WorldWideScience
1

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01

2

The production of hydrotalcite from magnesite ore as non-toxic heat stabiliser for polyvinyl chloride Hidrotalsiet, vervaardig uit magnesieterts, as niegiftige hittestabiliseerder vir polivinielchloried  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years polyvinyl chloride (PVC processors had to submit to worldwide pressure to convert to environmentally friendly stabilisers such as hydrotalcite (HT, since most of the heat stabilisers currently in use contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium or barium – these being highly toxic. The presently used HT production process is, however, very expensive as it involves the recovering of magnesium from seawater magnesia. The purpose of this study was to prove that it is indeed possible to produce cost effective and non-toxic HT from an alternative source. During this study the costing and heat stabilising ability of the hydrotalcite produced from magnesite was compared to that of commercially available heat stabilisers. The effect of the pre-mixing process, as well as the influence of particle size distribution was also investigated. A cost comparative and stabilising efficiency study indicated the cost effectiveness of HT produced from magnesite ore, in comparison with other commercially available stabilisers. The use of HT as produced from magnesite ore would indeed assist in the worldwide changeover to environmentally friendly stabilisers.Gedurende die afgelope paar jaar het die druk op polivinielchloried (PVC -verwerkers aansienlik toegeneem om na omgewingsvriendelike stabiliseerders soos hidrotalsiet (HT oor te skakel, aangesien die meeste hittestabiliseerders wat tans in gebruik is, giftige swaarmetale soos lood, kadmium, of barium bevat. Die vervaardigingsproses van HT is tans baie duur, aangesien dit die herwinning van magnesium uit seewatersoute behels. Hierdie studie is daarop gemik om te bewys dat dit wel moontlik is om meer bekostigbare en niegiftige HT uit magnesieterts te vervaardig. Tydens die studie is die doeltreffendheid en koste-implikasies van HT vervaardig uit magnesieterts, vergelyk met kommersieel beskikbare stabiliseerders asook HT-stabiliseerders soos vervaardig uit seewatersoute. Die effek van voorafvermengingsprosesse van die stabiliseerders en smeermiddels, asook partikelgrootteverspreiding op die finale stabiliseringsvermoë, is ook ondersoek. ’n Kostevergelykende studie het aangetoon dat PVC-verwerkers wel koste kan besnoei deur na hierdie plaaslik vervaardigde stabiliseerder oor te skakel. HT kan dus inderdaad as kostedoeltreffende en niegiftige stabiliseerder vir geplastiseerde PVC aangewend word. Die wêreldwye omskakeling na HT as omgewingsvriendelike stabiliseerder vir geplastiseerde PVC sal dus ekonomies meer lewensvatbaar word indien hierdie vorm van HT gebruik word.

J. van der Laan

2005-09-01

3

Non-toxic antifouling strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term fouling generally refers to an undesirable process in which a surface becomes encrusted with material from the surrounding environment. In the case of biofouling, that material consists of organisms and their by-products e.g., extracellular polysaccharides and metabolites. Biofouling limits the performance of devices in numerous applications; however, this review focuses on antifouling biomaterials for marine and biomedical applications. The surface chemistry and physical properties of the substratum are both crucial to preventing the recruitment of biofouling organisms. Natural antifouling surfaces exhibit both chemical and physical attributes. The chemical structure is discussed briefly as it relates to both anti-fouling and fouling-release properties. However, our focus has been to study physical cues as they relate to the initial attachment of fouling organisms.

Chelsea M. Magin

2010-04-01

4

Radioiodine treatment for non-toxic goitre  

OpenAIRE

There is no ideal treatment for benign multinodular goitre. Besides surgery, which is recommended for large goitres or when malignancy cannot be excluded, the non-surgical treatment options are levothyroxine therapy and radioiodine (131I) therapy. Conventional 131I therapy [without recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH)] has been used for more than a decade in symptomatic non-toxic multinodular goitre, and although it does lead to significant thyroid volume reduction, relativel...

Feldt-rasmussen, Ulla

2009-01-01

5

Non-toxic nanoparticles from phytochemicals: preparation and biomedical application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanoparticles (NPs) have various applications in biomedicine and drug delivery carriers and also are widely used in cosmetics. However, the preparation of biocompatible and non-toxic nanomaterials is a very important issue as most of the starting materials are synthesized using toxic chemical reagents. This review introduces the preparation of biocompatible NPs in a range of their concentrations using phytochemicals for biomedicine and biotechnology. Phytochemicals are natural products that are extracted from plants, vegetables, and fruits. Phytochemicals serve as reducing agents and stabilizers during NP synthesis to convert metal ions to metal NPs in water. Possible applications of such nanomaterials in biomedical sciences are also described in this review. PMID:24263370

Lee, Jaewook; Park, Enoch Y; Lee, Jaebeom

2014-06-01

6

Radioiodine treatment of multinodular non-toxic goitre.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the long term effect of radioactive iodine on thyroid function and size in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. DESIGN--Consecutive patients with multinodular non-toxic goitre selected for radioactive iodine treatment and followed for a minimum of 12 months (median 48 months) after an intended dose of 3.7 MBq/g thyroid tissue corrected to a 100% uptake of iodine-131 in 24 hours. PATIENTS--69 patients with a growing multinodular non-toxic goitre causing local ...

Nygaard, B.; Hegedu?s, L.; Gervil, M.; Hjalgrim, H.; Søe-jensen, P.; Hansen, J. M.

1993-01-01

7

Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

Cerci C

2007-01-01

8

Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2011-01-01

9

131I treatment of nodular non-toxic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The traditional treatment of a growing nodular non-toxic goitre has for many years been surgical resection or levothyroxine suppressive treatment. During recent years, several studies have reported promising results of 131I treatment in terms of thyroid size reduction. This review outlines the different treatment modalities on non-toxic nodular goitre with special emphasis on 131I treatment. By the term nodular goitre the authors include glands with solitary or multiple thyroid nodules with uptake on a scintiscan. At what point of the natural history of non-toxic multinodular goitre 131I therapy should be used is not clear. In principle, the best result is obtained in smaller goitres and it is possible that the best effect of 131I is seen if treatment is given to patients with diffuse goitre before these become nodular. However, then there is a potential risk to swing in the direction to where 131I is used in an indiscriminate way, since the prevalence of non-toxic multinodular goitre is much higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Although we have data on the long-term hazards of 131I treatment in hyperthyroidism in terms of risk of cancer, we have only follow-up periods of 5 to 10 years for non-toxic goitres in small groups of patients and no data regarding the long-term risk of high-dose 131I treatment (>600 MBq) for this condition. Ideally, long term randomized studies comparing the effect, randomized studies comparing the effect, side effect and cost-benefit of surgery as opposed to 131I treatment should be performed. Awaiting this, it is at present mandatory that each individual patient be given a choice of treatment after proper information. 44 refs

10

{sup 131}I treatment of nodular non-toxic goitre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional treatment of a growing nodular non-toxic goitre has for many years been surgical resection or levothyroxine suppressive treatment. During recent years, several studies have reported promising results of {sup 131}I treatment in terms of thyroid size reduction. This review outlines the different treatment modalities on non-toxic nodular goitre with special emphasis on {sup 131}I treatment. By the term nodular goitre the authors include glands with solitary or multiple thyroid nodules with uptake on a scintiscan. At what point of the natural history of non-toxic multinodular goitre {sup 131}I therapy should be used is not clear. In principle, the best result is obtained in smaller goitres and it is possible that the best effect of {sup 131}I is seen if treatment is given to patients with diffuse goitre before these become nodular. However, then there is a potential risk to swing in the direction to where {sup 131}I is used in an indiscriminate way, since the prevalence of non-toxic multinodular goitre is much higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Although we have data on the long-term hazards of {sup 131}I treatment in hyperthyroidism in terms of risk of cancer, we have only follow-up periods of 5 to 10 years for non-toxic goitres in small groups of patients and no data regarding the long-term risk of high-dose {sup 131}I treatment (>600 MBq) for this condition. Ideally, long term randomized studies comparing the effect, side effect and cost-benefit of surgery as opposed to {sup 131}I treatment should be performed. Awaiting this, it is at present mandatory that each individual patient be given a choice of treatment after proper information. 44 refs.

Nygaard, B.; Faber, J.; Hegdeues, L.; Hansen, J.M. [Herlev Hospital (Denmark)

1996-01-01

11

Treatment of non-toxic multinodular goiter with radioactive iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fourteen patients with large non-toxic multinodular goiters were treated with 20 to 100 mCi (740 to 3700 MBq) of radioactive iodine (iodine-131). In seven, the goiter had recurred after a partial thyroidectomy and four of these had had two operations. Eight had symptoms of respiratory obstruction, two had dysphagia, and the others sought treatment for cosmetic reasons. After administration of iodine-131, there was a significant decrease in goiter size in 11 of the 14 patients, and all those with obstructive symptoms showed improvement. No significant local side effects occurred, but hypothyroidism and Graves' disease each occurred once during follow-up from one to 13 years. Radioactive iodine in doses of 20 to 100 mCi is an effective, safe therapeutic alternative in patients with large non-toxic multinodular goiter, particularly when there is recurrence following surgery or when there are contraindications to surgery

12

Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The effect of radioiodine in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of the study was to see the effect of radioiodine on thyroid size and function in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. We prospectively studied 55 non-toxic multinodular goitre patients treated with radioiodine of which 15 were males and 40 were females with age ranged from 25 years to 60 years (mean ± SD 40.45 ± 10.70 years) for a minimum of 12 months. Patients who were selected were those with local compression symptoms or for cosmetic reasons and the treatment was chosen because of a high operative risk or refusal to be operated on. Thyroid volume and T3, T4, TSH of all patients were determined before treatment and 6 months interval after treatment. Radioiodine was given in the dose ranged from 333 MBq (9 mCi) to 555 MBq (15 mCi) (mean ± SD 11.45 ± 2.04 mCi). The mean thyroid volume was reduced from 44.75 ± 37.44 ml to 28.76 ± 27.25 ml at 12 months (p < 0.001) i.e., reduced by 35.73%. Thyroid volume reduction at 6 months was 21.07%. Hypothyroidism occurred in 9.1% of the patients at 12 months. Side effects were few. Three cases developed radiation thyroiditis and two cases developed hyperthyroidism that was managed conservatively. It has been concluded that radioiodine is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre and may be the treatment of choice in elderly patients, in patients in whomlderly patients, in patients in whom surgery is contraindicated and in patients who are unwilling to undergo surgery. (author)

13

First records of the benthic, bloom-forming, non-toxic dinoflagellate Thecadinium yashimaense (Dinophyceae) in Europe: with special emphasis on the invasion in the North Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Thecadinium yashimaense was recorded for the first time in France, Great Britain, The Netherlands, and Germany. The invasion and establishment of the species in the German Bight was documented reliably and is presented here. The geographic expansion of the species from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic Ocean is discussed. This bloom-forming, marine, sand-dwelling dinoflagellate was shown to be non-toxic. Also Thecadinium kofoidii, the type species of the genus, was analyzed for potential toxin production and turned out to be non-toxic as well.

Hoppenrath, Mona; Elbrächter, Malte; Halliger, Hannelore; Koeman, Reinoud P. T.; Krakhmalnyy, Alexander; Surek, Barbara; Erler, Katrin; Luckas, Bernd

2007-09-01

14

Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

15

Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site

16

Pollution prevention benefits of non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves - 11000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. Shielding glovebox gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, i.e., hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the pollution prevention benefits of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. The nonhazardous substitutes are higher in cost, but this is offset by eliminating the costs associated with onsite waste handling of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) items. In the end, replacing lead with non-hazardous substitutes eliminates waste generation and future liability.

Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

17

Radioiodine therapy in non toxic multi nodular goitre, preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: Aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of 131I therapy in patients (pts) affected by non toxic multinodular goitre (NTMG). NTMG is a thyroid disease with a high prevalence, especially in low-iodine intake regions. Treatment of NTMG often requires surgery. However, thyroidectomy may be risky in some patients and radioiodine therapy could be an alternative treatment to reduce thyroid volume. We also evaluated if lithium administration can improve the efficacy of radioiodine treatment in this pts. Material and Methods: We enrolled 39 pts (8 males, 31 females; mean age 59 y, range 40-79 y) affected by NTMG. Mean thyroid volume (TV) at ultrasound was of 46.8 ml (range 18.5-87.3). Pts were randomised in 2 groups. Group 1: iodine therapy + lithium therapy 900 mg/die for 6 days; Group 2: iodine therapy alone. We also define 3 clusters of pts by TV. A:15-30 ml; B:31-40 ml; C: > 40 ml. The 131I activity (MBq) was calculated as follows: [4.44 (MBq) x 100/24 hours uptake (%)] x TV. All patients are evaluated for thyroid function and TV at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, since we postulate that major reduction in thyroid volume will occur 1 year after 131I therapy. Results: Up to now 16 pts were treated with 131I (mean activity: 512 MBq) and no side effects from 131I and lithium therapy were reported. Four out of 5 pts evaluated at 3 months (2 of group 1 and 3 of group 2) had a reduction in TV (mean valuegroup 2) had a reduction in TV (mean value: 8.8 ml). Five out of 10 pts had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism at 1 week, likely as a consequence of thyroid tissue destruction. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest the safety and effectiveness of 131I treatment in NTMG. We expect to clarify the role of lithium administration in improving 131I efficacy. This therapy could have a future role in patients with NTMG that can't be submitted to surgery

18

Temporal and spatial scales of effects of toxic and non-toxic stressors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estuarine ecosystems are potentially subjected to over 25 types of non-toxic stressors, including sedimentation, nutrients, exotic species, and habitat loss. Many non-toxic stressors operate over entire estuaries. For example, spread of exotics such as Spartina in Willapa Bay, WA may impact much of the intertidal area. Alterations due to toxic pollutants tend to be localized near their inputs. However, trophic transport can spread DDT and PCBs throughout a much wider area. Toxic pollutants are often introduced into the environment rapidly through discharges and spills, and then affect organisms fairly rapidly (within minutes to over a life cycle). The time course for non-toxic stressors is more variable. Some non-toxic alterations are very rapid, such as physical manipulation of habitats (e.g., filling). Alterations to habitats or watershed inputs are gradual, and thus difficult to detect in standard studies. For example, a slight increase in segmentation is difficult to quantify over a few years, but over decades could have major effects on estuarine ecosystems. The duration of effects of toxic pollutants depends upon their dilution, degradation and burial rates, and range from minutes for rapidly diluted soluble pollutants to decades or centuries for recalcitrant pollutants such as DDT. Duration of effects for non-toxic stressors are often ``permanent`` over ecological time for two reasons. Firstly, many non-toxic alterations are due to changes in watersheds, which recover slowly if logged or not at all if native habitat is transformed for development or farming. Secondly, several of the non-toxic stressors, such as invasions of exotics, result in a new, ``stable`` ecological system, so there is no recovery in the sense that pollutants degrade.

Lee, H. II; Specht, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

19

Comparative gene expression in toxic versus non-toxic strains of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis genes in the two existent Alexandrium tamarense EST libraries, we propose that the PSP toxin genes in dinoflagellates might be more different from their cyanobacterial counterparts than would be expected in the case of a recent gene transfer. As a starting point to identify possible PSP toxin-associated genes in dinoflagellates without relying on a priori sequence information, the sequences only present in mRNA pools of the toxic strain can be seen as putative candidates involved in toxin synthesis and regulation, or acclimation to intracellular PSP toxins.

Glöckner Gernot

2010-04-01

20

Development of Non-hazardous Explosives for Security Training and Testing (NESTT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The security force at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely used canines to search for explosives and other contraband substances. The use of threat quantities of explosive for realistic training in populated or sensitive Laboratory areas has not been permitted because of the hazard. To overcome this limitation a series of non-hazardous materials with authentic signatures have been prepared and evaluated. A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and canine (K-9) detection in a Beta Test Program.

Kury, J.W.; Simpson, R.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Hallowell, S.F. [Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City International Airport, NJ (United States). FAA Technical Center

1996-01-01

21

Development of Non-hazardous Explosives for Security Training and Testing (NESTT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The security force at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely used canines to search for explosives and other contraband substances. The use of threat quantities of explosive for realistic training in populated or sensitive Laboratory areas has not been permitted because of the hazard. To overcome this limitation a series of non-hazardous materials with authentic signatures have been prepared and evaluated. A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and canine (K-9) detection in a Beta Test Program

22

40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...  

Science.gov (United States)

...non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that receive Conditionally...CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Disposal...Non-Municipal Non-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units § 257.5...

2010-07-01

23

Dewatering as a non-toxic control of nuisance midge larvae in algal wastewater treatment floways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attached-algae floways have tremendous potential for use in wastewater treatment because natural algal communities show high nutrient removal efficiencies, have low operating costs, and are easy to maintain. Algal wastewater floways may also serve as a sustainable option for producing renewable energy because algae grow rapidly, are easily harvested, and can serve as a source of biomass for biofuel. However, pests such as chironomids (Diptera) colonize open channel periphyton floways and their larvae damage the biofilms. While pesticides can control midge larvae, little information is known about alternative, non-toxic controls. This study examined the effectiveness of periodic, short-term dewatering (4 hours every 9 days) on midge abundance and periphyton growth in 16 recirculating, outdoor floways (3 m long, 0.1 m wide). We compared midge abundance and algal accumulation (chlorophyll a, b, c, and pheophytin) among control (n = 8) and dewatered (n = 8) floways filled with secondarily treated wastewater (27 days, 10 hours of daylight). Dewatered flumes had 42% fewer midges and 28-49% lower algal productivity (as measured by chlorophyll a, b, c, and pheophytin pigments). Chlorophyll a production rates averaged (±1 SD) 0.5 ± 0.2 ?g/cm(2)/day in control floways compared to 0.3 ± 0.1 ?g/cm(2)/day dewatered floways. Short-term dewatering effectively reduced midges but also damaged periphyton. To maximize the recovery of periphyton biomass, operators should harvest periphyton from floways during dewatering events before periphyton is damaged by desiccation or direct exposure to sunlight. PMID:25607663

Keller, Troy A; Husted, Emily M

2015-01-01

24

Beyond celiac disease toxicity: Detoxified and non-toxic grains  

OpenAIRE

Coeliac disease (CD) is a food-related problem. Increasing knowledge about the diversity in CD toxicity of individual wheat species and varieties, and of the individual gluten proteins enables the food industry to increasingly take responsibility in the production of CD-safe foods. Several strategies to obtain CD-safe wheat material including selection, breeding and genetic modification are elaborated from recent examples. Attention is also given to the rapidly increasing interest by the CD p...

Gilissen, L. J. W. J.; Meer, I. M.; Smulders, M. J. M.

2008-01-01

25

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZARDOUS, NON-HAZARDOUS and SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

26

Development of non-hazardous explosives for security training and testing (NESTT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and K-9 detection in a Beta Test Program.

Kury, J.W.; Simpson, R.I.

1995-06-21

27

Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

Cutbirth, J. Michael

2013-01-01

28

Interaction among Non-toxic Phytoplankton, Toxic Phytoplankton and Zooplankton: Inferences from Field Observations  

OpenAIRE

We explore the mutual dependencies and interactions among different groups of species of the plankton population, based on an analysis of the long-term field observations carried out by our group in the North-West coast of the Bay of Bengal. The plankton community is structured into three groups of species, namely, non-toxic phytoplankton (NTP), toxic phytoplankton (TPP) and zooplankton. To find the pair-wise dependencies among the three groups of plankton, Pearson and partial correlation coe...

Roy, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Das, P.; Chattopadhyay, J.

2007-01-01

29

Analyses of Environmental Impacts of Non Hazardous Regional Landfills in Macedonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of potential environmental impacts for eight planned non-hazardous regional landfills in Macedonia. Waste quantities for each waste management region and landfill capacities are estimated. Expected leachate quantities are calculated using Water Balance Method. Analyses and comparison of the likely landfill leachate per capita are presented, demonstrating that higher rates of leachate are generated per capita in waste management regions with higher annual sums of rainfall. An assessment of the potential landfill impacts on the water environment taking into consideration local geology and hydrogeology conditions is presented. Some general measures for leachate treatment that are in compliance with the modern EU standards are indicated. The goal of the study is to facilitate a better understanding about the sustainable waste management practices in cases of landfilling of municipal solid waste.

Katerina Donevska

2013-12-01

30

Non-Toxic Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine Development for On-Orbit APS Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-toxic dual thrust proof-of-concept demonstration engine was successfully tested at the Aerojet Sacramento facility under a technology contract sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The goals of the NASA MSFC contract (NAS8-01109) were to develop and expand the technical maturity of a non-toxic, on-orbit auxiliary propulsion system (APS) thruster under the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. The demonstration engine utilized the existing Kistler K-1 870 lbf LOX/Ethanol orbital maneuvering engine ( O m ) coupled with some special test equipment (STE) that enabled engine operation at 870 lbf in the primary mode and 25 lbf in the vernier mode. Ambient testing in primary mode varied mixture ratio (MR) from 1.28 to 1.71 and chamber pressure (P(c) from 110 to 181 psia, and evaluated electrical pulse widths (EPW) of 0.080, 0.100 and 0.250 seconds. Altitude testing in vernier mode explored igniter and thruster pulsing characteristics, long duration steady state operation (greater than 420 sec) and the impact of varying the percent fuel film cooling on vernier performance and chamber thermal response at low PC (4 psia). Data produced from the testing provided calibration of the performance and thermal models used in the design of the next version of the dual thrust Reaction Control Engine (RCE).

Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.

2003-01-01

31

Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

32

The clinical evaluation of iodine-131 therapy in non-toxic goiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the Iodine-131 dose, indications and effect of radioiodine treatment of non-toxic goiter (NTG). Methods: 35 patients with large non-toxic goiters were treated with 131I. 5 had previous thyroidectomy with goiter recurrence, 15 had symptoms of respiratory obstruction after thyroxin treatment without adequate effect, 3 were older patients who were at high operative risk, 5 had cardiopulmonary disease, 7 refused surgery. 131I was given at a dose of 2.96-70.3 MBq/g total thyroid mass corrected to a 100% 131I uptake in 24 hours. Thyroid size was measured by sonography during 12-36 months follow-up. Results: In 35 patients treated with 131I the thyroid mass was reduced from 86.5 ± 20.3 g to 40.3 ± 13.6 g at 12 months (P131I therapy for NTG. 131I therapy for NTG appears to be an acceptable, cost-effective, simple therapy for large NTG, especially for older patients who are at high operative risk, have had previous thyroidectomy with goiter recurrence, contraindications to or refusal of surgery

33

Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants as well as the perspectives for future research directions.

Jean-Philippe Maréchal

2009-10-01

34

Potent inhibition of copper corrosion in neutral chloride media by novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Two eco-friendly thiadiazole derivatives show high inhibition efficiency on copper. •Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. •Surface layers were also characterized by SEM coupled with EDX analysis. •Raman spectra reveals inhibitors suppress corrosion via formation of complex. •Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were calculated. -- Abstract: Inhibiting effect of two novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives on copper were investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution using weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Presence of inhibitors and increase of concentration greatly decrease corrosion rate, parameters determined from polarization curves and EIS plots show that inhibitors decrease both cathodic and anodic current densities, suppressing charge transfer process by adsorption on copper surface. Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. Surface layers were characterized by SEM coupled with EDX. Raman micro-spectroscopy reveals that inhibitor molecules suppress copper corrosion via formation of thiadiazole–Cu complex. Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were also evaluated

35

Gallium nitride is biocompatible and non-toxic before and after functionalization with peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of semiconductor materials can significantly hinder their use for in vitro and in vivo applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a material with remarkable properties, including excellent chemical stability. This work demonstrated that functionalized and etched GaN surfaces were stable in aqueous environments and leached a negligible amount of Ga in solution even in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Also, GaN surfaces in cell culture did not interfere with nearby cell growth, and etched GaN promoted the adhesion of cells compared to etched silicon surfaces. A model peptide, "IKVAV", covalently attached to GaN and silicon surfaces increased the adhesion of PC12 cells. Peptide terminated GaN promoted greater cell spreading and extension of neurites. The results suggest that peptide modified GaN is a biocompatible and non-toxic material that can be used to probe chemical and electrical stimuli associated with neural interfaces. PMID:22019517

Jewett, Scott A; Makowski, Matthew S; Andrews, Benjamin; Manfra, Michael J; Ivanisevic, Albena

2012-02-01

36

Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates on K. mikimotoi were substantially reduced in both copepods while their clearances of G. instiatum remained unaltered, suggesting active prey selection. Video observations of individual prey capture and feeding events showed prey rejection frequencies (caught and then released cells) that did not differ between mixed and mono-specific diets. This suggests that the selection between prey cells occurs prior to capture and that it is based on remote characterization of the cells.

Schultz, Mette; KiØrboe, Thomas

2009-01-01

37

Radioiodine therapy of benign non-toxic goitre. Potential role of recombinant human TSH  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This review provides an update on recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH) augmented radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy and outlines its potential role in the treatment of symptomatic benign multinodular non-toxic goitre. In some countries, ¹³¹I has been used for three decades to reduce the size of nodular goitres. The feasibility of ¹³¹I therapy depends on an adequate thyroid ¹³¹I uptake. Based on a two-fold increase in thyroid ¹³¹I uptake, superiority studies have convincingly demonstrated that the absorbed thyroid ¹³¹I dose can be increased without increasing the administered ¹³¹I activity, resulting in a 35-56% amplification of goitre reduction at one-year post radioiodine compared to conventional (without rh-TSH) ¹³¹I therapy. Although patient satisfaction is not improved at one-year, this approach facilitates tracheal decompression and is particularly promising in large goitres. The majority of multinodular non-toxic goitre patients may not require amplified goitre reduction. But as an alternative strategy, rh-TSH allowsup to 80% reduction of the therapeutic ¹³¹I activity while still achieving goitre reduction comparable to that of conventional ¹³¹I therapy and maintaining high patient satisfaction. The dose-reduction (equality) strategy is attractive in terms of minimizing post-therapeutic restrictions and in reducing the potential risk of radiation-induced malignancy. Adverse effects like temporary thyroid swelling and thyroid hormone excess are to a large extent dose-dependent and generally 0.1mg rh-TSH or less is well tolerated. Based on these results we conclude that rh-TSH augmented ¹³¹I therapy is a promising new therapeutic principle allowing the tailoring of an optimal ¹³¹I therapy on the individual level.

Fast, S; Bonnema, S J

2011-01-01

38

Therapy for non-toxic multinodular goiter. Radioiodine therapy as attractive alternative to surgery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for therapy for nodular goiter results from the growth of thyroid nodules over decades and from the possibility of tracheal compression and worsening of respiratory function. Given the high prevalence of non-toxic goiter, the epidemiologically low incidence of clinically apparent thyroid cancer justifies non-surgical strategies. Randomised studies have shown that levothyroxine offers limited therapeutic effects and is inferior to radioiodine therapy regarding goiter shrinkage. When indication for a definitive therapy is given, the choice between resection and radioiodine therapy should consider volume of goiter, severity of clinical symptoms, thyroid uptake, patient's age, co-morbidity, previous resection of goiter, patient's profession and patient's wish. Even in large goiters between 100 and 300 ml radioiodine therapy showed consistent results with goiter size reduction from 35-40% one year and 40-60% two years after radioiodine therapy. Thyroid hormones to prevent recurrence of goiter are not necessary. Recurrent goiters were seldom observed after radioiodine therapy and resulted from initially very large goiters or uptake in dominante nodules or from low {sup 131}I activities. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) offers the opportunity to enhance the effect of radioiodine therapy. Observational studies have shown that rhTSH increases low {sup 131}I uptake in case of high alimentary iodine-supply by the factor 4, causes a more homogenous {sup 131}I distribution within the goiter and improves goiter reduction. A phase I study for dose finding is running in the USA. Conclusion: radioiodine therapy for shrinkage of large non-toxic goiter should not be restricted to elderly patients, or to patients with co-morbidity or high operative risk, but is an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with special professions (singer, teacher, speaker) or with the wish for a non-invasive treatment modality. (orig.)

Dietlein, M.; Dederichs, B.; Kobe, C.; Theissen, P.; Schmidt, M.; Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)

2006-07-01

39

Non toxic goiter in the adult population of Genoa: 10 years of experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of non toxic goiter, difuse or nodular, in all Genoa's Country thyroid diseases. The authors have studied one non-random casuistry of 1980 Patients observed from time to time in the last decade in Ambulatory of Nuclear Medicine (Department of Internal Medicine of University of Genoa) working with Section of Hygiene of ASL of Genoa. Of 1980 patients, 1629 (83.63%) were females; 351 (16.37%) were males, aged 14-70 years. The mean age was 42.6 years. First observations regarded only born and old date residents in Genoa never subordinates to surgical. Actinic or pharmacological treatments to the thyroid. All patients have normal circulating hormones and TSH. Every subject was afflicted with un toxic goiter (diffuse, single nodular or multi nodular) assessed by clinical Examination, ultrasonography and thyroid uptake with 99mTc-pertechnetate. This pathology represents now the 66.6% of all thyroid diseases observed. The A.A. emphasized an absolute prevalence of non toxic goiter in females (84.2% of observations). The enclosed tables are created divided the casuistry for age correspondents to the several decades (for the II to VII the wais). By means of the test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov we have shaped two delineating curves the frequencies. Accumulated of feminine and male subjects. The results of our study support a advantage of the Females versus male subjects in the diffuse and in the multi nodular goiter, while in the Struma to Single nodular differences are meaningful absent. PMID:22803312

Santaniello, B; Lombardo, I; Niccolardi, M E; Armonino, R

2012-03-01

40

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

41

Deferiprone, a non-toxic reagent for determination of iron in samples via sequential injection analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present for the first time the use of deferiprone as a non-toxic complexing agent for the determination of iron by sequential injection analysis in pharmaceuticals and food samples. The method was based on the reaction of Fe(III) and deferiprone in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 to give a Fe(III)-deferiprone complex, which showed a maximum absorption at 460nm. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity range for iron determination was found over the range of 0.05-3.0?gmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9993. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.032?gmL(-1) and 0.055?gmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the method was less than 5.0% (n=11), and the percentage recovery was found in the range of 96.0-104.0%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of Fe(III) in pharmaceuticals, water and food samples with a sampling rate of 60h(-1). PMID:25699700

Pragourpun, Kraivinee; Sakee, Uthai; Fernandez, Carlos; Kruanetr, Senee

2015-05-01

42

Environmental and socio-economic assessment of co-combustion of coal, biomass and non-hazardous wastes in a full scale power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A European project (COPOWER) was developed to assess the possibility to partially replace the coal used in a 243 MWth Power Plant by biomass and non-toxic wastes for the production of electricity. Three combustion scenarios were studied, based on the combustion tests performed at the Stadtwerke Duisburg Power Plant: Scenario 0 (Sc0) - combustion of coal; Scenario 1 (Sc1) - combustion of coal + Sewage Sludge (SS) + Meat and Bone Meal (MBM); Scenario 2 (Sc2) - coal + SS + Wood Pellets (WP). A socio-economic and environmental assessment was performed. In the environmental point of view, Sc0 was the worst scenario, mainly due to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Sc1 was the best scenario, mainly due to the reduction on the GHG emission, substances that contribute for eutrophication and ozone depletion gases. In the socio-economic point of view, Sc0 was the worst scenario, mainly due to the absence of GHG abatement, and Sc1 was the best scenario due to the best cost of the electricity production and negative cost of avoided emissions.

Morais, J.; N. Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Santos, A.; Mendes, B.; Oliveira, J.F. Santos [Environmental Biotechnology Researching, Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisboa (Portugal)

2008-07-01

43

Development of a mathematical model for the production of solid fuel  

OpenAIRE

The production of solid fuels from non-hazardous waste in Slovenia is becoming increasingly topical. After separation at the source the hierarchy of waste management is manifested in the mass and energy use of waste with a minimal damaging impact on the environment. There are two different qualities of solid fuels from non-hazardous waste, which represent energy-rich fractions from non-hazardous waste: - Residual Fuel Delivery (RDF), which is primarily intended for direct combustion and - Sol...

Polanec, Brigita; Glodez?, Srec?ko; Ekart, Janez; Samec, Niko; Kokalj, Filip

2012-01-01

44

Radioiodine - an attractive alternative to surgery in large non-toxic multinodular goitres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sporadic non-toxic goitre (SNG) is defined as thyroid enlargement in a euthyroid patient living in an area without endemic goitre. Because thyroid hormone function is within the reference range, the main problems are the signs of thyroid enlargement, thus reducing the size of the goitre is undoubtedly the primary goal of therapy. Although SNG is a common disease, there is no single optimal management of treatment strategy. L-thyroxine treatment, although only moderately effective and with reported reductions in goitre volume of less than 30%, is still used. Moreover, in patients over 60 years of age, long-term TSH-suppression treatment may cause iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and is associated with a significant risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation as well as osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women. In patients with huge goitres, the surgical removal of a gland is made most frequently. The great advantage of thyroid surgery is its immediate effect. Unfortunately, surgery carries a risk of goitre recurrence and complications, both surgical and anaesthesia-related. For those patients who do not want to be operated on, or have contraindications for invasive treatment, and taking into consideration the low efficacy of L-thyroxine treatment, the best option is radioiodine. Despite encouraging reports of the high efficacy of radioiodine in the treatment of SNG this method is still not commonly used by many clinicians. In our work we would like to point out the efficawork we would like to point out the efficacy, adverse effects, and contraindications of using iodine-131. Going through the advantages and disadvantages of all accessible methods of treatment of SNG, we would like to focus on using radioiodine as an attractive alternative to surgery. (authors)

45

"Non-toxic" cyclic peptides induce lysis of cyanobacteria-an effective cell population density control mechanism in cyanobacterial blooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of planktopeptin BL1125, anabaenopeptin B and anabaenopeptin F, two types of "non-toxic" cyclic peptide produced in bloom forming cyanobacteria, can provoke lysis of different non-axenic Microcystis aeruginosa cell lines via the induction of virus-like particles. The resulting particles are also able to infect the axenic M. aeruginosa cell line without lytic effects. Nevertheless, the presence of "non-toxic" cyclic peptides of cyanobacterial origin can induce lysis of these previously infected cells. This effect implies that a possible role of these peptides in the natural environment is the control of cyanobacterial population density. Lysogenic cyanobacteria can consequently act as hot-spots that, in the presence of cyanobacterial cyclic peptides, release numerous infectious particles. The process can be self-augmented with the simultaneous release of additional cyclic peptides from the producing lysogens, starting a forest fire effect that ends in collapse of cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:18008101

Sedmak, B; Carmeli, S; Elersek, Tina

2008-08-01

46

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Toxin-Producing Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and Its Non-Toxic Mutant  

OpenAIRE

The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T), and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT) using RNA-seq. Al...

Yong Zhang; Shu-Fei Zhang; Lin Lin; Da-Zhi Wang

2014-01-01

47

TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR CRITERIA AND PROCESSES FOR THE CERTIFICATION OF NON-RADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS AND NON-HAZARDOUS WASTES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Technical Basis Document (TBD) identifies how the values presented in the ''Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes'' were derived. The original moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) applied only to hazardous wastes generated in Radioactive Materials Management Areas (RMMAs) that were destined for off-site Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) that did not possess a radioactive materials license. Since its inception, the original moratorium document has become the de facto free-release procedure for potentially volumetrically contaminated materials of all varieties. This was promulgated in a February 4, 1992 memo from Jyle Lytle, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Waste Management, entitled ''Update: Moratorium on Shipment of Potentially Radioactive Hazardous and Toxic Wastes''. In this memo, Ms. Lytle states, ''While the moratorium does not apply to non-hazardous/non-TSCA solid wastes and non-waste materials, the same release criteria apply''. Over the past few years, a considerable quantity of data and operating experience has been developed, which has shown the limitations of UCRL-AR-109662. The original Moratorium is out of date, and many of the organizations and procedures that it references are no longer in existence. In addition, the original document lacked sufficient detail to be used as an LLNL-wide procedure for free release, as it only addressed hazardous wastes. The original moratorium document also used highly optimistic ''action limits'', which were based on theoretically achievable minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels for various matrices. Years of operating experience has shown that these action limits are simply not achievable for certain analyses in certain matrices, either due to limitations in sample size, or underestimates of the contribution of naturally-occurring radioactive materials, resulting in the mis-characterization of samples of these matrices as radioactive, when no radioactivity was added by LLNL operations. The new moratorium document updates the organizations involved in Moratorium Declarations, specifically addresses non-hazardous waste matrices, and allows for alternative types of analysis. The new moratorium document formalizes the process of release of potentially volumetrically-contaminated waste materials from radiological controls at LLNL.

Dominick, J; Gaylord, R

2007-02-13

48

A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 1014 cm-3) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production.

Major, J. D.; Treharne, R. E.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

2014-07-01

49

74 FR 41 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Materials That Are Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

...and/or marketable products. This inherent value exists with or without processing...oils to meet the fuel specification, filtration, simple distillation, chemical or physical...UGA) Engineering Outreach Service (EOS) demonstrated that biofuels...

2009-01-02

50

Prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in regularly menstruating women with non-toxic goitre or autoimmune thyroid disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The so called “big-big” prolactin (Prl, also known as macroprolactin is formed by Prl-immunoglobulin (Prl-IgG complexes and may cause elevation of serum Prl concentrations measured by standard assays, potentially leading to unnecessary investigations and/or treatment. In our study, we have endeavoured to assess the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in euthyroid, regularly menstruating women with thyroid disease, as well as to assess whether autoimmune thyroid disease may result in an increased prevalence of macroprolactinaemia. Material and methods We measured serum Prl in 182 regularly menstruating women aged 32.7?±?7.5 years (mean?±?SD, range 17–46 years who attended endocrine clinic either for investigation of non-toxic goitre (n?=?86, age 33.2?±?7.8 years or with autoimmune thyroid disease (n?=?96, age 32.3?±?7.2 years. Autoimmune thyroid disease was defined as raised titre of at least one anti-thyroid antibody [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg and/or anti-TSH-receptor (anti-TSH-R antibodies]. All women were clinically and biochemically euthyroid, either without or on treatment with L-thyroxine. In those with raised Prl (i.e., above 530 mIU/l we ruled out the presence of macroprolactinaemia by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation method. Results There was no significant age difference between women with and without autoimmune thyroid disease (p?=?0.84. Raised Prl concentrations were found in 10 women with thyroid disease (5.5%, and of those a significant macroprolactinaemia (i.e., reduction of Prl concentrations of more than 60% after PEG precipitation was found in 9 subjects (4.94%. There were no differences in the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia between women with autoimmune thyroid disease (4 out of 96, and without autoimmune thyroid disease (5 out of 86, p?=?0.75. Conclusions Approximately one out of twenty women with regular menses is likely to have raised serum Prl that is usually caused by the presence of macroprolactinaemia. Though structure of macroprolactin involves Prl-IgG complexes, there is no evidence that autoimmune thyroid disease is associated with raised prevalence of macroprolactinaemia.

Lewandowski Krzysztof C

2012-12-01

51

Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle  

Science.gov (United States)

Under NASA sponsorship, Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) designed, built and tested two non-toxic, reaction control engines, one using liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) and the other using liquid oxygen and ethanol. This paper presents the design and testing of the LOX/LH2 thruster. The two key enabling technologies are the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector and the fuelcooling duct. The workhorse thruster was hotfire tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Test Stand 500 in March and April of 2002. All tests were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LHp injector settings. The operating conditions surveyed were 70 to 100% thrust levels, mixture ratios from 3.27 to 4.29, and LH2 duct cooling from 18.0 to 25.5% fuel flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The performance of the engine reached 95% C* efficiency. The temperature on the Haynes chamber remained well below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. These results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster headend design maintained cryogenic injection temperatures while firing, which validates the selected injector design approach for minimal heat soak-back. Also, off -nominal operation without adversely impacting the thermal response of the engine showed the robustness of the duct design, a key design feature for this application. By injecting fuel into the duct, the throat temperatures are manageable, yet the split of fuel through the cooling duct does not compromise the overall combstion efficiency, which indicates that, provided proper design refinement, such a concept could be applied to a high-performance version of the thruster.

Calvignac, Jacky; Dang, Lisa; Tramel, Terri; Paseur, Lila; Champion, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

52

76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

...and also specifies sampling and analysis methods...that apply to TDF that cover composition and fuel...generator. These commenters object to allowing control...product specifications to cover all possible situations...that this standard would cover all such...

2011-03-21

53

Separation of non-hazardous, non-radioactive components from ICPP calcine via chlorination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pyrochemical treatment method for separating non-radioactive from radioactive components in solid granular waste accumulated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was investigated. The goal of this study was to obtain kinetic and chemical separation data on the reaction products of the chlorination of the solid waste, known as calcine. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were completed to verify that a separation of radioactive and non-radioactive calcine components was possible. Bench-scale chlorination experiments were completed subsequently in a variety of reactor configurations including: a fixed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed around and not through the particle bed), a packed/fluidized-bed reactor, and a packed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed through the particle bed). Chemical analysis of the reaction products generated during the chlorination experiments verified the predictions made by the equilibrium calculations. An empirical first-order kinetic rate expression was developed for each of the reactor configurations. 20 refs., 16 figs., 21 tabs

54

The amino-acid sequence of two non-toxic mutants of diphtheria toxin: CRM45 and CRM197.  

OpenAIRE

The amino-acid sequences of two diphtheria toxin-related, non-toxic proteins, CRM45 and CRM197 , were deduced from the complete sequence of their genes: tox 45 and tox 197. CRM45 lacks the last 149 C-terminal amino-acid residues, but is otherwise identical to diphtheria toxin: a single C----T transition introduces an "ochre" (TAA) termination signal in tox 45, after the codon for threonine-386. A single G----A transition was also found in tox 197, leading to the substitution of glycine-52, pr...

Giannini, G.; Rappuoli, R.; Ratti, G.

1984-01-01

55

A non-toxic ligand for voxel-based MRI analysis of plaques in AD transgenic mice  

OpenAIRE

Amyloid plaques are a characteristic feature in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A novel non-toxic contrast agent is presented, Gd-DTPA-K6A?1–30, which is homologous to A?, and allows plaque detection in vivo. ?MRI was performed on AD model mice and controls prior to and following intra-carotid injection with Gd-DTPA-K6A?1–30 in mannitol solution, to transiently open the blood brain barrier. A gradient echo T2*-weighted sequence was used to provide 100 ?m isotropic resolution with imaging...

Sigurdsson, Einar M.; Wadghiri, Youssef Z.; Mosconi, Lisa; Blind, Jeffrey A.; Knudsen, Elin; Asuni, Ayodeji; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Tsui, Wai H.; Li, Yongsheng; Sadowski, Martin; Turnbull, Daniel H.; Leon, Mony J.; Wisniewski, Thomas

2007-01-01

56

Synthesis of Boron Nanorods by Smelting Non-Toxic Boron Oxide in Liquid Lithium  

OpenAIRE

In contrast to the conventional bottom-up syntheses of boron nanostructures, a unique top-down and greener synthetic strategy is presented for boron nanorods involving nontoxic boron oxide powders ultrasonically smelted in liquid lithium under milder conditions. The product was thoroughly characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic emission spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and, UV-Vis spectroscopy, including structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy...

Hosmane, Narayan S.; Maguire, John A.; Paulson, Laura K.; Krise, Kate J.; Tao Xu; Amartya Chakrabarti

2010-01-01

57

Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (approx1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GW{sub peek}, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET. As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4 1/2 months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies. (Author)

Soendergaard, R.

2012-07-01

58

Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au25 clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au+ ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of ~5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f7/2~83.97 eV and Au 4f5/2~87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size ~1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size ~8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at ~674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 µg ml-1. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR+ve oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au25 clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

2010-02-01

59

Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like; calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya bean oil, were irradiated by 60-cobalt gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 yr after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 nm. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also shows the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 yr after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration has also confirmed the spectrophotometry results. Finally the most effective stabilizing system has been added to the Iranian PVC and its behaviour has been compared with the Solvay PVC for 6 months period after irradiation

60

Controlled delivery of hollow corn protein nanoparticles via non-toxic crosslinking: in vivo and drug loading study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this research, controlled delivery of hollow nanoparticles from zein, the corn storage protein, to different organs of mice was achieved via crosslinking using citric acid, a non-toxic polycarboxylic acid derived from starch. Besides, crosslinking significantly enhanced water stability of nanoparticles while preserving their drug loading efficiency. Protein nanoparticles have been widely investigated as vehicles for delivery of therapeutics. However, protein nanoparticles were not stable in physiological conditions, easily cleared by mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), and thus mainly accumulated and degraded in spleen and liver, the major MPS organs. Effective delivery to major non-MPS organs, such as kidney, was usually difficult to achieve, as well as long resident time of nanoparticles. In this research, hollow zein nanoparticles were chemically crosslinked with citric acid. Controlled delivery and prolonged accumulation of the nanoparticles in kidney, one major non-MPS organ, were achieved. The nanoparticles showed improved stability in aqueous environment at pH 7.4 without affecting the adsorption of 5-FU, a common anticancer drug. In summary, citric acid crosslinked hollow zein nanoparticles could be potential vehicles for controllable delivery of anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25666984

Xu, Helan; Shen, Li; Xu, Lan; Yang, Yiqi

2015-02-01

61

Identification of BP16 as a non-toxic cell-penetrating peptide with highly efficient drug delivery properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial peptides are an interesting source of non-cytotoxic drug delivery vectors. Herein, we report on the identification of a new cell-penetrating peptide (KKLFKKILKKL-NH2, BP16) from a set of antimicrobial peptides selected from a library of cecropin-melittin hybrids (CECMEL11) previously designed to be used in plant protection. This set of peptides was screened for their cytotoxicity against breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, pancreas adenocarcinoma CAPAN-1 and mouse embryonic fibroblast 3T3 cell lines. BP16 resulted to be non-toxic against both malignant and non-malignant cells at concentrations up to 200 ?M. We demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy that BP16 is mainly internalized in the cells through a clathrin dependent endocytosis and that it efficiently accumulates in the cell cytoplasm. We confirmed that the cell-penetrating properties of BP16 are retained after conjugating it to the breast tumor homing peptide CREKA. Furthermore, we assessed the potential of BP16 as a drug delivery vector by conjugating the anticancer drug chlorambucil to BP16 and to a CREKA-BP16 conjugate. The efficacy of the drug increased between 6 and 9 times when conjugated to BP16 and between 2 and 4.5 times when attached to the CREKA-BP16 derivative. The low toxicity and the excellent cell-penetrating properties clearly suggest that BP16 is a suitable vector for the delivery of therapeutic agents into cells. PMID:24480922

Soler, Marta; González-Bártulos, Marta; Soriano-Castell, David; Ribas, Xavi; Costas, Miquel; Tebar, Francesc; Massaguer, Anna; Feliu, Lidia; Planas, Marta

2014-03-14

62

Vaccination with non-toxic mutant toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces IL-17-dependent protection against Staphylococcus aureus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) is one of superantigens produced by Staphylococcus aureus. We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with non-toxic mutant TSST-1 (mTSST-1) develops host protection to lethal S. aureus infection in mice. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this protection is necessary to elucidate because the passive transfer of antibodies against TSST-1 fails to provide complete protection against S. aureus infection. In this study, the results showed that interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-producing cells were increased in the spleen cells of mTSST-1-vaccinated mice. The main source of IL-17A in mTSST-1-vaccinated mice was T-helper 17 (Th17) cells. The protective effect of vaccination was induced when the vaccinated wild type but not IL-17A-deficient mice were challenged with S. aureus. Gene expression of chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL1, and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages were increased in spleens and livers of vaccinated mice after infection. The IL-17A-dependent immune response was TSST-1 specific because TSST-1-deficient S. aureus failed to induce the response. The present study suggests that mTSST-1 vaccination is able to provide the IL-17A-dependent host defense against S. aureus infection which promotes chemokine-mediated infiltration of phagocytes into the infectious foci. PMID:25857736

Narita, Kouji; Hu, Dong-Liang; Asano, Krisana; Nakane, Akio

2015-06-01

63

Comparative transcriptome analysis of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and its non-toxic mutant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T), and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT) using RNA-seq. All clean reads were assembled de novo into a total of 113,674 unigenes, and 66,812 unigenes were annotated in the known databases. Out of them, 35 genes were found to express differentially between the two strains. The up-regulated genes in ACHK-NT were involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism processes, indicating that more carbon and energy were utilized for cell growth. Among the down-regulated genes, expression of a unigene assigned to the long isoform of sxtA, the initiator of toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, was significantly depressed, suggesting that this long transcript of sxtA might be directly involved in toxin biosynthesis and its depression resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize PSTs in ACHK-NT. In addition, 101 putative homologs of 12 cyanobacterial sxt genes were identified, and the sxtO and sxtZ genes were identified in dinoflagellates for the first time. The findings of this study should shed light on the biosynthesis of PSTs in the dinoflagellates. PMID:25421324

Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Lin, Lin; Wang, Da-Zhi

2014-11-01

64

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Toxin-Producing Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and Its Non-Toxic Mutant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T, and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT using RNA-seq. All clean reads were assembled de novo into a total of 113,674 unigenes, and 66,812 unigenes were annotated in the known databases. Out of them, 35 genes were found to express differentially between the two strains. The up-regulated genes in ACHK-NT were involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism processes, indicating that more carbon and energy were utilized for cell growth. Among the down-regulated genes, expression of a unigene assigned to the long isoform of sxtA, the initiator of toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, was significantly depressed, suggesting that this long transcript of sxtA might be directly involved in toxin biosynthesis and its depression resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize PSTs in ACHK-NT. In addition, 101 putative homologs of 12 cyanobacterial sxt genes were identified, and the sxtO and sxtZ genes were identified in dinoflagellates for the first time. The findings of this study should shed light on the biosynthesis of PSTs in the dinoflagellates.

Yong Zhang

2014-11-01

65

Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

66

Transition to Non-toxic Gunshot Use in Olympic Shooting: Policy Implications for IOC and UNEP in Resolving an Environmental Problem  

OpenAIRE

Olympic shooters discharge, annually, thousands of tons of lead shot which pose toxic risks to animals and may pollute both surface and ground waters. Non-toxic steel shot is an acceptable and effective substitute, but International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) rules prevent its adoption. The present policy and rules of the ISSF on lead shot use contravene the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Charter position on environmental protection. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNE...

Thomas, Vernon George; Guitart, Raimon

2013-01-01

67

Development and design of a high pressure carbon dioxide system for the separation of hazardous contaminants from non-hazardous debris  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Air Force (USAF) Memorandum of Understanding, a system is being designed that will use high pressure carbon dioxide for the separation of oils, greases, and solvents from non-hazardous solid waste. The contaminants are dissolved into the high pressure carbon dioxide and precipitated out upon depressurization. The carbon dioxide solvent can then be recycled for continued use. Excellent extraction capability for common manufacturing oils, greases, and solvents has been measured. It has been observed that extraction performance follows the dilution model if a constant flow system is used. The solvents tested are extremely soluble and have been extracted to 100% under both liquid and mild supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. These data are being used to design a 200 liter extraction system

68

Graphene oxide selectively targets cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: Implications for non-toxic cancer treatment, via "differentiation-based nano-therapy".  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a.k.a. cancer stem cells (CSCs), are difficult to eradicate with conventional approaches to cancer treatment, such as chemo-therapy and radiation. As a consequence, the survival of residual CSCs is thought to drive the onset of tumor recurrence, distant metastasis, and drug-resistance, which is a significant clinical problem for the effective treatment of cancer. Thus, novel approaches to cancer therapy are needed urgently, to address this clinical need. Towards this end, here we have investigated the therapeutic potential of graphene oxide to target cancer stem cells. Graphene and its derivatives are well-known, relatively inert and potentially non-toxic nano-materials that form stable dispersions in a variety of solvents. Here, we show that graphene oxide (of both big and small flake sizes) can be used to selectively inhibit the proliferative expansion of cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types. For this purpose, we employed the tumor-sphere assay, which functionally measures the clonal expansion of single cancer stem cells under anchorage-independent conditions. More specifically, we show that graphene oxide effectively inhibits tumor-sphere formation in multiple cell lines, across 6 different cancer types, including breast, ovarian, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancers, as well as glioblastoma (brain). In striking contrast, graphene oxide is non-toxic for "bulk" cancer cells (non-stem) and normal fibroblasts. Mechanistically, we present evidence that GO exerts its striking effects on CSCs by inhibiting several key signal transduction pathways (WNT, Notch and STAT-signaling) and thereby inducing CSC differentiation. Thus, graphene oxide may be an effective non-toxic therapeutic strategy for the eradication of cancer stem cells, via differentiation-based nano-therapy. PMID:25708684

Fiorillo, Marco; Verre, Andrea F; Iliut, Maria; Peiris-Pagés, Maria; Ozsvari, Bela; Gandara, Ricardo; Cappello, Anna Rita; Sotgia, Federica; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Lisanti, Michael P

2015-02-28

69

High concentrations of protein test substances may have non-toxic effects on Daphnia magna: implications for regulatory study designs and ecological risk assessments for GM crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory testing for possible adverse effects of insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms (NTOs) is an important part of many ecological risk assessments for regulatory decision-making about the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops. To increase confidence in the risk assessments, regulatory guidelines for effects testing specify that representative surrogate species for NTOs are exposed to concentrations of insecticidal proteins that are in excess of worst-case predicted exposures in the field. High concentrations in effects tests are achieved by using protein test substances produced in microbes, such as Escherichia coli. In a study that exposed Daphnia magna to a single high concentration of a microbial test substance containing Vip3Aa20, the insecticidal protein in MIR162 maize, small reductions in growth were observed. These effects were surprising as many other studies strongly suggest that the activity of Vip3Aa20 is limited to Lepidoptera. A plausible explanation for the effect on growth is that high concentrations of test substance have a non-toxic effect on Daphnia, perhaps by reducing its feeding rate. A follow-up study tested that hypothesis by exposing D. magna to several concentrations of Vip3Aa20, and a high concentration of a non-toxic protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Vip3Aa20 and BSA had sporadic effects on the reproduction and growth of D. magna. The pattern of the effects suggests that they result from non-toxic effects of high concentrations of protein, and not from toxicity. The implications of these results for regulatory NTO effects testing and ERA of IRGM crops are discussed. PMID:25523175

Raybould, Alan; Burns, Andrea; Hamer, Mick

2014-01-01

70

Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro. Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 0.2 ?IU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 1.8 ?IU/ml

N.P. Viantri

2012-04-01

71

Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo) and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro). Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone ? 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone ? 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone ? 0.2 ?IU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone ? 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone ? 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone ? 1.8 ?IU/ml (author)

72

Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter  

OpenAIRE

Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo) and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro). Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and f...

Viantri, N. P.; Setiabudi, W.; Anam, C.; Nadzir, F.; Varuna, C.

2012-01-01

73

Non-hazardous organic solvents in the paraffin-embedding technique: a rational approach. Aliphatic monoesters for clearing and dewaxing: butyldecanoate.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to substitute hazardous compounds, used in tissue processing and dewaxing, with compounds having lowest possible toxicity and inflammability without impairing the morphology, staining characteristics, or diagnostic value of the tissue sections. All aromatic compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. alkanes, isoparaffins, petroleum distillates, etc.) were rejected, primarily due to their high vapour pressure. Based on a theoretical study of compounds used for clearing, a number of non-hazardous potential substitutes were chosen. The following experimental study narrowed the group to three unbranched, saturated, aliphatic monoesters containing 12-14 carbon atoms. On large-scale testing of these compounds, we found butyldecanoate to be the closest to an ideal substitute for aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the histology department: the section quality is at least equal to that obtained with xylene. For dewaxing, it is used at 30-35 degrees C. Butyldecanoate is not suitable as a pre-mounting agent. In practice, this is no problem as modern mounting agents permit mounting of coverslips directly from ethanol without impairing the appearance of the section in the microscope. Butyldecanoate has only a slight odour, insignificant vapour pressure (< 0.01 kPa at 20 degrees C), and does not present a fire hazard (flash point 134 degrees C). The introduction of this compound in the laboratory poses no health hazard, and the substance is biodegradable.

Lyon, H; Holm, I

1995-01-01

74

Simple and non-toxic fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)-patterned polymer surface for the formation of cell patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a facile and non-toxic method for the formation of cell-adhesive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) patterns on the surface of a non-biological polystyrene substrate (NPS) is developed to control cellular micro-organization. PVA thin films spin-coated onto the NPS are selectively irradiated with 150 keV H+ ions through a pattern mask and developed with deionized water to form negative-type PVA patterns. Well-defined stripe patterns of PVA with a width of 100 ?m are created on the NPS at a higher fluence than 5 × 1015 ions/cm2, and their surface chemical compositions are changed by ion irradiation without any significant morphological change. Based on the results of the protein adsorption test and in vitro cell culture, cancer cells are preferentially adhered and proliferated onto the more hydrophilic PVA regions of the PVA-patterned NPS, resulting in well-defined cell patterns.

Hwang, In-Tae; Jin, Yu-Ran; Oh, Min-Suk; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak

2014-10-01

75

Effect of chemical cross-linking on gelatin membrane solubility with a non-toxic and non-volatile agent: Terephthalaldehyde.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, terephthalaldehyde (TPA) is proposed as non-toxic and non-volatile gelatin cross-linker. Optimal cross-linking parameters (TPA/gelatin ratio, temperature) were first determined from in situ rheological measurements on gelatin solutions and from chemical tests with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS assays) on gelatin gel. The highest cross-linking ratio was achieved for a concentration of 0.005g TPA/g gelatin at 60°C. The impact of TPA cross-linking on gelatin membrane functional properties (water swelling ratio, water vapor sorption and mechanical properties) was measured. TPA cross-linking increased 17 times the liquid water resistance duration of gelatin films, and delayed the entry of vapor water in the polymer matrix for 7 days, indicating that TPA increased the hydrophobic character of the gelatin matrix. PMID:25478961

Biscarat, Jennifer; Galea, Benjamin; Sanchez, José; Pochat-Bohatier, Celine

2015-03-01

76

Near IR-sensitive, non-toxic, polymer/nanocrystal solar cells employing Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} as the electron acceptor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals are employed in a polymer/nanocrystal solar cell as a non-toxic inorganic electron acceptor with a high absorption coefficient and a bandgap of 1.3 eV optimal for single-junction solar harnessing. The reported solar cell yields a power conversion efficiency of 0.46% in a bilayer structure and shows an internal quantum efficiency in excess of 70% as a result of efficient exciton dissociation at the interface of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} and P3HT. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Martinez, Luis; Bernechea, Maria; De Arquer, F.P.G.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

2011-11-15

77

Long-term outcome after radioiodine therapy with adjuvant rhTSH treatment: comparison between patients with non-toxic and pre-toxic large multinodular goitre.  

Science.gov (United States)

In multinodular goitre (MNG), low radioiodine (RAI) activity after recombinant human (rh) TSH is able to reduce thyroid volume (TV) and improve symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term outcome of RAI after rhTSH treatment in patients who were divided according to their baseline TSH levels. Eighteen patients (69.2 ± 6.1 year) presented non-toxic (TSH >0.3 mIU/l) MNG (TV: 61.0 ± 3.8 ml; group 1), while 13 patients (74.1 ± 7.9 year) had non-autoimmune pre-toxic (TSH 0.3 mIU/l were more frequently followed by a need for L-T4 therapy. Compressive symptoms improved in the majority of subjects. PMID:23619962

Giusti, M; Caorsi, V; Mortara, L; Caputo, M; Monti, E; Schiavo, M; Bagnara, M C; Minuto, F; Bagnasco, M

2014-03-01

78

Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric ?- amyloid (A? to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar A? is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible A? oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of A? aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh, was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. Results K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against A?42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-?-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic A? oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different A? conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. Conclusion K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

Sharoar Md

2012-12-01

79

Comparative gene expression in toxic versus non-toxic strains of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4...

Glöckner Gernot; Beszteri Sára; John Uwe; Yang Ines; Krock Bernd; Goesmann Alexander; Cembella Allan D

2010-01-01

80

Phototransformations of non-toxic antioxidants, the derivatives of 1,2-dihydroquinolines, in homogeneous and micellar solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reactions of transient species photogenerated from 6-R-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinolines (TMDQ are very sensitive to medium variation. In anhydrous organic solvents, aminyl radicals were generated. They decay in the reaction of dimerization with the second-order rate constant decreasing in a row heptane>benzene>2-propanol. When passing from organic solvents to water, methanol, and water-alcohol solutions, the kinetics and the direction of the reaction crucially change. As a result of the photolysis, the product of the addition of a solvent to the double bond of heterocycle, 4-hydroxy- or 4-methoxy-6-R-2,2,4- tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is formed in water and methanol, respectively. The transformation is a complex reaction, and the formation of excited transient species is followed by a sequence of first-order and pseudo-first-order reactions. Unlike the photolysis in anhydrous organic solvents, the reaction in water and methanol does not involve aminyl radicals. In aqueous solutions, the first-order rate constants for the decay of transient species are higher in acidic and neutral solutions. At the pH close to pKa of the transient species, it drops, indicating that the neutral form is less reactive. The same product is formed over the whole range of pH. For the anionic surfactant (SDS in acidic and alkaline solutions, the apparent rate constant in the micellar solutions is lower than that in the aqueous (negative micellar catalysis. At the medium pH, a positive micellar catalysis is observed, and the rate constant of the decay depends linearly on the concentration of TMDQ in the micelles, indicative of the direct reaction between TMDQ and the cationic transient species.

T. D. Nekipelova

1999-01-01

81

Non-toxic complexing agent Tri-sodium citrate's effect on chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films and its growth mechanism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS thin films were prepared by CBD using non-toxic complexing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of ZnS thin film was improved with Na{sub 3}-citrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is depends upon the concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the growth and characterizations of chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films prepared at pH 10. Aqueous zinc acetate and thiourea were used as precursors along with the non-toxic complexing agent, Na{sub 3}-citrate. The effects of different concentrations of Na{sub 3}-citrate from 0 to 0.2 M on the structural, morphological, compositional, chemical, and optical properties of ZnS thin films were studied. It was revealed through field emission scanning electron microscopy studies that an increase in the concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate leads to an improvement of the uniformity of the ZnS thin films and decrease in the grain size. Atomic force microscopy showed that the RMS value decreases with an increase in Na{sub 3}-citrate concentration. X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallinity of ZnS thin films improves upon increasing concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate and that the films exhibit a hexagonal polycrystalline ZnS phase while deposited with 0.2 and 0.1 M Na{sub 3}-citrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the signal intensity decreases for Zn 2p{sub 3/2} and S 2p{sub 1/2} as the concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate decreases from 0.2 to 0 M. It was shown by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy that approximately 80% transmission in the visible region and absorption edge shifts towards blue when the concentration of Na{sub 3}-citrate increases from 0 to 0.2 M. The band gap energy of the ZnS film deposited without Na{sub 3}-citrate was found to be 3.53 eV, while it increases from 3.73 to 3.80 eV with a decrease in Na{sub 3}-citrate concentration from 0.2 to 0.025 M. The growth mechanism of CBD-ZnS thin film was found to be dependent on Na{sub 3}-citrate concentration.

Agawane, G.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Seung Wook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Electrochemical Mat. Lab., Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Gurav, K.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jae Ho, E-mail: yunjh92@kier.re.kr [Photovoltaic Research Group, KIER, Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyeok, E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-15

82

Non-toxic complexing agent Tri-sodium citrate’s effect on chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films and its growth mechanism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? ZnS thin films were prepared by CBD using non-toxic complexing agent. ? The morphology of ZnS thin film was improved with Na3-citrate. ? The growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is depends upon the concentration of Na3-citrate. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the growth and characterizations of chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films prepared at pH 10. Aqueous zinc acetate and thiourea were used as precursors along with the non-toxic complexing agent, Na3-citrate. The effects of different concentrations of Na3-citrate from 0 to 0.2 M on the structural, morphological, compositional, chemical, and optical properties of ZnS thin films were studied. It was revealed through field emission scanning electron microscopy studies that an increase in the concentration of Na3-citrate leads to an improvement of the uniformity of the ZnS thin films and decrease in the grain size. Atomic force microscopy showed that the RMS value decreases with an increase in Na3-citrate concentration. X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallinity of ZnS thin films improves upon increasing concentration of Na3-citrate and that the films exhibit a hexagonal polycrystalline ZnS phase while deposited with 0.2 and 0.1 M Na3-citrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the signal intensity decreases for Zn 2p3/2 and S 2p1/2 as the concentrationp1/2 as the concentration of Na3-citrate decreases from 0.2 to 0 M. It was shown by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy that approximately 80% transmission in the visible region and absorption edge shifts towards blue when the concentration of Na3-citrate increases from 0 to 0.2 M. The band gap energy of the ZnS film deposited without Na3-citrate was found to be 3.53 eV, while it increases from 3.73 to 3.80 eV with a decrease in Na3-citrate concentration from 0.2 to 0.025 M. The growth mechanism of CBD–ZnS thin film was found to be dependent on Na3-citrate concentration.

83

Bioavailability, antioxidant and non toxic properties of a radioprotective formulation prepared from isolated compounds of Podophyllum hexandrum: a study in mouse model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study was aimed to determine the stability, serum protein binding ability, biodistribution, antioxidant potential and tissue toxicity status of a novel radioprotective formulation (G-002M) from Podophyllum hexandrum. G-002M is the combination of a flavonoid, a lignan and its glucoside isolated from P. hexandrum rhizome that exhibit high radioprotective potential. Stability of G-002M tagged with 99mTc was observed in vitro and with mice serum till 24 hr of incubation. The formulation was investigated for its antioxidant status and its bioavailability and toxicity in different organs of mice. Biodistribution study of 99mTc-G-002M revealed its uptake by all the vital organs of mice. Higher absorbed dose was observed in lungs, liver, jejunum and kidney. Maximum retention of G-002M in kidney revealed that G-002M was excreted predominantly through renal route. G-002M was also observed to have high free radical scavenging and total reducing properties. Histopathological observations showed no significant alterations in tissue morphology of lungs, liver, jejunum and kidney by G-002M administration. The data conclusively demonstrate that high stability, multi organ availability, longer retention and non-toxic behavior of G-002M might help in exhibiting strong protective potential against lethal radiation. PMID:22455981

Dutta, A; Verma, S; Sankhwar, S; Flora, S J S; Gupta, M L

2012-01-01

84

A non-toxic reusable on-board propulsion system for orbiter upgrade and the human exploration and development of space  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A non-toxic on-board propulsion system for the Space Shuttle orbiter promises high payoffs in terms of safety, cost, reliability, reduced ground operations, and improved mission flexibility. Significant cost savings and safety enhancements can be realized by eliminating toxic propellant handling from the orbiter processing flow, including elimination of SCAPE suit operations, relaxing leakage concerns, and reducing propellant cost. Mission reliability and safety can be enhanced by reducing the number of critical components that must operate, while maintaining the same fault tolerance as the current propulsion systems. Mission flexibility and management of propellant reserves can be improved by combining the propellant storage and pressurization systems for the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and the reaction control system (RCS). The reduction and automation of checkout requirements for the upgraded propulsion system can enhance operational ease and reduce the turnaround cost. System integration with the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and the power system may save additional turnaround costs by sharing common components such as the storage tanks. Finally, there can be commonality of this technology with Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) missions that utilize oxygen produced from in-situ planetary resources. This is a major advancement in the state-of-the-art. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Hurlbert, E.; Moreland, R. [Propulsion and Power Division---EP4 NASA/Johnson Space Center 2101 Nasa Road One Houston, Texas77058 (United States)

1997-01-01

85

Treatment of solitary, autonomously-functioning, non-toxic thyroid nodules with I131 Adenema tiroideo autónomo no tóxico tratamiento con I131  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Fifteen euthyroid patients (14 women and 1man with solitary autonomously functioning non-toxic thyroid nodules (AFTN were treated with high doses of I131 (mean 19.2 mCi. Diagnosis was made by I131 thyroid scan and triiodothyronine suppression test. The size of the nodule was determined by thyroid ecography both before and after treatment. Evaluation of thyroid function was performed clinically and by T3 T4 and TSH determinations before therapy and during follow.up. AII patients had complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Two cases of hypothyroidism were found in the first two years of follow-up. We have no explanation for this fact since extranodular thyroid tissue was suppressed and the patients were receiving oral triiodothyronine during radioidine treatment. The nodules decreasedin size In 9 of 13 patients followed (average decrease 45% and disappeared in other 2. our findings suggest that solitary non-toxic AFTN should be treated with I131 particularly if complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid tissue is found. If complete disappearance of the nodule is considered desirable surgical removal must be performed.

Se trataron 14 mujeres y un hombre, con adenomas tiroideos solitarios funcionalmente autónomos, no tóxicos, con I131 a una dosis promedio de 19.2 mCi. La gamagrafía tiroidea demostró hipercaptación del nódulo con supresión total del resto de la glándula. El tamaño del nódulo se determinó por medio de ecografía tiroidea antes y después del tratamiento, y su autonomía por la prueba de supresión con triyodotironina. El estado tiroideo se puso de presente clínicamente y por la medición de T3, T 4 y TSH en el plasma, antes de la terapia con el radiofármaco y durante la evolución postratamiento. En dos pacientes se presentó hipotiroidismo desde los dos primeros años del período de seguimiento, a pesar de que el tejido tiroideo circundante estaba suprimido y de la administración oral de triyodotironina simultáneamente con el yodo radioactivo. En 13 pacientes se logró hacer seguimiento; en 9 de ellos (69.2% hubo disminución del tamaño del nódulo (promedio de 45%; en dos desapareció y en otros dos no se modificó la lesión. Se sugiere que el tratamiento de los adenomas tiroideos autónomos no tóxicos con I131 es el más apropiado, especialmente si el tejido extranodular está suprimido; ello en vista de la Infrecuencia del hipotiroldismo postratamiento y de la inocultad y facilidad de su administración. Sin embargo, cuando se desea la desaparición total del adenoma y no existen contraindicaciones, debe recurrirse a la cirugía

Federico Uribe Londoño

1991-03-01

86

Protective immunity against alpha-cobratoxin following a single administration of a genetic vaccine encoding a non-toxic cobratoxin variant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Venomous snakebites result in almost 125,000 deaths per year worldwide. We present a new paradigm for the development of vaccines to protect against snakebite, using knowledge of the structure and action of specific toxins combined with a gene-based strategy to deliver a toxin gene modified to render it non-toxic while maintaining its three-dimensional structure and hence its ability to function as an immunogen. As a model for this approach, we developed a genetic vaccine to protect against alpha-cobratoxin (CTX), a potent, post-synaptic neurotoxin that is the major toxic component of the venom of Naja kaouthia, the monocellate cobra. To develop the vaccine, substitutions in the CTX cDNA were introduced at two residues critical for binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Asp27 to Arg, Arg33 to Gly). The mutated CTX expression cassette was delivered in the context of a replication deficient adenovirus vector (AdmCTX). To assess whether expression of the mutated CTX in vivo leads to the development of protective immunity, BALB/c mice were challenged by IV administration of 2 microg of alpha-cobratoxin protein 21 or 63 days after administration of AdmCTX or Ad- Null (as a control; both, 10(9) particle units). Animals receiving AdmCTX but no alpha-cobratoxin challenge suffered no ill effects, but > or =80% of naive animals or those receiving the AdNull control vector died within 10 min from the alpha-cobratoxin challenge. In contrast, 100% of animals receiving a single dose of AdmCTX 21 or 63 days prior to alpha-cobratoxin challenge survived. The data demonstrates that an adenovirus-based vaccine can be developed to protect against lethal challenge with a potent snake venom. The effectiveness of this approach might serve as a basis to consider the development of a global public health program to protect those at risk for death by snakebite. PMID:15812224

Pergolizzi, Robert G; Dragos, Rachel; Ropper, Alexander E; Menez, André; Crystal, Ronald G

2005-03-01

87

Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. 131I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid 131I uptake is mandatory for 131I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid 131I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the 131I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged 131I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented 131I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

Bonnema, Steen J; Nielsen, Viveque E

2006-01-01

88

Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. {sup 131}I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid {sup 131}I uptake is mandatory for {sup 131}I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid {sup 131}I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the {sup 131}I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged {sup 131}I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented {sup 131}I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

Bonnema, Steen J.; Nielsen, Viveque E.; Hegedues, Laszlo [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism

2006-12-15

89

Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the open-quotes cradle to graveclose quotes ownership liabilities

90

Production of hydrogen by borohydride: in search of low cost non-noble efficient catalyst  

OpenAIRE

Hydrogen production by sodium borohydride through hydrolysis in alkaline solutions has been extensively studied as a production/storage option due to the high volumetric and gravimetric efficiency exhibited. The potential application of this option is based on an easily controllable catalysed hydrolysis reaction, non-toxic and recyclable by-products, and the high purity hydrogen produced can be used in fuel cells. This work reports on a comparative study of own-developed, supported and non-su...

Rangel, C. M.; Fernandes, Vitor R.; Silva, R. A.; Bonnetot, B.; Laversenne, L.; Buni, A.; Minkina, V.; Perrin, J.

2007-01-01

91

Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to dev...

Cunningham Drew S; Koepsel Richard R; Ataai Mohammad M; Domach Michael M

2009-01-01

92

Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review  

OpenAIRE

Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis ha...

Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Edward Gakpe

2008-01-01

93

Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

94

Administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio não protege contra a intoxicação por este composto em ovinos / Repeated administration of non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate does not protect against poisoning by this compound in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar se repetidas doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MFA) induzem resistência à intoxicação por essa substância, 18 ovinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de nove animais cada. Os ovinos do Grupo 1 ingeriram doses crescentes não letai [...] s de MFA por seis períodos: 0,05mg/kg por 5 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias e 0,25mg/kg por 3 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam o MFA por 10 dias consecutivos; entre o terceiro e o quarto período e dentre os demais períodos de administração, os ovinos permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir o MFA. Quinze dias após o último período de administração os ovinos foram desafiados com a dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado a ingestão de MFA, estes ovinos receberam dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA no mesmo período em que o G1 foi desafiado. No desafio sete ovinos do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação e um ovino se recuperou. No Grupo 2 todos os animais manifestaram quadro clínico da intoxicação por MFA, no entanto, dois ovinos se recuperaram. Os coeficientes de mortalidade foram de 66,6% para o Grupo 1 e de 77,7% para o Grupo 2. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de MFA não protege contra a intoxicação aguda por este composto, portanto, outras alternativas para a profilaxia da intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA deverão ser pesquisadas, principalmente a utilização intraruminal de bactérias que hidrolisam MFA. Abstract in english With the objective to assess whether repeated non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) induce resistance to poisoning by this compound, 18 sheep were randomly divided into two experimental groups of nine animals each. Sheep from Group 1 ingested non-lethal increasing doses of MFA for six pe [...] riods: 0.05mg/kg for 5 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days and 0.25mg/kg for 3 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and third period the animals did not receive MFA for 10 consecutive days, between the third and fourth period and during the remaining periods of administration the sheep were left 15 days without ingesting MFA. Group 2 was not adapted to the ingestion of MFA and received a single dose of 1mg/kg of MFA at the same time that Group 1 was challenged. After challenge, seven sheep of Group 1 showed clinical signs of poisoning and one sheep recovered. In Group 2, all animals showed clinical signs of poisoning by MFA, however two sheep recovered. The mortality rate was 66.6% in Group 1 and 77.7% for Group 2. These results suggest that repeated administration of non-toxic doses of MFA does not protect against acute poisoning by this compound; therefore other alternatives of prophylaxis for poisoning by plants containing MFA should be searched, mainly the use of intraruminal bacteria that hydrolyze MFA.

Ariany C., Santos; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Rubiane F., Heckler; Stephanie C., Lima; Mariana L., Silva; Renato, Rezende; Nilton M., Carvalho; Ricardo A.A., Lemos.

2014-07-01

95

Hydrogen production by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for PEM fuel cells feeding  

OpenAIRE

In this work, hydrogen is produced by a hydrolysis process that uses sodium borohydride as a hydrogen carrier and storage media. High purity hydrogen is obtained at low temperatures with high volumetric and gravimetric storage efficiencies; reaction products are non-toxic. The produced hydrogen can be supply on-demand at specified flow by tailor made developed catalyst. Hydrogen feeding to a low power fuel cell was accomplished. According to experimental conditions conversion rates of 100% ar...

Silva, R. A.; Paiva, T. I.; Branquinho, M.; Carvalho, S.; Pinto, A. M. F. R.; Rangel, C. M.

2008-01-01

96

Indução de resistência à intoxicação por Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) mediante administração de doses sucessivas não tóxicas / Induction of resistance to Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) poisoning by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de comprovar se doses não tóxicas repetidas de Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. criam resistência à intoxicação, 12 caprinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de seis animais cada. No Grupo 1 foi induzida resistência mediante a administração, dur [...] ante quatro períodos alternados, de 0,02g/kg das folhas dessecadas de P. aeneofusca durante 5 dias, 0,02g/kg durante 5 dias, 0,03g/kg durante 5 dias e 0,03g/kg por mais 5 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam planta por 10 dias consecutivos e entre o terceiro e quarto período de administração os animais permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir a planta. Um caprino morreu subitamente quando estava recebendo 0,03 g/kg da planta, no terceiro período de administração. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado ao consumo de P. aeneofusca. Quinze dias após a adaptação ao consumo de P. aeneofusca do Grupo 1, os dois grupos receberam P. aeneofusca na dose diária de 0,03g/kg durante 19 dias. A partir do 20º dia de administração continuada a dose diária de P. aeneofusca foi aumentada para 0,04g/kg. Esta dose foi administrada por mais 12 dias. Os animais que mostraram sinais clínicos foram retirados do experimento imediatamente após a observação dos primeiros sinais. Um caprino do Grupo 2 apresentou sinais clínicos de intoxicação e morreu no 12º dia de administração e dois apresentaram sinais clínicos no 24º dia; um se recuperou e outro morreu. Após finalizada esta fase do experimento e para comprovar se os caprinos que não tinham adoecido no Grupo 2 tinham também adquirido resistência, foi introduzido outro grupo com três caprinos. Esses três caprinos (Grupo 3), os cinco caprinos do Grupo 1 e os três sobreviventes do Grupo 2, ingeriram uma dose diária de 0,06g/kg. Os três caprinos do Grupo 3 adoeceram no terceiro dia após o início da ingestão, dois morreram em forma hiperaguda e o outro recuperou-se após 10 dias. Todos os caprinos dos Grupos 1 e 2 ingeriram P. aeneofusca na dose de 0,06g/kg/dia durante nove dias sem apresentar nenhum sinal clínico. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram que a administração de doses não tóxicas repetidas de P. aeneofusca aumentam significativamente á resistência à intoxicação e que esta técnica poderia ser utilizada para o controle da intoxicação por P. aeneofusca e outras espécies de Palicourea com similar toxicidade. Os resultados de pesquisas anteriormente realizados sugerem que a resistência à intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA é devida a proliferação de bactérias que degradam MFA no rúmen. Abstract in english Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. is a toxic plant which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA). With the objective to investigate if repeated non-toxic doses of P. aeneofusca induce resistance to the intoxication by this plant, 12 goats were distributed in two similar groups. In Group 1, [...] resistance was induced by the administration of the dry plant, during four alternate periods: 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.03g/kg during 5 days, and 0.03g/kg during 5 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and the third period, the goats did not ingest P. aeneofusca for 10 days. Between the third and the fourth administration period the goats did not ingest the plant during 15 days. One goat died suddenly during the third administration period when was ingesting 0.03g/kg. The goats from Group 2 were not adapted to the consumption of P. aeneofusca. Fifteen days after the end of the adaptation period in Group 1, both groups ingested dry P. aeneofusca in the daily dose of 0.03g/kg during 19 days. From day 20 the daily dose was increased to 0.04g/kg, which was ingested for 12 days. The goats that showed clinical signs were removed from the experiment immediately after the observation of first signs. On

Murilo Duarte de, Oliveira; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Fabrício K.L., Carvalho; Genilson B., Silva; Walkleber S., Pereira; Rosane M.T., Medeiros.

2013-06-01

97

Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

2013-01-01

98

Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO{sub 2} corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Ross, R.J. [Donlar Corporation (United States); Ravenscroft, P.D. [BP Exploration Operating Company, (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

99

Hydrogen production from formic acid decomposition at room temperature using a Ag-Pd core-shell nanocatalyst.  

OpenAIRE

Formic acid (HCOOH) has great potential as an in situ source of hydrogen for fuel cells, because it offers high energy density, is non-toxic and can be safely handled in aqueous solution. So far, there has been a lack of solid catalysts that are sufficiently active and/or selective for hydrogen production from formic acid at room temperature. Here, we report that Ag nanoparticles coated with a thin layer of Pd atoms can significantly enhance the production of H? from formic acid at ambient ...

Tedsree, K.; Li, T.; Jones, S.; Chan, Cw; Yu, Km; Bagot, Pa; Marquis, Ea; Smith, Gd; Tsang, Sc

2011-01-01

100

Testing of cement-solidified products for hazardous material judgment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the low-level radioactive waste treatment facility (LWTF), the cement solidification process is being studied on its applicability as a method for preparing waste packages from sodium-nitrate-containing low-level liquid waste generated at reprocessing plants. Solidified products prepared by the use of this process contain nitrate (sodium nitrate) and nitrite (sodium nitrite), and such products might come under the category of the Class 1 Hazardous Material (oxidative solid) under the Fire Services Act. Thus it has been determined that cement-solidified products prepared from simulated liquid waste will be tested to judge whether they should be treated as hazardous'. Cement-solidified products, which are planned to be disposed of in the form of waste packages of 200-liter drum size, fall within the category of 'articles other than powder or granular material' under the Fire Services Act. Considering this, it has been determined that cement-solidified products will be judged by the tube test and mass combustion test. In addition to those tests, assuming that cement-solidified products might be reprocessed by pulverization or other means, it has been determined that cement-solidified products will be subjected to the combustion test and the falling ball impact test. Test results and knowledge obtained are summarized below. 1. Results of the judgment test for hazardous material. (1) The tube test and the mass combustion test have both proved that cement-solidified prodve both proved that cement-solidified products are not regarded as 'hazardous', and hence cement-solidified products have proved to be 'non-hazardous' in synthetic judgment. (2) The combustion test and the falling ball impact test have both proved that cement-solidified products come under 'Rank 3', and hence cement-solidified products have proved to be 'non-hazardous' in synthetic judgment. 2. Knowledge obtained. In preparing cement-solidified products for the above tests, their salt contents were adjusted to 55 wt%. This means that the test results obtained also apply to the case of cement-solidified products as long as their salt contents do not exceed 55 wt%. (author)

101

I-131-treatment of non-toxic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioiodine is a safe and effective treatment of thyroid enlargement with or - in the presence of significant amounts of autonomously functioning tissue - without true euthyroidism. The indications are esentially the same as for surgery, except the case of a goitre recidive and of recurrent nerve injury, for which radioiodine is the treatment of choise. On the contrary, large cold nodules and a suspicion of malignancy preclude it. The size reduction of about 40% is less than that obtained by surgery, but there are no side effects and no recurrences. Hypothyroidism occurs in 4% of the cases. Unfortunately, the number of specially equipped institutions that are allowed to perform radioiodine therapy is yet restricted. (orig.)

102

Shellac: A Non-Toxic Preservative for Human Embalming Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is extremely important to fix and preserve cadavers adequately not only for the sake of anatomical studies but also for the financial justification. However, the difficulties in handling and the problems of preservation of human anatomical preparations and the potential health and safety problems for staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories and the need to comply with increasingly restrictive exposure limits to components of embalming chemicals have led the research team to fashion a new embalming technique. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia through the years 2008-2010. About 10 cadavers were selected from the fridges of the dissection lab of the Anatomy Department; 5 for long-term preservation and five for softening purposes. The procedure involved rinsing the cadavers with the Shellac embalming solution in a pressurized tank, under a pressure of 1.5 bars for 3 days. In this study, it is revealed that there is a remarkably high embalming capacity of Shellac as shown from the well preserved dissected parts and organs in the softened cadavers. The remaining cadavers, intended for long-term preservation, mummified using Shellac could be retained in normal room conditions; whereby it was easy to soften again by simply replacing it inside the softening tank for 2-3 days. The significant use of Shellac throughout the embalming technique, as a less hazardous and financially more viable material, was discussed juxtapose more conventional and known toxic materials used in standard embalming techniques.

Gamal S. Abd El-Aziz

2011-01-01

103

Shellac: A Non-Toxic Preservative for Human Embalming Techniques  

OpenAIRE

It is extremely important to fix and preserve cadavers adequately not only for the sake of anatomical studies but also for the financial justification. However, the difficulties in handling and the problems of preservation of human anatomical preparations and the potential health and safety problems for staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories and the need to comply with increasingly restrictive exposure limits to components of embalming chemicals have led the research team to fashion...

Abd El-aziz, Gamal S.; Hamdy, Raid M.; Al-hayani, Abdulmonem A. Al-hayani A.; Badawoud, Mohamed H.; Saleh Aldaqal; Yahya Bedir

2011-01-01

104

Nanocrystalline WC with non-toxic Fe-Mn binder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cemented carbides, based on the tungsten carbide (WC), are very popular and useful in an industry. The most important metal us as a binder in this kind of materials is cobalt. It has many advantages as a binder: very good wettability, favourable solubility with WC and thermal conductivity similar to WC. However, cost of cobalt is very high because of its low natural resources. Cobalt is not also neutral for health. It is known as an allergen and same research shown that it could cause a cancer. This paper presents results of sintering the tungsten carbides with Fe-Mn alloys as the binders. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Siemiaszko, Dariusz [Military University of Technology, Department of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, ul. Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Rosinski, Marcin; Michalski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

2010-05-15

105

Environmental guidance documents for exploration, development, Production, and transportation of crude oil and natural gas in texas: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997-March 31, 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following technical report provides a detailed status report of the DOE grant project entitled ''Environmental Guidance Documents for Exploration, Development, Production, and Transportation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Texas.'' The grant funding allocated is for the purpose of provided the Railroad Commission of Texas (Commission) with resources and capabilities to draft, publish and distribute documents that provide guidance to oil and gas operators on issues concerning oil and gas naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) waste, oil and gas hazardous waste, remediation of crude oil spills, management of non-hazardous oil and gas wastes, and mechanical integrity testing of Class II injection and disposal wells

106

The use of NaCl addition for the improvement of polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Cupriavidus necator.  

Science.gov (United States)

External stress factors in the form of ionic species or temperature increases have been shown to produce a stress response leading to enhanced PHA production. The effect of five different NaCl concentrations, namely 3.5, 6.5, 9, 12 and 15 g/l NaCl on PHA productivity using Cupriavidus necator has been investigated alongside a control (no added NaCl). A dielectric spectroscopy probe was used to measure PHA accumulation online in conjunction with the chemical offline analysis of PHA. The highest PHA production was obtained with the addition of 9 g/l NaCl, which yielded 30% higher PHA than the control. Increasing the addition of NaCl to 15 g/l was found to inhibit the production of PHA. NaCl addition can therefore be used as a simple, low cost, sustainable, non toxic and non reactive external stress strategy for increasing PHA productivity. PMID:24835740

Passanha, Pearl; Kedia, Gopal; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J; Esteves, Sandra R

2014-07-01

107

Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis has been discussed with appropriate equipment details. The application of the biosurfactant includes biomedical, cosmetic and bioremediation. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DS10-129 showed significant applications in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in gasoline-spilled soil and petroleum oily sludge. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant enhanced the bioremediation process by releasing the weathered oil from the soil matrices and enhanced the bioavailability of hydrocarbons for microbial degradation. It is having potential applications in the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites.

Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman

2008-01-01

108

Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work is to investigate fuel characteristics of biodiesel and its production in European Union. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. In Europe the most important biofuel is biodiesel. In the European Union biodiesel is the by far biggest biofuel and represents 82% of the biofuel production. Biodiesel production for 2003 in EU-25 was 1,504,000 tons. (author)

109

Application of fractional factorial design to levan production by Zymomonas mobilis Aplicação do planejamento fatorial fracionário para a produção de levana por Zymomonas mobilis  

OpenAIRE

Levan is a non-toxic, biologically active, extra cellular polysaccharide composed solely by fructose units. Optimization of levan production by Zymomonas mobilis strain ZAG-12 employing a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was performed to analyze the influence of the temperature (20, 25 e 30ºC) agitation (50, 75 e 100 rpm), and the initial concentrations of both sucrose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1) and yeast extract (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0g.L-1) on final levan concentration. Aerobic fermentation was perf...

Melo, I. R.; Pimentel, M. F.; Lopes, C. E.; Calazans, G. M. T.

2007-01-01

110

Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

2012-07-01

111

Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

Sofía Chulze

2012-05-01

112

Production contact via etching for GaAs MMICS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research has been undertaken in several major research laboratories to achieve a commercially successful GaAs via hole etching process. This work presents the achievement of results with the desired characteristics for through-wafer GaAs interconnects or vias, for production of MMICs. The authors report vias acceptable for use in the production of microwave GaAs field effect transistors fabricated by a reactive ion etching process. Using conventional resist masks and non toxic gases, aspect ratios of up to 10:1 have been achieved with via sizes as small as 40?m x 40?m. Typical wafer thicknesses were greater than 100?m and the process showed high selectivity to the frontside metallization. The etching conditions had to be varied as a function of overall substrate area and exposed GaAs. To determine optimum process parameters, the RF power and resultant DC bias; gas flow rates and ratios; and system pressure were systematically varied. The effects of changes in area of wafer to be etched and of the composition of the electrode material were also studied. Details are presented of the optimum etching parameters for use in 2 inch and 3 inch GaAs MMIC production

113

Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis. PMID:20033403

Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2010-02-01

114

Immobilization of an integral membrane protein for biotechnological phenylacetaldehyde production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) has previously been shown to be an integral membrane protein performing a highly selective, hydrolytic ring opening reaction of epoxides to yield pure aldehydes. Earlier studies had also shown a high sensitivity of SOIs toward their product phenylacetaldehyde which caused an irreversible inhibition and finally complete loss of activity at higher aldehyde concentrations. Here we report on the covalent immobilization of a styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) on SBA-15 silica carriers. The production of the SOI from a Rhodococcus strain was optimized, the enzyme was enriched and immobilized, and finally the biocatalyst was applied in aqueous as well as in two-phase systems. Linkage of the protein to epoxide or amino groups on the SBA-based carriers led to relatively poor stabilization of the enzyme in an aqueous system. But, improved stability was observed toward organic phases like the non-toxic phthalate-related 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (Hexamol DINCH) which here to our knowledge was used for the first time in a biotechnological application. With this two-phase system and the immobilized SOI, 1.6-2.0× higher product yields were reached and the lifetime of the biocatalyst was tremendously increased. PMID:24480569

Oelschlägel, Michel; Riedel, Anika; Zniszczo?, Aurelia; Szyma?ska, Katarzyna; Jarz?bski, Andrzej B; Schlömann, Michael; Tischler, Dirk

2014-03-20

115

Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick, and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

C. B. Porciúncula

2012-06-01

116

Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for X-ray-based inspection systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Transport Canada (TC), the Canadian Armed Forces, and other public security agencies have an interest in the assessment of the potential utility of advanced explosives detection technologies to aid in the detection and interdiction of commercial grade, military grade, and homemade or improvised explosives (HME or IE). The availability of suitable, non-hazardous, non-toxic, explosive simulants is of concern when assessing the potential utility of such detection systems. Lack of simulants limits the training opportunities, and ultimately the detection probability, of security personnel using these systems. While simulants for commercial and military grade explosives are available for a wide variety of detection technologies, the design and production of materials to simulate improvised explosives has not kept pace with this emerging threat. Funded by TC and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Visiontec Systems, and Optosecurity engaged in an effort to develop inert, non-toxic Xray interrogation simulants for IE materials such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and triacetone triperoxide. These simulants were designed to mimic key X-ray interrogation-relevant material properties of real improvised explosives, principally their bulk density and effective atomic number. Different forms of the simulants were produced and tested, simulating the different explosive threat formulations that could be encountered by front line security workers. These simulants comply with safety and stability requirements, and as best as possible match form and homogeneity. This paper outlines the research program, simulant design, and validation.

Faust, Anthony A.; Nacson, Sabatino; Koffler, Bruce; Bourbeau, Éric; Gagne, Louis; Laing, Robin; Anderson, C. J.

2014-05-01

117

Leaching of coal combustion products: Field and laboratory studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This study combines field monitoring and laboratory experiments to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the re-use of coal combustion by-products (CCPs). The monitoring data obtained from two full-scale CCP applications (i.e., re-use of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond and portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs) allowed environmental impacts to be evaluated under real or simulated in-service conditions. A complimentary laboratory leaching study elucidated fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that determine the leaching kinetics of inorganic contaminants from CCPs. In the first field study, water quality impacts associated with the re-use of FGD material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond were examined by monitoring the water quality of water samples collected from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner over a period of 5 years. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio non-toxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention might be due to both sorption and precipitation. In the second field study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under controlled loading and environmental conditions. Three types of portland-cement-concrete driving surfaces were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). None of the leachate concentrations for fluids collected from laboratory leaching tests exceeded the OhioEPA's non-toxic criteria. Surface runoff monitoring showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, while there were no significant differences in release rates between OPC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for K and Cr, the release of elements was associated with the particulate (>0.45 micron) phase rather than the dissolved phase. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Cheng, Chin-Min

118

Non-hazardous re-use of components removed from nuclear facilities by melting processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melting processes are used to homogenize and or to decontaminate radioactive scrap originating from repair, refitting or decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Test melts in the laboratory scale are performed with ?, r-contaminated material in order to decide whether or not components have to be pre-decontaminated before they are melted in the foundry. About 500 to have already been treated in this way for the re-use in nuclear facilities. Melt experiments in the laboratory scale with ?-contaminated materials resulted in a one step compaction and decontamination process. The ?-radionuclides are nearly quantitatively released from the melt into the slag. A simple direct ?-measuring technique was developed to control melt processes

119

Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel  

Science.gov (United States)

The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

2012-10-01

120

Hydrogen production  

Science.gov (United States)

The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

1975-01-01

121

Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production  

OpenAIRE

Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosm...

Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

2013-01-01

122

Production of Modularised Product Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used to support the ideas.

Jacobsen, Peter

2004-01-01

123

Non-toxic agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system containing gallic acid for antifungal application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is a common species of Aspergillus molds. Cutaneous aspergillosis usually occurs in skin sites near intravenous injection and approximately 6% of cutaneous aspergillosis cases which do not involve burn or HIV-infected patients are caused by A. niger. Biomaterials and biopharmaceuticals produced from microparticle-based drug delivery systems have received much attention as microencapsulated drugs offer an improvement in therapeutic efficacy due to better human absorption. The frequently used crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, in gelatin-based microencapsulation systems is considered harmful to human beings. In order to tackle the potential risks, agarose has become an alternative polymer to be used with gelatin as wall matrix materials of microcapsules. In the present study, we report the eco-friendly use of an agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system to enhance the antifungal activity of gallic acid and reduce its potential cytotoxic effects towards human skin keratinocytes. We used optimal parameter combinations, such as an agarose/gelatin ratio of 1:1, a polymer/oil ratio of 1:60, a surfactant volume of 1% w/w and a stirring speed of 900 rpm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of microencapsulated gallic acid (62.5 µg/ml) was significantly improved when compared with that of the original drug (>750 µg/ml). The anti-A. niger activity of gallic acid -containing microcapsules was much stronger than that of the original drug. Following 48 h of treatment, skin cell survival was approximately 90% with agarose/gelatin microcapsules containing gallic acid, whereas cell viability was only 25-35% with free gallic acid. Our results demonstrate that agarose/gelatin-based microcapsules containing gallic acid may prove to be helpful in the treatment of A. niger-induced skin infections near intravenous injection sites. PMID:25482299

Lam, P-L; Gambari, R; Kok, S H-L; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Bian, Z-X; Lee, K K-H; Chui, C-H

2015-02-01

124

Improved nonviral gene vectors: Efficient and non-toxic polyplexes with enhanced endosomolytic activity  

OpenAIRE

For the development of improved polyethylenimine (PEI) polyplexes towards ‘artificial viruses’ two key issues are i) to improve the toxicity profile of the applied vectors and ii) to enhance endosomal release, one of the major barriers to efficient gene transfer with PEI polyplexes. Nonviral vectors based on PEI usually contain an excess of PEI that is not complexed to DNA. Since free PEI contributes to cellular and systemic toxicity purification of polyplexes from unbound PEI is high...

Boeckle, Sabine

2005-01-01

125

Human studies with 'high dose' metronidazole: a non-toxic radiosensitizer of hypoxic cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The serum concentrations of the radiosensitizer metronidazole have been determined in mice for both oral and intraperitoneal doses of the drug and these have been related to radiosensitization studies in murine tumour systems. In preliminary work before a possible clinical trial the serum metronidazole concentration/time curves have been determined in 7 patients using single doses of metronidazole of up to 15 g. The data suggested that a linear relationship exists between the metronidazole dose expressed in mg/kg and the peak serum concentration. The possibility of achieving radiosensitization of tumours in patients after tolerable doses of metronidazole is discussed in relation to enhancement ratios determined for in vitro and in vivo system. It is concluded that predictions from in vitro systems give values that are probably too optimistic. (author)

126

Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions  

OpenAIRE

Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening ...

Jean-Philippe Maréchal; Claire Hellio

2009-01-01

127

Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1 indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

R.S. Abdel Hameed

2011-01-01

128

Fluoride at non-toxic dose affects odontoblast gene expression in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elevated fluoride intake may lead to local tissue disturbances, known as fluorosis. Towards an understanding of this effect, fluoride-induced molecular responses were analyzed in MO6-G3 cultured odontoblasts cells. NaF at 1 mM changed expression of genes implicated in tissue formation and growth, without affecting cell proliferation or inducing stress factor RNAs. Up to 1 mM NaF, DNA accumulation was not inhibited, whereas at 3 mM, cells detached from their support and did not proliferate. Intracellular structures, characterized by EM, were normal up to 1 mM, but at 3 mM, necrotic features were evident. No sign of apoptotic transformation appeared at any NaF concentration. Fluoride-sensitive genes were identified by microarray analysis; expression levels of selected RNAs were determined by conventional and real-time RT-PCR. At 1 mM fluoride, RNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins asporin and fibromodulin, and the cell membrane associated proteins periostin and IMT2A were 10-fold reduced. RNA coding for signaling factor TNF-receptor 9 was diminished to one-third, whereas that for the chemokine Scya-5 was enhanced 2.5-fold. These RNAs are present in vivo in tooth forming cells. This was demonstrated by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR on RNA from dissected tissue samples; for the presence and functioning of fibromodulin in dentin matrix, a more comprehensive study has earlier been performed by others [Goldberg, M., Septier, D., Oldberg, A., Young, M.F., Ameye, ier, D., Oldberg, A., Young, M.F., Ameye, L.G., 2006. Fibromodulin deficient mice display impaired collagen fibrillogenesis in predentin as well as altered dentin mineralization and enamel formation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 54, 525-537]. Expression of most other RNA species, in particular of stress factor coding RNAs, was not altered. It was concluded that fluoride could influence the transcription pattern without inducing cell stress or apoptosis. In odontoblasts in vivo, aberrant expression of these fluoride-sensitive genes may impair the formation of the extracellular matrix and influence cell communication, with the possible consequence of fluorotic patterns of normal and deviant dentin

129

Non-toxic liquid scintillators with high light output based on phenyl-substituted siloxanes  

Science.gov (United States)

The work describes the development of a new class of liquid scintillators based on polysiloxane liquid compounds. These materials are characterized by low toxicity, chemical inertness, very low volatility and low flammability, allowing their use without concerns even at high temperatures in vacuum. In this view different polysiloxane based liquids have been tested, with variable content and distribution of phenyl lateral substituents and added with suitable dyes, namely 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and Lumogen Violet (LV). Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used in order to study the emission feature of the various compounds and to investigate the spectral matching between siloxane solvents and dissolved primary dyes. Scintillation efficiency towards 60Co and 137Cs gamma rays, relative to commercial liquid scintillator (EJ-309), has been measured and the results have been related to the energy transfer and energy migration mechanism from monomer and excimer forming sites in liquid siloxanes.

Dalla Palma, M.; Carturan, S. M.; Degerlier, M.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Quaranta, A.

2015-04-01

130

Caffeine as non-toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper in aqueous solutions of potassium nitrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Different electrochemical methods were employed in order to confirm the ability of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) to inhibit the corrosion processes of copper in aqueous potassium nitrate solutions in the absence and in the presence of chloride. Some experiments were repeated in potassium perchlorate in order to compare the influence of the medium. The interaction between the organic compound and the electrode surface occurs independently of the electrode potential. However, maximum interaction was observed at 0.0 V (Ag/AgCl) in aerated solutions, and at -0.25 V (Ag/AgCl) in deaerated solutions. The presence of the organic compound adsorbed on the electrode surface was confirmed by comparing the voltammograms of copper electrode in the absence and presence of 1.5 mmol L -1 of dissolved caffeine. The same results were observed by comparing polarization curves in the absence and in the presence of caffeine. Anodic currents decrease noticeably in the presence of the organic compound. Chronoamperometric experiments were conclusive to prove the inhibitor capability of caffeine to decrease the corrosion dissolution processes of copper under anodic polarization.

Fallavena, Thuanny; Antonow, Muriel; Gonçalves, Reinaldo Simões

2006-11-01

131

I-131-treatment of non-toxic goitre. Radiojodtherapie der Struma mit Euthyreose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioiodine is a safe and effective treatment of thyroid enlargement with or - in the presence of significant amounts of autonomously functioning tissue - without true euthyroidism. The indications are esentially the same as for surgery, except the case of a goitre recidive and of recurrent nerve injury, for which radioiodine is the treatment of choise. On the contrary, large cold nodules and a suspicion of malignancy preclude it. The size reduction of about 40% is less than that obtained by surgery, but there are no side effects and no recurrences. Hypothyroidism occurs in 4% of the cases. Unfortunately, the number of specially equipped institutions that are allowed to perform radioiodine therapy is yet restricted. (orig.).

Leisner, B.; Grotefendt, M. (Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

1990-12-01

132

Fast and Non-Toxic In Situ Hybridization without Blocking of Repetitive Sequences  

OpenAIRE

Formamide is the preferred solvent to lower the melting point and annealing temperature of nucleic acid strands in in situ hybridization (ISH). A key benefit of formamide is better preservation of morphology due to a lower incubation temperature. However, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), against unique DNA targets in tissue sections, an overnight hybridization is required to obtain sufficient signal intensity. Here, we identified alternative solvents and developed a new hybridiza...

Matthiesen, Steen H.; Hansen, Charles M.

2012-01-01

133

Nanodiamonds with silicon vacancy defects for non-toxic photostable fluorescent labeling of neural precursor cells  

OpenAIRE

Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. N...

Merson, Tobias D.; Castelletto, Stefania; Aharonovich, Igor; Turbic, Alisa; Kilpatrick, Trevor J.; Turnley, Ann M.

2013-01-01

134

Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.2 g L{sup -1} NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent.

Varvara, Simona [Department of Topography, ' 1 Decembrie 1918' University, 11-13 Nicolae Iorga Street, 510009 Alba Iulia (Romania); Muresan, Liana Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 11 Arany-Janos Street, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)], E-mail: limur@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Rahmouni, Kamal; Takenouti, Hisasi [UPMC LISE - UPR 15 of the CNRS, ' Pierre and Marie Curie' University, Paris (France)

2008-09-15

135

Application of powder metallurgy techniques for the development of non-toxic ammunition. Final CRADA report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and Delta Frangible Ammunition (DFA), was to identify and evaluate composite materials for the development of small arms ammunition. Currently available small arms ammunition utilizes lead as the major component of the projectile. The introduction of lead into the environment by these projectiles when they are expended is a rapidly increasing environmental problem. At certain levels, lead is a toxic metal to the environment and a continual health and safety concern for firearm users as well as those who must conduct lead recovery operations from the environment. DFA is a leading supplier of high-density mixtures, which will be used to replace lead-based ammunition in specific applications. Current non-lead ammunition has several limitations that prevent it from replacing lead-based ammunition in many applications (such as applications that require ballistics, weapon recoil, and weapon function identical to that of lead-based ammunition). The purpose of the CRADA was to perform the research and development to identify cost-effective materials to be used in small arms ammunition that eventually will be used in commercially viable, environmentally conscious, non-lead, frangible and/or non-frangible, ammunition.

Lowden, R. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kelly, R. [Delta Defense, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-05-30

136

Diffuse Non-toxic Goitre Therapy with Iodine Alone or with Combination of Iodine and Levothyroxine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: to assess the efficacy and tolerability of low-dose iodine therapy compared with the combination of iodine and levothyroxine in endemic goitre patients. Methods: 12-month prospective study was performed, in which 81 patients were randomized on two groups: Group 1 (n = 40 - KI (200 micrograms/day and Group 2 (n = 41 - KI (100 mcg/day + L-T4 (1.0 mcg/kg. Thyroid volume, TSH and Anti-TPO-Ab levels were evaluated at baseline, at 8 month of the treatment and at 12 month (4 month after the cessation of the therapy. Results: the significant decreasing of thyroid volumes was found in group 1 at 8 month compared with baseline (20.5 ml at baseline and 16,4 ml at 8 month ? < 0.001. After the therapy cessation the further benefit of a sustained effect was demonstrated (16.4 ml at 8 month and 16.1 ml at 12 month, ? = 0.31. Iodine-induced hypo- and hyperthyroidism were not observed. High Anti-TPO-Ab level was found in one of 31 patients (3%. In group 2 significant difference between thyroid volumes was found at 8 month compared with baseline (20,5 ml at baseline and 16.2 ml at 8 month ? < 0.001. The sustained effect was revealed at least 4 month after the therapy cessation (16.2 ml at 8 month and 16.1 ml at 12 month, ? = 0.77. One man had iodine-induced subclinical hyperthyroidism. Anti-TPO-Ab was not detected in this group. No significant difference between thyroid volume decreasing, TSH and Anti-TPO-Ab levels in two comparable groups was observed. Conclusion: KI alone (200 mcg/day or the combination of L-T4 (1.0 mcg/kg and KI (100 mcg/day are equally effective and tolerable for endemic goitre therapy.

N Galkina

2008-12-01

137

Characterization of an inexpensive, non-toxic and highly sensitive microarray substrate.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An agarose film has been proposed as an efficient substrate for producing microarrays. The original film preparation procedure was simplified significantly by grafting the agarose layer directly onto unmodified microscope glass slides instead of aminated glass slides, and the blocking procedure was replaced with a wash in 0.1x standard saline citrate (SSC) and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) without decreasing the performance of the produced microarrays. Characterization of the grafted agarose film using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the agarose film had a 10-fold increase in surface roughness compared to glass and that the interior of the agarose film was porous, with pore sizes between 100-500 nm. A comparison of hybridization on aldehyde-activated agarose-coated microarray slides and commercial amino-reactive microarray slides showed that aldehyde-activated agarose-coated slides had the highest signal-to-noise ratio of 850, suggesting that the aldehyde-activated agarose microarray slides are suitable in applications where analytes have a wide concentration range. By immobilizing the DNA probes using ultraviolet (UV) light, the signal-to-noise ratio was further increased to 3000 on the agarose microarray slides. The specificity of the UV cross-linked DNA probes was demonstrated using 21 and 25 bp long capture probes, enabling discrimination of target molecules differing in only one base.

Dufva, Hans Martin; Petronis, Sarunas

2004-01-01

138

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements  

OpenAIRE

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding...

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Ce?dric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

139

Discovery and Canine Preclinical Assessment of a Non-Toxic Procaspase-3-Activating Compound  

OpenAIRE

A critical event in the apoptotic cascade is the proteolytic activation of procaspases to active caspases. The caspase auto-activating compound PAC-1 induces cancer cell apoptosis and exhibits antitumor activity in murine xenograft models when administered orally as a lipid-based formulation or implanted subcutaneously as a cholesterol pellet. However, high doses of PAC-1 were found to induce neurotoxicity, prompting us to design and assess a novel PAC-1 derivative called S-PAC-1. Similar to ...

Peterson, Quinn P.; Hsu, Danny C.; Novotny, Chris J.; West, Diana C.; Kim, Dewey; Schmit, Joanna M.; Dirikolu, Levent; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Fan, Timothy M.

2010-01-01

140

Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine ({sup 131}I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive {sup 131}I plus lithium (group I+L) or {sup 131}I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, {sup 131}I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after {sup 131}I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after {sup 131}I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, {sup 131}I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low {sup 131}I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

Vannucchi, Guia; Mannavola, Deborah; Dazzi, Davide; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Fugazzola, Laura [Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS (Pad. Granelli), Institute of Endocrine Sciences, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Rodari, Marcello; Tadayyon, Sara [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy)

2005-09-01

141

Non-Toxic Fumigation and Alternative Control Techniques Against Fungal Colonization for Preserving Archaeological Oil Painting  

OpenAIRE

In this study, samples were collected from the deteriorated parts of archeological oil painting of Ismael pasha exhibited in Al-Gizyra museum, Egypt. The tested oil painting grounds belonged to the period from beginning of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th in Egypt were analysed and fungal deterioration aspects were examined by different techniques such as Scanning Eectron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The data show that...

Geweely, Neveen S. I.

2006-01-01

142

/ Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentrati [...] on of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1) indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

R.S., Abdel Hameed.

143

Boldine, a natural aporphine alkaloid, inhibits telomerase at non-toxic concentrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a preliminary screening study of natural alkaloids, boldine, an aporphine alkaloid, showed an interesting dose and time dependent anti-proliferative effect in several cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity of boldine in human fibroblasts was considerably lower than the telomerase positive embryonic kidney HEK293 and breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Whether boldine can inhibit telomerase was investigated here using a modified quantitative real-time telomere repeat amplification protocol (q-TRAP). This test showed that boldine inhibits telomerase in cells treated with sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Telomerase inhibition occurs via down-regulation of hTERT, the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Boldine changed the splicing variants of hTERT towards shorter non-functional transcripts as well. A direct interaction of boldine with the enzyme may also be involved, though thermal FRET method did not detect any substantial interaction between boldine and synthetic telomere sequences. This study advocates boldine as a valuable candidate for telomerase-targeted cancer care. This study suggests that derivatives of boldine could be potent anti-cancer drugs. PMID:25746354

Kazemi Noureini, Sakineh; Tanavar, Fatemeh

2015-04-25

144

Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production  

Science.gov (United States)

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

2013-01-01

145

Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: Another potential mechanism of immune-suppression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 deg. C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with > 85% inhibition at 1 ?g/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 ?g/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1? (83%) or TNF-? (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity

146

Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal. PMID:19570608

Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Ko, Ya-Wen; Shieh, Zhu-Xin; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-11-15

147

Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil, and water content (w/w of oil were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were 80% and 79%, respectively.

Chi-Yang Yu

2013-12-01

148

Review of catalytic supercritical water gasification for hydrogen production from biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is defined as an attractive energy carrier due to its potentially higher energy efficiency and low generation of pollutants, which can replace conventional fossil fuels in the future. The governments have invested huge funds and made great efforts on the research of hydrogen production. Among the various options, supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a most promising method of hydrogen production from biomass. Supercritical water (SCW) has received a great deal of attention as a most suitable reaction medium for biomass gasification because it is safe, non-toxic, readily available, inexpensive and environmentally benign. However, high temperature and pressure are required to meet the minimum reaction condition. Therefore, the high operating cost has become the biggest obstacle to the development of this technology. To overcome this bottleneck, many researchers have carried out intensive research work on the catalytic supercritical water gasification (CSCWG). Based on the previous studies stated in the literature, the authors try to give an overview (but not an exhaustive review) on the recent investigations of CSCWG. Besides, the physicochemical properties of SCW and its contributions in subcritical and supercritical water reaction are also summarized. (author)

Guo, Y.; Wang, S.Z.; Xu, D.H.; Gong, Y.M.; Ma, H.H.; Tang, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

2010-01-15

149

Recovery of antioxidant phenolics from white vinification solid by-products employing water/ethanol mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid wastes from white vinification, including grape peels, seeds and stems, were used as raw material for the recovery of antioxidant polyphenols. Extractions were performed using non-toxic media composed of water/ethanol mixtures and hydrochloric, acetic or tartaric acid. Recovery efficiency was assessed by monitoring the antioxidant potency of extracts and several indices related to their polyphenolic composition, including total polyphenol, total flavonoid, total flavanol and condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) content. Among the by-products tested, seeds were shown to contain exceptional amounts of total polyphenols (13.76 g per 100g dry weight), followed by stems (7.47 g per 100g dry weight) and peels (0.97 g per 100g dry weight). Extracts with the highest antioxidant activity from all by-products were obtained with 57% ethanol. Acidification of this medium with 0.1% HCl improved polyphenol recovery and antiradical activity for stem extracts, but it was unfavourable for seed extraction. PMID:17110101

Makris, Dimitris P; Boskou, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

2007-11-01

150

Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs. We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram, different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 °C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 ± 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC.

Chandra P. Singh

2010-01-01

151

Product Customization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes, a reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services.

Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

2008-01-01

152

Antihydrogen production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antihydrogen production in ATHENA is analyzed more carefully. The most important peculiarities of the different experimental situations are discussed. The protonium production via the first matter-antimatter chemical reaction is commented too

153

Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

2008-03-20

154

Role of physical adsorption in the interaction of fission and activation products with basaltic formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ultimate sink for all wastes -domestic, agricultural, industrial, toxic, non-toxic, radioactive, non-radioactive, conditioned or non-conditioned is the mother earth. The sub-surface is composed of soil cover and the bedrock-igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary and in general is either aquiclude/aquitard or aquifer but not aquifuge. In a multiple barrier system for the disposal of radioactive waste, the final barrier is the sub-surface formation of the waste disposal facility itself. Even after taking all precautions there is a remote possibility that over a period of time ground water may come in contact with waste matrix, dissolve in itself most of the radionuclides particularly long lived like Cs+, Sr2+, Ce3+ and Co2+ etc , and contaminate the sub-surface formation. The process of physical adsorption and chemisorption as well as desorption simultaneously take place and play a very important role in this interaction. Different formations like shale, amphibolite, granite and basalt have been considered for ground disposal or storage of radioactive waste. Interaction of Cs+, Sr2+, Ce3+ and Co2+ with crushed basalt was studied in this work. Data have been analysed by evaluating thermodynamic parameters as well as with the help of sorption equations. Interaction of Cs+ and Sr2+ with basalt is exothermic and spontaneous. Both physical adsorption and chemisorpti. Both physical adsorption and chemisorption (sorption and ion-exchange) play very important role in the interaction of fission and activation products with basaltic formation. (author)

155

Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil & Its Evaluation in Compression Ignition Engine Using RSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lack of energy, deterioration of the environment and hunger,these are the three problems the humans are facing in todays era. There is an exponential rise in the demand is arrising for petroleum based energy. This has been followed by problem of depleting conventional petroleum fuels and a hike in price of these fuels, almost on a regular basis. Moreover, these green house emissions are results of petroleum fuels and other forms of pollution in the environment. The rise in the price of the fuel has also been alarming for us to find alternate energy resource.The vegetable oils has proved to be a promising source to obtain fuels for IC engines. Like, biodiesel is biodegradable, non- toxic and renewable fuel. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oil by transesterification with alcohols. The high cost of raw materials and lack of modern technology has led to the commercialization which can optimize the biodiesel yield. A modified engine can lead to better engine performance along with lesser specific fuel consumption. In this thesis, Response Surface Methodology (RSM has been used which has focused on the optimization of biodiesel production, engine performance and exhaust emission parameters.

Jashan Deep Singha

2014-04-01

156

Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover for production of ethanol and carbon microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pretreatment of biomass is viewed as a critical step to make the cellulose accessible to enzymes and for an adequate yield of fermentable sugars in ethanol production. Recently, hydrothermal pretreatment methods have attracted a great deal of attention because it uses water which is a inherently present in green biomass, non-toxic, environmentally benign, and inexpensive medium. Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover was conducted in a flow through reactor to enhance and optimize the enzymatic digestibility. More than 80% of glucan digestibility was achieved by pretreatment at 190 oC. Addition of a small amount of K2CO3 (0.45-0.9 wt.%) can enhance the pretreatment and allow use of lower temperatures. Switchgrass pretreated at 190 oC only with water had higher internal surface area than that pretreated in the presence of K2CO3, but both the substrates showed similar glucan digestibility. In comparison to switchgrass, corn stover required milder pretreatment conditions. The liquid hydrolyzate generated during pretreatment was converted into carbon microspheres by hydrothermal carbonization, providing a value-added byproduct. The carbonization process was further examined by GC-MS analysis to understand the mechanism of microsphere formation.

157

Uranium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alltime high for uranium concentrate production is expected to be reached in 1980. The average grade of ore fed to process will be up about 10% from last year. Some curtailments in uranium processing were announced, but three new processing plants began production in 1980. The prospects for 1981 are not as encouraging. The continuation of low prices and slow demand for U3O8 are expected to be reflected in a significant reduction in overall production and in the postponement of some plans for expansion and construction of uranium processing facilities. Increases in production capacity will occur when Plateau Resource's 750 TPD mill at Ticaboo, Utah, starts up early next year, and additional production of byproduct uranium is expected from western phosphate operations and from the southern states. These increases in capacity, however, will not offset the cutbacks in uranium processing already in force together with the additional curtailments anticipated during the course of 1981

158

Hydrogen production from formic acid decomposition at room temperature using a Ag-Pd core-shell nanocatalyst  

Science.gov (United States)

Formic acid (HCOOH) has great potential as an in situ source of hydrogen for fuel cells, because it offers high energy density, is non-toxic and can be safely handled in aqueous solution. So far, there has been a lack of solid catalysts that are sufficiently active and/or selective for hydrogen production from formic acid at room temperature. Here, we report that Ag nanoparticles coated with a thin layer of Pd atoms can significantly enhance the production of H2 from formic acid at ambient temperature. Atom probe tomography confirmed that the nanoparticles have a core-shell configuration, with the shell containing between 1 and 10 layers of Pd atoms. The Pd shell contains terrace sites and is electronically promoted by the Ag core, leading to significantly enhanced catalytic properties. Our nanocatalysts could be used in the development of micro polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for portable devices and could also be applied in the promotion of other catalytic reactions under mild conditions.

Tedsree, Karaked; Li, Tong; Jones, Simon; Chan, Chun Wong Aaron; Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Bagot, Paul A. J.; Marquis, Emmanuelle A.; Smith, George D. W.; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

2011-05-01

159

Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

Cunningham Drew S

2009-05-01

160

Radioisotope production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67Ga, 81Rb/81mKr and 111In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 ?A). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123I, in the form of Na123I capsules as well as 123I-sodium hippurate, and 52Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

161

Financial Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The financial transactions in today's market place may appear overly complex and obscure. A discussion of the subleties of familiar products and the motivations for unfamiliar ones brings perspective to the subject.

Zisook, Albert

1996-03-01

162

Iron(VI) and iron(V): environmentally-friendly oxidants in water and wastewater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summarizes the results of the studies on the treatment of water and wastewater by iron(VI) and iron(V). Fe(VI) and Fe(V) have high oxidizing power, selectivity, and a non-toxic by-product, Fe(III), that makes them environmentally-friendly oxidants. Rates of oxidation increase with a decrease in pH and are related to protonation of Fe(VI) and Fe(V). Oxidation of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing pollutants by Fe(VI) can be accomplished in seconds to minutes with formation of non-hazardous products. Fe(VI) can easily oxidize the amino acid components of microcystins and is a suitable disinfectant for detoxifying toxins in water. The oxidation of pollutants and amino acids with Fe(V) is 3-5 orders of magnitude faster than with Fe(VI). The use of ionizing radiation and photocatalytic techniques in the presence of Fe(VI) results in Fe(V) formation and may have synergistic effects on the oxidation of pollutants and removal of toxins in water and wastewater. (orig.)

Sharma, V.K. [Dept. of Chemistry, Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States)

2003-07-01

163

Bottom production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

2000-03-15

164

Bottom production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

165

Energy products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A directory of all Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies actively involved in research and development of biomass-based energy products was presented. This directory is one of several issued by the CQVB to facilitate discovery of Quebec centres of excellence involved in research and development of biomass-based products. Entries are organized in a standardized format -- sixteen in all in this volume -- including description of major research activities, principal technologies used, available research and analytical equipment, research personnel, and names and addresses of contact persons. The range of activities covered a diversity of research interests, including the production of ethanol from biomass waste and the treatment and combustion of biomass materials. tabs

166

Environmental products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

167

Phytosanitary products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of a series of directories of Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec actively involved in research and development of phytosanitary products or services derived from or associated with biomass products. This directory contained standardized entries for 79 organizations from the agriculture, forestry and environmental sectors, active in fields ranging from genetic engineering, fertilizers, crop diseases and pest management, forestry management, harvesting methods and bioconversion. Each entry provided information about major fields of research interest, principal technologies utilized, major equipment, personnel, and name and address of person to be contacted for further information. tabs

168

Replacement of lead bricks with non-hazardous polymer-bismuth for low-energy gamma shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead is a hazardous substance, making it a disposal and industrial hygiene problem. The potential for creating mixed waste or mixed TRU waste exists if the lead becomes contaminated. The disposal of either waste stream is extremely difficult and costly. Bismuth is a nonhazardous material with shielding characteristics similar to lead. An HPGe was characterized using detector shielding composed of lead and polyethylene-based-bismuth to compare the shielding efficacy of both materials. Polymerbismuth bricks may be recommended as gamma spectrometer shielding for sensitive low-energy measurements. (author)

169

Uranium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

170

New Products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews new educational technology products, including a microcomputer-based tutoring system, laser barcode reader, video/data projectors, CD-ROM for notebook computers, a system to increase a printer's power, data cartridge storage shell, knowledge-based decision tool, video illustrator, interactive videodiscs, surge protectors, scanner system,…

TechTrends, 1992

1992-01-01

171

Tanning Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... of canthaxanthin are ingested, it can turn the skin a range of colors from orange to brown. It can also cause serious health problems including liver damage; hives; and an eye disorder called canthaxanthin retinopathy, in which ... Radiation Your Skin The Risks of Tanning Tanning Products Sun Protection ...

172

The dynamics of microcystis genotypes and microcystin production and associations with environmental factors during blooms in Lake Chaohu, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Chaohu, which is a large, shallow, hypertrophic freshwater lake in southeastern China, has been experiencing lake-wide toxic Microcystis blooms in recent decades. To illuminate the relationships between microcystin (MC) production, the genotypic composition of the Microcystis community and environmental factors, water samples and associated environmental data were collected from June to October 2012 within Lake Chaohu. The Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and HPLC, respectively. The results showed that the abundances of Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations varied on spatial and temporal scales. Microcystis exists as a mixed population of toxic and non-toxic genotypes, and the proportion of toxic Microcystis genotypes ranged from 9.43% to 87.98%. Both Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that throughout the entire lake, the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations showed significant positive correlation with the total phosphorus and water temperature, suggesting that increases in temperature together with the phosphorus concentrations may promote more frequent toxic Microcystis blooms and higher concentrations of MC. Whereas, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was negatively correlated with the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations, indicating that rising DIC concentrations may suppress toxic Microcystis abundance and reduce the MC concentrations in the future. Therefore, our results highlight the fact that future eutrophication and global climate change can affect the dynamics of toxic Microcystis blooms and hence change the MC levels in freshwater. PMID:25474494

Yu, Li; Kong, Fanxiang; Zhang, Min; Yang, Zhen; Shi, Xiaoli; Du, Mingyong

2014-01-01

173

The Dynamics of Microcystis Genotypes and Microcystin Production and Associations with Environmental Factors during Blooms in Lake Chaohu, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lake Chaohu, which is a large, shallow, hypertrophic freshwater lake in southeastern China, has been experiencing lake-wide toxic Microcystis blooms in recent decades. To illuminate the relationships between microcystin (MC production, the genotypic composition of the Microcystis community and environmental factors, water samples and associated environmental data were collected from June to October 2012 within Lake Chaohu. The Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and HPLC, respectively. The results showed that the abundances of Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations varied on spatial and temporal scales. Microcystis exists as a mixed population of toxic and non-toxic genotypes, and the proportion of toxic Microcystis genotypes ranged from 9.43% to 87.98%. Both Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that throughout the entire lake, the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations showed significant positive correlation with the total phosphorus and water temperature, suggesting that increases in temperature together with the phosphorus concentrations may promote more frequent toxic Microcystis blooms and higher concentrations of MC. Whereas, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC was negatively correlated with the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations, indicating that rising DIC concentrations may suppress toxic Microcystis abundance and reduce the MC concentrations in the future. Therefore, our results highlight the fact that future eutrophication and global climate change can affect the dynamics of toxic Microcystis blooms and hence change the MC levels in freshwater.

Li Yu

2014-12-01

174

The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body ?-radiation as acute doses.

175

Food production and nutrition in biosphere 2: results from the first mission September 1991 to September 1993  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m^2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time.

Silverstone, S. E.; Nelson, M.

176

76 FR 19182 - Petition for Rulemaking-Classification of Polyurethane Foam and Certain Finished Products...  

Science.gov (United States)

...potential for extensive damage in tunnels, they do not consider the HMR to...appropriate means of controlling risks to tunnels posted by non-hazardous materials. In fact, the referenced Mont Blanc tunnel fire which resulted in 39 deaths and...

2011-04-06

177

Effects of addition glycerol co-product of biodiesel in the thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as secondary coolant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates the effects of glycerol concentration on thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as a secondary coolant in refrigeration systems by expansion-indirect. The processing of triglycerides for biodiesel production generates glycerol as co-product and there are concerns of environmental and economic order on the surplus of glycerol. The addition of glycerol in water alters the colligative and thermophysical properties (melting point, mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity). There are studies that prove the feasibility of using glycerol as an additive and this paper has the goal to verify the changes on properties compared with pure water. This comparison was made from data obtained by the software simulation and they analyzed using graphs and tables. It was shown that glycerol increases the density and dynamic viscosity, and reduces the specific heat and thermal conductivity. This behavior of water-glycerol solution is proportional to the mass concentration of glycerol and it is justified because the glycerol has low values of specific heat, thermal conductivity and high viscosity when compared with water. Despite the losses in the thermophysical properties, glycerol shows its potential application, because of the cryoscopic effect and it is a non-toxic substance at low cost. (author)

Medeiros, Pedro Samuel Gomes; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga; Fontes, Francisco de Assis Oliveira [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Energy Laboratory. Thermal Systems Studies Group], e-mail: cleiton@ufrnet.br

2010-07-01

178

Geophysical Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geophysical Products Web site is maintained and provided by the USGS Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team, who "devise new methods for understanding the Earth and apply these methods in interdisciplinary research projects to solve pressing earth-system problems." This comprehensive accumulation of resources includes Regional and State Grid and Database Compilations, Magnetic Reports and Surveys, Gravity Reports and Surveys, Electrical Reports and Surveys, MagnetoTelluric Reports and Surveys, Multi-Discipline Reports and Surveys, Geophysical Software, Fact Sheets, Geophysical Products available on CD-ROMS, geophysical links, and more. The single page site, although seemingly limited, does offer a great deal of information that should be of use to researchers and professionals.

179

Uranium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of uranium dioxide fuel by BNFL at Springfields is discussed. The Integrated Dry Route (IDR) for the manufacture of UO2 powder is described. It is based on the single stage IDR for continuously converting uranium hexafluoride to ceramic grade UO2, and the use of pore-formers to confer a predetermined structure and density on the fuel pellets. The advantages of the process are shown. Also described is the new rotary kiln process, UTK (uranium tetrafluoride in kilns), for the production of UF4, which consists of three stages, hydration of UO3, dehydration and reduction to UO2, and hydrofluorination UO2. Reference is made to effluent treatment, and safety aspects of the new plant are considered. (U.K.)

180

Production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this historical review, covering roughly the years from 1960 to 1980, some contributions are presented in an exemplary selection that bubble chambers have made to our understanding of particle production processes within the framework of the following phenomenological models: One-particle exchange (in particular one-pion exchange); Regge-pole exchange; duality, finite-energy sum rules and Veneziano models; multiperipheral model, multi-Regge exchange, loongitudinal phase space and diffraction dissociation. (orig.)

181

Product lines for digital information products  

OpenAIRE

Digital information products are an important class of widely used digital products, whose core benefit is the delivery of information or education (e.g., electronic books, online newspapers, e-learning courses). This book introduces a novel and systematic approach, Product Lines for Digital Information Products (PLANT), which focuses on the creation of variants of such products within a product line, and which extends concepts from the area of software product lines.

Pankratius, Victor

2007-01-01

182

Hydrogen production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

2010-07-01

183

Flavored Tobacco Product Facts  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Tobacco Products Print this page Share this page E- ... Products Youth & Tobacco Flavored Tobacco en Español Flavored Tobacco Product Fact Sheet View Flavored Tobacco Product Fact ...

184

Investigation of Paenibacillus alvei ARN63 ability for biodemulsifier production: medium optimization to break heavy crude oil emulsion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The demulsifying performance of Paenibacillus alvei ARN63 (P. alvei), as a biodemulsifier-producing bacterium, for breaking water-in-heavy crude oil emulsion has been investigated. The produced lipopeptide biodemulsifier showed the potential to be used in the petroleum industry as an environmentally friendly and non-toxic material. To optimize the biodemulsifier production, the impacts of parameters such as temperature, pH, carbon source and carbon concentration at a constant agitation speed of 180 rpm and with ammonium sulfate as the sole nitrogen source (1.0 g/l) were studied in detail. Several normal paraffin compounds, vegetable oils and motor oil revealed the ability to be used as the carbon source for synthesis of biodemulsifier. The best biodemulsifier production was obtained employing motor oil as the carbon source with a concentration of 42.5 g/l at 37°C and pH 7.0 after 72 h of incubation. Under these conditions, the surface tension of the medium reduced from 58 mN/m to 24.7 mN/m and the biodemulsifier yield reached a value of 2.1 g/l. The demulsification ratio approached 77% and the produced biodemulsifier by P. alvei strain effectively broke water-in-heavy crude oil emulsion. According to biodemulsifier production and growth time course profiles, the biosynthesis was growth associated. Besides, the produced biodemulsifier had good stability during exposure to salinities up to 20%, temperatures up to 80°C and a wide pH range of 2-12. PMID:23660310

Amirabadi, S Sh; Jahanmiri, A; Rahimpour, M R; Nia, B Rafie; Darvishi, P; Niazi, A

2013-09-01

185

Experimental Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Mustard Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demand for petroleum is increasing with each passing day. This may be attributed to the limited resources of petroleum crude. Hence there is an urgent need of developing alternative energy sources to meet the ever increasing energy demand. Biofuels are currently being considered from multidimensional perspectives, i.e. depleting fossil fuels, resources, environmental health, energy security and agricultural economy. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel [1]. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is produced primarily from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste mustard oil. The vegetable oils which are rich in oxygen can be used as future alternate fuels for the operation of diesel engine [2]. Biodiesel is produced from wasted mustard oil through alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Physical properties like density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point and pour point were found out for biodiesel produced from waste mustard oil. The same characteristic study was also carried out for conventional diesel fuel and used as a baseline for comparison. The values obtained from waste mustard oil ethyl ester (biodiesel is closely matched with the conventional diesel fuel and it can be used in diesel engine without any modification. Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100 or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines. Biodiesel is its capacity to lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to those of fossil fuels. There is an appreciable decrease in HC and CO2 emissions while the decrease in CO emission is marginal. However, emission of NOx is increased. Biodiesel is liquid which varies in color between golden and dark brown depending upon the production feedstock. It is immiscible with water, has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure. Typical ethyl ester biodiesel has a flash point of about 130ºC, biodiesel has a density of about 0.88 gm/cm3, less than that of water. Biodiesel has very good lubricating properties, significantly better than standard diesel which can prolong engine's life.

Rajat Subhra Samanta

2014-01-01

186

Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests

187

Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

White, G.J.

1998-08-03

188

Bismuth-thiol incorporation enhances biological activities of liposomal tobramycin against bacterial biofilm and quorum sensing molecules production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent pulmonary infection and inflammation are major risk factors for high morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). As such, frequent antibiotic use and drug resistant bacterial strains are main concerns in individuals with CF. Bacterial virulence and resistance are influenced by unique CF airways fluid lining and Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) and biofilm formation. We have developed a novel liposome formulation consist of bismuth-thiol and tobramycin (LipoBiEDT-TOB) that is non-toxic and highly effective against planktonic bacteria. In this study, we examined the effect of LipoBiEDT-TOB on QS molecule N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) secretion by P. aeruginosa isolates in the presence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens reporter strain (A136). LipoBiEDT-TOB activity against biofilm forming P. aeruginosa was compared to free tobramycin using the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD). Our data indicate that LipoBiEDT-TOB prevents AHL production at low tobramycin concentration (as low as 0.012 mg/l) and stops biofilm forming P. aeruginosa growth at 64 mg/l. The formulation is stable in different biological environments (biofilm, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage) and is able to penetrate CF sputum. Taken together, co-encapsulation of bismuth-thiol metal with tobramycin in liposome improves its antimicrobial activities in vitro. PMID:19429299

Halwani, Majed; Hebert, Stéphanie; Suntres, Zacharias E; Lafrenie, Robert M; Azghani, Ali O; Omri, Abdelwahab

2009-05-21

189

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on this page ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources ...

190

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Print this page Share this ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Page ...

191

Nail Care Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Cosmetics Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Products Nail Care Products It is ...

192

Determination of toxic and non toxic elements in samples of drinking water supplied of urban areas of Hyderabad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality of drinking water is regulated by most countries by recommended legal requirements. Of special importance for the developing countries is the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations of 1984 and onwards. Drinking water is most important material for the human consumption and as such must be free of bacterial pathogenic organism, toxic metals and compounds. In general ground water and surface water are used for drinking the scope of the examination must take into account the type of raw water. The control starts with the source from which the raw water is drawn, and continues through the storage reservoir and the various processing and distribution facilities, finally ending at the consumer end. In present study we have monitored raw water which supplied by canals from Indus River, to filter plant near Hyderabad and finally drinking water is consumed by people in Hyderabad area. The rapid and modern techniques of atomic absorption has been used to analyze and obtain interference free results of analytical interest. (author)

193

A Quantitative investigation on some toxic and non-toxic metals in popular medicinal herbs in Iranian market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the presence of heavy metals in some popular herbal medicines of the Iranian market. Primarily, this study was planned to do the task by the USP method. In the second step, those plants which contained more than 10 ppm of total heavymetals were analyzed by atomic absorption method. In this study, 43 popular herbal medicines were investigated according to the limit test procedure in the USP. It was found that 27 of theseplants contained less than 10 ppm heavy metals compared to a standard lead solution, while 16 contained more than 10 ppm. The presence of Pb (<2.5, Cd (<0.25, Co (<1 and Ni (<1.5could be considered safe.

Fazel Shamsa

2009-01-01

194

Diagnostics and treatment of non-toxic goiter: the place of combined therapy with iodine and levothyroxine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????? ???????????? ??? (??? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? (?? ? ????????, ??? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????. ?? ?????? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????? (??? [1] ??????????????????? ?????????????????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? 41%, ???????? ?? 5,2 ?? 70%. ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????, ??????????? ? ??????? ????????, ???????? ? ??????????????????? ???? ? ???????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?????. ????? ????, ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ???? (?? [3] ? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ????????? ??. ????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ??, ??????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ? ??? ????? ? ?????? ???? ?????? [2], ???????? ?????? ??????????. ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ? ???????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????.

V V Fadeyev

2010-06-01

195

Formation of non-toxic A? fibrils by small heat shock protein under heat-stress conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We examined effect of the quaternary structure of yeast sHsp on A? aggregation. ? A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of sHsp, but not by dimeric sHsp. ? The fibrillar amyloids consisted of both A? and dimeric sHsp. ? They exhibited different inner structure and cytotoxicity from authentic A? amyloids. ? These results suggest the formation of new type fibrillar A? amyloid by sHsp. -- Abstract: Small heat shock protein (sHsp) is a molecular chaperone with a conserved alpha-crystallin domain that can prevent protein aggregation. It has been shown that sHsps exist as oligomers (12–40 mer) and their dissociation into small dimers or oligomers is functionally important. Since several sHsps are upregulated and co-localized with amyloid-? (A?) in senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sHsps are thought to be involved in AD. Previous studies have also shown that sHsp can prevent A? aggregation in vitro. However, it remains unclear how the quaternary structure of sHsp influences A? aggregation. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of the quaternary structure of sHsp on A? aggregation using sHsp from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHsp16.0) showing a clear temperature-dependent structural transition between an oligomer (30 °C) and dimer (50 °C) state. A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of SpHsp16.0. In contrast, amyloid fibrils were formed in the presence of dimeric SpHsp16.0. Interestingly, these amyloid fibrils consisted of both A? and SpHsp16.0 and showed a low ThT intensity and low cytotoxicity due to their low binding affinity to the cell surface. These results suggest the formation of novel fibrillar A? amyloid with different characteristics from that of the authentic A? amyloid fibrils formed in the absence of sHsp. Our results also suggest the potential protective role of sHsp in AD under stress conditions

196

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1994-10-01

197

A review of current knowledge on toxic benthic freshwater cyanobacteria--ecology, toxin production and risk management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benthic cyanobacteria are found globally in plethora of environments. Although they have received less attention than their planktonic freshwater counterparts, it is now well established that they produce toxins and reports of their involvement in animal poisonings have increased markedly during the last decade. Most of the known cyanotoxins have been identified from benthic cyanobacteria including: the hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsins, the neurotoxic saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a and dermatotoxins, such as lyngbyatoxin. In most countries, observations of toxic benthic cyanobacteria are fragmented, descriptive and in response to animal toxicosis events. Only a limited number of long-term studies have aimed to understand why benthic proliferations occur, and/or how toxin production is regulated. These studies have shown that benthic cyanobacterial blooms are commonly a mixture of toxic and non-toxic genotypes and that toxin concentrations can be highly variable spatially and temporally. Physiochemical parameters responsible for benthic proliferation vary among habitat type with physical disturbance (e.g., flow regimes, wave action) and nutrients commonly identified as important. As climatic conditions change and anthropogenic pressures on waterways increase, it seems likely that the prevalence of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria will increase. In this article we review current knowledge on benthic cyanobacteria: ecology, toxin-producing species, variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation, their impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and current monitoring and management strategies. We suggest research needs that will assist in filling knowledge gaps and ultimately allow more robust monitoring and management protocols to be developed. PMID:23891539

Catherine, Quiblier; Susanna, Wood; Isidora, Echenique-Subiabre; Mark, Heath; Aurélie, Villeneuve; Jean-François, Humbert

2013-10-01

198

Problems of development of oxygen-iodine laser with electric discharge production of singlet delta oxygen  

Science.gov (United States)

Great success has been obtained in the R&D of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) operating on the electronic transition of the iodine atom, which gets an excitation from the energy donor -singlet delta oxygen (SDO). The latter is normally produced in a chemical SDO generator using very toxic and dangerous chemicals, which puts a limit for civilian applications of COIL that is still a very unique apparatus. Totally new non-chemical SDO generator is needed to allow oxygen-iodine laser to achieve its full potential as a non-hazardous efficient source of high-power laser radiation. There was interest in producing SDO in electric discharge plasma since the 50's long before COIL appearing. The idea of using SDO as a donor for iodine laser was formulated in the 70's. However, the injection of iodine molecules into a low- pressure self-sustained discharge did not result in iodine lasing. One of the main factors that could prevent from lasing in many experiments is a rather high threshold yield ~15% at 300K, which is needed for obtaining an inversion population. An analysis of different attempts of producing SDO in different kinds of electric discharge plasma has been done which demonstrates that high yield at gas pressure of practical interest (p > 10 Torr) for modern COIL technology can be obtained only in non-self sustained electric discharge plasma. The reason is that the value of relatively low reduced electrical field strength E/N ~10-16 V.cm2, which is an order of magnitude less than that for the self-sustained discharge, is extremely important for the efficient SDO production. Although different kinds of non-self sustained discharges can be used for SDO production, we got started experiments with e-beam sustained discharge in gas mixtures containing oxygen. High specific input energy up to ~3 - 5 kJ/l. atm [O2] has been experimentally obtained. Theoretical calculations have been done for different experimental conditions indicating a feasibility of reasonable SDO yield. Experimental and theoretical research of self-sustained electric discharge in SDO produced in a chemical generator, which is very important for getting plasma-chemical kinetic data needed for an estimation of SDO yield, is also discussed.

Ionin, Andrei A.; Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Yuryshev, Nikolai N.

2002-09-01

199

Extremophile mediated hydrogen production for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from production of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 production from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological production of H2 as an end product or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 production by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass production, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 production was pH dependent but addition of simple, non-toxic physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 production and (4) H2 production rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068 medium containing cultures of T. neapolitana and no external H2 was added, hydrogenation was observed confirming the possibility of developing an integrated BioCat/ChemCat system. The 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of Methyl succinic acid, the hydrogenated product of the olefin. The concept was extended to Glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel that was catalytically upgraded to mixed alcohols in an aqueous medium. The next logical step is to evaluate these results in a continuous flow mode. The demonstrated results have implications in the development of next-generation hydrogenation reaction systems that would lead to the production of biofuels and other chemicals, depending on the substrate used.

Anjom, Mouzhgun

200

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...production, production prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section 229...production, production prices and production costs. (a) For each of the last...produced; and (2) The average production cost, not including ad valorem...

2010-04-01

201

Science and Product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defines incremental product development and discusses how this style of innovation effects technology industries. Cites examples of Japanese competition which emphasizes quality and speed in product development. Makes recommendations for the improvement of product development in the United States. (CW)

Gomory, Ralph E.; Schmitt, Roland W.

1988-01-01

202

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

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203

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

204

Identifying Recalled Products  

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Full Text Available ... Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

205

Identifying Recalled Products  

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Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Print this page Share ... many numbers and dates on the foods, drugs, cosmetics, and other products we use every day. Some ...

206

Labeling Organic Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... USDA organic seal. COSMETICS & PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS For labeling guidelines on cosmetics and personal care products, visit http://bit.ly/nop-personal-care . LABELING ORGANIC PRODUCTS (continued) I’m combining organic and ...

207

NATURAL PRODUCTS AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The products currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, non-toxic to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly products and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the production of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econômico, histórico e sustentável. A escassez de espécies resistentes à degradação biológica obrigou o homem a utilizar outras menos duráveis, principalmente de rápido crescimento, provenientes de reflorestamentos, como algumas espécies de Eucalyptus e de Pinus. Estas espécies possuem moderada ou nenhuma resistência ao ataque dos organismos xilófagos e necessitam de tratamentos preservantes. Os produtos preservantes utilizados atualmente possuem elevado grau de toxicidade, sendo potenciais riscos ambientais e para a saúde humana.  Assim, há uma crescente necessidade de desenvolver produtos químicos eficazes, não tóxicos para os seres humanos e para o meio ambiente. O direcionamento das pesquisas tem objetivado desenvolver produtos ambientalmente corretos e com viabilidade econômica, e uma alternativa é o uso do Crude Tall Oil (CTO, que é um resíduo no processamento de polpa de coníferas resinosas, para produção do papel Kraft. O tall oil, como agente de proteção, tem sido considerado promissor por reduzir significativamente a absorção de água capilar do alburno, removendo, assim um dos fatores que favorecem a madeira ser atacada por fungos e insetos: água, oxigênio e nutrientes. Pesquisas mostram que o tall oil pode ser utilizado puro, seja crude ou destilado, ou em combinação com biocidas.

Ricardo Marques Barreiros

2011-11-01

208

Extracting Product Features from Chinese Product Reviews  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the great development of e-commerce, the number of product reviews grows rapidly on the e-commerce websites. Review mining has recently received a lot of attention, which aims to discover the valuable information from the massive product reviews. Product feature extraction is one of the basic tasks of product review mining. Its effectiveness can influence significantly the performance of subsequent jobs. Double Propagation is a state-of-the-art technique in product feature extraction. In this paper, we apply the Double Propagation to the product feature exaction from Chinese product reviews and adopt some techniques to improve the precision and recall. First, indirect relations and verb product features are introduced to increase the recall. Second, when ranking candidate product features by using HITS, we expand the number of hubs by means of the dependency relation patterns between product features and opinion words to improve the precision. Finally, the Normalized Pattern Relevance is employed to filter the exacted product features. Experiments on diverse real-life datasets show promising results

Yahui Xi

2013-12-01

209

Micro Products - Product Development and Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi-disciplinary competences. One example is sensors for chemical analysis of fluids, where chemistry, biology and flow mechanics all influence the design of the product and thereby the industrial fabrication of the product [1]. On the technological side the development has moved very fast, primarily driven by the need of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing micro products in metals, polymers and ceramics. For all technologies, however, it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production of micro products. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing.

Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2003-01-01

210

The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystaaws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 ?m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The product of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures

211

PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically. The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation, transmission, storing, and retrieval of knowledge and information.

Vesterager, Johan

1997-01-01

212

Designing Product Families  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend has led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms as a foundation for the customization process, whereby the customized products become variants of a product family with a high degree of reuse and utilization of kinship between the individual variants.With this paper, we will discuss the development of platform based product families from three points of view: Variety, Design Principles, and Product Maturity.

Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

1998-01-01

213

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

OpenAIRE

Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj

2003-01-01

214

Framework of product experience:  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we introduce a general framework for product experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-product interaction. Three distinct components or levels of product experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional experience. All three components are distinguished in having their own lawful underlying process. The aesthetic level involves a product’s capacity to delight one or more of our sensory modalities....

Desmet, P.; Hekkert, P.

2007-01-01

215

Product Family Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven product development. While operating in the mass production paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended Product Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a product family and the production setup. Furthermore, the model links the product design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the product family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future product design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.

Kvist, Morten

2010-01-01

216

The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 {mu}m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The product of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures.

Gualtieri, A.F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e R.E., Via S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: alex@unimore.it; Cavenati, C.; Zanatto, I.; Meloni, M. [ZETADI S.r.l., Via dell' Artigianato 10, I-21010 Ferno (Italy); Elmi, G. [GE.PR.IN. S.r.l., Via Vaccari 48, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, M. Lassinantti [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e R.E., Via Campi 213/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

2008-04-01

217

Glocalized Production: The Evolution of Global Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In light of the challenges of the current globalized production model, four global Danish companies were interviewed with the purpose of exploring “glocalized production” as the new step and solution to the challenges of the “global village.” The research sought to gauge the interest on “glocalized production” by key managers of these companies, and test three hypotheses: that a definition could be established from “glocalization” aspects, that it will reduce supply chain complexity, and that it can affect organizational trust levels. The results are presented along with suggestions to pave the way for future research on this emerging topic.

Chavez, Marianna; Bilberg, Arne

218

Advances in production technology  

CERN Document Server

This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

2015-01-01

219

Food Product Dating  

Science.gov (United States)

... passes, while it may not be of best quality, refrigerated products should still be safe if handled properly and ... last date recommended for the use of the product while at peak quality. The date has been determined by the manufacturer ...

220

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalled Product Photos on Flickr Related Consumer Updates FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First ... 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact FDA Subscribe to FDA RSS feeds Follow FDA ...

221

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

222

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Reporting Problems to FDA More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

223

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on this ... Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Consumer Updates: About FDA Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation- ...

224

Phenomenology of lepton production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of lepton production in hadronic collisions is reviewed. The following subjects are developed: the Drell-Yan model for continuous l+l- production, vector mesons and clusters, and other sources of direct leptons

225

Problems Digesting Dairy Products?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Health Information www.fda.gov/consumer Problems Digesting Dairy Products? D oes your stomach churn after you drink ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a shortage, ...

226

Herbal Products and Supplements  

Science.gov (United States)

... that all herbal health products and supplements are safer than medicines just because they occur in nature ... too long. View larger and print from your internet browser Can herbal health products or supplements change ...

227

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available U.S. Food & Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products ...

228

Identifying Recalled Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... many numbers and dates on the foods, drugs, cosmetics, and other products we use every day. Some help manufacturers track inventory, while others help retailers ensure quality. But when unsafe products must be removed from ...

229

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... explains how FDA manages product recalls. - For More Information FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First Alert to ... FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information - Page Last Updated: 10/14/2014 Note: If ...

230

Delayed multiattribute product differentiation  

OpenAIRE

We develop a two-stage model for versioning products with respect to both vertical and horizontal attributes. At first, a firm positions its top-quality “flagship” product in a market with an imperfectly known distribution of tastes and reservation prices. In the second stage, the firm learns these consumer characteristics and has the option of extending its product line by versioning the flagship product using pure horizontal differentiation, quality degrading, or both. The firm's noncon...

Weber, Thomas A.

2008-01-01

231

Residues of the Cork Industry as Carriers for the Production of Legume Inoculants / Résidus de l'Industrie du Liège comme Substrats pour la Production des Inoculums pour les Légumineuses / Resíduos da Indústria dos Aglomerados da Cortiça como Potenciais Substractos para a Produção de Inoculantes para Sementes de Leguminosas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O crescimento e a sobrevivência de duas estirpes de Rhizobium, uma de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, e outra de Mesorhizobium ciceri, foram usados para avaliação de resíduos da indústria dos aglomerados da cortiça como potenciais substractos para a produção de inoculantes para sementes de leg [...] uminosas. A turfa foi usada como controlo. 41 dias após a inoculação, o n.º das bactérias viáveis era elevado e semelhante em todos os substractos, aproximadamente 10(9) bactérias g-1. A sobrevivência durante os 450 dias de armazenamento permaneceu estável, entre 10(8) e 10(9). Os resíduos da cortiça mostraram possuir boas características de manuseio, boas capacidades de retenção de água, não apresentaram toxicidade, possuíam pH perto da neutralidade, indicando poderem ser utilizados como substractos alternativos à turfa na produção de inoculantes para leguminosas. Abstract in english Growth and survival of two rhizobial strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, and Mesorhizobium ciceri, were used to evaluate residues from the cork industry as potential carriers for production of rhizobial inoculants. A peat-based carrier was used as a control. 41 days after inoculation, the [...] number of viable bacteria was high, about 10(9) bacteria g-1 for all carriers. Rhizobial survival during storage (450 days) remained stable, between 10(8) and 10(9). The cork residues based carriers showed good handling properties and water holding capacities, they were non-toxic and had a nearly neutral pH. All these factors indicate that the use of these carriers is viable for the production of rhizobial inoculants.

Eugénio Mendes, Ferreira; Isabel Videira e, Castro.

2005-12-01

232

Planning Product Support for Medical Products  

OpenAIRE

Product support is a key aspect in the marketing of high-technology products, since it strongly influences customer satisfaction and can also be an important source of revenue. Typical forms of support include operator training, equipment maintenance and, if necessary, repair - all of these are normally provided by manufacturers' support organizations. Good support is particularly important in some markets; an example is medical equipment where good operator training and qui...

Goffin, Keith

1992-01-01

233

Product assurance management and software product assurance  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of software assurance is discussed. The definition and implementation of standards are considered. It is recommended that requirements be clarified at the start of a project. The need for quality assurance in hardware is identified as the coming trend in the production of high cost single units which call for eradication of all errors during the early stages of development. The need to apply quality assurance throughout the whole mission is stressed. The dangers of overpricing product assurance services is stressed.

Schneider, C.; Borycki, G.; Panaroni, P.; Surbone, M.; Borcz, R.; Beddow, A. J.

1991-01-01

234

Coal production 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29

235

A Radio Production Course.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides a framework for an upper-level basic radio production course. Covers course structure, production assignments, equipment, studio/lab time, grading procedures, textbook and audiovisual materials. Emphasizes theory and practice to provide students with critical and production skills. (PD)

Novak, Glenn D.

1983-01-01

236

Strangeness Production at COSY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives an overview of strangeness-production experiments at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. Results on kaon-pair and ? meson production in pp, pd and dd collisions, hyperon-production experiments and ?p final-state interaction studies are presented.

237

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... Updates: About FDA Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

238

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... Updates: About FDA Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

239

The dynamics of toxic microcystis strains and microcystin production in two hypertrofic South African reservoirs  

OpenAIRE

The South African impoundments of Hartbeespoort and Roodeplaat experience excessive blooms of Microcystis species each year. Microcystins, produced primarily by strains of cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix, are harmful cyanobacterial hepatotoxins. These bloom-forming cyanobacteria form toxic and non-toxic strains that co-occur and are visually indistinguishable, but can be identified and quantified molecularly. We described the relationships between ...

Barnard, Sandra; Conradie, Karin Ronel

2012-01-01

240

Age, wage and productivity  

OpenAIRE

Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same pace. However, other studies find no evidence of such an age related pay-productivity gap. We perform an analysis of the relationship between age, wage and productivity using a matched worker-firm pane...

Ours, Jan C.; Stoeldraijer, Lenny

2010-01-01

241

Low income product innovation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

Maria Cecília Sobral

2008-10-01

242

Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the production and characterization of biodiesel (BD or B) as well as the experimental work carried out by many researchers in this field. BD fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel (PD) fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. BD fuel can be used in any mixture with PD fuel as it has very similar characteristics but it has lower exhaust emissions. BD fuel has better properties than that of PD fuel such as renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. There are more than 350 oil bearing crops identified, among which only sunflower, safflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed and peanut oils are considered as potential alternative fuels for diesel engines. The major problem associated with the use of pure vegetable oils as fuels, for Diesel engines are caused by high fuel viscosity in compression ignition. Dilution, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis and transesterification are the four techniques applied to solve the problems encountered with the high fuel viscosity. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, some engine performance problems still exist. The viscosity values of vegetable oils vary between 27.2 and 53.6mm{sup 2}/s whereas those of vegetable oil methyl esters between 3.59 and 4.63mm{sup 2}/s. The viscosity values of vegetable oil methyl esters highly decreases after transesterification process. Compared to no. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oil methyl esters were slightly viscous. The flash point values of vegetable oil methyl esters are highly lower than those of vegetable oils. An increase in density from 860 to 885kg/m{sup 3} for vegetable oil methyl esters or biodiesels increases the viscosity from 3.59 to 4.63mm{sup 2}/s and the increases are highly regular. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. The transesterfication of triglycerides by methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol, has proved to be the most promising process. Methanol is the commonly used alcohol in this process, due in part to its low cost. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. (author)

Demirbas, Ayhan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Campus, 42031 Konya (Turkey)

2005-07-01

243

Radiation chemical technology for production of polymeric hydrogels for medical purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Polymeric hydrogels are water-swelling cross-linked hydrophilic polymers with ability to store reversibly great amount of water (more than 1000 g of water per 1 g of dry polymer). At present they found a lot of different applications in highly developed countries in science and industry. The set of unique physicochemical and biomedical properties (regulated sorption ability in respect to water and biological liquids, biocompatibility, soft tissue state, permeability in respect to small and big molecules, non-toxicity, etc.) allows their application in medicine. According to the clinical data there are no materials that can compete with hydrogels in development of endo-prostheses of soft-tissues in surgery, contact lenses for eyesight correction, hemo-compatible materials, novel for treatment of wounds and burns, targeted drug delivery systems. Polymeric hydrogels today practically substitute the traditional hydrophobic bases (Vaseline, lanolin) in technology of drug forms for development of ointments and dressings, containing natural and synthetic physiologically active substances. The advantages of hydrogels in comparison with hydrophobic analogues are obvious due to the drainage effect, homogenous distribution of drugs, better contact with wound, painless removing by water washing. The polymeric hydrogels are not produced in Kazakhstan in spite of the big source of raw materials. The aim of the present work is the development of radiation-chemical technol development of radiation-chemical technology and development of polymeric biomedical hydrogels production based on raw materials of Kazakhstan. The novel types of polymeric hydrogel materials are developed by the authors of the report based on vinyl ethers of glycols, which produced in 'Alash Ltd.' (Temirtau). The great fundamental information content has been obtained about these monomers and polymers including direct quantitative data of their structure formation mechanism and physicochemical properties. These data served as a basis for design of novel polymeric hydrogels of different type including so-called 'intelligent' materials, which are able to respond on small changes of environmental parameters (temperature, pH, electric field). According the biomedical tests the availability and competitive ability of these biomaterials is due to their unique stability to bio-destruction in aggressive infection media unlike of known hydrogels based on polyacrylamide, hydroxyalkyl acrylates, etc. This is connected with the absence of hydrolyzable bonds (ester, amide, etc.) in the structure of vinyl ethers. As the result of many years collaboration with a number of leading medical centers of Kazakhstan and Russia the possibility of wide and effective application of these hydrogel materials in different areas of medicine has bee found (contact hydrogel for ultrasonic diagnostics; hydrogel basis for medicinal and cosmetic ointments; hydrogel implant material)

244

Proteínas PEGiladas: producción, purificación y aplicaciones / PEGylated proteins: production, purification, and applications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La PEGilación es la conjugación de una proteína y/o péptido con una o más moléculas de poli(etilen glicol). El poli(etilen glicol) es un polímero no toxico, no inmunogénico y esto aprobado por la FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA). En los últimos años, la PEGilación ha sido utilizada para mejor [...] ar las propiedades fisicoquímicas de proteínas y drogas terapéuticas, por lo que esta tecnología ha impactado fuertemente a la industria bio-farmacéutica. La PEGilación permite prolongar el tiempo de residencia en el cuerpo, mejorar la estabilidad, aumentar la solubilidad, disminuir la proteólisis y excreción renal. Desde el surgimiento de esta tecnología, diferentes proteínas han sido PEGiladas para el tratamiento de enfermedades como: hepatitis C, leucemia, artritis reumatoide, etc. Este artículo de revisión presenta una descripción del desarrollo de la PEGilación en los últimos años, así como de los procedimientos usados para la producción de bio-conjugados. Además, se revisan las estrategias de purificación utilizadas para la recuperación de proteínas PEGiladas, siendo este uno de los grandes retos en el proceso debido a que la reacción de PEGilación puede generar bio-conjugados con diferentes grados de PEGilación. Por último, se presentan las aplicaciones de dichos bio-conjugados y los retos futuros que se identifican para su aplicación genérica. Abstract in english PEGylation is the covalent attachment of protein and/or peptide to poly(ethylene glycol). The poly(ethylene glycol) is a polymer, non toxic, non immunogenic, and FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) approved. In the last years, PEGylation has been used to improve the physicochemical properties of [...] some proteins and therapeutic drugs; this technology has impacted heavily on the bio-pharmaceutical industry. PEGylation prolongs the body-residence time and stability, decreases the proteolysis and renal excretion. Since the emergence of this technology, some proteins have been PEGylated for the treatment of diseases including hepatitis C, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. This review presents a description of the PEGylation development in the last years and the chemical procedures used to obtain some bio-conjugated products. Strategies of purification used to obtain PEGylated proteins are reviewed; purification is one of the major problems to establish suitable processes due to the fact that the reaction can generate bio-conjugates with different degree of PEGylation. Finally the applications of PEGylated proteins and the future challenges that are identified for generic application are presented.

K. P., Mayolo-Deloisa; M., Rito-Palomares.

2010-04-01

245

Effects of subtoxic concentrations of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles on human lymphocytes, dendritic cells and exosome production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in the paint and coating industry as well as in cosmetics, but the knowledge of their possible interactions with the immune system is very limited. Our aims were to investigate if commercially available TiO(2) and ZnO nanoparticles may affect different human immune cells and their production of exosomes, nano-sized vesicles that have a role in cell to cell communication. We found that the TiO(2) or ZnO nanoparticles at concentrations from 1 to 100?g/mL did not affect the viability of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In contrast, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) reacted with a dose dependent increase in cell death and caspase activity to ZnO but not to TiO(2) nanoparticles. Non-toxic exposure, 10?g/mL, to TiO(2) and ZnO nanoparticles did not significantly alter the phenotype of MDDC. Interestingly, ZnO but not TiO(2) nanoparticles induced a down regulation of Fc?RIII (CD16) expression on NK-cells in the PBMC population, suggesting that subtoxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles might have an effect on Fc?R-mediated immune responses. The phenotype and size of exosomes produced by PBMC or MDDC exposed to the nanoparticles were similar to that of exosomes harvested from control cultures. TiO(2) or ZnO nanoparticles could not be detected within or associated to exosomes as analyzed with TEM. We conclude that TiO(2) and ZnO nanoparticles differently affect immune cells and that evaluations of nanoparticles should be performed even at subtoxic concentrations on different primary human immune cells when investigating potential effects on immune functions. PMID:22842014

Andersson-Willman, Britta; Gehrmann, Ulf; Cansu, Zekiye; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Krug, Harald F; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Scheynius, Annika

2012-10-01

246

Skew products and crossed products by coactions  

OpenAIRE

Given a labeling c of the edges of a directed graph E by elements of a discrete group G, one can form a skew-product graph E cross_c G. We show, using the universal properties of the various constructions involved, that there is a coaction delta of G on C*(E) such that C*(E cross_c G) is isomorphic to the crossed product C*(E) cross_delta G. This isomorphism is equivariant for the dual action deltahat and a natural action gamma of G on C*(E cross_c G); following results of K...

Kaliszewski, S.; Quigg, John; Raeburn, Iain

1999-01-01

247

Betulin and betulinic acid attenuate ethanol-induced liver stellate cell activation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokine (TNF-?, TGF-?) production and by influencing intracellular signaling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background/aims: Liver fibrosis has been reported to be inhibited in vivo by oleanolic and ursolic acids. However, the mechanisms of the action of those triterpenoids are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the antifibrotic potential of other triterpenes, betulin and betulinic acid, and to characterize their influence on the signal transduction pathways involved in ethanol-activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Methods: Investigated was the influence of preincubation of rat HSCs with betulin and betulinic acid, at non-toxic concentrations, on ethanol-induced toxicity, migration, and several markers of HSC activation such as smooth muscle ?-actin (?-SMA) and procollagen I expression, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and tumor growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), and production of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). To assess the mechanism of the action of those triterpenes, intracellular signals such as nuclear factor-?B (NF?B), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) induced by ethanol were examined. Results: In vitro, betulin, but not betulinic acid, protected HSCs against ethanol toxicity. However, both betulin and betulinic acid inhibited the production of ROS by HSCs treated with ethanol and inhibited their migration as well as ethanol-induced TNF-?, and TGF-?1, production. Betulin and betulinic acid down-regulated ethanol-induced production of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Betulin and betulinic acid, also decreased ethanol-induced activity of MMP-2. In ethanol-induced HSCs, betulin inhibited the activation of the p38 MAPK and the JNK transduction pathways, while betulinic acid inhibited the JNK transduction pathway only. They also significantly inhibited phosphorylation of I?B and Smad 3 and attenuated the activation of TGF-?1 and NF?B/I?B transduction signaling. Conclusion: The results indicated that betulin and betulinic acid inhibited ethanol-induced activation of HSCs on different levels, acting as antioxidants, inhibitors of cytokine production, and inhibitors of TGF-?, and NF?B/I?B transduction signaling. Betulin was also inhibitor of both JNK and p38 MAPK signal transduction, while betulinic acid inhibited only JNK. The remarkable inhibition of several markers of HCS activation makes triterpenes, especially betulin, promising agents for anti-fibrotic combination therapies.

248

Biostability of bituminized products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theory is presented of the biodegradation of bituminized products taking into account the influence of temperature, redox potential, pH, water biological activity, presence of nutrition matter and physical and chemical properties of the processed waste. The water biological activity is the basic limiting factor of the biodegradation of bituminized products during long-term disposal. Results are presented of investigations of the various ways by which water affects the biodegradation of bituminized products; experiments were performed determining the level of biodegradation 1. under the conditions of 95% relative air humidity; 2. under full contact of the bituminized product surface with moist soil; 3. under full contact of the product surface with water. A suitable parameter determining the maximum level of biodegradation of a bituminized product during long-term disposal is the leachability of contained radionuclides. (author) 3 tabs., 6 refs

249

Milk Production in Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few years Croatian economy is restructuring through the processes of market liberalization and closing to EU, which is demanding some significant changes. Agriculture is in the process of reforms on the basis of CAP (Common Agricultural Policy policies of the EU, and those changes are producing different effects in each agricultural sector. The most sensitive area is livestock production, especially cattle and milking cows (production of meat and milk. This sector has insufficient production. More precise, domestic production in Croatia can satisfy around 80% of one-year consumption. This study shows economic position of production and processing of milk with the emphasis on primary milk production, processing of milk, domestic market and export-import situation. The goal is to consider the situation, position and possibilities for development of this sector.

Petar Bosni?

2003-09-01

250

Contracting Productivity Growth  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we analyze the interactions between growth and the contracting environment in the production sector.Allowing incompleteness in contracting implies that viable production relationships for firms and workers, and therefore the profitability of industries, depend on the rates of innovation and growth.The speed at which new innovations arrive in turn depends on the profitability of production, for the usual reasons examined in the endogenous growth literature.We show that these int...

Francois, P.; Roberts, J.

2001-01-01

251

Jet production on nuclei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new mechanism of jet production on nuclei is proposed. Jets are considered to be the result of collisions of partons of an incident hadron with nucleons of nuclei. The strong A dependence of cross section of jet production is explained for the case of two jets. Numerical estimations are in good agreement with the experimental data. The mechanism can obviously make a contribution to production of hadrons with large transverse momenta in nuclei

252

Microbial production of epoxides  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for microbial production of epoxides and other oxygenated products is disclosed. The method uses a biocatalyst of methanotrophic bacteria cultured in a biphasic medium containing a major amount of a non-aqueous polar solvent. Regeneration of reducing equivalents is carried out by using endogenous hydrogenase activity together with supplied hydrogen gas. This method is especially effective with gaseous substrates and cofactors that result in liquid products.

Clark, Thomas R.; Roberto, Francisco F.

2003-06-10

253

MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectioner...

?ubomíra Juhaniaková; Miroslava Ka?ániová

2011-01-01

254

Green Product Innovation Strategy  

OpenAIRE

Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary research framework is identified. The second stage involves theory-building, using case studies and literature interactively. This stage leads to the identification of elelments of product innovatio...

Driessen, P. H.

2005-01-01

255

Thermal axion production  

CERN Document Server

We reconsider thermal production of axions in the early universe, including axion couplings to all Standard Model (SM) particles. Concerning the axion coupling to gluons, we find that thermal effects enhance the axion production rate by a factor of few with respect to previous computations performed in the limit of small strong gauge coupling. Furthermore, we find that the top Yukawa coupling induces a much larger axion production rate, unless the axion couples to SM particles only via anomalies.

Salvio, Alberto; Xue, Wei

2013-01-01

256

Production Subcontracting and Location  

OpenAIRE

Using data from a panel of Spanish manufacturing firms, I examine factors that explain firms’ production subcontracting decisions and test whether there is any evidence that production subcontracting is facilitated in areas typically associated with higher agglomeration economies. The results show that location matters. Firms in industry agglomerations are more likely to subcontract production activities. While in general, larger and older firms as well as high wage firms ...

Holl, Adelheid

2007-01-01

257

Modular product platform design  

OpenAIRE

Modular product platforms, sets of common modules that are shared among a product family, can bring cost savings and enable introduction of multiple product variants quicker than without platforms. This thesis describes the current state of modular platform design and identifies gaps in the current state. The gaps were identified through application of three existing methods and by testing their usability and reliability on engineers and engineering students. Existing platform or modular desi...

Ho?ltta?-otto, Katja

2005-01-01

258

Charmonium Production via Fragmentation  

OpenAIRE

We present the preliminary results of a calculation of the fragmentation contribution to charmonium production at large transverse momentum in $p\\bar{p}$ colliders. The fragmentation of gluons and charm quarks is the dominant direct production mechanism for sufficiently large $p_{\\perp}$. We find that for both $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi '$ production fragmentation dominates over the conventional gluon-gluon fusion mechanism for $p_{\\perp}$ greater than about 6 GeV.} Presented at the...

Doncheski, Michael A.; Fleming, Sean; Mangano, Michelangelo L.

1993-01-01

259

Diboson production (CDF)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

W W and W Z production in p(bar) p collisions at 1.96 TeV are studied in samples of ? 3 fb-1 of data using leptons, jets and missing Et. Fully leptonic decays as well as semi-leptonic decays are measured. Diboson production is expected in the standard model, and predicted cross sections are confirmed. It is important to investigate various signatures as associated production of Higgs bosons is topologically similar. (author)

260

Ionization of food products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments

261

Trade, wages and productivity  

OpenAIRE

We develop a new general equilibrium model of trade with heterogeneous firms, variable demand elasticities and endogenously determined wages. Trade integration favors wage convergence, intensifies competition, and forces the least efficient firms to leave the market, thereby affecting aggregate productivity. Since wage and productivity responses are endogenous, our model is well suited to study the impacts of trade integration on aggregate productivity and factor prices. Using Canada-U.S. int...

Behrens, Kristian; Mion, Giordano; Murata, Yasusada; Suedekum, Jens

2009-01-01

262

Reputation in team production  

OpenAIRE

Consider team production with two people. Each is characterized by a prior distribution that he will do Right or Wrong. After the outcome of the project is observed, these probabilities are updated. When output depends on the weakest link in production, following project failure the posterior probability that a person did Right declines with the probability that the other worker did Right. The same holds when output depends on the best shot in production and the team effort succeeded. A leade...

Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Bjo?rn

2001-01-01

263

FORECASTING NEW PRODUCT SALES  

OpenAIRE

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight selected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modul...

Siriram, R.; Snaddon, D. R.

2012-01-01

264

TRMM Gridded Text Products  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

Stocker, Erich Franz

2007-01-01

265

Quarkonium production at ATLAS  

CERN Document Server

The production of quarkonium is an important testing ground for QCD calculations. The J/psi and Upsilon production cross-sections are measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Differential cross-sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are presented. The fraction of J/psi produced in B-hadron decays is also measured and the differential production cross-sections of prompt and non-prompt J/psi production determined separately. Results are compared to recent predictions from perturbative QCD calculations.

Price, D; The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

266

Production systems engineering  

CERN Document Server

Describes methods for mathematical modeling of production systemsProvides techniques for designing continuous improvement projects with predictable resultsOffers quantitative methods for selecting lean bufferingOffers measurement-based techniques for identifying bottleneck machines and bottleneck buffersAddresses the issue of product qualityDescribes methods for analysis of transient behavior of production linesOffers techniques for measurement-based management of production systemsDescribes a software package, the PSE Toolbox, which implements algorithms developedIncludes numerous case studie

Li, Jingshan

2008-01-01

267

Quarkonium Production at LHCb  

CERN Document Server

Studies of quarkonia production in the forward region provide important tests of NRQCD. During 2010 and 2011 the LHCb experiment has collected a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb$^{–1}$ in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. We present studies of the production of the $J/\\psi$, $\\psi$(2S) and $\\chi_{c}$ charmonium states as well as bottomonium states. Absolute and relative production rates will be presented and compared to the most recent theoretical predictions available. We also present measurements of double charm production, performed for the first time at a hadron collider.

Graziani, Giacomo

2012-01-01

268

Nonhomogeneous matrix products  

CERN Document Server

Infinite products of matrices are used in nonhomogeneous Markov chains, Markov set-chains, demographics, probabilistic automata, production and manpower systems, tomography, and fractals. More recent results have been obtained in computer design of curves and surfaces. This book puts together much of the basic work on infinite products of matrices, providing a primary source for such work. This will eliminate the rediscovery of known results in the area, and thus save considerable time for researchers who work with infinite products of matrices. In addition, two chapters are included to show h

Hartfiel, Darald J

2001-01-01

269

Honeywell's Successful Productivity Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Honeywell productivity plan. Elements of this plan which are discussed include program management, the role of novelty, newsletters, incentives and recognition, ground rules, and feedback. (CT)

DeBoer, Larry M.

1982-01-01

270

Sustainable hydrogen production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

1996-01-01

271

Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products  

OpenAIRE

A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...

Adrio, Jose-luis; Demain, Arnold L.

2009-01-01

272

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology  

OpenAIRE

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification pr...

Troisa, Cristina; Coulon, Frederic; Polge Combret, Ce?cile; Martins, Jean M. F.; Oxarango, Laurent

2010-01-01

273

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: focus on the microbiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l(-1). Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency. PMID:20554377

Trois, Cristina; Coulon, Frédéric; de Combret, Cécile Polge; Martins, Jean M F; Oxarango, Laurent

2010-09-15

274

Standard Specification for ESD Controlled Garments Required in Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments for Spacecraft for Non-Hazardous and Hazardous Operations  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

275

Characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gas and residues of a full scale fluidized bed combustor combusting non-hazardous industrial waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the fate of PAHs in full scale incinerators by analysing the concentration of the 16 EPA-PAHs in both the input waste and all the outputs of a full scale Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC). Of the analysed waste inputs i.e. Waste Water Treatment (WWT) sludge, Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR), RDF and ASR were the main PAH sources, with phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene being the most important PAHs. In the flue gas sampled at the stack, naphthalene was the only predominant PAH, indicating that the PAHs in FBC's combustion gas were newly formed and did not remain from the input waste. Of the other outputs, the boiler and fly ash contained no detectable levels of PAHs, whereas the flue gas cleaning residue contained only low concentrations of naphthalene, probably adsorbed from the flue gas. The PAH fingerprint of the bottom ash corresponded rather well to the PAH fingerprint of the RDF and ASR, indicating that the PAHs in this output, in contrast to the other outputs, were mainly remainders from the PAHs in the waste inputs. A PAH mass balance showed that the total PAH input/output ratio of the FBC ranged from about 100 to about 2600 depending on the waste input composition and the obtained combustion conditions. In all cases, the FBC was clearly a net PAH sink. PMID:25002370

Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

2014-11-01

276

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l{sup -1}. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent [Laboratoire d' etude de Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, UMR 5564 (CNRS/INPG/IRD/UJF), Universite de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2010-09-15

277

Real-time, digital pulse-shape discrimination in non-hazardous fast liquid scintillation detectors: Prospects for safety and security  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) in fast, organic scintillation detectors is a long-established technique used to separate neutrons and {gamma} rays in mixed radiation fields. In the analogue domain the method can achieve separation in real time, but all knowledge of the pulses themselves is lost thereby preventing the possibility of any post- or repeated analysis. Also, it is typically reliant on electronic systems that are largely obsolete and which require significant experience to set up. In the digital domain, PSD is often more flexible but significant post-processing has usually been necessary to obtain neutron/{gamma}-ray separation. Moreover, the scintillation media on which the technique relies usually have a low flash point and are thus deemed hazardous. This complicates the ease with which they are used in industrial applications. In this paper, results obtained with a new portable digital pulse-shape discrimination instrument are described. This instrument provides real-time, digital neutron/{gamma} separation whilst preserving the synchronization with the time-of-arrival for each event, and realizing throughputs of 3 x 10{sup 6} events per second. Furthermore, this system has been tested with a scintillation medium that is non-flammable and not hazardous. (authors)

Joyce, M. J. [Engineering Dept., Lancaster Univ., Lancaster, LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Aspinall, M. D.; Cave, F. D. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Lancaster LA1 1XB (United Kingdom); Lavietes, A. D. [Dept. of Safeguards, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2011-07-01

278

Real-time, digital pulse-shape discrimination in non-hazardous fast liquid scintillation detectors: Prospects for safety and security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) in fast, organic scintillation detectors is a long-established technique used to separate neutrons and ? rays in mixed radiation fields. In the analogue domain the method can achieve separation in real time, but all knowledge of the pulses themselves is lost thereby preventing the possibility of any post- or repeated analysis. Also, it is typically reliant on electronic systems that are largely obsolete and which require significant experience to set up. In the digital domain, PSD is often more flexible but significant post-processing has usually been necessary to obtain neutron/?-ray separation. Moreover, the scintillation media on which the technique relies usually have a low flash point and are thus deemed hazardous. This complicates the ease with which they are used in industrial applications. In this paper, results obtained with a new portable digital pulse-shape discrimination instrument are described. This instrument provides real-time, digital neutron/? separation whilst preserving the synchronization with the time-of-arrival for each event, and realizing throughputs of 3 x 106 events per second. Furthermore, this system has been tested with a scintillation medium that is non-flammable and not hazardous. (authors)

279

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l-1. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, er, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

280

The Productive Programmer  

CERN Document Server

Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The Productive Programmer offers critical timesaving and productivity tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.

Ford, Neal

2009-01-01

281

Antihydrogen production temperature dependence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cold antihydrogen atoms were produced by mixing cold samples of antiprotons and positrons. The temperature of the positron plasma was increased by controlled radio-frequency (RF) heating, and the antihydrogen production was measured. Formation is observed to decrease with increased temperature but a simple power law scaling is not observed. Significant production is still present at room temperature.

Amoretti, M.; Amsler, C.; Bazzano, G.; Bonomi, G.; Bouchta, A.; Bowe, P.D.; Canali, C.; Carraro, C.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Doser, M.; Fontana, A.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Funakoshi, R.; Genova, P.; Hangst, J.S.; Hayano, R.S.; Johnson, I.; Joergensen, L.V.; Kellerbauer, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Landua, R.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Macri, M.; Madsen, N.; Manuzio, G.; Marchesotti, M.; Mitchard, D.; Ottone, F.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Riedler, P.; Rotondi, A.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Venturelli, L.; Yamazaki, Y.; Werf, D.P. van der; Zurlo, N

2004-03-11

282

Antihydrogen production temperature dependence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cold antihydrogen atoms were produced by mixing cold samples of antiprotons and positrons. The temperature of the positron plasma was increased by controlled radio-frequency (RF) heating, and the antihydrogen production was measured. Formation is observed to decrease with increased temperature but a simple power law scaling is not observed. Significant production is still present at room temperature

283

Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen production from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions such as temperature and pH, fermentation modes and reactor types applied) are currently utilized at lab and pilot scale, for biohydrogen production. Although the process has strong potential for the production of energy from organic residues and wastes, the major challenge is to determine whether the economics and reliability of dark fermentative hydrogen production are sufficiently attractive for commercial application to be installed. Furthermore, storage and utilization of the produced hydrogen still faces challenges.

Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

2011-01-01

284

Faculty Productivity and Demographics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study compared productivity for five groups of college faculty: white men (n=3,182), white women (n=1,221), and faculty of African (n=79), Asian (n=120), and Hispanic (n=67) origin. Variables examined include research productivity, contact hours, administrative service, consulting, promotion/tenure standards, job satisfaction, and affirmative…

Konrad, Alison M.

1991-01-01

285

COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

Adrian MICU

2006-01-01

286

PRODUCTIVITY OF SOILS  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution to the Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment focuses on soil productivity, a concept that encompasses soil fertility plus the inherent and management-related factors affecting plant growth and development. Soil productivity is generally measured in terms of inputs versus outputs...

287

Product Owners Jamboree  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the features that should and those that should not be in your next product release is riddled with ambiguity, uncertainty and value conflict. Prioritising the product backlog according to business value is not easy when everyone has a different understanding of the meaning of value and everyone estimates the business value of a particular feature differently.

Steyaert, Patrick; Tourwé, Tom

288

Products from cottonseed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review with 41 references is made on the manufacture of oil, protein, and other products from cottonseed, the effects of gossypol on protein yield and quality and technology of gossypol removal. A process eliminating thermal treatment of the kernels and permitting the production of oil, proteins, phytin, gossypol, sugar, sterols, phosphatides, tocopherols, and residual shells and bagasse is described.

Glushenkova

1977-01-01

289

Diffractive production of mesons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interest in the study of diffractive meson production is discussed. The description of diffraction within Regge phenomenology is presented, and the QCD-based understanding of diffractive processes is given. Central production is reviewed, and the corresponding main results from the COMPASS experiment and from the experiments at the ISR, RHIC, TEVATRON and LHC collider are summarised.

Schicker Rainer

2014-01-01

290

Diffractive production of mesons  

CERN Document Server

The interest in the study of diffractive meson production is discussed. The description of diffraction within Regge phenomenology is presented, and the QCD-based understanding of diffractive processes is given. Central production is reviewed, and the corresponding main results from the COMPASS experiment and from the experiments at the ISR, RHIC, TEVATRON and LHC collider are summarised.

Schicker, R

2014-01-01

291

Questionnaire typography and production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first. PMID:15677172

Gray, M

1975-06-01

292

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... quickly. For More Information FDA Launches Consumer-friendly Web Search for Recalls [ARCHIVED] Improving Recall Information for Consumers Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalled Product Photos on Flickr Related Consumer Updates FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First ...

293

Product Placement in Cartoons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons product placement was found; most product placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory product placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of products available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon production based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.

Irena Oroz Štancl

2014-06-01

294

Phenomenology of ``Onium'' Production  

OpenAIRE

The phenomenology of heavy quarkonia production in hadron collisions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared to data. Commonly used production models are shown to fail in explaining all the experimental findings. The shortcomings of these models are analysed and possible improvements are discussed.

Cacciari, Matteo

1995-01-01

295

MICROBIAL RESISTANT GYPSUM PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Gypsum building materials often become wet, resulting in mold growth that leads to health and productivity impacts. A major source of mold growth is gypsum wallboard since nearly 90% of the interior finished surfaces of buildings are covered with gypsum products. It has been est...

296

Hydrogen production from coal  

Science.gov (United States)

The gasification reactions necessary for the production of hydrogen from montana subbituminous coal are presented. The coal composition is given. The gasifier types mentioned include: suspension (entrained) combustion; fluidized bed; and moving bed. Each gasification process is described. The steam-iron process, raw and product gas compositions, gasifier feed quantities, and process efficiency evaluations are also included.

1975-01-01

297

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed FDA Consumer Safety Officer Armando Zamora explains what to do if you think you may have a recalled product. There are many numbers and dates on the foods, drugs, cosmetics, and other products we use every ...

298

ICF tritium production reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conceptual design of an ICF tritium production reactor is described. The chamber design uses a beryllium multiplier and a liquid lithium breeder to achieve a tritium breeding ratio of 2.08. The annual net tritium production of this 532 MW/sub t/ plant is 16.9 kg, and the estimated cost of tritium is $8100/g

299

Training for Productivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a method to demonstrate that Australian enterprises that invest in the training of their employees gain a return from that investment through an increase in employee productivity. The method, which compares enterprise expenditure on training of personnel with labor productivity across a…

Maglen, Leo; Hopkins, Sonnie; Burke, Gerald

300

Quarkonia production at CDF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the results of J/?, ?', ?c and ?(1S), ?(2S), ?(3S) production in the proton-antiproton collisions at ?s = 1800 GeV measured with the CDF Detector. Contributions of different production mechanisms are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs

301

78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices...and Indian coal production under section 45...inflation adjustment factors and reference...

2013-04-03

302

77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices...and Indian coal production under section 45...inflation adjustment factors and reference...

2012-04-11

303

75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices...and Indian coal production under section 45...inflation adjustment factors and reference...

2010-04-01

304

76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices...and Indian coal production under section 45...inflation adjustment factors and reference...

2011-04-19

305

The Enhanced Productivity Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Enhanced Productivity Program is based on an organizational audit of a dietary department by a foodservice consultant. The objective of the program was to enhance department productivity by increasing personnel efficiency through work simplification and work organization principles while maintaining quality standards. The Enhanced Productivity Program comprises 13 subsystems that interact to affect overall productivity of the department. The program was structured by a task-oriented program schedule that identified tasks to be carried out in each subsystem. A system diagram detailed time frames and milestones guiding each task to completion. A comprehensive work plan was developed for each task. Time and motion studies carried out before and after implementation of program changes demonstrate a savings of 9.27 labor hours per day. Trayline speed increased from 1.7 trays to 3 trays per minute. Improved personnel efficiency allowed an 11% growth in meal volume in 6 months, thus improving departmental productivity. PMID:4056266

Campbell, C A

1985-11-01

306

Product identification file  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This product identification file was compiled as an aid to the industrial hygienist who may encounter the products listed in surveys for and studies of occupational health hazards. It is pointed out that the chemical composition of a product may vary from year to year and some components may be added or deleted without an indication on the label. Some of the data in this file may not be complete depending on the analysis requested. For example, a solvent may be the only component for which the product was analyzed. The file is arranged by listing the chemical manufacturer, followed by the trade name. In cases where no manufacturer is known, the trade name appears in alphabetical order. The log number and the chemist who analyzed the product are listed for reference.

Gray, C.E. (ed.)

1978-06-01

307

Associated-quarkonium production  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the growing interest to measure associated-quarkonium production in a number of channels at the LHC. Whereas back-to-back production of quarkonium + isolated photon provides a unique way to extract gluon TMDs, observables such as quarkonium + W/Z can be of great help to better understand the quarkonium production mechanism as well as to shed light on double-parton scatterings. Along these lines, we also argue that quarkonium-pair production is a potentially rich source of information which only has started to be harvested. Finally, we discuss the relevance of studying the production of quarkonium + heavy-quark, as e.g. J/psi + charm and Upsilon + non-prompt J/psi.

Lansberg, J P

2014-01-01

308

Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

Chaudhuri Surabhi

2005-12-01

309

Health products inspection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To protect public health, the Health Products Inspection is a public service mission where the application of regulations concerning activities on human health products and cosmetic products is verified. This mission permits a global approach to assess the health products risk-based benefit and, in monitoring by laboratory testing and by on site inspections, to verify their compliance with appropriate regulations. The seventy five inspectors perform about eight hundred inspections per year, in France and abroad. These inspections are related to data provided in the health products assessment and also to manufacturing and delivery practices. The French inspection body is also involved in the training of foreign inspectors and in the harmonization of national, European and international practices either for operators than for the competent authorities. (author)

310

Petroleum product market outlook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports l higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher consumer prices in the 2005-2006 winter season. 2 tabs., 8 figs

311

Blue World Products: Lassoâ?¢ Product Line  

Science.gov (United States)

Lasso, a product of Blue World Communications, is a Macintosh-only CGI/WebStar plug-in that enables a FileMaker Pro database to be published on the web using format files. Any HTML editor can be used to create the format files. These HTML documents contain Lasso commands that determine the interaction between FileMaker Pro, the server, and Lasso. FM Link is an included application that allows for easy drag-and-drop of Lasso commands into the format files. Lasso can allow guests to add, delete, update, and search records. It also provides support for relations/portals, conditional replies, repeating fields, remote administration security, forwarding email and much more. Some examples of what can be created online are guest books, discussion forums, and catalogs. A demo version of this commercial product is available, and pricing information is listed at the site.

312

Public goods production and private sector productivity  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we study how the use of resources in the public sector affects industrial structure, the size and the productivity in knowledge-intensive clusters in local communities. We also discuss how these considerations should be implemented in costbenefit assessments of local public goods supply. The topics are studied in a setting where there are gains from agglomeration in knowledge-intensive industries, creating clusters of firms in such industries. We find that the primary effect is ...

Norman, Eva Benedicte Danielsen

2010-01-01

313

Uranium production from phosphates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P2O5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

314

Manual of radioisotope production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable the reader to select processes most suitable to his local conditions

315

Radiation processed polysaccharide products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

316

Infinite crossed products  

CERN Document Server

This groundbreaking monograph in advanced algebra addresses crossed products. Author Donald S. Passman notes that crossed products have advanced from their first occurrence in finite dimensional division algebras and central simple algebras to a closer relationship with the study of infinite group algebras, group-graded rings, and the Galois theory of noncommutative rings. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, the text examines crossed products and group-graded rings, delta methods and semiprime rings, the symmetric ring of quotients, and prime ideals, bot

Passman, Donald S

2013-01-01

317

The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production  

OpenAIRE

Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P

Samir Kalit; Jasmina Luka? Havranek

2001-01-01

318

Products in fusion systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction.

Henke, Ellen

2013-01-01

319

Quarkonium production at ATLAS  

CERN Document Server

The production of quarkonium is an important testing ground for QCD calculations. The J/\\psi\\ and \\Upsilon\\ production cross-sections are measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7~TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Differential cross-sections are presented as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity. The fraction of J/\\psi\\ produced in B-hadron decays is also measured and the differential cross-sections of prompt and non-prompt J/\\psi\\ production determined separately. Measurements of the fiducial production cross-section of the \\Upsilon(1S) and observation of the \\chi_{c,bJ} states are also discussed.

Price, Darren D

2012-01-01

320

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed FDA 101: Product Recalls (video) Search the Consumer Updates Section Read the Consumer ... market may be necessary. In this Consumer Update video, FDA Recall Operations Team Leader Armando Zamora, explains ...

321

Regional electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While France's final energy consumption remained stable between 2000 and 2010, this was not the case for its consumption of electricity, which increased by 13% over 10 years, and by 4.5% over five years. Production of electricity is concentrated into a few areas within the national territory, essentially as a result of geographical factors. Due, notably, to the presence of hydro generating, some regions produce a large proportion of the renewable electricity. Viewed at the level of the entire territory, production is not linked to local consumption. Some regions have high surpluses whereas others show important deficits, while overall production covers, on average, 114% of national needs. However, at the local level, measures by local authorities to control energy consumption and the development of renewables are beginning to show results. Production of renewable electricity, not including hydro, has grown greatly over a few years and still has a high potential. (authors)

322

Smoked Tobacco Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoked Tobacco Products Cigarettes Light Cigarettes Menthol cigarettes Cigars and pipes Bidis and Kreteks (Clove Cigarettes) Hookahs Cigarettes A cigarette is any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or in any substance not ...

323

Increasing Public Library Productivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

Samuelson, Howard

1981-01-01

324

Proprietary policy and production.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

-, ?. 287 (2006), s. 1-14. ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : proprietary regime * direct production * model Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp287.pdf

Jeong, Byeongju

325

Radioactivity in consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

1978-08-01

326

PET radiopharmaceuticals production facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indications of PET tomography are described. the different units of a PET radiopharmaceuticals production facility are mentioned: cyclotron or proton accelerator, radiopharmaceutical synthesis and radiopharmaceutical lab. The design criteria for complying with God Manufacturing Practice are discussed. (Author)

327

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & ...

328

Computing Borcherds Products  

CERN Document Server

We present an algorithm for computing Borcherds products, which has polynomial runtime. This improves on the currently common method, which has exponential runtime. An implementation of the new algorithm shows that it is superior also in practice.

Gehre, Dominic; Raum, Martin

2011-01-01

329

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training and Continuing Education Inspections/Compliance State & Local Officials Consumers Industry Health ...

330

JWST science data products  

Science.gov (United States)

Science data products for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) ©observations will be generated by the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) within the JWST Science and Operations Center (S&OC) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Data processing pipelines within the DMS will produce uncalibrated and calibrated exposure files, as well as higher level data products that result from combined exposures, such as mosaic images. Information to support the science observations, for example data from engineering telemetry, proposer inputs, and observation planning will be captured and incorporated into the science data products. All files will be generated in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format. The data products will be made available through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and adhere to International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) standard data protocols.

Swade, Daryl; Bushouse, Howard; Greene, Gretchen; Swam, Michael

2014-07-01

331

Fermentative biofuels production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

332

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... manufacturers track inventory, while others help retailers ensure quality. But when unsafe products must be removed from ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

333

Production of Diamond Monocrystals  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Production of Monocrystals and High-Strength Polycrystals of Diamond with Specified Properties by Shock and Quasi-Static Compression of Different Carbonaceous Materials Including Amorphous Carbon, Ultra-Dispersive Diamonds, Fullerits, etc.

334

Boron Materials Production  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Investigation of the Production Processes of Highly Pure Boric Acid and Elemental Boron Labeled with Boron-10 or Boron-11 Isotopes and of the Gain in Efficiency of the Boron Isotope Concentrating Process

335

Forecasting new product sales  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight se [...] lected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new product sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.

R., Siriram; D.R., Snaddon.

336

Antibacterials in Household Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... over 1000 commercial products contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Established in 1981, the Alliance for the ... infants and children who grow up in a biocide-laden environment may not develop as strong an ...

337

Genre in media production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

How do we explain changes in media genres? Are they the result of economic, technological or other kinds of structural forces; or are they the result of the change-producing agency of the media producers? And how are changes in media texts connected to contextual conditions for media production on micro-, meso- or macro levels? This article suggests that a theoretical approach using a pragmatic and socio-cognitive understanding of genre will help us to address these questions. This approach can highlight the interplay between human agency and different kinds of structural forces involved in specific professional media production cultures. Furthermore, it has the potential to integrate media texts and especially the micro- and meso levels of production. Using lessons learned and findings from my recent production study of Danish television satire, the article will argue three major methodological as well as knowledge-producing advantages of a genre approach.

Hanne Bruun

2011-12-01

338

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training and Continuing Education Inspections/Compliance State & Local Officials Consumers Industry Health ...

339

Defining product service systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are a number of theories that describe the necessary improvements in global environmental performance in order to maintain status quo in our ecosystem [1, 2]. These theories are far reaching in their ambitions, and it is not immediately apparent as to how we should be able to achieve, for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the product as an artefact with the service that the product provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the product. This enables a series of potential improvements to the product´s performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of product service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer, company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented product development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us the design degrees of freedom necessary to create radical innovation. The article draws upon existing product development and PSS theory and models and experiences from projects carried out with both industrialists and students.

McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

2002-01-01

340

Zeno product formula revisited  

OpenAIRE

We introduce a new product formula which combines an orthogonal projection with a complex function of a non-negative operator. Under certain assumptions on the complex function the strong convergence of the product formula is shown. Under more restrictive assumptions even operator-norm convergence is verified. The mentioned formula can be used to describe Zeno dynamics in the situation when the usual non-decay measurement is replaced by a particular generalized observables i...

Exner, Pavel; Ichinose, Takashi; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin A.

2004-01-01

341

New product pricing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most uncertain elements in budget planning is estimating production costs of items that have heretofore only been produced in prototype configurations and quantities. This paper examines the design and development of a mathematical model which computes appropriate prices for new and unique products. The resulting model offers a producer a fair return on his investment and the consumer a fair purchase price

342

Ethanol production from lignocellulose  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

2001-01-01

343

Antibiotic Bead Production  

OpenAIRE

We are reporting a practical technique for the production of antibiotic beads for use in combating musculoskeletal infections. The technique utilizes bead molds with tobramycin powder mixed with polymethylmethacr ylate on twisted wire strands to produce strands of 25 beads of various sizes. These beads are gas sterilized and available for use "off the shelf" in a manner that is much more efficient than traditional production by hand on the back table in the operating room. Our technique was a...

Cunningham, Amy; Demarest, Gerald; Rosen, Philip; Decoster, Thomas A.

2000-01-01

344

Fusion product spectra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate fusion product data is required for most fusion plasma simulations. The energy broadening of reaction products is demonstrated to be more complicated than the usual Gaussian broadening. The accurate integrals are performed to obtain , , and for all binary reactions in the four- and five-nucleon systems. Reaction cross sections were developed using R-Matrix models that include most recent measurements.

Talley, T.L.; Hale, G.M.

1988-01-01

345

Ageing and productivity: Introduction  

OpenAIRE

Population ageing will be the dominant feature of the world's demographic landscape in the coming decades, raising concerns about labor productivity and about economic outcomes at both the individual, enterprise, and macro levels. The articles in this special issue of Labour Economics define and address key issues with respect to the interplay of ageing, workforce productivity, and economic performance. Taken as a whole, the articles dispel some of the concerns, sharpen our understanding of o...

Bloom, David E.; Sousa-poza, Alfonso

2013-01-01

346

Systematics of quarkonium production  

OpenAIRE

Quarkonium production in high-energy reactions is found to exhibit a behaviour more universal than that expected from velocity scaling. Total rates of quarkonia produced in hadronic interactions as well as Feynman-x and transverse momentum distributions can be described over the full range of accessible energies (15 < sqrt{s} < 1800 GeV) by two-stage processes. The quarkonium production cross section factors into a process-dependent short-distance part and a single long-dist...

Schuler, Gerhard A.; Vogt, Ramona

1996-01-01

347

Gas reserves, discoveries, production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new 2000-2004 natural gas discoveries have permitted the replacement of existing reserves up to 71%. They are particularly concentrated in the Asia-Oceania area. The Middle-East and the offshore represent an increasing share in the world gas production. Non-conventional gas resources are important too but they remain poorly exploited, except in the US where they represent 30% of the domestic gas production. (J.S.)

348

Milk Production in Croatia  

OpenAIRE

In the last few years Croatian economy is restructuring through the processes of market liberalization and closing to EU, which is demanding some significant changes. Agriculture is in the process of reforms on the basis of CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) policies of the EU, and those changes are producing different effects in each agricultural sector. The most sensitive area is livestock production, especially cattle and milking cows (production of meat and milk). This sector has insufficie...

Petar Bosni?; Dubravko Mikuli?; Teo Vuj?i?; Božica Markovi?; Višnja Knjaz

2003-01-01

349

Skills, Competitiveness and Productivity  

OpenAIRE

This study reviews selected indicators on skills and productivity for the period 2000-2008 using labour force survey data. The review of the labour market demonstrates the need of enhancement of skills as well as improved access to skills and education which are necessary to enter a virtuous circle of higher productivity, employment, incomes growth, and development. Without a workforce that is continuously acquiring new and improved skills, it will be difficult for Pakistan to be competitive ...

Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Khan

2009-01-01

350

Wheat Production and Economics  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS), wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belong...

Elgilany Ahmed; Jamalludin Sulaiman; Saidatulakmal Mohd

2011-01-01

351

Training, education and productivity  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the impact of training and education on productivity, in particular linking to a literature that emphasizes the need to reorganise production following adoption of ICT. The paper examines training at the total economy level and variation across industries, focusing especially on manufacturing versus market service sectors. It also examines the characteristics of those who receive training and outlines the incentives that underlie this.

Carmichael, Fiona; Ercolani, Marco; Kang, Lili; Maimaiti, Yasheng; O Mahony, Mary; Peng, Fei; Robinson, Catherine

2009-01-01

352

“Buffalo Production and Research”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the book “Buffalo Production and Research”,edited by Antonio Borghese by FAO Regional Office for Europe,REU Technical Series 67,the state of art of the research,development, products and market of buffalo species in the world,is presented.The 14 chapters analyse sin- gle themes of principal problems concerning the breeding,the selection,the reproduction,the feeding,the milk and meat quality,the buffalo’s pathologies.

Alessandro Nardone

2010-01-01

353

PURSUING PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT  

OpenAIRE

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper examines the results of a concerted effort to move to a more rigorous and scientific basis for managing for improved productivity. The point of departure is a question, in the mouth of the chief executive officer of an organization: "How can we improve productivity?" The hypothesis is framed in terms of two contextual factors and six specific factors. The contextual factors are: create a questioning or learning culture, and develop a "cause-effect vision"...

Faull, N. H. B.

2012-01-01

354

Mycotoxins in poultry production  

OpenAIRE

All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...

Resanovi? Radmila M.; Neši? Ksenija D.; Nesi? Vladimir D.; Pali? Todor D.; Ja?evi? Vesna M.

2009-01-01

355

“Buffalo Production and Research”  

OpenAIRE

In the book “Buffalo Production and Research”,edited by Antonio Borghese by FAO Regional Office for Europe,REU Technical Series 67,the state of art of the research,development, products and market of buffalo species in the world,is presented.The 14 chapters analyse sin- gle themes of principal problems concerning the breeding,the selection,the reproduction,the feeding,the milk and meat quality,the buffalo’s pathologies.

Alessandro Nardone

2010-01-01

356

CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF PRODUCTS  

OpenAIRE

In this paper I discussed the factors that influence the cultural adaptation ofproducts. Globalization determines the companies to operate abroad;therefore the firms sell their products to markets where the consumerpatterns might differ from their national market. It is of high importance to beable to understand and to adapt to local consumer habits. The culture has astrong influence on products adaptation in particular, and on internationalmarketing in general. Companies must be able to adap...

Barbu, Catalin Mihail

2011-01-01

357

Turbomachinery in Biofuel Production  

OpenAIRE

The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the production processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel production process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...

Go?rling, Martin

2011-01-01

358

Homogeneous production function  

OpenAIRE

This video shows how to analise if a function is homogeneous and to calculate it homogeneity degree. When it's a production function, the homogeneity degree indicates if the production has constant returns to scale, or increasing, or decreasing. En este vídeo (en inglés) se muestra el procedimiento para anallizar si una función es homogénea y calcular su grado de homogeneidad. En el caso de ser una función de producción, el grado de homogeneidad indica si la producción posee rendiment...

Cobacho Tornel, Maria Bele?n

2012-01-01

359

Coal production, 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

360

Whither tobacco product regulation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets. PMID:22345253

McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

2012-03-01

361

Crowdsourcing, Attention and Productivity  

CERN Document Server

The tragedy of the digital commons does not prevent the copious voluntary production of content that one witnesses in the web. We show through an analysis of a massive data set from \\texttt{YouTube} that the productivity exhibited in crowdsourcing exhibits a strong positive dependence on attention, measured by the number of downloads. Conversely, a lack of attention leads to a decrease in the number of videos uploaded and the consequent drop in productivity, which in many cases asymptotes to no uploads whatsoever. Moreover, uploaders compare themselves to others when having low productivity and to themselves when exceeding a threshold.The tragedy of the digital commons does not prevent the copious voluntary production of content that one witnesses in the web. We show through an analysis of a massive data set from YouTube that the productivity exhibited in crowdsourcing exhibits a strong positive dependence on attention, measured by the number of downloads. Conversely, a lack of attention leads to a decrease i...

Huberman, Bernardo A; Wu, Fang

2008-01-01

362

Product versus Process: Innovation Strategies of Multi-Product Firms  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies the innovation strategies of multi-product firms in industries with different scope for product differentiation. In a simple model of multi-product firms, we show that returns to product versus process innovation are industry-specific. Demand and cost linkages induce a natural distinction between the returns to product and process innovation. In highly differentiated industries, the cannibalization effect is lower and, therefore, firms invest more in product innovation. In ...

Flach, Lisandra; Irlacher, Michael

2014-01-01

363

Slick new technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Calgary-based firm is preparing to launch a series of green technologies designed to reduced the environmental impacts related to shale gas exploitation in North America. Trican has develop several non-toxic fracturing methods as part of their green slick water project initiative. Slick water is water that contains a friction reducer. Trican Well Service has added a non-toxic, biodegradable breaker to the polymer molecules of the friction reducer to ensure that the friction reducer doesn't get clogged in rocks or prevent gas from flowing. The company has also developed a non-toxic biocide used to kill bacteria that inhibits gas production. 1 fig.

Bentein, J.

2010-09-15

364

On doubly warped product immersions  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we study fundamental geometric properties of doubly warped product immersion which is an extension of warped product immersion. Moreover, we study geometric inequality for doubly warped products isometrically immersed in arbitrary Riemannian manifolds.

Faghfouri, Morteza; Majidi, Ayyoub

2013-01-01

365

Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International AgencAn expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

366

The safety of fishery products  

OpenAIRE

The paper follows two main objectives: to understand consumers' perception and image of fishery products and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of fishery products. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of products, consequently with impact on product consumption. The present research is focused on the fishery products, regardless of their presentation - fresh, frozen or processed. This paper conduc...

Zugravu Gheorghe, Adrian; Turek Rahoveanu, Maria Magdalena; Turek Rahoveanu, Adrian

2012-01-01

367

Polyhedral Surfaces in Wedge Products  

OpenAIRE

We introduce the wedge product of two polytopes. The wedge product is described in terms of inequality systems, in terms of vertex coordinates as well as purely combinatorially, from the corresponding data of its constituents. The wedge product construction can be described as an iterated ``subdirect product'' as introduced by McMullen (1976); it is dual to the ``wreath product'' construction of Joswig and Lutz (2005). One particular instance of the wedge product construct...

Ro?rig, Thilo; Ziegler, Gu?nter M.

2009-01-01

368

Lecture III. Production of charm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of charmed particles is discussed using simple arguments to understand the production cross sections in various situations in a survey of masses, names, decay modes, and production mechanisms. Thus an estimation can be made of the best place to find charmed particles and the places where it is more difficult to find them. Discussed are e+e- annihilation, peripheral production in hadron collisions, inclusive production in hadron collisions, production in (?, anti ?)N reactions, and photoproduction of charm. 12 references

369

Recover of productivity in acids sulfate soils by means of addition organic and lime amendments under greenhouse conditions at Boyaca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In flooded zones of Boyaca have been identified acid sulfate soil (SSA), restricted for extremes acidity originated for reactions of chemical and biological oxide-reduction by organic material of sulfur iron (pyrite), forming this way big quantities of sulfuric acid and high concentrations of Al toxic, besides it is characterized for being recent soils, with excessive quantities of S; high levels of organic matter and in some parts affected for salts and sodium that together with flooded areas and bad drenated make them inadequate for the establishing of cultivation. For this reason, it is looked for to make productive this SSA of high influence in the area of watering district. Starting with calcareous and organics rocks in winter pasture, the Resources to used were Ca (OH)2 and dolomite in doses of 10,25,50 and 100 t/ha; hen dung 5,10,20 and 30 t/ha mixes with limes hen dung 10+5, 10+10,25+20 and 50+30 using A. sative like indicator plant in a design completely on random with 22 treatments, correspond to ca (OH)2 25,50 ton/ha, dolomite 10,2.50 ton/ha and the mixes with calcareous rocks and hen dung with doses of 25+20 and 50+30 ton/ha respectively, which obtained the best answer in the development of the plant (biomass), reflected in the physical-chemical dynamic of the SSA. Due to this treatments increased in two units of pH, decreased the content of salts and the concentration of aluminum of non-toxic change, with respect to the initial soil, change, with respect to the initial soil, the soil with doses greater to 50 t/ha Ca (OH)2 evidenced over-limed together with the of hen-dung (5,10 t/ha) and the initial soil presented a restricted in develop and recuperation, indicating the conditions adverse in SSA

370

Photobiological hydrogen production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principles and recent progress in the research and development of photobiological hydrogen production are reviewed. Cyanobacteria produce hydrogen gas using nitrogenase and/or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenases in cyanobacteria occurs under in the dark under anaerobic conditions by degradation of intracellular glycogen. In vitro and in vivo coupling of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic system with a clostridial hydrogenase via cyanobacterial ferredoxin was demonstrated in the presence of light. Genetic transformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum was successful; the active enzyme was expressed in PCC7942. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Coculture of Rhodobacter and Clostriudium was applied for hydrogen production from glucose. A mutant strain of Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV whose light-harvesting proteins were altered was obtained by UV irradiation. Hydrogen productivity by the mutant was improved when irradiated with monochromatic light of some wavelengths. The development of photobioreactors for hydrogen production is also reviewed. PMID:16232564

Asada, Y; Miyake, J

1999-01-01

371

Hydrogen production by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, various kinds of catalysts including a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production by gamma rays.The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A combination of EPR and spin-trapping method was also used to detect unstable radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to investigate the effect of catalysts and additives on the efficiency of H2 production. A nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) catalyst that showed an excellent activity in the production of H2 from water by gamma rays were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes that are main wastes of chemical cleaning wastewater. As a result, among the catalysts examined in this work, a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) showed the most efficient H2 production and the efficiency increased upon reapplication. This catalyst was also successfully used to produce H2 with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes

372

Smoke production in fires  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

1995-12-31

373

Multiple products from peat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many different commercial uses for peat fractions have been proposed but most extracts/products are not economical to produce individually. We have investigated various schemes for fractionating peat and producing multiple products from a single peat feedstock. A total of six different fractions of a reed-sedge peat have been isolated on the basis of solubility in water, weak acid, strong acid, weak base, strong base and organic solvents. The soluble fractions and residual solids were tested for potential value as: biostimulants, bioconversion substrates, bitumens, ion-exchange media and horticultural peat. At least three high value fractions can be isolated sequentially from this peat feedstock without sacrificing yield or quality of individual products; these include plant growth stimulants, peat waxes and ion-exchange materials.

Spigarelli, S.A.; Rengo, J.J. (Bemidji State University, Bemidji, MN (USA). Center for Environmental Studies); Morine, G.H. (Bemidji State University, Bemidji, MN (USA). Chemistry Department)

1990-01-01

374

Heavy quark production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alchemy of the production of states containing the heavy quarks in hadron-hadron or photon-hadron collisions offers an opportunity to study hadronic dynamics in a manner not readily available elsewhere. The focus is on an approach based on a simple interpretation of QCD developed at Illinois and Argonne. This approach seems to offer the possibility of forming a connection between the dynamics of heavy particle production and recent developments in the theory of large-transverse-momentum processes. It is very interesting to see how the connection with large-P/sub T/ emerges from a fairly reasonable model. In the model discussed, the production of heavy quarks in photoproduction is thought of as arising from diagrams which constitute the lowest-order-QCD process available and are considered applicable either for a real photon or for a virtual photon arising from inelastic lepton scattering. 25 references

375

Additives in yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

Milna Tudor

2008-02-01

376

Antiplasmodial Natural Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaria is a human infectious disease that is caused by four species of Plasmodium. It is responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year. Natural products contain a great variety of chemical structures and have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. This review highlights studies on natural products with antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity reported in the literature from January 2009 to November 2010. A total of 360 antiplasmodial natural products comprised of terpenes, including iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, terpenoid benzoquinones, steroids, quassinoids, limonoids, curcubitacins, and lanostanes; flavonoids; alkaloids; peptides; phenylalkanoids; xanthones; naphthopyrones; polyketides, including halenaquinones, peroxides, polyacetylenes, and resorcylic acids; depsidones; benzophenones; macrolides; and miscellaneous compounds, including halogenated compounds and chromenes are listed in this review.

Cláudio R. Nogueira

2011-03-01

377

Real time production optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

2004-07-01

378

"Bust enhancing" herbal products.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Bust enhancing" herbal products are widely advertised. No clinical trials have been published. These products contain a variety of ingredients, including grains, hops, saw palmetto, dong quai, chaste-tree berry, wild yam, kava, fennel, black cohosh, and fenugreek. Several of these herbs are hormonally active; for example, hops contain 8-prenylnaringenin, a phytoestrogen that is more potent than other dietary phytoestrogens. Many bust-enhancing dietary supplements contain substrates for Fusarium, a fungus that produces zearalenone, a potent estrogen that has been associated with breast enlargement in humans and other species. The use of bust-enhancing products should be discouraged because of lack of evidence for efficacy and long-term safety concerns. PMID:12798545

Fugh-Berman, Adriane

2003-06-01

379

Production of Metabolites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A recombinant micro-organism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces and excretes into culture medium a stilbenoid metabolite product when grown under stilbenoid production conditions, which expresses in above native levels a ABC transporter which transports said stilbenoid out of said micro-organism cells to the culture medium. The genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces an auxotrophic phenotype which is compensated by a plasmid which also expresses one or more of said enzymes constituting said metabolic pathway producing said stilbenoid, an expression product of the plasmid is genetically modified to include a ubiquitination tag sequence. Expression of an enzyme participating in catabolism of phenylalanine by the Ehrlich pathway is optionally reduced compared to its native expression level.

Katz, Michael unknown

380

CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I discussed the factors that influence the cultural adaptation ofproducts. Globalization determines the companies to operate abroad;therefore the firms sell their products to markets where the consumerpatterns might differ from their national market. It is of high importance to beable to understand and to adapt to local consumer habits. The culture has astrong influence on products adaptation in particular, and on internationalmarketing in general. Companies must be able to adapt their products, but, inthe same time, to keep the note of originality, so that the global image ofbrand to gain consistency. Global brands provide a larger advantageregarding the marketing activities and costs. Savy companies are capable torecognize and to use cultural differences in their use.

Catalin Mihail BARBU

2011-01-01

381

Natural products as radioprotective agents; past, present and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost. Plants commonly used as dietary and or therapeutic agents have recently been the focus of attention since in most cases they are non-toxic and are easily accepted for human use. The proposed talk will mainly deal on the radioprotective potential of some important plant and herbal extracts. (author)

382

77 FR 25538 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices for Calendar Year 2012; Correction...

2012-04-30

383

75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices for Calendar Year 2010; Correction...

2010-04-08

384

Production of ethers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for the production of an ether by contacting an olefin and an alcohol with a catalyst comprising a zeolite having an XO2/Y2O3 ratio equal to or greater than 10, wherein X is silicon and/or germanium and Y is one or more of aluminium, iron, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, arsenic, manganese, gallium or boron, the zeolite being predominantly in the hydrogen form. The process is particularly suitable for the production of methyl t-butyl ether from isobutene and methanol

385

FDG decomposition products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation authors present the results of analysis of decomposition products of [18]fluorodexyglucose. It is concluded that the coupling of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation is a suitable tool for quantitative analysis of FDG radiopharmaceutical, i.e. assay of basic components (FDG, glucose), impurities (Kryptofix) and decomposition products (gluconic and glucuronic acids etc.); 2-[18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) is sufficiently stable and resistant towards autoradiolysis; the content of radiochemical impurities (2-[18F]fluoro-gluconic and 2-[18F]fluoro-glucuronic acids in expired FDG did not exceed 1%

386

Cu-67 Photonuclear Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cu-67 is considered as one of the most promising radioisotopes for cancer therapy with monoclonal antibodies. Current production schemes using high-flux reactors and cyclotrons do not meet potential market need. In this paper we discuss Cu-67 photonuclear production through the reaction Zn-68(?,p)Cu-67. Computer simulations were done together with experiments to study and optimize Cu-67 yield in natural Zn target. The data confirms that the photonuclear method has potential to produce large quantities of the isotope with sufficient purity to be used in medical field.

387

Biological hydrogen production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-11-01

388

Happiness and productivity  

OpenAIRE

The paper provides evidence that happiness raises productivity. In Experiment 1, a randomized trial is designed. Some subjects have their happiness levels increased, while those in a control group do not. Treated subjects have 12% greater productivity in a paid piece-rate Niederle-Vesterlund task. They alter output but not the per-piece quality of their work. To check the robustness and lasting nature of this kind of effect, a complementary Experiment 2 is designed. In this, major real-world ...

Oswald, Andrew J.; Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel

2009-01-01

389

Biogas: Production and utilization  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the aspects of biogas production and utilization covered are: (1) the microbiology and biochemistry of the acid and methane production stages in the anaerobic process; (2) factors affecting the process, such as temperature, acidity and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations; (3) denitrification processes and systems; and (4) the process kinetics of suspended growth systems, packed columns, and fluidized beds. Also considered are such issues in the application of this technology as the digestion of municipal treatment plant sludges, animal wastes, food processing wastes and energy crops. Attention is in addition given to anaerobic digester design, offgas measurement of anaerobic digesters, and sludge treatment through soil conditioning and composting.

Price, E. C.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

390

Cooperative Product Games  

OpenAIRE

I introduce cooperative product games (CPGs), a cooperative game where every player has a weight, and the value of a coalition is the product of the weights of the players in the coalition. I only look at games where the weights are at least $2$. I show that no player in such a game can be a dummy. I show that the game is convex, and therefore always has a non-empty core. I provide a simple method for finding a payoff vector in the core.

Rosales, David

2014-01-01

391

Defect production in ceramics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

1997-08-01

392

Preparing for a Product Platform : Product Family Hierarchy Procedure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experience in the industry as well as recent related scientific publications show the benefits of product development platforms. Companies use platforms to develop not a single but multiple products (i.e. a product family) simultaneously. When these product development projects are coordinated they lead to increased sales due to more customized product as well as decreased costs due to reuse, making a product development platform a very profitable strategy for product developing companies. A successful implementation of a product development platform is not straightforward though. The introduction of product platforms requires coordination of individual product development projects. This coordination requires the clarification of reuse and variance through the projects. But which parts of a project should be reused and which parts should vary? Reuse in product development platforms is based on commonalities and similarities in the product family, and variance should be based on customer demands. To relate these terms and to improve the basis on which decisions are made, we need a way of visualizing the hierarchy of the product family as well as the commonality and variance. This visualization method could then be used as a tool for creating the product families, which product development platforms depend upon. Experience also tells us that one of the primary negative aspects of product developments platforms is the risk factor. When creating product development platforms companies invest a lot of time in the planning of future activities and make major decisions effecting the future products and production facilities. If the product development platform then fails to meet its expectations the companies loose almost everything they have invested. A tool for verifying the stability of the platform or ensuring that the platform can meet future demands will be very useful in the preparation process of a platform synthesis as well as in the updating or reengineering of an existing product development platform.

Fiil-Nielsen, Ole; Munk, Lone

2005-01-01

393

A Study on Product Association Modeling in Collaborative Product Design  

OpenAIRE

Many customers are no longer satisfied with mass-produced products; they are demanding customization and rapid delivery of innovative products. A new category of software, Collaborative Product Design (CPD), uses Internet technology to deliver product innovation at Internet speed and tie together product design, engineering, marketing, and customers into a global knowledge net. CPD enables organizations to quickly respond to the market change, so it has become increasingly important. Though C...

Yu-Min Chiang; Meng-Feng Huang

2004-01-01

394

International Competition, Productivity Change and the Organisation of Production  

OpenAIRE

The modern manufacturing firm competes with product quality improvements rather than cost efficient production of simpler products. R&D spending, marketing, availability of spare parts and service facilities, customs designs, etc. embody the product quality enhancing process, requiring considerable knowledge transfer and making information processing in a broad sense a major manufacturing activity. We can talk of a shift from a base in cost efficient processing to a product technology base, i...

Eliasson, Gunnar

1986-01-01

395

SUSY Production cross sections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We summarize the status of next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) calculations of the cross sections for the production of squarks, gluinos, neutralinos, charginos, and sleptons as a function of the produced particle masses in proton-antiproton collisions at the hadronic center-of-mass energy 2 TeV

396

Particle production at HERA  

CERN Document Server

Recent results on the properties of the hadronic final state at the HERA collider are presented. Strangeness production and correlations have been studied in the laboratory system for deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Inclusive $K^0_S$, $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production has been measured and compared to Monte Carlo model calculations. No significant $\\Lambda$ to $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production asymmetry was observed and the measured $\\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda})$ polarisations are consistent with zero. Bose-Einstein correlations between charged and neutral kaons have been studied and the obtained results are compared with the LEP measurements. A search for heavy particles was performed in the photoproduction process. The cross section for anti-deuteron production has been measured at a mean center-of-mass energy of $W_{\\gamma p}$ = 200 GeV. The azimuthal angle distribution of hadrons in DIS has also been studied in the hadronic center-of-mass system. The measurements of the azimuthal asymmetry are consistent with...

Liu, C

2005-01-01

397

Improving pension product design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pension products characterized by linking an individual's savings directly to market returns represent the most popular, growing pension domain globally. These products are widely sold in contribution-defined pension schemes, labor market pensions, and individual schemes. However, available products are designed with a tendency to assume greater risk the longer it is until retirement, but are not adjusted to individual preferences and circumstances. This paper develops an optimal asset allocation strategy for a defined contribution plan by adjusting to individual needs, such that the expected utility of retirement benefits is maximized. An asset allocation strategy should not only depend on the plan member's age (or time left to retirement), nor only on her risk preferences, but should capture personal characteristics. Among other factors, we include current wealth, expected lifetime salary progression, expected social benefits, choice of assets, type of retirement distribution schedules, bequest motive and life insurance. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization technologies: stochastic control and multi-stage stochastic linear programming (SLP). As an example of an optimal pension product design, we present the operations research methods, which have potential to stimulate new thinking and add to actuarial practice.

Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.

2013-01-01

398

FORECASTING NEW PRODUCT SALES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight selected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new product sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel toets die akkuraatheid van die gebruik van linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes by die bekendstelling van nuwe produkte gebaseer op verkoopsdata. Die geselekteerde nuwe produkte is uit die elektriese en elektroniese asook informasietegnologie- en kommunikasie bedrywe. Linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes word vergelyk ten opsigte van vooruitskatting deur variansie te ontleed. Die akkuraatheid word ontleed en gevolgtrekkings gemaak. Die doel is om vooruitskatting van nuwe produkverkope te verbeter.

R. Siriram

2012-01-01

399

The hydrogen production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives an overview on the implementing of the hydrogen as substitution fuel in the transportation sector. It presents also the problems of this fuel storage and exploitation and describes the production modes and their safety. It also presents the main lines of the japan HTGR program. (A.L.B.)

400

Canadian heavy water production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

401

Hydrogen production from biomass  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass energy encompasses a broad category of energy derived from plants and animals as well as the residual materials from each. Hydrogen gas is an effective energy carrier which burns cleanly producing water as the only product. Hydrogen produced from a renewable source such as biomass provides a domestically available, CO2 neutral, non-polluting form of energy. The goal of the work presented in this thesis was to develop two different methods to produce hydrogen gas using biomass as a renewable energy source. The first method was to produce hydrogen using photosynthetic algae. C. reinhardtii has been shown to produce hydrogen using light as an energy source. The objective of this work was to increase hydrogen production by (a) manipulating process variables such as cell concentration, light intensity, and reactor design and (b) immobilizing the algal cells to increase photosynthetic efficiency and address production limitations. The second method of hydrogen production explored was gasification of biomass using supercritical water (SCW). A continuous SCW reactor was constructed to increase capacity and understand the optimum conditions necessary to gasify model compounds. Increasing the capacity of SCW reactors and understanding how basic components of biomass react may lead to further development of this technology.

Hahn, John J.

402

Kaon Production and Interaction  

CERN Document Server

Exclusive data on both the elementary kaon and antikaon production channels have been taken at the cooler synchrotron COSY in proton-proton scattering. In the kaon--hyperon production an enhancement by one order of magnitude of the Lambda/Sigma0 ratio has been observed at excess energies below Q=13 MeV compared to data at higher excess energies (Q>300 MeV). New results obtained at the COSY-11 facility explore the transition region between the regime of this low-energy Sigma0 suppression and excess energies of 60 MeV. A comparison of the energy dependence of the Lambda and Sigma0 total cross sections exhibits distinct qualitative differences between both hyperon production channels. Studies of kaon-antikaon production have been motivated especially by the ongoing discussion about the nature of the scalar resonances f0(980) and a0(980) coupling to the K anti-K channel. For the reaction pp->ppK+K- a first total cross section value is reported at an excess energy of Q=17 MeV, i.e. below the phi threshold. Calcula...

Wolke, B M; Budzanowski, A; Czyzykiewicz, R; Grzonka, D; Jarczyk, L; Kamys, B; Khoukaz, A; Kilian, K; Kowina, P; Lister, T A; Moskal, P; Oelert, Walter; Rozek, T; Santo, R; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Siemaszko, M; Smyrski, J; Steltenkamp, S; Strzalkowski, A; Winter, P; Wüstner, P; Zipper, W; Wolke, By M.

2003-01-01

403

Zambian charcoal production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recovery of miombo woodlands following clearance for woodfuel is being monitored at four sites in central Zambia. Charcoal production removes 50% of the total woody biomass and the woodland regenerates from a pool of stunted old seedlings and stumps of cut trees. Productivity is correlated to tree density before felling. Clearing of successive regrowth miombo does not appear to affect productivity. Annual wood biomass increment in unmanaged regrowth miombo is estimated at 2-3 t/ha pa of which about 1.1 t is cord wood suitable for charcoal production. However, the charcoal spots within the deforested area are severely impacted by the carbonization process which destroys soil structure, seedlings and root stocks. Woodland regeneration on such spots is protracted. Fortunately, charcoal spots only cover 2-3% of the deforested area. The concern about land degradation due to deforestation caused by woodfuel harvesting for urban charcoal in the miombo woodland region of central and southern Africa is not supported by the results of this study. (author)

404

Radiation protection products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic terms of radiation protection means, these means and their parts are defined. Radiation protection products are classified into nine groups and their outer appearance and design are described. The standard also gives equivalent terms in Czech, Russian, Polish, Hungarian, German, Bulgarian and Romanian. (E.S.)

405

Predicting safe sandwich production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during production and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation and serving. However, Danish sandwich producing companies find it challenging to comply with this and have expressed a need for more flexibility. The Danish guidelines do allow for a prolongation of the acceptable time outside the cold chain, if the safety of the specific production can be documented. There is, therefore, room for developing targeted tools for evaluating the time-temperature scenarios in sandwich production. This study describes a decision support tool developed to offer the producers more flexibility. Based on time/temperature measurements obtained during preparation combined with information on the prehistory of ingredients and the expected time/temperature conditions of distribution and serving, the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and psychrotrophic Clostridium botulinum in the sandwiches is predicted. Applying the lag times of these pathogens as the critical limit, the tool determines if the sandwich production is safe by evaluating whether any of the lag times have been exceeded during the total preparation, distribution, and serving time. The growth models employed were built as part of the study using a “worst case” ingredient.

Birk, Tina; Duan, Zhi

2014-01-01

406

Fermentative production of curdlan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Curdlan was produced by pure culture fermentation using Agrobacterium radiobacter NCIM 2443. Three different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, maltose) were selected for study. Sucrose was found to be the most efficient. Utilization of sugar during the course of fermentation was studied, and the data were correlated to the production of curdlan. Curdlan mimics a secondary metabolite, in that its synthesis is associated with the poststationary growth phase of nitrogen-depleted batch culture. This was inferred from the results obtained from utilization of nitrogen. Regulation of pH at 6.1 +/- 0.3 resulted in an increased yield of curdlan from 2.48 to 4.8 g/L, and the corresponding increase in succinoglucan production was from 1.78 to 2.8 g/L. An attempt was made to increase curdlan production by the addition of the uridine nucleotides UMP and UDP-glucose to the fermentation broth. It was found that UDP-glucose at 0.8 microg/mL and UMP at 0.6 microg/mL served as precursors for curdlan and succinoglucan production when added after 18 h of nitrogen depletion in the fermentation broth. PMID:15304736

Saudagar, Parag S; Singhal, Rekha S

2004-01-01

407

Total Productive Maintenance  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Kaye Krueger of Wisconsin Online Resource Center, this presentation allows user to read about how total productive maintenance can prevent breakdowns, defects, and a variety of other losses. This is a nice brief introduction to this important topic in manufacturing engineering.

Krueger, Kaye

408

Inclusive quarkonium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the approximation of zero binding energy, the production of the heavy vector quarkonium states V(= psi, T,...) accompanied with gluon (g) jets in ?N and e+e- collisions is studied. For the rare decay of the Z0 resonance into Vgg, the rate is found extremely small

409

Product placement i Politik  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Product placerment har længe været anerkendt når man skal markedsføre produkter via film og tv. Nu er fænomenet også dukket op i politik. Her handler det om at placere politikere i debatter og givne sammenhænge på især tv for at farve - partiet eller personen.

Andersen, Johannes

2012-01-01

410

Pion production reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pion production reactions are often done in order to study the high momentum components of nuclear wave functions. A review of the experimental situation at different accelerators is presented and the various experimental results obtained recently (since the last 15 months) are discussed along the corresponding theoretical analyses

411

Tobacco companies and products  

Science.gov (United States)

Tobacco companies have been restricted in what they can do to advertise their products. Some have been accused of soliciting children to begin smoking. Most tobacco companies are required to place some type of warning label on their packages warning smokers of the diseases that tobacco use can cause.

Adrian Pingstone (None; )

2008-03-19

412

Understanding bottom production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe calculations of b overline b production to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and next-to-next-to-leading logarithm (NNLL) near threshold in pp interactions. Our calculations are in good agreement with the b overline b total cross section measured by HERA-B

413

Production farms at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UNIX Farms at Fermilab have been used for more than three years to solve the problem of providing massive amounts of CPU processing power for event reconstruction. System configurations, parallel processing software, administration and allocation issues, production issues and other experiences and plants are discussed

414

Production Farms at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UNIX Farms at Fermilab have been used for more than than three years to solve the problem of providing massive amounts of CPU processing power for event reconstruction. System configurations, parallel processing software, administration and allocation issues, production issues and other experiences and plans are discussed

415

Data Products on Cloud  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation lays out the data processing products that exist and are planned for the Matsu cloud for Earth Observing 1. The presentation focuses on a new feature called co-registration of Earth Observing 1 with Landsat Global Land Survey chips.

Ly, Vuong T.; Mandl, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

416

Production of radioactive stents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years radioactive stents proved to inhibit neointima formation. This report describes the actual status of producing such radioactive stents. Different methods of radioactive Stent production are considered. The ion beam implantation of P-32 applied at the Research Center Karlsruhe will be described in more detail. (orig.)

417

Guitar Production Standards Blueprints  

Science.gov (United States)

This PDF document provides a few blueprints for guitar production standards. The drawings include some cross-sections and close-up details. Measurements are also provided. The features illustrated are common to all 25-1/2" scale length guitars.

418

Hadronic lepton pair production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author describes a beam dump experiment at the CERN SPS for the study of ? pair production by ?+-, K+-, and p(anti p) beams on a copper target at 39.5 GeV/c. The dependence of the cross sections from various parameters is discussed. (HSI)

419

Natural product 'legal highs'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The last five years have seen a dramatic increase in the global popularity of 'Legal Highs', often referred to as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS). These materials are single chemicals, plant or fungal materials or their extracts, which may be purchased and possessed without legal restriction in certain countries. The single chemical entity drugs are often closely structurally related to existing controlled drugs of abuse from, for example, the amphetamine (phenethylamine), cannabinoid-mimetic or tryptamine classes, whereas the natural products are from plant or fungal materials that have a long history of pharmacognosy. These natural product legal highs are by their very nature highly chemically complex, and in the clear majority of cases, chemical studies were conducted some considerable time ago. Their pharmacology and toxicology generally focuses on the major active principles with few studies detailing the potentially highly complicated and multiple effects of their extracts. This complexity, coupled with the inherent natural product variability of plant and fungal species, adds a further dimension to the potential harms associated with natural product legal high use. This review encompasses the most popular current legal highs and describes their basic chemistry, usage and preparation, pharmacology, toxicology and discusses the issues surrounding the complexity of these materials, and how this can impact on the evaluation of their harms. PMID:22930322

Arunotayanun, Warunya; Gibbons, Simon

2012-11-01

420

RECONSIDERING ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economy has changed significantly over the past century, in part due to the scientific discoveries, due to the industrial revolution, to the research, development and innovation, but maybe the most important contributor to the economic development is the human resource. We have witnessed significant changes enhancing the levels of productivity, both labor and capital. This paper analyzes productivity in relation to its social and sustainability dimension. The paper follows a previous study, highlighting the most important findings identified and reinterpreting them on the basis of the most recent research papers produced by the scholars in the field. The analysis is focused on the most unsustainable economies worldwide, respectively, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Belgium, Kuwait, Singapore, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Macedonia, Japan and the United States of America – selected by considering their per capita ecological deficit. The research uses statistical data provided by the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank and the Global Footprint Network. The research combines economical, development and environmental indexes in our attempt to evaluate productivity and to adjust it so that it considers the ecological deficit of the nations. The research hypothesis that generated the study is: the levels of economic productivity obtained by countries are not limited by their biocapacities. The empirical analysis will verify the research question advocating for the need to consider the limited capacity of the planet, in term of natural resources, when promoting economic and social development.

RIS A. MIHAI

2014-12-01

421

Measurement of production asymmetries  

CERN Document Server

The knowledge of charm production asymmetries is an important prerequisite for many of the possible searches for CP violation in charm. Measurements of these asymmetries at hadron colliders can also help to improve our understanding of QCD. These proceedings review existing measurements and discuss some of the experimental challenges of determining charge asymmetries at the per-mille level.

Gordon, Hamish

2013-01-01

422

Production quality control problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The food industry offers many automated inspection challenges that are not readily solved using commercial industrial vision systems. A discussion of these challenges includes a package inspection involving a variable " good" package color analysis of a baked product high speed verification of a coating process and a high speed printed web inspection. Solutions for these problems are solicited.

Doney, Thomas A.

1991-02-01

423

Exploring Products: Nano Fabrics  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized "whiskers" can protect clothing from stains. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of pants made from nano fabric and ordinary fabric. Use this activity to talk about products that we can already buy that use nanotechnology, like treated fabrics, water filters, sunscreen and stuffed animals that have silver nanoparticles.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2010-01-01

424

Means of Production  

Science.gov (United States)

No one who's worked in higher education will ever confuse the experience with working in the corporate sector. Colleges and universities are simply not geared for the business of manufacturing or marketing products. The focus--as it should be--is on teaching and research. Given the wealth of talent among IT staff and faculty, however, higher ed…

Raths, David

2012-01-01

425

Invariant triple products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shown that the space of invariant trilinear forms on smooth representations of a semisimple Lie group is finite dimensional if the group is a product of hyperbolic groups. Explicit upper bounds are given which are attained in the case of induced representations. Applications to automorphic coefficients are given.

Anton Deitmar

2006-09-01

426

STORED PRODUCT INSECT BEHAVIOR  

Science.gov (United States)

What makes an insect a pest of the food industry? Any answer to this question likely involves some aspect of the pest’s behavior. Stored-product insects have a diverse array of behavioral traits that enable them to thrive in the environments created by humans for the processing and storage of food...

427

TILAPIA FINGERLING PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Fingerling production remains an important bottleneck to the continued expansion of tilapia aquaculture throughout the world. Throughout Asia, the Americas, and Africa, tilapia aquaculture continues to expand and represents an important source of fish to domestic and export markets. Development of e...

428

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Fear Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 Ph. 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact FDA For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory ...

429

Soybean Production Lesson Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

Carlson, Keith R.

430

Cosmological production of baryons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Departures from thermal equilibrium which are likely to occur in an expanding universe allow the production of an appreciable net baryon density by processes which violate baryon-number conservation. It is shown that the resulting baryon to entropy ratio can be calculated in terms of purely microscopic quantities

431

Direct production of chi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of the states with positive charge conjugation through the neutral current is discussed. It can be evaluated in a simple and straightforward manner in the nonrelativistic quarkonium model, identifying the resonances as 3P1 bound state. The observation of this reaction would test the coupling of quarks to the axial part and of electrons to the vector and axial vector part of the neutral current. Although this process is neglegibly small for the Psub(c)/chi (3500), it may contribute a measurable amount, if a toponium system were found around 35 GeV. The competing mechanism of the formation - the electromagnetic annihilation of e+e- through two virtual photons into 1++ and 2++ states is also investigated. The various models (quarkonium model, vector dominance model, generalized vector dominance model) all consistently give values between 0.1 eV and 0.4 eV for Gamma(3P1 ? e+e-). In this case the electromagnetic production dominates the weak production whereas for heavier quarkonium systems the situation is reversed. Finally, it is quite straightforward to translate our results from QED to QCD. We then calculate chi production in hadronic collisions, in particular the contribution which comes from quark-antiquark annihilation. This can be compared to estimates for charmonium production by ''color evaporation'' which gives quite different results for which gives quite different results for the relative weight of chi0, chi1 and chi2 (author)

432

Illegal Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... Versions imported from such countries as England and Australia often give doses in metric units, which can cause Americans to accidentally over-dose or under-dose pets. Read more about counterfeit pesticide products for dogs and cats . Retailer information about ...

433

Higgs Production at LHC  

OpenAIRE

We review Higgs production at hadron colliders via vector-boson fusion and via gluon fusion, fully inclusively and in association with one and two jets. Then we address the issue of the measurement of the coupling of the Higgs to the vector bosons at LHC.

Del Duca, V.

2003-01-01

434

Butadiene production process overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 95% of butadiene is produced as a by-product of ethylene production from steam crackers. The crude C4 stream isolated from the steam cracking process is fed to butadiene extraction units, where butadiene is separated from the other C4s by extractive distillation. The amount of crude C4s produced in steam cracking is dependent on the composition of the feed to the cracking unit. Heavier feeds, such as naphtha, yield higher amounts of C4s and butadiene than do lighter feeds. Crackers using light feeds typically produce low quantities of C4s and do not have butadiene extraction units. Overall butadiene capacity is determined by ethylene cracker operating rates, the type of feed being cracked, and availability of butadiene extraction capacity. Global butadiene capacity is approximately 10.5 million metric tons, and global production is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Crude C4s are traded globally, with the United States being the only significant net importer. Finished butadiene is also traded globally, with the largest exporters being Canada, Western Europe, Saudi Arabia and Korea. The largest net importers are Mexico, the United States and China. The global demand for butadiene is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber accounts for about 54% of global butadiene demand, with tire production being the single most important end use of butadiene synthetic rubbers. Other major butadiene derivatives are acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene butadiene latex (about 24% of demand combined). PMID:17324391

White, Wm Claude

2007-03-20

435

Lithium ion battery production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Sustainable battery manufacturing focus on more efficient methods and recycling. ? Temperature control and battery management system increase battery lifetime. ? Focus on increasing battery performance at low- and high temperatures. ? Production capacity of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. - Abstract: Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on energy storage. Materials needed for battery applications require specially made high quality products. Diminishing amounts of easily minable metal ores increase the consumption of separation and purification energy and chemicals. The metals are likely to be increasingly difficult to process. Iron, manganese, lead, zinc, lithium, aluminium, and nickel are still relatively abundant but many metals like cobalt and rare earths are becoming limited resources more rapidly. The global capacity of industrial-scale production of larger lithium ion battery cells may become a limiting factor in the near future if plans for even partial electrification of vehicles or energy storage visions are realized. The energy capacity needed is huge ae energy capacity needed is huge and one has to be reminded that in terms of cars for example production of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. Consequently annual production capacity of 106 cars requires 100 factories each with a 300 MWh capacity. Present day lithium ion batteries have limitations but significant improvements have been achieved recently . The main challenges of lithium ion batteries are related to material deterioration, operating temperatures, energy and power output, and lifetime. Increased lifetime combined with a higher recycling rate of battery materials is essential for a sustainable battery industry.

436

Productivity Trends in Intercity Trucking  

Science.gov (United States)

Productivity trends indicate intercity trucking productivity increased an average 2.7 percent a year, a fairly uniform increased productivity rate but substantially lower as compared to air carrier, railroad, and pipeline transportation. Factors affecting productivity are gradual introduction of technological innovation, larger capacity trucks,…

Carnes, Richard B.

1974-01-01

437

Software Product Lines - Three Examples  

OpenAIRE

This report presents the results of a course on software product lines. The assignment in the course was to develop a software product line. . During the course, the students had to develop the following artifacts in groups: product line architecture, component designs, product derivations, modifiability assessment and a prototype. The results of the course are described in this report

,

2000-01-01

438

Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum non-toxic concentrations for biological use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA capped have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to an increased concentration range of the QDs, while the gelatine coating acts as a barrier towards enhanced toxicity at higher QD concentrations.

Gérard Valérie A

2010-03-01

439

The use of the dye neutral red as a specific, non-toxic, intra-vital stain of islets of Langerhans.  

OpenAIRE

The development of improved methods of islet isolation from the pancreas is hampered by difficulty in identification of islets. A method described by Bensley in 1911 uses neutral red to stain the islets selectively. In the present study the method has been simplified and selective staining of islets in the rat, dog and pig demonstrated by use of light and electron microscopy. Staining of islets with neutral red does not appear to affect their viability as judged by insulin secretion and trans...

Gray, D. W.; Millard, P. R.; Mcshane, P.; Morris, P. J.

1983-01-01

440

Effect of PVC/CPVC ratio of non-toxic, platy pigments on corrosion protection of acrylic-modified alkyd coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion protection of acrylic-modified alkyd coatings, based on micaceous zinc ferrite (MZF), micaceous iron oxide (MIO) and zinc ferrite (ZF) pigments, at different pigment volume concentrations PVCs to the critical pigment volume concentrations CPVCs ratio was studied and denoted hereafter by A. Scanning electron microscope, weight loss measurements, water vapour transmission and immersion in 3.5% salt solution as well as physicomechanical properties were carried to evaluate the paints anti corrosive performance. It was concluded that, for all systems, water vapour transmission and corrosion protection can be affected by the PVC/CPVC ratio. At certain PVC the barrier property of pigment was the main factor affecting the water vapour transmission and corrosion protection. The optimum percentage of inhibitive pigment in the above systems has also been evaluated. Als, it was found that, micaceous zinc ferrite pigment protect the carbon steel physically through barrier action and chemically by the reaction with the acidic acrylic-modified alkyd resin to produce soaps which passivated the substrate

441

Oxidative activity of hydroxylated primaquine analogs. Non-toxicity to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient human red blood cells in vitro.  

OpenAIRE

The individual effects of two putative metabolites of primaquine (5,6-dihydroxyprimaquine and 5,6-dihydroxy-8-aminoquinoline) on the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) and on the ATP-dependent proteolytic system which rapidly degrades oxidized erythrocyte protein were measured in intact red blood cells in vitro from two blood donors. In red cells treated with nitrite (1-40 mM) or phenylhydrazine (0.01-10 mM), proteolytic activity was detected only with concentrations (7.5 mM NaNO2 and 0.25 mM p...

Baird, Jk; Davidson, DE; Decker-jackson, Je

1986-01-01

442

The adjuvant activity of a non-toxic, water-soluble glycopeptide present in large quantities in the culture filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain DT.  

Science.gov (United States)

A water-soluble mycobacterial glycopeptide was obtained in large quantities from the culture supernatant fluid of M. tuberculosis strain DT. This glycopeptide was strongly adjuvant-active when injected, in a water-in-oil emulsion contianing ovalbumin, into guinea-pigs. In addition, it was devoid of cord factor toxicity in mice, polyarthritogenic activity in rats and cavity stimulating activity in rabbit lungs. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 PMID:806515

Stewart-Tull, D E; Shimono, T; Kotani, S; Kato, M; Ogawa, Y; Yamamura, Y; Koga, T; Pearson, C M

1975-01-01

443

Bacillus subtilis natto: a non-toxic source of poly-?-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria  

OpenAIRE

It is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of ?-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of ...

Bhat, Aditya R.; Irorere, Victor U.; Bartlett, Terry; Hill, David; Kedia, Gopal; Morris, Mark R.; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Radecka, Iza

2013-01-01

444

Recombinant human thyrotropin prior to radioiodine therapy improves the size reduction of non-toxic nodular goiter: a prospective randomized double-blinded trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Background: rh TSH increases the thyroid 131I uptake (RAIU) and may have a role in the context of 131I therapy of goiter. No placebo-controlled trial has yet been performed. Methods: In a double-blinded trial, 57 patients with nodular nontoxic goiter (51 F, 6 M) were randomized to receive either 0.3 mg rh TSH (n=28) or placebo (n=29) 24 h before 131I. The thyroid dose was calculated based on thyroid size (measured by ultrasound) and RAUI at 24 h and 96 h. Thyroid size and function and patient satisfaction were monitored for 12 months. Results: At baseline the median goiter volume was 51 ml (range: 20-99 ml) in the placebo group and 59 ml (25-92 ml) in the rh TSH group (p=0.75). Three months after 131I the goiter size was reduced to 38 ml (15-78 ml) and 43 ml (20-75 ml) in the two groups, respectively (p=0.001 within groups, p=0.96 between groups). At 12 months, the corresponding figures were 27 ml (15-82 ml) and 20 ml (6-59 ml); p=0.001 within groups compared with baseline, p=0.12 between groups. The relative goiter reduction at this time was 46 ± 22% in the placebo group, and 61 ± 15% in the rh TSH group (p=0.004). In addition to the influence of rh TSH, the magnitude of the goiter reduction correlated inversely with the initial goiter volume (p=0.019), whereas no significant correlation was found with the RAIU during therapy or with the absorbed thyroid dose. Discomfort during 131I was reported by 1during 131I was reported by 10 patients in the placebo group and by 15 patients in the rh TSH group (p=0.12). Permanent hypothyroidism developed in 12% in the placebo group and in 52% in the rh TSH group (p=0.005). Patient satisfaction was generally very high without any major within group difference. Conclusion: In the first placebo-controlled double-blinded trial, we found that rh TSH prior to 131I -therapy significantly improves thyroid size reduction by 33%, with a four-fold higher rate of hypothyroidism. These effects are, at least partially, mediated through other mechanisms than an increase in the RAIU. (author)

445

Plasmid instability when the hsp60 gene promoter is used to express the protective non-toxic fragment B of the diphtheria toxin in recombinant BCG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetic modification of the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG to deliver a protective Corynebacterium diphtheriae antigen in vivo could be a safer and less costly alternative to the new and more expensive DTP vaccines available today, in particular to third world-countries. The stability of expression of heterologous antigens in BCG, however, is a major challenge to the use of live recombinant bacteria in vaccine development and appears to be dependent to a certain extent, on a genetic compatibility between the expression cassette within the plasmid construct and the mycobacterium host. In the quest for the best recombinant BCG transformant to express the dtb gene of C. diphtheriae we generated two new rBCG strains by transforming the Moreau substrain of BCG with the mycobacterial expression vectors pUS973 and pUS977, each one carrying a different promoter to drive the expression of the target antigen. After transformation recombinant BCG clones were selected on Middlebrook 7H10 kanamycin Agar plates, expanded in Middlebrook 7H9 kanamycin Broth and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. rBCGs transformed with the construct carrying the weak PAN promoter from M. paratuberculosis stably expressed the dtb gene. Conversely, rBCGs transformed with the construct carrying the strong mycobacterium hsp60 promoter were unstable and consequently unfit for the expression of the C. diphtheriae gene.

Dilzamar V. Nascimento

2013-04-01

446

Biomimetic hydrogen production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen with outstanding efficiency. An electrode surface which is covered with active hydrogenase molecules becomes a promising alternative to platinum for electrochemical hydrogen production. To immobilize the hydrogenase on the electrode, the gold surface was modified by heterobifunctional molecules. A thiol headgroup on one side allowed the binding to the gold surface and the formation of a self-assembled monolayer. The other side of the molecules provided a surface with a high affinity for the hydrogenase CrHydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With methylviologen as a soluble energy carrier, electrons were transferred from carboxy-terminated electrodes to CrHydA1 and conducted to the active site (H-cluster), where they reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. A combined approach of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance allowed quantifying the hydrogen production on a molecular level. Hydrogen was produced with a rate of 85 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. On a 1'- benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinum (BBP)-terminated surface, the electrons were mediated by the monolayer and no soluble electron carrier was necessary to achieve a comparable hydrogen production rate (approximately 50% of the former system). The hydrogen evolution potential was determined to be -335 mV for the BBP-bound hydrogenase and -290 mV for the hydrogenase which was immobilized on a carboxy-terminated mercaptopropionic acid SAM. Therefore, both systems significantly reduce the hydrogen production overpotential and allow electrochemical hydrogen production at an energy level which is close to the commercially applied platinum electrodes (hydrogen evolution potential of -270 mV). In order to couple hydrogen production and photosynthesis, photosystem I (PS1) from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha were bound to each other. To accomplish tight binding of both proteins the PS1 subunit PsaE was genetically fused to the C-terminal end of the small subunit of MBH, i.e. close to the electron acceptor site of MBH. This fusion protein spontaneously assembled with the PsaE-deletion mutant of PS1. Crucial for a high hydrogen evolution rate of the system is an efficient electron transfer between both proteins. To allow this measurement, the PsaE-deletion mutant of PS1 was immobilized on a Ni-NTAterminated monolayer via a genetically introduced His-tag. The specificity of the assembly of fusion protein and deletion mutant was verified by SEIRAS. Surface plasmon resonance, gas chromatography and electrochemistry complemented this measurement and yielded the specific activity of the functional hybrid complex: 4500 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. The investigated complex allowed hydrogen evolution at potentials up to 85 mV, i.e. hydrogen production at a lower energy level than on a platinum electrode. In addition, the hydrogen production rate was higher than for hydrogenase-modified electrodes without PS1. Beyond these specific results, the experimental setup can be used to quantify the hydrogen evolution rate on a molecular level for variable hydrogenases and hybrid complexes. This information will be used to choose the most efficient catalysts for introduction into the native system for in vivo hydrogen production. (orig.)

Krassen, Henning

2009-05-15

447

Greenhouse production systems for people  

OpenAIRE

Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental impacts from system. Engineering greenhouse production systems to meet these requirements must include: a cost-effective and structurally sound facility; various sub-systems controlled to interact har...

Giacomelli, G. A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; Mckenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D. A.; Voogt, J. O.; Weel, P. A.; Mears, D.

2012-01-01

448

Product range optimization – case study  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents the optimizing procedure of the product range manufactured by a company which operates in the area of production and sales of the milling and bakery products. The paper authors have taken this company as an example since the products it manufactures and commercializes address to population and are required to meet both qualitative and quantitative market requirements. After a brief overview of the company, one analyses its production capacity, staff structure and distributi...

Simona Barsan; Mihaela Sima

2010-01-01

449

Approximate Analysis of Production Systems  

OpenAIRE

In this paper complex production systems are studied where a single product is manufactured and where each production unit stores its output in at most one buffer and receives its input from at most one buffer. The production units and the buffers may be connected nearly arbitrarily. The buffers are supposed to be of finite capacity and the goods flow is continuous. For such netwroks it is possible to estimate the throughput by applying repeated aggregation over the production units. The appr...

Koster, M. B. M.

1988-01-01

450

Exploring Nanotechnology through Consumer Products  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers nanotechnology in consumer products. First, the instructor presents an introductory PowerPoint and then "students are given a chance in groups to explore consumer products through an information sheet provided over available consumer products." A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, PowerPoint presentation, Nano Products Resource Guide, as well as a wide variety of product information sheets are included. 

451

Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

452

Radioisotope production in Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

Wan Anuar Wan Awang [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

1998-10-01

453

Hydrogen production methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Old, present and new proceses for producing hydrogen are assessed critically. The emphasis throughout is placed on those processes which could be commercially viable before the turn of the century for large-scale hydrogen manufacture. Electrolysis of water is the only industrial process not dependent on fossil resources for large-scale hydrogen production and is likely to remain so for the next two or three decades. While many new processes, including those utilizing sunlight directly or indirectly, are presently not considered to be commercially viable for large-scale hydrogen production, research and development effort is needed to enhance our understanding of the nature of these processes. Water vapour electrolysis is compared with thermochemical processes: the former has the potential for displacing all other processes for producing hydrogen and oxygen from water

454

Downstream product marketing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petro-Canada's views regarding energy deregulation were presented. Their experience with gasoline retailing and their response to competition was also discussed. Petro-Canada regards deregulation as a good thing in terms of its promotion of fair competition. Industrial and residential consumers of energy will benefit from more efficient and innovative service. Today's consumers are very well informed about existing energy products and while they are incredibly price sensitive, they still want to buy value. The relevance of brand names in a competitive market was examined. One reaction to the demanding customer has been to augment the base product (the fuel) with other things, such as convenience store items, car washes, specialized bay businesses and promotional offerings. Petro-Canada has been successful in improving sales volumes with these sales strategies, and profits achieved indicate good target audience acceptance. Shareholders and the board of directors also appear to be in agreement with the Corporation's performance to date

455

Holographic entropy production  

Science.gov (United States)

The suspicion that gravity is holographic has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. In this paper, we propose that such a holography can actually be observed in the context of Einstein's gravity and at least a class of generalized gravitational theories, based on a definite holographic principle where neither is the bulk space-time required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, echoing Wilson's formulation of quantum field theory. After showing the general equilibrium thermodynamics from the corresponding holographic dictionary, in particular, we provide a rather general proof of the equality between the entropy production on the boundary and the increase of black hole entropy in the bulk, which can be regarded as strong support to this holographic principle. The entropy production in the familiar holographic superconductors/superfluids is investigated as an important example, where the role played by the holographic renormalization is explained.

Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Hongbao

2014-10-01

456
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