unit through the ejector aperture and adapted to drive the product package from t he product bin upon receipt of a dispensing signal. The product trigger is coupled to the produc t bin unit through the trigger aperture. The controller is in communication with the product ejecto r and the product trigger and includes at least one memory and a processor. The memory stores a dispensing module. The processor is adapted to execute the dispensing module, and the dispensing module is operable when executed to receive a dispensing instruction and transmit t he dispensing signal to the product ejector based, at least in part, on the dispensing instructio n.

TEMPLER JOHN WESLEY; ALLSUP MARK

306

PUFFED SEMI-PRODUCT FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry and catering, in particular, to manufacture of semi-products for confectionary products. The semi-product includes sugar sand, egg albumen and a filler. The semi-product peculiarity is as follows: the filler is represented by milled puffed grain products. The components are used at the following weight ratio %: sugar sand - 55.0-65.0, egg albumen - 27.0-33.0, milled puffed grain products - 4.0-12.0. Additionally one uses a flavouring agent represented by vanilla powder. ^ EFFECT: invention is aimed to extend the range of semi-products based on the puffed semi-product with reduced fat content (and, consequently, with lower caloricity) as well as to reduce prime cost and to increase storage life. ^ 2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

TOSHEV ABDUVALI DZHABAROVICH; POLJAKOVA NATAL JA VIKTOROVNA; SALOMATOV ALEKSEJ SERGEEVICH

307

Biological production of products from waste gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22

308

Illegal Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Illegal Pesticide Products Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea ... reviewed for clear directions and safety warnings. Common Illegal Pest Products mothballs | pet products | insecticidal chalk | " Tres ...

309

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... by E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed FDA 101: Product Recalls (video) Search the Consumer Updates Section ... FDA manages product recalls. - For More Information FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First Alert to Effectiveness Checks ...

310

FAT CONTAINING PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fat based product in particular food products are taught. The products contain oil in water and water in oil emulsions and in addition contain isoflavones and preferably petroselinic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

RAWLINGS Anthony V.; CHEN Mandy K.; PATRICK Matthew

311

Consumer Product Safety Commission  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pause 1 2 3 4 Report an Unsafe Product Are you aware of a potentially hazardous product? ... You are about to leave the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) public website. The link you ...

312

Antibacterials in Household Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics Antibacterials in household products What exactly is an antibacterial? How is ... the families who used antibacterial products. Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan- ...

313

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Most Popular Searches Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ? - Resources ...

314

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Most Popular Searches Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Identifying ...

315

Peat production. [Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chapter is a survey of peat production in Finland containing: Development and extent of peat industry in Finland, manpower worked in peat production,Peat product standards, establishment of peat site, peat production techniques, storage and transportation of peat products. The activities of two most important producers in Finland, state Fuel Centre and Turveruukki Oy, are described. The chapter contains also information of peat production machines manufactured in Finland in 1981.

Suominen, A. (Association of Finnish Peat Industrier, Helsinki)

1982-01-01

316

Product Quality Research  

Science.gov (United States)

... Section Contents Menu. Science & Research (Drugs). Additional Research Areas. Product Quality Research. -. Product Quality Research. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/scienceresearch/researchareas

317

NATURAL PRODUCTS AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The products currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, non-toxic to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly products and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO), which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the production of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econômico, histórico e sustentável. A escassez de espécies resistentes à degradação biológica obrigou o homem a utilizar outras menos duráveis, principalmente de rápido crescimento, provenientes de reflorestamentos, como algumas espécies de Eucalyptus e de Pinus. Estas espécies possuem moderada ou nenhuma resistência ao ataque dos organismos xilófagos e necessitam de tratamentos preservantes. Os produtos preservantes utilizados atualmente possuem elevado grau de toxicidade, sendo potenciais riscos ambientais e para a saúde humana.  Assim, há uma crescente necessidade de desenvolver produtos químicos eficazes, não tóxicos para os seres humanos e para o meio ambiente. O direcionamento das pesquisas tem objetivado desenvolver produtos ambientalmente corretos e com viabilidade econômica, e uma alternativa é o uso do Crude Tall Oil (CTO), que é um resíduo no processamento de polpa de coníferas resinosas, para produção do papel Kraft. O tall oil, como agente de proteção, tem sido considerado promissor por reduzir significativamente a absorção de água capilar do alburno, removendo, assim um dos fatores que favorecem a madeira ser atacada por fungos e insetos: água, oxigênio e nutrientes. Pesquisas mostram que o tall oil pode ser utilizado puro, seja crude ou destilado, ou em combinação com biocidas.

Kelly Bossardi; Ricardo Marques Barreiros

2011-01-01

318

Polyenylpyrrole Derivatives Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Inflammatory Mediator Expression by Reducing Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two polyenylpyrroles from a soil ascomycete Gymnoascus reessii were previously identified as hit compounds in screening for cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. These compounds and various analogs, which have been previously synthesized and tested for anti-lung cancer cell activity, were tested for anti-inflammatory activity. After preliminary screening for cytotoxicity for RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, the non-toxic compounds were tested for anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1h, 1i, and 1n reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, with respective ED50 values of 15 ± 2, 16 ± 2, and 17 ± 2 µM. They also reduced expression of inducible NO synthase and interleukin-6 (IL-6) without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Compound 1h also reduced secretion of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? by LPS-activated J774A.1 murine macrophage cells, primary mice peritoneal macrophages, and JAWSII murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin-1? (IL-1?) secretion by LPS + adenosine triphosphate-activated J774A.1 and JAWSII cells. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity of compound 1h were found to be a decrease in LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and NF-?B activation and a decrease in ATP-induced ROS production and PKC-? phosphorylation. These results provide promising insights into the anti-inflammatory activity of these conjugated polyenes and a molecular rationale for future therapeutic intervention in inflammation-related diseases. They also show how compound 1h regulates inflammation and suggest it may be a new source for the development of anti-inflammatory agents to ameliorate inflammation- and NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases. PMID:24116148

Hua, Kuo-Feng; Chou, Ju-Ching; Lam, Yulin; Tasi, Yu-Ling; Chen, Ann; Ka, Shuk-Man; Fang, Zhanxiong; Liu, May-Lan; Yang, Feng-Ling; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chich; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

2013-10-07

319

Product Development in Production–Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of new approaches in rapid product development in production networks from design points of view. The manufacturing industries are changing their focus to global sourcing as a means to improve performance and enhance competitiveness. Some partnerships created with this strategy improve product development through collaborative design. With the advent of e-Commerce, a new set of collaborative applications integrated to the firms’ IT infrastructure allow a direct interaction between the firm and its suppliers, having an impact of negotiations. The globalization of the market necessitates the reduction of time-to-market, mainly due to shorter product life cycle. The computing and communication have become indispensable in every aspect of product development and design. The paper describes the network that directly links designer capabilities and with customers and manufacturing division. The networks focuses the three major forces that will affect the design community, namely, speed of decision, expansion of scope and degree of concurrency. Due to evolution of production networks, it has become possible to obtain the mass production within a key short time, using emerging technology that affect the speed and efficiency of product development using a pool of efficient designers and product managers.

Sujit Kumar Jha,

2012-01-01

320

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l{sup -1}. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent [Laboratoire d' etude de Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, UMR 5564 (CNRS/INPG/IRD/UJF), Universite de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2010-09-15

 
 
 
 
321

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l-1. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

2010-09-15

322

Real-time, digital pulse-shape discrimination in non-hazardous fast liquid scintillation detectors: Prospects for safety and security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) in fast, organic scintillation detectors is a long-established technique used to separate neutrons and ? rays in mixed radiation fields. In the analogue domain the method can achieve separation in real time, but all knowledge of the pulses themselves is lost thereby preventing the possibility of any post- or repeated analysis. Also, it is typically reliant on electronic systems that are largely obsolete and which require significant experience to set up. In the digital domain, PSD is often more flexible but significant post-processing has usually been necessary to obtain neutron/?-ray separation. Moreover, the scintillation media on which the technique relies usually have a low flash point and are thus deemed hazardous. This complicates the ease with which they are used in industrial applications. In this paper, results obtained with a new portable digital pulse-shape discrimination instrument are described. This instrument provides real-time, digital neutron/? separation whilst preserving the synchronization with the time-of-arrival for each event, and realizing throughputs of 3 x 106 events per second. Furthermore, this system has been tested with a scintillation medium that is non-flammable and not hazardous. (authors)

2011-01-01

323

Standard Specification for ESD Controlled Garments Required in Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments for Spacecraft for Non-Hazardous and Hazardous Operations  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

324

CONTAINER FOR FOOD PRODUCTS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A container for food products comprises, inside a sealed containment body (1), a first meat-based food product (2) and a second food product (3) constituted by broth aspic deriving from the fist meat-based food product (2) and by a component such as vegetable broth.

SERGIO TEDESCHI

325

Container for food products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A container for food products comprises, inside a sealed containment body (1), a first meat-based food product (2) and a second food product (3) constituted by broth aspic deriving from the fist meat-based food product (2) and by a component such as vegetable broth.

TEDESCHI SERGIO

326

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj

2003-01-01

327

Replacing an Existing Product's Production Within a Similar Product Production by Using a Replacement Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Existing processes for specific products cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The product’s price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during product production. In our case, the production of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the production of dimethyl ether (DME). This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, and can be achieved by using replacement technique. We want to keep and transfer as many of the existing units from the previous production to the new production. Dimethyl ether is an organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3.  It is a colourless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds, and an aerosol propellant. DME can act as a clean fuel when burned in engines properly optimized for DME. The direct production of DME would be cheaper than indirect when applied for new buildings. The same applies for retrofits, or the replacing of existing methanol - specific production – a similar DME product plant would be more rational for the direct production of DME, because of greater efficiency, productivity of DME production, profit, and for 20 % more electricity generation.Key words: Dimetyl ether; Replacement; Methanol process; Indirect method; Direct method; Retrofit

Anita Kova? Kralj; Dejan Bencik

2011-01-01

328

CHOPPED MEAT SEMI-PRODUCTS PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is related to meat industry and catering, it may be used in production of semi-products. One chops meat raw material, prepares mince of chopped meat, wheat bread preliminarily steeped, salt, ground black pepper, water, additionally one introduces puffed grits and boiled carrot and forms a semi-product. One mills puffed grits into 0.3-0.5 mm particles, hydrates them at a ratio of puffed grits to water 1:3 accordingly during 15-20 minutes at a temperature of 25-30C and introduces them in an amount of 25-90% of wheat bread weight. Boiled carrot is introduced in an amount of 3-6% of meat raw material weight. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures enhancement of food and biological value of the ready product and extension of the range of chopped meat semi-products. ^ 3 cl, 4 tbl

TOSHEV ABDUVALI DZHABAROVICH; POLJAKOVA NATAL JA VIKTOROVNA; PONOMAREVA TAT JANA ANATOL EVNA

329

Making Product Customization Profitable  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-production, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a product family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study it is shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%.

Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

2010-01-01

330

Product inventory management system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A product inventory management system is provided that includes a receiving management section ( 11 ) for carrying out receiving management of a product, an inventory section ( 12 ) for stocking the product, a shipping management section ( 13 ) for carrying out shipping management of the product, and allocation determination means ( 14 ) for determining a product delivery destination, wherein the allocation determination means ( 14 ) determines, based on the product inventory quantity in the inventory section ( 12 ), a production-to-order plan where the delivery destination has already been determined, a production-without-orders plan where the delivery destination has not yet been determined, a designated delivery date for the product, whether the product received by the receiving management section ( 11 ) is moved to the inventory section ( 12 )or to the shipping management section ( 13 ), and whether or not the product stored in the inventory section ( 12 ) is moved to the shipping management section ( 13 ). This can minimize the cost required for movement of the product or for putting it into and out of the inventory section while preventing the period for which the product is stored in the inventory section from exceeding a shipping-allowed period.

AJIKI TEIJI; ARAKI DAIJI; SHIMA KOUJI

331

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

332

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

333

Profile for Product X  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... Drugs • FDA will communicate NTI drug policy via individual product bioequivalence guidances ... Final product manufacturer were agreed upon ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

334

Incorrect Product Claim Ad  

Science.gov (United States)

... Incorrect Product Claim Ad. A product claim ad names a drug, says what condition it treats, and talks about both its benefits and its risks. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

335

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

336

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

337

Increasing productivity: Another approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

Norton, F.J.

1996-06-10

338

Baryon production at PEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Measurements of inclusive ? + anti ? production for 1.0 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 10.0 GeV/c and p + anti p production for 0.4 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 2.0 GeV/c show significant baryon production in e+e- annihilation at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV. ? + anti ? production represents 0.2 ?'s or anti ?'s per PEP event while the observed p + anti p production implies all baryon-antibaryon pair production is occurring at least as often as 0.6 per event, depending on the yet to be measured p + anti p production at high momentum. Comparisons are made with the first theoretical attempts to account for baryon production at these energies

1981-09-11

339

Nuclear Materials Production: Primer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document provides a general introduction to DOE's Office of Nuclear Materials Production, which is responsible for managing the production and recovery of nuclear materials for national defense

1987-01-01

340

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer ... Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation- ...

 
 
 
 
341

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer ... Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation- ...

342

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Science.gov (United States)

... E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed FDA 101: Product Recalls (video) Search the Consumer Updates Section Read the Consumer Update When an FDA-regulated product is defective or potentially harmful, removing it from ...

343

Problems Digesting Dairy Products?  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumer Health Information www.fda.gov/consumer Problems Digesting Dairy Products? D oes your stomach churn after ... deficiency, it’s a discomfort.” People who have trouble digesting lactose can learn which dairy products and other ...

344

Product Life Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

In this media-rich lesson featuring LOOP SCOOPS videos, students think about where materials in everyday products come from, and learn that knowing about product life cycles can help us make decisions that reduce waste and pollution.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

345

Other Fluoride Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Other Fluoride Products On this Page Fluoride toothpaste Fluoride mouth ... August 17, 2001;50(RR-14):1–42. Fluoride Products Fluoride Toothpaste Form Concentrations of fluoride in ...

346

MRSA and Food Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Veterans Affairs (VA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MRSA and Food Products Be food safe Studies over ... years have found antibiotic-resistant organisms, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in a variety of food products including ...

347

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Recall Information for Consumers Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalled Product Photos on Flickr - - Related Consumer Updates FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First Alert to Effectiveness Checks Start at the Store: 7 ...

348

Electrification and energy productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy productivity is crucial for sustainable development. We use cointegration analyses to investigate the effect of electricity on energy productivity in Swedish industry from 1930 to 1990. Electricity augmented energy productivity in those industrial branches that used electricity for multiple purposes. This productivity effect goes beyond 'book-keeping effects,' i. e. it is not only the result of electricity being produced in one sector (taking the energy transformation losses) and consumed in another (receiving the benefits). (author)

Enflo, Kerstin; Schoen, Lennart [Department of Economic History, Lund University (Sweden); Kander, Astrid [Department of Economic History, Lund University (Sweden); CIRCLE, Lund University, Box 117, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2009-09-15

349

Research on peat production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development target of the research on peat production is to improve the competitiveness of peat by reducing the production costs by 20 % (5-6 FIM/MWh) from the level of 1992, and to reduce the environmental load. The most important research targets in peat production are ditching and preparation techniques, drying technology, machine technology, methodology, integration of wood harvesting and peat production, and application of the results of the OPTIMITURVE Research Programme into practice

Leinonen, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

1996-12-31

350

Silica aerogel production costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We performed a cost study for a silica aerogel production plant. It was found that the production costs are dominated by the cost of the base materials, and not by the energy (supercritical extraction) requirements. Alternative production methods using cheaper input materials (process development for TMOS, TEOS ) are needed.

Lewis, D.L.; Carlson, G.A.

1993-01-01

351

Silica aerogel production costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We performed a cost study for a silica aerogel production plant. It was found that the production costs are dominated by the cost of the base materials, and not by the energy (supercritical extraction) requirements. Alternative production methods using cheaper input materials (process development for TMOS, TEOS?) are needed.

Lewis, D.L.; Carlson, G.A.

1993-01-01

352

Implementing Product Line Variabilities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Software product lines have numerous members. Thus, a product line infrastructure must cover various systems. This is the significant difference to usual software systems and the reason for additional requirements on the various assets present during software product line engineering. It is imperati...

Anastasopoulos, M.; Gacek, C.

353

Production of entomopathogenic nematodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Production technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be th...

354

Students and Educational Productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The literature on productivity in education is extensive. The object of this effort is to find a production function--a mathematical expression of the relationship between inputs and outputs in education. In this paper, the status of the literature on production functions is reviewed. Most of these ...

Benjamin Levin

355

Ceramide production accelerant  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a pharmaceutical or cosmetic product for promoting the production of ceramide in cells, in particular to a ceramide production accelerant using plants or extractives thereof, such as angelica, rehmanniae, atractylodes, licorice, rhubarb, rhizome bletillae, radix-polygoni multiflori and balloon flower roots, as active components.

WANZHANG QIN; CHUNXIN YANG; FANQI KONG; HIROSHI NOJIRI; SHOTARO ITO

356

Coal production 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29

357

Coloured ophthalmic product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is directed to an ophthalmic product comprising, as a coloring agent, the extract of an alga. A preferred class of alga the extract of which is useful in the present invention is blue alga (Spirulina type), more preferred it is Japanese blue alga (Spirulina platensis). The ophthalmic product is preferably a contact lens care product.

SCHERER ANTON; SCHWIND PETER

358

COLOURED OPHTHALMIC PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is directed to an ophthalmic product comprising, as a colouring agent, the extract of an alga. A preferred class of alga the extract of which is useful in the present invention is blue alga (Spirulina type), more preferred it is Japanese blue alga (Spirulina platensis). The ophthalmic product is preferably a contact lens care product.

SCHERER Anton; SCHWIND Peter

359

Citric acid production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citric acid is a commodity chemical produced and consumed throughout The World. It is used mainly in the food and beverage industry, primarily as an acidulant. Although it is one of the oldest industrial fermentations, its World production is still in rapid increasing. Global production of citric acid in 2007 was over 1.6 million tones. Biochemistry of citric acid fermentation, various microbial strains, as well as various substrates, technological processes and product recovery are presented. World production and economics aspects of this strategically product of bulk biotechnology are discussed. PMID:17875481

Berovic, Marin; Legisa, Matic

2007-01-01

360

Citric acid production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citric acid is a commodity chemical produced and consumed throughout The World. It is used mainly in the food and beverage industry, primarily as an acidulant. Although it is one of the oldest industrial fermentations, its World production is still in rapid increasing. Global production of citric acid in 2007 was over 1.6 million tones. Biochemistry of citric acid fermentation, various microbial strains, as well as various substrates, technological processes and product recovery are presented. World production and economics aspects of this strategically product of bulk biotechnology are discussed.

Berovic M; Legisa M

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

AROMATIC HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION PROCESS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This aromatic hydrocarbon production process comprises bringing a raw material oil which contains a hydrogenated oil product of a thermally cracked heavy oil produced in an ethylene production apparatus into contact with a monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon production catalyst which contains a crystalline aluminosilicate to produce an aromatic hydrocarbon. The raw material oil to be used has a distillation end point temperature of 400 DEG C or lower. The contact between the raw material oil and the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon production catalyst is carried out under a pressure of 0.1 to 1.5 MPaG.

YANAGAWA SHINICHIRO; IDA RYOJI; KOBAYASHI MASAHIDE

362

Chilling of meat products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Meat products are chilled to the extent that water present therein is frozen in order to facilitate slicing, subsequent processing, packaging or other handling of the meat products. The chilling is carried out in sequential steps. The first chilling step contacts the product with a brine of sodium chloride at a temperature below the freezing point of water. The resulting prechilled food product is subjected to a second chilling step with a calcium chloride brine which is at a lower temperature than the sodium chloride brine and which further reduces the core temperature of the food product to well below the freezing point of water.

BRACKEBUSCH SCOTT A; MACBRIDE MAURINE A

363

California production climbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil production in California increased by nearly 4 million bbl in 1980. Preliminary estimates released show that oil production in 1980 totaled approximately 345 million bbl, a 1% increase from the 341.4 million bbl produced in 1979. The production level represented a 10-yr high for California. In 1970, the state's wells put out 347 million bbl, or 2 million bbl more than 1980. The all-time high came in 1968 when California produced 373 million bbl, or 28 million bbl more than 1980. Most of the production increases occurred in Kern County, where production from 8 oil fields increased by more than 12 million bbl.

Rintoul, B.

1981-03-01

364

Walnut leaf cleaning products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are walnut cleaning products, wherein each 1000g of the product comprises extract of walnut leaf 0.001-1, 000g, folium isatidis 0.001-550g, tea 0.001-450g and balancing base material. The product provided by the invention not only has skin cleaning and moistening action, but also has certain suppressing and eradicating action for various bacteria and viruses, specifically, it has good eradication effect for viruses and bacteria of epidemic infestation diseases. The product can be appended into washing articles, cosmetics, moisture tissues, dry and wet paper towel, toothpaste and other daily use articles. The product has the effects of sterilization, disinfection and skin lotion but no stimulation to skin, no adverse effects, it can effectively prevent human body injury by various bacteria and viruses. The beneficial effects of the invention include easiness in use, low cost of production, easy production, good market prospect, and easy application.

WANG HAOGUI

365

Productivity in mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article covers the various aspects of past and future trends and facts in mining productivity. Productivity can be defined in different ways, this article limits itself to the basic definition: the amount of tons produced per man-hour. The article concentrates on productivity in the United States mining industry. Productivity is seen to depend upon mining method, the yearly production etc. The article includes a study on the manpower requirement and the productivity in a hypothetical mine, also indicating some alternatives for further increases in productivity, such as larger trucks and trolley assist, and some factors to take into account of the cost of different types of energy. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Nilsson, D.

1987-10-01

366

Gleditschia horrida cleaning products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are gleditschia horrida cleaning products, wherein each 1000g of the product comprises extract of gleditschia horrida 0.001-1, 000g, myrrh 0.001-550g, holly leaf 0.001-450g and balancing base material. The product provided by the invention not only has skin cleaning and moistening action, but also has certain suppressing and eradicating action for various bacteria and viruses, specifically, it has good eradication effect for viruses and bacteria of epidemic infestation diseases. The product can be appended into washing articles, cosmetics, moisture tissues, dry and wet paper towel, toothpaste and other daily use articles. The product has the effects of sterilization, disinfection and skin lotion but no stimulation to skin, no adverse effects, it can effectively prevent human body injury by various bacteria and viruses. The beneficial effects of the invention include easiness in use, low cost of production, easy production, good market prospect, and easy application.

WANG HAOGUI

367

Low income product innovation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

Paulo Tromboni de Souza Nascimento; Abraham Sin Oih Yu; Maria Cecília Sobral

2008-01-01

368

METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF NONSMOKING SHAG PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: nonsmoking products. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the production method of non-smoking nicotine-containing products of water naswar type. The method stipulates preparation of the compound components, extraction of the peppermint with fluid carbon dioxide with separation of the corresponding miscella. Cutting and drying of the shag tobacco and the licorice root in the microwave field with the constrained parameters of the process. Their mixing, saturation with the separated miscella with simultaneous pressure increase. Release of the pressure up to the atmospheric level with simultaneous freezing of the mixture, sublimation and removal of the carbon dioxide with simultaneous bulbing of the mixture. Then the mixture is enriched by honey, sugar syrup, calcium and/or magnesium citrate and water for further mixture and target product formation. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures extraction of a non-smoking nicotine-containing product from shag tobacco that is characterized by the improved organoleptic features and prolonged storage life, reducing at the same time losses of flavouring substances and nicotine of the raw material. ^ 1 dwg

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

369

METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF NONSMOKING SHAG PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: nonsmoking products. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the production method of non-smoking nicotine-containing products of water naswar type. The method includes preparation of recipe components in accordance with traditional technology. The peppermint is extracted with fluid carbon dioxide with separation of the corresponding miscella. Then cutting and drying of the shag tobacco and the licorice root in the microwave field with the constrained parameters of the process, their mixing, saturation with the separated miscella with simultaneous pressure increase. The pressure is released up to the atmospheric level with simultaneous freezing of the mixture. Subliming is performed and the carbon dioxide is removed with simultaneous bulbing of the mixture. Grape juice, sugar juice, calcium and/or magnesium citrate, and water are added to the mixture, and the target product mixture is formed. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures extraction of a non-smoking nicotine-containing product from shag tobacco that is characterized by the improved organoleptic features and prolonged storage life, reducing at the same time losses of flavouring substances and nicotine of the raw material. ^ 1 dwg

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

370

METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF NONSMOKING SHAG PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: nonsmoking products. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the production method of non-smoking nicotine-containing products of water naswar type. The method includes preparation of recipe components in accordance with traditional technology. The fennel is extracted with fluid carbon dioxide with separation of the corresponding miscella. Then cutting and drying of the shag tobacco and the licorice root in the microwave field with the constrained parameters of the process, their mixing, saturation with the separated miscella with simultaneous pressure increase. The pressure is released up to the atmospheric level with simultaneous freezing of the mixture. Subliming is performed and the carbon dioxide is removed with simultaneous bulbing of the mixture. Pear juice, sugar juice, calcium and/or magnesium citrate, and water are added to the mixture, and the target product mixture is formed. ^ EFFECT: invention ensures extraction of a non-smoking nicotine-containing product from shag tobacco that is characterized by the improved organoleptic features and prolonged storage life, reducing at the same time losses of flavouring substances and nicotine of the raw material. ^ 1 dwg

KVASENKOV OLEG IVANOVICH

371

PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGENATED PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for making a hydrogenated product includes providing a clarified DAS-containing fermentation broth distilling the broth under super atmospheric pressure at a temperature of >100 DEG C. to about 300 DEG C. to form an overhead that includes water and ammonia, and a liquid bottoms that includes SA, and at least about 20 wt % water cooling the bottoms to a temperature sufficient to cause the bottoms to separate into a liquid portion in contact with a solid portion that is substantially pure SA separating the solid portion from the liquid portion recovering the solid portion hydrogenating the solid portion in the presence of at least one hydrogenation catalyst to produce the hydrogenated product including at least one of THF, GBL or BDO and recovering the hydrogenated product.

FRUCHEY OLAN S; MANZER LEO E; DUNUWILA DILUM; KEEN BRIAN TERRY; ALBIN BROOKE ASHLEY; CLINTON NYE A; DOMBEK BERNARD DUANE

372

PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGENATED PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for making a hydrogenated product includes providing a clarified DAS-containing fermentation broth, distilling the broth to form an overhead that includes water and ammonia, and a liquid bottoms that includes MAS, at least some DAS, and at least about 20 wt % water, cooling and/or evaporating the bottoms, and optionally adding an antisolvent to the bottoms, to attain a temperature and composition sufficient to cause the bottoms to separate into a DAS-containing liquid portion and a MAS-containing solid portion that is substantially free of DAS, separating the solid portion from the liquid portion, recovering the solid portion, hydrogenating the second solid portion in the presence of at least one hydrogenation catalyst to produce the hydrogenated product comprising at least one of THF, GBL or BDO, and recovering the hydrogenated product.

FRUCHEY OLAN S; MANZER LEO E; DUNUWILA DILUM; KEEN BRIAN T; ALBIN BROOKE A; CLINTON NYE A; DOMBEK BERNARD D

373

PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGENATED PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for making a hydrogenated product includes providing a clarified DAS-containing fermentation broth, distilling the broth to form an overhead that includes water and ammonia, and a liquid bottoms that includes MAS, at least some DAS, and at least about 20 wt% water, cooling and/or evaporating the bottoms, and optionally adding an antisolvent to the bottoms, to attain a temperature and composition sufficient to cause the bottoms to separate into a DAS-containing liquid portion and a MAS-containing solid portion that is substantially free of DAS, separating the solid portion from the liquid portion, recovering the solid portion, hydrogenating the second solid portion in the presence of at least one hydrogenation catalyst to produce the hydrogenated product comprising at least one of THF, GBL or BDO, and recovering the hydrogenated product.

FRUCHEY OLAN S; MANZER LEO E; DUNUWILA DILUM; KEEN BRIAN T; ALBIN BROOKE A; CLINTON NYE A; DOMBEK BERNARD D

374

PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGENATED PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for making a hydrogenated product includes providing a clarified DAS-containing fermentation broth distilling the broth under super atmospheric pressure at a temperature of > 100 DEG C to about 300 DEG C to form an overhead that includes water and ammonia, and a liquid bottoms that includes SA, and at least about 20 wt% water cooling the bottoms to a temperature sufficient to cause the bottoms to separate into a liquid portion in contact with a solid portion that is substantially pure SA separating the solid portion from the liquid portion recovering the solid portion hydrogenating the solid portion in the presence of at least one hydrogenation catalyst to produce the hydrogenated product including at least one of THF, GBL or BDO and recovering the hydrogenated product.

FRUCHEY OLAN S; MANZER LEO E; DUNUWILA DILUM; KEEN BRIAN T; ALBIN BROOKE A; CLINTON NYE A; DOMBEK BERNARD D

375

Specification of Products and Product Lines  

CERN Multimedia

The study of variability in software development has become increasingly important in recent years. A common mechanism to represent the variability in a product line is by means of feature models. However, the relationship between these models and UML design models is not straightforward. UML statecharts are extended introducing variability in their main components, so that the behavior of product lines can be specified. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a rule-based approach that defines a transformation strategy from extended statecharts to concrete UML statecharts. This is accomplished via the use of feature models, in order to describe the common and variant components, in such a way that, starting from different feature configurations and applying the rule-based method, concrete state machines corresponding to different products of a line can be obtained.

Gonzalez, Ariel; 10.4204/EPTCS.15.4

2010-01-01

376

THERAPEUTIC GRADE THROMBIN PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides an improved process for the large-scale production of therapeutic grade thrombin of excellent viral safety and storage-stability, comprising purification of viricide treated crude thrombin by ion-exchange chromatography on a single column using a sulfalkyl-activated polysaccharide, particularly sulfopropyl-Spherodex, as the ion exchange medium and increasing concentrations of phosphate buffer for elution. After recovery of thrombin in the final eluate, the phosphate buffer is exchanged for a stabilizing formulation buffer, and the stabilized thrombin is subjected to viral filtration and optional dry heat treatment for further viral inactivation. The final product has high specific activity and is obtained in good yield.

PROBA Zbigniew; BRODNIEWICZ Teresa; DUPUIS Nicolas; BUI-KHAC Trung

377

Radiation chemical technology for production of polymeric hydrogels for medical purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Polymeric hydrogels are water-swelling cross-linked hydrophilic polymers with ability to store reversibly great amount of water (more than 1000 g of water per 1 g of dry polymer). At present they found a lot of different applications in highly developed countries in science and industry. The set of unique physicochemical and biomedical properties (regulated sorption ability in respect to water and biological liquids, biocompatibility, soft tissue state, permeability in respect to small and big molecules, non-toxicity, etc.) allows their application in medicine. According to the clinical data there are no materials that can compete with hydrogels in development of endo-prostheses of soft-tissues in surgery, contact lenses for eyesight correction, hemo-compatible materials, novel for treatment of wounds and burns, targeted drug delivery systems. Polymeric hydrogels today practically substitute the traditional hydrophobic bases (Vaseline, lanolin) in technology of drug forms for development of ointments and dressings, containing natural and synthetic physiologically active substances. The advantages of hydrogels in comparison with hydrophobic analogues are obvious due to the drainage effect, homogenous distribution of drugs, better contact with wound, painless removing by water washing. The polymeric hydrogels are not produced in Kazakhstan in spite of the big source of raw materials. The aim of the present work is the development of radiation-chemical technology and development of polymeric biomedical hydrogels production based on raw materials of Kazakhstan. The novel types of polymeric hydrogel materials are developed by the authors of the report based on vinyl ethers of glycols, which produced in 'Alash Ltd.' (Temirtau). The great fundamental information content has been obtained about these monomers and polymers including direct quantitative data of their structure formation mechanism and physicochemical properties. These data served as a basis for design of novel polymeric hydrogels of different type including so-called 'intelligent' materials, which are able to respond on small changes of environmental parameters (temperature, pH, electric field). According the biomedical tests the availability and competitive ability of these biomaterials is due to their unique stability to bio-destruction in aggressive infection media unlike of known hydrogels based on polyacrylamide, hydroxyalkyl acrylates, etc. This is connected with the absence of hydrolyzable bonds (ester, amide, etc.) in the structure of vinyl ethers. As the result of many years collaboration with a number of leading medical centers of Kazakhstan and Russia the possibility of wide and effective application of these hydrogel materials in different areas of medicine has bee found (contact hydrogel for ultrasonic diagnostics; hydrogel basis for medicinal and cosmetic ointments; hydrogel implant material).

2003-01-01

378

Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the production and characterization of biodiesel (BD or B) as well as the experimental work carried out by many researchers in this field. BD fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel (PD) fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. BD fuel can be used in any mixture with PD fuel as it has very similar characteristics but it has lower exhaust emissions. BD fuel has better properties than that of PD fuel such as renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. There are more than 350 oil bearing crops identified, among which only sunflower, safflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed and peanut oils are considered as potential alternative fuels for diesel engines. The major problem associated with the use of pure vegetable oils as fuels, for Diesel engines are caused by high fuel viscosity in compression ignition. Dilution, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis and transesterification are the four techniques applied to solve the problems encountered with the high fuel viscosity. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, some engine performance problems still exist. The viscosity values of vegetable oils vary between 27.2 and 53.6mm{sup 2}/s whereas those of vegetable oil methyl esters between 3.59 and 4.63mm{sup 2}/s. The viscosity values of vegetable oil methyl esters highly decreases after transesterification process. Compared to no. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oil methyl esters were slightly viscous. The flash point values of vegetable oil methyl esters are highly lower than those of vegetable oils. An increase in density from 860 to 885kg/m{sup 3} for vegetable oil methyl esters or biodiesels increases the viscosity from 3.59 to 4.63mm{sup 2}/s and the increases are highly regular. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. The transesterfication of triglycerides by methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol, has proved to be the most promising process. Methanol is the commonly used alcohol in this process, due in part to its low cost. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. (author)

Demirbas, Ayhan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Campus, 42031 Konya (Turkey)

2005-07-01

379

Coal Production 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29

380

Milk Production in Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few years Croatian economy is restructuring through the processes of market liberalization and closing to EU, which is demanding some significant changes. Agriculture is in the process of reforms on the basis of CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) policies of the EU, and those changes are producing different effects in each agricultural sector. The most sensitive area is livestock production, especially cattle and milking cows (production of meat and milk). This sector has insufficient production. More precise, domestic production in Croatia can satisfy around 80% of one-year consumption. This study shows economic position of production and processing of milk with the emphasis on primary milk production, processing of milk, domestic market and export-import situation. The goal is to consider the situation, position and possibilities for development of this sector.

Petar Bosni?; Dubravko Mikuli?; Teo Vuj?i?; Božica Markovi?; Višnja Knjaz

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Energy efficiency in products and production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy efficiency is not simply about making energy savings, it is also about maintaining the quality of living conditions, service quality and volumes of production in industrial plants. Using energy effectively wherever and whenever possible in our everyday lives will most likely make a great positive contribution to our household budget, to the national economy and to the protection of the environment. Fossil fuels, like petroleum and coal, the most important energy sources, are being depleted. What is worse, greenhouse gas emissions, which cause global warming and climate change, are rising. So there is an urgent need to raise energy efficiency and prevent energy wastage. Economic development will be based on sustainable usage of natural resources. Therefore, a combined commitment to protecting the environment and preserving and ecological balance at every stage of production activities is the central guarantee natural resource sustainability. This paper provides information on various studies of how to achieve high energy efficiency with respect both to products and their production.

Tugrul, Kodaz [Arcelik (Turkey)], email: tugrul.kodaz@arcelik.com

2011-07-01

382

CONFECTIONERY PRODUCT AND METHODS OF PRODUCTION THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a confectionery product including an extruded body portion and a plurality of capillaries disposed in the extruded body portion, in which the body portion includes a mixture of confectionery compositions, particularly, a hard candy composition and a chewing gum composition. The invention also relates to a process of manufacturing the same.

CLARKE PETER; MARSHALL SARAH; NORTON CLIVE RICHARD THOMAS; SAKANISHI HIDEKI; SUTARIA DEVANG

383

Diboson production (CDF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

WW and WZ production in p{bar p} collisions at 1.96 TeV are studied in samples of {approx}3 fb{sup -1} of data using leptons, jets and missing E{sub T}. Fully leptonic decays as well as semi-leptonic decays are measured. Diboson production is expected in the standard model, and predicted cross sections are confirmed. It is important to investigate various signatures as associated production of Higgs bosons is topologically similar.

Cavaliere, Viviana; /Siena U. /INFN, Siena

2009-01-01

384

Quarkonium Production at LHCb  

CERN Multimedia

I will review a selection of LHCb results on the production of heavy quarkonium states in pp collisions, including the recent results on J/psi and Y(nS) (n=1,2,3) production at sqrt(s)=8TeV, as well as preliminary results on J/psi production in proton-lead collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=5TeV.

Altarelli, Monica Pepe

2013-01-01

385

Coal production in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first coal mine in Thailand was opened in 1955, and coal production has increased steadily since then. The coal, from brown coal to anthracite, is used mainly for electricity generation. Thailand is thought to have at least 1660 million tonnes of coal reserves, mainly of low rank coal. Production is currently underway in 7 coal basins. Figures for production and consumption of coal from 1955 are presented.

Supurtipanish, S.

1986-01-01

386

Subthreshold pion production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This process is relatively well-understood, and one of the aims of subthresold production experiments is to identify other collective effects. Some possible signatures of collective effects are: Production below the 'absolute' threshold; production in excess predictions of nucleon-nucleon models; and a change in the characteristic behavior of the pion spectra as the threshold is crossed. This paper discusses these collective effects especially the last one. (LSP)

Miller, J.

1987-11-01

387

Uranium production in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reviews uranium production in Romania. Geological aspects of the country are discussed, and known uranium deposits are noted. Uranium mining and milling activities are also covered. Utilization of Romania's uranium production industry will primarily be to supply the country's nuclear power program, and with the present adequate supplies and the operation of their recently revamped fuel production facility, Romania should be self-reliant in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle

1994-01-01

388

Nanotechnology in cosmetic products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanotechnology is a subject of extensive global interest. The ability to control matter at the nanoscale level presents a revolutionary opportunity to benefit society in numerous disciplines. Nanotechnology is currently found in cosmetic products, particularly sunscreen products containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Published information in scientific journals suggests that nano-sized ingredients used in cosmetic products pose no more risk to human health than larger sized counterparts. The issue remains under investigation.

Epstein HA

2011-03-01

389

Product Codes For Importing CBER-Regulated Products ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... Product Codes For Importing CBER-Regulated Products Questions and Answers. Product Codes For Importing CBER-Regulated Products. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/complianceactivities

390

Levothyroxine Sodium Product Information  

Science.gov (United States)

... Levothyroxine Sodium Product Information. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued letters to all new drug ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

391

Information, production and utility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic systems interact with their environment through material and energy use in production and consumption processes and release of waste products. In this paper, we extend the physical perspective to economic processes and treat production and consumption in analogous ways. This analogous treatment is achieved by focusing on information used to describe the change of state of materials, the complexity of the transformation process, and the connection between economic processes and environmental change. The physical model of production presented here provides a quantitative framework for exploring the role of technological change in an economic system that is treated explicitly as part of the ecosystem. (author)

Ruth, Matthias (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies); Bullard, C.W. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

1993-10-01

392

Students and Educational Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The literature on productivity in education is extensive. The object of this effort is to find a production function--a mathematical expression of the relationship between inputs and outputs in education. In this paper, the status of the literature on production functions is reviewed. Most of these approaches have seen schooling as something that is done to students, rather than thinking about education as something that students essentially do for themselves. An argument is developed that makes students the key factors in shaping school outcomes, and therefore a central focus of our thinking about productivity. The paper concludes with suggestions for research and policy.

Benjamin Levin

1993-01-01

393

MARSHMALLOW PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry namely to confectionary industry and marshmallow production method. Method includes preparation of mixture of apple puree, pectin, sand sugar, natrium lactate, egg albumen and its substitute with following beating of obtained mixture, forming and maturing. Swollen biomodified barley product is used as egg albumen substitute and put in quantity 5-10% of whole quantity of egg albumen which is added to the mixture. ^ EFFECT: invention allows to improve end product quality, expand raw materials base, lower costs and increase product's food value. ^ 3 tbl, 2 ex

RUMJANTSEVA VALENTINA VLADIMIROVNA; KOVACH NADEZHDA MIKHAJLOVNA

394

Pediatric Product Development  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pediatric Product Development. Many ... Historical References. Historical References for Pediatric Drug Development. -. -. -. Page ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources

395

Production of shale oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a 2-stage continuous process for the production of shale oil, oil shales are first partially dehydrated in a vessel at up to 550 F and are then retorted in a vessel at a higher temperature (800 to 1000 F) for a mixed yield of hydrocarbons and other products. In both stages heat is applied indirectly through the walls of the vessels so as to reduce the amount of contamination of the products. The capacity of the first vessel is lower than that of the second. The preliminary dehydration reduces the amounts of pitchy products and hence stickiness is liable to be encountered during retorting. 7 claims.

Morrell, J.C.

1981-06-03

396

Ethanol production with bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new process for the production of the important industrial chemical ethanol has been developed. Instead of being produced biologically with the help of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, the bacterium zymomonas mobilis is used. This makes it possible to produce ethanol more quickly and more effectively, and in a simpler production as against the static culture of yeasts, thus enabling productivity to be increased. Furthermore, sugar can be replaced as fermentation agent by glucose syrup gained with enzymes from starch waste, which lowers the production costs. Gene technology should bring improvements in this field in the future.

Bringer, S.; Sahm, H.

1985-01-01

397

COATED CONFECTIONERY PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In one aspect, the invention relates to a process for the preparation of a starch-coated confectionery product. The process comprises providing a centre, wetting the centre, coating the wetted centre with a starch-based powder, and expanding the starch-based powder to produce the starch-coated confectionery product. Other aspects of the invention relate to a confectionery product comprising a centre (such as peanut) and an expanded starch coating producible by the process of the first aspect and a confectionery product comprising a heat-sensitive centre (such as chocolate) enclosed successively within a protective coating and an expanded starch coating.

LAGACHE SYLVIE; DEMEULEMEESTER PATRICE; MONTAIGNE NATHALIE

398

Vaccine Product Approval Process  

Science.gov (United States)

... Section Contents Menu. Development & Approval Process (Biologics). Biologics ... Vaccine Product Approval Process. FDA's ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/biologicslicenseapplicationsblaprocess

399

Ozone safety assurance during operation of 10 MeV RF electron linac by developing an air flow sensor and using ozone level monitor and interlock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A lot of ozone gas is produced due to breaking of air particles present in between the beam exit window of Linac and products to be irradiated. Though the ozone gas is non-poisonous, non-hazardous and non-toxic, being much heavier than oxygen, it creates a depletion of oxygen near the scan horn area of LINAC. The allowable level of ozone is 100 ppb for the human occupancy. There is a 2.6 meter thick mild steel mobile shield for entering the operating personnel after irradiation near the scan horn area of LINAC. Two 20 HP ozone removal pumps are in operation to remove the ozone produced due to Linac operation, via 12 earth pits made in the irradiation area of LINAC. The human safety is ensured by continuously monitoring the ozone level (analog signal), the ozone removal speed by measuring air flow signals (analog signal) at different pits, the ON/OFF status (DI) of two pumps and interlocking the mobile shield opening with the 100 ppb level of ozone level. A potential free contact is generated against the 100 ppb level in the ozone monitor. An Air flow sensor with two analog inputs and two alarm outputs have been developed to ensure the ozone removal at various pits. A light transmitter-receiver is mounted at the two ends of the rotating fan, which rotates due to air flow. The count of light pulses is calibrated with the air flow speed. This paper discusses the details of the measures taken to ensure human safety against ozone produced during operation of LINAC. (author)

2011-01-01

400

Cytotoxicity evaluation and antioxidant enzyme expression related to heavy metals found in tuna by-products meal: An in vitro study in human and rat liver cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals can accumulate in organisms via various pathways, including respiration, adsorption and ingestion. They are known to generate free radicals and induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress with depletion of anti-oxidants. Tuna by-product meal (TBM) is rich in proteins and can, therefore, offer an attractive protein source for animals. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of metals present in TBM, namely cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), separately or in combination with oxidative stress, on cell viability. Three cell models: rat liver FTO2B, human hepatoma HepG2, and human hepatic WRL-68, were used. Cell viability was determined following exposure to various concentrations of the metals. Two antioxidant genes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were measured to obtain a better understanding of oxidative stress-associated gene expression. Among the metals present in TBM, only Cd at a concentration of 30?M was noted to exhibit cytotoxic effects. This cytotoxicity was even more pronounced after co-stimulation with H2O2, used to mimic systemic oxidative stress. At non-toxic concentrations, Hg and Pb were noted to aggravate oxidative stress toxicity. The results further revealed that exposure to Cd, Pb, and a co-stimulation of H2O2 with Hg resulted in the increased expression of antioxidant gene SOD. A risk assessment of toxic contaminants in TBM indicated that food safety objectives should consider the human health impacts of foods derived from animals fed on contaminated meal and that much care should be taken when TBM is used in animal diet. PMID:23578882

Saïdi, Saber Abdelkader; Azaza, Mohamed Salah; Windmolders, Petra; van Pelt, Jos; El-Feki, Abdelfattah

2013-04-08

 
 
 
 
401

The Use of Exoskeletons of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vanammei) and Crab (Ucides cordatus) for the Extraction of Chitosan and Production of Nanomembrane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chitin is widely distributed in nature, being the main structural component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. These exoskeletons once discarded become an industrial waste creating environmental pollutant. In order to find an alternative use, the present work exploits the extraction of the chitosan from chitin that is present in the exoskeletons of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei and crabs Ucides cordatus and transforms it into high valued products, which can help solving the environmental problem as well to provide extra income to the fishermen. One example is the manufacture of nanomembranes from chitosan for the application in medical textiles. Nanomembranes using electrospinning of chitosan solutions (7% and 5wt%) with 100:0 v/v (TFA/DCM) and 70:30 v/v (TFA/DCM) were produced. Morphological properties of chitin and chitosan were studied using SEM, DRX, and thermal properties through TG/DTG and molecular structure by FTIR analysis. TG/DTG showed thermal decomposition of chitosan samples. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the semi-crystalline structure of chitosan, and highly crystalline structure for chitin. Morphologies of the nanomembranes were also observed from scanning electron micrographs. Results showed that the nanomembranes with 5% chitosan solutions with 70:30 v/v (TFA/DCM) showed facilitation in the formation of the nanomembranes. The nanomembranes of shrimp and crab with 5% 70:30 v/v (TFA/DCM) had higher breaking tension and breaking extension. With positive results obtained, the present work will help the authorities to organize the fishermen to have consciousness in the collection of exoskeleton waste as well as helping to have a better environment.

Sânia M. B. de Andrade; Rasiah Ladchumananandasivam; Brismak G. da Rocha; Débora D. Belarmino; Alcione O. Galvão

2012-01-01

402

Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles < 0.002 mm) in 1:1:1:1 ratios and saresh (plant gum of Acacia sp.) as binder entrapping half of the recommended dose of urea. A basal application of organic matrix entrapped urea showed increase in plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights, root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate.

Kumar M; Bauddh K; Kumar S; Sainger M; Sainger PA; Singh RP

2013-01-01

403

Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of