WorldWideScience
1

Hazardous jarosite use in developing non-hazardous product for engineering application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jarosite released from zinc metal extraction process is hazardous in nature and its world wide disposal has become a major environmental concern. In this study, an attempt has been made to immobilise and recycle the jarosite released from Hindustan Zinc Limited, India, using CCRs, so called fly ash, and clay soil. Results revealed that the particle size of jarosite was finer than that of CCRs and had higher porosity and water holding capacity due to fine textured materials resulting in high surface area (10,496.18 +/- 30.90 cm(2)/g). Jarosite contain higher concentration of toxic elements (lead, zinc, sulphur, cadmium, chromium and copper) than that of CCRs. Concentrations of radionuclides such as (226)Ra, (40)K and (228)Ac in jarosite found less than in CCRs are similar to that of soil. Statistically designed experiments on solidified/stabilised (s/s) sintered jarosite--CCRs products confirmed that the compressive strength of jarosite bricks reached as high as 140 kg/cm2 with 14.5% water absorption capacity at the combination of 3:1 ratio of jarosite and clay, respectively, but, concentrations of all the toxic elements recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)--Toxicity Leachate Characteristics Procedure (TCLP) standard are not within the permissible limits. However, it is confirmed that the toxic elements leaching potentials of s/s-sintered products developed using 2:1 jarosite clay ratio with 15% CCRs comply with the USEPA-TCLP limits and also meet the quality for engineering applications. PMID:16766121

Asokan, Pappu; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R

2006-10-11

2

5,6-Dichloro-1-methylgramine, a non-toxic antifoulant derived from a marine natural product.  

Science.gov (United States)

The laboratory culture of the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite has made it possible to supply cypris larvae for antifouling assays all year round. The settlement of cyprids obtained from cultured B. amphitrite was indistinguishable from cyprids reared from field-collected barnacles. In laboratory cyprid settlement assays of extracts from marine sessile organisms, antifouling activity was expressed as the 99% inhibitory concentration (IC99), and toxicity as the 30% lethal concentration (LC30). The lipophilic extract of the marine bryozoan, Zoobotryon pellucidum, which showed promising antifouling activity, yielded 2,5,6-tribromo-1-methylgramine (TBG) by bioassay-guided isolation. The inhibitory activity of TBG was 6 times as strong as that of bis-(n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO), while its toxicity to cypris larvae was one-tenth that of TBTO. A structure-activity relationship study with 155 indole derivatives led to the discovery of the non-toxic antifoulant candidates 5,6-dichlorogramine, 5-chloro-2-methylgramine, and 5,6-dichrolo-1-methylgramine (DCMG), the latter being selected as the antifouling paint ingredient for performance evaluation tests (panel tests) following the results of a preliminary safety tests. A silicone-based antifouling paint containing 5-10% of DCMG was prepared and tested in the field; the painted surfaces remained almost barnacle-free for 1.5 years similar to silicone coatings such as Biox. Since the leaching rate of DCMG from the paint surface could be controlled by the addition of an acrylic acid-styrene copolymer (ASP), the life of the antifouling performance is expected to be improved. Thus, an extremely non-toxic silicone-based antifouling paint containing DCMG is under development. PMID:16805441

Kawamata, M; Kon-ya, K; Miki, W

2006-01-01

3

Link between Domoic Acid Production and Cell Physiology after Exchange of Bacterial Communities between Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Non-Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacteria are known to influence domoic acid (DA production by Pseudo-nitzschia spp., but the link between DA production and physiology of diatoms requires more investigation. We compared a toxic P. multiseries to a non-toxic P. delicatissima, investigating links between DA production, physiological parameters, and co-occurring bacteria. Bacterial communities in cultures of both species were reduced by antibiotic treatment, and each of the diatoms was inoculated with the bacterial community of the other species. The physiology of P. delicatissima was minimally affected by the absence of bacteria or the presence of alien bacteria, and no DA was detected. P. multiseries grew faster without bacteria, did not produce a significant amount of DA, and exhibited physiological characteristics of healthy cells. When grown with alien bacteria, P. multiseries did not grow and produced more DA; the physiology of these cells was affected, with decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency, an increase in esterase activity, and almost 50% mortality of the cells. The alien bacterial community had morphological and cellular characteristics very different from the original bacteria, and the number of free-living bacteria per algal cell was much higher, suggesting the involvement of bacteria in DA production.

Aurélie Lelong

2014-06-01

4

Eicosadiynoic acid: a non-toxic inhibitor of multiple enzymatic steps in the production of icosanoids from arachidonic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the acetylenic fatty acid 20:2 delta 8a, 11a (eicosadiynoic acid, EDYA). It was found that this compound acts as an inhibitor of several steps in the production of icosanoids from arachidonic acid. First, the compound was shown to inhibit arachidonate uptake by platelets. Second, using a detergent solubilized preparation from calf brain, EDYA was found to inhibit both the arachidonoyl and the non-specific long chain acyl-CoA synthetase, which convert arachidonate to its CoA ester. Third, the compound decreased the conversion of dihomo gamma linolenic acid to arachidonate in the mouse fibrosarcoma HSDM1C1 cell line, acting as an apparent delta 5 desaturase inhibitor. Finally, EDYA (50 microM) inhibited cyclooxygenase activity. The compound was not toxic to cultured cells. Cells were grown for months in tissue culture medium at concentrations as high as 50 microM, with no morphologic changes by light microscopy and no prolongation of the doubling time over untreated cells. Our findings with this compound indicate that it limits icosanoid production by inhibiting cyclooxygenase and also by limiting arachidonate uptake, activation, and production from precursor fatty acids. PMID:3110863

Laposata, M; Kaiser, S L; Reich, E L; Majerus, P W

1987-04-01

5

Inexpensive non-toxic flocculation of microalgae contradicts theories; overcoming a major hurdle to bulk algal production.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two major energy and cost constraints to bulk production of single cell microalgae for biofuels or feed: expensive culture systems with high capital costs and high energy requirements for mixing and gas exchange; and the cost of harvesting using high-speed continuous centrifugation for dewatering. This report deals with the latter; harvesting by flocculation where theory states that alkaline flocculants neutralize the repelling surface charge of algal cells, allowing them to coalesce into a floc. It had been assumed that with such electrostatic flocculation, the more cells to be flocculated, the more flocculant needed, in a linear stoichiometric fashion, rendering flocculation overly expensive. Counter to theory of electrostatic flocculation, we find that the amount of alkaline flocculant needed is a function of the logarithm of cell density, with dense cultures requiring an order of magnitude less base than dilute suspensions, with flocculation occurring at a lower pH. Various other theories abound that flocculation can be due to multi-valent cross-linking, or co-precipitation with phosphate or with magnesium and calcium, but are clearly not relevant with the flocculants we used. Monovalent bases that cannot cross-link or precipitate phosphate work with the same log-linear stoichiometry as the divalent bases, obviating those theories, leaving electrostatic flocculation as the only tenable theory of flocculation with the materials used. The cost of flocculation of dense cultures with this procedure should be below $1.00/T algae for mixed calcium:magnesium hydroxides. PMID:22306161

Schlesinger, Ami; Eisenstadt, Doron; Bar-Gil, Amicam; Carmely, Hilla; Einbinder, Shai; Gressel, Jonathan

2012-01-01

6

The production of hydrotalcite from magnesite ore as non-toxic heat stabiliser for polyvinyl chloride Hidrotalsiet, vervaardig uit magnesieterts, as niegiftige hittestabiliseerder vir polivinielchloried  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years polyvinyl chloride (PVC processors had to submit to worldwide pressure to convert to environmentally friendly stabilisers such as hydrotalcite (HT, since most of the heat stabilisers currently in use contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium or barium – these being highly toxic. The presently used HT production process is, however, very expensive as it involves the recovering of magnesium from seawater magnesia. The purpose of this study was to prove that it is indeed possible to produce cost effective and non-toxic HT from an alternative source. During this study the costing and heat stabilising ability of the hydrotalcite produced from magnesite was compared to that of commercially available heat stabilisers. The effect of the pre-mixing process, as well as the influence of particle size distribution was also investigated. A cost comparative and stabilising efficiency study indicated the cost effectiveness of HT produced from magnesite ore, in comparison with other commercially available stabilisers. The use of HT as produced from magnesite ore would indeed assist in the worldwide changeover to environmentally friendly stabilisers.Gedurende die afgelope paar jaar het die druk op polivinielchloried (PVC -verwerkers aansienlik toegeneem om na omgewingsvriendelike stabiliseerders soos hidrotalsiet (HT oor te skakel, aangesien die meeste hittestabiliseerders wat tans in gebruik is, giftige swaarmetale soos lood, kadmium, of barium bevat. Die vervaardigingsproses van HT is tans baie duur, aangesien dit die herwinning van magnesium uit seewatersoute behels. Hierdie studie is daarop gemik om te bewys dat dit wel moontlik is om meer bekostigbare en niegiftige HT uit magnesieterts te vervaardig. Tydens die studie is die doeltreffendheid en koste-implikasies van HT vervaardig uit magnesieterts, vergelyk met kommersieel beskikbare stabiliseerders asook HT-stabiliseerders soos vervaardig uit seewatersoute. Die effek van voorafvermengingsprosesse van die stabiliseerders en smeermiddels, asook partikelgrootteverspreiding op die finale stabiliseringsvermoë, is ook ondersoek. ’n Kostevergelykende studie het aangetoon dat PVC-verwerkers wel koste kan besnoei deur na hierdie plaaslik vervaardigde stabiliseerder oor te skakel. HT kan dus inderdaad as kostedoeltreffende en niegiftige stabiliseerder vir geplastiseerde PVC aangewend word. Die wêreldwye omskakeling na HT as omgewingsvriendelike stabiliseerder vir geplastiseerde PVC sal dus ekonomies meer lewensvatbaar word indien hierdie vorm van HT gebruik word.

J. van der Laan

2005-09-01

7

Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms. PMID:25464282

Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min

2015-02-11

8

Non-toxic antifouling strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term fouling generally refers to an undesirable process in which a surface becomes encrusted with material from the surrounding environment. In the case of biofouling, that material consists of organisms and their by-products e.g., extracellular polysaccharides and metabolites. Biofouling limits the performance of devices in numerous applications; however, this review focuses on antifouling biomaterials for marine and biomedical applications. The surface chemistry and physical properties of the substratum are both crucial to preventing the recruitment of biofouling organisms. Natural antifouling surfaces exhibit both chemical and physical attributes. The chemical structure is discussed briefly as it relates to both anti-fouling and fouling-release properties. However, our focus has been to study physical cues as they relate to the initial attachment of fouling organisms.

Chelsea M. Magin

2010-04-01

9

Chaetomium globosum, a non-toxic fungus: a potential source of protein (SCP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wheat straw cellulose was used as substrate for single cell protein (SCP) production using C. globosum, a non-toxic fungus. Both untreated and delignified powdered (60 mesh) substrate were used in submerged fermentation. The optimum cultural conditions for maximum conversion of wheat straw into SCP were 5 days, 37C, pH 5.0 and 400 mg/litre nitrogen in the form of sodium nitrate. 18 references.

Kahlon, S.S.; Kalra, K.L.

1986-01-01

10

Demonstration of a Non-Toxic Reaction Control Engine  

Science.gov (United States)

T:hree non-toxic demonstration reaction control engines (RCE) were successfully tested at the Aerojet Sacramento facility under a technology contract sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The goals of the NASA MSFC contract (NAS8-01109) were to develop and expand the technical maturity of a non-toxic, on-orbit auxiliary propulsion system (APS) thruster under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The demonstration engine utilized Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol as propellants to produce 870 lbf thrust. The Aerojet RCE's were successfully acceptance tested over a broad range of operating conditions. Steady state tests evaluated engine response to varying chamber pressures and mixture ratios. In addition to the steady state tests, a variety of pulsing tests were conducted over a wide range of electrical pulse widths (EPW). Each EPW condition was also tested over a range of percent duty cycles (DC), and bit impulse and pulsing specific impulse were determined for each of these conditions. Subsequent to acceptance testing at Aerojet, these three engines were delivered to the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in April 2005 for incorporation into a cryogenic Auxiliary Propulsion System Test Bed (APSTB). The APSTB is a test article that will be utilized in an altitude test cell to simulate anticipated mission applications. The objectives of this APSTB testing included evaluation of engine performance over an extended duty cycle map of propellant pressure and temperature, as well as engine and system performance at typical mission duty cycles over extended periods of time. This paper provides acceptance test results and a status of the engine performance as part of the system level testing.

Robinson, Philip J.; Turpin, Alicia A.; Veith, Eric M.

2007-01-01

11

Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

12

Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site

13

Pollution prevention benefits of non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves - 11000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. Shielding glovebox gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, i.e., hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the pollution prevention benefits of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. The nonhazardous substitutes are higher in cost, but this is offset by eliminating the costs associated with onsite waste handling of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) items. In the end, replacing lead with non-hazardous substitutes eliminates waste generation and future liability.

Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

14

Radioiodine therapy in non toxic multi nodular goitre, preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: Aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of 131I therapy in patients (pts) affected by non toxic multinodular goitre (NTMG). NTMG is a thyroid disease with a high prevalence, especially in low-iodine intake regions. Treatment of NTMG often requires surgery. However, thyroidectomy may be risky in some patients and radioiodine therapy could be an alternative treatment to reduce thyroid volume. We also evaluated if lithium administration can improve the efficacy of radioiodine treatment in this pts. Material and Methods: We enrolled 39 pts (8 males, 31 females; mean age 59 y, range 40-79 y) affected by NTMG. Mean thyroid volume (TV) at ultrasound was of 46.8 ml (range 18.5-87.3). Pts were randomised in 2 groups. Group 1: iodine therapy + lithium therapy 900 mg/die for 6 days; Group 2: iodine therapy alone. We also define 3 clusters of pts by TV. A:15-30 ml; B:31-40 ml; C: > 40 ml. The 131I activity (MBq) was calculated as follows: [4.44 (MBq) x 100/24 hours uptake (%)] x TV. All patients are evaluated for thyroid function and TV at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, since we postulate that major reduction in thyroid volume will occur 1 year after 131I therapy. Results: Up to now 16 pts were treated with 131I (mean activity: 512 MBq) and no side effects from 131I and lithium therapy were reported. Four out of 5 pts evaluated at 3 months (2 of group 1 and 3 of group 2) had a reduction in TV (mean valuegroup 2) had a reduction in TV (mean value: 8.8 ml). Five out of 10 pts had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism at 1 week, likely as a consequence of thyroid tissue destruction. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest the safety and effectiveness of 131I treatment in NTMG. We expect to clarify the role of lithium administration in improving 131I efficacy. This therapy could have a future role in patients with NTMG that can't be submitted to surgery

15

Cross-section measurements for the formation of manganese-52 and its isolation with a non-hazardous eluent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With respect to the production of no-carrier-added {sup 52}Mn nuclear reactions on natural chromium were investigated. Cross sections of the reactions {sup nat}Cr(p,x){sup 48}V, {sup 48,49,51}Cr, {sup 52g,m}Mn were determined in the proton energy range of 7.6 to 45 MeV. Additionally, production yields of {sup 52g,m}Mn and {sup 51}Cr were measured in the energy range from 8.2 to 16.9 MeV and therefrom the calculated saturation thick target yields were obtained as (2.55 {+-} 0.31), (6.96 {+-} 0.57), and (1.53 {+-} 0.15)GBq/{mu}A, respectively. For in vivo applications like PET, low toxicity is critical and sufficient activity of a radiolabelled compounds mandatory. Thus, additional purification steps after separation of radionuclides and target materials have to be avoided. However, no isolation procedure has been reported in the literature so far where radiomanganese is directly obtained in a non-hazardous solution. Therefore a new separation procedure was developed utilizing the cation-exchange resin DOWEX 50W x 8 (H{sup +}-form). {sup 52g}Mn was quantitatively isolated from 'bulk' chromium after 3 to 4 h in non-hazardous 0.067 M ammonium citrate solution. Up to 99% of {sup 52g}Mn activity was harvested within 10 to 15 mL eluent solution with no measureable {sup 51}Cr impurities. (orig.)

Buchholz, M.; Spahn, I.; Scholten, B.; Coenen, H.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM-5: Nuklearchemie)

2013-10-01

16

Development of Non-hazardous Explosives for Security Training and Testing (NESTT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The security force at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely used canines to search for explosives and other contraband substances. The use of threat quantities of explosive for realistic training in populated or sensitive Laboratory areas has not been permitted because of the hazard. To overcome this limitation a series of non-hazardous materials with authentic signatures have been prepared and evaluated. A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and canine (K-9) detection in a Beta Test Program

17

Barriers to Practice of Non-Hazardous Solid Waste Minimization by Industries in Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

The Practice of waste minimization plays a significant role in sustainable development as the most acceptable method in the waste management hierarchy. This paper is a case study research on industrial non-hazardous wastes generated from different industrial activities in one of the major Malaysian industrial areas. This study is aimed at identifying the barriers of waste minimization practices in Malaysian industries. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods were applied in...

Shadi Kafi Mallak; Mohd Bakri Ishak; Ahmad Fariz Mohamed; Sabrina Abdullah

2014-01-01

18

40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...  

Science.gov (United States)

...non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that receive Conditionally...CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Disposal...Non-Municipal Non-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units § 257.5...

2010-07-01

19

Beyond celiac disease toxicity: Detoxified and non-toxic grains  

OpenAIRE

Coeliac disease (CD) is a food-related problem. Increasing knowledge about the diversity in CD toxicity of individual wheat species and varieties, and of the individual gluten proteins enables the food industry to increasingly take responsibility in the production of CD-safe foods. Several strategies to obtain CD-safe wheat material including selection, breeding and genetic modification are elaborated from recent examples. Attention is also given to the rapidly increasing interest by the CD p...

Gilissen, L. J. W. J.; Meer, I. M.; Smulders, M. J. M.

2008-01-01

20

The thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and its regulation in non-toxic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 35 patients with non-toxic goitre, surgically resected thyroid tissue was hydrolyzed with Pronase under anaerobic conditions in the presence of methylmercaptoimidazole. Total iodine, PBI, L-thyroxine (T3-RIA and T4 (D)) as well as triiodothyronine (T3-RIA) were determined in the tissue hydrolysates. The data obtained were compared with T4/T3 ratios in the serum, TRH test and thyroidal 131I uptake before operation. The total iodine, amounted to 112,6 +- 14.6 ?g/g tissue. The T4/T3 ratio was 11.37 +- 1.80. Using this procedure of tissue hydrolysis and RIA assays for iodothyronines, the yield for T4 and T3 is considerably higher than the one obtained with previous methods. As in animal experiments, evidence was given for human goitre that T3 is predominantly produced first in the case of decreased T4 production. Second in the case of iodine deficiency, and third in cases of increased TSH response after TRH. Patients with a large amount of iodine and T4 in their thyroids have a much smaller increase in serum TSH after TRH than do subjects with a much lower thyroidal T4 concentration. This occurs even through the thyroid hormone levels in serum in these groups are not different. No correlation between thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and serum T4/T3 ratio could be demonstrated even undsub> ratio could be demonstrated even under extreme conditions. This finding favors the assumption of a predominant extrathyroidal regulation for T4/T3 ratio in serum. (orig.)

21

Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goitre  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effects and to shape the delivery of value based care. Valid generic and disease specific tools are available for quantifying HRQoL in patients with non-toxic goitre. However, few studies have applied these validated instruments to assess HRQoL in patients with benign non-toxic goitre. Limited evidence suggests that patients with non-toxic goitre have HRQoL impairments in multiple HRQoL domains. While the HRQoL-impact of non-toxic goitre may be small relative to other severely disabling medical conditions, treatment is almost exclusively elected for HRQoL indications. Thus better quantification of HRQoL, particularly at better (or more favorable) levels where many patients score, is essential. Web and mobile technologies have eased the ability to deliver surveys to patients. Routine consideration of HRQoL provides the opportunity to monitor the impact of treatment on the outcomes most meaningful for patients and theopportunity to help shape the delivery of value based health care.

Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per

2014-01-01

22

Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

Cutbirth, J. Michael

2013-01-01

23

Do thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins cause non-toxic and toxic multinodular goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevalence of serum thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins, (T.S.I.) in a variety of thyroid diseases was determined in 96 patients and 35 normal controls. Significantly elevated levels of T.S.I. were found not only in patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis but also in those with non-toxic and multinodular goitre, whereas patients with a single autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, with subacute thyroiditis, and with 'hyperthyroiditis' had levels which did not differ from those in the controls. it is postulated that non-toxic multinodular goitre, like Graves' disease, may result from increased circulating T.S.I. which in some cases may be present in sufficient concentration to cause thyrotoxicosis. (author)

24

Non-toxicity of IV injected perfluorocarbon oxygen carrier in an animal model of liver regeneration following surgical injury  

OpenAIRE

Lethal dose experiments in animals have demonstrated that second-generation perfluorocarbon oxygen carriers are remarkably non-toxic. However, this non-toxicity has not previously been demonstrated in a liver failure scenario. A surgical liver damage and regeneration model in rats was selected using a well-controlled cross tabulated study design. A large number of physiological, biochemical, and hematological parameters were measured. No indications were found that intravenously inje...

Nieuwoudt, Martin J.; Engelbrecht, Gert H. C.; Sentle, Lebo; Auer, Roland E. J.; Kahn, Del; Merwe, Schalk Willem

2009-01-01

25

Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

26

Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates on K. mikimotoi were substantially reduced in both copepods while their clearances of G. instiatum remained unaltered, suggesting active prey selection. Video observations of individual prey capture and feeding events showed prey rejection frequencies (caught and then released cells) that did not differ between mixed and mono-specific diets. This suggests that the selection between prey cells occurs prior to capture and that it is based on remote characterization of the cells.

Schultz, Mette; KiØrboe, Thomas

2009-01-01

27

Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants as well as the perspectives for future research directions.

Jean-Philippe Maréchal

2009-10-01

28

Antimicrobial properties of a non-toxic glycoprotein (WSG) from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha).  

Science.gov (United States)

A monomeric glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 28 kDa in SDS-PAGE was isolated from the Withania somnifera root tubers. The protein designated WSG (Withania somnifera glycoprotein) demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria tested. Antifungal effect has been demonstrated in that WSG exerts a fungistastic effect by inhibiting spore germination and hyphal growth in the tested fungi. WSG showed potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, F. verticilloides and antibacterial activity against Clvibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. WSG is an acidic, non-toxic (trypsin-chymotrypsin) protease inhibitor. These results encourage further studies of WSG as a potential therapeutic agent for its antifungal activity. PMID:17009292

Girish, K S; Machiah, K D; Ushanandini, S; Harish Kumar, K; Nagaraju, S; Govindappa, M; Vedavathi, M; Kemparaju, K

2006-01-01

29

Potent inhibition of copper corrosion in neutral chloride media by novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Two eco-friendly thiadiazole derivatives show high inhibition efficiency on copper. •Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. •Surface layers were also characterized by SEM coupled with EDX analysis. •Raman spectra reveals inhibitors suppress corrosion via formation of complex. •Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were calculated. -- Abstract: Inhibiting effect of two novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives on copper were investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution using weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Presence of inhibitors and increase of concentration greatly decrease corrosion rate, parameters determined from polarization curves and EIS plots show that inhibitors decrease both cathodic and anodic current densities, suppressing charge transfer process by adsorption on copper surface. Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. Surface layers were characterized by SEM coupled with EDX. Raman micro-spectroscopy reveals that inhibitor molecules suppress copper corrosion via formation of thiadiazole–Cu complex. Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were also evaluated

30

Effects of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria on grazing, zooplanktivory and survival of the mysid shrimp Mysis mixta.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured the effect of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria strains on grazing, predation rates and survival of the mysid shrimp Mysis mixta by means of laboratory experiments. Juvenile and adult M. mixta fed most actively on the non-toxic strains Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia sphaerocarpa as on high quality food, the green flagellate Brachiomonas submarina, whereas grazing on the toxic N. spumigena was significantly lower than on the other strains. The mysids showed normal functional responses; decreasing clearance rates at increasing concentrations of cyanobacteria. In a separate predation experiment, the feeding rates on copepods declined in the presence of aggregated non-toxic cyanobacteria. However, we could not demonstrate increased mortality in a 7-week experiment where mysids were exposed to high concentrations of toxic N. spumigena PMID:11245880

Engström, J; Viherluoto, M; Viitasalo, M

2001-03-15

31

Therapy for non-toxic multinodular goiter. Radioiodine therapy as attractive alternative to surgery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for therapy for nodular goiter results from the growth of thyroid nodules over decades and from the possibility of tracheal compression and worsening of respiratory function. Given the high prevalence of non-toxic goiter, the epidemiologically low incidence of clinically apparent thyroid cancer justifies non-surgical strategies. Randomised studies have shown that levothyroxine offers limited therapeutic effects and is inferior to radioiodine therapy regarding goiter shrinkage. When indication for a definitive therapy is given, the choice between resection and radioiodine therapy should consider volume of goiter, severity of clinical symptoms, thyroid uptake, patient's age, co-morbidity, previous resection of goiter, patient's profession and patient's wish. Even in large goiters between 100 and 300 ml radioiodine therapy showed consistent results with goiter size reduction from 35-40% one year and 40-60% two years after radioiodine therapy. Thyroid hormones to prevent recurrence of goiter are not necessary. Recurrent goiters were seldom observed after radioiodine therapy and resulted from initially very large goiters or uptake in dominante nodules or from low {sup 131}I activities. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) offers the opportunity to enhance the effect of radioiodine therapy. Observational studies have shown that rhTSH increases low {sup 131}I uptake in case of high alimentary iodine-supply by the factor 4, causes a more homogenous {sup 131}I distribution within the goiter and improves goiter reduction. A phase I study for dose finding is running in the USA. Conclusion: radioiodine therapy for shrinkage of large non-toxic goiter should not be restricted to elderly patients, or to patients with co-morbidity or high operative risk, but is an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with special professions (singer, teacher, speaker) or with the wish for a non-invasive treatment modality. (orig.)

Dietlein, M.; Dederichs, B.; Kobe, C.; Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)

2006-07-01

32

Radioiodine therapy of benign non-toxic goitre. Potential role of recombinant human TSH  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This review provides an update on recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH) augmented radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy and outlines its potential role in the treatment of symptomatic benign multinodular non-toxic goitre. In some countries, ¹³¹I has been used for three decades to reduce the size of nodular goitres. The feasibility of ¹³¹I therapy depends on an adequate thyroid ¹³¹I uptake. Based on a two-fold increase in thyroid ¹³¹I uptake, superiority studies have convincingly demonstrated that the absorbed thyroid ¹³¹I dose can be increased without increasing the administered ¹³¹I activity, resulting in a 35-56% amplification of goitre reduction at one-year post radioiodine compared to conventional (without rh-TSH) ¹³¹I therapy. Although patient satisfaction is not improved at one-year, this approach facilitates tracheal decompression and is particularly promising in large goitres. The majority of multinodular non-toxic goitre patients may not require amplified goitre reduction. But as an alternative strategy, rh-TSH allowsup to 80% reduction of the therapeutic ¹³¹I activity while still achieving goitre reduction comparable to that of conventional ¹³¹I therapy and maintaining high patient satisfaction. The dose-reduction (equality) strategy is attractive in terms of minimizing post-therapeutic restrictions and in reducing the potential risk of radiation-induced malignancy. Adverse effects like temporary thyroid swelling and thyroid hormone excess are to a large extent dose-dependent and generally 0.1mg rh-TSH or less is well tolerated. Based on these results we conclude that rh-TSH augmented ¹³¹I therapy is a promising new therapeutic principle allowing the tailoring of an optimal ¹³¹I therapy on the individual level.

Fast, S; Bonnema, S J

2011-01-01

33

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

34

Gd-metallofullerenol nanomaterial as non-toxic breast cancer stem cell-specific inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contemporary use of nanomedicines for cancer treatment has been largely limited to serving as carriers for existing therapeutic agents. Here, we provide definitive evidence that, the metallofullerenol nanomaterial Gd@C82(OH)22, while essentially not toxic to normal mammary epithelial cells, possesses intrinsic inhibitory activity against triple-negative breast cancer cells. Gd@C82(OH)22 blocks epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition with resultant efficient elimination of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) resulting in abrogation of tumour initiation and metastasis. In normoxic conditions, Gd@C82(OH)22 mediates these effects by blocking TGF-? signalling. Moreover, under hypoxic conditions found in the tumour microenvironment, cellular uptake of Gd@C82(OH)22 is facilitated where it functions as a bi-potent inhibitor of HIF-1? and TGF-? activities, enhancing CSC elimination. These studies indicate that nanomaterials can be engineered to directly target CSCs. Thus, Gd-metallofullerenol is identified as a kind of non-toxic CSC specific inhibitors with significant therapeutic potential. PMID:25612916

Liu, Ying; Chen, Chunying; Qian, Pengxu; Lu, Xuefei; Sun, Baoyun; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Liming; Gao, Xingfa; Li, Han; Chen, Zhiyun; Tang, Jinglong; Zhang, Weijie; Dong, Jinquan; Bai, Ru; Lobie, Peter E; Wu, Qingfa; Liu, Suling; Zhang, Huafeng; Zhao, Feng; Wicha, Max S; Zhu, Tao; Zhao, Yuliang

2015-01-01

35

A novel approach to block HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4 in non-toxic manner.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is one of the major coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and considered as an important therapeutic target. Knockdown of CXCR4 by RNA interference has emerged as a promising strategy for combating HIV-1 infection. However, there is a potential drawback to this strategy as undesired side effects may occur due to the loss of natural function of CXCR4. In this study, we developed a novel approach using a single lentiviral vector to express simultaneously CXCR4 dual-shRNAs and an shRNA-resistant CXCR4 mutant possessing the most possible natural functions of CXCR4 and reduced HIV-1 coreceptor activity. Via this approach we achieved the replacement of endogenous CXCR4 by CXCR4 mutant P191A that could compensate the functional loss of endogenous CXCR4 and significant reduction of HIV-1 replication by 59.2 %. Besides, we demonstrated that construction of recombinant lentiviral vector using 2A peptide-based strategy has significant advantages over using additional promoter-based strategy, including increase of lentivirus titer and avoidance of promoter competition. Therefore, the novel approach to block HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4 without impairing its normal function provides a new strategy for CXCR4-targeted therapeutics for HIV-1 infection and potential universal applications to knock down a cellular protein in non-toxic manner. PMID:24845753

Liu, Ye; Zhou, Jieqiong; Pan, Ji-An; Mabiala, Prudence; Guo, Deyin

2014-10-01

36

Environmental and socio-economic assessment of co-combustion of coal, biomass and non-hazardous wastes in a full scale power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A European project (COPOWER) was developed to assess the possibility to partially replace the coal used in a 243 MWth Power Plant by biomass and non-toxic wastes for the production of electricity. Three combustion scenarios were studied, based on the combustion tests performed at the Stadtwerke Duisburg Power Plant: Scenario 0 (Sc0) - combustion of coal; Scenario 1 (Sc1) - combustion of coal + Sewage Sludge (SS) + Meat and Bone Meal (MBM); Scenario 2 (Sc2) - coal + SS + Wood Pellets (WP). A socio-economic and environmental assessment was performed. In the environmental point of view, Sc0 was the worst scenario, mainly due to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Sc1 was the best scenario, mainly due to the reduction on the GHG emission, substances that contribute for eutrophication and ozone depletion gases. In the socio-economic point of view, Sc0 was the worst scenario, mainly due to the absence of GHG abatement, and Sc1 was the best scenario due to the best cost of the electricity production and negative cost of avoided emissions.

Morais, J.; N. Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Santos, A.; Mendes, B.; Oliveira, J.F. Santos [Environmental Biotechnology Researching, Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisboa (Portugal)

2008-07-01

37

"Non-toxic" cyclic peptides induce lysis of cyanobacteria-an effective cell population density control mechanism in cyanobacterial blooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of planktopeptin BL1125, anabaenopeptin B and anabaenopeptin F, two types of "non-toxic" cyclic peptide produced in bloom forming cyanobacteria, can provoke lysis of different non-axenic Microcystis aeruginosa cell lines via the induction of virus-like particles. The resulting particles are also able to infect the axenic M. aeruginosa cell line without lytic effects. Nevertheless, the presence of "non-toxic" cyclic peptides of cyanobacterial origin can induce lysis of these previously infected cells. This effect implies that a possible role of these peptides in the natural environment is the control of cyanobacterial population density. Lysogenic cyanobacteria can consequently act as hot-spots that, in the presence of cyanobacterial cyclic peptides, release numerous infectious particles. The process can be self-augmented with the simultaneous release of additional cyclic peptides from the producing lysogens, starting a forest fire effect that ends in collapse of cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:18008101

Sedmak, B; Carmeli, S; Elersek, Tina

2008-08-01

38

TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR CRITERIA AND PROCESSES FOR THE CERTIFICATION OF NON-RADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS AND NON-HAZARDOUS WASTES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Technical Basis Document (TBD) identifies how the values presented in the ''Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes'' were derived. The original moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) applied only to hazardous wastes generated in Radioactive Materials Management Areas (RMMAs) that were destined for off-site Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) that did not possess a radioactive materials license. Since its inception, the original moratorium document has become the de facto free-release procedure for potentially volumetrically contaminated materials of all varieties. This was promulgated in a February 4, 1992 memo from Jyle Lytle, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Waste Management, entitled ''Update: Moratorium on Shipment of Potentially Radioactive Hazardous and Toxic Wastes''. In this memo, Ms. Lytle states, ''While the moratorium does not apply to non-hazardous/non-TSCA solid wastes and non-waste materials, the same release criteria apply''. Over the past few years, a considerable quantity of data and operating experience has been developed, which has shown the limitations of UCRL-AR-109662. The original Moratorium is out of date, and many of the organizations and procedures that it references are no longer in existence. In addition, the original document lacked sufficient detail to be used as an LLNL-wide procedure for free release, as it only addressed hazardous wastes. The original moratoried hazardous wastes. The original moratorium document also used highly optimistic ''action limits'', which were based on theoretically achievable minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels for various matrices. Years of operating experience has shown that these action limits are simply not achievable for certain analyses in certain matrices, either due to limitations in sample size, or underestimates of the contribution of naturally-occurring radioactive materials, resulting in the mis-characterization of samples of these matrices as radioactive, when no radioactivity was added by LLNL operations. The new moratorium document updates the organizations involved in Moratorium Declarations, specifically addresses non-hazardous waste matrices, and allows for alternative types of analysis. The new moratorium document formalizes the process of release of potentially volumetrically-contaminated waste materials from radiological controls at LLNL

39

A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 10(14) cm(-3)) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production. PMID:25030171

Major, J D; Treharne, R E; Phillips, L J; Durose, K

2014-07-17

40

Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle  

Science.gov (United States)

Under NASA sponsorship, Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) designed, built and tested two non-toxic, reaction control engines, one using liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) and the other using liquid oxygen and ethanol. This paper presents the design and testing of the LOX/LH2 thruster. The two key enabling technologies are the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector and the fuelcooling duct. The workhorse thruster was hotfire tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Test Stand 500 in March and April of 2002. All tests were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LHp injector settings. The operating conditions surveyed were 70 to 100% thrust levels, mixture ratios from 3.27 to 4.29, and LH2 duct cooling from 18.0 to 25.5% fuel flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The performance of the engine reached 95% C* efficiency. The temperature on the Haynes chamber remained well below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. These results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster headend design maintained cryogenic injection temperatures while firing, which validates the selected injector design approach for minimal heat soak-back. Also, off -nominal operation without adversely impacting the thermal response of the engine showed the robustness of the duct design, a key design feature for this application. By injecting fuel into the duct, the throat temperatures are manageable, yet the split of fuel through the cooling duct does not compromise the overall combstion efficiency, which indicates that, provided proper design refinement, such a concept could be applied to a high-performance version of the thruster.

Calvignac, Jacky; Dang, Lisa; Tramel, Terri; Paseur, Lila; Champion, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

41

RT-PCR- and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based identification and discrimination of isoforms homologous to pufferfish saxitoxin- and tetrodotoxin-binding protein in the plasma of non-toxic cultured pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes).  

Science.gov (United States)

Four genes of Takifugu rubripes, tentatively designated Tr1-Tr4, encoding homologs of pufferfish saxitoxin- and tetrodotoxin-binding protein, were identified by BLAST search and 3'-RACE. RT-PCR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry allowed the identification and discrimination of Tr isoforms from the non-toxically cultured specimens. The expression of Tr1 and Tr3 mRNAs exclusively in the liver and the presence of their products as 120-kDa plasma proteins were confirmed. PMID:23343608

Tatsuno, Ryohei; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu

2013-01-01

42

Stimulation of pneumovirus-specific CD8(+) T-cells using a non-toxic recombinant ricin delivery system  

OpenAIRE

Internalisation of the plant toxin ricin occurs by retrograde transport which delivers the toxin to the ER where it intersects with the MHC class I system for peptide antigen display. Here, we describe the generation of an inactivated, non-toxic, ricin molecule fused to a peptide which elicits a CD8+ T-cell response in mice directed against pneumonia virus of mice, a pneumovirus related to human respiratory syncytial virus. The ricin fusion elicited a significant T-cell response when delivere...

Grimaldi, E.; Claassen, E. A. W.

2007-01-01

43

Non-toxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Sambucus: occurrence, cellular and molecular activities and potential uses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a family of enzymes that trigger the catalytic inactivation of ribosomes. The most known member of the family is the highly poisonous two-chain ricin isolated from Ricinus communis L. Sambucus species contain a number of two-chain RIPs structurally and enzymatically related to ricin which have the noteworthy feature that, having an enzymatic activity on ribosomes, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis, higher than ricin, they are lacking of the tremendous unspecific toxicity of ricin. Therefore, they have been called non-toxic type 2 RIPs. The most representative and studied members are nigrin b present in the bark of the common (black) elder Sambucus nigra L. and ebulin 1 present in the leaves of the dwarf elder Sambucus ebulus L. The molecular basis for the low unspecific activities of nigrin b and ebulin 1 as compared with ricin seems to be related with single changes of amino acids in the high affinity sugar binding sites of the B chains. These changes determine the intracellular traffic of these proteins and thus the cellular toxicity. Conjugation ofnigrin b or ebulin 1 to either transferrin or monoclonal antibodies provided highly active conjugates targeting cancer. Thus these non-toxic type 2 RIPs are promising tools for cancer therapy. PMID:12899446

Girbes, T; Ferreras, J M; Arias, F J; Muñoz, R; Iglesias, R; Jimenez, P; Rojo, M A; Arias, Y; Perez, Y; Benitez, J; Sanchez, D; Gayoso, M J

2003-06-01

44

40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

...following PCB bulk product waste in a facility permitted...non-municipal non-hazardous waste landfill: (i) Plastics...Galbestos; non-liquid building demolition debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste from the shredding of...

2010-07-01

45

Synthesis of Boron Nanorods by Smelting Non-Toxic Boron Oxide in Liquid Lithium  

OpenAIRE

In contrast to the conventional bottom-up syntheses of boron nanostructures, a unique top-down and greener synthetic strategy is presented for boron nanorods involving nontoxic boron oxide powders ultrasonically smelted in liquid lithium under milder conditions. The product was thoroughly characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic emission spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and, UV-Vis spectroscopy, including structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy...

Hosmane, Narayan S.; Maguire, John A.; Paulson, Laura K.; Krise, Kate J.; Tao Xu; Amartya Chakrabarti

2010-01-01

46

Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (approx1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GW{sub peek}, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET. As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4 1/2 months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies. (Author)

Soendergaard, R.

2012-07-01

47

Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GWpeek, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET.As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4½ months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies.

SØndergaard, Roar

2012-01-01

48

Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O-2 evolution and CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet MS in cells acclimated to low (7.9) and high pH (8.4 or 8.9). Species-specific differences in the mode of carbon acquisition were found. While extracellular carbonic anhydrase (eCA) activities increased with pH in P. multiseries and S. stellaris, N. navis-varingica exhibited low eCA activities independent of pH. Half-saturation concentrations (K-1/2) for photosynthetic O-2 evolution, which were highest in S. stellaris and lowest in P. multiseries, generally decreased with increasing pH. In terms of carbon source, all species took up both CO2 and HCO3-. K-1/2 values for inorganic carbon uptake decreased with increasing pH in two species, while in N. navis-varingica apparent affinities did not change. While the contribution of HCO3- to net fixation was more than 85% in S. stellaris, it was about 55% in P. multiseries and only approximately 30% in N. navis-varingica. The intracellular content of DA increased in P. multiseries and N. navis-varingica with increasing pH. Based on our data, we propose a novel role for eCA acting as C-i-recycling mechanism. With regard to pH-dependence of growth, the 'HCO3- user' S. stellaris was as sensitive as the 'CO2 user' N. navis-varingica. The suggested relationship between DA and carbon acquisition/C-i limitation could not be confirmed.

Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina

2008-01-01

49

Stimulation of wild-type, F508del- and G551D-CFTR chloride channels by non toxic modified pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine derivatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis is a major inherited disorder involving abnormalities of fluid and electrolyte transport in a number of different organs due to abnormal function of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR protein. We recently identified a family of CFTR activators, which contains the hit: RP107 [7-n-butyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl[5H]-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine]. Here, we further evaluated the effect of the chemical modifications of the RP107-OH radical on CFTR activation. The replacement of the OH radical by a fluorine atom at position 2 (RP193 or 4 (RP185 significantly decreased the toxicity of the compounds without altering the ability to activate CFTR, especially for RP193. The non-toxic compound RP193 has no effect on cAMP production but stimulates the channel activity of wild-type CFTR in stably transfected CHO cells, in human bronchial epithelial NuLi-1 cells and in primary culture of human bronchial epithelial cells. Whole cell and single patch clamp recordings showed that RP193 induced a linear, time and voltage-independent current, which was fully inhibited by two different and selective CFTR inhibitors (CFTRinh-172 and GPinh-5a. Moreover, RP193 stimulates CFTR in temperature-rescued CuFi-1 (F508del/F508del human bronchial epithelial cells and in CHO cells stably expressing G551D-CFTR. This study shows that it is feasible to reduce cytotoxicity of chemical compounds without affecting their potency to activate CFTR and to rescue the class 2 F508del-CFTR and class 3 G551D-CFTR CF mutant activities.

LucDannhoffer

2011-08-01

50

Femtomolar level sensing of inorganic arsenic(III) in water and in living-systems using a non-toxic fluorescent probe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly selective femtomolar level sensing of inorganic arsenic(III) as arsenious acid has been accomplished in water medium and in living-systems (on pollen grains of Tecoma stans; Candida albicans cells (IMTECH No. 3018) and Peperomia pellucida stem section) using a non-toxic fluorescent probe of a Cu(II)-complex. PMID:25347547

Dey, Biswajit; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Hauli, Ipsit; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kanti; Fleck, Michel

2014-12-14

51

Polymerization of Lactic Acid by MAGHNITE-H+ a Non-Toxic Montmorillonite Clay Catalyst  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as poly(lactic acid), is particularly important for constructing medical devices, controlled drug release matrix, including scaffolds and sutures, and has attracted growing interest in the biomedical field. Here, we report a novel approach to preparing poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PDLA) as a biodegradable polymer. We investigated in detail the reaction conditions for the simple direct polycondensation of D, L-lactic acid, including the reaction times, temperatures, and catalyst. The molecular weight of synthesized PDLA is dependent on both the reaction temperature, amount of catalyst and time. The optimum reaction condition to obtain PDLA by direct polycondensation using Maghnite-H+[1,2], a proton exchanged Montmorillonite clay, as catalyst was thus determined to be 120 °C, 5% amount of Maghnite-H+ for 28 h with a molecular weight of 7970. The method for PDLA synthesis established here will facilitate production of PDLA of various molecular weights, which may have a potential utility as biomaterials.

Harrane, A.; Belaouedj, M. A.; Meghabar, R.; Belbachir, M.

2008-08-01

52

Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au{sub 25} nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au{sub 25} clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au{sup +} ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of {approx}5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f{sub 7/2{approx}}83.97 eV and Au 4f{sub 5/2{approx}}87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size {approx}1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size {approx}8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at {approx}674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR{sup +ve} oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au{sub 25} clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor [Amrita Centre for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Cochin, 682 041 (India); Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: manzoor_nanomed@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Technology, DST unit on Nanoscience, Chennai, 600 036 (India)

2010-02-05

53

Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au25 clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au+ ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of ?5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f7/2?83.97 eV and Au 4f5/2?87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size ?1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size ?8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at ?674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-8to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 ?g ml-1. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR+ve oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au25 clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

54

Identification of BP16 as a non-toxic cell-penetrating peptide with highly efficient drug delivery properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial peptides are an interesting source of non-cytotoxic drug delivery vectors. Herein, we report on the identification of a new cell-penetrating peptide (KKLFKKILKKL-NH2, BP16) from a set of antimicrobial peptides selected from a library of cecropin-melittin hybrids (CECMEL11) previously designed to be used in plant protection. This set of peptides was screened for their cytotoxicity against breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, pancreas adenocarcinoma CAPAN-1 and mouse embryonic fibroblast 3T3 cell lines. BP16 resulted to be non-toxic against both malignant and non-malignant cells at concentrations up to 200 ?M. We demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy that BP16 is mainly internalized in the cells through a clathrin dependent endocytosis and that it efficiently accumulates in the cell cytoplasm. We confirmed that the cell-penetrating properties of BP16 are retained after conjugating it to the breast tumor homing peptide CREKA. Furthermore, we assessed the potential of BP16 as a drug delivery vector by conjugating the anticancer drug chlorambucil to BP16 and to a CREKA-BP16 conjugate. The efficacy of the drug increased between 6 and 9 times when conjugated to BP16 and between 2 and 4.5 times when attached to the CREKA-BP16 derivative. The low toxicity and the excellent cell-penetrating properties clearly suggest that BP16 is a suitable vector for the delivery of therapeutic agents into cells. PMID:24480922

Soler, Marta; González-Bártulos, Marta; Soriano-Castell, David; Ribas, Xavi; Costas, Miquel; Tebar, Francesc; Massaguer, Anna; Feliu, Lidia; Planas, Marta

2014-03-14

55

Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya been oil were irradiated by cobalt-60 gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 years after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures, thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 and 260 nm for films, 240 nm for liquid samples and also by following of -CH2-Cl band at 744 cm-i of IR spectra. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also show the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 years after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration have been also confirm spectrophotometry results and finally the most effective system has been chosen to compare the behaviour of Iranian PVC and Solvay PVC until 6 months after irradiation

56

Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like; calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya bean oil, were irradiated by 60-cobalt gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 yr after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 nm. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also shows the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 yr after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration has also confirmed the spectrophotometry results. Finally the most effective stabilizing system has been added to the Iranian PVC and its behaviour has been compared with the Solvay PVC for 6 months period after irradiation

57

Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses  

Science.gov (United States)

Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like; calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya bean oil, were irradiated by 60-cobalt gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 yr after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 nm. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also shows the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 yr after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration has also confirmed the spectrophotometry results. Finally the most effective stabilizing system has been added to the Iranian PVC and its behaviour has been compared with the Solvay PVC for 6 months period after irradiation.

Naimian, F.

1999-05-01

58

Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like; calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya bean oil, were irradiated by 60-cobalt gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 yr after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 nm. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also shows the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 yr after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration has also confirmed the spectrophotometry results. Finally the most effective stabilizing system has been added to the Iranian PVC and its behaviour has been compared with the Solvay PVC for 6 months period after irradiation.

Naimian, F

1999-05-02

59

20-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Inhibits Proliferation of Cancer Cells with High Efficacy while Being Non-toxic  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim To define the potential utility of 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20(OH)D3) as a tumorostatic agent, we assessed its in vitro antiproliferative activity and its in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods The antitumor activity of 20(OH)D3 was tested against breast and liver cancer cell lines using colony formation assays. To assess in vivo toxicity, mice were injected with 5–30 ?g/kg 20(OH)D3 intraperitoneally each day for 3 weeks. Blood and organ samples were collected for clinical pathology analyses. Results 20(OH)D3 displays similar tumorostatic activity towards MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 breast carcinomas, and HepG2 hepatocarcinoma, in a dose-dependent manner. This compound is not hypercalcemic, does not cause detectable toxicities in liver, kidney, or blood chemistry in mice at a dose as high as 30 ?g/kg. In contrast, both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 caused severe hypercalcemia at a dose of 2 ?g/kg. Conclusion 20(OH)D3 possesses high efficacy for inhibiting cancer cell proliferation in vitro and is non-toxic in vivo, supporting its further development as a potential anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:22399586

WANG, JIN; SLOMINSKI, ANDRZEJ; TUCKEY, ROBERT C.; JANJETOVIC, ZORICA; KULKARNI, ANAND; CHEN, JIANJUN; POSTLETHWAITE, ARNOLD E.; MILLER, DUANE; LI, WEI

2012-01-01

60

Emulsifying Activity and Stability of a Non-Toxic Bioemulsifier Synthesized by Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A previously reported bacterial bioemulsifier, here termed microbactan, was further analyzed to characterize its lipid component, molecular weight, ionic character and toxicity, along with its bioemulsifying potential for hydrophobic substrates at a range of temperatures, salinities and pH values. Analyses showed that microbactan is a high molecular weight (700 kDa, non-ionic molecule. Gas chromatography of the lipid fraction revealed the presence of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids; thus microbactan may be considered a glycolipoprotein. Microbactan emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons and oils to various extents; the highest emulsification index was recorded against motor oil (96%. The stability of the microbactan-motor oil emulsion model reached its highest level (94% at 50 °C, pH 10 and 3.5% NaCl content. It was not toxic to Artemia salina nauplii. Microbactan is, therefore, a non-toxic and non-ionic bioemulsifier of high molecular weight with affinity for a range of oily substrates. Comparative phylogenetic assessment of the 16S rDNA gene of Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 with genes derived from other marine Microbacterium species suggested that this genus is well represented in coastal zones. The chemical nature and stability of the bioemulsifier suggest its potential application in bioremediation of marine environments and in cosmetics.

Benjamín Otto Ortega-Morales

2013-09-01

61

Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

2003-09-01

62

Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

63

Development and design of a high pressure carbon dioxide system for the separation of hazardous contaminants from non-hazardous debris  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Air Force (USAF) Memorandum of Understanding, a system is being designed that will use high pressure carbon dioxide for the separation of oils, greases, and solvents from non-hazardous solid waste. The contaminants are dissolved into the high pressure carbon dioxide and precipitated out upon depressurization. The carbon dioxide solvent can then be recycled for continued use. Excellent extraction capability for common manufacturing oils, greases, and solvents has been measured. It has been observed that extraction performance follows the dilution model if a constant flow system is used. The solvents tested are extremely soluble and have been extracted to 100% under both liquid and mild supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. These data are being used to design a 200 liter extraction system

64

Non-hazardous Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of levulinic acid derivatives: alternative renewable access to 3-hydroxypropionates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases catalyze the energetically challenging oxidation of levulinates (4-oxopentanoates) to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) derivates under ambient conditions, replacing propellant-grade H2O2 with aerial oxygen as the oxidant. This reaction enables a new pathway to a platform for chemical 3-HPA, an important intermediate in the non-petrol based production of a variety of bulk chemicals (acrylates, malonates, 1,3-propanediol). PMID:25583122

Fink, Michael J; Mihovilovic, Marko D

2015-02-01

65

GIS-modelling the distribution of Rattus norvegicus in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats Rattus norvegicus in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundance. The first procedure has been previously applied, while the second has never been used until now. In this study, we valued the effectiveness of the interpolating procedure by modelling the distribution of brown rats in a large urban area of northern Italy. During spring and autumn 2004, we positioned non toxic baits in 119 spots distributed over the whole urbanized area of the city and we generated maps of rat presence/absence for the two seasons. Brown rats were irregularly scattered over the city and concentrated mainly around rivers and ditches, as well in the historic centre, particularly where buildings suffer poor maintenance. Seasonal variation of rat occurrence was also detected. Brown rat occurrence may be reliably predicted by the interpolation procedure, which appeared to be a more efficient approach to rat distribution modelling compared with landscape-based procedures. Riassunto Modelli GIS della distribuzione di Rattus norvegicus in ambiente urbano con utilizzo di esche non tossiche. I programmi GIS rappresentano un utile strumento per analizzare e modellizzare la distribuzione del ratto delle chiaviche Rattus norvegicus nelle aree urbane, fornendo mappe in grado di predire la presenza di questa specie su vaste aree. A questo scopo possono essere impiegate due procedure alternative: i modelli basati sul paesaggio, che utilizzano le caratteristiche ambientali desunte da mappe tematiche o immagini satellitari oppure ii tecniche di interpolazione che convertono insiemi di punti di presenza accertata in stime di abbondanza. Il primo approccio è già stato utilizzato, mentre il secondo non ci risulta essere ancora stato applicato nella gestione del ratto delle chiaviche. In questo studio è valutata l’efficacia del metodo di interpolazione nel predire la distribuzione di questo roditore in una grande area urbana del nord Italia. Nel corso della primavera e dell’autunno 2004, sono state posizionate esche non tossiche in 119 punti distribuiti sull’intera area urbana. I dati così raccolti sono stati utilizzati per generare mappe di presenza/assenza della specie nelle due stagioni di indagine. I ratti delle chiaviche sono risultati irregolarmente distribuiti in città e concentrati principalmente lungo i corsi d’acqua e nel centro storico soprattutto in presenza di edifici soggetti a scarsa manutenzione. Nel corso dell’indagine sono emerse differenze nella distribuzione fra le due stagioni di ricerca. La presenza del ratto delle chiaviche può effettivamente essere predetta mediante il processo di interpolazione: questo metodo risulta essere più efficiente rispetto a quello basato sull’analisi delle sole caratteristiche ambientali.

Roberto Sacchi

2008-07-01

66

High concentrations of protein test substances may have non-toxic effects on Daphnia magna: Implications for regulatory study designs and ecological risk assessments for GM crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory testing for possible adverse effects of insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms (NTOs) is an important part of many ecological risk assessments for regulatory decision-making about the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops. To increase confidence in the risk assessments, regulatory guidelines for effects testing specify that representative surrogate species for NTOs are exposed to concentrations of insecticidal proteins that are in excess of worst-case predicted exposures in the field. High concentrations in effects tests are achieved by using protein test substances produced in microbes, such as Escherichia coli. In a study that exposed Daphnia magna to a single high concentration of a microbial test substance containing Vip3Aa20, the insecticidal protein in MIR162 maize, small reductions in growth were observed. These effects were surprising as many other studies strongly suggest that the activity of Vip3Aa20 is limited to Lepidoptera. A plausible explanation for the effect on growth is that high concentrations of test substance have a non-toxic effect on Daphnia, perhaps by reducing its feeding rate. A follow-up study tested that hypothesis by exposing D. magna to several concentrations of Vip3Aa20, and a high concentration of a non-toxic protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Vip3Aa20 and BSA had sporadic effects on the reproduction and growth of D. magna. The pattern of the effects suggests that they result from non-toxic effects of high concentrations of protein, and not from toxicity. The implications of these results for regulatory NTO effects testing and ERA of IRGM crops are discussed. PMID:25523175

Raybould, Alan; Burns, Andrea; Hamer, Mick

2014-10-01

67

Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro. Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 0.2 ?IU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 1.8 ?IU/ml

N.P. Viantri

2012-04-01

68

Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo) and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro). Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone ? 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone ? 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone ? 0.2 ?IU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone ? 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone ? 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone ? 1.8 ?IU/ml (author)

69

The delivery of poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles loaded with non-toxic drug to overcome drug resistance for the treatment of neuroblastoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroblastoma is a rare cancer of the sympathetic nervous system. A neuroblastoma tumor develops in the nerve tissue and is diagnosed in infants and children. Approximately 10.2 per million children under the age of 15 are affected in the United States and is slightly more common in boys. Neuroblastoma constitutes 6% of all childhood cancers and has a long-term survival rate of only 15%. There are approximately 700 new cases of neuroblastoma each year in the United States. With such a low rate of survival, the development of more effective treatment methods is necessary. A number of therapies are available for the treatment of these tumors; however, clinicians and their patients face the challenges of systemic side effects and drug resistance of the tumor cells. The application of nanoparticles has the potential to provide a safer and more effective method of delivery drugs to tumors. The advantage of using nanoparticles for drug delivery is the ability to specifically or passively target tumors while reducing the harmful side effects of chemotherapeutics. Drug delivery via nanoparticles can also allow for lower dosage requirements with controlled release of the drugs, which can further reduce systemic toxicity. The aim of this research was to develop a polymeric nanoparticle drug delivery system for the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma. Nanoparticles composed of a poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer were formulated to deliver a non-toxic drug in combination with Temozolomide, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of neuroblastoma. The non-toxic drug acts as an inhibitor to the DNA-repair protein present in neuroblastoma cells that is responsible for inducing drug resistance in the cells, which would potentially allow for enhanced temozolomide activity. A variety of studies were completed to prove the nanoparticles' low toxicity, loading abilities, and uptake into cells. Additionally, studies were performed to determine the individual effect on cell toxicity of each drug and in combination. Finally, nanoparticles were loaded with the non-toxic drug and delivered with free temozolomide to determine the overall efficacy of the drugs in reducing neuroblastoma cell viability.

Dhulekar, Jhilmil

70

Simple and non-toxic fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)-patterned polymer surface for the formation of cell patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a facile and non-toxic method for the formation of cell-adhesive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) patterns on the surface of a non-biological polystyrene substrate (NPS) is developed to control cellular micro-organization. PVA thin films spin-coated onto the NPS are selectively irradiated with 150 keV H+ ions through a pattern mask and developed with deionized water to form negative-type PVA patterns. Well-defined stripe patterns of PVA with a width of 100 ?m are created on the NPS at a higher fluence than 5 × 1015 ions/cm2, and their surface chemical compositions are changed by ion irradiation without any significant morphological change. Based on the results of the protein adsorption test and in vitro cell culture, cancer cells are preferentially adhered and proliferated onto the more hydrophilic PVA regions of the PVA-patterned NPS, resulting in well-defined cell patterns.

Hwang, In-Tae; Jin, Yu-Ran; Oh, Min-Suk; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak

2014-10-01

71

Bacillus subtilis natto: a non-toxic source of poly-?-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of ?-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of this study was to test the effect of ?-PGA (produced by B. subtilis natto ATCC 15245) on the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying and to test the toxigenic potential of B. subtilis natto. 10% ?-PGA was found to protect Lactobacillus paracasei significantly better than 10% sucrose, whereas it showed comparable cryoprotectant activity to sucrose when it was used to protect Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum. Although ?-PGA is known to be non-toxic, it is crucial to ascertain the toxigenic potential of its source, B. subtilis natto. Presence of six genes that are known to encode for toxins were investigated: three component hemolysin (hbl D/A), three component non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheB), B. cereus enterotoxin T (bceT), enterotoxin FM (entFM), sphingomyelinase (sph) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase (piplc). From our investigations, none of these six genes were present in B. subtilis natto. Moreover, haemolytic and lecithinase activities were found to be absent. Our work contributes a biodegradable polymer from a non-toxic source for the cryoprotection of probiotic bacteria, thus improving their survival during the manufacturing process. PMID:23829836

Bhat, Aditya R; Irorere, Victor U; Bartlett, Terry; Hill, David; Kedia, Gopal; Morris, Mark R; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Radecka, Iza

2013-01-01

72

Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric ?- amyloid (A? to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar A? is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible A? oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of A? aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh, was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. Results K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against A?42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-?-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic A? oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different A? conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. Conclusion K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

Sharoar Md

2012-12-01

73

Analysis of correlation between the process of thyroid fibrosis and TGFB1 gene expression level in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) thyroid specimens collected from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and non-toxic goitre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) stimulates the production of various extracellular matrix components; at the same time, it inhibits matrix degradation. These actions of TGFB1 contribute to tissue repair, however, an altered expression of TGFB1 can be a causative factor of fibrosis processes, including thyroid fibrosis which follows chronic thyroiditis. The aim of our study was to examine a potential correlation between TGFB1 gene expression level in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) thyroid specimens and fibrosis of the thyroid gland in two types of thyroid lesions. Fibrosis of the thyroid tissue was assessed, based on the expression levels of fibrosis-associated genes (COL1A1 and COL3A1) in thyroid FNAB samples, on the FNAB specimen cellularity and other features of the tissue fibrosis assessed during cytological examination, as well as on the size of thyroid gland and its function. Following routine cytological examination, 63 thyroid FNAB specimens, received from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT, n=30) and non-toxic goitre (NTG, n=33), were quantitatively evaluated regarding TGFB1, COL1A1 and COL3A1 expression level by real-time PCR in the ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System. The obtained results showed statistically significant differences regarding the expression level (RQ) of TGFB1 and of COL1A1 genes between the groups with HT and with NTG (higher expression in HT group). No significant differences, concerning the expression level of COL3A1 gene, were observed for the studied groups (HT vs. NTG). In HT group statistically significant correlation was found between TGFB1 gene and COL3A1 gene expression levels (p<0.05). The correlation in question might suggest excessive extracellular matrix deposition and could--possibly--contribute to thyroid fibrosis mechanism in the course of chronic thyroiditis. PMID:20191437

Cyniak-Magierska, A; Januszkiewicz-Caulier, J; Brzezia?ska, E; Lewi?ski, A

2010-07-01

74

LOS oligosaccharide modification enhances dendritic cell responses to meningococcal native outer membrane vesicles expressing a non-toxic lipid A  

Science.gov (United States)

Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are released by many bacteria, and contain immunogenic antigens in addition to harmful inflammatory factors, like lipopolysaccharides. Chemically detoxified OMV have been used in vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis (Nm); however, little is known about their interaction with antigen presenting cells. In this study, we investigated the interaction of Nm OMV with human dendritic cells (DC) to gain further understanding of their biological activity. We engineered a novel serogroup B Nm that is unencapsulated (siaD), expresses pentacylated lipid A (lpxL1), hence conferring reduced toxicity, and expresses an lgtB oligosaccharide structure designed to target OMV to DC via DC-SIGN. We show that the lgtB moiety is critical for internalization of NOMV by DC. Furthermore, the lgtB moiety significantly enhances DC maturation, IL-10 and IL-23 production in the presence of a pentacylated lipid A. While different DC phenotypes were observed for each NOMV, this had little effect on Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation; however, lgtBsignificantly increased Th17 cell expansion in the presence of pentacylated lipid A. We believe that lpxL1/lgtB NOMV should be considered further as a vaccine vector, particularly considering the importance of lgtB in antigen uptake and further human studies on antigen-specific responses should be considered. PMID:24152255

Jones, Hannah E; Copland, Alastair; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Cohen, Jonathan; Brown, Jeremy; Klein, Nigel; van der Ley, Peter; Dixon, Garth

2014-01-01

75

Discovery of potent, novel, non-toxic anti-malarial compounds via quantum modelling, virtual screening and in vitro experimental validation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing resistance towards existing anti-malarial therapies emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Additionally, many malaria drugs in use today have high toxicity and low therapeutic indices. Gradient Biomodeling, LLC has developed a quantum-model search technology that uses quantum similarity and does not depend explicitly on chemical structure, as molecules are rigorously described in fundamental quantum attributes related to individual pharmacological properties. Therapeutic activity, as well as toxicity and other essential properties can be analysed and optimized simultaneously, independently of one another. Such methodology is suitable for a search of novel, non-toxic, active anti-malarial compounds. Methods A set of innovative algorithms is used for the fast calculation and interpretation of electron-density attributes of molecular structures at the quantum level for rapid discovery of prospective pharmaceuticals. Potency and efficacy, as well as additional physicochemical, metabolic, pharmacokinetic, safety, permeability and other properties were characterized by the procedure. Once quantum models are developed and experimentally validated, the methodology provides a straightforward implementation for lead discovery, compound optimizzation and de novo molecular design. Results Starting with a diverse training set of 26 well-known anti-malarial agents combined with 1730 moderately active and inactive molecules, novel compounds that have strong anti-malarial activity, low cytotoxicity and structural dissimilarity from the training set were discovered and experimentally validated. Twelve compounds were identified in silico and tested in vitro; eight of them showed anti-malarial activity (IC50 ? 10 ?M, with six being very effective (IC50 ? 1 ?M, and four exhibiting low nanomolar potency. The most active compounds were also tested for mammalian cytotoxicity and found to be non-toxic, with a therapeutic index of more than 6,900 for the most active compound. Conclusions Gradient's metric modelling approach and electron-density molecular representations can be powerful tools in the discovery and design of novel anti-malarial compounds. Since the quantum models are agnostic of the particular biological target, the technology can account for different mechanisms of action and be used for de novo design of small molecules with activity against not only the asexual phase of the malaria parasite, but also against the liver stage of the parasite development, which may lead to true causal prophylaxis.

Kaludov Nikola

2011-09-01

76

Non-toxic complexing agent Tri-sodium citrate's effect on chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films and its growth mechanism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS thin films were prepared by CBD using non-toxic complexing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of ZnS thin film was improved with Na{sub 3}-citrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is depends upon the concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the growth and characterizations of chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films prepared at pH 10. Aqueous zinc acetate and thiourea were used as precursors along with the non-toxic complexing agent, Na{sub 3}-citrate. The effects of different concentrations of Na{sub 3}-citrate from 0 to 0.2 M on the structural, morphological, compositional, chemical, and optical properties of ZnS thin films were studied. It was revealed through field emission scanning electron microscopy studies that an increase in the concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate leads to an improvement of the uniformity of the ZnS thin films and decrease in the grain size. Atomic force microscopy showed that the RMS value decreases with an increase in Na{sub 3}-citrate concentration. X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallinity of ZnS thin films improves upon increasing concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate and that the films exhibit a hexagonal polycrystalline ZnS phase while deposited with 0.2 and 0.1 M Na{sub 3}-citrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the signal intensity decreases for Zn 2p{sub 3/2} and S 2p{sub 1/2} as the concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate decreases from 0.2 to 0 M. It was shown by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy that approximately 80% transmission in the visible region and absorption edge shifts towards blue when the concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate increases from 0 to 0.2 M. The band gap energy of the ZnS film deposited without Na{sub 3}-citrate was found to be 3.53 eV, while it increases from 3.73 to 3.80 eV with a decrease in Na{sub 3}-citrate concentration from 0.2 to 0.025 M. The growth mechanism of CBD-ZnS thin film was found to be dependent on Na{sub 3}-citrate concentration.

Agawane, G.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Seung Wook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Electrochemical Mat. Lab., Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Gurav, K.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jae Ho, E-mail: yunjh92@kier.re.kr [Photovoltaic Research Group, KIER, Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyeok, E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-15

77

Non-toxic complexing agent Tri-sodium citrate’s effect on chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films and its growth mechanism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? ZnS thin films were prepared by CBD using non-toxic complexing agent. ? The morphology of ZnS thin film was improved with Na3-citrate. ? The growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is depends upon the concentration of Na3-citrate. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the growth and characterizations of chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films prepared at pH 10. Aqueous zinc acetate and thiourea were used as precursors along with the non-toxic complexing agent, Na3-citrate. The effects of different concentrations of Na3-citrate from 0 to 0.2 M on the structural, morphological, compositional, chemical, and optical properties of ZnS thin films were studied. It was revealed through field emission scanning electron microscopy studies that an increase in the concentration of Na3-citrate leads to an improvement of the uniformity of the ZnS thin films and decrease in the grain size. Atomic force microscopy showed that the RMS value decreases with an increase in Na3-citrate concentration. X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallinity of ZnS thin films improves upon increasing concentration of Na3-citrate and that the films exhibit a hexagonal polycrystalline ZnS phase while deposited with 0.2 and 0.1 M Na3-citrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the signal intensity decreases for Zn 2p3/2 and S 2p1/2 as the concentrationp1/2 as the concentration of Na3-citrate decreases from 0.2 to 0 M. It was shown by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy that approximately 80% transmission in the visible region and absorption edge shifts towards blue when the concentration of Na3-citrate increases from 0 to 0.2 M. The band gap energy of the ZnS film deposited without Na3-citrate was found to be 3.53 eV, while it increases from 3.73 to 3.80 eV with a decrease in Na3-citrate concentration from 0.2 to 0.025 M. The growth mechanism of CBD–ZnS thin film was found to be dependent on Na3-citrate concentration.

78

Radiolytic formation of non-toxic Cr(III) from toxic Cr(VI) in formate containing aqueous solutions: A system for water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Cr(VI) is radiolytically reduced to Cr(III) in presence formate. ? Reduction is pH, dose rate dependent. A mechanism is proposed. ? Cr(VI) recovers when all the formate is consumed. ? Irradiation of wastewater can remove Cr(VI). - Abstract: Toxic hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the form of potassium dichromate was radiolytically reduced to non-toxic trivalent chromium Cr(III) in N2O-saturated aqueous solutions containing formate. This reduction by the electron donor (CO2H·/CO2·?) produced by continuous radiolysis of water, was a linear function of the absorbed dose. This reaction was pH and dose rate dependent. pH was an important parameter in the reduction, as it affects both chemical speciation of Cr(VI) and formate. Possible mechanisms related to dose rate dependence of removal of Cr(VI) are presented. At pH 3 a decrease in the radiation induced reduction of Cr(VI) was observed with increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration. A mechanism to account for this variation is proposed. These findings suggest that irradiation of Cr(VI) solutions in presence of formate can be effective, economical and simple means for treatment of waste water contaminated with hexavalent Cr(VI).

79

The potentiation effect makes the difference: Non-toxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles enhance Cu nanoparticle toxicity in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we examined whether the addition of a non-toxic concentration (6.25?g/mL) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs: 19, 35 and 57nm, respectively) modulates the cytotoxicity of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs, 63nm in size) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxic effect of CuNPs on HepG2 cells was markedly enhanced by the ZnONPs, the largest ZnONPs causing the highest increase in toxicity. However, CuNPs cytotoxicity was not affected by co-incubation with medium containing only zinc ions, indicating the increase in toxicity might be attributed to the particle form of ZnONPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of CuNPs and ZnONPs inside the cells co-exposed to both types of NP and outflow of cytoplasm through the damaged cell membrane. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determined an increase in the concentration of zinc and a decrease in that of copper in co-exposed cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that accumulation of large numbers of ZnONPs in the cells alters cellular membranes and the cytotoxicity of CuNPs is increased. PMID:25461026

Li, Lingxiangyu; Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona; Conde, Estefanía; Fernández, Marta; Schuster, Michael; Navas, José María

2015-02-01

80

A non-toxic reusable on-board propulsion system for orbiter upgrade and the human exploration and development of space  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A non-toxic on-board propulsion system for the Space Shuttle orbiter promises high payoffs in terms of safety, cost, reliability, reduced ground operations, and improved mission flexibility. Significant cost savings and safety enhancements can be realized by eliminating toxic propellant handling from the orbiter processing flow, including elimination of SCAPE suit operations, relaxing leakage concerns, and reducing propellant cost. Mission reliability and safety can be enhanced by reducing the number of critical components that must operate, while maintaining the same fault tolerance as the current propulsion systems. Mission flexibility and management of propellant reserves can be improved by combining the propellant storage and pressurization systems for the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and the reaction control system (RCS). The reduction and automation of checkout requirements for the upgraded propulsion system can enhance operational ease and reduce the turnaround cost. System integration with the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and the power system may save additional turnaround costs by sharing common components such as the storage tanks. Finally, there can be commonality of this technology with Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) missions that utilize oxygen produced from in-situ planetary resources. This is a major advancement in the state-of-the-art. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Hurlbert, E.; Moreland, R. [Propulsion and Power Division---EP4 NASA/Johnson Space Center 2101 Nasa Road One Houston, Texas77058 (United States)

1997-01-01

81

A non-toxic reusable on-board propulsion system for orbiter upgrade and the human exploration and development of space  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-toxic on-board propulsion system for the Space Shuttle orbiter promises high payoffs in terms of safety, cost, reliability, reduced ground operations, and improved mission flexibility. Significant cost savings and safety enhancements can be realized by eliminating toxic propellant handling from the orbiter processing flow, including elimination of SCAPE suit operations, relaxing leakage concerns, and reducing propellant cost. Mission reliability and safety can be enhanced by reducing the number of critical components that must operate, while maintaining the same fault tolerance as the current propulsion systems. Mission flexibility and management of propellant reserves can be improved by combining the propellant storage and pressurization systems for the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and the reaction control system (RCS). The reduction and automation of checkout requirements for the upgraded propulsion system can enhance operational ease and reduce the turnaround cost. System integration with the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and the power system may save additional turnaround costs by sharing common components such as the storage tanks. Finally, there can be commonality of this technology with Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) missions that utilize oxygen produced from in-situ planetary resources. This is a major advancement in the state-of-the-art.

Hurlbert, Eric; Moreland, Robert

1997-01-01

82

Inhibition of sirtuin 2 with sulfobenzoic acid derivative AK1 is non-toxic and potentially neuroprotective in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tauopathies including tau-associated Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are characterized pathologically by the formation of tau-containing neurofibrillary aggregates and neuronal loss, which contribute to cognitive decline. There are currently no effective treatments to prevent or slow this neural systems failure. The rTg4510 mouse model, which expresses a mutant form of the tau protein associated with frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism-17, undergoes dramatic hippocampal and cortical neuronal loss making it an ideal model to study treatments for FTD-related neuronal loss. Sirtuins are a family of proteins involved in cell survival that have the potential to modulate neuronal loss in neurodegenerative disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that sirtuin 2 (SIRT2 inhibition would be non-toxic and prevent neurodegeneration in rTg4510 brain. In this study we delivered SIRT2 inhibitor AK1 directly to the hippocampus with an osmotic minipump and confirmed that it reached the target region both with histological assessment of delivery of a dye and with a pharmacodynamic marker, ABCA1 transcription, which was upregulated with AK1 treatment. AK1 treatment was found to be safe in wild-type mice and in the rTg4510 mouse model, and further, it provided some neuroprotection in the rTg4510 hippocampal circuitry. This study provides proof-of-concept for therapeutic benefits of SIRT2 inhibitors in both tau-associated FTD and Alzheimer’s disease, and suggests that development of potent, brain permeable SIRT2 inhibitors is warranted.

TaraLeighSpires-Jones

2012-03-01

83

Change in the transfer profile of orally administered tetrodotoxin to non-toxic cultured pufferfish Takifugu rubripes depending of its development stage.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the effects of growth (organ development) on tetrodotoxin (TTX) dynamics in the pufferfish body, TTX-containing feed homogenate was administered to 6- and 15-month old non-toxic cultured specimens of the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes at a dose of 40 mouse units (MU) (8.8 ?g)/20 g body weight by oral gavage. After 24 h, the specimens were killed and the skin tissues (dorsal and ventral), muscle, liver, digestive tract, and gonads were separated. TTX content (?g/g) in each tissue, determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, revealed that the TTX distribution profile, particularly the TTX content of the liver, greatly differed between the two ages; the TTX score of 15-month old fish (3.3 ?g/g) was nearly 5-fold that of 6-month old fish (0.68 ?g/g). The total remaining TTX amount per individual (relative amount to the given dose) was 31% in 6-month old fish, of which 71% was in the skin, and 84% in 15-month old fish, of which 83% was in the liver. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) scores, and histologic observations of the gonads and liver suggest that although there is little difference in maturation stage between these two ages, there are clear distinctions in the developmental stage of the liver. The results suggest that the TTX dynamics in T. rubripes are linked to the development of the liver, i.e., the TTX taken up into the pufferfish body via food organisms is eliminated or transferred mainly to the skin in young fish with an undeveloped liver, but as the fish grow and the liver continues to develop, most of the TTX is transferred to and accumulated in the liver. PMID:23396116

Tatsuno, Ryohei; Shikina, Miwako; Shirai, Yoshiyuki; Wang, Junjie; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Nishihara, Gregory N; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu

2013-04-01

84

Genetic polymorphism in brazilian microcystis spp. (Cyanobacteria) toxic and non-toxic through RFLP-PCR of the cpcBA-IGS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência de florações de cianobactérias tóxicas demanda um melhor entendimento da variabilidade genética como um instrumento auxiliar na identificação de espécies colaborando, assim, com o monitoramento de águas destinadas ao abastecimento público. Este estudo objetivou o conhecimento do polimor [...] fismo genético de linhagens tóxicas e não tóxicas de espécies de Microcystis (Cyanobacteria), isoladas de diversas localidades brasileiras, utilizando a técnica molecular RFLP-PCR para o operon que codifica para a c-ficocianina e seu espaçador intergênico (cpcBA-IGS). Foram analisadas dezoito linhagens pertencentes as espécies Microcystis aeruginosa, M. panniformis, M. protocystis, M. wesenbergii e duas outras não identificadas através de dados morfológicos e moleculares. Os resultados moleculares formaram três agrupamentos com baixos valores de similaridade entre si os quais não foram relacionados à origem geográfica, toxicidade ou morfoespécies. As populações brasileiras de Microcystis spp. apresentaram alta diversidade genética quando comparadas com as da Austrália, Japão, Estados Unidos e Europa. Esta ampla diversidade genética pode ser vislumbrada através de diversos perfis eletroforéticos obtidos entre linhagens de uma mesma espécie. Nós encontramos a presença de linhagens tóxicas e não tóxicas em uma mesma espécie, como em M. aeruginosa. Abstract in english The escalating occurrence of cyanobacterial toxic blooms demands a better understanding of genetic variability as an auxiliary expedient in species identification, collaborating with the monitoring of water destined to public supply. This study aimed at the unraveling of genetic polymorphism in the [...] toxic and nontoxic strains of Microcystis (Cyanobacteria) species, isolated from diverse Brazilian localities through the RFLP-PCR technique applied to the c-phycocyanin encoding operon and its intergenic spacer (cpcBA-IGS). Eighteen strains belonging to M. aeruginosa, M. panniformis, M. protocystis and M. wesenbergii, plus two other unidentified strains, were analyzed by means of the morphological and molecular data. The molecular data constituted three groups with low similarity values unrelated to the geographical origin, toxicity or morphospecies. A high genetic variability among the studied populations was unveiled by the results. Brazilian populations of Microcystis spp. displayed high genetic diversity when compared to those from Australia, Japan, United States and Europe. This ample genetic diversity could be observed through the diverse eletrophoretic profiles obtained among the strains from a single species. The presence of toxic and non-toxic strains was observed in the same species, as M. aeruginosa.

Maria do Carmo, Bittencourt-Oliveira; Maristela Casé Costa, Cunha; Ariadne do Nascimento, Moura.

2009-08-01

85

Heterologous expressed toxic and non-toxic peptide variants of toxin CssII are capable to produce neutralizing antibodies against the venom of the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two toxic and one non-toxic recombinant peptide variants of the mammalian neurotoxin CssII was cloned into the expression vector pQE30 containing a 6His-tag and a Factor Xa proteolytic cleavage site. The toxic recombinant peptides rCssII, HisrCssII and the non-toxic rCssIIE15R were expressed under induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG), isolated using chromatographic techniques and folded correctly in vitro. The three recombinant variants showed similar secondary structures as the native CssII, but only the rCssIIE15R was not toxic to mice at concentrations up to 30microg/20g mouse body weight when injected intraperitoneally. All three recombinant peptides were capable of displacing the native CssII from their receptor sites in rat brain synaptosomes, suggesting that they had similar structural and functional characteristics of the native peptides. The three recombinant variants of CssII and the native one were used as antigens for immunization of New Zealand rabbits. The antibodies present in the rabbit antisera were able to recognize the native CssII. Additionally and more importantly, the sera of the immunized rabbits were able to neutralize both the native toxin CssII and the whole soluble venom of the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus. These results indicate that the recombinant peptides can be used to produce antidotes against the venom of this species of scorpion. PMID:19524619

Hernández-Salgado, Kenya; Estrada, Georgina; Olvera, Alejandro; Coronas, Fredy I; Possani, Lourival D; Corzo, Gerardo

2009-08-15

86

Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the open-quotes cradle to graveclose quotes ownership liabilities

87

Relative quantification of PIK3CA gene expression level in fine-needle aspiration biopsy thyroid specimens collected from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and non-toxic goitre by real-time RT-PCR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is important regulator of many cellular events, including apoptosis, proliferation and motility. PI3K pathway alterations (PIK3CA gene mutations and/or amplification have been observed in various human tumours. In the majority of diagnosed cases, mutations are localized in one of the three "hot spots" in the gene, responsible for coding catalytic subunit ? of class I PI3K (PIK3CA. Mutations and amplification of PIK3CA gene are characteristic for thyroid cancer, as well. Methods The aim of our study was to examine a gene expression level of PIK3CA in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB thyroid specimens in two types of thyroid lesions, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and non-toxic goitre (NTG. Following conventional cytological examination, 42 thyroid FNAB specimens, received from patients with PTC (n = 20 and NTG (n = 22, were quantitatively evaluated regarding PIK3CA expression level by real-time PCR in the ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. Results Significantly higher expression level (RQ of PIK3CA in PTC group has been noted in comparison with NTG group (p Conclusion These observations may suggest role of PIK3CA alterations in PTC carcinogenesis.

Wojciechowska-Durczy?ska Katarzyna

2010-08-01

88

Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

89

Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles  

OpenAIRE

Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipa...

Chi-Yang Yu; Liang-Yu Huang; I-Ching Kuan; Shiow-Ling Lee

2013-01-01

90

Administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio não protege contra a intoxicação por este composto em ovinos / Repeated administration of non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate does not protect against poisoning by this compound in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar se repetidas doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MFA) induzem resistência à intoxicação por essa substância, 18 ovinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de nove animais cada. Os ovinos do Grupo 1 ingeriram doses crescentes não letai [...] s de MFA por seis períodos: 0,05mg/kg por 5 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias e 0,25mg/kg por 3 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam o MFA por 10 dias consecutivos; entre o terceiro e o quarto período e dentre os demais períodos de administração, os ovinos permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir o MFA. Quinze dias após o último período de administração os ovinos foram desafiados com a dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado a ingestão de MFA, estes ovinos receberam dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA no mesmo período em que o G1 foi desafiado. No desafio sete ovinos do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação e um ovino se recuperou. No Grupo 2 todos os animais manifestaram quadro clínico da intoxicação por MFA, no entanto, dois ovinos se recuperaram. Os coeficientes de mortalidade foram de 66,6% para o Grupo 1 e de 77,7% para o Grupo 2. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de MFA não protege contra a intoxicação aguda por este composto, portanto, outras alternativas para a profilaxia da intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA deverão ser pesquisadas, principalmente a utilização intraruminal de bactérias que hidrolisam MFA. Abstract in english With the objective to assess whether repeated non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) induce resistance to poisoning by this compound, 18 sheep were randomly divided into two experimental groups of nine animals each. Sheep from Group 1 ingested non-lethal increasing doses of MFA for six pe [...] riods: 0.05mg/kg for 5 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days and 0.25mg/kg for 3 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and third period the animals did not receive MFA for 10 consecutive days, between the third and fourth period and during the remaining periods of administration the sheep were left 15 days without ingesting MFA. Group 2 was not adapted to the ingestion of MFA and received a single dose of 1mg/kg of MFA at the same time that Group 1 was challenged. After challenge, seven sheep of Group 1 showed clinical signs of poisoning and one sheep recovered. In Group 2, all animals showed clinical signs of poisoning by MFA, however two sheep recovered. The mortality rate was 66.6% in Group 1 and 77.7% for Group 2. These results suggest that repeated administration of non-toxic doses of MFA does not protect against acute poisoning by this compound; therefore other alternatives of prophylaxis for poisoning by plants containing MFA should be searched, mainly the use of intraruminal bacteria that hydrolyze MFA.

Ariany C., Santos; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Rubiane F., Heckler; Stephanie C., Lima; Mariana L., Silva; Renato, Rezende; Nilton M., Carvalho; Ricardo A.A., Lemos.

2014-07-01

91

Indução de resistência à intoxicação por Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) mediante administração de doses sucessivas não tóxicas / Induction of resistance to Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) poisoning by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de comprovar se doses não tóxicas repetidas de Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. criam resistência à intoxicação, 12 caprinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de seis animais cada. No Grupo 1 foi induzida resistência mediante a administração, dur [...] ante quatro períodos alternados, de 0,02g/kg das folhas dessecadas de P. aeneofusca durante 5 dias, 0,02g/kg durante 5 dias, 0,03g/kg durante 5 dias e 0,03g/kg por mais 5 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam planta por 10 dias consecutivos e entre o terceiro e quarto período de administração os animais permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir a planta. Um caprino morreu subitamente quando estava recebendo 0,03 g/kg da planta, no terceiro período de administração. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado ao consumo de P. aeneofusca. Quinze dias após a adaptação ao consumo de P. aeneofusca do Grupo 1, os dois grupos receberam P. aeneofusca na dose diária de 0,03g/kg durante 19 dias. A partir do 20º dia de administração continuada a dose diária de P. aeneofusca foi aumentada para 0,04g/kg. Esta dose foi administrada por mais 12 dias. Os animais que mostraram sinais clínicos foram retirados do experimento imediatamente após a observação dos primeiros sinais. Um caprino do Grupo 2 apresentou sinais clínicos de intoxicação e morreu no 12º dia de administração e dois apresentaram sinais clínicos no 24º dia; um se recuperou e outro morreu. Após finalizada esta fase do experimento e para comprovar se os caprinos que não tinham adoecido no Grupo 2 tinham também adquirido resistência, foi introduzido outro grupo com três caprinos. Esses três caprinos (Grupo 3), os cinco caprinos do Grupo 1 e os três sobreviventes do Grupo 2, ingeriram uma dose diária de 0,06g/kg. Os três caprinos do Grupo 3 adoeceram no terceiro dia após o início da ingestão, dois morreram em forma hiperaguda e o outro recuperou-se após 10 dias. Todos os caprinos dos Grupos 1 e 2 ingeriram P. aeneofusca na dose de 0,06g/kg/dia durante nove dias sem apresentar nenhum sinal clínico. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram que a administração de doses não tóxicas repetidas de P. aeneofusca aumentam significativamente á resistência à intoxicação e que esta técnica poderia ser utilizada para o controle da intoxicação por P. aeneofusca e outras espécies de Palicourea com similar toxicidade. Os resultados de pesquisas anteriormente realizados sugerem que a resistência à intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA é devida a proliferação de bactérias que degradam MFA no rúmen. Abstract in english Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. is a toxic plant which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA). With the objective to investigate if repeated non-toxic doses of P. aeneofusca induce resistance to the intoxication by this plant, 12 goats were distributed in two similar groups. In Group 1, [...] resistance was induced by the administration of the dry plant, during four alternate periods: 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.03g/kg during 5 days, and 0.03g/kg during 5 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and the third period, the goats did not ingest P. aeneofusca for 10 days. Between the third and the fourth administration period the goats did not ingest the plant during 15 days. One goat died suddenly during the third administration period when was ingesting 0.03g/kg. The goats from Group 2 were not adapted to the consumption of P. aeneofusca. Fifteen days after the end of the adaptation period in Group 1, both groups ingested dry P. aeneofusca in the daily dose of 0.03g/kg during 19 days. From day 20 the daily dose was increased to 0.04g/kg, which was ingested for 12 days. The goats that showed clinical signs were removed from the experiment immediately after the observation of first signs. On

Murilo Duarte de, Oliveira; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Fabrício K.L., Carvalho; Genilson B., Silva; Walkleber S., Pereira; Rosane M.T., Medeiros.

2013-06-01

92

Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO{sub 2} corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Ross, R.J. [Donlar Corporation (United States); Ravenscroft, P.D. [BP Exploration Operating Company, (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

93

Waterloo process for SCP production from waste biomass. [Single cell protein using Chaetomium cellulolyticum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel fermentation process has been developed for the bioconversion of agricultural and forestry wastes into proteinaceous feed/food products. The process is based on the mass microbial cultivation of a new cellulolytic fungus, Chaetomium Cellulolyticum, in solid-substrate systems. Preliminary feeding trials indicate that the SCP products are suitably nutritious, digestible, and non-toxic in animal feed protein rations. Economic analyses indicate that the process could be operated at a profit for a range of realistic scenarios in both developed and developing countries. 12 references

Moo-Young, M.; Daugulis, A.J.; Chahal, D.S.; MacDonald, D.G.

1979-10-01

94

Non-hazardous anticancerous and antibacterial colloidal 'green' silver nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(ethylene glycol) stabilized colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared using the reductive potency of the aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis leaves under ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were well dispersed within a narrow size spectrum (7-14 nm) and displayed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 420 nm and Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure. MTT assay revealed the dose-dependent cytocompatibility and toxicity of the nanoparticles with the L929 normal cell line. On the other hand, the antiproliferative action of the nanoparticles was evaluated on HeLa cell (cancerous cells) line. Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopic imaging indicated the appearance of multinucleate stages with aggregation and nuclear membrane disruption of the HeLa cells post treatment with the nanoparticles. The interaction at the prokaryotic level was also assessed via differential antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Escherichia coli (MTCC 40). Under these perspectives, it is also necessary to observe the environmental impact of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Hence, the dose dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated upon the earthworm species Eisenia fetida. Neither the survival nor the reproduction was affected by the addition of silver nanoparticles up to 1000 ppm. Thus these 'green' silver nanoparticles have promising potential as future materials. PMID:23352940

Barua, Shaswat; Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Das, Pallabi; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Mandal, Manabendra; Karak, Niranjan

2013-05-01

95

LT-IIb(T13I), a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I) is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I) to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab) and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I). While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I) were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®), LT-IIb(T13I) was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I) as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense. PMID:23936344

Greene, Christopher J; Chadwick, Chrystal M; Mandell, Lorrie M; Hu, John C; O'Hara, Joanne M; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Connell, Terry D

2013-01-01

96

ADVANCED NON-TOXIC SILICONE FOULING-RELEASE COATINGS  

Science.gov (United States)

This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated and validated the use of the duplex silicone fouling-release coating system developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), for use on boat hulls and power plant cooling water intake tunne...

97

I-131-treatment of non-toxic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioiodine is a safe and effective treatment of thyroid enlargement with or - in the presence of significant amounts of autonomously functioning tissue - without true euthyroidism. The indications are esentially the same as for surgery, except the case of a goitre recidive and of recurrent nerve injury, for which radioiodine is the treatment of choise. On the contrary, large cold nodules and a suspicion of malignancy preclude it. The size reduction of about 40% is less than that obtained by surgery, but there are no side effects and no recurrences. Hypothyroidism occurs in 4% of the cases. Unfortunately, the number of specially equipped institutions that are allowed to perform radioiodine therapy is yet restricted. (orig.)

98

Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick) or plates (0.5 and 1 mm th...

Porciu?ncula, C. B.; Marcilio, N. R.; Tessaro, I. C.; Gerchmann, M.

2012-01-01

99

Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work is to investigate fuel characteristics of biodiesel and its production in European Union. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. In Europe the most important biofuel is biodiesel. In the European Union biodiesel is the by far biggest biofuel and represents 82% of the biofuel production. Biodiesel production for 2003 in EU-25 was 1,504,000 tons. (author)

100

Isolation and molecular characterization of butanol tolerant bacterial strains for improved biobutanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butanol tolerance is a complex mechanism affecting the ability of microorganisms to generate economically viable quantities of butanol. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize butanol tolerant bacterial strains which can act as potential alternative hosts for butanol production. The potential bacterial isolates were screened, based on the non toxic effect on cell growth rate and degradation ability of sago waste which was used as a sole carbon source with butanol enrichment. During this study, it was found that a growth barrier existed between 1 to 5% butanol concentrations and only few selected isolates could tolerate upto 5% butanol after long term adaptation. Screening of five isolates proved to be more tolerant, which were identified as Bacillusmegaterium, B. aryabhattai, B. tequilensis, and B. circulans using 16S rDNA sequence. These isolates were markedly attractive to identify butanol tolerance specific stress response genes and further engineered to act as a genetic host for biobutanol production. PMID:25522516

Ravindar, John; Arulselvi, Indra; Elangovan, Namasivayam

2014-11-01

101

Practical procedures for a radon etched track dosimetry service  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Etched track detectors are widely used for the detection of radon and its decay products. They have many desirable attributes: they are small, cheap, simple, non-toxic and non-hazardous. Etched track detectors provide adequate accuracy for most radiological protection purposes provided stringent quality assurance is maintained. The UK validation scheme provides an important component of QA but continuous monitoring of conditions and results is also needed. If these conditions are observed, these detectors provide an entirely adequate tool for large-scale use in assessing levels of radon in houses. Accurate estimates of long-term average radon levels require a measurement over several months because of the short-term fluctuations in radon concentrations. (note)

102

Prevention of quorum-sensing-mediated biofilm development and virulence factors production in Vibrio spp. by curcumin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing occurrence of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio spp. and the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led to a growing interest in finding alternative strategies to prevent vibriosis. Since the pathogenicity of vibrios is controlled in part by quorum-sensing (QS) system, interfering with this mechanism would prevent the pathogenicity of vibrios without developing resistance. Hence, a non-toxic phytochemical curcumin from Curcuma longa was assessed for its potential in reducing the production of QS-dependent virulence factors in Vibrio spp. The obtained results evidenced 88% reduction in bioluminescence of Vibrio harveyi by curcumin. Further, curcumin exhibited a significant inhibition in alginate, exopolysaccharides, motility, biofilm development and other virulence factors production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and V. harveyi. In in vivo analysis, curcumin enhanced the survival rate of Artemia nauplii up to 67% against V. harveyi infection by attenuating its QS-mediated virulence. PMID:23354447

Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Sasikumar, Pitchaikani; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Veera Ravi, Arumugam

2013-12-01

103

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of dimethoxymethane over CuZnO/Al2O3-niobium phosphate hybrid catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high hydrogen content of dimethoxymethane (DMM) and non toxicity make it suitable as a resource for hydrogen production used for applications like mobile systems. In this work, samples of niobium phosphate with high surface areas were synthesized, characterized and tested for the hydrolysis of DMM and were used as acidic components for the reforming of DMM to produce H2. Ammonia adsorption micro-calorimetry and isopropanol conversion results showed the high acidity of niobium phosphate with high surface area (394 m2/g). When this sample was mixed mechanically with CuZnO/Al2O3, the conversion of DMM was greatly enhanced comparing with using CuZnO/Al2O3 alone. At 533 K, almost 100% theoretical yield to H2 was achieved and the corresponding hydrogen production rate was found to be 1100 ml.g-1.h-1. (authors)

104

Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of ?-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

105

A review on steam-iron process as a hydrogen production/purifying/storage option  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fuel cell has the potential to become an important energy sector technology in the future, thanks to its ability to produce electrical energy from chemical energy with a high efficiency and without emission of pollutants. Fuel cells require pure hydrogen which is at the moment mainly produced by the steam methane reforming process. However, interest is growing in the steam iron process due to its ability to produce high purity hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the steam iron process through a review of recent research on the subject. This review showed that 100% pure hydrogen can be produced with the steam iron process and that removal of contaminants is minimal in this process; in addition iron is a non-toxic, inexpensive and stable material. This review highlighted that the steam iron process can be a good alternative for hydrogen production, purification and storage.

Ort, Nesibe; Yoruk, Sedat [Ataturk University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Turkey)], e-mail: nesibe.ort@atauni.edu.tr, email: syoruk@atauni.edu.tr; Dilmac, Omer F. [Yyldyz Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Turkey)], email: omerfarukdl@yahoo.com

2011-07-01

106

Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market.

Raina N. Fichorova

2013-02-01

107

Production contact via etching for GaAs MMICS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research has been undertaken in several major research laboratories to achieve a commercially successful GaAs via hole etching process. This work presents the achievement of results with the desired characteristics for through-wafer GaAs interconnects or vias, for production of MMICs. The authors report vias acceptable for use in the production of microwave GaAs field effect transistors fabricated by a reactive ion etching process. Using conventional resist masks and non toxic gases, aspect ratios of up to 10:1 have been achieved with via sizes as small as 40?m x 40?m. Typical wafer thicknesses were greater than 100?m and the process showed high selectivity to the frontside metallization. The etching conditions had to be varied as a function of overall substrate area and exposed GaAs. To determine optimum process parameters, the RF power and resultant DC bias; gas flow rates and ratios; and system pressure were systematically varied. The effects of changes in area of wafer to be etched and of the composition of the electrode material were also studied. Details are presented of the optimum etching parameters for use in 2 inch and 3 inch GaAs MMIC production

108

Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis. PMID:20033403

Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2010-02-01

109

Magnesium applications for fuel economy and energy production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the properties, applications, technological barriers, and future projection of magnesium and magnesium based materials in fuel economy and energy production were evaluated. Mg lowers fabrication and joining costs, substitution by lightweight materials enable weight savings, in addition lifetime fuel costs and CO{sub 2} emission are reduced. Studies state that reducing the automotive weights by a certain amount will result in a similar reduction in fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Most power systems, either renewable or nuclear, provide solutions for electricity production, but to date, there is no satisfactory substitute for liquid fossil fuel for use in transportation (cars, airplanes, and the like) due to environmental reasons or security of supply. A resent approach to this problem is to use hydrogen as fuel. Researches on Magnesium-Air Fuel Cell (MAFC) Technology resulted in new and improved technologies which have advanced the magnesium-air fuel cell to commercialization. The MAFC approach to an alternative energy source is the development of a powerful, reliable and environmentally friendly non-toxic fuel cell that generates energy using magnesium. From the results of the resarches it is concluded that magnesium applications reduce CO{sub 2} emission, and fuel costs. (orig.)

Kulekci, Mustafa Kemal; Yelken, Tugba [Mersin Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Machine Education Sciences; Esme, Ugur [Mersin Univ. (Turkey). Tarsus Technical Education Faculty; Kazancoglu, Yigit [Izmir Univ. of Economics (Turkey). Dept. of Business Administration

2011-07-01

110

Production of radioisotope products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For more than 20 years medicines, compounds and products with radioactive isotopes for medicine, science and technique which are used in the Republic and exported in Community countries, Europe, USA are fabricated at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise of Nuclear Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. Number of products fabricated now at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise exceeds 70 descriptions. The technologies for production of these medicines are unique and simple. Quality of the products yielded doesn't concede to worldwide analog. The products may be divided into 5 sorts: 1. Radiopharmaceutical medicines and products. 2. Compounds tagged with radioisotopes for biotechnology and genetic engineering. 3. Medicines of common use. 4. Radioisotope generators of technetium-99m. 5. Sources for X-ray fluorescent analysis from iron - 55

111

Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for X-ray-based inspection systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Transport Canada (TC), the Canadian Armed Forces, and other public security agencies have an interest in the assessment of the potential utility of advanced explosives detection technologies to aid in the detection and interdiction of commercial grade, military grade, and homemade or improvised explosives (HME or IE). The availability of suitable, non-hazardous, non-toxic, explosive simulants is of concern when assessing the potential utility of such detection systems. Lack of simulants limits the training opportunities, and ultimately the detection probability, of security personnel using these systems. While simulants for commercial and military grade explosives are available for a wide variety of detection technologies, the design and production of materials to simulate improvised explosives has not kept pace with this emerging threat. Funded by TC and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Visiontec Systems, and Optosecurity engaged in an effort to develop inert, non-toxic Xray interrogation simulants for IE materials such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and triacetone triperoxide. These simulants were designed to mimic key X-ray interrogation-relevant material properties of real improvised explosives, principally their bulk density and effective atomic number. Different forms of the simulants were produced and tested, simulating the different explosive threat formulations that could be encountered by front line security workers. These simulants comply with safety and stability requirements, and as best as possible match form and homogeneity. This paper outlines the research program, simulant design, and validation.

Faust, Anthony A.; Nacson, Sabatino; Koffler, Bruce; Bourbeau, Éric; Gagne, Louis; Laing, Robin; Anderson, C. J.

2014-05-01

112

Leaching of coal combustion products: Field and laboratory studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This study combines field monitoring and laboratory experiments to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the re-use of coal combustion by-products (CCPs). The monitoring data obtained from two full-scale CCP applications (i.e., re-use of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond and portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs) allowed environmental impacts to be evaluated under real or simulated in-service conditions. A complimentary laboratory leaching study elucidated fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that determine the leaching kinetics of inorganic contaminants from CCPs. In the first field study, water quality impacts associated with the re-use of FGD material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond were examined by monitoring the water quality of water samples collected from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner over a period of 5 years. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio non-toxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention might be due to both sorption and precipitation. In the second field study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under controlled loading and environmental conditions. Three types of portland-cement-concrete driving surfaces were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). None of the leachate concentrations for fluids collected from laboratory leaching tests exceeded the OhioEPA's non-toxic criteria. Surface runoff monitoring showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, while there were no significant differences in release rates between OPC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for K and Cr, the release of elements was associated with the particulate (>0.45 micron) phase rather than the dissolved phase. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Cheng, Chin-Min

113

Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A composition and methods for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY); Petrakis, Leon (Port Jefferson, NY)

1998-06-09

114

Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A composition and methods are disclosed for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid. 2 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, L.

1998-06-09

115

76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

...solid waste, just as recycled newspapers, recycled aluminum, re-refined...Congress's definition of ``municipal waste'' expresses the intent...the plant to be burned in municipal or commercial energy facilities...this material is burned in municipal or commercial energy...

2011-03-21

116

75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

...commercial recycling markets. Newspaper and aluminum cans discarded...recovery devices (e.g., municipal waste combustors that recover...solid waste just as recycled newspapers are not considered solid...decision will be published in a newspaper advertisement or radio...

2010-06-04

117

Environmental risks of municipal non-hazardous waste landfilling and incineration. Technical report summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To obtain up-to-date information on the potential environmental and human health impacts of the incineration and landfilling options for municipal waste disposal, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment conducted a series of technical risk assessments of two generic disposal facilities: A large-scale incinerator and a modern landfill, each with a similar disposal capacity of 6.6 million tonnes over 20 years. Part 1 of this report summarizes the results of the assessments in terms of human health effects and effects on the aquatic environment. Part 2 summarizes the main assumptions, methods, and conclusions of the full technical studies for the two risk assessments, including effects on human health, the aquatic environment, and the terrestrial environment.

1999-01-01

118

Multi-scale approach of the biomechanical behaviour of non-hazardous waste  

OpenAIRE

This research addresses the biomechanical evolution of municipal solid waste subject to different pretreatment and operational conditions at different scales. After an introduction to the major stakes and figures related to waste management, waste landfilling and its evolution (Chapter I), the characterization of the waste medium is addressed (Chapter II). This triphasic unsaturated medium requires a dedicated scientific approach as well as specific investigation experiments. Several past inv...

Staub, Matthias

2010-01-01

119

Photocatalytic hydrogen production of Co(OH)2 nanoparticle-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanorings  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of hydrogen from water using only a catalyst and solar energy is one of the most challenging and promising outlets for the generation of clean and renewable energy. Semiconductor photocatalysts for solar hydrogen production by water photolysis must employ stable, non-toxic, abundant and inexpensive visible-light absorbers capable of harvesting light photons with adequate potential to reduce water. Here, we show that ?-Fe2O3 can meet these requirements by means of using hydrothermally prepared nanorings. These iron oxide nanoring photocatalysts proved capable of producing hydrogen efficiently without application of an external bias. In addition, Co(OH)2 nanoparticles were shown to be efficient co-catalysts on the nanoring surface by improving the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Both nanoparticle-coated and uncoated nanorings displayed superior photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution when compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, showing themselves to be promising materials for water-splitting using only solar light.The production of hydrogen from water using only a catalyst and solar energy is one of the most challenging and promising outlets for the generation of clean and renewable energy. Semiconductor photocatalysts for solar hydrogen production by water photolysis must employ stable, non-toxic, abundant and inexpensive visible-light absorbers capable of harvesting light photons with adequate potential to reduce water. Here, we show that ?-Fe2O3 can meet these requirements by means of using hydrothermally prepared nanorings. These iron oxide nanoring photocatalysts proved capable of producing hydrogen efficiently without application of an external bias. In addition, Co(OH)2 nanoparticles were shown to be efficient co-catalysts on the nanoring surface by improving the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Both nanoparticle-coated and uncoated nanorings displayed superior photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution when compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, showing themselves to be promising materials for water-splitting using only solar light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Histograms of size distributions of NP-coated and as-prepared IONRs (Fig. S1 and S2); selected-area EDS spectrum of the IONR/Co(OH)2 NPs (Fig. S3); STEM images with details of the IONR/NP surface (Fig. S4); diffuse reflectance data (Fig. S5) and XPS survey spectra of IONRs (Fig. S6). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02195e

Wender, Heberton; Gonçalves, Renato V.; Dias, Carlos Sato B.; Zapata, Maximiliano J. M.; Zagonel, Luiz F.; Mendonça, Edielma C.; Teixeira, Sérgio R.; Garcia, Flávio

2013-09-01

120

Production of Modularised Product Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used to support the ideas.

Jacobsen, Peter

2004-01-01

121

Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production  

Science.gov (United States)

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

2013-01-01

122

Human studies with 'high dose' metronidazole: a non-toxic radiosensitizer of hypoxic cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The serum concentrations of the radiosensitizer metronidazole have been determined in mice for both oral and intraperitoneal doses of the drug and these have been related to radiosensitization studies in murine tumour systems. In preliminary work before a possible clinical trial the serum metronidazole concentration/time curves have been determined in 7 patients using single doses of metronidazole of up to 15 g. The data suggested that a linear relationship exists between the metronidazole dose expressed in mg/kg and the peak serum concentration. The possibility of achieving radiosensitization of tumours in patients after tolerable doses of metronidazole is discussed in relation to enhancement ratios determined for in vitro and in vivo system. It is concluded that predictions from in vitro systems give values that are probably too optimistic. (author)

123

Characterization of an inexpensive, non-toxic and highly sensitive microarray substrate.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An agarose film has been proposed as an efficient substrate for producing microarrays. The original film preparation procedure was simplified significantly by grafting the agarose layer directly onto unmodified microscope glass slides instead of aminated glass slides, and the blocking procedure was replaced with a wash in 0.1x standard saline citrate (SSC) and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) without decreasing the performance of the produced microarrays. Characterization of the grafted agarose film using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the agarose film had a 10-fold increase in surface roughness compared to glass and that the interior of the agarose film was porous, with pore sizes between 100-500 nm. A comparison of hybridization on aldehyde-activated agarose-coated microarray slides and commercial amino-reactive microarray slides showed that aldehyde-activated agarose-coated slides had the highest signal-to-noise ratio of 850, suggesting that the aldehyde-activated agarose microarray slides are suitable in applications where analytes have a wide concentration range. By immobilizing the DNA probes using ultraviolet (UV) light, the signal-to-noise ratio was further increased to 3000 on the agarose microarray slides. The specificity of the UV cross-linked DNA probes was demonstrated using 21 and 25 bp long capture probes, enabling discrimination of target molecules differing in only one base.

Dufva, Hans Martin; Petronis, Sarunas

2004-01-01

124

Determination of non-toxic and subtoxic concentrations of potential antiviral natural anthraquinones  

OpenAIRE

Anthraquinones-rich extracts of Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook f. (Rubiaceae) exhibited in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus Type I, from which several anthraquinones (AQs) were isolated and identified. The Maximum Non-Cytotoxic Concentration (MNCC), the subtoxic concentration (SubTC), and the CC50 of each AQ were determined on a mammalian eukaryotic cell line (Vero cells) by means of Neutral Red uptake assay; the cytopathic effect was simultaneously evaluated by optical mi...

Nu?n?ez Montoya, Susana C.; Contigiani, Marta S.; Marioni, Juliana; Aguilar, Juan J.; Grasso, Sergio; Comini, Laura R.; Konigheim, Brenda S.

2012-01-01

125

Nutritive value and non-toxicity of Botryosphaeria zeae-infected wheat for weaner pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel fungal infection of wheat by Botryosphaeria zeae was identified on the Darling Downs of Queensland, Australia and called 'white grain' because of its bleached appearance. The only nutritional changes in the wheat grain infected with B. zeae were decreases in nitrogen and total amino acids (approximately 5%), and slight increases in the lysine, fibre and fat content, with starch unaffected. Nutrient digestibility and potential toxicity were assessed in weaner pigs housed in metabolism crates and fed this grain over a 4-week period, as they grew from 15 to 35 kg. Digestibility of energy and nitrogen in white grain was not different from that of normal wheat. The piglets were then bled for biochemical and haematological testing, slaughtered and the entire viscera subjected to gross pathological inspection, followed by histological examination of the liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, heart, lung, muscle and intestine. White grain did not affect palatability of diets, pig growth rates; no abnormalities were detected in tissues, while biochemical and haematological parameters did not suggest any toxic effect. Hence, wheat with white grain appears suitable for use in pig diets, but the use of this wheat for human food should be restricted until additional longer term studies are conducted. PMID:19138345

Kopinski, J S; Blaney, B J

2010-02-01

126

Nanodiamonds with silicon vacancy defects for non-toxic photostable fluorescent labeling of neural precursor cells  

CERN Document Server

Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. NPCs labeled with NDs exhibited normal cell viability and proliferative properties consistent with biocompatibility. We conclude that SiVcontaining NDs are a promising biomedical research tool for cellular labeling and optical imaging in stem cell research.

Merson, Tobias D; Aharonovich, Igor; Turbic, Alisa; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Turnley, Ann M

2013-01-01

127

(2-Hydroxyethyl)ammonium Lactates—Highly Biodegradable and Essentially Non-Toxic Ionic Liquids  

OpenAIRE

(2-Hydroxyethyl)ammonium lactates have been prepared by reactions of the corresponding (2-hydroxyethyl) amines with lactic acid and characterized by their 1H NMR, IR, and mass spectra. They have been quantita- tively analyzed by HPLC, and their water contents have been determined by the Karl-Fischer method. The title salts are low-melting solids or viscous liquids, and they belong to the class of polar, hydrophilic ionic liquids. The toxicity and chemical and biological degradation of the syn...

Sanita Pavlovica; Andris Zicmanis; Elina Gzibovska; Maris Klavins; Peteris Mekss

2011-01-01

128

Fast, non-toxic, and inexpensive n-butanol preparation of recombinant plasmids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various commercial and non-commercial plasmid preparation protocols are currently available. However, the kits are expensive and many of the protocols contain toxic chemicals. Here we present a novel, optimized and, therefore, very advantageous plasmid preparation protocol using n-butanol. The preparation can be performed quickly and no toxic chemicals are used, at overall costs of about one cent per plasmid preparation.Atualmente vários protocolos comerciais e não comerciais para preparação de plasmídeos estão disponíveis. Contudo, os kits são caros e muitos dos protocolos contêm substâncias químicas tóxicas. Apresentamos neste trabalho um novo, otimizado e portanto muito vantajoso protocolo para preparação de plasmídios usando n-butanol. A preparação pode ser efetuada rapidamente, sem adição de substâncias químicas tóxicas e a um custo total de aproximadamente um centavo (americano por preparação.

Jürgen Brieger

2000-06-01

129

Fast, non-toxic, and inexpensive n-butanol preparation of recombinant plasmids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Atualmente vários protocolos comerciais e não comerciais para preparação de plasmídeos estão disponíveis. Contudo, os kits são caros e muitos dos protocolos contêm substâncias químicas tóxicas. Apresentamos neste trabalho um novo, otimizado e portanto muito vantajoso protocolo para preparação de pla [...] smídios usando n-butanol. A preparação pode ser efetuada rapidamente, sem adição de substâncias químicas tóxicas e a um custo total de aproximadamente um centavo (americano) por preparação. Abstract in english Various commercial and non-commercial plasmid preparation protocols are currently available. However, the kits are expensive and many of the protocols contain toxic chemicals. Here we present a novel, optimized and, therefore, very advantageous plasmid preparation protocol using n-butanol. The prepa [...] ration can be performed quickly and no toxic chemicals are used, at overall costs of about one cent per plasmid preparation.

Jürgen, Brieger; Eberhard J., Weidt; Jochen, Decker.

2000-06-01

130

Insilico structural analysis of parasporin 2 protein sequences of non-toxic bacillus thuringiensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The unusual and remarkable property of parasporin 2 of non-insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis is specifically recognizing and selectively targeting human leukemic cell lines. The 37-kDa inactive nascent protein is proteolytically cleaved to the 30-kDa active form that loses both the N-terminal and the C-terminal segments. Accumulated cytological and biochemical observations on parasporin-2 imply that the protein is a pore-forming toxin. To confirm the hypothesis, insilico analysis was performed using homology modeling. The resulting model of parasporin 2 protein is unusually elongated and mainly comprises long ?-strands aligned with its long axis. It is similar to aerolysin-type ?-pore-forming toxins, which strongly reinforce the pore-forming hypothesis. The molecule can be divided into three domains. Domain 1, comprising a small ?-sheet sandwiched by short ?-helices, is probably the target-binding module. Two other domains are both ?-sandwiches and thought to be involved in oligomerization and pore formation. Domain 2 has a putative channel-forming ?-hairpin characteristic of aerolysin-type toxins. The surface of the protein has an extensive track of exposed side chains of serine and threonine residues. The track might orient the molecule on the cell membrane when domain 1 binds to the target until oligomerization and pore formation are initiated. The ?-hairpin has such a tight structure that it seems unlikely to reform as postulated in a recent model of pore formation developed for aerolysin-type toxins. Parasporin 2 (Accession no: BAD35170 protein sequence analysis indicated two different domains namely, aerolysin toxin and clostridium toxin domain based on different database searches (CDD and Pfam. It showed a close similarity with the available PDB template (PDB id: 2ZTB of parasporin which has cytocidal activity against MOLT-4, HL60 and Jurkat cell lines. Based on the PSI Blast analysis, 3D structures of the domains were predicted by using Swiss model server. Accuracy of the prediction of 3D structure of different domains of parasporin protein was further validated by Ramachandran plot and PROCHECK (G-value. The structure is dominated by ?-strands (67%, S1-12, most of which are remarkably extensive, running all or most of the longer axis of the molecule. This study helped to elucidate the 3D structure of parasporin 2 (Acc. No. BAD35170 which might enable to probe further its specific mechanism of action. Though the similarity is observed in the domain architecture, there is variation in the regions of the domains even among the same group of parasporin 2. Docking of this model structure and experimental structure with specific receptors of the cancer cells will facilitate to explore mechanism of parasporin 2 action and also provide information about its evolutionary relationship with toxic Cry proteins.

Ayyasamy Mahalakshmi

2010-04-01

131

Insilico structural analysis of parasporin 2 protein sequences of non-toxic bacillus thuringiensis  

OpenAIRE

The unusual and remarkable property of parasporin 2 of non-insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis is specifically recognizing and selectively targeting human leukemic cell lines. The 37-kDa inactive nascent protein is proteolytically cleaved to the 30-kDa active form that loses both the N-terminal and the C-terminal segments. Accumulated cytological and biochemical observations on parasporin-2 imply that the protein is a pore-forming toxin. To confirm the hypothesis, insilico analysis was perfor...

Ayyasamy Mahalakshmi; Rajaiah Shenbagarathai

2010-01-01

132

Fast and Non-Toxic In Situ Hybridization without Blocking of Repetitive Sequences  

OpenAIRE

Formamide is the preferred solvent to lower the melting point and annealing temperature of nucleic acid strands in in situ hybridization (ISH). A key benefit of formamide is better preservation of morphology due to a lower incubation temperature. However, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), against unique DNA targets in tissue sections, an overnight hybridization is required to obtain sufficient signal intensity. Here, we identified alternative solvents and developed a new hybridiza...

Matthiesen, Steen H.; Hansen, Charles M.

2012-01-01

133

/ Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentrati [...] on of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1) indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

R.S., Abdel Hameed.

134

Treat the patient by the recognized toxidrome when the ingested herbal juice is non-toxic  

OpenAIRE

This is the case of 63-year-old mother and her 35-year-old daughter who drank herbal juice (Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae and Ficus formosana Maxim) and then developed diarrhea, cold sweating, and myoclonus. On physical examination, the mother had a normal consciousness level, a normal respiratory rate, and bilateral miosis. After the administration of 2 g of pralidoxime (PAM) and 0.5 mg of atropine, the mother felt better. The daughter only had mild symptoms of sweating and vomiting before...

Su, Yu-jang; Lai, Yen-chun

2010-01-01

135

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements  

Science.gov (United States)

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-07-01

136

Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1 indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

R.S. Abdel Hameed

2011-01-01

137

Non-toxicity of water soluble multi-walled carbon nanotube on Escherichia-coli colonies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carboxylic acid functionalized water soluble carbon nanotube (wsCNT) shows no toxic effect against the growth of Escherichia-coli (E. coli), a gram-negative bacteria. Treatment up to 8 microg mL(-1) of wsCNT did not show any toxic effect on E. coli growth that was followed by using bacterial growth kinetics and Spread Plate Technique (SPT). The number of E-coli colonies counts with and without wsCNT showed nearly no change and the bacterial growth kinetics in both the cases showing no toxic effect of wsCNT on the growth of E. coli. PMID:22754977

Roy, Manas; Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta; Saxena, Manav; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

2012-03-01

138

Effects of non-toxic cryoprotective agents on the viability of cord blood derived MNCs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work investigates the effects of a variety of natural cryoprotectants in combination on post-thaw viability and apoptosis of cryopreserved mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from umbilical cord blood. The extracellular cryoprotectants (10 mM) namely trehalose, hydroxyl ethyl starch, polyvinyl pyrrolidine and intracellular CPAs (5 mM) like erythritol, taurine and ectoine were used to prepare different combinations of freezing medium following L9 (3(4)) Taguchi orthogonal array. Catalase, coenzyme Q10 and n-acetyl cystine (100 microg/m) were added as antioxidants. Among various combinations, freezing medium consisting of hydroxyl ethyl starch, ectoin and co-enzyme Q10 with 10% FBS is found to be most effective combination achieving maximum cell viability of 93%, 5.6% early apoptotic, 0.7% late apoptotic and 0.1% necrotic cells. SEM and phase contrast microscopy confirmed the normal cell morphology of the post-thaw cultured cells with retaining their membrane integrity. The survival rate of MNCs is higher than the rate achieved using conventional Me2SO. PMID:24448765

Bissoyi, Akalabya; Pramanik, K

2013-01-01

139

Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions  

OpenAIRE

Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening ...

Jean-Philippe Maréchal; Claire Hellio

2009-01-01

140

Phosphite cannot be used as a phosphorus source but is non-toxic for microalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorous (P) plays a critical role for all living organisms as a structural component of RNA, DNA and phospholipids. Microalgae are autotrophs organisms that have been reported to only assimilate the fully oxidized phosphate (Pi) as P source. However, there are microorganisms capable of utilizing P reduced compounds (i.e. phosphite (Phi) and hypophosphite) as a sole P source, such as bacteria and cyanobacteria. In this study, we evaluated whether microalgae, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Botryococcus braunii and Ettlia oleoabundans, are capable of using Phi as a sole P source. Our studies revealed that these three microalgae are unable to use Phi as a sole P source. We also found that when Phi is present at concentrations equal or higher than that of Pi, Phi has an inhibitory effect on C. reinhardtii growth. However, since C. reinhardtii was able to survive for a long period of cultivation in the presence of high concentrations of Phi and to recover cell division capacity after transfer to media containing Pi, we noticed that Phi is not toxic for this microalga. We propose that the inhibitory effect of Phi on C. reinhardtii growth might be caused, at least in part, by a competition between the transport of Pi and Phi. PMID:25575997

Loera-Quezada, Maribel M; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; López-Arredondo, Damar; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2015-02-01

141

Non-Toxic Fumigation and Alternative Control Techniques Against Fungal Colonization for Preserving Archaeological Oil Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, samples were collected from the deteriorated parts of archeological oil painting of Ismael pasha exhibited in Al-Gizyra museum, Egypt. The tested oil painting grounds belonged to the period from beginning of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th in Egypt were analysed and fungal deterioration aspects were examined by different techniques such as Scanning Eectron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The data show that calcium sulphate was the major component of the tested oil painting sample. Brittleness and deep cracks were observed as result of fungal damage. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from the tested Ismael pasha oil painting, belonging to the genera of Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Stemphylium and Trichoderima. The data reveal that Cladosporium cladosporioides contributed the broadest spectra in the tested oil painting. Screening for proteolytic and celluloytic enzyme activities indicate that the genera of Cadosporium, Alternaria and Aspergilli showed the highest significant enzyme activities. Comparative sensitivity to radiation against all isolated fungal species indicate that the treatment of the tested fungal species with diode laser lead to complete inhibition of all tested species after 15 min exposure time. Calcium sulfate at 0.10% concentration lead to the highest dry weight of C. cladosporioides (1.63 g/100 mL, while the change in pH was nearly non-significantly affected with sulphur concentration. Gel electrophoresis patterns of the most radioresistant species (C. cladosporioides reveal the dramatic loss of essentially all major protein bands after laser irradiation.

Neveen S.I. Geweely

2006-01-01

142

Non-toxic agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system containing gallic acid for antifungal application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is a common species of Aspergillus molds. Cutaneous aspergillosis usually occurs in skin sites near intravenous injection and approximately 6% of cutaneous aspergillosis cases which do not involve burn or HIV-infected patients are caused by A. niger. Biomaterials and biopharmaceuticals produced from microparticle-based drug delivery systems have received much attention as microencapsulated drugs offer an improvement in therapeutic efficacy due to better human absorption. The frequently used crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, in gelatin-based microencapsulation systems is considered harmful to human beings. In order to tackle the potential risks, agarose has become an alternative polymer to be used with gelatin as wall matrix materials of microcapsules. In the present study, we report the eco-friendly use of an agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system to enhance the antifungal activity of gallic acid and reduce its potential cytotoxic effects towards human skin keratinocytes. We used optimal parameter combinations, such as an agarose/gelatin ratio of 1:1, a polymer/oil ratio of 1:60, a surfactant volume of 1% w/w and a stirring speed of 900 rpm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of microencapsulated gallic acid (62.5 µg/ml) was significantly improved when compared with that of the original drug (>750 µg/ml). The anti-A. niger activity of gallic acid -containing microcapsules was much stronger than that of the original drug. Following 48 h of treatment, skin cell survival was approximately 90% with agarose/gelatin microcapsules containing gallic acid, whereas cell viability was only 25-35% with free gallic acid. Our results demonstrate that agarose/gelatin-based microcapsules containing gallic acid may prove to be helpful in the treatment of A. niger-induced skin infections near intravenous injection sites. PMID:25482299

Lam, P-L; Gambari, R; Kok, S H-L; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Bian, Z-X; Lee, K K-H; Chui, C-H

2015-02-01

143

I-131-treatment of non-toxic goitre. Radiojodtherapie der Struma mit Euthyreose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioiodine is a safe and effective treatment of thyroid enlargement with or - in the presence of significant amounts of autonomously functioning tissue - without true euthyroidism. The indications are esentially the same as for surgery, except the case of a goitre recidive and of recurrent nerve injury, for which radioiodine is the treatment of choise. On the contrary, large cold nodules and a suspicion of malignancy preclude it. The size reduction of about 40% is less than that obtained by surgery, but there are no side effects and no recurrences. Hypothyroidism occurs in 4% of the cases. Unfortunately, the number of specially equipped institutions that are allowed to perform radioiodine therapy is yet restricted. (orig.).

Leisner, B.; Grotefendt, M. (Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

1990-12-01

144

Fast and non-toxic in situ hybridization without blocking of repetitive sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formamide is the preferred solvent to lower the melting point and annealing temperature of nucleic acid strands in in situ hybridization (ISH). A key benefit of formamide is better preservation of morphology due to a lower incubation temperature. However, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), against unique DNA targets in tissue sections, an overnight hybridization is required to obtain sufficient signal intensity. Here, we identified alternative solvents and developed a new hybridization buffer that reduces the required hybridization time to one hour (IQFISH method). Remarkably, denaturation and blocking against repetitive DNA sequences to prevent non-specific binding is not required. Furthermore, the new hybridization buffer is less hazardous than formamide containing buffers. The results demonstrate a significant increased hybridization rate at a lowered denaturation and hybridization temperature for both DNA and PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes. We anticipate that these formamide substituting solvents will become the foundation for changes in the understanding and performance of denaturation and hybridization of nucleic acids. For example, the process time for tissue-based ISH for gene aberration tests in cancer diagnostics can be reduced from days to a few hours. Furthermore, the understanding of the interactions and duplex formation of nucleic acid strands may benefit from the properties of these solvents. PMID:22911704

Matthiesen, Steen H; Hansen, Charles M

2012-01-01

145

Poly propyl ether imine (PETIM) dendrimer: a novel non-toxic dendrimer for sustained drug delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, an attempt was made to study the acute and sub-acute toxicity profile of G3-COOH Poly (propyl ether imine) [PETIM] dendrimer and its use as a carrier for sustained delivery of model drug ketoprofen. Drug-dendrimer complex was prepared and characterized by FTIR, solubility and in vitro drug release study. PETIM dendrimer was found to have significantly less toxicity in A541 cells compared to Poly amido amine (PAMAM) dendrimer. Further, acute and 28 days sub-acute toxicity measurement in mice showed no mortality, hematological, biochemical or histopathological changes up to 80 mg/kg dose of PETIM dendrimer. The results of study demonstrated that G3-COOH PETIM dendrimer can be used as a safe and efficient vehicle for sustained drug delivery. PMID:20805013

Jain, Subheet; Kaur, Amanpreet; Puri, Richa; Utreja, Puneet; Jain, Anubhuti; Bhide, Mahesh; Ratnam, Rakesh; Singh, Vinay; Patil, A S; Jayaraman, N; Kaushik, Gaurav; Yadav, Subodh; Khanduja, K L

2010-11-01

146

Non-toxic Anticorrosive Pigments Intended for Applications in High-solids and Waterborne Paints  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is focused on the study of low-zinc and/or zinc-free pigments which can be suitable replacement of the most widely used zinc phosphate-based pigments in corrosion protection. The comparison of studied pigments was performed on the basis of corrosion weight looses of steel substrate in the course of accelerated corrosion test. The best results were achieved by an application of anticorrosive pigments which are the synergic combination of effective components, i.e. zinc phosphomolybdate and magnesium/magnesium-calcium oxyaminophosphate. Calcium phosphate showed excellent inhibition in an aqueous medium (probably caused by higher solubility in comparison to unmodified zinc phosphate) and the corrosion protection is composed of cathodic passivation, ion- scavenging and barrier mechanism. The comparable degree of corrosion inhibition was found out in the case of calcium borosilicate which provides anodic protection by means of the formation of stable passivation layer to improve adhesion of paint film to metal substrate. The good corrosion protection was also detected in an extract of calcium-exchanged silica. In the case of calcium-exchanged silica the porous structure, large specific surface and the ability to bind aggressive ions in silica pores lead to the good degree of corrosion protection.

Kukackova, Helena; Vraštilová, Andrea; Kalendova, Andrea

147

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements  

Science.gov (United States)

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300?mAh·g?1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4?V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide–triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

148

Toxic and non-toxic role of some metals in human body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metals included in this study were copper, iron, zinc, cadmium and lead. The copper, iron and zinc were selected because of their important biological role in human body while cadmium and lead were selected due to their toxic nature. During the past few years, the assessment of pollution of food resources has become a major subject of investigation all over the world. Human health may be directly affected by investing fruit and vegetables, if enhanced amounts of macro or micro nutrients are present in such edibles. In addition, the presence of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in general foodstuff can lead to the malfunction of organs and chronic toxicity in humans. (author)

149

Noninvasive glucose measurement by fluorescence quenching of non toxic gold nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of interaction of human body compatible gold nanoparticles with glucose on fluorescence emission spectra of the nanoparticles are investigated experimentally. It is observed that nanoparticles' fluorescence peak quenches and blue shifted because of such interaction. This procedure is sensitive even to low difference of glucose concentration. The results suggest that glucose could seriously affect the optical properties of gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, a linear range of relative shift of different fluorescence spectrum's peaks is obtained. Furthermore, comparison of fluorescence and absorption results shows that the former technique is as much as 20 times more sensitive to the variation of glucose concentration.

Bagheri, Z.; Massudi, R.; Ghanavi, J.

2014-06-01

150

Caffeine as non-toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper in aqueous solutions of potassium nitrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Different electrochemical methods were employed in order to confirm the ability of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) to inhibit the corrosion processes of copper in aqueous potassium nitrate solutions in the absence and in the presence of chloride. Some experiments were repeated in potassium perchlorate in order to compare the influence of the medium. The interaction between the organic compound and the electrode surface occurs independently of the electrode potential. However, maximum interaction was observed at 0.0 V (Ag/AgCl) in aerated solutions, and at -0.25 V (Ag/AgCl) in deaerated solutions. The presence of the organic compound adsorbed on the electrode surface was confirmed by comparing the voltammograms of copper electrode in the absence and presence of 1.5 mmol L -1 of dissolved caffeine. The same results were observed by comparing polarization curves in the absence and in the presence of caffeine. Anodic currents decrease noticeably in the presence of the organic compound. Chronoamperometric experiments were conclusive to prove the inhibitor capability of caffeine to decrease the corrosion dissolution processes of copper under anodic polarization.

Fallavena, Thuanny; Antonow, Muriel; Gonçalves, Reinaldo Simões

2006-11-01

151

Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: Another potential mechanism of immune-suppression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 deg. C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with > 85% inhibition at 1 ?g/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 ?g/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1? (83%) or TNF-? (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity

152

Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs. We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram, different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 °C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 ± 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC.

Chandra P. Singh

2010-01-01

153

Continuous low cost transesterification process for the production of coconut biodiesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors. We tested residence times of 16-43 min, stirring speeds of 200-800 rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25-1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 {sup o}C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 {+-} 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC. (author)

Kumar, G.; Kumar, D.; Singh, S.; Kothari, S.; Bhatt, S.; Singh, CH. P. [Department of Chemistry, Sahu Jain College, Najibabad, 246763 (India)

2010-07-01

154

Optimized production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively. PMID:24336109

Yu, Chi-Yang; Huang, Liang-Yu; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Shiow-Ling

2013-01-01

155

Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil, and water content (w/w of oil were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were 80% and 79%, respectively.

Chi-Yang Yu

2013-12-01

156

Radionuclide production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioisotopes more frequently used in medicine are studied in the following aspects:their production main characteristics, disintegration products and the quality control to which they must be submitted in view of their ulterior application. (M.A.)

157

Biomolecule-Mediated Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles using Dried Vitis vinifera (Raisin) Extract  

OpenAIRE

Biomolecule-mediated nanoparticle synthesis has recently gained the attention of researchers due to its ecofriendly and non-toxic nature. Metabolites from plant extracts represent a better alternative to chemical methods to fulfill the growing demand for non-hazardous nanoparticle synthesis routes. Selenium and its nanoparticles have an extensive range of applications. Thus, biofabrication of selenium nanoparticles can be potentially useful in various fields. This study reports a green appro...

Garima Sharma; Ashish Ranjan Sharma; Riju Bhavesh; Jongbong Park; Bilguun Ganbold; Ju-Suk Nam; Sang-Soo Lee

2014-01-01

158

Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

2008-03-20

159

Hydrogen Production  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation provides an introduction to the basics of hydrogen production. Advantages of using hydrogen, information on current global hydrogen production, primary uses for hydrogen and hydrogen production processes are introduced. The presentation consists of 26 slides and may be downloaded in Microsoft Power Point file format.

2012-09-05

160

Nanotechnology Based Environmentally Robust Primers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An initiator device structure consisting of an energetic metallic nano-laminate foil coated with a sol-gel derived energetic nano-composite has been demonstrated. The device structure consists of a precision sputter deposition synthesized nano-laminate energetic foil of non-toxic and non-hazardous metals along with a ceramic-based energetic sol-gel produced coating made up of non-toxic and non-hazardous components such as ferric oxide and aluminum metal. Both the nano-laminate and sol-gel technologies are versatile commercially viable processes that allow the ''engineering'' of properties such as mechanical sensitivity and energy output. The nano-laminate serves as the mechanically sensitive precision igniter and the energetic sol-gel functions as a low-cost, non-toxic, non-hazardous booster in the ignition train. In contrast to other energetic nanotechnologies these materials can now be safely manufactured at application required levels, are structurally robust, have reproducible and engineerable properties, and have excellent aging characteristics.

Barbee, T W Jr; Gash, A E; Satcher, J H Jr; Simpson, R L

2003-03-18

161

Product Placement ?? ?????????? ??????????  

OpenAIRE

The exhibition brought together a range of artists and product designers who share an interest in how objects are made, displayed / marketed and sold in contemporary culture. The exhibition questioned issues surrounding the production, technology and marketing of commodities, but on a wider scale, how (and by whom) participation in consumer activity is structured or framed. Each artist and product designer was ‘paired’ in order to produce a new object, multiple or edition for exhibiti...

Selby, Mark; Smith, Will

2010-01-01

162

Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil & Its Evaluation in Compression Ignition Engine Using RSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lack of energy, deterioration of the environment and hunger,these are the three problems the humans are facing in todays era. There is an exponential rise in the demand is arrising for petroleum based energy. This has been followed by problem of depleting conventional petroleum fuels and a hike in price of these fuels, almost on a regular basis. Moreover, these green house emissions are results of petroleum fuels and other forms of pollution in the environment. The rise in the price of the fuel has also been alarming for us to find alternate energy resource.The vegetable oils has proved to be a promising source to obtain fuels for IC engines. Like, biodiesel is biodegradable, non- toxic and renewable fuel. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oil by transesterification with alcohols. The high cost of raw materials and lack of modern technology has led to the commercialization which can optimize the biodiesel yield. A modified engine can lead to better engine performance along with lesser specific fuel consumption. In this thesis, Response Surface Methodology (RSM has been used which has focused on the optimization of biodiesel production, engine performance and exhaust emission parameters.

Jashan Deep Singha

2014-04-01

163

Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover for production of ethanol and carbon microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pretreatment of biomass is viewed as a critical step to make the cellulose accessible to enzymes and for an adequate yield of fermentable sugars in ethanol production. Recently, hydrothermal pretreatment methods have attracted a great deal of attention because it uses water which is a inherently present in green biomass, non-toxic, environmentally benign, and inexpensive medium. Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover was conducted in a flow through reactor to enhance and optimize the enzymatic digestibility. More than 80% of glucan digestibility was achieved by pretreatment at 190 oC. Addition of a small amount of K2CO3 (0.45-0.9 wt.%) can enhance the pretreatment and allow use of lower temperatures. Switchgrass pretreated at 190 oC only with water had higher internal surface area than that pretreated in the presence of K2CO3, but both the substrates showed similar glucan digestibility. In comparison to switchgrass, corn stover required milder pretreatment conditions. The liquid hydrolyzate generated during pretreatment was converted into carbon microspheres by hydrothermal carbonization, providing a value-added byproduct. The carbonization process was further examined by GC-MS analysis to understand the mechanism of microsphere formation.

164

Production Office  

OpenAIRE

One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the "Production Office". This Production Office illustrates and explains the principles underlying the main construction processes examined during the virtual site visits and tours in this part of CIVCAL.

Kumaraswamy, Mohan

2002-01-01

165

Agricultural Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

166

Environmental impact of a coal combustion-desulphurisation plant: abatement capacity of desulphurisation process and environmental characterisation of combustion by-products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fate of trace elements in a combustion power plant equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) installation was studied in order to evaluate its emission abatement capacity. With this aim representative samples of feed coal, boiler slag, fly ash, limestone, FGD gypsum and FGD process water and wastewater were analysed for major and trace elements using the following techniques: inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), ion chromatography (IC), ion selective electrode (ISE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mass balances were established allowing to determine the element partitioning behaviour. It was found that, together with S, Hg, Cl, F, Se and As were those elements entering in the FGD plant primarily as gaseous species. The abatement capacity of the FGD plant for such elements offered values ranged from 96% to 100% for As, Cl, F, S and Se, and about 60% for Hg. The environmental characterisation of combustion by-products (boiler slag, fly ash and FGD gypsum) were also established according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. To this end, water leaching tests (EN-12457-4) were performed, analysing the elements with environmental concern by means of the aforementioned techniques. According to the leaching behaviour of combustion by-products studied, these could be disposed of in landfills for non-hazardous wastes. PMID:16890268

Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Tomás, A

2006-12-01

167

Radioisotope production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67Ga, 81Rb/81mKr and 111In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 ?A). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123I, in the form of Na123I capsules as well as 123I-sodium hippurate, and 52Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

168

Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

Cunningham Drew S

2009-05-01

169

Legendrian Products  

OpenAIRE

This paper introduces two constructions of Legendrian submanifolds, called the Legendrian product and spinning, and computes their classical invariants, the Thurston-Bennequin invariant and the Maslov class, in R^{2n+1}. These constructions take two Legendrians K,L and returns a product K x L, they generalize other previous constructions in contact topology, such as frontspinning and hypercube tori, and are equivalent in R^{2n+1}. Interestingly, this construction relies upon...

Lambert-cole, Peter

2013-01-01

170

Model of waste sorting for the production of solid fuels  

OpenAIRE

In this doctoral dissertation we study the following problems in the field of waste management: producing an alternative solid fuel from non-hazardous waste, developing mathematical model, conceptual design of pilot plant for producing solid recovered fuel and about social awareness of waste management. Waste policy in the European Union has been envisioned through the waste management hierarchy. This system gives the greatest emphasis to waste prevention, followed by preparation for reuse, r...

Polanec, Brigita

2014-01-01

171

Bottom production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

2000-03-15

172

Energy products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A directory of all Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies actively involved in research and development of biomass-based energy products was presented. This directory is one of several issued by the CQVB to facilitate discovery of Quebec centres of excellence involved in research and development of biomass-based products. Entries are organized in a standardized format -- sixteen in all in this volume -- including description of major research activities, principal technologies used, available research and analytical equipment, research personnel, and names and addresses of contact persons. The range of activities covered a diversity of research interests, including the production of ethanol from biomass waste and the treatment and combustion of biomass materials. tabs

173

Environmental products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

174

Bottom production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

175

Television Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is a course of study to provide high school students with an introduction to television production skills and techniques and to provide a framework for developing critical television viewing skills. The nine units of the course introduce students to storyboards, camera operations, lighting, audio, video recording, graphics,…

Hird, John R.; Balzarini, Steven

176

Solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis and production of hydrogen and oxygen - Annual report 2006; Photolyse de l'eau et production d'hydrogene et d'oxygene au moyen de l'energie solaire - Rapport annuel 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We pursued studies of solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis cell employing semi-transparent WO{sub 3} photo anode. The stability of the photo anode in different electrolytes has been evaluated. Long term photo-electrolysis runs allowed us to identify solutions of sodium chloride as being the optimum electrolytes for water cleavage in hydrogen and oxygen, with some amount of chlorine formed as a by-product. In particular, the photo-electrolysis of a 0.5 M solution of sodium chloride, which is a composition close to sea water, results in the formation of about 20% of chlorine at the WO{sub 3} photo anode with oxygen remaining the main product. Thus, the sea water appears as an abundant, non-toxic electrolyte suitable for massive hydrogen production via photo-electrolysis. Charge and mass transport are among the main factors determining the efficiency of nanostructured semiconducting photo-electrodes. In contrast with the prevailing current opinion, our results show that it is the migrational/diffusional transport within electrolyte filling the pores of the photo-electrode and not the electron diffusion across the semiconductor matrix which controls the photocurrent-voltage behaviour. Apparently, the only restrictions to the use of relatively thick nanostructured electrodes are the penetration depth of the incident light, the rate of diffusion/migration of the electro active species within the electrode and the conductivity of the electrolyte. (authors)

Augustynski, J.; Jorand Sartoretti, C.; Bilecka, I.; Solarska, R.

2006-11-15

177

Product stewardship in wollastonite production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In July 2002, NYCO Minerals, Inc., discovered a heretofore unknown contaminant in its wollastonite ore. The contaminant was first believed to be tremolite asbestos. Immediate efforts were made to eliminate this material. Additional studies were initiated to fully characterize the contaminant and its distribution in the ore body. Subsequent study by NYCO and their consultants led to the identification of the contaminant as a transition material (TM) intermediate between tremolite and talc. In vitro dissolution rate measurements indicated that the TM dissolved much more rapidly than tremolite asbestos. This article provides background information on wollastonite mineralogy and NYCO's product stewardship program (PSP). At present, NYCO Minerals uses selective mining to control the trace levels of TM in the ore and finished product verified by periodic monitoring of workplace air and finished product. PMID:18855155

Maxim, L Daniel; Niebo, Ron; Larosa, Salvatore; Johnston, Brad; Allison, Kimberly; McConnell, E E

2008-11-01

178

Food production and nutrition in biosphere 2: results from the first mission September 1991 to September 1993  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m^2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time.

Silverstone, S. E.; Nelson, M.

179

The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body ?-radiation as acute doses.

180

Stabilization/solidification of fly ashes and concrete production from bottom and circulating ashes produced in a power plant working under mono and co-combustion conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two combustion tests were performed in a fluidized bed combustor of a thermo-electric power plant: (1) combustion of coal; (2) co-combustion of coal (68.7% w/w), sewage sludge (9.2% w/w) and meat and bone meal (MBM) (22.1% w/w). Three samples of ashes (bottom, circulating and fly ashes) were collected in each combustion test. The ashes were submitted to the following assays: (a) evaluation of the leaching behaviour; (b) stabilization/solidification of fly ashes and evaluation of the leaching behaviour of the stabilized/solidified (s/s) materials; (c) production of concrete from bottom and circulating ashes. The eluates of all materials were submitted to chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations. The crude ashes have shown similar chemical and ecotoxicological properties. The s/s materials have presented compressive strengths between 25 and 40 MPa, low emission levels of metals through leaching and were classified as non-hazardous materials. The formulations of concrete have presented compressive strengths between 12 and 24 MPa. According to the Dutch Building Materials Decree, some concrete formulations can be used in both scenarios of limited moistening and without insulation, and with permanent moistening and with insulation. PMID:21605964

Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Mendes, Benilde

2011-01-01

181

Lepton Production  

CERN Multimedia

*Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

2002-01-01

182

Production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this historical review, covering roughly the years from 1960 to 1980, some contributions are presented in an exemplary selection that bubble chambers have made to our understanding of particle production processes within the framework of the following phenomenological models: One-particle exchange (in particular one-pion exchange); Regge-pole exchange; duality, finite-energy sum rules and Veneziano models; multiperipheral model, multi-Regge exchange, loongitudinal phase space and diffraction dissociation. (orig.)

183

[Polycarbonate production.  

OpenAIRE

This document on polycarbonate production has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and...

Loos B

2012-01-01

184

Diboson production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy ?s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp? collisions at the Tevatron at ?s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

Evans D.L.

2013-05-01

185

Product separator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted, nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present

186

Redeployment-based drug screening identifies the anti-helminthic niclosamide as anti-myeloma therapy that also reduces free light chain production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite recent therapeutic advancements, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and new therapies are needed, especially for the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients. We have screened a panel of 100 off-patent licensed oral drugs for anti-myeloma activity and identified niclosamide, an anti-helminthic. Niclosamide, at clinically achievable non-toxic concentrations, killed MM cell lines and primary MM cells as efficiently as or better than standard chemotherapy and existing anti-myeloma drugs individually or in combinations, with little impact on normal donor cells. Cell death was associated with markers of both apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, niclosamide rapidly reduced free light chain (FLC) production by MM cell lines and primary MM. FLCs are a major cause of renal impairment in MM patients and light chain amyloid and FLC reduction is associated with reversal of tissue damage. Our data indicate that niclosamides anti-MM activity was mediated through the mitochondria with rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and production of mitochondrial superoxide. Niclosamide also modulated the nuclear factor-?B and STAT3 pathways in MM cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that MM cells can be selectively targeted using niclosamide while also reducing FLC secretion. Importantly, niclosamide is widely used at these concentrations with minimal toxicity. PMID:22829072

Khanim, F L; Merrick, B A M E; Giles, H V; Jankute, M; Jackson, J B; Giles, L J; Birtwistle, J; Bunce, C M; Drayson, M T

2011-10-01

187

Antiangiogenic Effect of Rutin and its Regulatory Effect on the Production of VEGF, IL-1? and TNF-? in Tumor Associated Macrophages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antiangiogenic activity of rutin was studied using in vivo as well as in vitro models. In vivo angiogenic activity was studied using B16F-10 melanoma cell-induced capillary formation in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of rutin significantly inhibited (43.35% the number of tumor directed capillaries induced by injecting B16F-10 melanoma cells on the ventral side of C57BL/6 mice. Rutin at non-toxic concentrations (5-25 ?g mL-1 inhibited the vessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay. Moreover, rutin was able to inhibit the proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of human endothelial cells, the key steps of angiogenesis. Present studies using Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs revealed that rutin could suppress the expression and production of VEGF and IL-1? and stimulate the production of TNF-?. Hence, the observed antiangiogenic activity of rutin is related to the regulation of these cytokines and growth factors by TAMs.

C. Guruvayoorappan

2007-01-01

188

Hydrogen production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

2010-07-01

189

Uranium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interrelationship between uranium supply and the demands of the nuclear industry are considered. Changing forecasts of nuclear power development are illustrated. Long lead times between mine production of U concentrate and reactor fuel loading increase potential instability in the short term, leading to stock-piling. Intensity of loading and type of reactor also influence U demand. Actual load factors are, on average, below those estimated. Mine and mill capacity, and the effect of the enrichment market are discussed. Greater flexibility in enrichment contracts now permits variation in enrichment tails assays. (U.K.)

190

Concrete products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased strength and durability in concrete products can be achieved through the addition of fly ash during the manufacturing process. The properties of concrete are enhanced by fly ash. The benefits include cost and the environment. Fly ash is normally defined as finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal, carried from the combustion chamber to the furnace by exhaust gas. The main applications of fly ash in concrete products are ready mix concrete, bridge decks and support footing, precast structures, blocks and bricks, and pipes. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has published standards to ensure that the desired physical properties of the concrete are achieved and the standards are found in CSA A23.1, detailing the engineering materials and mix proportions. The type of fly ash to be used for specific properties is important. Finishing and curing operations must be performed with care. The free lime generated by cement hydration reacts with fly ash, forming additional calcium silicate hydrate. Permeability of the concrete is reduced since the calcium silicate hydrate fills the void resulting from the cement pour. Some of the benefits to be derived from fly ash in concrete are: water reduction, improved workability, high ultimate strength, improved pumpability, and reduced heat of hydration. In addition, the life cycle costs are lower, and great strength is obtained. An environmental benefit results from the reduction of natural resource consumption.

Anon

2002-01-01

191

REVIEW ON CASEIN PRODUCTION AND CASEIN BASED NANO-FORMULATIONS  

OpenAIRE

Biodegradable systems have the ability to release the drug for a prolonged period of time and subsequently degrade which can be easily cleared from the body. This property makes use of them for the design of carriers for the controlled delivery of therapeutic agents, since it will release the entrapped drug over an extended period of time. Due to its non toxic, biocompatible and slow digesting nature it is an effective matrix in drug delivery. Milk has many proteins, including the nine essen...

Arora Neha; Garg Tarun; Bilandi Ajay

2012-01-01

192

Bottom Production  

CERN Document Server

We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

Nason, P; Schneider, O; Tartarelli, F; Vikas, P; Baines, J T M; Baranov, S P; Bartalini, P; Bay, A; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Cacciari, M; Caner, A; Coadou, Y; Corti, G; Damet, J; Dell'Orso, R; De Mello-Neto, J R T; Domenech, J L; Drollinger, V; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Ellis, Nick; Epp, B; Frixione, Stefano; Gadomski, S; Gavrilenko, I; Gennai, Simone; George, S; Ghete, V M; Guy, L P; Hasegawa, Y; Iengo, R; Jacholkowska, A; Jones, R; Kharchilava, A I; Kneringer, E; Koppenburg, P; Korsmo, M; Krämer, M; Labanca, N; Lehto, M H; Maltoni, F; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mele, S; Nairz, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Norrbin, E; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizatdinova, F K; Robins, S A; Rousseau, D; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Shapiro, M; Sherwood, P; Smirnova, L; Smizanska, M; Starodumov, Andrei; Stepanov, N; Voft, R

2000-01-01

193

Experimental Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Mustard Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demand for petroleum is increasing with each passing day. This may be attributed to the limited resources of petroleum crude. Hence there is an urgent need of developing alternative energy sources to meet the ever increasing energy demand. Biofuels are currently being considered from multidimensional perspectives, i.e. depleting fossil fuels, resources, environmental health, energy security and agricultural economy. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel [1]. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is produced primarily from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste mustard oil. The vegetable oils which are rich in oxygen can be used as future alternate fuels for the operation of diesel engine [2]. Biodiesel is produced from wasted mustard oil through alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Physical properties like density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point and pour point were found out for biodiesel produced from waste mustard oil. The same characteristic study was also carried out for conventional diesel fuel and used as a baseline for comparison. The values obtained from waste mustard oil ethyl ester (biodiesel is closely matched with the conventional diesel fuel and it can be used in diesel engine without any modification. Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100 or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines. Biodiesel is its capacity to lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to those of fossil fuels. There is an appreciable decrease in HC and CO2 emissions while the decrease in CO emission is marginal. However, emission of NOx is increased. Biodiesel is liquid which varies in color between golden and dark brown depending upon the production feedstock. It is immiscible with water, has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure. Typical ethyl ester biodiesel has a flash point of about 130ºC, biodiesel has a density of about 0.88 gm/cm3, less than that of water. Biodiesel has very good lubricating properties, significantly better than standard diesel which can prolong engine's life.

Rajat Subhra Samanta

2014-01-01

194

Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

White, G.J.

1998-08-03

195

Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests

196

Reduction of metastatic and angiogenic potency of malignant cancer by Eupatorium fortunei via suppression of MMP-9 activity and VEGF production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eupatorium fortunei has long been used to treat nausea and poor appetite, and has been prescribed as a diuretic and detoxifying drug in Chinese medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that E. fortunei possesses anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-diabetic activities, as well as cytotoxicity to human leukemia cells. However, at non-toxic concentrations, the effects of an aqueous extract of E. fortunei (WEF) on the metastatic and angiogenic potential of malignant tumor cells have not been reported. In this study, we found that WEF suppressed the metastatic properties, including anchorage-independent colony formation, migration, and invasion, by downregulating the proteolytic activity of MMP-9. NF-?B activation and the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK were reduced significantly by WEF. Additionally, WEF inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis markedly, affecting HUVEC migration, tube formation by HUVECs, and microvessel sprouting from rat aortic rings via a reduction in VEGF in tumors. In a pulmonary metastasis model, daily administration of WEF at 50 mg/kg markedly decreased metastatic colonies of intravenously injected B16F10 cells on the lung surface in C57BL/6J mice. Further, none of the WEF-administered mice exhibited systemic toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that WEF is a potential therapeutic herbal product that may be useful for controlling malignant metastatic cancer. PMID:25385232

Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Yim, Nam-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

2014-01-01

197

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Identifying ...

198

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on this page ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources ...

199

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1994-10-01

200

An Engineered Non-Toxic Superantigen Increases Cross Presentation of Hepatitis B Virus Nucleocapsids by Human Dendritic Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Virus like particles (VLPs) are potent immunogens capable of priming strong protective antibody responses due to their repetitive structural arrangement and affinity for specific B cell receptors. By contrast, T cell responses to VLPs can be weak due to inefficient uptake and processing by antigen presenting cells. We report here a novel strategy for increasing the T cell reactivity of a VLP, the nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus, through covalent coupling of M1, an engineered form of the Streptococcal superantigen SMEZ2, that binds MHC II with high affinity but lacks its T cell mitogenic capability. M1:HBcAg conjugates bound to dendritic cells and were efficiently endocytosed into late endosomes. Human dendritic cells pulsed with M1:HBcAgs stimulated HBV-specific CD8+ T cells more effectively than cells pulsed with native capsids indicating that the modified VLP was more effectively cross presented by APCs. Coupling of M1 was also able to induce significantly greater reactivity of human CD4+ T cells specific for a common T-helper epitope. These studies indicate the potential of recombinant superantigens to act as flexible molecular adjuvants that can be incorporated into various subunit vaccine platforms leading to enhanced T cell reactivity in humans. PMID:24690680

McIntosh, Julie D.; Manning, Kristy; Chokshi, Shilpa; Naoumov, Nikolai V.; Fraser, John D.; Dunbar, P. Rod; Taylor, John A.

2014-01-01

201

Elucidating the energetics of the interaction of non-toxic dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin: A calorimetric study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Curcumin binds to HSA with affinity of the order of 105 M?1. • The binding was favoured by negative enthalpy and positive entropy changes. • The binding was dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. • Negative heat capacity value along with enthalpy–entropy compensation was observed. -- Abstract: Thermodynamic quantities for the interaction of the anticancer dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin were measured by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The equilibrium constant of the complex formation at T = 293.15 K was found to be (5.25 ± 0.05) 105 M?1. The binding was exothermic with T?S0 = (24.82 ± 0.01) kJ · mol?1, where ?S0 is the standard molar entropy change and ?Ho = ?(7.28 ± 0.04) kJ · mol?1, where ?Ho is the standard molar enthalpy change. The stoichiometry of binding was established to be 1:1. The equilibrium constant decreased with increasing Na+ concentration. The equilibrium constant decreased from (5.25 ± 0.05) · 105 M?1 to (2.88 ± 0.03) · 105 M?1 by increasing the salt concentration from (10 to 50) mM. Both polyelectrolytic and non-polyelectrolytic forces contributed to the standard molar Gibbs free energy change. However the contribution from the latter was dominant and almost invariant at all Na+ concentrations. The negative standard molar heat capacity change along with significant enthalpy–entropy compensation suggests the involvement of multiple weak non-covalent forces in the binding process

202

Antagonists and non-toxic variants of the dominant wheat gliadin T cell epitope in coeliac disease.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease (CD) is due to an inappropriate T cell mediated response to specific gluten peptides. Measured by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT, about half of the gliadin specific T cells induced with in vivo wheat gluten exposure in HLA-DQ2+ CD are specific for an alpha/beta-gliadin peptide (p57-73 QE65; QLQPFPQPELPYPQPQS) that includes two overlapping T cell epitopes (PFPQPELPY and PQPELPYPQ). AIM: To define minimally substituted variants of p57-73 QE65 universally devoid...

Anderson, Rp; Van Heel, DA; Tye-din, Ja; Jewell, Dp; Hill, Av

2006-01-01

203

Productivity, components of automated production systems viewed  

Science.gov (United States)

The developmet and expanded use of robotics was initiated to increase labor productivity, ensure stable high quality instruments and necessary safety equipment, and to reduce the cost of products. Robotics was introduced to cold stamping machining, loading and unloading, transport and warehousing, etc. Approximately 200 robots were introduced which replaced 50 people. Robotics and robotized technology applied to industrial plants for automation flexible production systems, increase productivity, quality improvement, and reduction of manpower is discussed.

Letsik, V. I.

1986-03-01

204

Extremophile mediated hydrogen production for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from production of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 production from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological production of H2 as an end product or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 production by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass production, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 production was pH dependent but addition of simple, non-toxic physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 production and (4) H2 production rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068 medium containing cultures of T. neapolitana and no external H2 was added, hydrogenation was observed confirming the possibility of developing an integrated BioCat/ChemCat system. The 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of Methyl succinic acid, the hydrogenated product of the olefin. The concept was extended to Glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel that was catalytically upgraded to mixed alcohols in an aqueous medium. The next logical step is to evaluate these results in a continuous flow mode. The demonstrated results have implications in the development of next-generation hydrogenation reaction systems that would lead to the production of biofuels and other chemicals, depending on the substrate used.

Anjom, Mouzhgun

205

Carbonate phosphonium salts as catalysts for the transesterification of dialkyl carbonates with diols. The competition between cyclic carbonates and linear dicarbonate products.  

Science.gov (United States)

At 90-120 °C, in the presence of methylcarbonate and bicarbonate methyltrioctylphosphonium salts as catalysts ([P8881][A]; [A] = MeOCO2 and HOCO2), the transesterification of non-toxic dimethyl- and diethyl-carbonate (DMC and DEC, respectively) with 1,X-diols (2 ? X ? 6) proceeds towards the formation of cyclic and linear products. In particular, 1,2-propanediol and ethylene glycol afford propylene- and ethylene-carbonate with selectivity and yields up to 95 and 90%, respectively; while, the reaction of DMC with higher diols such 1,3-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 2,2-dimethyl, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol produce linear C8-C10 dicarbonates of general formula MeOC(O)O???OC(O)OMe as the almost exclusive products. Of note, these dicarbonate derivatives are not otherwise accessible in good yields by other conventional base catalyzed methods. Among 1,3-diols, the only exception was 2-methyl 2,4-pentandiol that yields the corresponding cyclic carbonate, i.e. 4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one. In no one case, polycarbonates are observed. Such remarkable differences of product distributions are ascribed to the structure (branching and relative position of OH groups) of diols and to the role of cooperative (nucleophilic and electrophilic) catalysis which has been proved for onium salts. The investigated carbonate salts are not only effective in amounts as low as 0.5 mol%, but they are highly stable and recyclable. PMID:24825024

Selva, Maurizio; Caretto, Alessio; Noè, Marco; Perosa, Alvise

2014-06-28

206

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos ...

207

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos ...

208

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

209

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

210

Future Challenges and Possibilities for the Danish Long-line Production of Blue Mussels, Mytilus edilus (L) : With Special Focus on Filtration and Bioenergetics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of current velocity (0.05-1.4 m s-1) on the clearance rate of M. edulis was studied using an automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continuously. The effect of current velocity was studied on either three or twenty mussels. Current velocities of up to 1.4 m s-1 did not affect the clearance rates of M. edulis when twenty mussels were allowed to form self-organized clumps. However, when only three M. edulis were present, mussels became inactive at current velocities >0.6 m s-1. The tolerance to high current velocities provides opportunities for offshore production of blue mussels in Denmark since current velocities in the Danish coastal waters in general are below 1.4 m s-1. The effect of DST on clearance and respiration rate of M. edulis was studied in terms of exposures to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of either the non-toxic algal Rhodomonas salina or the DST-containing algal Dinophysis acuta. Our results showed that the clearance rate were reduced for mussels exposed to DST-containing D. acuta compared to mussels exposed to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of the non-toxic R. salina. Furthermore, closure of shell-valves was observed to occur earlier as well as the reduction in clearance rate became more pronounced with increasing concentrations of D. acuta. In addition, the total amount of DST accumulated in the mussels exceeded the regulatory limit for human consumption. However, DST-containing D. acuta did not have a severe effect on respiration rate. We concluded that DST most likely caused the reduction in clearance rate. Therefore DST-containing mussels can be a latent problem for mussel growth in future Danish offshore mussel production, as it is in other offshore mussel productions in Europe. Mussel growth and food depletion was studied within a mussel farm, located in the highly eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark. Using a variety of methods we obtained information on spatial (organism to farm scales) and temporal (seasonal) variations in food depletion. The results obtained by the different methods were integrated into a depletion model for the mussel farm. The results showed that high mussel growth rate was present during most of the year and that food depletion only occurred at different spatial scales within the farm. Furthermore, we showed that the mussel farm studied was under-utilized in terms of production of mussel biomass and a surplus of food was available to support the growth of more mussels than already produced. Finally, we investigated the potential of using mussels as a mitigation tool for removal of excess nutrients in eutrophic coastal waters. A full-scale long-line mussel farm optimized for cost efficient nutrient removal was established in Skive Fjord where biological and economic parameters related to nutrient removal were monitored throughout a full production cycle. We concluded that mitigation mussel cultures are a cost-effective measure for nutrient removal in coastal areas and can be used as an alternative or supplement to land-based mitigation measures.

Nielsen, Pernille

2014-01-01

211

Hydrocodone Combination Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrocodone is available in combination with other ingredients, and different combination products are prescribed for different uses. Some hydrocodone combination products are used to relieve moderate-to- ...

212

The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystaaws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 ?m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The product of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures

213

In vitro evaluation of neurotoxicity potential and oxidative stress responses of diazinon and its degradation products in rat brain synaptosomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although primary toxic action of organophosphorous insecticides is associated with acetylcholinesterase inhibition, later studies suggest that oxidative stress may be responsible for induced organophosphates toxicity. These studies mostly include thio forms, while the effects of their metabolites/degradation products have been less investigated. Therefore, this paper studies the toxic effects of diazinon degradation products, diazoxon and 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol, and compares them with the toxic potential of the parent compound. The toxicity induced by various concentrations of the investigated compounds was in vitro evaluated by the activities of acetylcholinesterase, ATPases, antioxidant defense enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase, and malondialdehyde level in rat brain synaptosomes. Diazinon inhibited acetylcholinesterase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in dose-dependent manner, while the inhibition of ecto-ATPase activity was less than 15% at all investigated concentrations. It did not demonstrate noteworthy prooxidative properties causing increase (up to 10%) in antioxidant enzymes activity and malondialdehyde level, as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Diazinon oxidation product, diazoxon was found as the most toxic investigated compound. Beside the expected strong inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase, it induced dose-dependent and almost complete inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and ecto-ATPase at the highest investigated concentration (0.1mM). Increasing diazoxon concentrations activated catalase (up to 30%), superoxide dismutase (up to 50%), glutathione peroxidase (up to 30%), and significantly increased malondialdehyde level (up to 50%). The investigated hydrolysis product of diazinon, 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol did not remarkably alter the activities of acetylcholinesterase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and lipid peroxidation level (up to about 10%). Although this diazinon metabolite has been known as non toxic, it induced superoxide dismutase stimulation up to 30%. Finally, even high concentrations of both diazinon and its metabolites did noticeably affect lactate dehydrogenase activity as a marker of synaptosomal integrity. The changes in investigated biochemical parameters in rat brain synaptosomes could serve as indicators of toxicity due to the exposure to thio organophosphates and/or their break-down products. PMID:25562544

?olovi?, Mirjana B; Vasi?, Vesna M; Avramovi?, Nataša S; Gaji?, Milan M; Djuri?, Dragan M; Krsti?, Danijela Z

2015-02-17

214

Designing Product Families  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend has led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms as a foundation for the customization process, whereby the customized products become variants of a product family with a high degree of reuse and utilization of kinship between the individual variants.With this paper, we will discuss the development of platform based product families from three points of view: Variety, Design Principles, and Product Maturity.

Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

1998-01-01

215

Ecological pig production  

OpenAIRE

This project investigates how the ecological pig production in Denmark can get a larger market share than it’s current one. We shall investigate the possibilities and the barriers of a further development of the ecological pig production in Denmark. In our project we will see the Danish pig production as a sociotechnical system where the ecological pig production is a niche and the conventional pig production is the dominating sociotechnical regime and technology. In this project our foc...

Nielsen, Sif Hummelgaard; Olsen, Astrid Olkjær; Lundberg, Martin; Olsson, Thorbjørn Venny

2013-01-01

216

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

OpenAIRE

Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj

2003-01-01

217

How Products Are Made  

Science.gov (United States)

How Products Are Made explains and details the manufacturing process of a wide variety of products, from daily household items to complicated electronic equipment and heavy machinery. The site provides descriptions of the step-by-step assembly and manufacturing process (complemented with illustrations and diagrams). Background information is also provided, such as how the item works, who invented the product, raw materials used, product applications, by-products, possible future developments, quality-control procedures, etc.

218

Replacing an Existing Product's Production Within a Similar Product Production by Using a Replacement Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Existing processes for specific products cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The product’s price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during product production. In our case, the production of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the production of dimethyl ether (DME. This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, and can be achieved by using replacement technique. We want to keep and transfer as many of the existing units from the previous production to the new production. Dimethyl ether is an organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3.  It is a colourless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds, and an aerosol propellant. DME can act as a clean fuel when burned in engines properly optimized for DME. The direct production of DME would be cheaper than indirect when applied for new buildings. The same applies for retrofits, or the replacing of existing methanol - specific production – a similar DME product plant would be more rational for the direct production of DME, because of greater efficiency, productivity of DME production, profit, and for 20 % more electricity generation.

Key words: Dimetyl ether; Replacement; Methanol process; Indirect method; Direct method; Retrofit

Anita Kova? Kralj

2011-12-01

219

77 FR 37836 - Petition Requesting Commission Action Regarding Crib Bumpers  

Science.gov (United States)

...Petition Requesting Commission Action Regarding Crib Bumpers AGENCY: U.S. Consumer Product Safety...and regulate ``hazardous pillow-like'' crib bumpers from ``non-hazardous traditional'' crib bumpers under sections 7 and 9 of the...

2012-06-25

220

Product Family Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven product development. While operating in the mass production paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended Product Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a product family and the production setup. Furthermore, the model links the product design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the product family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future product design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.

Kvist, Morten

2010-01-01

221

The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 degrees C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 degrees C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 microm. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The product of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures. PMID:17709183

Gualtieri, A F; Cavenati, C; Zanatto, I; Meloni, M; Elmi, G; Gualtieri, M Lassinantti

2008-04-01

222

The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 {mu}m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The product of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures.

Gualtieri, A.F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e R.E., Via S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: alex@unimore.it; Cavenati, C.; Zanatto, I.; Meloni, M. [ZETADI S.r.l., Via dell' Artigianato 10, I-21010 Ferno (Italy); Elmi, G. [GE.PR.IN. S.r.l., Via Vaccari 48, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, M. Lassinantti [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e R.E., Via Campi 213/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

2008-04-01

223

Powder detergents production plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent production. The product meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite production, because all products with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

Stankovi? Mirjana S.

2003-01-01

224

Making Product Customization Profitable  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-production, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a product family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study it is shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%.

Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

2010-01-01

225

Glocalized Production: The Evolution of Global Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In light of the challenges of the current globalized production model, four global Danish companies were interviewed with the purpose of exploring “glocalized production” as the new step and solution to the challenges of the “global village.” The research sought to gauge the interest on “glocalized production” by key managers of these companies, and test three hypotheses: that a definition could be established from “glocalization” aspects, that it will reduce supply chain complexity, and that it can affect organizational trust levels. The results are presented along with suggestions to pave the way for future research on this emerging topic.

Chavez, Marianna; Bilberg, Arne

226

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... may have a recalled product. There are many numbers and dates on the foods, drugs, cosmetics, and ... products must be removed from the market, these numbers and dates can also help identify them quickly. - ...

227

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... when unsafe products must be removed from the market, these numbers and dates can also help identify ... Recalls [ARCHIVED] Improving Recall Information for Consumers Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalled Product Photos on Flickr - - ...

228

Other Fluoride Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Other Fluoride Products Share Compartir On this Page Fluoride Toothpaste ... August 17, 2001;50(RR-14):1–42. Fluoride Products Fluoride Toothpaste Form Concentrations of fluoride in ...

229

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources for You ...

230

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... explains how FDA manages product recalls. - For More Information FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First Alert to ... FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information - Page Last Updated: 10/14/2014 Note: If ...

231

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content ... Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

232

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

233

CEREALS AND CEREAL PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter of encyclopedia covers major cereals (wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, barley, millet, oat and triticale) and pseudo cereals (buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa) in production, nutritional, and technological properties. Breeding, cultivation, and handling were discussed with respect to product...

234

Social software product lines  

OpenAIRE

Software product lines are an engineering paradigm meant to systematically configure software products of reusable assets so that development effort and time are minimized. Config-uring a high-quality product is a challenging design activity, main-ly because quality is a dynamic property and hardly predictable by designers at design time. In this position paper, we propose Social Software Product Lines (SSPL) as a new development paradigm which involves users as collaborators in judging softw...

Ali, Raian; Solis, Carlos; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Maalej, Walid; Giorgini, Paolo; Nuseibeh, Bashar

2011-01-01

235

Explaining international productivity differences  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we add new results to the emerging field of investigating productivity levels rather than productivity change, as initiated by Hall and Jones (1996, 1997). To obtain measures of relative productivity levels we depart from traditional growth accounting and calculate the Malmquist index of total factor productivity change using the nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for a broad cross country sample. This index can be decomposed in measures of technological progress and ...

Kru?ger, Jens; Cantner, Uwe; Hanusch, Horst

1998-01-01

236

Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

We study the cyclical behavior of labor productivity in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor productivity at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of productivity. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of productivity growth, thus su...

LUCAS NAVARRO; RAIMUNDO SOTO

2006-01-01

237

Residues of the Cork Industry as Carriers for the Production of Legume Inoculants / Résidus de l'Industrie du Liège comme Substrats pour la Production des Inoculums pour les Légumineuses / Resíduos da Indústria dos Aglomerados da Cortiça como Potenciais Substractos para a Produção de Inoculantes para Sementes de Leguminosas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O crescimento e a sobrevivência de duas estirpes de Rhizobium, uma de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, e outra de Mesorhizobium ciceri, foram usados para avaliação de resíduos da indústria dos aglomerados da cortiça como potenciais substractos para a produção de inoculantes para sementes de leg [...] uminosas. A turfa foi usada como controlo. 41 dias após a inoculação, o n.º das bactérias viáveis era elevado e semelhante em todos os substractos, aproximadamente 10(9) bactérias g-1. A sobrevivência durante os 450 dias de armazenamento permaneceu estável, entre 10(8) e 10(9). Os resíduos da cortiça mostraram possuir boas características de manuseio, boas capacidades de retenção de água, não apresentaram toxicidade, possuíam pH perto da neutralidade, indicando poderem ser utilizados como substractos alternativos à turfa na produção de inoculantes para leguminosas. Abstract in english Growth and survival of two rhizobial strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, and Mesorhizobium ciceri, were used to evaluate residues from the cork industry as potential carriers for production of rhizobial inoculants. A peat-based carrier was used as a control. 41 days after inoculation, the [...] number of viable bacteria was high, about 10(9) bacteria g-1 for all carriers. Rhizobial survival during storage (450 days) remained stable, between 10(8) and 10(9). The cork residues based carriers showed good handling properties and water holding capacities, they were non-toxic and had a nearly neutral pH. All these factors indicate that the use of these carriers is viable for the production of rhizobial inoculants.

Eugénio Mendes, Ferreira; Isabel Videira e, Castro.

2005-12-01

238

Production of entomopathogenic nematodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Production technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be th...

239

Coal production 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29

240

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

241

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

242

Product placement in Filmen  

OpenAIRE

Die Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Marketingbegriff Product Placement. Im theoretischen Teil wird Product Placement definiert und seine Historie beschrieben. Hauptziel des praktischen Teiles ist eine Filmanalyse des Product Placements. Es werden zwei Filme verglichen. Der tschechische Film "Raf?áci" und der letzte Bondfilm "Casino Royal".

Bi?lek, Jir?i?

2008-01-01

243

Biodiesel production from sunflower oil using microwave assisted transesterification / by Nokuthula E. Magida  

OpenAIRE

Biofuels are becoming more attractive worldwide because of the high energy demands and the fossil fuel resources that are being depleted. Biodiesel is one of the most attractive alternative energy sources to petroleum diesel fuel and it is renewable, non toxic, biodegradable, has low sulphur content and has a high flash point. Biodiesel can be generated from domestic natural resources such as coconuts, rapeseeds, soybeans, sunflower, and waste cooking o...

Magida, Nokuthula Ethel

2013-01-01

244

Biodiesel production by microalgae and macroalgae from north littoral portuguese coast  

OpenAIRE

Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has many benefits. It is biodegradable, non-toxic and compared to petroleum-based diesel, has a more favorable combustion emission profile, such as low emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons. In brief, these merits make biodiesel a good alternative to petroleum based fuel. Biodiesel feedstocks derived from microalgae and macroalgae have emerged as one of the most promising alternative sources of lipid for use in biodiesel ...

Carvalho, Joana; Ribeiro, Andre?; Castro, Joana Daniela Fernandes; Vilarinho, Ca?ndida; Castro, F.

2011-01-01

245

Age, Wage and Productivity  

OpenAIRE

Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same pace. However, other studies find no evidence of such an age related pay-productivity gap. We perform an analysis of the relationship between age, wage and productivity using a matched worker-firm pane...

Ours, Jan C.; Stoeldraijer, Lenny

2010-01-01

246

Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the production and characterization of biodiesel (BD or B) as well as the experimental work carried out by many researchers in this field. BD fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel (PD) fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. BD fuel can be used in any mixture with PD fuel as it has very similar characteristics but it has lower exhaust emissions. BD fuel has better properties than that of PD fuel such as renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. There are more than 350 oil bearing crops identified, among which only sunflower, safflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed and peanut oils are considered as potential alternative fuels for diesel engines. The major problem associated with the use of pure vegetable oils as fuels, for Diesel engines are caused by high fuel viscosity in compression ignition. Dilution, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis and transesterification are the four techniques applied to solve the problems encountered with the high fuel viscosity. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, some engine performance problems still exist. The viscosity values of vegetable oils vary between 27.2 and 53.6mm{sup 2}/s whereas those of vegetable oil methyl esters between 3.59 and 4.63mm{sup 2}/s. The viscosity values of vegetable oil methyl esters highly decreases after transesterification process. Compared to no. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oil methyl esters were slightly viscous. The flash point values of vegetable oil methyl esters are highly lower than those of vegetable oils. An increase in density from 860 to 885kg/m{sup 3} for vegetable oil methyl esters or biodiesels increases the viscosity from 3.59 to 4.63mm{sup 2}/s and the increases are highly regular. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. The transesterfication of triglycerides by methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol, has proved to be the most promising process. Methanol is the commonly used alcohol in this process, due in part to its low cost. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. (author)

Demirbas, Ayhan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Campus, 42031 Konya (Turkey)

2005-07-01

247

Radiation chemical technology for production of polymeric hydrogels for medical purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Polymeric hydrogels are water-swelling cross-linked hydrophilic polymers with ability to store reversibly great amount of water (more than 1000 g of water per 1 g of dry polymer). At present they found a lot of different applications in highly developed countries in science and industry. The set of unique physicochemical and biomedical properties (regulated sorption ability in respect to water and biological liquids, biocompatibility, soft tissue state, permeability in respect to small and big molecules, non-toxicity, etc.) allows their application in medicine. According to the clinical data there are no materials that can compete with hydrogels in development of endo-prostheses of soft-tissues in surgery, contact lenses for eyesight correction, hemo-compatible materials, novel for treatment of wounds and burns, targeted drug delivery systems. Polymeric hydrogels today practically substitute the traditional hydrophobic bases (Vaseline, lanolin) in technology of drug forms for development of ointments and dressings, containing natural and synthetic physiologically active substances. The advantages of hydrogels in comparison with hydrophobic analogues are obvious due to the drainage effect, homogenous distribution of drugs, better contact with wound, painless removing by water washing. The polymeric hydrogels are not produced in Kazakhstan in spite of the big source of raw materials. The aim of the present work is the development of radiation-chemical technol development of radiation-chemical technology and development of polymeric biomedical hydrogels production based on raw materials of Kazakhstan. The novel types of polymeric hydrogel materials are developed by the authors of the report based on vinyl ethers of glycols, which produced in 'Alash Ltd.' (Temirtau). The great fundamental information content has been obtained about these monomers and polymers including direct quantitative data of their structure formation mechanism and physicochemical properties. These data served as a basis for design of novel polymeric hydrogels of different type including so-called 'intelligent' materials, which are able to respond on small changes of environmental parameters (temperature, pH, electric field). According the biomedical tests the availability and competitive ability of these biomaterials is due to their unique stability to bio-destruction in aggressive infection media unlike of known hydrogels based on polyacrylamide, hydroxyalkyl acrylates, etc. This is connected with the absence of hydrolyzable bonds (ester, amide, etc.) in the structure of vinyl ethers. As the result of many years collaboration with a number of leading medical centers of Kazakhstan and Russia the possibility of wide and effective application of these hydrogel materials in different areas of medicine has bee found (contact hydrogel for ultrasonic diagnostics; hydrogel basis for medicinal and cosmetic ointments; hydrogel implant material)

248

Proteínas PEGiladas: producción, purificación y aplicaciones / PEGylated proteins: production, purification, and applications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La PEGilación es la conjugación de una proteína y/o péptido con una o más moléculas de poli(etilen glicol). El poli(etilen glicol) es un polímero no toxico, no inmunogénico y esto aprobado por la FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA). En los últimos años, la PEGilación ha sido utilizada para mejor [...] ar las propiedades fisicoquímicas de proteínas y drogas terapéuticas, por lo que esta tecnología ha impactado fuertemente a la industria bio-farmacéutica. La PEGilación permite prolongar el tiempo de residencia en el cuerpo, mejorar la estabilidad, aumentar la solubilidad, disminuir la proteólisis y excreción renal. Desde el surgimiento de esta tecnología, diferentes proteínas han sido PEGiladas para el tratamiento de enfermedades como: hepatitis C, leucemia, artritis reumatoide, etc. Este artículo de revisión presenta una descripción del desarrollo de la PEGilación en los últimos años, así como de los procedimientos usados para la producción de bio-conjugados. Además, se revisan las estrategias de purificación utilizadas para la recuperación de proteínas PEGiladas, siendo este uno de los grandes retos en el proceso debido a que la reacción de PEGilación puede generar bio-conjugados con diferentes grados de PEGilación. Por último, se presentan las aplicaciones de dichos bio-conjugados y los retos futuros que se identifican para su aplicación genérica. Abstract in english PEGylation is the covalent attachment of protein and/or peptide to poly(ethylene glycol). The poly(ethylene glycol) is a polymer, non toxic, non immunogenic, and FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) approved. In the last years, PEGylation has been used to improve the physicochemical properties of [...] some proteins and therapeutic drugs; this technology has impacted heavily on the bio-pharmaceutical industry. PEGylation prolongs the body-residence time and stability, decreases the proteolysis and renal excretion. Since the emergence of this technology, some proteins have been PEGylated for the treatment of diseases including hepatitis C, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. This review presents a description of the PEGylation development in the last years and the chemical procedures used to obtain some bio-conjugated products. Strategies of purification used to obtain PEGylated proteins are reviewed; purification is one of the major problems to establish suitable processes due to the fact that the reaction can generate bio-conjugates with different degree of PEGylation. Finally the applications of PEGylated proteins and the future challenges that are identified for generic application are presented.

K. P., Mayolo-Deloisa; M., Rito-Palomares.

2010-04-01

249

Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

250

High productivity fermentation for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high-productivity fermentation of sugars, starches and cellulose into ethanol to serve as a supplement to liquid fuels is discussed. Processes involved in the pretreatment of raw materials, including the hydrolysis of starch and cellulose, are examined, and criteria for the selection of yeasts and bacteria for fermentation are considered. Developments in fermentor design resulting in improved operation and higher productivity by the use of cell recycle and continuous operation are reviewed, and the results of preliminary studies indicating the advantages of using the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis rather than yeasts are presented. It is also shown that considerable cost reductions may be achieved by the use of ethanol-tolerant organisms which can ferment to 12 vol %, as less steam is required for distillation. Estimates are presented of the costs of ethanol production from cassava, sugar beets and sugar cane in the Australian context, and it is concluded that the development of high-productivity continuous fermentation with cell recycle offers considerable potential for cost reductions in medium to large scale ethanol production.

Rogers, P.L.

1979-10-01

251

Specification of Products and Product Lines  

CERN Document Server

The study of variability in software development has become increasingly important in recent years. A common mechanism to represent the variability in a product line is by means of feature models. However, the relationship between these models and UML design models is not straightforward. UML statecharts are extended introducing variability in their main components, so that the behavior of product lines can be specified. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a rule-based approach that defines a transformation strategy from extended statecharts to concrete UML statecharts. This is accomplished via the use of feature models, in order to describe the common and variant components, in such a way that, starting from different feature configurations and applying the rule-based method, concrete state machines corresponding to different products of a line can be obtained.

Gonzalez, Ariel; 10.4204/EPTCS.15.4

2010-01-01

252

Coal Production 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29

253

PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL  

OpenAIRE

 Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD) system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM) system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM), are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup ...

Sineglazov, V. M. Nau Institute Of Electronics And Control Systems; Kyevorkov, S. G. Nau Institute Of Electronics And Control Systems

2005-01-01

254

Computers, obsolescence, and productivity  

OpenAIRE

This paper develops a new technique for measuring the effect of computer usage on U.S. productivity growth. Standard National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measures of the computer capital stock, which are constructed by weighting past investments according to a schedule for economic depreciation (the rate at which capital loses value as it ages), are shown to be inappropriate for growth accounting because they do not capture the effect of a unit of computer capital on productivity. This...

Whelan, Karl

2000-01-01

255

Particle production at HERA  

OpenAIRE

Recent results on the properties of the hadronic final state at the HERA collider are presented. Strangeness production and correlations have been studied in the laboratory system for deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Inclusive $K^0_S$, $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production has been measured and compared to Monte Carlo model calculations. No significant $\\Lambda$ to $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production asymmetry was observed and the measured $\\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda})$ polarisations a...

Liu, Chuanlei

2006-01-01

256

Threatening to increase productivity  

OpenAIRE

The wave of privatization in the 1980s and 1990s increased productivity of many previously state owned enterprises (SOEs). However, governments often do not have su±cient support to privatize SOEs. We provide evidence that threatening privatization and market competition (entry of new firms) can increase the productivity of SOEs, even though privatization and entry of new ¯rms does not occur. We study productivity at Brazil's state-owned oil company Petrobras. After it lost its legal monopo...

Bridgman, Benjamin; Gomes, Victor; Teixeira, Arilton

2010-01-01

257

MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectioner...

?ubomíra Juhaniaková; Miroslava Ka?ániová

2011-01-01

258

Product Design in Microfinance  

OpenAIRE

The poor need a range of financial services to cope with shocks, to manage day-to-day transactions, and to grasp business opportunities, among others. To be successful in reaching the poor, microfinance institutions should offer products that meet the poor’s needs. Product design, therefore, is becoming a very important topic. “Behavioral” product design pinpoints the importance of individuals’ behavioral anomalies, such as procrastination behavior and lack of self-control. Financial ...

Laureti, Carolina

2014-01-01

259

Subthreshold pion production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This process is relatively well-understood, and one of the aims of subthresold production experiments is to identify other collective effects. Some possible signatures of collective effects are: Production below the 'absolute' threshold; production in excess predictions of nucleon-nucleon models; and a change in the characteristic behavior of the pion spectra as the threshold is crossed. This paper discusses these collective effects especially the last one

260

Hyperon production with antiprotons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precision measurements of hyperon-antihyperon production with antiprotons permit detailed tests of strange quark pair production and decay. Recent measurements at LEAR of lambda-antilambda production are compared with selected calculations. A recent search in the K/sub s/K/sub s/ channel for ?(2230) formation and possible future searches for CP nonconservation in the lambda-antilambda system are also discussed. 17 refs., 13 figs

261

Diboson production (CDF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

WW and WZ production in p{bar p} collisions at 1.96 TeV are studied in samples of {approx}3 fb{sup -1} of data using leptons, jets and missing E{sub T}. Fully leptonic decays as well as semi-leptonic decays are measured. Diboson production is expected in the standard model, and predicted cross sections are confirmed. It is important to investigate various signatures as associated production of Higgs bosons is topologically similar.

Cavaliere, Viviana; /Siena U. /INFN, Siena

2009-01-01

262

Phytosterol oxidation products  

OpenAIRE

The main aim of this thesis was to study the formation of phytosterol oxidation products (POP) and to evaluate and optimize an analytical method for the determination of POP in food products. The cholesterol lowering effect of phytosterols (PS) and phytostanols has been known for more than half a century and many reports in this area have been published. During the last decade the intake of PS has increased and products enriched with PS and phytostanols have been launched on the commercial ma...

Johnsson, Lars

2004-01-01

263

Product Placement in Cartoons  

OpenAIRE

Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons produ...

Irena Oroz Štancl

2014-01-01

264

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training ...

265

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training ...

266

Nanotechnology Consumer Product Inventory  

Science.gov (United States)

An inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer products currently on the market. After more than twenty years of basic and applied research, nanotechnologies are gaining in commercial use. Nanoscale materials now are in electronic, cosmetics, automotive and medical products. But it has been difficult to find out how many "nano" consumer products are on the market and which merchandise could be called "nano." While not comprehensive, this inventory gives the public the best available look at the 800+ manufacturer-identified nanotechnology-based consumer products currently on the market.

267

Primary Productivity: Grass  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity students will use grass plants grown over a one week period in the classroom to calculate productivity rates using two methods of collection. At the end of this lab students will understand the concept of primary productivity and will have used one or more methods to calculate it. They will have also been introduced to the concepts of standing biomass, net productivity versus gross productivity, and the importance of comparing dry weight versus wet weight. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information. There are also links to several other sites with more information on this topic.

Morrow, Angela

268

Area exposure product meter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This standard deals with the behaviour and the test of measurement instruments, that are determined for measurement of the area-dose product in X-ray examinations. Regular measurement of the area-dose product aim to help in the decrease of patient exposition-dose. The area-dose product is the product of the area of the cross-section of the usable beam and the energy dose in air, both measured in the same focal distance. The measurement instrument is an ionization chamber. (orig./HP)

269

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: focus on the microbiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l(-1). Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency. PMID:20554377

Trois, Cristina; Coulon, Frédéric; de Combret, Cécile Polge; Martins, Jean M F; Oxarango, Laurent

2010-09-15

270

Characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gas and residues of a full scale fluidized bed combustor combusting non-hazardous industrial waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the fate of PAHs in full scale incinerators by analysing the concentration of the 16 EPA-PAHs in both the input waste and all the outputs of a full scale Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC). Of the analysed waste inputs i.e. Waste Water Treatment (WWT) sludge, Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR), RDF and ASR were the main PAH sources, with phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene being the most important PAHs. In the flue gas sampled at the stack, naphthalene was the only predominant PAH, indicating that the PAHs in FBC's combustion gas were newly formed and did not remain from the input waste. Of the other outputs, the boiler and fly ash contained no detectable levels of PAHs, whereas the flue gas cleaning residue contained only low concentrations of naphthalene, probably adsorbed from the flue gas. The PAH fingerprint of the bottom ash corresponded rather well to the PAH fingerprint of the RDF and ASR, indicating that the PAHs in this output, in contrast to the other outputs, were mainly remainders from the PAHs in the waste inputs. A PAH mass balance showed that the total PAH input/output ratio of the FBC ranged from about 100 to about 2600 depending on the waste input composition and the obtained combustion conditions. In all cases, the FBC was clearly a net PAH sink. PMID:25002370

Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

2014-11-01

271

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l{sup -1}. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent [Laboratoire d' etude de Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, UMR 5564 (CNRS/INPG/IRD/UJF), Universite de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2010-09-15

272

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology  

OpenAIRE

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification pr...

Troisa, Cristina; Coulon, Frederic; Polge Combret, Ce?cile; Martins, Jean M. F.; Oxarango, Laurent

2010-01-01

273

Real-time, digital pulse-shape discrimination in non-hazardous fast liquid scintillation detectors: Prospects for safety and security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) in fast, organic scintillation detectors is a long-established technique used to separate neutrons and ? rays in mixed radiation fields. In the analogue domain the method can achieve separation in real time, but all knowledge of the pulses themselves is lost thereby preventing the possibility of any post- or repeated analysis. Also, it is typically reliant on electronic systems that are largely obsolete and which require significant experience to set up. In the digital domain, PSD is often more flexible but significant post-processing has usually been necessary to obtain neutron/?-ray separation. Moreover, the scintillation media on which the technique relies usually have a low flash point and are thus deemed hazardous. This complicates the ease with which they are used in industrial applications. In this paper, results obtained with a new portable digital pulse-shape discrimination instrument are described. This instrument provides real-time, digital neutron/? separation whilst preserving the synchronization with the time-of-arrival for each event, and realizing throughputs of 3 x 106 events per second. Furthermore, this system has been tested with a scintillation medium that is non-flammable and not hazardous. (authors)

274

Hydrogen production by bio-ethanol reforming for small-scale fuel cell applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The depletion of fossil fuels in the future and availability of crude oil are serious concerns around the globe. Moreover, the green house gas (GHG) emissions, which have influence on the climate change and environmental problems on the earth, have to be reduced. In order to have a CO2 neutral energy production, renewable energy sources will be one of the solutions to cut-off GHG emissions and to gain energy security. Various biofuels, which can be produced sustainably from renewable raw materials, can be used and they are benign renewable energy carriers. Bio-ethanol as a raw material for H{sub 2} generation is a good alternative because of its non-toxicity, high energy density and easy delivery. Bio-ethanol can be produced from biomass like cellulosic materials, e.g. lignin or hemicelluloses, wood residuals, food industry side streams, etc., for example via fermentation. Production of bio-ethanol from these resources is in focus in research and the most sustainable way to produce it is studied widely. Bio-ethanol produced from sugar or corn based raw materials are of less interest due to the need of plants suitable for food production. The hydrogen production via bio-ethanol reforming for fuel cell applications has attracted significant interest both in academic and industrial research. Bio-ethanol reforming process can be done by three alternative ways as follows: (1) Steam reforming using water (SR) (Endothermic) (2) Dry reforming using CO{sub 2} (DR) (Endothermic) (3) Autothermal steam reforming using partial oxidation (OSR{sub +}POX) (Exothermic). Steam reforming and autothermal reforming are reported to be effective routes for producing hydrogen from ethanol. The catalyst plays a crucial role for the production of hydrogen through ethanol reforming. In the present study, several catalytic materials, mainly CNT (carbon nanotube) support based catalysts but also conventional reforming catalysts were tested and reported. In this study, the feasibility of carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalyst materials are investigated in ethanol reforming. Catalysts for the bio-ethanol reformer operating at low temperatures, i.e. below 400 degC, are needed. The research is focused on developing new and sustainable ways to produce hydrogen by ethanol reforming for e.g. small-scale fuel cell systems having electric output power below 10 kW. The technologies will cover low temperature bio-ethanol reforming, study of hydrogen selective membranes for produced gas stream purification as well as the combinations of these two; catalytic membrane reactors to produce pure hydrogen streams suitable for fuel cells. Pd based hydrogen selective catalytic membranes were studied to obtain high hydrogen gas selectivity and purity with good hydrogen permeability. Further, theoretical and experimental research works were done to find and optimise appropriate operating pressures and temperatures for a micro-reactor performance to achieve a good hydrogen gas yield in reforming. CFD will be used as one of the tools when designing an optimal micro reactor structure for reforming. This project is in cooperation with COST Action 543 'Research and Development of Bio-ethanol Processing for Fuel Cells, BIOETHANOL' (2006-2010)

Huuhtanen, M.; Seelam, P. K.; Turpeinen, E., Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: mika.huuhtanen@oulu.fi; Kordas, K. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Electrical and Information Engineering (Finland))

2009-07-01

275

Crossed product tensor categories  

OpenAIRE

A graded tensor category over a group $G$ will be called a crossed product tensor category if every homogeneous component has at least one multiplicatively invertible object. Our main result is a description of the crossed product tensor categories, graded monoidal functors, monoidal natural transformations, and braiding in terms of coherent outer $G$-actions over tensor categories.

Galindo, Ce?sar

2009-01-01

276

Diffractive production of mesons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interest in the study of diffractive meson production is discussed. The description of diffraction within Regge phenomenology is presented, and the QCD-based understanding of diffractive processes is given. Central production is reviewed, and the corresponding main results from the COMPASS experiment and from the experiments at the ISR, RHIC, TEVATRON and LHC collider are summarised.

Schicker Rainer

2014-01-01

277

COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

Adrian MICU

2006-01-01

278

Central Exclusive Dijet Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production

279

Improved wound care product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care product comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care product,and a methodof treating an infected wound.

Kirketerp-MØller, Klaus unknown

280

Production by chemonuclear methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this section, the ozone synthesis by chemonuclear methods is discussed in the light of two different ozone generating systems that work with fission products. A brief description of the basic stages of the process is offered: production of oxygen, ozone formation from oxygen and the purification and concentration of ozone. (G.J.P.)

281

Medical School Faculty Productivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Faculty productivity as measured by publication for the Medical College of Virginia School of Medicine was computed and compared to that of Ph.D.'s in laboratories stressing scientific publication, as reported in previous research. A similar bimodal productivity by age was found for clinical faculty in the medical school setting. (JT)

Pearse, Warren; And Others

1976-01-01

282

Product Placement in Cartoons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons product placement was found; most product placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory product placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of products available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon production based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.

Irena Oroz Štancl

2014-06-01

283

Antihydrogen production temperature dependence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cold antihydrogen atoms were produced by mixing cold samples of antiprotons and positrons. The temperature of the positron plasma was increased by controlled radio-frequency (RF) heating, and the antihydrogen production was measured. Formation is observed to decrease with increased temperature but a simple power law scaling is not observed. Significant production is still present at room temperature.

Amoretti, M.; Amsler, C.; Bazzano, G.; Bonomi, G.; Bouchta, A.; Bowe, P.D.; Canali, C.; Carraro, C.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Doser, M.; Fontana, A.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Funakoshi, R.; Genova, P.; Hangst, J.S.; Hayano, R.S.; Johnson, I.; Joergensen, L.V.; Kellerbauer, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Landua, R.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Macri, M.; Madsen, N.; Manuzio, G.; Marchesotti, M.; Mitchard, D.; Ottone, F.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Riedler, P.; Rotondi, A.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Venturelli, L.; Yamazaki, Y.; Werf, D.P. van der; Zurlo, N

2004-03-11

284

Antihydrogen production temperature dependence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cold antihydrogen atoms were produced by mixing cold samples of antiprotons and positrons. The temperature of the positron plasma was increased by controlled radio-frequency (RF) heating, and the antihydrogen production was measured. Formation is observed to decrease with increased temperature but a simple power law scaling is not observed. Significant production is still present at room temperature

285

Pensions and Productivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book analyzes the productivity theory of pensions. First, it reviews the history and institutional practices of private pensions and government policy. Chapter 1 discusses demand-side and supply-side perspectives on pensions, the significance of the productivity theory of pensions, and the organization of this book. Chapter 2 traces origins…

Dorsey, Stuart; Cornwell, Christopher; Macpherson, David

286

Biotechnology and derived products  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

287

Product Life Cycle Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Product Lifecycle Management is a PowerPoint presentation given at Sinclair Community College on May 8, 2007 by Mileta M. Tomovic of Purdue University. Ideas for introducing and maintaining a "creative environment" within academia were presented. The author addresses the fundamental aspects of production and also sales of these items. This presentation is available for free download.

Tomovic, Mileta M. (Mileta Milos)

2009-10-07

288

Heavy Flavour Production  

OpenAIRE

I review recent developements in the theory of heavy flavour production. In particular, I dicuss the next-to-leading resummation of soft gluon effects in heavy flavour hadroproduction, and the next-to-leading resummation of collinear radiation in the production of heavy flavour at large transverse momenta.

Paolo Nason

1995-01-01

289

Particle production at HERA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results on particle production in deep-inelastic scattering in ep collision at HERA, obtained with the H1 and ZEUS detectors, are presented. The underlying parton dynamics is investigated by studying the transverse momentum distribution of charged particles and comparing the measurements with various Monte Carlo generators using different approaches to simulate the parton cascade. In this context also results on forward jet production are discussed. The underlying parton dynamics is also studied using prompt photon production in both DIS and photoproduction regimes. The production is compared to theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo predictions. In the context of hadronisation, studies are presented of the scaled momentum distribution for charged hadrons and for K{sub S}{sup 0} and {Lambda} particles in the current fragmentation region of the Breit frame. The data are compared to models and to next-to-leading order QCD calculations. In addition, differential cross sections for K{sub S}{sup 0} production in the laboratory and Breit frame are investigated and compared to Monte Carlo predictions, which are used to study the flavour decomposition and strangeness suppression factor. K{sub S}{sup 0} production is also compared to the production of charged particles and to the production rate of the DIS events.

Grebenyuk, Anastasia [DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2012-01-15

290

Particle production at HERA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results on particle production in deep-inelastic scattering in ep collision at HERA, obtained with the H1 and ZEUS detectors, are presented. The underlying parton dynamics is investigated by studying the transverse momentum distribution of charged particles and comparing the measurements with various Monte Carlo generators using different approaches to simulate the parton cascade. In this context also results on forward jet production are discussed. The underlying parton dynamics is also studied using prompt photon production in both DIS and photoproduction regimes. The production is compared to theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo predictions. In the context of hadronisation, studies are presented of the scaled momentum distribution for charged hadrons and for KS0 and ? particles in the current fragmentation region of the Breit frame. The data are compared to models and to next-to-leading order QCD calculations. In addition, differential cross sections for KS0 production in the laboratory and Breit frame are investigated and compared to Monte Carlo predictions, which are used to study the flavour decomposition and strangeness suppression factor. KS0 production is also compared to the production of charged particles and to the production rate of the DIS events.

291

Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

Chaudhuri Surabhi

2005-12-01

292

Dry alcohol production plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

Stankovi? Mirjana S.

2003-01-01

293

Product identification file  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This product identification file was compiled as an aid to the industrial hygienist who may encounter the products listed in surveys for and studies of occupational health hazards. It is pointed out that the chemical composition of a product may vary from year to year and some components may be added or deleted without an indication on the label. Some of the data in this file may not be complete depending on the analysis requested. For example, a solvent may be the only component for which the product was analyzed. The file is arranged by listing the chemical manufacturer, followed by the trade name. In cases where no manufacturer is known, the trade name appears in alphabetical order. The log number and the chemist who analyzed the product are listed for reference.

Gray, C.E. (ed.)

1978-06-01

294

Production of radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the research and development programme attention was given to various production procedures and the improvement of facilities. A method was developed for the purification of 28Mg, produced by the bombardment of magnesium targets, for medical use. Further work was done on the possible simultaneous production of 57Co and 109Cd and an improved manganese target for the production of 55Fe has been developed. A prototype 81Rb/ Krypton 81 m generator is being evaluated and the procedure for the separation of 85Sr from rubidium chloride targets has been improved. Futher work is being done to better our 111Inoxine product for blood platelet labelling and it is being tested for labelling efficiency. Preparations are being made for the determination of excitation functions. A final application for the registration of 123I-solution for oral applications and injections has been submitted to the Registrar of Medicine and various improvements have been introduced to the production facilities

295

Associated-quarkonium production  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the growing interest to measure associated-quarkonium production in a number of channels at the LHC. Whereas back-to-back production of quarkonium + isolated photon provides a unique way to extract gluon TMDs, observables such as quarkonium + W/Z can be of great help to better understand the quarkonium production mechanism as well as to shed light on double-parton scatterings. Along these lines, we also argue that quarkonium-pair production is a potentially rich source of information which only has started to be harvested. Finally, we discuss the relevance of studying the production of quarkonium + heavy-quark, as e.g. J/psi + charm and Upsilon + non-prompt J/psi.

Lansberg, J P

2014-01-01

296

Public goods production and private sector productivity  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we study how the use of resources in the public sector affects industrial structure, the size and the productivity in knowledge-intensive clusters in local communities. We also discuss how these considerations should be implemented in costbenefit assessments of local public goods supply. The topics are studied in a setting where there are gains from agglomeration in knowledge-intensive industries, creating clusters of firms in such industries. We find that the primary effect is ...

Norman, Eva Benedicte Danielsen

2010-01-01

297

Product Development Risk Management in Product Development Process  

OpenAIRE

It is necessary to manage product development risk in new product development process. This paper puts forward a risk management frame combined the traditional risk management framework and establishes a product development risk system in new product development, which provides new patterns for practice. It is helpful to raising the possibility of new product development success.

Key words: Product development risk management; Product de...

Zhang, Hanpeng; Ma, Yongbo

2011-01-01

298

Application of fractional factorial design to levan production by Zymomonas mobilis Aplicação do planejamento fatorial fracionário para a produção de levana por Zymomonas mobilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levan is a non-toxic, biologically active, extra cellular polysaccharide composed solely by fructose units. Optimization of levan production by Zymomonas mobilis strain ZAG-12 employing a 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed to analyze the influence of the temperature (20, 25 e 30ºC agitation (50, 75 e 100 rpm, and the initial concentrations of both sucrose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 and yeast extract (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0g.L-1 on final levan concentration. Aerobic fermentation was performed batchwise in 500mL Pyrex flasks for 72 hours. Biomass, ethanol, levan and sucrose were determined at beginning and also at end of the fermentations. The experiments showed that the final levan concentration depended on initial sucrose concentration, temperature and agitation velocity and that the initial concentration of yeast extract did not influence levan production. However, when the production of ethanol and biomass were considered, it became evident that yeast extract was a significant variable. The best conditions for levan production occurred at 100 rpm agitation, 20ºC and 250g.L-1 of initial sucrose resulting in 14.67g.L-1 of levan.Levana é um polissacarídeo extracelular, biologicamente ativo, não tóxico, contendo em sua estrutura apenas frutose. A maximização da produção de levana, por via fermentativa, pela linhagem de Zymomonas mobilis ZAG-12, foi estudada utilizando-se um planejamento fatorial de dois níveis 2(4-1, variando-se as concentrações iniciais de sacarose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 , extrato de levedura (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0 g.L-1, temperatura (20, 25 e 30ºC e agitação (50, 75 e 100 rpm. As fermentações foram desenvolvidas por processos descontínuos em frascos Pyrex roscados, de 500 mL, contendo 300 mL de meio a base de sacarose, por 72 horas. No início e ao final do processo, foram dosados: biomassa, etanol, levana e sacarose como açúcares redutores totais. A análise dos dados mostra que o aumento da produção de levana depende tanto dos efeitos da concentração inicial de sacarose, temperatura e agitação, isoladamente, quanto da interação entre agitação e temperatura na faixa experimental estudada. O extrato de levedura não afeta a produção de levana, entretanto, quando a resposta é produção de etanol e biomassa, fica evidente que essa variável é significativa. Os resultados demonstraram que as melhores condições para a produção em batelada ocorreram com 250g/L de sacarose inicial, 100 rpm de agitação, a 20ºC.

I.R. Melo

2007-03-01

299

29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.  

Science.gov (United States)

...convert the contaminant to non-toxic products (238); otherwise, package the waste...e)(5)Fire brigade .156Footwear.136,.156(e)(2)Goggles...Spraying.107(e)(8)Safety-Toe Footwear: (see Foot Protection)Sanding...

2010-07-01

300

29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.  

Science.gov (United States)

...undergo autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded...contaminant to non-toxic products (238); otherwise...20402.12. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of...Department of Labor. This index is updated as of July....255(b)(7) Thermal...

2010-07-01

301

Uranium production from phosphates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P2O5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

302

FISH PRODUCTION WORLDWIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fishing is one of the oldest occupations, which over the years has gone through several stages. In the economic terms the increase in intensive industrial system of the fish is advantageous because the specific energy consumption is low, given that they not need to maintain body temperature at high temperatures. Having regard to demographic trends in continue increasing, and the tendency of decrease fisheries leads to increased the production of aquaculture fish by order to ensure enough quantity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the evolution of fish production worldwide and in particular to show the evolution of production of fish from fisheries and aquaculture. To highlight the evolution global fish production given two ways to get fish respectively from aquaculture and fisheries, that have used data from FAOSTAT for 2007-2012. Also we can see that approximately 90% of the fish production is fished in the sea and only 10% in the territorial waters. The fish production in Africa had an ascending trend in the period under review. Analyzing fish production the share of total world continents is noted that Asia has a share of 68% in 2007 and increase to 73% in 2012.

Georgiana Melania COSTAICHE

2014-12-01

303

Wheat Production and Economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas production function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat production which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of production costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of production as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat productivity under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor, distance from home to field, hired labor, distance of farm to source of irrigation, number of irrigation, term of irrigation. Furthermore, the weakness of wheat production normally regards as a cost issue and lack of awareness wheat grower especially about wheat technical package. Conclusion: The study concluded that wheat production contribute significantly to farm sustainability and contribute to alleviation of malnutrition in the State. The actual production constraints restrict the sustainability of this important crop. The cooperation between international organizations and governmental institutions should tackle the hindrances of wheat production and achieve stability of wheat. There is a great potential for improvement the yield of the crop and an intervention of the State is needed to ease having the inputs of production especially irrigation water inputs.

Elgilany Ahmed

2011-01-01

304

Top Quark Production  

CERN Document Server

I discuss top quark production in hadronic collisions. I present the soft-gluon resummation formalism and its derivation from factorization and renormalization-group evolution, and two-loop calculations of soft anomalous dimensions in the eikonal approximation. I discuss the contributions of next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) soft-gluon corrections to the total cross sections and top-quark transverse momentum and rapidity distributions for top-antitop pair production, and for single-top production in the $t$ and $s$ channels and in association with a $W$ boson or a charged Higgs boson.

Kidonakis, Nikolaos

2013-01-01

305

DOCUMENTARY FILM PRODUCTION  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes the production of the documentary film from searching for an idea to the distribution in the cinemas or on television. The reader is guided through the procedures of the production of the fifty-minute documentary film In the Seeking of Black Gold (V iskanju ?rnega zlata) in which coal mining of past and present is presented. With this thesis we would like to ascertain which procedures of the film production are the most difficult and what mistakes can occur as well as h...

Remic, Katja

2012-01-01

306

Intelligent Distributed Production Control  

CERN Document Server

This editorial introduces the special issue of the Springer journal, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, on intelligent distributed production control. This special issue contains selected papers presented at the 13th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing - INCOM'2009 (Bakhtadze and Dolgui, 2009). The papers in this special issue were selected because of their high quality and their specific way of addressing the variety of issues dealing with intelligent distributed production control. Previous global discussions about the state of the art in intelligent distributed production control are provided, as well as exploratory guidelines for future research in this area.

Thomas, André; Valckenaers, Paul

2011-01-01

307

EPD Search - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

SCPinfonet

...Food products Textiles and leather products Forestry, wood and paper products Plastics, glass and chemical products Metals and metal products Machinery, appliances and ...Company Category Sodium chlorate Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals AB Plastics, glass and chemical products Hydrogen peroxide Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals ...AB Plastics, glass and chemical products Concentrated pigment dispersion Eurocolori Srl Plastics, glass and chemical products Polyurethane rigid panel for thermal insulating CLASS ... Plastics, glass and chemical products Polyurethane rigid panel for thermal insulating 80 mm Stiferite S.r.l. Plastics, glass and chemical ...

308

Urinary incontinence products  

Science.gov (United States)

... pads that are held in place by waterproof pants. ADULT DIAPERS AND UNDERWEAR If you leak a ... with a plastic cover. Some people wear waterproof pants over their underwear for extra protection. PRODUCTS FOR ...

309

[Production of rifamycin complex].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, by using synthetic medium and Streptomyces mediterranai rifamycin was produced by fermentation in laboratory scale. By means of spectrophotometric determination and microbiological assay, production of antibiotic by the organism was proved. PMID:3503969

Oner, M; Tamer, A U; Bursalio?lu, M

1987-10-01

310

Products in fusion systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction.

Henke, Ellen

2013-01-01

311

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on this page is provided for ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics ...

312

Model for Centauro production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss briefly some features of the Centauro-type events reported by cosmic ray experiments and present a phenomenological model for their production, based on the hypothesis of a QCD phase transition in coherently produced diffractive fireballs

313

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting ... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Identifying Recalled Products Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates by ...

314

Land Product Validation (LPV)  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

2013-01-01

315

Forecasting new product sales  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight se [...] lected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new product sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.

R., Siriram; D.R., Snaddon.

316

Fermentative biofuels production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

317

Production of Diamond Monocrystals  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Production of Monocrystals and High-Strength Polycrystals of Diamond with Specified Properties by Shock and Quasi-Static Compression of Different Carbonaceous Materials Including Amorphous Carbon, Ultra-Dispersive Diamonds, Fullerits, etc.

318

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed FDA 101: Product Recalls (video) Search the Consumer Updates Section Read the Consumer ... market may be necessary. In this Consumer Update video, FDA Recall Operations Team Leader Armando Zamora, explains ...

319

Radioactivity in consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

1978-08-01

320

Computing Borcherds Products  

CERN Document Server

We present an algorithm for computing Borcherds products, which has polynomial runtime. This improves on the currently common method, which has exponential runtime. An implementation of the new algorithm shows that it is superior also in practice.

Gehre, Dominic; Raum, Martin

2011-01-01

321

Illegal Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Illegal Pesticide Products Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea and Tick ... Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Questions on Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ...

322

Regional electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While France's final energy consumption remained stable between 2000 and 2010, this was not the case for its consumption of electricity, which increased by 13% over 10 years, and by 4.5% over five years. Production of electricity is concentrated into a few areas within the national territory, essentially as a result of geographical factors. Due, notably, to the presence of hydro generating, some regions produce a large proportion of the renewable electricity. Viewed at the level of the entire territory, production is not linked to local consumption. Some regions have high surpluses whereas others show important deficits, while overall production covers, on average, 114% of national needs. However, at the local level, measures by local authorities to control energy consumption and the development of renewables are beginning to show results. Production of renewable electricity, not including hydro, has grown greatly over a few years and still has a high potential. (authors)

323

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Science.gov (United States)

... this Consumer Update video, FDA Recall Operations Team Leader Armando Zamora, explains how FDA manages product ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and ...

324

Production of uranium dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A three stage fluidized bed process is described for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to a ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by first, reacting hydrogen and steam with UF6 in a first fluidized bed in a temperature range of from about 475 to 6000C to form solid intermediate products UO2F2 and U3O8; second, reacting hydrogen and steam with the intermediate products in a second fluidized bed at a temperature ranging from about 575 to about 6750C to produce a second group of intermediate products including UO2F2, U3O8, and UO2; and, third, reacting hydrogen and steam with the second group of intermediate products in a third fluidized bed as a temperature of 575 to 6750C to produce ceramic grade UO2 powder having low residual content of fluorides and other foreign materials. 9 claims, 1 figure

325

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

326

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available U.S. Food & Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

327

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available U.S. Food & Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

328

Fission products experimental programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 'Fission Products (FPs)' experimental programme was carried out from 1998 to 2004 in CEA/Valduc Apparatus B in the framework of the IRSN-AREVA NC Common Interest Program dealing with 'burnup credit' studies. It aims at compensating for the lack of critical experiments with FPs in the literature and validating a selection of 6 stable, non-volatile, fission products representing half of the irradiated fuel absorption of all fission products: {sup 103}Rh, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 155}Gd. This paper provides a more exhaustive approach of the k{sub eff} results, uncertainties and tendencies associated with the different steps of the 'Fission Products' programme. (authors)

Leclaire, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Anno, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (CEA/IPSN) (France); Girault, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-Sur-Tille (France); Letang, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

2006-07-01

329

Boron Materials Production  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Investigation of the Production Processes of Highly Pure Boric Acid and Elemental Boron Labeled with Boron-10 or Boron-11 Isotopes and of the Gain in Efficiency of the Boron Isotope Concentrating Process

330

Pretreated densified biomass products  

Science.gov (United States)

A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

2014-03-18

331

Fusion product spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate fusion product data is required for most fusion plasma simulations. The energy broadening of reaction products is demonstrated to be more complicated than the usual Gaussian broadening. The accurate integrals are performed to obtain incoming>, , and for all binary reactions in the four- and five-nucleon systems. Reaction cross sections were developed using R-Matrix models that include most recent measurements. (author)

332

Open beauty production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review measurements of open beauty production at HERA, with emphasis on recent results based on lifetime signatures. The beauty cross sections in photoproduction and deep-inelastic scattering are found to be higher than expected in QCD at next-to-leading order. The discussion includes new results on beauty production in e+e-, ? ? and p-barp interactions. An outlook on the potential for the measurements with the upgraded HERA collider and experiments is also given. (author)

333

Training, education and productivity  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the impact of training and education on productivity, in particular linking to a literature that emphasizes the need to reorganise production following adoption of ICT. The paper examines training at the total economy level and variation across industries, focusing especially on manufacturing versus market service sectors. It also examines the characteristics of those who receive training and outlines the incentives that underlie this.

Carmichael, Fiona; Ercolani, Marco; Kang, Lili; Maimaiti, Yasheng; O Mahony, Mary; Peng, Fei; Robinson, Catherine

2009-01-01

334

Ethanol production from lignocellulose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

2001-01-01

335

Buffalo Production and Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the book “Buffalo Production and Research”, edited by Antonio Borghese by FAO Regional Office for Europe, REU Technical Series 67, the state of art of the research, development, products and market of buffalo species in the world, is presented. The 14 chapters analyse single themes of principal problems concerning the breeding, the selection, the reproduction,the feeding, the milk and meat quality, the buffalo’s pathologies.

Alessandro Nardone

2011-02-01

336

Human capital and productivity  

OpenAIRE

This paper surveys the empirical literature on human capital and productivity and summarizes the results of my own work on the subject. On balance, the available evidence suggests that investment in education has a positive, significant and sizable effect on productivity growth. According to my estimates, moreover, the social returns to investment in human capital are higher than those on physical capital in most EU countries and in many regions of Spain.

Fuente, A?ngel La

2011-01-01

337

Fission product detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The response of photovoltaic cells to heavy ions and fission products have been tested on beam. Their main advantages are their extremely low price, their low sensitivity to energetic light ions with respect to fission products, and the possibility to cut and fit them together to any shape without dead zone. The time output signals of a charge sensitive preamplifier connected to these cells allows fast coincidences. A resolution of 12ns (F.W.H.M.) have been measured between two cells

338

Fusion product spectra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate fusion product data is required for most fusion plasma simulations. The energy broadening of reaction products is demonstrated to be more complicated than the usual Gaussian broadening. The accurate integrals are performed to obtain , , and for all binary reactions in the four- and five-nucleon systems. Reaction cross sections were developed using R-Matrix models that include most recent measurements.

Talley, T.L.; Hale, G.M.

1988-01-01

339

Microbial Production of Biovanillin  

OpenAIRE

This review aims at providing an overview on the microbial production of vanillin, a new alternative method for the production of this important flavor of the food industry, which has the potential to become economically competitive in the next future. After a brief description of the applications of vanillin in different industrial sectors and of its physicochemical properties, we described the traditional ways of providing vanillin, specifically extraction and chemical synthesis (mainly oxi...

Converti, A.; Aliakbarian, B.; Domi?nguez, J. M.; Bustos Va?zquez, G.; Perego, P.

2010-01-01

340

Wheat Production and Economics  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS), wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme...

Elgilany Ahmed; Jamalludin Sulaiman; Saidatulakmal Mohd

2011-01-01

341

Thermal production of gravitinos  

OpenAIRE

We reconsider thermal production of gravitinos in the early universe, adding to previously considered 2 -> 2 gauge scatterings: a) production via 1 -> 2 decays, allowed by thermal masses; b) the effect of the top Yukawa coupling; c) a proper treatment of the reheating process. Our final result behaves physically (larger couplings give a larger rate) and is twice larger than previous results, implying e.g. a twice stronger constraint on the reheating temperature. Accessory re...

Bolz, M.; Brandenburg, A.; Buchmuller, W.

2007-01-01

342

Defining product service systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are a number of theories that describe the necessary improvements in global environmental performance in order to maintain status quo in our ecosystem [1, 2]. These theories are far reaching in their ambitions, and it is not immediately apparent as to how we should be able to achieve, for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the product as an artefact with the service that the product provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the product. This enables a series of potential improvements to the product´s performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of product service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer, company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented product development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us the design degrees of freedom necessary to create radical innovation. The article draws upon existing product development and PSS theory and models and experiences from projects carried out with both industrialists and students.

McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

2002-01-01

343

Milk Production in Croatia  

OpenAIRE

In the last few years Croatian economy is restructuring through the processes of market liberalization and closing to EU, which is demanding some significant changes. Agriculture is in the process of reforms on the basis of CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) policies of the EU, and those changes are producing different effects in each agricultural sector. The most sensitive area is livestock production, especially cattle and milking cows (production of meat and milk). This sector has insufficie...

Petar Bosni?; Dubravko Mikuli?; Teo Vuj?i?; Božica Markovi?; Višnja Knjaz

2003-01-01

344

Coal production, 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

345

Production of uranium dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A continuous, four stage fluidized bed process for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO2) powder suitable for use in the manufacture of fuel pellets for nuclear reactors is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of first reacting UF6 with steam in a first fluidized bed, preferably at about 5500C, to form solid intermediate reaction products UO2F2, U3O8 and an off-gas including hydrogen fluoride (HF). The solid intermediate reaction products are conveyed to a second fluidized bed reactor at which the mol fraction of HF is controlled at low levels in order to prevent the formation of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). The first intermediate reaction products are reacted in the second fluidized bed with steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 6300C. The second intermediate reaction product including uranium dioxide (UO2) is conveyed to a third fluidized bed reactor and reacted with additional steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 6500C producing a reaction product consisting essentially of uranium dioxide having an oxygen-uranium ratio of about 2 and a low residual fluoride content. This product is then conveyed to a fourth fluidized bed wherein a mixture of air and preheated nitrogen is introduced in order to further reduce the fluoride content of the UO2 and increase the oxygen-uranium ratio to about 2.25

346

Production of uranium dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A continuous, four stage fluidized bed process for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO2) powder suitable for use in the manufacture of fuel pellets for nuclear reactors is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of first reacting UF6 with steam in a first fluidized bed to form solid intermediate reaction products UO2F2, U3O8 and off-gas including hydrogen fluoride (HF). The solid intermediate reaction products are conveyed to a second fluidized bed reactor in which the mol fraction of HF is controlled at low levels in order to prevent the formation of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). The first intermediate reaction products are reacted in the second fluidized bed with steam and hydrogen at 6300C. The second intermediate reaction product including uranium dioxide (UO2) is conveyed to a third fluidized bed reactor and reacted with additional steam and hydrogen at 6500C producing a reaction product consisting essentially of uranium dioxide having an oxygen-uranium ratio of about 2 and a low residual fluoride content. This product is then conveyed to a fourth fluidized bed wherein a mixture of air and preheated nitrogen is introduced in order to futher reduce the fluoride content of the UO2 and increase the oxygen-uranium ratio to about 2.25. (auth)

347

MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectionery products were used. Numbers of coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from <1x101 to 4x102 cfu.g-1, the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1, the number of yeasts from <1x101 to 5.5x102 cfu.g-1, cells of Salmonella sp. were not detected and the number of staphylococci was from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1. All investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

?ubomíra Juhaniaková

2011-08-01

348

6Cleaner and Safer Production  

SCPinfonet

There is a need to enhance cleaner production (CP) policies for all enterprises, including SMEs.... • CP policies can address issues in sustainable production. ...Eco-efficiency and green productivity both express clear messages of CP. Cleaner Production The term Cleaner Production was defined

349

Biodiesel Fuel Production from Marine Microalgae Isochrysis galbana, Pavlova lutheri, Dunaliella salina and Measurement of its Viscosity and Density  

OpenAIRE

Biodiesel is a fuel derives from transesterification of fats and oils. It is renewable and non-toxic ecofriendly fuel with less CO2 and NO2 emissions. Microalgae are known to contain more lipid content than macroalgae and most other oil crops. In this study, we extracted biodiesel from three microalgae Isochrysis galbana, Pavlova lutheri, Dunaliella salina and also measured the density and viscosity of biofuel obtained from these microalgae. Pavlova lutheri yielded more oil than the other two...

Sujin Jeba Kumar, T.; Balavigneswaran, C. K.; Srinivasakumar, K. P.

2013-01-01

350

Slick new technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Calgary-based firm is preparing to launch a series of green technologies designed to reduced the environmental impacts related to shale gas exploitation in North America. Trican has develop several non-toxic fracturing methods as part of their green slick water project initiative. Slick water is water that contains a friction reducer. Trican Well Service has added a non-toxic, biodegradable breaker to the polymer molecules of the friction reducer to ensure that the friction reducer doesn't get clogged in rocks or prevent gas from flowing. The company has also developed a non-toxic biocide used to kill bacteria that inhibits gas production. 1 fig.

Bentein, J.

2010-09-15

351

Productive Economy - Research Councils UK  

SCPinfonet

Productive Economy ... £75 million per annum and its impact on world wheat \\production is estimated to be ... New products: Securing over £60 million of equity \\finance, one of the largest in the history of European venture capital, Plastic Logic\\, ...

352

Types of green product labels  

SCPinfonet

Oct 11, 2005 ... ARCHIVE: Types of green product labels ... (ISO) has developed a classification \\system for environmental product claims and labels, ... There's no UK labelling \\scheme for the product I make (or service I offer) – what can I do?

353

Production and characteristics of kajmak  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional method of kajmak production is, due to the numerous steps, inappropriate for industrial production scale. Traditionally produced kajmak differs greatly from producer to producer in composition and quality. To standardize production scale and characteristics of kajmak, it is necessary to adapt its production steps to industrial scale. That would result in better selling in domestic and foreign market. Procedure of industrial kajmak production presented in this paper was developed in company «Polimark», based on patented technology. Technological procedure enables production of standardized, high quality product, which fully matches characteristics of traditionally produced kajmak. All processes involved in traditional production are included in presented technology, but their application is modified in order to follow the principles which are usually used in industrial production scale. Presented procedure has a number of advantages compared to traditional production, such as: great decrease in production time, high microbiological product quality, industrial process design and a wide range of possibilities in utilization of remained milk.

Predrag Pu?a

2006-12-01

354

Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International AgencAn expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

355

Smoke production in fires  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

1995-12-31

356

Production of titanium dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Titanium dioxide pigments provide whiteness and opacity to a vast range of everyday products from coatings and plastics to inks and even cosmetics and food. Manufacturing takes place using two different processes - the so called 'sulphate' and 'chloride' routes - to produce more than 4.5 million t per year worldwide. Both routes start from impure TiO2 based feedstocks containing moderately enhanced concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin. Experts from the TiO2 production industry and feedstock suppliers are assisting the IAEA in the development of a Safety Report concerning exposure to NORM within the TiO2 industry. The data assessment shows that, for both process routes, most of the radioactivity reports to the solid process wastes and there are no areas of concern related to products, co-products or liquid or gaseous effluents for production units operating to current environmental standards. Risk assessments for the landfill disposal of solid process waste similarly did not indicate any areas of concern where current waste management practices were followed. Process deposits, typically scale material, can exhibit enhanced activity concentrations of radium. Specific management practices such as controlled vessel entry to restrict worker exposure to these materials may be necessary. With such measures, it is considered unlikely that a worker would receive an annual effective dose exceeding 1 mSv. (author)eeding 1 mSv. (author)

357

Optimized Product Quantization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Product quantization (PQ) is an effective vector quantization method. A product quantizer can generate an exponentially large codebook at very low memory/time cost. The essence of PQ is to decompose the high-dimensional vector space into the Cartesian product of subspaces and then quantize these subspaces separately. The optimal space decomposition is important for the PQ performance, but still remains an unaddressed issue. In this paper, we optimize PQ by minimizing quantization distortions \\wrt the space decomposition and the quantization codebooks. We present two novel solutions to this challenging optimization problem. The first solution iteratively solves two simpler sub-problems. The second solution is based on a Gaussian assumption and provides theoretical analysis of the optimality. We evaluate our optimized product quantizers in three applications: (i) compact encoding for exhaustive ranking \\cite{Jegou2011a}, (ii) building inverted multi-indexing for non-exhaustive search \\cite{Babenko2012}, and (iii) compacting image representations for image retrieval \\cite{Jegou2010a}. In all applications our optimized product quantizers outperform existing solutions. PMID:24323879

Ge, Tiezheng; He, Kaiming; Ke, Qifa; Sun, Jian

2013-12-01

358

Lecture III. Production of charm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of charmed particles is discussed using simple arguments to understand the production cross sections in various situations in a survey of masses, names, decay modes, and production mechanisms. Thus an estimation can be made of the best place to find charmed particles and the places where it is more difficult to find them. Discussed are e+e- annihilation, peripheral production in hadron collisions, inclusive production in hadron collisions, production in (?, anti ?)N reactions, and photoproduction of charm. 12 references

359

Recover of productivity in acids sulfate soils by means of addition organic and lime amendments under greenhouse conditions at Boyaca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In flooded zones of Boyaca have been identified acid sulfate soil (SSA), restricted for extremes acidity originated for reactions of chemical and biological oxide-reduction by organic material of sulfur iron (pyrite), forming this way big quantities of sulfuric acid and high concentrations of Al toxic, besides it is characterized for being recent soils, with excessive quantities of S; high levels of organic matter and in some parts affected for salts and sodium that together with flooded areas and bad drenated make them inadequate for the establishing of cultivation. For this reason, it is looked for to make productive this SSA of high influence in the area of watering district. Starting with calcareous and organics rocks in winter pasture, the Resources to used were Ca (OH)2 and dolomite in doses of 10,25,50 and 100 t/ha; hen dung 5,10,20 and 30 t/ha mixes with limes hen dung 10+5, 10+10,25+20 and 50+30 using A. sative like indicator plant in a design completely on random with 22 treatments, correspond to ca (OH)2 25,50 ton/ha, dolomite 10,2.50 ton/ha and the mixes with calcareous rocks and hen dung with doses of 25+20 and 50+30 ton/ha respectively, which obtained the best answer in the development of the plant (biomass), reflected in the physical-chemical dynamic of the SSA. Due to this treatments increased in two units of pH, decreased the content of salts and the concentration of aluminum of non-toxic change, with respect to the initial soil, change, with respect to the initial soil, the soil with doses greater to 50 t/ha Ca (OH)2 evidenced over-limed together with the of hen-dung (5,10 t/ha) and the initial soil presented a restricted in develop and recuperation, indicating the conditions adverse in SSA

360

Production of cyclotron radionuclides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the project, 12,077mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 5,717mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 2,096mCi of {sup 123}l, 482mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 2,738mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 387,253,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

Chun, Kwon Soo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki; Kim, Jang Hye; Kim, Gi Sup [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

2000-12-01

361

Production of cyclotron radionuclides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the project, 11,492mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 4,384mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,245mCi of {sup 123}l, 523mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 1,283mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 304,723,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

Suh, Yong Sup; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

1999-12-01

362

STALING OF BAKERY PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to write down a review article about various aspects connected with staling of bakery products. Shelf life is directly associated with the staling process, which depends on the composition of bakery products and important are storage conditions as well. In the article are described particular components (starch, nonstarch polysacharides, water and how they affect the staling process. Generally during staling of bakery products occur  processes related with starch retrogradation, moisture redistribution from the crumb to the crust and other interactions between components. Staling process could be delayed by using various bakery improvers like enzymes, hydrocolloids, emulgators and other compounds. Also useful is the application of suitable packaging techniques.doi:10.5219/124

Jolana Karovi?ová

2011-04-01

363

Production of Metabolites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A recombinant micro-organism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces and excretes into culture medium a stilbenoid metabolite product when grown under stilbenoid production conditions, which expresses in above native levels a ABC transporter which transports said stilbenoid out of said micro-organism cells to the culture medium. The genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces an auxotrophic phenotype which is compensated by a plasmid which also expresses one or more of said enzymes constituting said metabolic pathway producing said stilbenoid, an expression product of the plasmid is genetically modified to include a ubiquitination tag sequence. Expression of an enzyme participating in catabolism of phenylalanine by the Ehrlich pathway is optionally reduced compared to its native expression level.

Katz, Michael unknown

364

Antiplasmodial Natural Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaria is a human infectious disease that is caused by four species of Plasmodium. It is responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year. Natural products contain a great variety of chemical structures and have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. This review highlights studies on natural products with antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity reported in the literature from January 2009 to November 2010. A total of 360 antiplasmodial natural products comprised of terpenes, including iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, terpenoid benzoquinones, steroids, quassinoids, limonoids, curcubitacins, and lanostanes; flavonoids; alkaloids; peptides; phenylalkanoids; xanthones; naphthopyrones; polyketides, including halenaquinones, peroxides, polyacetylenes, and resorcylic acids; depsidones; benzophenones; macrolides; and miscellaneous compounds, including halogenated compounds and chromenes are listed in this review.

Cláudio R. Nogueira

2011-03-01

365

Biotechnological production of colorants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches. PMID:24037500

de Boer, Lex

2014-01-01

366

Additives in yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

Milna Tudor

2008-02-01

367

Real time production optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

2004-07-01

368

Natural products as radioprotective agents; past, present and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost. Plants commonly used as dietary and or therapeutic agents have recently been the focus of attention since in most cases they are non-toxic and are easily accepted for human use. The proposed talk will mainly deal on the radioprotective potential of some important plant and herbal extracts. (author)

369

Defect production in ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AlN and Si3N4), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed. (orig.)

370

Biological hydrogen production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-11-01

371

Medical Products Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Ventrex Laboratories, Inc. develops, manufactures and markets a line of medical diagnostic assays based on biochemical techniques, in particular immunochemical techniques. Their products are sold worldwide to hospitals and medical laboratories for use in testing blood samples and other biological fluids. Analysis of a patient's body fluids, compared with normal values, aids a physician in confirming or otherwise diagnosing a suspected disease condition. NERAC's rapid information retrieval has provided Ventrex invaluable up-to-date information, and has permitted large scale savings. NERAC's service was particularly important in the development of a new product in the company's Ventre/Sep line, which is used in radioimmunoassays.

1982-01-01

372

Electrolytic titanium production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ginatta electrolytic plant was specifically designed and constructed for the production of titanium. Development stages that led to the construction of the electrowinning plant were reviewed. Electrochemical concepts and engineering criteria were outlined. Continuous steady state production of titanium crystals from the extraction compartments are obtained by supplying tetrachloride to the dissolution compartment. The cell electrodes are supplied with direct current from standard rectifiers. The equipment and the molten salt cells are operated by an aqueous tank house. The design is cost effective on an industrial scale because of significantly lower capital and operating costs. 13 refs., 5 figs.

Ginatta, M.; Berruti, R.; Orsello, G.; Semeraro, G.; Nidola, G. [GTT, Ginatta Torino Titanium (Italy)

1992-12-31

373

Biogas: Production and utilization  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the aspects of biogas production and utilization covered are: (1) the microbiology and biochemistry of the acid and methane production stages in the anaerobic process; (2) factors affecting the process, such as temperature, acidity and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations; (3) denitrification processes and systems; and (4) the process kinetics of suspended growth systems, packed columns, and fluidized beds. Also considered are such issues in the application of this technology as the digestion of municipal treatment plant sludges, animal wastes, food processing wastes and energy crops. Attention is in addition given to anaerobic digester design, offgas measurement of anaerobic digesters, and sludge treatment through soil conditioning and composting.

Price, E. C.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

374

Defect production in ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si3N4), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed

375

FDG decomposition products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation authors present the results of analysis of decomposition products of [18]fluorodexyglucose. It is concluded that the coupling of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation is a suitable tool for quantitative analysis of FDG radiopharmaceutical, i.e. assay of basic components (FDG, glucose), impurities (Kryptofix) and decomposition products (gluconic and glucuronic acids etc.); 2-[18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) is sufficiently stable and resistant towards autoradiolysis; the content of radiochemical impurities (2-[18F]fluoro-gluconic and 2-[18F]fluoro-glucuronic acids in expired FDG did not exceed 1%

376

Improving designer productivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

Hill, Gary C.

1992-01-01

377

Multi-boson production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The studies of the diboson production in p{bar p} collisions at 1.96 TeV performed by CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron collider are reported in this paper. The diboson events are identified by means of both leptonic and semi-leptonic final states. The presented results use different statistical samples collected by the Tevatron up to 4.8 fb{sup -1}. Measured production cross sections are in good agreement with Standard Model predictions and the limits on the anomalous triple gauge boson couplings are competitive with those measured by experiments at the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP).

Mastrandrea, Paolo; /Fermilab

2010-09-01

378

Labour Productivity Superstatistics  

CERN Document Server

We discuss superstatistics theory of labour productivity. Productivity distribution across workers, firms and industrial sectors are studied empirically and found to obey power-distributions, in sharp contrast to the equilibrium theories of mainstream economics. The Pareto index is found to decrease with the level of aggregation, {\\it i.e.}, from workers to firms and to industrial sectors. In order to explain these phenomenological laws, we propose a superstatistics framework, where the role of the fluctuating temperature is played by the fluctuating demand.

Aoyama, Hideaki; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshi

2008-01-01

379

Top quark production  

CERN Document Server

We review the current status of the cross sections measurement of the top-quark at the LHC and at the Tevatron. Total production cross sections, studies using single top quark events and differential $\\rm{t}\\bar{\\rm t}$ cross sections are discussed. The associated production of top quark pairs with photons, Z and W bosons, including $\\rm{t}\\bar{\\rm t}$Z and $\\rm{t}\\bar{\\rm t}$W measurements shown for the first time at LHCP2014, are presented.

Senghi Soares, Mara

2014-01-01

380

The Use of Exoskeletons of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vanammei and Crab (Ucides cordatus for the Extraction of Chitosan and Production of Nanomembrane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chitin is widely distributed in nature, being the main structural component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. These exoskeletons once discarded become an industrial waste creating environmental pollutant. In order to find an alternative use, the present work exploits the extraction of the chitosan from chitin that is present in the exoskeletons of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei and crabs Ucides cordatus and transforms it into high valued products, which can help solving the environmental problem as well to provide extra income to the fishermen. One example is the manufacture of nanomembranes from chitosan for the application in medical textiles. Nanomembranes using electrospinning of chitosan solutions (7% and 5wt% with 100:0 v/v (TFA/DCM and 70:30 v/v (TFA/DCM were produced. Morphological properties of chitin and chitosan were studied using SEM, DRX, and thermal properties through TG/DTG and molecular structure by FTIR analysis. TG/DTG showed thermal decomposition of chitosan samples. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the semi-crystalline structure of chitosan, and highly crystalline structure for chitin. Morphologies of the nanomembranes were also observed from scanning electron micrographs. Results showed that the nanomembranes with 5% chitosan solutions with 70:30 v/v (TFA/DCM showed facilitation in the formation of the nanomembranes. The nanomembranes of shrimp and crab with 5% 70:30 v/v (TFA/DCM had higher breaking tension and breaking extension. With positive results obtained, the present work will help the authorities to organize the fishermen to have consciousness in the collection of exoskeleton waste as well as helping to have a better environment.

Alcione O. Galvão

2012-07-01

381

Two Products Manufacturer’s Production Decisions with Carbon Constraint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a manufacture which produces both ordinary products and green products in a monopoly market, and investigate his production decisions with carbon constraint. Firstly, we derive the manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit without carbon constraint. Then, we discuss the optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint in different situation. The results indicate that manufacturer’s optimal production and maximum profit with carbon constraint are less than them without carbon constraint, optimal production is an increasing function with carbon constraint.

Li LU

2013-03-01

382

Kronecker Products on Preconditioning  

KAUST Repository

Numerical techniques for linear systems arising from discretization of partial differential equations are nowadays essential for understanding the physical world. Among these techniques, iterative methods and the accompanying preconditioning techniques have become increasingly popular due to their great potential on large scale computation. In this work, we present preconditioning techniques for linear systems built with tensor product basis functions. Efficient algorithms are designed for various problems by exploiting the Kronecker product structure in the matrices, inherited from tensor product basis functions. Specifically, we design preconditioners for mass matrices to remove the complexity from the basis functions used in isogeometric analysis, obtaining numerical performance independent of mesh size, polynomial order and continuity order; we also present a compound iteration preconditioner for stiffness matrices in two dimensions, obtaining fast convergence speed; lastly, for the Helmholtz problem, we present a strategy to `hide\\' its indefiniteness from Krylov subspace methods by eliminating the part of initial error that corresponds to those negative generalized eigenvalues. For all three cases, the Kronecker product structure in the matrices is exploited to achieve high computational efficiency.

Gao, Longfei

2013-08-01

383

Improving pension product design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper develops a pension product that can be oered in a dened contribution pension scheme as a deferred or immediate life annuity. The product is characterized by linking an individual's savings directly to market returns and differs from the products available in the market by being adjusted to individual needs. We argue that the asset allocation, the payout prole and the insured sum should not only depend on the plan member's age (or time left to retirement), nor only on her risk preferences, but should capture personal and economical characteristics. Among other factors, we include current wealth, expected lifetime salary progression, mandatory and voluntary pension contributions, expected state retirement pension, choice of assets, subjective lifetime expectancy and bequest motive. Specically, the asset allocation strategy, the payout prole and the level of insured sum dening the new product are optimal under the expected utility function of retirement benets given the individual's characteristics. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization approaches: stochastic optimal control and multistage stochastic programming. The rst method is common in nancial and actuarial literature, but results in theoretical values. However, the latter, which is characteristic for operations research, has highly practical application. We present the operations research methods with application of immediate and deferred life annuities in the Danish market, which have potential to stimulate new thinking and add to actuarial practice.

Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.

384

The hydrogen production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives an overview on the implementing of the hydrogen as substitution fuel in the transportation sector. It presents also the problems of this fuel storage and exploitation and describes the production modes and their safety. It also presents the main lines of the japan HTGR program. (A.L.B.)

385

Products of Random Matrices  

CERN Document Server

We derive analytic expressions for infinite products of random 2x2 matrices. The determinant of the target matrix is log-normally distributed, whereas the remainder is a surprisingly complicated function of a parameter characterizing the norm of the matrix and a parameter characterizing its skewness. The distribution may have importance as an uncommitted prior in statistical image analysis.

Jackson, A D; Johansen, P; Nielsen, M

2002-01-01

386

Mycotoxins in poultry production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease in body mass, number and quality of eggs, greater food conversion, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression results in increased sensitivity to infective agents and a bad vaccinal response. Morevover, mycotoxin residues in poultry meat, eggs and products derived from them pose a threat to human health. In order to prevent and reduce the negative implications of mycotoxins in the poultry production, it is necessary to create both global and national strategies for combatting mycotoxins, advance diagnostic techniques and procedures, intensify the control of food quality, introduce new limits on the maximum amount of mycotoxins allowed in food and poultry feed used for certain species and categories of animals, and synchronise it with the European standards.

Resanovi? Radmila M.

2009-01-01

387

The Democratization of Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Just as the democratization of information through personal computers was a key advance of the 20th century, the democratization of production through improvements in fabrication technologies will be a pivotal development in the 21st century. Digital fabrication is the process of translating a digital design into a physical object. At one time,…

Bull, Glen; Groves, James

2009-01-01

388

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available U.S. Food & Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products ... Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

389

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available U.S. Food & Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products ... Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

390

Hadronic lepton pair production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author describes a beam dump experiment at the CERN SPS for the study of ? pair production by ?+-, K+-, and p(anti p) beams on a copper target at 39.5 GeV/c. The dependence of the cross sections from various parameters is discussed. (HSI)

391

RECONSIDERING ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economy has changed significantly over the past century, in part due to the scientific discoveries, due to the industrial revolution, to the research, development and innovation, but maybe the most important contributor to the economic development is the human resource. We have witnessed significant changes enhancing the levels of productivity, both labor and capital. This paper analyzes productivity in relation to its social and sustainability dimension. The paper follows a previous study, highlighting the most important findings identified and reinterpreting them on the basis of the most recent research papers produced by the scholars in the field. The analysis is focused on the most unsustainable economies worldwide, respectively, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Belgium, Kuwait, Singapore, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Macedonia, Japan and the United States of America – selected by considering their per capita ecological deficit. The research uses statistical data provided by the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank and the Global Footprint Network. The research combines economical, development and environmental indexes in our attempt to evaluate productivity and to adjust it so that it considers the ecological deficit of the nations. The research hypothesis that generated the study is: the levels of economic productivity obtained by countries are not limited by their biocapacities. The empirical analysis will verify the research question advocating for the need to consider the limited capacity of the planet, in term of natural resources, when promoting economic and social development.

RIS A. MIHAI

2014-12-01

392

Measurement of production asymmetries  

CERN Document Server

The knowledge of charm production asymmetries is an important prerequisite for many of the possible searches for CP violation in charm. Measurements of these asymmetries at hadron colliders can also help to improve our understanding of QCD. These proceedings review existing measurements and discuss some of the experimental challenges of determining charge asymmetries at the per-mille level.

Gordon, Hamish

2013-01-01

393

Fission product filter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fission product filter for He consists of a winding body composed of two corrugated metal sheets simultaneously wound on a core laterally reversed. It is inserted into an enclosing tube and held at top and bottom by a star-shaped yoke. (orig./PW)

394

Predicting safe sandwich production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during production and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation and serving. However, Danish sandwich producing companies find it challenging to comply with this and have expressed a need for more flexibility. The Danish guidelines do allow for a prolongation of the acceptable time outside the cold chain, if the safety of the specific production can be documented. There is, therefore, room for developing targeted tools for evaluating the time-temperature scenarios in sandwich production. This study describes a decision support tool developed to offer the producers more flexibility. Based on time/temperature measurements obtained during preparation combined with information on the prehistory of ingredients and the expected time/temperature conditions of distribution and serving, the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and psychrotrophic Clostridium botulinum in the sandwiches is predicted. Applying the lag times of these pathogens as the critical limit, the tool determines if the sandwich production is safe by evaluating whether any of the lag times have been exceeded during the total preparation, distribution, and serving time. The growth models employed were built as part of the study using a “worst case” ingredient.

Birk, Tina; Duan, Zhi

2014-01-01

395

FORECASTING NEW PRODUCT SALES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight selected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new product sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel toets die akkuraatheid van die gebruik van linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes by die bekendstelling van nuwe produkte gebaseer op verkoopsdata. Die geselekteerde nuwe produkte is uit die elektriese en elektroniese asook informasietegnologie- en kommunikasie bedrywe. Linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes word vergelyk ten opsigte van vooruitskatting deur variansie te ontleed. Die akkuraatheid word ontleed en gevolgtrekkings gemaak. Die doel is om vooruitskatting van nuwe produkverkope te verbeter.

R. Siriram

2012-01-01

396

Electric motor product roadmaps  

SCPinfonet

Oct 15, 2009 ... EuPs are a category of non-transport related products, which are ... associated \\equipment are supplied into industrial and commercial markets in the UK ... with \\80 percent of systems powered by motors sized 7.5kW or smaller.

397

Total Productive Maintenance  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Kaye Krueger of Wisconsin Online Resource Center, this presentation allows user to read about how total productive maintenance can prevent breakdowns, defects, and a variety of other losses. This is a nice brief introduction to this important topic in manufacturing engineering.

Krueger, Kaye

2010-09-24

398

Data Products on Cloud  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation lays out the data processing products that exist and are planned for the Matsu cloud for Earth Observing 1. The presentation focuses on a new feature called co-registration of Earth Observing 1 with Landsat Global Land Survey chips.

Ly, Vuong T.; Mandl, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

399

Guitar Production Standards Blueprints  

Science.gov (United States)

This PDF document provides a few blueprints for guitar production standards. The drawings include some cross-sections and close-up details. Measurements are also provided. The features illustrated are common to all 25-1/2" scale length guitars.

2012-08-06

400

Understanding bottom production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe calculations of b overline b production to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and next-to-next-to-leading logarithm (NNLL) near threshold in pp interactions. Our calculations are in good agreement with the b overline b total cross section measured by HERA-B

401

Yakima Products | Sustainable Minds  

SCPinfonet

... An example of the value of using Sustainable Minds is the changes we made to our Forklift product. SM results highlighted opportunities for material substitutions that made significant improvements to sustainability, and also improved cost and performance. A comparison of our original and redesigned Forklift bike mount. Software Eco-concept + LCA software Learning Center & Community Methodology When & how to use Services Workshops ...

402

Soybean Production Lesson Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

Carlson, Keith R.

403

Inclusion systems and amalgamated products of product systems  

OpenAIRE

Here we generalize the concept of spatial tensor product, introduced by Skeide, of two product systems via a pair of normalized units. This new notion is called amalgamated tensor product of product systems, and now the amalgamation can be done using a contractive morphism. Index of amalgamation product (when done through units) adds up for normalized units but for non-normalized units, the index is one more than the sum. We define inclusion systems and use it as a tool for ...

Bhat, B. V. Rajarama; Mukherjee, Mithun

2009-01-01

404

Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants  

OpenAIRE

We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition matrices. We observe a cross-sectional dispersion in plant-level productivity growth in the industry. Even though the industry aggregate shows a small TFP growth rate -0.3%, quartile rank analysis ...

Geylani, P. C.; Stefanou, S. E.

2011-01-01

405

Gocciole Chocolate - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

SCPinfonet

... Gocciole Chocolate - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Gocciole Chocolate - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Log on to ...International EPD® System Climate Declarations Contact Search Using EPDs EPD Search Gocciole Chocolate Search Epd Gocciole Chocolate Product information This is an EPD of ...Gocciole Chocolate. It is currently only available in Italian. Detailed information Registration No: S-P-00237 Registration date: 2012-01-19 Valid until: ...

406

Table olives - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

SCPinfonet

... Table olives - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Table olives - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Log on to ...PCR Forum Search Comment this PCR Post Using EPDs PCR Search Table olives Search Pcr Table olives PCR information This document provides Product Category ...Rules (PCR) for the assessment of the environmental performance of Table Olives (UN CPC 21340 & 21399) and the declaration of ... Detailed information Name: Table olives CPC Code(s): 21340 Vegetables, pulses and potatoes, preserved by vinegar or acetic acid ...

407

Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production  

OpenAIRE

This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple o...

Nina Kolesárová; Miroslav Hut?an; Igor Bodík; Viera Špalková

2011-01-01

408

Energy production technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large-scale power plants that burn fossil fuels will remain the backbone of global electricity production. Technological developments will help to improve the economy and reduce environmental effects of energy production: power production efficiency will be raised, flue gas releases other than carbon dioxide will be almost eliminated, and fuel flexibility will be improved. If renewable and nuclear energy cannot fulfil the long-term electricity needs, techniques can be developed to separate and dispose of carbon dioxide at a non-prohibitive cost. Nuclear energy can continue to be important if approved by the public and political decisionmakers. In the medium term we may see a reduction in the use of nuclear energy in some areas in the world, such as Europe, at the same time as new nuclear capacity is being commissioned in other areas, such as the Far East. Continued R and D efforts can improve the economic competitiveness and fuel utilisation of nuclear energy production and also reduce the amount of radioactive waste produced. The increased use of renewable energy is regarded as a highly promising way to cut greenhouse gas emissions and achieve energy sustainability in the long term. The sources vary in different regions of the world. In Finland, bioenergy, in particular woody biomasses and waste-derived fuels, is the major source. Finnish R and D activities focus on the further improvement of successful products, including fuel-handling devices, fluidised-bed boilers, recovery boilers and diesel power plants, as well as on the development of new technologies, such as those based on gasification and pyrolysis. Wind power can also make an important contribution in Finland, up to 10% of the electricity supply. There are only limited possibilities to build more hydropower. The short-term or medium-term potential for solar electricity in Finland is limited, except perhaps solar energy systems integrated with building structures. Hybrid systems combining renewable and conventional or several renewable technologies can help in commercialising new technologies by facilitating entry to the market and by alleviating the seasonal or intermittent character of some renewable technologies. Combined heat and power production, CHP, is extensively applied in Finland for both district heating and process industries. New plant concepts will significantly increase the power-to-heat ratio of CHP plants. The emerging technologies for small-scale distributed generation, such as microturbines and fuel cells, will offer new possibilities, primarily within the natural gas distribution network, as ever-smaller heat consumers make a CHP system viable. Globally, distributed generation seems to be a very important option for both developing countries and for developed countries with extensive natural gas networks. CHP is a good example of the efficient use of primary energy by integrating various production processes and end-uses. There are good prospects in many countries to extend the current CHP concept for cooling. In the long term, we expect to see highly integrated systems which use various material and energy inputs, and combine several technologies to produce different combinations of products: power, heat and cool, desalinated or otherwise purified water, and chemical products such as bio-oils and gases, including hydrogen. In Finland, strong R and D efforts aim to integrate the recycling of wastes, so that material recycling is maximised and all non-recyclable combustible components are used for efficient energy production. This type of development is also an effective way to meet future restrictions on the use of landfills.

Mattila, L.; Saastamoinen, J.; Helynen, S. [and others

2002-07-01

409

Antiproton production for Tevatron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Needs to improve the Fermilab Pbar Source for the Tevatron Upgrade and discrepancies in predictions of the antiproton yields have forced us to develop the production model based on the modern data and to incorporate this model to the current version of MARS10 code. The inclusive scheme of this code with the use of statistical weights allows the production of antiprotons to be enhanced within the phase space region of interest, which is extremely effective for optimization of Pbar Source parameters and for developing of such an idea as a beam sweeping system. Antiproton production model included in the modified version of our Monte Carlo program MARS10M for the inclusive simulation of hadronic cascades, as for other particles throughout the program, is based on a factorization approach for hadron-nucleus differential cross-section. To describe antiproton inclusive spectra in pp-collisions a phenomenological model has been used modified in the low-Pt region. The antiproton production in pion-nucleon interactions is described in the frame of our simple phenomenological model based on the modern data. In describing of the of antiproton production cross-sections ratio in hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon collisions the ideas of soft hadronization of color strings and all the present experimental data have been used. Some comparisons of our model with experimental data are presented in the wide intervals of initial momenta, antiproton kinematical variables and nuclei. In all the cases the agreement is pretty good what gives us an assurance in the consequent studies carried out for the Fermilab Pbar Source. The results of such study are presented in this paper

410

Equipartition of entropy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the optimal design or operation of heat and mass transfer processes and develops the following conjecture: for a given duty, the best configuration of the process is that in which the entropy production rate is most uniformly distributed. This principle is first analyzed in detail on the simple example of tubular heat exchangers, and within the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics. A main result is established, which states that the total entropy production is minimal when the local production is uniformly distributed (equipartition). Corollaries then result, which relate the entropy production and the variance of its distribution to economic factors such as the duty, the exchange area, the fluid flow-rates, and the temperature changes. The equipartition principle is then extended to multiple independent variables (time and space), multicomponent transfer, and non-linear but concave flux vs force relationship. Chemical Engineering examples are discussed, where the equipartition property has been applied implicitly or explicitly: design of distillation plates, cyclic distillation, optimal state of feed, and flow-sheets in chromatographic separations. Finally, a generalization of the equipartition principle is proposed, for systems with a distributed design variable (such as the size of the various elements of a system). The optimal distribution of investment is such that the investment in each element (properly amortized) is equal to thlement (properly amortized) is equal to the cost of irreversible energy degradation in this element. This is equivalent to saying that the ratio of these two quantities is uniformly distributed over the system, and reduces to equipartition of entropy production when the cost factors are constant over the whole system

411

Geometrical Evaluation of Star Products  

CERN Document Server

The geometric picture of the star-product based on its Fourier representation kernel is utilized in the evaluation of chains of star-products and the intuitive appreciation of their associativity and symmetries. Such constructions appear even simpler for a variant asymmetric product, and carry through for the standard star-product supersymmetrization.

Zachos, C K

2000-01-01

412

Geometrical evaluation of star products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geometric picture of the star product based on its Fourier representation kernel is utilized in the evaluation of chains of star products and the intuitive appreciation of their associativity and symmetries. Such constructions appear even simpler for a variant asymmetric product, and carry through for the standard star-product supersymmetrization. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Zachos, Cosmas [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4815 (United States)

2000-07-01

413

Geometrical Evaluation of Star Products  

OpenAIRE

The geometric picture of the star-product based on its Fourier representation kernel is utilized in the evaluation of chains of star-products and the intuitive appreciation of their associativity and symmetries. Such constructions appear even simpler for a variant asymmetric product, and carry through for the standard star-product supersymmetrization.

Zachos, Cosmas

1999-01-01

414

75 FR 1280 - New Postal Product  

Science.gov (United States)

...Confirm [Reserved for Product Description] International Reply Coupon Service [Reserved for Product Description] International Business Reply Mail Service [Reserved for Product Description] Money Orders [Reserved for Product Description]...

2010-01-11

415

75 FR 5236 - New Postal Product  

Science.gov (United States)

...Confirm [Reserved for Product Description] International Reply Coupon Service [Reserved for Product Description] International Business Reply Mail Service [Reserved for Product Description] Money Orders [Reserved for Product Description]...

2010-02-02

416

75 FR 7951 - New Postal Product  

Science.gov (United States)

...Confirm [Reserved for Product Description] International Reply Coupon Service [Reserved for Product Description] International Business Reply Mail Service [Reserved for Product Description] Money Orders [Reserved for Product Description]...

2010-02-23

417

75 FR 3383 - New Postal Product  

Science.gov (United States)

...Confirm [Reserved for Product Description] International Reply Coupon Service [Reserved for Product Description] International Business Reply Mail Service [Reserved for Product Description] Money Orders [Reserved for Product Description]...

2010-01-21

418

75 FR 7201 - New Postal Product  

Science.gov (United States)

...Confirm [Reserved for Product Description] International Reply Coupon Service [Reserved for Product Description] International Business Reply Mail Service [Reserved for Product Description] Money Orders [Reserved for Product Description]...

2010-02-18

419

Cohomology of twisted tensor products  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that the cohomology of a tensor product is essentially the tensor product of the cohomologies. We look at twisted tensor products, and investigate to which extend this is still true. We give an explicit description of the $\\Ext$-algebra of the tensor product of two modules, and under certain additional conditions, describe an essential part of the Hochschild cohomology ring of a twisted tensor product. As an application, we characterize precisely when the co...

Bergh, Petter Andreas; Oppermann, Steffen

2008-01-01

420

Quality analysis of poultry products  

OpenAIRE

The ever growing market of poultry products and a trend towards a healthy lifestyle forces to not only manufacture competitive products but also natural - products of high quality. Seeking to solve the issues of man's rational nutrition, choosing of manufacture technologies for products, forecasting quality of products the knowledge of meet quality criteria is vital. Aim of this work: investigate quality parameters of poultry and determine their influence on quality of finished poultry produc...

Tumaitis, Tautvydas

2013-01-01

421

Exploring Nanotechnology through Consumer Products  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers nanotechnology in consumer products. First, the instructor presents an introductory PowerPoint and then "students are given a chance in groups to explore consumer products through an information sheet provided over available consumer products." A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, PowerPoint presentation, Nano Products Resource Guide, as well as a wide variety of product information sheets are included. 

422

Consumer oriented new product development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires.

van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

2014-01-01

423

Greenhouse production systems for people  

OpenAIRE

Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental impacts from system. Engineering greenhouse production systems to meet these requirements must include: a cost-effective and structurally sound facility; various sub-systems controlled to interact har...

Giacomelli, G. A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; Mckenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D. A.; Voogt, J. O.; Weel, P. A.; Mears, D.

2012-01-01

424

Crested products of Markov chains  

OpenAIRE

In this work we define two kinds of crested product for reversible Markov chains, which naturally appear as a generalization of the case of crossed and nested product, as in association schemes theory, even if we do a construction that seems to be more general and simple. Although the crossed and nested product are inspired by the study of Gelfand pairs associated with the direct and the wreath product of two groups, the crested products are a more general construction, inde...

D Angeli, Daniele; Donno, Alfredo

2009-01-01

425

Product service systems | Sustainable Minds  

SCPinfonet

...Products SM in education Software & systems Standards & regulations Strategies Supply chain Sustainability paradox Sustainable Europe Sustainable interaction design Teamwork Webcast Archive February 2014 (...Product service systems, Products, Software & systems, Standards & regulations, Strategies, Supply chain, Sustainability paradox, Sustainable Europe, Sustainable interaction design, Teamwork, Webcast ...Products, SM in education, Software & systems, Standards & regulations, Strategies, Supply chain, Sustainability paradox, Sustainable Europe, Sustainable interaction design, Teamwork, Webcast ...Products, SM in education, Software & systems, Standards & regulations, Strategies, Supply chain, Sustainability paradox, Sustainable Europe, Sustainable interaction design, Teamwork, Webcast ...

426

Product placement: Commerciality versus creativity?  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of the product placement process and to see what a marketing channel such as product placement generates to a film and/or a television production. The starting point for answering the purpose of this paper is the value creation theories together with a qualitative survey through interviews with six people in the product placement industry. The results from the survey showed that the benefits of product placement are the contribution ...

Ejnar, Frida; Kagstedt, Emelie

2011-01-01

427

Production and characteristics of kajmak  

OpenAIRE

Traditional method of kajmak production is, due to the numerous steps, inappropriate for industrial production scale. Traditionally produced kajmak differs greatly from producer to producer in composition and quality. To standardize production scale and characteristics of kajmak, it is necessary to adapt its production steps to industrial scale. That would result in better selling in domestic and foreign market. Procedure of industrial kajmak production presented in this paper was developed i...

Predrag Pu?a; Mira Radovanovi?; Jelena Djerovski

2006-01-01

428

Communication ?apital Productivity: National Aspect ?????????????? ????????????????? ????????: ???????????? ??????  

OpenAIRE

The article offers suggestions for assessing communication ?apital productivity; the contradictions that affect the value of the communication efficiency of capital (the union of the agents of the market of communication services and products allows them to increase the communication capital productivity and to decrease communication capital productivity of competitors) are formulated; the dependence of productivity on the number of communication capital customers of the communication networ...

Naumik Ekaterina G.

2012-01-01

429

Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum non-toxic concentrations for biological use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA capped have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to an increased concentration range of the QDs, while the gelatine coating acts as a barrier towards enhanced toxicity at higher QD concentrations.

Gérard Valérie A

2010-03-01

430

Bacillus subtilis natto: a non-toxic source of poly-?-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria  

OpenAIRE

It is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of ?-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of ...

Bhat, Aditya R.; Irorere, Victor U.; Bartlett, Terry; Hill, David; Kedia, Gopal; Morris, Mark R.; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Radecka, Iza

2013-01-01

431

Plasmid instability when the hsp60 gene promoter is used to express the protective non-toxic fragment B of the diphtheria toxin in recombinant BCG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetic modification of the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG to deliver a protective Corynebacterium diphtheriae antigen in vivo could be a safer and less costly alternative to the new and more expensive DTP vaccines available today, in particular to third world-countries. The stability of expression of heterologous antigens in BCG, however, is a major challenge to the use of live recombinant bacteria in vaccine development and appears to be dependent to a certain extent, on a genetic compatibility between the expression cassette within the plasmid construct and the mycobacterium host. In the quest for the best recombinant BCG transformant to express the dtb gene of C. diphtheriae we generated two new rBCG strains by transforming the Moreau substrain of BCG with the mycobacterial expression vectors pUS973 and pUS977, each one carrying a different promoter to drive the expression of the target antigen. After transformation recombinant BCG clones were selected on Middlebrook 7H10 kanamycin Agar plates, expanded in Middlebrook 7H9 kanamycin Broth and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. rBCGs transformed with the construct carrying the weak PAN promoter from M. paratuberculosis stably expressed the dtb gene. Conversely, rBCGs transformed with the construct carrying the strong mycobacterium hsp60 promoter were unstable and consequently unfit for the expression of the C. diphtheriae gene.

Dilzamar V. Nascimento

2013-04-01

432

Non-Toxic Effect of Monascus purpureus Extract on Lactic Acid Bacteria Suggested Their Application in Fermented Foods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of Monascus purpureus extract (MPE on probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB was investigated to ascertain its application in fermented foods. Viable count of LAB was not affected after 24 hours of incubation in Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS broth containing MPE. The agar well-diffusion assay did not show any inhibition zone. The biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides by LAB in culture medium supplemented with MPE increased antioxidant activities. These data suggest that, nutritive and biological functionality of fermented foods can be improved by the use of MPE.

Mohan-Kumari Honganoor Puttananjaiah

2011-10-01

433

Effect of PVC/CPVC ratio of non-toxic, platy pigments on corrosion protection of acrylic-modified alkyd coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion protection of acrylic-modified alkyd coatings, based on micaceous zinc ferrite (MZF), micaceous iron oxide (MIO) and zinc ferrite (ZF) pigments, at different pigment volume concentrations PVCs to the critical pigment volume concentrations CPVCs ratio was studied and denoted hereafter by A. Scanning electron microscope, weight loss measurements, water vapour transmission and immersion in 3.5% salt solution as well as physicomechanical properties were carried to evaluate the paints anti corrosive performance. It was concluded that, for all systems, water vapour transmission and corrosion protection can be affected by the PVC/CPVC ratio. At certain PVC the barrier property of pigment was the main factor affecting the water vapour transmission and corrosion protection. The optimum percentage of inhibitive pigment in the above systems has also been evaluated. Als, it was found that, micaceous zinc ferrite pigment protect the carbon steel physically through barrier action and chemically by the reaction with the acidic acrylic-modified alkyd resin to produce soaps which passivated the substrate

434

The use of the dye neutral red as a specific, non-toxic, intra-vital stain of islets of Langerhans.  

OpenAIRE

The development of improved methods of islet isolation from the pancreas is hampered by difficulty in identification of islets. A method described by Bensley in 1911 uses neutral red to stain the islets selectively. In the present study the method has been simplified and selective staining of islets in the rat, dog and pig demonstrated by use of light and electron microscopy. Staining of islets with neutral red does not appear to affect their viability as judged by insulin secretion and trans...

Gray, D. W.; Millard, P. R.; Mcshane, P.; Morris, P. J.

1983-01-01

435

Transformation of the naturally occurring frog skin peptide, alyteserin-2a into a potent, non-toxic anti-cancer agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alyteserin-2a (ILGKLLSTAAGLLSNL.NH(2)) is a cationic, amphipathic ?-helical cell-penetrating peptide, first isolated from skin secretions of the midwife toad Alytes obstetricans. Structure-activity relationships were investigated by synthesizing analogs of alyteserin-2a in which amino acids on the hydrophobic face of the helix were replaced by L-tryptophan and amino acids on the hydrophilic face were replaced by one or more L-lysine or D-lysine residues. The Trp-containing peptides display increased cytotoxic activity against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (up to 11-fold), but hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes increases in parallel. The potency of the N15K analog against A549 cells (LC(50) = 13 ?M) increases sixfold relative to alyteserin-2a and the therapeutic index (ratio of LC(50) for erythrocytes and tumor cells) increases twofold. Incorporation of a D-Lys(11) residue into the N15K analog generates a peptide that retains potency against A549 cells (LC(50) = 15 ?M) but whose therapeutic index is 13-fold elevated relative to the native peptide. [G11k, N15K] alyteserin-2a is also active against human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells (LC(50) = 26 ?M), breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells (LC(50) = 20 ?M), and colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells (LC(50) = 28 ?M). [G11k, N15K] alyteserin-2a, in concentrations as low as 1 ?g/mL, significantly (P < 0.05) inhibits the release of the immune-suppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF-? from unstimulated and concanavalin A-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The data suggest a strategy of increasing the cationicity while reducing the helicity of naturally occurring amphipathic ?-helical peptides to generate analogs with improved cytotoxicity against tumor cells but decreased activity against non-neoplastic cells. PMID:22965637

Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Prajeep, Manju; Arafat, Kholoud; Zaric, Milan; Lukic, Miodrag L; Attoub, Samir

2013-02-01

436

Non-toxic and efficient DNA extractions for soybean leaf and seed chips for high-throughput and large-scale genotyping.  

Science.gov (United States)

In applied soybean (Glycine max L.) breeding programs, marker-assisted selection has become a necessity to select value-added quantitative trait loci. The goal of this work was to improve marker-assisted selection workflow by developing a reliable, inexpensive, high-throughput DNA extraction protocol for soybean seed and leaf samples that does not generate hazardous waste. The DNA extraction protocol developed allows for the leverage of robust SNP genotyping platforms such as the Simple Probe Assay and KASPar v4.0 SNP Genotyping System to genotype thousands of seeds or leaves non-destructively in a single day with a 95 % success rate. This methodology makes it possible to run up to 150 SNP markers on the DNA extracted from a single seed chip or leaf sample. PMID:24863292

King, Zachary; Serrano, Jonathan; Roger Boerma, H; Li, Zenglu

2014-09-01

437

Identification of methysticin as a potent and non-toxic NF-?B inhibitor from kava, potentially responsible for kava's chemopreventive activity  

OpenAIRE

Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a transcription factor that plays an essential role in cancer development. The results of our recent chemopreventive study demonstrate that kava, a beverage in the South Pacific Islands, suppresses NF-?B activation in lung adenoma tissues, potentially a mechanism responsible for kava's chemopreventive activity. Methysticin is identified as a potent NF-?B inhibitor in kava with minimum toxicity. Other kava constituents, including four kavalactones of similar st...

Shaik, Ahmad Ali; Lee Hermanson, David; Xing, Chengguo

2009-01-01

438

Composite polymericadditivesdesignated forconcretemixes based onpolyacrylates, products of thermal decomposition of polyamide-6 and low-molecular polyethylene ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????-6 ? ?????????????????? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the present research is to develop polymeric additives based on aqueous dispersions of (methacrylic polymers, including polymethacrylates, polyacrylates, products of thermal decomposition of polyamide-6 in the vegetable oil media, and low-molecular polyethylene. Decomposition of polyamide-6 took 8…10 hours at the temperature of 245…275 °?. The mixture of low-molecular polyamides, the average molecular weight of which reached 3400…8600, was used both independently and as a constituent of a composite additive designated for Concrete Mix ? 22,5 (?300. The choice of polymers is based on their availability, as they are produced by local manufacturers of chemicals. For example, low-molecular polyethylene is the by-product of high-capacity synthesis of high-pressure polyethylene. Besides low-molecular polyamides, additives may represent concentrated oligomers of ?-caprolactam generated in the course of synthesis of polyamide-6. Therefore, the problem of disposal of by-products generated by major producers of chemicals is resolved to some extent, while the cost of the feed stock required for the manufacturing of effective additives designated for concretes goes down. The above substances are non-toxic, they do not emit any hazardous fumes in the course of the concrete mixture preparation, further evaporation and dehydration of molded concrete and reinforced concrete products. Therefore, the following conclusions can be made on the basis of the research of the influence of polymeric additives onto the properties of Concrete ? 22,5: 1 polymeric additives 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 represent plasticizing additives that decelerate the hardening of concrete mixtures and reduce the water-cement ratio by 6.5 % (Additive 1 - 19.4 % (Additive 5; 2 Additives 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 added into the mixture in the amount of 0.5…0.7 % (weight share improve the strength of Concrete ? 22,5 samples, if tested on the 28 day of hardening (see Table 1 in the dry-hardening mode, if compared to the benchmark sample, by 0.6% (Additive 1,by 9.1% (Additive 2, by 22.4% (Additive 3, by 24.8% (Additive 4, and by28.2% (Additive 5; 3 polymeric additives improve the water resistance of Concrete ? 22,5 by 2.56 times (Additive 1, by 7.5 times (Additive 2,by 26,2 times (Additive 4, by 191…195 times (Additive 5, if compared to the benchmark sample; 4 the optimal composite additive that increases the time period of stiffening of the cement grout , improves the water resistance and the compressive strength of concrete, represents the composition of polyacrylates and polymethacrylates, products of thermal decomposition of polyamide-6 and low-molecular polyethylene in the weight ratio of 1:1:0.5.??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ? ????????????????? ????????.

Polyakov Vyacheslav Sergeevich

2012-04-01

439

Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

440

XML-based product information processing method for product design  

Science.gov (United States)

Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

Zhang, Zhen Yu

2012-01-01