WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-toxic non-hazardous product

  1. Hazardous jarosite use in developing non-hazardous product for engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asokan, Pappu [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Habib Ganj Naka, Bhopal 462026 (India)]. E-mail: asokanp3@yahoo.co.in; Saxena, Mohini [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Habib Ganj Naka, Bhopal 462026 (India); Asolekar, Shyam R. [CESE, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 400076 (India)

    2006-10-11

    Jarosite released from zinc metal extraction process is hazardous in nature and its world wide disposal has become a major environmental concern. In this study, an attempt has been made to immobilise and recycle the jarosite released from Hindustan Zinc Limited, India, using CCRs, so called fly ash, and clay soil. Results revealed that the particle size of jarosite was finer than that of CCRs and had higher porosity and water holding capacity due to fine textured materials resulting in high surface area (10,496.18 {+-} 30.90 cm{sup 2}/g). Jarosite contain higher concentration of toxic elements (lead, zinc, sulphur, cadmium, chromium and copper) than that of CCRs. Concentrations of radionuclides such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K and {sup 228}Ac in jarosite found less than in CCRs are similar to that of soil. Statistically designed experiments on solidified/stabilised (s/s) sintered jarosite-CCRs products confirmed that the compressive strength of jarosite bricks reached as high as 140 kg/cm{sup 2} with 14.5% water absorption capacity at the combination of 3:1 ratio of jarosite and clay, respectively, but, concentrations of all the toxic elements recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-Toxicity Leachate Characteristics Procedure (TCLP) standard are not within the permissible limits. However, it is confirmed that the toxic elements leaching potentials of s/s-sintered products developed using 2:1 jarosite clay ratio with 15% CCRs comply with the USEPA-TCLP limits and also meet the quality for engineering applications.

  2. Hazardous jarosite use in developing non-hazardous product for engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosite released from zinc metal extraction process is hazardous in nature and its world wide disposal has become a major environmental concern. In this study, an attempt has been made to immobilise and recycle the jarosite released from Hindustan Zinc Limited, India, using CCRs, so called fly ash, and clay soil. Results revealed that the particle size of jarosite was finer than that of CCRs and had higher porosity and water holding capacity due to fine textured materials resulting in high surface area (10,496.18 ± 30.90 cm2/g). Jarosite contain higher concentration of toxic elements (lead, zinc, sulphur, cadmium, chromium and copper) than that of CCRs. Concentrations of radionuclides such as 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in jarosite found less than in CCRs are similar to that of soil. Statistically designed experiments on solidified/stabilised (s/s) sintered jarosite-CCRs products confirmed that the compressive strength of jarosite bricks reached as high as 140 kg/cm2 with 14.5% water absorption capacity at the combination of 3:1 ratio of jarosite and clay, respectively, but, concentrations of all the toxic elements recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-Toxicity Leachate Characteristics Procedure (TCLP) standard are not within the permissible limits. However, it is confirmed that the toxic elements leaching potentials of s/s-sintered products developed using 2:1 jarosite clay ratio with 15ped using 2:1 jarosite clay ratio with 15% CCRs comply with the USEPA-TCLP limits and also meet the quality for engineering applications

  3. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  4. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min

    2015-02-11

    Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms. PMID:25464282

  5. Non-toxic antifouling strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea M. Magin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The term fouling generally refers to an undesirable process in which a surface becomes encrusted with material from the surrounding environment. In the case of biofouling, that material consists of organisms and their by-products e.g., extracellular polysaccharides and metabolites. Biofouling limits the performance of devices in numerous applications; however, this review focuses on antifouling biomaterials for marine and biomedical applications. The surface chemistry and physical properties of the substratum are both crucial to preventing the recruitment of biofouling organisms. Natural antifouling surfaces exhibit both chemical and physical attributes. The chemical structure is discussed briefly as it relates to both anti-fouling and fouling-release properties. However, our focus has been to study physical cues as they relate to the initial attachment of fouling organisms.

  6. Controlled artificial upwelling in a fjord to stimulate non-toxic algae

    OpenAIRE

    McClimans, TA; Handa, A; Fredheim, A; Lien, E; Reitan, KI

    2010-01-01

    During the summer, primary production in the surface layers of some fjords depletes the nutrients to the degree that some species of toxic algae can dominate. We describe field experiments employing a bubble curtain and a submerged freshwater outlet to lift significant amounts of nutrient-rich seawater to the light zone to provide an environment in which non-toxic algae can bloom. The motivation for the experiment is to provide a local region with stimulated growth of non-toxic phytoplankton ...

  7. Radioiodine treatment of multinodular non-toxic goitre.

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, B.; Hegedu?s, L.; Gervil, M.; Hjalgrim, H.; Søe-jensen, P.; Hansen, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the long term effect of radioactive iodine on thyroid function and size in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. DESIGN--Consecutive patients with multinodular non-toxic goitre selected for radioactive iodine treatment and followed for a minimum of 12 months (median 48 months) after an intended dose of 3.7 MBq/g thyroid tissue corrected to a 100% uptake of iodine-131 in 24 hours. PATIENTS--69 patients with a growing multinodular non-toxic goitre causing local ...

  8. 100-lbf Non-Toxic Storable Liquid Propulsion Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Road Maps for both Launch and In Space Propulsion call for the development of non-toxic, monopropellant reaction control systems to replace current...

  9. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    OpenAIRE

    Cerci C; Cerci S; Eroglu E; Dede M; Kapucuoglu N; Yildiz M; Bulbul M

    2007-01-01

    Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG) than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histolo...

  10. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  11. Propulsion Risk Reduction Activities for Non-Toxic Cryogenic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for non-toxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of non-toxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of non-toxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of non-toxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that non-toxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.

  12. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  13. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effect of radioiodine in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of the study was to see the effect of radioiodine on thyroid size and function in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. We prospectively studied 55 non-toxic multinodular goitre patients treated with radioiodine of which 15 were males and 40 were females with age ranged from 25 years to 60 years (mean ± SD 40.45 ± 10.70 years) for a minimum of 12 months. Patients who were selected were those with local compression symptoms or for cosmetic reasons and the treatment was chosen because of a high operative risk or refusal to be operated on. Thyroid volume and T3, T4, TSH of all patients were determined before treatment and 6 months interval after treatment. Radioiodine was given in the dose ranged from 333 MBq (9 mCi) to 555 MBq (15 mCi) (mean ± SD 11.45 ± 2.04 mCi). The mean thyroid volume was reduced from 44.75 ± 37.44 ml to 28.76 ± 27.25 ml at 12 months (p < 0.001) i.e., reduced by 35.73%. Thyroid volume reduction at 6 months was 21.07%. Hypothyroidism occurred in 9.1% of the patients at 12 months. Side effects were few. Three cases developed radiation thyroiditis and two cases developed hyperthyroidism that was managed conservatively. It has been concluded that radioiodine is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre and may be the treatment of choice in elderly patients, in patients in whomlderly patients, in patients in whom surgery is contraindicated and in patients who are unwilling to undergo surgery. (author)

  14. Demonstration of a Non-Toxic Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Turpin, Alicia A.; Veith, Eric M.

    2007-01-01

    T:hree non-toxic demonstration reaction control engines (RCE) were successfully tested at the Aerojet Sacramento facility under a technology contract sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The goals of the NASA MSFC contract (NAS8-01109) were to develop and expand the technical maturity of a non-toxic, on-orbit auxiliary propulsion system (APS) thruster under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The demonstration engine utilized Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol as propellants to produce 870 lbf thrust. The Aerojet RCE's were successfully acceptance tested over a broad range of operating conditions. Steady state tests evaluated engine response to varying chamber pressures and mixture ratios. In addition to the steady state tests, a variety of pulsing tests were conducted over a wide range of electrical pulse widths (EPW). Each EPW condition was also tested over a range of percent duty cycles (DC), and bit impulse and pulsing specific impulse were determined for each of these conditions. Subsequent to acceptance testing at Aerojet, these three engines were delivered to the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in April 2005 for incorporation into a cryogenic Auxiliary Propulsion System Test Bed (APSTB). The APSTB is a test article that will be utilized in an altitude test cell to simulate anticipated mission applications. The objectives of this APSTB testing included evaluation of engine performance over an extended duty cycle map of propellant pressure and temperature, as well as engine and system performance at typical mission duty cycles over extended periods of time. This paper provides acceptance test results and a status of the engine performance as part of the system level testing.

  15. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  16. Pollution prevention benefits of non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves - 11000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. Shielding glovebox gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, i.e., hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the pollution prevention benefits of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. The nonhazardous substitutes are higher in cost, but this is offset by eliminating the costs associated with onsite waste handling of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) items. In the end, replacing lead with non-hazardous substitutes eliminates waste generation and future liability.

  17. Radioiodine therapy in non toxic multi nodular goitre, preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of 131I therapy in patients (pts) affected by non toxic multinodular goitre (NTMG). NTMG is a thyroid disease with a high prevalence, especially in low-iodine intake regions. Treatment of NTMG often requires surgery. However, thyroidectomy may be risky in some patients and radioiodine therapy could be an alternative treatment to reduce thyroid volume. We also evaluated if lithium administration can improve the efficacy of radioiodine treatment in this pts. Material and Methods: We enrolled 39 pts (8 males, 31 females; mean age 59 y, range 40-79 y) affected by NTMG. Mean thyroid volume (TV) at ultrasound was of 46.8 ml (range 18.5-87.3). Pts were randomised in 2 groups. Group 1: iodine therapy + lithium therapy 900 mg/die for 6 days; Group 2: iodine therapy alone. We also define 3 clusters of pts by TV. A:15-30 ml; B:31-40 ml; C: > 40 ml. The 131I activity (MBq) was calculated as follows: [4.44 (MBq) x 100/24 hours uptake (%)] x TV. All patients are evaluated for thyroid function and TV at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, since we postulate that major reduction in thyroid volume will occur 1 year after 131I therapy. Results: Up to now 16 pts were treated with 131I (mean activity: 512 MBq) and no side effects from 131I and lithium therapy were reported. Four out of 5 pts evaluated at 3 months (2 of group 1 and 3 of group 2) had a reduction in TV (mean valuegroup 2) had a reduction in TV (mean value: 8.8 ml). Five out of 10 pts had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism at 1 week, likely as a consequence of thyroid tissue destruction. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest the safety and effectiveness of 131I treatment in NTMG. We expect to clarify the role of lithium administration in improving 131I efficacy. This therapy could have a future role in patients with NTMG that can't be submitted to surgery

  18. Preliminary evaluation of non-hazardous explosives for security training and testing (NESTT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, G.L.; Pruneda, C.O.; Simpson, R.L.; Kury, J.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dumais, D.A. [Aerojet Headquarters, Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures can also be obtained through the appropriate choice of substrate. Sensitivity tests on the materials made to date show that they are non-hazardous. One such material is now in use for canine training at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...Agricultural Residues and Food Scraps, which is...are designed to be self-implementing in...chemical and physical identity of the non-hazardous...fuels. This ``identity principle'' is...Circuit cited in Safe Foods in determining whether...to note that the identity of a...

  20. Development of Non-hazardous Explosives for Security Training and Testing (NESTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The security force at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely used canines to search for explosives and other contraband substances. The use of threat quantities of explosive for realistic training in populated or sensitive Laboratory areas has not been permitted because of the hazard. To overcome this limitation a series of non-hazardous materials with authentic signatures have been prepared and evaluated. A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and canine (K-9) detection in a Beta Test Program

  1. Barriers to Practice of Non-Hazardous Solid Waste Minimization by Industries in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shadi Kafi Mallak; Mohd Bakri Ishak; Ahmad Fariz Mohamed; Sabrina Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The Practice of waste minimization plays a significant role in sustainable development as the most acceptable method in the waste management hierarchy. This paper is a case study research on industrial non-hazardous wastes generated from different industrial activities in one of the major Malaysian industrial areas. This study is aimed at identifying the barriers of waste minimization practices in Malaysian industries. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods were applied in th...

  2. The thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and its regulation in non-toxic goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 35 patients with non-toxic goitre, surgically resected thyroid tissue was hydrolyzed with Pronase under anaerobic conditions in the presence of methylmercaptoimidazole. Total iodine, PBI, L-thyroxine (T3-RIA and T4 (D)) as well as triiodothyronine (T3-RIA) were determined in the tissue hydrolysates. The data obtained were compared with T4/T3 ratios in the serum, TRH test and thyroidal 131I uptake before operation. The total iodine, amounted to 112,6 +- 14.6 ?g/g tissue. The T4/T3 ratio was 11.37 +- 1.80. Using this procedure of tissue hydrolysis and RIA assays for iodothyronines, the yield for T4 and T3 is considerably higher than the one obtained with previous methods. As in animal experiments, evidence was given for human goitre that T3 is predominantly produced first in the case of decreased T4 production. Second in the case of iodine deficiency, and third in cases of increased TSH response after TRH. Patients with a large amount of iodine and T4 in their thyroids have a much smaller increase in serum TSH after TRH than do subjects with a much lower thyroidal T4 concentration. This occurs even through the thyroid hormone levels in serum in these groups are not different. No correlation between thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and serum T4/T3 ratio could be demonstrated even undsub> ratio could be demonstrated even under extreme conditions. This finding favors the assumption of a predominant extrathyroidal regulation for T4/T3 ratio in serum. (orig.)

  3. Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

  4. Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per

    2014-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effects and to shape the delivery of value based care. Valid generic and disease specific tools are available for quantifying HRQoL in patients with non-toxic goitre. However, few studies have applied these validated instruments to assess HRQoL in patients with benign non-toxic goitre. Limited evidence suggests that patients with non-toxic goitre have HRQoL impairments in multiple HRQoL domains. While the HRQoL-impact of non-toxic goitre may be small relative to other severely disabling medical conditions, treatment is almost exclusively elected for HRQoL indications. Thus better quantification of HRQoL, particularly at better (or more favorable) levels where many patients score, is essential. Web and mobile technologies have eased the ability to deliver surveys to patients. Routine consideration of HRQoL provides the opportunity to monitor the impact of treatment on the outcomes most meaningful for patients and theopportunity to help shape the delivery of value based health care.

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZARDOUS, NON-HAZARDOUS and SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  6. Do thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins cause non-toxic and toxic multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of serum thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins, (T.S.I.) in a variety of thyroid diseases was determined in 96 patients and 35 normal controls. Significantly elevated levels of T.S.I. were found not only in patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis but also in those with non-toxic and multinodular goitre, whereas patients with a single autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, with subacute thyroiditis, and with 'hyperthyroiditis' had levels which did not differ from those in the controls. it is postulated that non-toxic multinodular goitre, like Graves' disease, may result from increased circulating T.S.I. which in some cases may be present in sufficient concentration to cause thyrotoxicosis. (author)

  7. Does prophylactic thyroxine treatment after operation for non-toxic goitre influence thyroid size?

    OpenAIRE

    Hegedu?s, L.; Hansen, J. M.; Veiergang, D.; Karstrup, S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of thyroxine treatment on thyroid volume after thyroidectomy for non-toxic goitre 110 consecutive patients were randomised to receive thyroxine (150 micrograms daily) or no treatment three months after operation. Thyroid volume determined by ultrasonography did not differ significantly between the two groups one year after operation. Nevertheless, a similar decrease in volume was seen from three to 12 months postoperatively in the thyroxine treated and no tr...

  8. Non-toxic propulsion for spaceplane ``pop-up'' upper stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, James B.; Wiswell, Robert L.; Haberman, Eugene G.

    1998-01-01

    Military spaceplane operations scenarios envision using the ``Pop-Up'' employment profile to significantly increase the payload to orbit capability of the vehicle. Previous studies have investigated a range of propulsion system and stage design options for a pop-up upper stage (Cotta 1996). Operationally it is desirable to have the upper stage and payload stored as a wooden round that is quickly loaded on the spaceplane when needed. The current study therefore focuses on non-toxic (less-toxic), storable propellant options. These are compared to the use of conventional (toxic) storable bi-propellant, Nitrogen Tetroxide/Monomethyl Hydrazine (N2O4/MMH), and cryogenic oxidizer bi-propellant, (LO2/RP1), options. The non-toxic oxidizers investigated include Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Hydroxyammonium Nitroformate (HANF). The non-toxic fuels include hydrocarbon jet fuel (JP-4), Quadricyclane (C7H8), and Methylcubane (C9H10). The impact of H2O2 purity (90% to 100%) and various fuel blends are also evaluated. The comparison includes payload delivery performance, propellant handling issues and technology development needs. The results show that there are propellant combinations that are less toxic than N2O4/MMH and yet deliver comparable payload delivery performance. However, there are propellant handling issues and technology development needs that must be addressed. These are discussed.

  9. Exfoliated Pd decorated graphene oxide nanosheets (PdNP-GO/P123): Non-toxic, ligandless and recyclable in greener Hiyama cross-coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamnia, Sadegh; Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Doustkhah, Esmail; Hosseini, Habib Golchin

    2015-08-01

    Graphene oxide nanosheets were applied as a support for Pd nanoparticles in Hiyama reaction of various aryl halides and triethoxyphenylsilane to generate biaryl derivatives in aqueous conditions. Addition of surfactant during the catalysis caused a significant increase in yields of products through well-exfoliation of PdNP-GO. Among various studied surfactants, P123 showed superior activity rather to other surfactants, SDS and CTAB. This heterogeneous catalytic system has attained the advantages of being non-toxic, available, recyclable, ligand-free, and compatible to reaction medium. PMID:25875491

  10. Analyses of Environmental Impacts of Non Hazardous Regional Landfills in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Donevska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of potential environmental impacts for eight planned non-hazardous regional landfills in Macedonia. Waste quantities for each waste management region and landfill capacities are estimated. Expected leachate quantities are calculated using Water Balance Method. Analyses and comparison of the likely landfill leachate per capita are presented, demonstrating that higher rates of leachate are generated per capita in waste management regions with higher annual sums of rainfall. An assessment of the potential landfill impacts on the water environment taking into consideration local geology and hydrogeology conditions is presented. Some general measures for leachate treatment that are in compliance with the modern EU standards are indicated. The goal of the study is to facilitate a better understanding about the sustainable waste management practices in cases of landfilling of municipal solid waste.

  11. Effects of non-toxic zinc exposure on human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emri, Eszter; Miko, Edit; Bai, Péter; Boros, Gábor; Nagy, Georgina; Rózsa, Dávid; Juhász, Tamás; Heged?s, Csaba; Horkay, Irén; Remenyik, Éva; Emri, Gabriella

    2015-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement; its importance to the skin is highlighted by the severe skin symptoms in hereditary or acquired zinc deficiency, by the improvement of several skin conditions using systemic or topical zinc preparations and by the induced intracellular zinc release upon UVB exposure, which is the main harmful environmental factor to the skin. Understanding the molecular background of the role of zinc in skin may help gain insight into the pathology of skin disorders and provide evidence for the therapeutic usefulness of zinc supplementation. Herein, we studied the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) exposure on the function of HaCaT keratinocytes, and the results showed that a non-toxic elevation in the concentration of extracellular zinc (100 ?M) facilitated cell proliferation and induced significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NOTCH1, IL8, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, increased heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) expression and non-toxic generation of superoxide were detected in the first 4 h. Regarding the effects on the UVB-induced toxicity, although the level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the keratinocytes pre-treated with zinc for 24 h was reduced 3 h after UVB irradiation, significantly enhanced superoxide generation was observed 10 h after UVB exposure in the zinc pre-exposed cells. The overall survival was unaffected; however, there was a decrease in the percentage of early apoptotic cells and an increase in the percentage of late apoptotic plus necrotic cells. These results suggest that the exposure of human keratinocytes to non-toxic concentrations of ZnCl2 impacts gene expression, cell proliferation and the responses to environmental stress in the skin. It would be important to further examine the role of zinc in skin and further clarify whether this issue can affect our thinking regarding the pathogenesis of skin diseases. PMID:25659595

  12. A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woollett Laura A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alarming rise in the obesity epidemic and growing concern for the pathologic consequences of the metabolic syndrome warrant great need for development of obesity-related pharmacotherapeutics. The search for such therapeutics is severely limited by the slow throughput of animal models of obesity. Amenable to placement into a 96 well plate, zebrafish larvae have emerged as one of the highest throughput vertebrate model organisms for performing small molecule screens. A method for visually identifying non-toxic molecular effectors of fat metabolism using a live transparent vertebrate was developed. Given that increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD via deletion of CD38 have been shown to prevent high fat diet induced obesity in mice in a SIRT-1 dependent fashion we explored the possibility of directly applying NAD to zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish larvae were incubated with daily refreshing of nile red containing media starting from a developmental stage of equivalent fat content among siblings (3 days post-fertilization, dpf and continuing with daily refreshing until 7 dpf. Results PPAR activators, beta-adrenergic agonists, SIRT-1 activators, and nicotinic acid treatment all caused predicted changes in fat, cholesterol, and gene expression consistent with a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fat metabolism signal transduction extending from man to zebrafish larvae. All changes in fat content were visually quantifiable in a relative fashion using live zebrafish larvae nile red fluorescence microscopy. Resveratrol treatment caused the greatest and most consistent loss of fat content. The resveratrol tetramer Vaticanol B caused loss of fat equivalent in potency to resveratrol alone. Significantly, the direct administration of NAD decreased fat content in zebrafish. Results from knockdown of a zebrafish G-PCR ortholog previously determined to decrease fat content in C. elegans support that future GPR142 antagonists may be effective non-toxic anti-obesity therapeutics. Conclusion Owing to the apparently high level of evolutionary conservation of signal transduction pathways regulating lipid metabolism, the zebrafish can be useful for identifying non-toxic small molecules or pharmacological target gene products for developing molecular therapeutics for treating clinical obesity. Our results support the promising potential in applying NAD or resveratrol where the underlying target protein likely involves Sirtuin family member proteins. Furthermore data supports future studies focused on determining whether there is a high concentration window for resveratrol that is effective and non-toxic in high fat obesity murine models.

  13. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

  14. Potent inhibition of copper corrosion in neutral chloride media by novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Two eco-friendly thiadiazole derivatives show high inhibition efficiency on copper. •Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. •Surface layers were also characterized by SEM coupled with EDX analysis. •Raman spectra reveals inhibitors suppress corrosion via formation of complex. •Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were calculated. -- Abstract: Inhibiting effect of two novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives on copper were investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution using weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Presence of inhibitors and increase of concentration greatly decrease corrosion rate, parameters determined from polarization curves and EIS plots show that inhibitors decrease both cathodic and anodic current densities, suppressing charge transfer process by adsorption on copper surface. Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. Surface layers were characterized by SEM coupled with EDX. Raman micro-spectroscopy reveals that inhibitor molecules suppress copper corrosion via formation of thiadiazole–Cu complex. Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were also evaluated

  15. Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Maréchal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants as well as the perspectives for future research directions.

  16. Radioiodine therapy of benign non-toxic goitre. Potential role of recombinant human TSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, S; Bonnema, S J

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an update on recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH) augmented radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy and outlines its potential role in the treatment of symptomatic benign multinodular non-toxic goitre. In some countries, ¹³¹I has been used for three decades to reduce the size of nodular goitres. The feasibility of ¹³¹I therapy depends on an adequate thyroid ¹³¹I uptake. Based on a two-fold increase in thyroid ¹³¹I uptake, superiority studies have convincingly demonstrated that the absorbed thyroid ¹³¹I dose can be increased without increasing the administered ¹³¹I activity, resulting in a 35-56% amplification of goitre reduction at one-year post radioiodine compared to conventional (without rh-TSH) ¹³¹I therapy. Although patient satisfaction is not improved at one-year, this approach facilitates tracheal decompression and is particularly promising in large goitres. The majority of multinodular non-toxic goitre patients may not require amplified goitre reduction. But as an alternative strategy, rh-TSH allowsup to 80% reduction of the therapeutic ¹³¹I activity while still achieving goitre reduction comparable to that of conventional ¹³¹I therapy and maintaining high patient satisfaction. The dose-reduction (equality) strategy is attractive in terms of minimizing post-therapeutic restrictions and in reducing the potential risk of radiation-induced malignancy. Adverse effects like temporary thyroid swelling and thyroid hormone excess are to a large extent dose-dependent and generally 0.1mg rh-TSH or less is well tolerated. Based on these results we conclude that rh-TSH augmented ¹³¹I therapy is a promising new therapeutic principle allowing the tailoring of an optimal ¹³¹I therapy on the individual level.

  17. 40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that receive Conditionally...FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES...

  18. Non-Toxic, Low-Freezing, Drop-In Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    A non-toxic, non-flammable, low-freezing heat transfer fluid is being developed for drop-in replacement within current and future heat transfer loops currently using water or alcohol-based coolants. Numerous water-soluble compounds were down-selected and screened for toxicological, physical, chemical, compatibility, thermodynamic, and heat transfer properties. Two fluids were developed, one with a freezing point near 0 C, and one with a suppressed freezing point. Both fluids contain an additive package to improve material compatibility and microbial resistance. The optimized sub-zero solution had a freezing point of 30 C, and a freezing volume expansion of 10-percent of water. The toxicity of the solutions was experimentally determined as LD(50) greater than 5g/kg. The solutions were found to produce minimal corrosion with materials identified by NASA as potentially existing in secondary cooling loops. Thermal/hydrodynamic performance exceeded that of glycol-based fluids with comparable freezing points for temperatures Tf greater than 20 C. The additive package was demonstrated as a buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption, and to prevent microbial growth. The optimized solutions were determined to have physically/chemically stable shelf lives for freeze/thaw cycles and longterm test loop tests.

  19. Deferiprone, a non-toxic reagent for determination of iron in samples via sequential injection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragourpun, Kraivinee; Sakee, Uthai; Fernandez, Carlos; Kruanetr, Senee

    2015-05-01

    We present for the first time the use of deferiprone as a non-toxic complexing agent for the determination of iron by sequential injection analysis in pharmaceuticals and food samples. The method was based on the reaction of Fe(III) and deferiprone in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 to give a Fe(III)-deferiprone complex, which showed a maximum absorption at 460 nm. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity range for iron determination was found over the range of 0.05-3.0 ?g mL-1 with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9993. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.032 ?g mL-1 and 0.055 ?g mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the method was less than 5.0% (n = 11), and the percentage recovery was found in the range of 96.0-104.0%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of Fe(III) in pharmaceuticals, water and food samples with a sampling rate of 60 h-1.

  20. Deferiprone, a non-toxic reagent for determination of iron in samples via sequential injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragourpun, Kraivinee; Sakee, Uthai; Fernandez, Carlos; Kruanetr, Senee

    2015-05-01

    We present for the first time the use of deferiprone as a non-toxic complexing agent for the determination of iron by sequential injection analysis in pharmaceuticals and food samples. The method was based on the reaction of Fe(III) and deferiprone in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 to give a Fe(III)-deferiprone complex, which showed a maximum absorption at 460nm. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity range for iron determination was found over the range of 0.05-3.0?gmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9993. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.032?gmL(-1) and 0.055?gmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the method was less than 5.0% (n=11), and the percentage recovery was found in the range of 96.0-104.0%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of Fe(III) in pharmaceuticals, water and food samples with a sampling rate of 60h(-1). PMID:25699700

  1. Wheat enolase demonstrates potential as a non-toxic cryopreservation agent for liver and pancreatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Mélanie; Chow-Shi-Yée, Mélanie; Ouellet, François; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2015-05-01

    Cryopreservation is essential for long-term storage of cells and tissues, which can be used for clinical applications such as drug toxicity testing, human transplantation, reproductive, regenerative and transfusion medicine. It requires use of cryoprotectants (e.g. dimethyl disulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol) that protect cells and tissues from dehydration and damage caused by formation of intracellular ice during freezing. As an alternative to these cytotoxic cryoprotectants, we are developing new technology using natural substances produced by plants that survive freezing conditions. We previously showed that soluble protein extracts such as wheat protein extract (WPE) prepared from winter wheat plants can substitute for DMSO as a cryoprotectant for certain mammalian cell types. To identify novel cryoactive proteins, WPE was separated using different chromatographic procedures and cryoactive fractions were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed enolase as a potential wheat protein candidate. A recombinant enolase protein was prepared and was able to successfully cryopreserve rat hepatocytes and insulin-secreting INS832/13 pancreatic cells. Post-thaw cells had high viability and levels of metabolic activities. Cryopreserved cells were plateable and had good adherence and morphological properties. These results indicate that individual plant proteins such as enolase have promising potential as new, non-toxic technology for cryopreservation protocols used for clinical applications. PMID:25740431

  2. Development of a mathematical model for the production of solid fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Polanec, Brigita; Glodez?, Srec?ko; Ekart, Janez; Samec, Niko; Kokalj, Filip

    2012-01-01

    The production of solid fuels from non-hazardous waste in Slovenia is becoming increasingly topical. After separation at the source the hierarchy of waste management is manifested in the mass and energy use of waste with a minimal damaging impact on the environment. There are two different qualities of solid fuels from non-hazardous waste, which represent energy-rich fractions from non-hazardous waste: - Residual Fuel Delivery (RDF), which is primarily intended for direct combustion and - Sol...

  3. Radioiodine - an attractive alternative to surgery in large non-toxic multinodular goitres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporadic non-toxic goitre (SNG) is defined as thyroid enlargement in a euthyroid patient living in an area without endemic goitre. Because thyroid hormone function is within the reference range, the main problems are the signs of thyroid enlargement, thus reducing the size of the goitre is undoubtedly the primary goal of therapy. Although SNG is a common disease, there is no single optimal management of treatment strategy. L-thyroxine treatment, although only moderately effective and with reported reductions in goitre volume of less than 30%, is still used. Moreover, in patients over 60 years of age, long-term TSH-suppression treatment may cause iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and is associated with a significant risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation as well as osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women. In patients with huge goitres, the surgical removal of a gland is made most frequently. The great advantage of thyroid surgery is its immediate effect. Unfortunately, surgery carries a risk of goitre recurrence and complications, both surgical and anaesthesia-related. For those patients who do not want to be operated on, or have contraindications for invasive treatment, and taking into consideration the low efficacy of L-thyroxine treatment, the best option is radioiodine. Despite encouraging reports of the high efficacy of radioiodine in the treatment of SNG this method is still not commonly used by many clinicians. In our work we would like to point out the efficawork we would like to point out the efficacy, adverse effects, and contraindications of using iodine-131. Going through the advantages and disadvantages of all accessible methods of treatment of SNG, we would like to focus on using radioiodine as an attractive alternative to surgery. (authors)

  4. A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J. D.; Treharne, R. E.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 1014 cm-3) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production.

  5. Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac, Jacky; Dang, Lisa; Tramel, Terri; Paseur, Lila; Champion, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under NASA sponsorship, Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) designed, built and tested two non-toxic, reaction control engines, one using liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) and the other using liquid oxygen and ethanol. This paper presents the design and testing of the LOX/LH2 thruster. The two key enabling technologies are the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector and the fuelcooling duct. The workhorse thruster was hotfire tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Test Stand 500 in March and April of 2002. All tests were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LHp injector settings. The operating conditions surveyed were 70 to 100% thrust levels, mixture ratios from 3.27 to 4.29, and LH2 duct cooling from 18.0 to 25.5% fuel flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The performance of the engine reached 95% C* efficiency. The temperature on the Haynes chamber remained well below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. These results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster headend design maintained cryogenic injection temperatures while firing, which validates the selected injector design approach for minimal heat soak-back. Also, off -nominal operation without adversely impacting the thermal response of the engine showed the robustness of the duct design, a key design feature for this application. By injecting fuel into the duct, the throat temperatures are manageable, yet the split of fuel through the cooling duct does not compromise the overall combstion efficiency, which indicates that, provided proper design refinement, such a concept could be applied to a high-performance version of the thruster.

  6. Prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in regularly menstruating women with non-toxic goitre or autoimmune thyroid disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Krzysztof C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The so called “big-big” prolactin (Prl, also known as macroprolactin is formed by Prl-immunoglobulin (Prl-IgG complexes and may cause elevation of serum Prl concentrations measured by standard assays, potentially leading to unnecessary investigations and/or treatment. In our study, we have endeavoured to assess the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in euthyroid, regularly menstruating women with thyroid disease, as well as to assess whether autoimmune thyroid disease may result in an increased prevalence of macroprolactinaemia. Material and methods We measured serum Prl in 182 regularly menstruating women aged 32.7?±?7.5 years (mean?±?SD, range 17–46 years who attended endocrine clinic either for investigation of non-toxic goitre (n?=?86, age 33.2?±?7.8 years or with autoimmune thyroid disease (n?=?96, age 32.3?±?7.2 years. Autoimmune thyroid disease was defined as raised titre of at least one anti-thyroid antibody [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg and/or anti-TSH-receptor (anti-TSH-R antibodies]. All women were clinically and biochemically euthyroid, either without or on treatment with L-thyroxine. In those with raised Prl (i.e., above 530 mIU/l we ruled out the presence of macroprolactinaemia by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation method. Results There was no significant age difference between women with and without autoimmune thyroid disease (p?=?0.84. Raised Prl concentrations were found in 10 women with thyroid disease (5.5%, and of those a significant macroprolactinaemia (i.e., reduction of Prl concentrations of more than 60% after PEG precipitation was found in 9 subjects (4.94%. There were no differences in the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia between women with autoimmune thyroid disease (4 out of 96, and without autoimmune thyroid disease (5 out of 86, p?=?0.75. Conclusions Approximately one out of twenty women with regular menses is likely to have raised serum Prl that is usually caused by the presence of macroprolactinaemia. Though structure of macroprolactin involves Prl-IgG complexes, there is no evidence that autoimmune thyroid disease is associated with raised prevalence of macroprolactinaemia.

  7. Low-Cost High-Performance Non-Toxic Self-Pressurizing Storable Liquid Bi-Propellant Pressure-Fed Rocket Engine Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exquadrum proposes a high-performance liquid bi-propellant rocket engine that uses propellants that are non-toxic, self-pressurizing, and low cost. The proposed...

  8. Disposal of Toxic and Non-Toxic Waste through Lasers : Destruction of toxic solids, liquids and gases Models and Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The report discusses the destruction of toxic and non-toxic solids, liquids and gases through lasers. In order to completely understand the project first chapters describes the basics about laser and plasma separately, from definition to types, components and categories. Differences between laser and microwave system are covered in this chapter as well. Besides lasers there are different technologies that are currently being used to destroy toxic and non-toxic materials. These technologies we...

  9. Stimulation of pneumovirus-specific CD8(+) T-cells using a non-toxic recombinant ricin delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Grimaldi, E.; Claassen, E. A. W.

    2007-01-01

    Internalisation of the plant toxin ricin occurs by retrograde transport which delivers the toxin to the ER where it intersects with the MHC class I system for peptide antigen display. Here, we describe the generation of an inactivated, non-toxic, ricin molecule fused to a peptide which elicits a CD8+ T-cell response in mice directed against pneumonia virus of mice, a pneumovirus related to human respiratory syncytial virus. The ricin fusion elicited a significant T-cell response when delivere...

  10. 76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...waste. Wastes may have value, but are still wastes...cited as support for the proposition that all transfers of...has purchased or finds value in the components of...because the waste may have value. As stated earlier...however, stand for the proposition that any product...

  11. Plant regeneration of non-toxic Jatropha curcas—impacts of plant growth regulators, source and type of explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-28

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 ?M TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 ?M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 ?M BAP and 5.5 ?M ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 ?M BAP and 8.5 ?M IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.

  12. Synthesis of Boron Nanorods by Smelting Non-Toxic Boron Oxide in Liquid Lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Hosmane, Narayan S.; Maguire, John A.; Paulson, Laura K.; Krise, Kate J.; Tao Xu; Amartya Chakrabarti

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the conventional bottom-up syntheses of boron nanostructures, a unique top-down and greener synthetic strategy is presented for boron nanorods involving nontoxic boron oxide powders ultrasonically smelted in liquid lithium under milder conditions. The product was thoroughly characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic emission spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and, UV-Vis spectroscopy, including structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy...

  13. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, Roar

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GWpeek, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET.As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4½ months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies.

  14. Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, R.

    2012-07-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (approx1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GW{sub peek}, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET. As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4 1/2 months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies. (Author)

  15. Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor [Amrita Centre for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Cochin, 682 041 (India); Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: manzoor_nanomed@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Technology, DST unit on Nanoscience, Chennai, 600 036 (India)

    2010-02-05

    Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au{sub 25} nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au{sub 25} clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au{sup +} ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of {approx}5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f{sub 7/2{approx}}83.97 eV and Au 4f{sub 5/2{approx}}87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size {approx}1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size {approx}8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at {approx}674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR{sup +ve} oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au{sub 25} clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

  16. Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au25 clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au+ ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of ?5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f7/2?83.97 eV and Au 4f5/2?87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size ?1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size ?8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at ?674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-8to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 ?g ml-1. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR+ve oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au25 clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

  17. Vaccination with non-toxic mutant toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces IL-17-dependent protection against Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kouji; Hu, Dong-Liang; Asano, Krisana; Nakane, Akio

    2015-06-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) is one of superantigens produced by Staphylococcus aureus. We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with non-toxic mutant TSST-1 (mTSST-1) develops host protection to lethal S. aureus infection in mice. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this protection is necessary to elucidate because the passive transfer of antibodies against TSST-1 fails to provide complete protection against S. aureus infection. In this study, the results showed that interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-producing cells were increased in the spleen cells of mTSST-1-vaccinated mice. The main source of IL-17A in mTSST-1-vaccinated mice was T-helper 17 (Th17) cells. The protective effect of vaccination was induced when the vaccinated wild type but not IL-17A-deficient mice were challenged with S. aureus. Gene expression of chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL1, and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages were increased in spleens and livers of vaccinated mice after infection. The IL-17A-dependent immune response was TSST-1 specific because TSST-1-deficient S. aureus failed to induce the response. The present study suggests that mTSST-1 vaccination is able to provide the IL-17A-dependent host defense against S. aureus infection which promotes chemokine-mediated infiltration of phagocytes into the infectious foci. PMID:25857736

  18. Green tea catechins as brain-permeable, non toxic iron chelators to "iron out iron" from the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, S; Weinreb, O; Reznichenko, L; Kalfon, L; Amit, T

    2006-01-01

    Evidence to link abnormal metal (iron, copper and zinc) metabolism and handling with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases pathology has frequently been reported. The capacity of free iron to enhance and promote the generation of toxic reactive oxygen radicals has been discussed numerous times. Metal chelation has the potential to prevent iron-induced oxidative stress and aggregation of alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid peptides. The efficacy of iron chelators depends on their ability to penetrate the subcellular compartments and cellular membranes where iron dependent free radicals are generated. Thus, natural, non-toxic, brain permeable neuroprotective drugs, are preferentially advocated for "ironing out iron" from those brain areas where it preferentially accumulates in neurodegenerative diseases. This review will discuss the most recent findings from in vivo and in vitro studies concerning the transitional metal (iron and copper) chelating property of green tea, and its major polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate with respect to their potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17447435

  19. Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimian, F

    1999-05-02

    Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like; calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya bean oil, were irradiated by 60-cobalt gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 yr after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 nm. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also shows the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 yr after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration has also confirmed the spectrophotometry results. Finally the most effective stabilizing system has been added to the Iranian PVC and its behaviour has been compared with the Solvay PVC for 6 months period after irradiation.

  20. [Modulation of skeletal muscle contraction by the non-toxic fraction of Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom via the cholinergic receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, A; Cognard, C; Potreau, D; Bescond, J; Raymond, G; El Ayeb, M; Benkhalifa, R

    2007-01-01

    Cholinergic receptors have an essential physiological role in the central nervous system because of their implication in higher functions in the neuromuscular junction within the brain and also in the peripheral nervous system by activating nicotinic (nAChRs) or muscarinic (mAChRs) receptors. Moreover, cholinergic receptors could be recognized by animal toxins isolated from snake venoms or alkaloids having animal or vegetal origin. In this context, we aim to find such molecules in a non toxic venom fraction of Buthus occitanus tunetanus scorpion, M1, which could therefore constitute promising medical tool. We present here a physiological study in skeletal muscle cells that regroups data that have been recently published and some new results reinforcing the last ones. The global effect of M1, was firstly studied on isolated nerve-muscle preparation. In cultured myotubes, we have found that the intracellular calcium increase, induced by M1 was blocked when ryanodine or inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors are inhibited. Moreover, we have shown that M1 application on myotubes, induced a membrane depolarization as seen with acetylcholine. The treatment of myotubes with alpha-bungarotoxin blocked in most parts the depolarization amplitude. Thus, these results confirm the presence of at least one component in M1 active in nAChRs. PMID:19388582

  1. Amelioration of oxidative stress in bio-membranes and macromolecules by non-toxic dye from Morinda tinctoria (Roxb.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Dipita; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2012-06-01

    Plant dyes have been in use for coloring and varied purposes since prehistoric times. A red dye found in the roots of plants belonging to genus Morinda is a well recognized coloring ingredient. The dye fraction obtained from the methanolic extract of the roots of Morinda tinctoria was explored for its role in attenuating damages caused by H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. The antioxidant potential of the dye fraction was assessed through DPPH radical scavenging, deoxyribose degradation and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. It was subsequently screened for its efficiency in extenuating damage incurred to biomembrane (using erythrocytes and their ghost membranes) and macromolecules (pBR322 DNA, lipids and proteins) from exposure to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the non-toxic nature of the dye was supported by the histological evaluation conducted on the tissue sections from the major organs of Swiss Albino mice as well as effect on Hep3B cell line (human hepatic carcinoma). The LC-MS confirms the dye fraction to be morindone. Our study strongly suggests that morindone present in the root extracts of M. tinctoria, in addition to being a colorant, definitely holds promise in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:22487463

  2. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...77. (b) Disposal in solid waste landfills. (1) Any person...the following PCB bulk product waste in a facility permitted, licensed...non-municipal non-hazardous waste landfill: (i) Plastics (such as plastic...

  3. Transition to Non-toxic Gunshot Use in Olympic Shooting: Policy Implications for IOC and UNEP in Resolving an Environmental Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Vernon George; Guitart, Raimon

    2013-01-01

    Olympic shooters discharge, annually, thousands of tons of lead shot which pose toxic risks to animals and may pollute both surface and ground waters. Non-toxic steel shot is an acceptable and effective substitute, but International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) rules prevent its adoption. The present policy and rules of the ISSF on lead shot use contravene the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Charter position on environmental protection. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNE...

  4. High concentrations of protein test substances may have non-toxic effects on Daphnia magna: implications for regulatory study designs and ecological risk assessments for GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Burns, Andrea; Hamer, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing for possible adverse effects of insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms (NTOs) is an important part of many ecological risk assessments for regulatory decision-making about the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops. To increase confidence in the risk assessments, regulatory guidelines for effects testing specify that representative surrogate species for NTOs are exposed to concentrations of insecticidal proteins that are in excess of worst-case predicted exposures in the field. High concentrations in effects tests are achieved by using protein test substances produced in microbes, such as Escherichia coli. In a study that exposed Daphnia magna to a single high concentration of a microbial test substance containing Vip3Aa20, the insecticidal protein in MIR162 maize, small reductions in growth were observed. These effects were surprising as many other studies strongly suggest that the activity of Vip3Aa20 is limited to Lepidoptera. A plausible explanation for the effect on growth is that high concentrations of test substance have a non-toxic effect on Daphnia, perhaps by reducing its feeding rate. A follow-up study tested that hypothesis by exposing D. magna to several concentrations of Vip3Aa20, and a high concentration of a non-toxic protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Vip3Aa20 and BSA had sporadic effects on the reproduction and growth of D. magna. The pattern of the effects suggests that they result from non-toxic effects of high concentrations of protein, and not from toxicity. The implications of these results for regulatory NTO effects testing and ERA of IRGM crops are discussed. PMID:25523175

  5. Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Viantri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro. Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 0.2 ?IU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 1.8 ?IU/ml

  6. Graphene oxide selectively targets cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: implications for non-toxic cancer treatment, via "differentiation-based nano-therapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Marco; Verre, Andrea F; Iliut, Maria; Peiris-Pagés, Maria; Ozsvari, Bela; Gandara, Ricardo; Cappello, Anna Rita; Sotgia, Federica; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Lisanti, Michael P

    2015-02-28

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a.k.a. cancer stem cells (CSCs), are difficult to eradicate with conventional approaches to cancer treatment, such as chemo-therapy and radiation. As a consequence, the survival of residual CSCs is thought to drive the onset of tumor recurrence, distant metastasis, and drug-resistance, which is a significant clinical problem for the effective treatment of cancer. Thus, novel approaches to cancer therapy are needed urgently, to address this clinical need. Towards this end, here we have investigated the therapeutic potential of graphene oxide to target cancer stem cells. Graphene and its derivatives are well-known, relatively inert and potentially non-toxic nano-materials that form stable dispersions in a variety of solvents. Here, we show that graphene oxide (of both big and small flake sizes) can be used to selectively inhibit the proliferative expansion of cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types. For this purpose, we employed the tumor-sphere assay, which functionally measures the clonal expansion of single cancer stem cells under anchorage-independent conditions. More specifically, we show that graphene oxide effectively inhibits tumor-sphere formation in multiple cell lines, across 6 different cancer types, including breast, ovarian, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancers, as well as glioblastoma (brain). In striking contrast, graphene oxide is non-toxic for "bulk" cancer cells (non-stem) and normal fibroblasts. Mechanistically, we present evidence that GO exerts its striking effects on CSCs by inhibiting several key signal transduction pathways (WNT, Notch and STAT-signaling) and thereby inducing CSC differentiation. Thus, graphene oxide may be an effective non-toxic therapeutic strategy for the eradication of cancer stem cells, via differentiation-based nano-therapy. PMID:25708684

  7. Graphene oxide selectively targets cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: Implications for non-toxic cancer treatment, via “differentiation-based nano-therapy”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Marco; Verre, Andrea F.; Iliut, Maria; Peiris-Pagés, Maria; Ozsvari, Bela; Gandara, Ricardo; Cappello, Anna Rita; Sotgia, Federica; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a.k.a. cancer stem cells (CSCs), are difficult to eradicate with conventional approaches to cancer treatment, such as chemo-therapy and radiation. As a consequence, the survival of residual CSCs is thought to drive the onset of tumor recurrence, distant metastasis, and drug-resistance, which is a significant clinical problem for the effective treatment of cancer. Thus, novel approaches to cancer therapy are needed urgently, to address this clinical need. Towards this end, here we have investigated the therapeutic potential of graphene oxide to target cancer stem cells. Graphene and its derivatives are well-known, relatively inert and potentially non-toxic nano-materials that form stable dispersions in a variety of solvents. Here, we show that graphene oxide (of both big and small flake sizes) can be used to selectively inhibit the proliferative expansion of cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types. For this purpose, we employed the tumor-sphere assay, which functionally measures the clonal expansion of single cancer stem cells under anchorage-independent conditions. More specifically, we show that graphene oxide effectively inhibits tumor-sphere formation in multiple cell lines, across 6 different cancer types, including breast, ovarian, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancers, as well as glioblastoma (brain). In striking contrast, graphene oxide is non-toxic for “bulk” cancer cells (non-stem) and normal fibroblasts. Mechanistically, we present evidence that GO exerts its striking effects on CSCs by inhibiting several key signal transduction pathways (WNT, Notch and STAT-signaling) and thereby inducing CSC differentiation. Thus, graphene oxide may be an effective non-toxic therapeutic strategy for the eradication of cancer stem cells, via differentiation-based nano-therapy. PMID:25708684

  8. Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter

    OpenAIRE

    Viantri, N. P.; Setiabudi, W.; Anam, C.; Nadzir, F.; Varuna, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo) and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro). Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and f...

  9. Development of SCAR marker specific to non-toxic Jatropha curcas L. and designing a novel multiplexing PCR along with nrDNA ITS primers to circumvent the false negative detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastan, Shaik G; Sudheer, Pamidimarri D V N; Rahman, Hifzur; Reddy, Muppala P; Chikara, Jitendra

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub, has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel an emerging alternative to petro-diesel. In addition to the commercial value, it is also having medicinal and even high nutritional value to use as animal fodder which is limited due to the toxicity. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety of J. curcas in a mixed population and also for quality control since the toxic components of J. curcas has deleterious effect on animals. In the present study, the efforts were made to generate the specific SCAR marker for toxic and/or non-toxic J. curcas from RAPD markers. Among the markers specific for toxic and non-toxic varieties, four were selected, purified, cloned, sequenced, and designed primers out of which one set of primers NT-JC/SCAR I/OPQ15-F and R could able to discriminate the non-toxic with toxic Jatropha by giving expected 430 bp size amplification in non-toxic variety. Furthermore, novel multiplex PCR was designed using the nrDNA ITS primers to overcome the false negatives. Present work also demonstrates utility of the conserved regions of nrDNA coding genes in ruling out the artifacts in PCR-like false negatives frequently occur in SCAR due to various reasons. The specific SCAR markers generated in the present investigation will help to distinguish non-toxic from toxic varieties of J. curcas or vice versa, and isolated marker along with designed multiplex protocol has applications in quality control for selective cultivation of non-toxic variety and will also assist in breeding and molecular mapping studies. PMID:21556845

  10. Non-hazardous Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of levulinic acid derivatives: alternative renewable access to 3-hydroxypropionates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Michael J; Mihovilovic, Marko D

    2015-02-18

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases catalyze the energetically challenging oxidation of levulinates (4-oxopentanoates) to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) derivates under ambient conditions, replacing propellant-grade H2O2 with aerial oxygen as the oxidant. This reaction enables a new pathway to a platform for chemical 3-HPA, an important intermediate in the non-petrol based production of a variety of bulk chemicals (acrylates, malonates, 1,3-propanediol). PMID:25583122

  11. One-step green synthesis of non-hazardous dicarboxyl cellulose flocculant and its flocculation activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Liu, Hongyi; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2015-10-15

    The waste management of used flocculants is a thorny issue in the field of wastewater treatment. To natural cellulose based flocculants, utilization of hazardous cellulose solvent and simplification of synthetic procedure are the two urgent problems needing to be further improved. In this work, a series of natural dicarboxyl cellulose flocculants (DCCs) were one-step synthesized via Schiff-base route. The cellulose solvent (NaOH/Urea solution) was utilized during the synthesis process. The full-biodegradable flocculants avoid causing secondary pollution to environment. The chemical structure and solution property of the DCC products were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, TGA, FESEM, charge density and ?-potential. Kaolin suspension and effluent from paper mill were selected to evaluate the flocculation activity of the DCCs. Their flocculation performance was compared with that of commercial cationic polyacrylamide and poly aluminium chloride flocculants. The positive results showed that the NaOH/Urea solvent effectively promoted the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) conversion to DCC in the one-step synthesis reaction. The DCCs with the carboxylate content more than 1mmol/g exhibited steady flocculation performance to kaolin suspension in the broad pH range from 4 to 10. Its flocculation capacity to the effluent from paper mill also showed excellent. PMID:25897798

  12. Non-hazardous organic solvents in the paraffin-embedding technique: a rational approach. Aliphatic monoesters for clearing and dewaxing: butyldecanoate.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H; Holm, I

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to substitute hazardous compounds, used in tissue processing and dewaxing, with compounds having lowest possible toxicity and inflammability without impairing the morphology, staining characteristics, or diagnostic value of the tissue sections. All aromatic compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. alkanes, isoparaffins, petroleum distillates, etc.) were rejected, primarily due to their high vapour pressure. Based on a theoretical study of compounds used for clearing, a number of non-hazardous potential substitutes were chosen. The following experimental study narrowed the group to three unbranched, saturated, aliphatic monoesters containing 12-14 carbon atoms. On large-scale testing of these compounds, we found butyldecanoate to be the closest to an ideal substitute for aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the histology department: the section quality is at least equal to that obtained with xylene. For dewaxing, it is used at 30-35 degrees C. Butyldecanoate is not suitable as a pre-mounting agent. In practice, this is no problem as modern mounting agents permit mounting of coverslips directly from ethanol without impairing the appearance of the section in the microscope. Butyldecanoate has only a slight odour, insignificant vapour pressure (< 0.01 kPa at 20 degrees C), and does not present a fire hazard (flash point 134 degrees C). The introduction of this compound in the laboratory poses no health hazard, and the substance is biodegradable.

  13. A method for the replacement of 137Cs with 40K as a non-hazardous radioactive tracer for open-source decommissioning research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of 40K as a radioactive tracer analogue of 137Cs in ion exchange experiments is reported. Solutions of varying concentrations of potassium chloride (KCl) have been monitored radiometrically in a sodium iodide well-counter to determine the activity-concentration relationship. Ion exchange reactions using an exemplar ion exchange resin, KCl and non-radioactive caesium chloride (CsCl) solutions have been studied radiometrically. The adsorbed amounts of potassium and caesium are observed, inferred from displaced K+ ions, to be consistent with the total exchange capacity of the resin. Adsorption isotherm models have been applied to the experimental data, with the Freundlich isotherm observed to fit the data with the highest degree of consistency. The reported results indicate that decontamination techniques involving hazardous isotopes of anthropogenic origin such as 137Cs can be developed, evaluated and optimised by substituting a chemically and physically similar non-hazardous radioactive isotope, in this case 40K. This represents a means by which innovative decontamination techniques and regimes might be identified without the need to use 137Cs and thus avoids additional generation of radioactive wastes. (author)

  14. Simple and non-toxic fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)-patterned polymer surface for the formation of cell patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Tae; Jin, Yu-Ran; Oh, Min-Suk; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a facile and non-toxic method for the formation of cell-adhesive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) patterns on the surface of a non-biological polystyrene substrate (NPS) is developed to control cellular micro-organization. PVA thin films spin-coated onto the NPS are selectively irradiated with 150 keV H+ ions through a pattern mask and developed with deionized water to form negative-type PVA patterns. Well-defined stripe patterns of PVA with a width of 100 ?m are created on the NPS at a higher fluence than 5 × 1015 ions/cm2, and their surface chemical compositions are changed by ion irradiation without any significant morphological change. Based on the results of the protein adsorption test and in vitro cell culture, cancer cells are preferentially adhered and proliferated onto the more hydrophilic PVA regions of the PVA-patterned NPS, resulting in well-defined cell patterns.

  15. Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharoar Md

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric ?- amyloid (A? to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar A? is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible A? oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of A? aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh, was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. Results K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against A?42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-?-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic A? oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different A? conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. Conclusion K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

  16. Phototransformations of non-toxic antioxidants, the derivatives of 1,2-dihydroquinolines, in homogeneous and micellar solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Nekipelova

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of transient species photogenerated from 6-R-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinolines (TMDQ are very sensitive to medium variation. In anhydrous organic solvents, aminyl radicals were generated. They decay in the reaction of dimerization with the second-order rate constant decreasing in a row heptane>benzene>2-propanol. When passing from organic solvents to water, methanol, and water-alcohol solutions, the kinetics and the direction of the reaction crucially change. As a result of the photolysis, the product of the addition of a solvent to the double bond of heterocycle, 4-hydroxy- or 4-methoxy-6-R-2,2,4- tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is formed in water and methanol, respectively. The transformation is a complex reaction, and the formation of excited transient species is followed by a sequence of first-order and pseudo-first-order reactions. Unlike the photolysis in anhydrous organic solvents, the reaction in water and methanol does not involve aminyl radicals. In aqueous solutions, the first-order rate constants for the decay of transient species are higher in acidic and neutral solutions. At the pH close to pKa of the transient species, it drops, indicating that the neutral form is less reactive. The same product is formed over the whole range of pH. For the anionic surfactant (SDS in acidic and alkaline solutions, the apparent rate constant in the micellar solutions is lower than that in the aqueous (negative micellar catalysis. At the medium pH, a positive micellar catalysis is observed, and the rate constant of the decay depends linearly on the concentration of TMDQ in the micelles, indicative of the direct reaction between TMDQ and the cationic transient species.

  17. Non-toxic complexing agent Tri-sodium citrate’s effect on chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films and its growth mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? ZnS thin films were prepared by CBD using non-toxic complexing agent. ? The morphology of ZnS thin film was improved with Na3-citrate. ? The growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is depends upon the concentration of Na3-citrate. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the growth and characterizations of chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films prepared at pH 10. Aqueous zinc acetate and thiourea were used as precursors along with the non-toxic complexing agent, Na3-citrate. The effects of different concentrations of Na3-citrate from 0 to 0.2 M on the structural, morphological, compositional, chemical, and optical properties of ZnS thin films were studied. It was revealed through field emission scanning electron microscopy studies that an increase in the concentration of Na3-citrate leads to an improvement of the uniformity of the ZnS thin films and decrease in the grain size. Atomic force microscopy showed that the RMS value decreases with an increase in Na3-citrate concentration. X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallinity of ZnS thin films improves upon increasing concentration of Na3-citrate and that the films exhibit a hexagonal polycrystalline ZnS phase while deposited with 0.2 and 0.1 M Na3-citrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the signal intensity decreases for Zn 2p3/2 and S 2p1/2 as the concentrationp1/2 as the concentration of Na3-citrate decreases from 0.2 to 0 M. It was shown by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy that approximately 80% transmission in the visible region and absorption edge shifts towards blue when the concentration of Na3-citrate increases from 0 to 0.2 M. The band gap energy of the ZnS film deposited without Na3-citrate was found to be 3.53 eV, while it increases from 3.73 to 3.80 eV with a decrease in Na3-citrate concentration from 0.2 to 0.025 M. The growth mechanism of CBD–ZnS thin film was found to be dependent on Na3-citrate concentration.

  18. Discovery of potent, novel, non-toxic anti-malarial compounds via quantum modelling, virtual screening and in vitro experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaludov Nikola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing resistance towards existing anti-malarial therapies emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Additionally, many malaria drugs in use today have high toxicity and low therapeutic indices. Gradient Biomodeling, LLC has developed a quantum-model search technology that uses quantum similarity and does not depend explicitly on chemical structure, as molecules are rigorously described in fundamental quantum attributes related to individual pharmacological properties. Therapeutic activity, as well as toxicity and other essential properties can be analysed and optimized simultaneously, independently of one another. Such methodology is suitable for a search of novel, non-toxic, active anti-malarial compounds. Methods A set of innovative algorithms is used for the fast calculation and interpretation of electron-density attributes of molecular structures at the quantum level for rapid discovery of prospective pharmaceuticals. Potency and efficacy, as well as additional physicochemical, metabolic, pharmacokinetic, safety, permeability and other properties were characterized by the procedure. Once quantum models are developed and experimentally validated, the methodology provides a straightforward implementation for lead discovery, compound optimizzation and de novo molecular design. Results Starting with a diverse training set of 26 well-known anti-malarial agents combined with 1730 moderately active and inactive molecules, novel compounds that have strong anti-malarial activity, low cytotoxicity and structural dissimilarity from the training set were discovered and experimentally validated. Twelve compounds were identified in silico and tested in vitro; eight of them showed anti-malarial activity (IC50 ? 10 ?M, with six being very effective (IC50 ? 1 ?M, and four exhibiting low nanomolar potency. The most active compounds were also tested for mammalian cytotoxicity and found to be non-toxic, with a therapeutic index of more than 6,900 for the most active compound. Conclusions Gradient's metric modelling approach and electron-density molecular representations can be powerful tools in the discovery and design of novel anti-malarial compounds. Since the quantum models are agnostic of the particular biological target, the technology can account for different mechanisms of action and be used for de novo design of small molecules with activity against not only the asexual phase of the malaria parasite, but also against the liver stage of the parasite development, which may lead to true causal prophylaxis.

  19. LOS oligosaccharide modification enhances dendritic cell responses to meningococcal native outer membrane vesicles expressing a non-toxic lipid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hannah E; Copland, Alastair; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Cohen, Jonathan; Brown, Jeremy; Klein, Nigel; van der Ley, Peter; Dixon, Garth

    2014-04-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are released by many bacteria, and contain immunogenic antigens in addition to harmful inflammatory factors, like lipopolysaccharides. Chemically detoxified OMV have been used in vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis (Nm); however, little is known about their interaction with antigen presenting cells. In this study, we investigated the interaction of Nm OMV with human dendritic cells (DC) to gain further understanding of their biological activity. We engineered a novel serogroup B Nm that is unencapsulated (siaD), expresses pentacylated lipid A (lpxL1), hence conferring reduced toxicity, and expresses an lgtB oligosaccharide structure designed to target OMV to DC via DC-SIGN. We show that the lgtB moiety is critical for internalization of NOMV by DC. Furthermore, the lgtB moiety significantly enhances DC maturation, IL-10 and IL-23 production in the presence of a pentacylated lipid A. While different DC phenotypes were observed for each NOMV, this had little effect on Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation; however, lgtBsignificantly increased Th17 cell expansion in the presence of pentacylated lipid A. We believe that lpxL1/lgtB NOMV should be considered further as a vaccine vector, particularly considering the importance of lgtB in antigen uptake and further human studies on antigen-specific responses should be considered. PMID:24152255

  20. Radiolytic formation of non-toxic Cr(III) from toxic Cr(VI) in formate containing aqueous solutions: A system for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Cr(VI) is radiolytically reduced to Cr(III) in presence formate. ? Reduction is pH, dose rate dependent. A mechanism is proposed. ? Cr(VI) recovers when all the formate is consumed. ? Irradiation of wastewater can remove Cr(VI). - Abstract: Toxic hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the form of potassium dichromate was radiolytically reduced to non-toxic trivalent chromium Cr(III) in N2O-saturated aqueous solutions containing formate. This reduction by the electron donor (CO2H·/CO2·?) produced by continuous radiolysis of water, was a linear function of the absorbed dose. This reaction was pH and dose rate dependent. pH was an important parameter in the reduction, as it affects both chemical speciation of Cr(VI) and formate. Possible mechanisms related to dose rate dependence of removal of Cr(VI) are presented. At pH 3 a decrease in the radiation induced reduction of Cr(VI) was observed with increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration. A mechanism to account for this variation is proposed. These findings suggest that irradiation of Cr(VI) solutions in presence of formate can be effective, economical and simple means for treatment of waste water contaminated with hexavalent Cr(VI).

  1. Radiolytic formation of non-toxic Cr(III) from toxic Cr(VI) in formate containing aqueous solutions: A system for water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouider, Fathi, E-mail: fdjouider@kau.edu.sa [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr(VI) is radiolytically reduced to Cr(III) in presence formate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is pH, dose rate dependent. A mechanism is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr(VI) recovers when all the formate is consumed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation of wastewater can remove Cr(VI). - Abstract: Toxic hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the form of potassium dichromate was radiolytically reduced to non-toxic trivalent chromium Cr(III) in N{sub 2}O-saturated aqueous solutions containing formate. This reduction by the electron donor (CO{sub 2}H{center_dot}/CO{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) produced by continuous radiolysis of water, was a linear function of the absorbed dose. This reaction was pH and dose rate dependent. pH was an important parameter in the reduction, as it affects both chemical speciation of Cr(VI) and formate. Possible mechanisms related to dose rate dependence of removal of Cr(VI) are presented. At pH 3 a decrease in the radiation induced reduction of Cr(VI) was observed with increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration. A mechanism to account for this variation is proposed. These findings suggest that irradiation of Cr(VI) solutions in presence of formate can be effective, economical and simple means for treatment of waste water contaminated with hexavalent Cr(VI).

  2. Treatment of solitary, autonomously-functioning, non-toxic thyroid nodules with I131 Adenema tiroideo autónomo no tóxico tratamiento con I131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Fifteen euthyroid patients (14 women and 1man with solitary autonomously functioning non-toxic thyroid nodules (AFTN were treated with high doses of I131 (mean 19.2 mCi. Diagnosis was made by I131 thyroid scan and triiodothyronine suppression test. The size of the nodule was determined by thyroid ecography both before and after treatment. Evaluation of thyroid function was performed clinically and by T3 T4 and TSH determinations before therapy and during follow.up. AII patients had complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Two cases of hypothyroidism were found in the first two years of follow-up. We have no explanation for this fact since extranodular thyroid tissue was suppressed and the patients were receiving oral triiodothyronine during radioidine treatment. The nodules decreasedin size In 9 of 13 patients followed (average decrease 45% and disappeared in other 2. our findings suggest that solitary non-toxic AFTN should be treated with I131 particularly if complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid tissue is found. If complete disappearance of the nodule is considered desirable surgical removal must be performed.

    Se trataron 14 mujeres y un hombre, con adenomas tiroideos solitarios funcionalmente autónomos, no tóxicos, con I131 a una dosis promedio de 19.2 mCi. La gamagrafía tiroidea demostró hipercaptación del nódulo con supresión total del resto de la glándula. El tamaño del nódulo se determinó por medio de ecografía tiroidea antes y después del tratamiento, y su autonomía por la prueba de supresión con triyodotironina. El estado tiroideo se puso de presente clínicamente y por la medición de T3, T 4 y TSH en el plasma, antes de la terapia con el radiofármaco y durante la evolución postratamiento. En dos pacientes se presentó hipotiroidismo desde los dos primeros años del período de seguimiento, a pesar de que el tejido tiroideo circundante estaba suprimido y de la administración oral de triyodotironina simultáneamente con el yodo radioactivo. En 13 pacientes se logró hacer seguimiento; en 9 de ellos (69.2% hubo disminución del tamaño del nódulo (promedio de 45%; en dos desapareció y en otros dos no se modificó la lesión. Se sugiere que el tratamiento de los adenomas tiroideos autónomos no tóxicos con I131 es el más apropiado, especialmente si el tejido extranodular está suprimido; ello en vista de la Infrecuencia del hipotiroldismo postratamiento y de la inocultad y facilidad de su administración. Sin embargo, cuando se desea la desaparición total del adenoma y no existen contraindicaciones, debe recurrirse a la cirugía

  3. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Steen J.; Nielsen, Viveque E.; Hegedues, Laszlo [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2006-12-15

    There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. {sup 131}I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid {sup 131}I uptake is mandatory for {sup 131}I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid {sup 131}I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the {sup 131}I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged {sup 131}I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented {sup 131}I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

  4. Various fractions of Hypericum x moserianum and Hypericum ericoides possess antiglycation, anti-lipid peroxidation, antioxidative activities and non-toxic effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Shahzad, Muhammad; Saddiqe, Zeb; Hassan, M Jawad; Saba, Sumbal; Rafique, Jamal; Malik, Rizwana; Hussain, Hidayat

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, two species Hypericum x moserianum and Hypericum ericoides which belong to genus Hypericum were evaluated for their potential antiglycation, antioxidant, anti lipid peroxidation and cytotoxic activities. These species are widely used in folk medicine and to the best of our knowledge there were no previous reports regarding antioxidant, anti-glycation and cytotoxicity studies of these species. Among the crude methanol extracts and fractions of both the species, the ethyl acetate fraction of H. x moserianum exhibited promising antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 129.084±1.215?g/ml, followed by methanol extract (IC50=232.083 ± 1.215?g/ml) and aqueous fraction (IC50=266.962 ±2.213 ?g/ml). The ethyl acetate fraction of H. ericoides exhibited IC50 value of 295.088 ± 2.320 ?g/ml. In antiglycation assay, the ethyl acetate fraction of H. x moserianum showed 52.096% inhibition at 500?g/ml. For lipid peroxidation assay, the dichloromethane, aqueous and n-hexane fractions of H. x moserianum showed 67.241, 66.147 and 64.213% inhibition respectively, while aqueous fraction of H. ericoides exhibited 67.404% inhibition at 500?g/ml. In cytotoxicity assay, all fractions of both the species were found to be non-toxic on mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells with IC50 value greater than 30?g/ml as compared to cycloheximide with IC50 value 0.073±0.1?g/ml used as a standard. It was concluded from the study that among the two species, crude methanolic and ethyl acetate fractions were more active regarding the antioxidant, anti-glycation activities while dichloromethane, aqueous and n-hexane fractions possessed anti-lipid peroxidation activity. PMID:26004727

  5. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen J; Nielsen, Viveque E

    2006-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. 131I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid 131I uptake is mandatory for 131I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid 131I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the 131I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged 131I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented 131I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

  6. Inhibition of sirtuin 2 with sulfobenzoic acid derivative AK1 is non-toxic and potentially neuroprotective in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TaraLeighSpires-Jones

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tauopathies including tau-associated Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are characterized pathologically by the formation of tau-containing neurofibrillary aggregates and neuronal loss, which contribute to cognitive decline. There are currently no effective treatments to prevent or slow this neural systems failure. The rTg4510 mouse model, which expresses a mutant form of the tau protein associated with frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism-17, undergoes dramatic hippocampal and cortical neuronal loss making it an ideal model to study treatments for FTD-related neuronal loss. Sirtuins are a family of proteins involved in cell survival that have the potential to modulate neuronal loss in neurodegenerative disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that sirtuin 2 (SIRT2 inhibition would be non-toxic and prevent neurodegeneration in rTg4510 brain. In this study we delivered SIRT2 inhibitor AK1 directly to the hippocampus with an osmotic minipump and confirmed that it reached the target region both with histological assessment of delivery of a dye and with a pharmacodynamic marker, ABCA1 transcription, which was upregulated with AK1 treatment. AK1 treatment was found to be safe in wild-type mice and in the rTg4510 mouse model, and further, it provided some neuroprotection in the rTg4510 hippocampal circuitry. This study provides proof-of-concept for therapeutic benefits of SIRT2 inhibitors in both tau-associated FTD and Alzheimer’s disease, and suggests that development of potent, brain permeable SIRT2 inhibitors is warranted.

  7. Genetic polymorphism in brazilian microcystis spp. (Cyanobacteria) toxic and non-toxic through RFLP-PCR of the cpcBA-IGS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria do Carmo, Bittencourt-Oliveira; Maristela Casé Costa, Cunha; Ariadne do Nascimento, Moura.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de florações de cianobactérias tóxicas demanda um melhor entendimento da variabilidade genética como um instrumento auxiliar na identificação de espécies colaborando, assim, com o monitoramento de águas destinadas ao abastecimento público. Este estudo objetivou o conhecimento do polimor [...] fismo genético de linhagens tóxicas e não tóxicas de espécies de Microcystis (Cyanobacteria), isoladas de diversas localidades brasileiras, utilizando a técnica molecular RFLP-PCR para o operon que codifica para a c-ficocianina e seu espaçador intergênico (cpcBA-IGS). Foram analisadas dezoito linhagens pertencentes as espécies Microcystis aeruginosa, M. panniformis, M. protocystis, M. wesenbergii e duas outras não identificadas através de dados morfológicos e moleculares. Os resultados moleculares formaram três agrupamentos com baixos valores de similaridade entre si os quais não foram relacionados à origem geográfica, toxicidade ou morfoespécies. As populações brasileiras de Microcystis spp. apresentaram alta diversidade genética quando comparadas com as da Austrália, Japão, Estados Unidos e Europa. Esta ampla diversidade genética pode ser vislumbrada através de diversos perfis eletroforéticos obtidos entre linhagens de uma mesma espécie. Nós encontramos a presença de linhagens tóxicas e não tóxicas em uma mesma espécie, como em M. aeruginosa. Abstract in english The escalating occurrence of cyanobacterial toxic blooms demands a better understanding of genetic variability as an auxiliary expedient in species identification, collaborating with the monitoring of water destined to public supply. This study aimed at the unraveling of genetic polymorphism in the [...] toxic and nontoxic strains of Microcystis (Cyanobacteria) species, isolated from diverse Brazilian localities through the RFLP-PCR technique applied to the c-phycocyanin encoding operon and its intergenic spacer (cpcBA-IGS). Eighteen strains belonging to M. aeruginosa, M. panniformis, M. protocystis and M. wesenbergii, plus two other unidentified strains, were analyzed by means of the morphological and molecular data. The molecular data constituted three groups with low similarity values unrelated to the geographical origin, toxicity or morphospecies. A high genetic variability among the studied populations was unveiled by the results. Brazilian populations of Microcystis spp. displayed high genetic diversity when compared to those from Australia, Japan, United States and Europe. This ample genetic diversity could be observed through the diverse eletrophoretic profiles obtained among the strains from a single species. The presence of toxic and non-toxic strains was observed in the same species, as M. aeruginosa.

  8. Quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goiter : impact of disease, treatment response, and comparison with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramon, Per; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2015-01-01

    Background While health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues often prompt treatment of benign non-toxic goiter (NTG), few clinical studies have systematically assessed HRQoL in patients with this condition. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate thyroid-related and generic HRQoL in patients with benign NTG, as compared to the general population, before and 6 months after treatment. Methods Thyroid-related and generic HRQoL were assessed with ThyPRO and SF-36, respectively. Baseline and 6 month post-treatment HRQoL assessments were obtained from 111 patients with NTG who underwent radioiodine therapy (32%), hemithyroidectomy (53%), total thyroidectomy (12%), or cyst aspiration with ethanol application (4%). We enrolled euthyroid patients at baseline, 80% of whom remained euthyroid 6 months post-treatment with 20% experiencing subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Normative ThyPRO (n=739) and SF-36 (n=6,638) data were collected from representative general population samples. Score differences between patients and the general population were analysed with multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity and educational status. Changes in scores between baseline and follow-up were analysed with the paired t-test, and magnitudes of score changes were evaluated as effect-sizes (mean difference/SDbaseline; 0.2-0.5 indicating small, 0.5-0.8 moderate, and >0.8 large effects). Results Patients' baseline scores were significantly worse than those in the general population on nine of the 13 ThyPRO scales. Six months after treatment, the patients' ThyPRO scores had improved on 6 scales, with large/moderate effects on the Goiter Symptoms and Anxiety scales. However, on eight scales, the post-treatment patient scores were still significantly worse than the general population scores. At baseline, patients had worse scores than the general population on four of the eight SF-36 scales and the SF-36 Mental Component Summary, none of which improved after treatment. Conclusions Compared with the general population, patients with NTG had greatest HRQoL impairment at baseline on the Goiter Symptoms and Anxiety scales, which also demonstrated the largest post-treatment improvements. However, both disease-specific and generic HRQoL deficits persisted 6 months after treatment. In order to improve individualized care, future studies should focus on identifying risk factors for persistent HRQoL deficits and compare HRQoL effects of the various goiter treatment modalities in relation to thyroid phenotype.

  9. Isolation of two highly potent and non-toxic inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elazem, Ibrahim S; Chen, Hong S; Bates, Robert B; Huang, Ru Chih C

    2002-07-01

    Water soluble extracts of the herbal plant, Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) exhibited potent effect against HIV-1 integrase activity in vitro and viral replication in vivo. We have developed an extensive purification scheme to isolate effective, non-toxic inhibitors against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using the 3'-processing activity of integrase as a purification guide and assay. Two water soluble compounds, M(5)22 and M(5)32, have been discovered by isolating them from S. miltiorrhiza roots in purities of >99.5% as shown by NMR spectral analysis with yields of 0.018 and 0.038%, respectively. Structural determination revealed that M(5)22 is lithospermic acid and M(5)32 is lithospermic acid B. These two structurally related compounds are potent anti-HIV inhibitors and showed no cytotoxicity to H9 cells at high concentrations (CC(100)>297 microM for M(5)22 and >223 microM for M(5)32). The IC50 for inhibition of 3'-processing by HIV-1 integrase was found to be 0.83 microM for M(5)22 and 0.48 microM for M(5)32. In addition, M(5)22 and M(5)32 inhibited HIV-1 integrase catalytic activities of 3'-joining to the target DNA with IC50 of 0.48 microM for M(5)22 and 0.37 microM for M(5)32. Furthermore, kinetic and mechanistic studies suggested that drug binding to HIV-1 integrase and inhibition of enzymatic activity occur at a fast rate. Both M(5)22 and M(5)32 do not prevent HIV entry in H9 cells. They also show no inhibition of reverse transcriptase activity in infected cells. The levels of intracellular strong stop and full-length viral DNA remained unchanged following drug treatment. However, both inhibitors strongly suppressed the acute HIV-1 infection of H9 cells with IC50 values of 2 and 6.9 microM for M(5)22 and M(5)32, respectively. Thus these two selective integrase inhibitors hold promise as a novel class of therapeutic drugs for AIDS based on their high potencies and absence of cytotoxicity. PMID:12076754

  10. Non-toxic novel route synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnSxSe1?x thin films with tunable band gap characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic CBD route is used to deposit ZnS thin films. • The ZnSxSe1?x thin films formation takes place via annealing of ZnS thin films in Se atmosphere. • S/(S + Se) ratio found to be temperature dependent and easy tuning of band gap has been done by Se atom deposition. - Abstract: An environmentally benign chemical bath deposition (CBD) route was employed to deposit zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films. The CBD-ZnS thin films were further selenized in a furnace at various temperatures viz. 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C and the S/(S + Se) ratio was found to be dependent on the annealing temperature. The effects of S/(S + Se) ratio on the structural, compositional and optical properties of the ZnSxSe1?x (ZnSSe) thin films were investigated. EDS analysis showed that the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6 when the film annealing temperature increased from 200 to 500 °C. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies showed that all the films were uniform, pin hole free, smooth, and adhered well to the glass substrate. The X-ray diffraction study on the ZnSSe thin films showed the formation of the cubic phase, except for the unannealed ZnSSe thin film, which showed an amorphous phase. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Zn-S, Zn-Se, and insignificant Zn-OH bonds formation from the Zn 2p3/2, S 2p, Se 3d5/2, and O 1s atomic states, respectively. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy study showed ?80% transmittance in the visible region for all the ZnSSe thin films having various absorption edges. The tuning of the band gap energy of the ZnSSe thin films was carried out by selenizing CBD-ZnS thin films, and as the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6, the band gap energy decreased from 3.20 to 3.12 eV

  11. Immunological characterization of a non-toxic peptide conferring protection against the toxic fraction (AahG50) of the Androctonus australis hector venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srairi-Abid, Najet; Kaabi, Hajer; Mlayah-Bellalouna, Saoussen; Mejri, Thouraya; Sampieri, François; El Ayeb, Mohamed

    2008-03-01

    KAaH1 and KAaH2 are non-toxic peptides, isolated from the venom of the Androctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion. In a previous study, we showed these peptides to be the most abundant (approximately 10% each) in the toxic fraction (AahG50) of the Aah venom. KAaH1 and KAaH2 showed high sequence identities (approximately 60%) with birtoxin-like peptides, which likewise are the major peptidic components of Parabuthus transvaalicus scorpion venom. Here, we report the immunological characterization of KAaH1 and KAaH2. These peptides were found to be specifically recognized by polyclonal antibodies raised against AahII, the most toxic peptide of Aah venom, and represents the second antigenic group, including toxins from different scorpion species in the world. Moreover, KAaH1 partially inhibits AahII binding to its specific antibody, suggesting some common epitopes between these two peptides. The identification of possible key antigenic residues in KAaH1 was deduced from comparison of its 3-D model with the experimental structure of AahII. Two clusters of putative antigenically important residues were found at the exposed surface; one could be constituted of V3 and D53, the other of D10, T15 and Y16. Polyclonal antibodies raised against KAaH1 in mice were found to cross-react with both AahII and AahG50, and neutralizing 5LD(50)/ml of the toxic fraction. Mice vaccinated with KAaH1 were protected against a challenge of 2LD(50) of AahG50 fraction. All these data suggest that KAaH1 has clear advantages over the use of the whole or part of the venom. KAaH1 is not toxic and could produce sera-neutralizing scorpion toxins, not only from Aah venom, but also toxins of other venoms from Buthus, Leiurus, or Parabuthus scorpion species presenting antigenically related toxins. PMID:18054371

  12. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsford, S.K. [Bechtel Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Foltz, A.D. [Asbestos Recycling, Inc., Kent, WA (United States); Ek, R.B. [Asbestos Conversion System, Inc., Issaquah, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  13. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the open-quotes cradle to graveclose quotes ownership liabilities

  14. Unentangled star-shape poly(?-caprolactone)s as phthalate-free PVC plasticizers designed for non-toxicity and improved migration resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woohyuk; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2014-07-23

    We develop a nontoxic unentangled star-shape poly(?-caprolactone) (UESPCL) plasticizer with excellent migration resistance for the production of phthalate-free flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) by means of the ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone, initiated from the multifunctional core, combined with end-capping, and vacuum purification processes. UESPCL is a transparent liquid at room temperature and exhibits unentangled Newtonian behavior because of its extremely short branched segments. UESPCL is biologically safe without producing an acute toxicity response. Torque analysis measurements reveals that UESPCL offers a faster fusion rate and a higher miscibility with PVC compared to a typical plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum reveals that PVC and UESPCL are miscible with an average domain size of less than 8 nm. The flexibility and transparency of the PVC/UESPCL mixture, that is, phthalate-free flexible PVC, are comparable to the corresponding properties of the PVC/DEHP mixture, and the stretchability and fracture toughness of PVC/UESPCL are superior to the corresponding properties of the PVC/DEHP system. Most of all, PVC/UESPCL shows excellent migration resistance with a weight loss of less than 0.6% in a liquid phase, whereas DEHP migrated out of PVC/DEHP into a liquid phase with a weight loss of about 10%. PMID:24955769

  15. Relative quantification of PIK3CA gene expression level in fine-needle aspiration biopsy thyroid specimens collected from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and non-toxic goitre by real-time RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska-Durczy?ska Katarzyna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is important regulator of many cellular events, including apoptosis, proliferation and motility. PI3K pathway alterations (PIK3CA gene mutations and/or amplification have been observed in various human tumours. In the majority of diagnosed cases, mutations are localized in one of the three "hot spots" in the gene, responsible for coding catalytic subunit ? of class I PI3K (PIK3CA. Mutations and amplification of PIK3CA gene are characteristic for thyroid cancer, as well. Methods The aim of our study was to examine a gene expression level of PIK3CA in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB thyroid specimens in two types of thyroid lesions, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and non-toxic goitre (NTG. Following conventional cytological examination, 42 thyroid FNAB specimens, received from patients with PTC (n = 20 and NTG (n = 22, were quantitatively evaluated regarding PIK3CA expression level by real-time PCR in the ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. Results Significantly higher expression level (RQ of PIK3CA in PTC group has been noted in comparison with NTG group (p Conclusion These observations may suggest role of PIK3CA alterations in PTC carcinogenesis.

  16. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Yang Yu; Liang-Yu Huang; I-Ching Kuan; Shiow-Ling Lee

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipa...

  17. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio não protege contra a intoxicação por este composto em ovinos / Repeated administration of non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate does not protect against poisoning by this compound in sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariany C., Santos; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Rubiane F., Heckler; Stephanie C., Lima; Mariana L., Silva; Renato, Rezende; Nilton M., Carvalho; Ricardo A.A., Lemos.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar se repetidas doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MFA) induzem resistência à intoxicação por essa substância, 18 ovinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de nove animais cada. Os ovinos do Grupo 1 ingeriram doses crescentes não letai [...] s de MFA por seis períodos: 0,05mg/kg por 5 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias e 0,25mg/kg por 3 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam o MFA por 10 dias consecutivos; entre o terceiro e o quarto período e dentre os demais períodos de administração, os ovinos permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir o MFA. Quinze dias após o último período de administração os ovinos foram desafiados com a dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado a ingestão de MFA, estes ovinos receberam dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA no mesmo período em que o G1 foi desafiado. No desafio sete ovinos do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação e um ovino se recuperou. No Grupo 2 todos os animais manifestaram quadro clínico da intoxicação por MFA, no entanto, dois ovinos se recuperaram. Os coeficientes de mortalidade foram de 66,6% para o Grupo 1 e de 77,7% para o Grupo 2. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de MFA não protege contra a intoxicação aguda por este composto, portanto, outras alternativas para a profilaxia da intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA deverão ser pesquisadas, principalmente a utilização intraruminal de bactérias que hidrolisam MFA. Abstract in english With the objective to assess whether repeated non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) induce resistance to poisoning by this compound, 18 sheep were randomly divided into two experimental groups of nine animals each. Sheep from Group 1 ingested non-lethal increasing doses of MFA for six pe [...] riods: 0.05mg/kg for 5 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days and 0.25mg/kg for 3 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and third period the animals did not receive MFA for 10 consecutive days, between the third and fourth period and during the remaining periods of administration the sheep were left 15 days without ingesting MFA. Group 2 was not adapted to the ingestion of MFA and received a single dose of 1mg/kg of MFA at the same time that Group 1 was challenged. After challenge, seven sheep of Group 1 showed clinical signs of poisoning and one sheep recovered. In Group 2, all animals showed clinical signs of poisoning by MFA, however two sheep recovered. The mortality rate was 66.6% in Group 1 and 77.7% for Group 2. These results suggest that repeated administration of non-toxic doses of MFA does not protect against acute poisoning by this compound; therefore other alternatives of prophylaxis for poisoning by plants containing MFA should be searched, mainly the use of intraruminal bacteria that hydrolyze MFA.

  19. Microstructural changes of processed vitrified solid waste products

    OpenAIRE

    Kavouras, P.; Komninou, Ph.; Chrissafis, K.; Kaimakamis, G.; Kokkou, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K; Karakostas, Th.

    2010-01-01

    Toxic lead-rich solid industrial wastes were stabilized by the vitrification method. Vitrification was attained by the addition of SiO2 and Na2O as vitrifying and melting agent, respectively. The non-toxic, homogeneous, vitreous products studied in the present work, contain 60 wt.% of solid waste. Products with such a high content of solid waste comprise an economically realistic suggestion, but are easily devitrified in conditions of large-scale production due to the difficulty to achieve ra...

  20. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon–nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Beversdorf, Lucas J.; Miller, Todd R.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic vs. non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined 3 years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC) concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological...

  1. Indução de resistência à intoxicação por Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) mediante administração de doses sucessivas não tóxicas / Induction of resistance to Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) poisoning by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murilo Duarte de, Oliveira; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Fabrício K.L., Carvalho; Genilson B., Silva; Walkleber S., Pereira; Rosane M.T., Medeiros.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comprovar se doses não tóxicas repetidas de Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. criam resistência à intoxicação, 12 caprinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de seis animais cada. No Grupo 1 foi induzida resistência mediante a administração, dur [...] ante quatro períodos alternados, de 0,02g/kg das folhas dessecadas de P. aeneofusca durante 5 dias, 0,02g/kg durante 5 dias, 0,03g/kg durante 5 dias e 0,03g/kg por mais 5 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam planta por 10 dias consecutivos e entre o terceiro e quarto período de administração os animais permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir a planta. Um caprino morreu subitamente quando estava recebendo 0,03 g/kg da planta, no terceiro período de administração. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado ao consumo de P. aeneofusca. Quinze dias após a adaptação ao consumo de P. aeneofusca do Grupo 1, os dois grupos receberam P. aeneofusca na dose diária de 0,03g/kg durante 19 dias. A partir do 20º dia de administração continuada a dose diária de P. aeneofusca foi aumentada para 0,04g/kg. Esta dose foi administrada por mais 12 dias. Os animais que mostraram sinais clínicos foram retirados do experimento imediatamente após a observação dos primeiros sinais. Um caprino do Grupo 2 apresentou sinais clínicos de intoxicação e morreu no 12º dia de administração e dois apresentaram sinais clínicos no 24º dia; um se recuperou e outro morreu. Após finalizada esta fase do experimento e para comprovar se os caprinos que não tinham adoecido no Grupo 2 tinham também adquirido resistência, foi introduzido outro grupo com três caprinos. Esses três caprinos (Grupo 3), os cinco caprinos do Grupo 1 e os três sobreviventes do Grupo 2, ingeriram uma dose diária de 0,06g/kg. Os três caprinos do Grupo 3 adoeceram no terceiro dia após o início da ingestão, dois morreram em forma hiperaguda e o outro recuperou-se após 10 dias. Todos os caprinos dos Grupos 1 e 2 ingeriram P. aeneofusca na dose de 0,06g/kg/dia durante nove dias sem apresentar nenhum sinal clínico. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram que a administração de doses não tóxicas repetidas de P. aeneofusca aumentam significativamente á resistência à intoxicação e que esta técnica poderia ser utilizada para o controle da intoxicação por P. aeneofusca e outras espécies de Palicourea com similar toxicidade. Os resultados de pesquisas anteriormente realizados sugerem que a resistência à intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA é devida a proliferação de bactérias que degradam MFA no rúmen. Abstract in english Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. is a toxic plant which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA). With the objective to investigate if repeated non-toxic doses of P. aeneofusca induce resistance to the intoxication by this plant, 12 goats were distributed in two similar groups. In Group 1, [...] resistance was induced by the administration of the dry plant, during four alternate periods: 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.03g/kg during 5 days, and 0.03g/kg during 5 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and the third period, the goats did not ingest P. aeneofusca for 10 days. Between the third and the fourth administration period the goats did not ingest the plant during 15 days. One goat died suddenly during the third administration period when was ingesting 0.03g/kg. The goats from Group 2 were not adapted to the consumption of P. aeneofusca. Fifteen days after the end of the adaptation period in Group 1, both groups ingested dry P. aeneofusca in the daily dose of 0.03g/kg during 19 days. From day 20 the daily dose was increased to 0.04g/kg, which was ingested for 12 days. The goats that showed clinical signs were removed from the experiment immediately after the observation of first signs. One goat from Group 2 showed clinical signs of poisoning and d

  2. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes. PMID:19075839

  3. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. PMID:21724330

  4. Biosurfactant production using mixed cultures under non-aseptic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of surfactants is of increasing interest for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater and soil. Surfactants increase the accessibility of adsorbed hydrocarbons and mobilize immiscible petroleum hydrocarbons for treatment. Biosurfactants have the advantage of biodegradability and non-toxicity over their synthetic counterparts, and can be produced from renewable sources. In this study the production of biosurfactant from molasses was investigated in continuously stirred batch reactors. The effects of substrate concentration, yeast extract and peptone on biomass accumulation and biosurfactant production were investigated. Biosurfactant production was quantified by surface tension reduction and critical micelle dilution (CMD). Biosurfactant production was directly correlated with biomass production, and was improved with the addition of yeast extract. Centrifugation of the whole broth reduced surface tension. The performance of the biosurfactant produced from molasses under non-aseptic condition is comparable to other published results

  5. Hydrogen fuel. Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is a highly energetic and non-toxic gas capable to generate heat by direct combustion with water and nitrogen oxides as residues, and to generate electricity through fuel cells with water as unique residue. Hydrogen is, like electricity, an energy vector because it does not exist at the free state in nature but always in a combined state, mainly in water and hydrocarbons. This article treats of hydrogen production. Producing hydrogen requires to extract it from its compounds using an energy consuming chemical or physico-chemical process: 1 - exploited or directly exploitable processes: from fossil fuels (vapo-reforming, partial oxidation), derived methods (auto-thermal reforming, methanol reforming, water vapor pyrolysis and plasma reforming, small-scale hydrogen generation), water electrolysis; 2 - processes under study: water dissociation using a nuclear reactor (high temperature electrolysis, thermochemical cycles), water photo-electrolysis, thermochemical biomass transformation, production by photosynthetic microorganisms; 3 - purification; 4 - environmental impact: CO2 capture and storage, hydrogen as best auxiliary of renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  6. Hydrogen production from formic acid decomposition at room temperature using a Ag-Pd core-shell nanocatalyst.

    OpenAIRE

    Tedsree, K.; Li, T.; Jones, S.; Chan, Cw; Yu, Km; Bagot, Pa; Marquis, Ea; Smith, Gd; Tsang, Sc

    2011-01-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) has great potential as an in situ source of hydrogen for fuel cells, because it offers high energy density, is non-toxic and can be safely handled in aqueous solution. So far, there has been a lack of solid catalysts that are sufficiently active and/or selective for hydrogen production from formic acid at room temperature. Here, we report that Ag nanoparticles coated with a thin layer of Pd atoms can significantly enhance the production of H? from formic acid at ambient ...

  7. Testing of cement-solidified products for hazardous material judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the low-level radioactive waste treatment facility (LWTF), the cement solidification process is being studied on its applicability as a method for preparing waste packages from sodium-nitrate-containing low-level liquid waste generated at reprocessing plants. Solidified products prepared by the use of this process contain nitrate (sodium nitrate) and nitrite (sodium nitrite), and such products might come under the category of the Class 1 Hazardous Material (oxidative solid) under the Fire Services Act. Thus it has been determined that cement-solidified products prepared from simulated liquid waste will be tested to judge whether they should be treated as hazardous'. Cement-solidified products, which are planned to be disposed of in the form of waste packages of 200-liter drum size, fall within the category of 'articles other than powder or granular material' under the Fire Services Act. Considering this, it has been determined that cement-solidified products will be judged by the tube test and mass combustion test. In addition to those tests, assuming that cement-solidified products might be reprocessed by pulverization or other means, it has been determined that cement-solidified products will be subjected to the combustion test and the falling ball impact test. Test results and knowledge obtained are summarized below. 1. Results of the judgment test for hazardous material. (1) The tube test and the mass combustion test have both proved that cement-solidified prodve both proved that cement-solidified products are not regarded as 'hazardous', and hence cement-solidified products have proved to be 'non-hazardous' in synthetic judgment. (2) The combustion test and the falling ball impact test have both proved that cement-solidified products come under 'Rank 3', and hence cement-solidified products have proved to be 'non-hazardous' in synthetic judgment. 2. Knowledge obtained. In preparing cement-solidified products for the above tests, their salt contents were adjusted to 55 wt%. This means that the test results obtained also apply to the case of cement-solidified products as long as their salt contents do not exceed 55 wt%. (author)

  8. Nanocrystalline WC with non-toxic Fe-Mn binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemiaszko, Dariusz [Military University of Technology, Department of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, ul. Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Rosinski, Marcin; Michalski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    Cemented carbides, based on the tungsten carbide (WC), are very popular and useful in an industry. The most important metal us as a binder in this kind of materials is cobalt. It has many advantages as a binder: very good wettability, favourable solubility with WC and thermal conductivity similar to WC. However, cost of cobalt is very high because of its low natural resources. Cobalt is not also neutral for health. It is known as an allergen and same research shown that it could cause a cancer. This paper presents results of sintering the tungsten carbides with Fe-Mn alloys as the binders. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Shellac: A Non-Toxic Preservative for Human Embalming Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal S. Abd El-Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important to fix and preserve cadavers adequately not only for the sake of anatomical studies but also for the financial justification. However, the difficulties in handling and the problems of preservation of human anatomical preparations and the potential health and safety problems for staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories and the need to comply with increasingly restrictive exposure limits to components of embalming chemicals have led the research team to fashion a new embalming technique. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia through the years 2008-2010. About 10 cadavers were selected from the fridges of the dissection lab of the Anatomy Department; 5 for long-term preservation and five for softening purposes. The procedure involved rinsing the cadavers with the Shellac embalming solution in a pressurized tank, under a pressure of 1.5 bars for 3 days. In this study, it is revealed that there is a remarkably high embalming capacity of Shellac as shown from the well preserved dissected parts and organs in the softened cadavers. The remaining cadavers, intended for long-term preservation, mummified using Shellac could be retained in normal room conditions; whereby it was easy to soften again by simply replacing it inside the softening tank for 2-3 days. The significant use of Shellac throughout the embalming technique, as a less hazardous and financially more viable material, was discussed juxtapose more conventional and known toxic materials used in standard embalming techniques.

  10. Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Challenges arise in the propulsion systems for the new exploration architecture. The currently operational and proven storable hypergolic systems raise toxicity...

  11. Environmental guidance documents for exploration, development, Production, and transportation of crude oil and natural gas in texas: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997-March 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following technical report provides a detailed status report of the DOE grant project entitled ''Environmental Guidance Documents for Exploration, Development, Production, and Transportation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Texas.'' The grant funding allocated is for the purpose of provided the Railroad Commission of Texas (Commission) with resources and capabilities to draft, publish and distribute documents that provide guidance to oil and gas operators on issues concerning oil and gas naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) waste, oil and gas hazardous waste, remediation of crude oil spills, management of non-hazardous oil and gas wastes, and mechanical integrity testing of Class II injection and disposal wells

  12. Molecular targets of natural health products in arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifé, Sarah; Zafarullah, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) consume 'natural health products' (NHPs) whose therapeutic efficacy, toxicity and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In a previous issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy, Haqqi and colleagues characterized IL-1-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) isoforms in human OA chondrocytes. The cartilageprotective mechanisms of pomegranate extract involve diminishing MKK3-activated p38?, JNK, NF-?B and Runx2 pathways, which regulate inflammatory proteins and cartilage-destroying proteases. Epigallocatechin- 3-gallate, resveratrol, curcumin and other NHP active ingredients suppress multiple inflammatory and catabolic molecular mediators of arthritis. Non-toxicity, reduced severity and incidence of arthritis in animal models warrant testing NHP active ingredients for preventing human OA and RA. PMID:21345249

  13. Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis has been discussed with appropriate equipment details. The application of the biosurfactant includes biomedical, cosmetic and bioremediation. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DS10-129 showed significant applications in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in gasoline-spilled soil and petroleum oily sludge. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant enhanced the bioremediation process by releasing the weathered oil from the soil matrices and enhanced the bioavailability of hydrocarbons for microbial degradation. It is having potential applications in the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites.

  14. Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to investigate fuel characteristics of biodiesel and its production in European Union. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. In Europe the most important biofuel is biodiesel. In the European Union biodiesel is the by far biggest biofuel and represents 82% of the biofuel production. Biodiesel production for 2003 in EU-25 was 1,504,000 tons. (author)

  15. Nature helps: from research to products against blood-sucking arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2009-11-01

    Today, there is a trend in research to return to plant extracts as remedies against endo- and ectoparasites. Many daily appearing papers describe the efficacy of different plant extracts. However, the second step, to develop a product for the market (that could settle obvious needs), is in general not done. Thus, many results will be forgotten soon and the work was done in vain. The present review shows in examples that very efficacious biocidal and repellent products were developed from extracts of the plants Vitex agnus castus, Azadirachta indica, and from others which produce etheric oils. Of course, it is needed that the extracts have to be tested seriously for their activity, non-toxicity, tolerability, and user compliance. However, the selected examples show that it is worthwhile to consider plants in the fight against endo- and ectoparasites. PMID:19774397

  16. Honokiol, a small molecular weight natural product, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xianhe; Cerimele, Francesca; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Waqas, Muhammad; Campbell, Paul M; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Der, Channing J; Battle, Traci; Frank, David A; Ye, Keqiang; Murad, Emma; Dubiel, Wolfgang; Soff, Gerald; Arbiser, Jack L

    2003-09-12

    Natural products comprise a major source of small molecular weight angiogenesis inhibitors. We have used the transformed endothelial cell line SVR as an effective screen of natural product extracts to isolate anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor compounds. Aqueous extracts of Magnolia grandiflora exhibit potent activity in our SVR proliferation assays. We found that the small molecular weight compound honokiol is the active principle of magnolia extract. Honokiol exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity against SVR cells in vitro. In addition, honokiol demonstrated preferential inhibition of primary human endothelial cells compared with fibroblasts and this inhibition was antagonized by antibodies against TNF alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. In vivo, honokiol was highly effective against angiosarcoma in nude mice. Our preclinical data suggests that honokiol is a systemically available and non-toxic inhibitor of angiogenesis and should be further evaluated as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:12816951

  17. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon–nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beversdorf, Lucas J.; Miller, Todd R.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic vs. non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined 3 years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC) concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological research, and 10 years of molecular data to investigate the potential factors leading to the selection of toxic Microcystis and MC production. Our analysis revealed that nitrogen (N) speciation and inorganic carbon (C) availability might be important drivers of Microcystis population dynamics and that an imbalance in cellular C: N ratios may trigger MC production. More specifically, precipitous declines in ammonium concentrations lead to a transitional period of N stress, even in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, that we call the “toxic phase.” Following the toxic phase, temperature and cyanobacterial abundance remained elevated but MC concentrations drastically declined. Increases in ammonium due to lake turnover may have led to down regulation of MC synthesis or a shift in the community from toxic to non-toxic species. While total phosphorus (P) to total N ratios were relatively low over the time-series, MC concentrations were highest when total N to total P ratios were also highest. Similarly, high C: N ratios were also strongly correlated to the toxic phase. We propose a metabolic model that corroborates molecular studies and reflects our ecological observations that C and N metabolism may regulate MC production physiologically and ecologically. In particular, we hypothesize that an imbalance between 2-oxoglutarate and ammonium in the cell regulates MC synthesis in the environment. PMID:26029192

  18. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon-nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beversdorf, Lucas J; Miller, Todd R; McMahon, Katherine D

    2015-01-01

    The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic vs. non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined 3 years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC) concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological research, and 10 years of molecular data to investigate the potential factors leading to the selection of toxic Microcystis and MC production. Our analysis revealed that nitrogen (N) speciation and inorganic carbon (C) availability might be important drivers of Microcystis population dynamics and that an imbalance in cellular C: N ratios may trigger MC production. More specifically, precipitous declines in ammonium concentrations lead to a transitional period of N stress, even in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, that we call the "toxic phase." Following the toxic phase, temperature and cyanobacterial abundance remained elevated but MC concentrations drastically declined. Increases in ammonium due to lake turnover may have led to down regulation of MC synthesis or a shift in the community from toxic to non-toxic species. While total phosphorus (P) to total N ratios were relatively low over the time-series, MC concentrations were highest when total N to total P ratios were also highest. Similarly, high C: N ratios were also strongly correlated to the toxic phase. We propose a metabolic model that corroborates molecular studies and reflects our ecological observations that C and N metabolism may regulate MC production physiologically and ecologically. In particular, we hypothesize that an imbalance between 2-oxoglutarate and ammonium in the cell regulates MC synthesis in the environment. PMID:26029192

  19. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  20. Practical procedures for a radon etched track dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etched track detectors are widely used for the detection of radon and its decay products. They have many desirable attributes: they are small, cheap, simple, non-toxic and non-hazardous. Etched track detectors provide adequate accuracy for most radiological protection purposes provided stringent quality assurance is maintained. The UK validation scheme provides an important component of QA but continuous monitoring of conditions and results is also needed. If these conditions are observed, these detectors provide an entirely adequate tool for large-scale use in assessing levels of radon in houses. Accurate estimates of long-term average radon levels require a measurement over several months because of the short-term fluctuations in radon concentrations. (note)

  1. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  2. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsone, María Lorena; Chiotta, María Laura; Palazzini, Juan Manuel; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation. PMID:22778906

  3. Control of ochratoxin A production in grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsone, María Lorena; Chiotta, María Laura; Palazzini, Juan Manuel; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía

    2012-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation. PMID:22778906

  4. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of ?-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  5. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioengenharia

    1996-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of gamma-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular weight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, known to react with conformational epitopes in native crotoxin. Linear epitopes are also preserved, as demonstrated by peptide mapping of the aggregates. These same aggregates can function as antigens to raise antisera which cross-react and neutralize crotoxin. Compared with crotoxin, the aggregates appear to be less myotoxic, largely devoid of phospholipase activity and virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that the irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  6. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of gamma-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular weight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, known to react with conformational epitopes in native crotoxin. Linear epitopes are also preserved, as demonstrated by peptide mapping of the aggregates. These same aggregates can function as antigens to raise antisera which cross-react and neutralize crotoxin. Compared with crotoxin, the aggregates appear to be less myotoxic, largely devoid of phospholipase activity and virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that the irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  7. Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis. PMID:20033403

  8. Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. B., Porciúncula; N. R., Marcilio; I. C., Tessaro; M., Gerchmann.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: re [...] cyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick) or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick), and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

  9. Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Porciúncula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick, and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

  10. USE OF ELECTROLYZED WATER IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Jirotková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to use the properties of electrolyzed water to disinfect breeding halls and to water animals. The aim of the research was to find out whether elektrolyzed water used for desinfication of breedings hall and watering of animals influences selected indicators of the meat quality. Electrolyzed water is produced in a patent-protected device Envirolyte that produces biocide solution using potable water with added NaCl. The technology of production guarantees the product is entirely ecological, biologically fully degradable, non-toxic that can replace traditional chemical agents. Possibilities of disinfection using this solution have been verified directly in stables at the interval of 20, 40, 60 min. after application. Staphylococci and streptococci and enterococci were inactive always after 60 minutes of effect. There was significant decrease in the number of total number of microorganisms. Further, the solution of electrolyzed water was used to water poultry; and the affect on some of the properties of poultry meat, changes in pH, colour and loss of water (dripping in particular, was observed. Testing was carried out under working conditions in two breeding halls at a time and the technology of electrolyzed water to disinfect premises and to water chickens was used in one of the halls. When the chickens were slaughter mature, the poultry was slaughtered at the standard slaughterhouse and samples (127 pieces were taken in order to measure pH, colour and loss of water (dripping. The values of pH, colour and loss of water (dripping ascertained, processed by the T-test did not confirm the hypothesis of the assumed possible differences in occurrence of critical values of these indicators in both groups observed.

  11. Production of radioisotope products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 20 years medicines, compounds and products with radioactive isotopes for medicine, science and technique which are used in the Republic and exported in Community countries, Europe, USA are fabricated at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise of Nuclear Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. Number of products fabricated now at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise exceeds 70 descriptions. The technologies for production of these medicines are unique and simple. Quality of the products yielded doesn't concede to worldwide analog. The products may be divided into 5 sorts: 1. Radiopharmaceutical medicines and products. 2. Compounds tagged with radioisotopes for biotechnology and genetic engineering. 3. Medicines of common use. 4. Radioisotope generators of technetium-99m. 5. Sources for X-ray fluorescent analysis from iron - 55

  12. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  13. Production of titanium alloys for medical implants by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, V.A.R. [Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena, Lorena SP (Brazil); Silva, C.R.M. da [Div. de Materiais, CTA-IAE-AMR, Sao Jose dos Campos SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Titanium alloys are expected to be much more widely used for implant materials in the medical and dental fields because of their superior biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and specific strength compared with other metallic implant materials. Vanadium free alloys like Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-5Al-2,5Fe have been recently developed for biomedical use. More recently vanadium and aluminum free alloys composed of non-toxic elements like Nb, Ta, Zr and so on with lower modulus have been started to be developed. The {beta} type alloys like Ti-15Mo are now the main target for medical materials. A blended elemental titanium powder metallurgy process has been developed to offer low cost products. The process employs hydride-dehydride (HDH) powders and near-net shape techniques. In this work, the influence of the processing parameters and chemical composition of the elementary powders on the final microstructure was investigated. The alloys were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers microhardness measurements, chemical analysis and density. The results indicate that the samples presented high densification, homogeneous chemical composition and coherent microstructures. The process parameters were defined aiming to reduce the interstitial pick-up (O, N) and to avoid the grain growth. (orig.)

  14. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation; Caracterizacao bioquimica e imunologica dos principais produtos gerados pela irradiacao de crotoxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Nanci do

    1995-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of {gamma}-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  15. Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY); Petrakis, Leon (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1998-06-09

    A composition and methods for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid.

  16. Emerging potential of natural products for targeting mucins for therapy against inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Muzafar A; Krishn, Shiv Ram; Jahan, Rahat; Banerjee, Kasturi; Batra, Surinder K; Jain, Maneesh

    2015-03-01

    Deregulated mucin expression is a hallmark of several inflammatory and malignant pathologies. Emerging evidence suggests that, apart from biomarkers, these deregulated mucins are functional contributors to the pathogenesis in inflammation and cancer. Both overexpression and downregulation of mucins in various organ systems is associated with pathobiology of inflammation and cancer. Restoration of mucin homeostasis has become an important goal for therapy and management of such disorders has fueled the quest for selective mucomodulators. With improved understanding of mucin regulation and mechanistic insights into their pathobiological roles, there is optimism to find selective non-toxic agents capable of modulating mucin expression and function. Recently, natural compounds derived from dietary sources have drawn attention due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties and low toxicity. Considerable efforts have been directed towards evaluating dietary natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents; identification, characterization and synthesis of their active compounds; and improving their delivery and bioavailability. We describe the current understanding of mucin regulation, rationale for targeting mucins with natural products and discuss some natural products that modulate mucin expression and functions. We further discuss the approaches and parameters that should guide future research to identify and evaluate selective natural mucomodulators for therapy. PMID:25624117

  17. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosm...

  18. Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: Another potential mechanism of immune-suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 deg. C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with > 85% inhibition at 1 ?g/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 ?g/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1? (83%) or TNF-? (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity

  19. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used to support the ideas.

  20. Optimized production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi-Yang; Huang, Liang-Yu; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Shiow-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively. PMID:24336109

  1. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil, and water content (w/w of oil were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were 80% and 79%, respectively.

  2. Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Ko, Ya-Wen; Shieh, Zhu-Xin; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-11-15

    Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal. PMID:19570608

  3. Continuous low cost transesterification process for the production of coconut biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G.; Kumar, D.; Singh, S.; Kothari, S.; Bhatt, S.; Singh, CH. P. [Department of Chemistry, Sahu Jain College, Najibabad, 246763 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors. We tested residence times of 16-43 min, stirring speeds of 200-800 rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25-1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 {sup o}C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 {+-} 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC. (author)

  4. Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs. We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram, different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 °C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 ± 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC.

  5. Production and analysis of bio-diesel from non-edible oils. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, A.; Chinnusamy, T.R.; Krishnan, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637215, Tamil Nadu (India); Umarani, C. [Department of Chemistry, Government Arts College, Salem (India); Subramanian, R. [Department of Automobile Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India); Neduzchezhain, N. [Sabbatical, Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS, Pilani, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-05-15

    Bio-diesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and it is derived from renewable resources, bio degradable and non-toxic in nature. Several bio-diesel production methods have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali catalyst gives high level of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl ester in short reaction time. The process of transesterification is affected by the reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature, purity of reactants free fatty acids and water content of oils or fats. In this work, an attempt has been made on review of bio-diesel production, methods of analyzing, bio-diesel standard, resources available, process developed performance in internal combustion engines, teardown analysis of bio-diesel B20 operated vehicle, recommendation for development of bio-fuels, environmental considerations, economic aspects and advantages. The technical tools and process for monitoring the transesterification reaction like TLC, GC, HPLC, GPC, {sup 1}H NMR and NIR have also been summarized in this paper. (author)

  6. Opioid growth factor (OGF) for hepatoblastoma: a novel non-toxic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosnitzky, Moshe; Finegold, Milton J; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

    2013-08-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver malignancy in children, typically diagnosed before age 2. The survival rate for hepatoblastoma has increased dramatically in the last 30 years, but the typical chemotherapeutic agents used for treatment are associated with significant toxicity. In this report, the authors present two cases of hepatoblastoma treated with surgical resection and a novel biotherapeutic regimen that included opioid growth factor (OGF). Case #1 is an infant diagnosed with a large mass on prenatal ultrasound. After subsequent diagnosis of hepatoblastoma, she was treated with one course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy at approximately 1 week of age. Following significant complications from the chemotherapy (neutropenic fever, pneumonia and sepsis), the patient's parents declined further chemotherapy, and the infant was treated with surgical resection and opioid growth factor (OGF)/low dose naltrexone (LDN). She is currently at close to 10 years disease-free survival. Case #2 is a child diagnosed with a liver mass on ultrasound at 20 months of age, later biopsy-proven to represent hepatoblastoma. Due to existing co-morbidities including autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and hypertension, and indications from the biopsy that the tumor might be insensitive to chemotherapy, the parents elected not to proceed with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The patient was treated with surgical resection and OGF/LDN, and is currently at more than 5 years disease-free survival. This case series highlights the need for less toxic treatment options than conventional chemotherapy. Modulation of the OGF-OGF receptor axis represents a promising safe and therapeutic avenue for effective treatment of hepatoblastoma. PMID:23275062

  7. Application of powder metallurgy techniques for the development of non-toxic ammunition. Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, R. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kelly, R. [Delta Defense, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-30

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and Delta Frangible Ammunition (DFA), was to identify and evaluate composite materials for the development of small arms ammunition. Currently available small arms ammunition utilizes lead as the major component of the projectile. The introduction of lead into the environment by these projectiles when they are expended is a rapidly increasing environmental problem. At certain levels, lead is a toxic metal to the environment and a continual health and safety concern for firearm users as well as those who must conduct lead recovery operations from the environment. DFA is a leading supplier of high-density mixtures, which will be used to replace lead-based ammunition in specific applications. Current non-lead ammunition has several limitations that prevent it from replacing lead-based ammunition in many applications (such as applications that require ballistics, weapon recoil, and weapon function identical to that of lead-based ammunition). The purpose of the CRADA was to perform the research and development to identify cost-effective materials to be used in small arms ammunition that eventually will be used in commercially viable, environmentally conscious, non-lead, frangible and/or non-frangible, ammunition.

  8. / Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.S., Abdel Hameed.

    Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentrati [...] on of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1) indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

  9. Insilico structural analysis of parasporin 2 protein sequences of non-toxic bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyasamy Mahalakshmi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The unusual and remarkable property of parasporin 2 of non-insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis is specifically recognizing and selectively targeting human leukemic cell lines. The 37-kDa inactive nascent protein is proteolytically cleaved to the 30-kDa active form that loses both the N-terminal and the C-terminal segments. Accumulated cytological and biochemical observations on parasporin-2 imply that the protein is a pore-forming toxin. To confirm the hypothesis, insilico analysis was performed using homology modeling. The resulting model of parasporin 2 protein is unusually elongated and mainly comprises long ?-strands aligned with its long axis. It is similar to aerolysin-type ?-pore-forming toxins, which strongly reinforce the pore-forming hypothesis. The molecule can be divided into three domains. Domain 1, comprising a small ?-sheet sandwiched by short ?-helices, is probably the target-binding module. Two other domains are both ?-sandwiches and thought to be involved in oligomerization and pore formation. Domain 2 has a putative channel-forming ?-hairpin characteristic of aerolysin-type toxins. The surface of the protein has an extensive track of exposed side chains of serine and threonine residues. The track might orient the molecule on the cell membrane when domain 1 binds to the target until oligomerization and pore formation are initiated. The ?-hairpin has such a tight structure that it seems unlikely to reform as postulated in a recent model of pore formation developed for aerolysin-type toxins. Parasporin 2 (Accession no: BAD35170 protein sequence analysis indicated two different domains namely, aerolysin toxin and clostridium toxin domain based on different database searches (CDD and Pfam. It showed a close similarity with the available PDB template (PDB id: 2ZTB of parasporin which has cytocidal activity against MOLT-4, HL60 and Jurkat cell lines. Based on the PSI Blast analysis, 3D structures of the domains were predicted by using Swiss model server. Accuracy of the prediction of 3D structure of different domains of parasporin protein was further validated by Ramachandran plot and PROCHECK (G-value. The structure is dominated by ?-strands (67%, S1-12, most of which are remarkably extensive, running all or most of the longer axis of the molecule. This study helped to elucidate the 3D structure of parasporin 2 (Acc. No. BAD35170 which might enable to probe further its specific mechanism of action. Though the similarity is observed in the domain architecture, there is variation in the regions of the domains even among the same group of parasporin 2. Docking of this model structure and experimental structure with specific receptors of the cancer cells will facilitate to explore mechanism of parasporin 2 action and also provide information about its evolutionary relationship with toxic Cry proteins.

  10. Fast, non-toxic, and inexpensive n-butanol preparation of recombinant plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Brieger

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Various commercial and non-commercial plasmid preparation protocols are currently available. However, the kits are expensive and many of the protocols contain toxic chemicals. Here we present a novel, optimized and, therefore, very advantageous plasmid preparation protocol using n-butanol. The preparation can be performed quickly and no toxic chemicals are used, at overall costs of about one cent per plasmid preparation.Atualmente vários protocolos comerciais e não comerciais para preparação de plasmídeos estão disponíveis. Contudo, os kits são caros e muitos dos protocolos contêm substâncias químicas tóxicas. Apresentamos neste trabalho um novo, otimizado e portanto muito vantajoso protocolo para preparação de plasmídios usando n-butanol. A preparação pode ser efetuada rapidamente, sem adição de substâncias químicas tóxicas e a um custo total de aproximadamente um centavo (americano por preparação.

  11. Fast, non-toxic, and inexpensive n-butanol preparation of recombinant plasmids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jürgen, Brieger; Eberhard J., Weidt; Jochen, Decker.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente vários protocolos comerciais e não comerciais para preparação de plasmídeos estão disponíveis. Contudo, os kits são caros e muitos dos protocolos contêm substâncias químicas tóxicas. Apresentamos neste trabalho um novo, otimizado e portanto muito vantajoso protocolo para preparação de pla [...] smídios usando n-butanol. A preparação pode ser efetuada rapidamente, sem adição de substâncias químicas tóxicas e a um custo total de aproximadamente um centavo (americano) por preparação. Abstract in english Various commercial and non-commercial plasmid preparation protocols are currently available. However, the kits are expensive and many of the protocols contain toxic chemicals. Here we present a novel, optimized and, therefore, very advantageous plasmid preparation protocol using n-butanol. The prepa [...] ration can be performed quickly and no toxic chemicals are used, at overall costs of about one cent per plasmid preparation.

  12. Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Abdel Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1 indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

  13. Non-Toxic, Non-flammable, Low FP Heat Exchanger Fluids Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed research addresses NASA 2004-1 SBIR Topic B3.01, "Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere." The objective of this proposed effort is to...

  14. Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannucchi, Guia; Mannavola, Deborah; Dazzi, Davide; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Fugazzola, Laura [Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS (Pad. Granelli), Institute of Endocrine Sciences, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Rodari, Marcello; Tadayyon, Sara [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine ({sup 131}I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive {sup 131}I plus lithium (group I+L) or {sup 131}I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, {sup 131}I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after {sup 131}I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after {sup 131}I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, {sup 131}I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low {sup 131}I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

  15. Phosphite cannot be used as a phosphorus source but is non-toxic for microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera-Quezada, Maribel M; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; López-Arredondo, Damar; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorous (P) plays a critical role for all living organisms as a structural component of RNA, DNA and phospholipids. Microalgae are autotrophs organisms that have been reported to only assimilate the fully oxidized phosphate (Pi) as P source. However, there are microorganisms capable of utilizing P reduced compounds (i.e. phosphite (Phi) and hypophosphite) as a sole P source, such as bacteria and cyanobacteria. In this study, we evaluated whether microalgae, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Botryococcus braunii and Ettlia oleoabundans, are capable of using Phi as a sole P source. Our studies revealed that these three microalgae are unable to use Phi as a sole P source. We also found that when Phi is present at concentrations equal or higher than that of Pi, Phi has an inhibitory effect on C. reinhardtii growth. However, since C. reinhardtii was able to survive for a long period of cultivation in the presence of high concentrations of Phi and to recover cell division capacity after transfer to media containing Pi, we noticed that Phi is not toxic for this microalga. We propose that the inhibitory effect of Phi on C. reinhardtii growth might be caused, at least in part, by a competition between the transport of Pi and Phi. PMID:25575997

  16. Non-Toxic, Low Freezing, Drop-in Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Drop-in heat transfer fluids replacements for ITCS and EVA suits were down-selected and characterized in Phase I for various metrics including density, heat...

  17. Fast and non-toxic in situ hybridization without blocking of repetitive sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Steen H; Hansen, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    Formamide is the preferred solvent to lower the melting point and annealing temperature of nucleic acid strands in in situ hybridization (ISH). A key benefit of formamide is better preservation of morphology due to a lower incubation temperature. However, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), against unique DNA targets in tissue sections, an overnight hybridization is required to obtain sufficient signal intensity. Here, we identified alternative solvents and developed a new hybridization buffer that reduces the required hybridization time to one hour (IQFISH method). Remarkably, denaturation and blocking against repetitive DNA sequences to prevent non-specific binding is not required. Furthermore, the new hybridization buffer is less hazardous than formamide containing buffers. The results demonstrate a significant increased hybridization rate at a lowered denaturation and hybridization temperature for both DNA and PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes. We anticipate that these formamide substituting solvents will become the foundation for changes in the understanding and performance of denaturation and hybridization of nucleic acids. For example, the process time for tissue-based ISH for gene aberration tests in cancer diagnostics can be reduced from days to a few hours. Furthermore, the understanding of the interactions and duplex formation of nucleic acid strands may benefit from the properties of these solvents. PMID:22911704

  18. Non-toxic agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system containing gallic acid for antifungal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P-L; Gambari, R; Kok, S H-L; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Bian, Z-X; Lee, K K-H; Chui, C-H

    2015-02-01

    Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is a common species of Aspergillus molds. Cutaneous aspergillosis usually occurs in skin sites near intravenous injection and approximately 6% of cutaneous aspergillosis cases which do not involve burn or HIV-infected patients are caused by A. niger. Biomaterials and biopharmaceuticals produced from microparticle-based drug delivery systems have received much attention as microencapsulated drugs offer an improvement in therapeutic efficacy due to better human absorption. The frequently used crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, in gelatin-based microencapsulation systems is considered harmful to human beings. In order to tackle the potential risks, agarose has become an alternative polymer to be used with gelatin as wall matrix materials of microcapsules. In the present study, we report the eco-friendly use of an agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system to enhance the antifungal activity of gallic acid and reduce its potential cytotoxic effects towards human skin keratinocytes. We used optimal parameter combinations, such as an agarose/gelatin ratio of 1:1, a polymer/oil ratio of 1:60, a surfactant volume of 1% w/w and a stirring speed of 900 rpm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of microencapsulated gallic acid (62.5 µg/ml) was significantly improved when compared with that of the original drug (>750 µg/ml). The anti-A. niger activity of gallic acid -containing microcapsules was much stronger than that of the original drug. Following 48 h of treatment, skin cell survival was approximately 90% with agarose/gelatin microcapsules containing gallic acid, whereas cell viability was only 25-35% with free gallic acid. Our results demonstrate that agarose/gelatin-based microcapsules containing gallic acid may prove to be helpful in the treatment of A. niger-induced skin infections near intravenous injection sites. PMID:25482299

  19. Fluoride at non-toxic dose affects odontoblast gene expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated fluoride intake may lead to local tissue disturbances, known as fluorosis. Towards an understanding of this effect, fluoride-induced molecular responses were analyzed in MO6-G3 cultured odontoblasts cells. NaF at 1 mM changed expression of genes implicated in tissue formation and growth, without affecting cell proliferation or inducing stress factor RNAs. Up to 1 mM NaF, DNA accumulation was not inhibited, whereas at 3 mM, cells detached from their support and did not proliferate. Intracellular structures, characterized by EM, were normal up to 1 mM, but at 3 mM, necrotic features were evident. No sign of apoptotic transformation appeared at any NaF concentration. Fluoride-sensitive genes were identified by microarray analysis; expression levels of selected RNAs were determined by conventional and real-time RT-PCR. At 1 mM fluoride, RNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins asporin and fibromodulin, and the cell membrane associated proteins periostin and IMT2A were 10-fold reduced. RNA coding for signaling factor TNF-receptor 9 was diminished to one-third, whereas that for the chemokine Scya-5 was enhanced 2.5-fold. These RNAs are present in vivo in tooth forming cells. This was demonstrated by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR on RNA from dissected tissue samples; for the presence and functioning of fibromodulin in dentin matrix, a more comprehensive study has earlier been performed by others [Goldberg, M., Septier, D., Oldberg, A., Young, M.F., Ameye, ier, D., Oldberg, A., Young, M.F., Ameye, L.G., 2006. Fibromodulin deficient mice display impaired collagen fibrillogenesis in predentin as well as altered dentin mineralization and enamel formation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 54, 525-537]. Expression of most other RNA species, in particular of stress factor coding RNAs, was not altered. It was concluded that fluoride could influence the transcription pattern without inducing cell stress or apoptosis. In odontoblasts in vivo, aberrant expression of these fluoride-sensitive genes may impair the formation of the extracellular matrix and influence cell communication, with the possible consequence of fluorotic patterns of normal and deviant dentin

  20. Fast and Non-Toxic In Situ Hybridization without Blocking of Repetitive Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Matthiesen, Steen H.; Hansen, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Formamide is the preferred solvent to lower the melting point and annealing temperature of nucleic acid strands in in situ hybridization (ISH). A key benefit of formamide is better preservation of morphology due to a lower incubation temperature. However, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), against unique DNA targets in tissue sections, an overnight hybridization is required to obtain sufficient signal intensity. Here, we identified alternative solvents and developed a new hybridiza...

  1. Fast and Non-Toxic In Situ Hybridization without Blocking of Repetitive Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Steen H.; Hansen, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Formamide is the preferred solvent to lower the melting point and annealing temperature of nucleic acid strands in in situ hybridization (ISH). A key benefit of formamide is better preservation of morphology due to a lower incubation temperature. However, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), against unique DNA targets in tissue sections, an overnight hybridization is required to obtain sufficient signal intensity. Here, we identified alternative solvents and developed a new hybridization buffer that reduces the required hybridization time to one hour (IQFISH method). Remarkably, denaturation and blocking against repetitive DNA sequences to prevent non-specific binding is not required. Furthermore, the new hybridization buffer is less hazardous than formamide containing buffers. The results demonstrate a significant increased hybridization rate at a lowered denaturation and hybridization temperature for both DNA and PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes. We anticipate that these formamide substituting solvents will become the foundation for changes in the understanding and performance of denaturation and hybridization of nucleic acids. For example, the process time for tissue-based ISH for gene aberration tests in cancer diagnostics can be reduced from days to a few hours. Furthermore, the understanding of the interactions and duplex formation of nucleic acid strands may benefit from the properties of these solvents. PMID:22911704

  2. Release characteristics of reattached barnacles to non-toxic silicone coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongsoo; Nyren-Erickson, Erin; Stafslien, Shane; Daniels, Justin; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J

    2008-01-01

    Release mechanisms of barnacles (Amphibalanus amphitrite or Balanus amphitrite) reattached to platinum-cured silicone coatings were studied as a function of coating thickness (210-770 microm), elastic modulus (0.08-1.3 MPa), and shear rate (2-22 microm s(-1)). It was found that the shear stress of the reattached, live barnacles necessary to remove from the silicone coatings was controlled by the combined term (E/t)(0.5) of the elastic modulus (E) and thickness (t). As the ratio of the elastic modulus to coating thickness decreased, the barnacles were more readily removed from the silicone coatings, showing a similar release behavior to pseudobarnacles (epoxy glue). The barnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.017 to 0.055 MPa whereas the pseudobarnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.022 to 0.095 MPa. PMID:18568668

  3. Boldine, a natural aporphine alkaloid, inhibits telomerase at non-toxic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Noureini, Sakineh; Tanavar, Fatemeh

    2015-04-25

    In a preliminary screening study of natural alkaloids, boldine, an aporphine alkaloid, showed an interesting dose and time dependent anti-proliferative effect in several cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity of boldine in human fibroblasts was considerably lower than the telomerase positive embryonic kidney HEK293 and breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Whether boldine can inhibit telomerase was investigated here using a modified quantitative real-time telomere repeat amplification protocol (q-TRAP). This test showed that boldine inhibits telomerase in cells treated with sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Telomerase inhibition occurs via down-regulation of hTERT, the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Boldine changed the splicing variants of hTERT towards shorter non-functional transcripts as well. A direct interaction of boldine with the enzyme may also be involved, though thermal FRET method did not detect any substantial interaction between boldine and synthetic telomere sequences. This study advocates boldine as a valuable candidate for telomerase-targeted cancer care. This study suggests that derivatives of boldine could be potent anti-cancer drugs. PMID:25746354

  4. Discovery and Canine Preclinical Assessment of a Non-Toxic Procaspase-3-Activating Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Quinn P.; Hsu, Danny C.; Novotny, Chris J.; West, Diana C.; Kim, Dewey; Schmit, Joanna M.; Dirikolu, Levent; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Fan, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    A critical event in the apoptotic cascade is the proteolytic activation of procaspases to active caspases. The caspase auto-activating compound PAC-1 induces cancer cell apoptosis and exhibits antitumor activity in murine xenograft models when administered orally as a lipid-based formulation or implanted subcutaneously as a cholesterol pellet. However, high doses of PAC-1 were found to induce neurotoxicity, prompting us to design and assess a novel PAC-1 derivative called S-PAC-1. Similar to ...

  5. Characterization of an inexpensive, non-toxic and highly sensitive microarray substrate.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufva, Hans Martin; Petronis, Sarunas

    2004-01-01

    An agarose film has been proposed as an efficient substrate for producing microarrays. The original film preparation procedure was simplified significantly by grafting the agarose layer directly onto unmodified microscope glass slides instead of aminated glass slides, and the blocking procedure was replaced with a wash in 0.1x standard saline citrate (SSC) and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) without decreasing the performance of the produced microarrays. Characterization of the grafted agarose film using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the agarose film had a 10-fold increase in surface roughness compared to glass and that the interior of the agarose film was porous, with pore sizes between 100-500 nm. A comparison of hybridization on aldehyde-activated agarose-coated microarray slides and commercial amino-reactive microarray slides showed that aldehyde-activated agarose-coated slides had the highest signal-to-noise ratio of 850, suggesting that the aldehyde-activated agarose microarray slides are suitable in applications where analytes have a wide concentration range. By immobilizing the DNA probes using ultraviolet (UV) light, the signal-to-noise ratio was further increased to 3000 on the agarose microarray slides. The specificity of the UV cross-linked DNA probes was demonstrated using 21 and 25 bp long capture probes, enabling discrimination of target molecules differing in only one base.

  6. Nanodiamonds with silicon vacancy defects for non-toxic photostable fluorescent labeling of neural precursor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Merson, Tobias D; Aharonovich, Igor; Turbic, Alisa; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Turnley, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. NPCs labeled with NDs exhibited normal cell viability and proliferative properties consistent with biocompatibility. We conclude that SiVcontaining NDs are a promising biomedical research tool for cellular labeling and optical imaging in stem cell research.

  7. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-07-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

  8. Toxic and non-toxic role of some metals in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metals included in this study were copper, iron, zinc, cadmium and lead. The copper, iron and zinc were selected because of their important biological role in human body while cadmium and lead were selected due to their toxic nature. During the past few years, the assessment of pollution of food resources has become a major subject of investigation all over the world. Human health may be directly affected by investing fruit and vegetables, if enhanced amounts of macro or micro nutrients are present in such edibles. In addition, the presence of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in general foodstuff can lead to the malfunction of organs and chronic toxicity in humans. (author)

  9. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2008-01-01

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes, a reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services.

  10. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

  11. Production of {sup 64}Cu Radioisotope for PET Radiotracer and Radiotherapy Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Park, H.; Lee, J. S.; Chun, K. S. [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    High specific activity Copper-64 radioisotope production employed a cyclotron has been investigated of great interest for PET imaging tracer and targeted radioimmunotherapy agent. The {sup 64}Cu radioisotope decays with two distinguished modes: emitting {beta}{sup +}{sub -}particle (0.66 MeV, 17.4 %), which allows PET imaging, and emitting {beta}{sup -}-particle of 0.579 MeV (39 %) suited for targeted radiotherapy with a half-life of 12.7 h reasonably long enough duration to require for molecule uptake to targeting tumor. The therapeutic potential of {sup 64}Cu labeling with tumor targeting molecules like monoclonal antibodies has been demonstrated by achieving therapeutic doses and non-toxicity. Several production methods have been investigated for the production of {sup 64}Cu radioisotope, proton beam irradiation of an enriched {sup 64}Ni target, or deuteron irradiation to {sup 68}Zn target. In this paper, we describe the proposed development process of {sup 64}Cu radioisotope with the comparison of theoretical production yields using {sup 64}Ni(p,n){sup 64}Cu and {sup 68}Zn(p,{alpha}n){sup 64}Cu nuclear reactions. Also, utilizing a nuclear reactor the production of {sup 64}Cu radioisotope had been carried either via the {sup 63}Cu(n,{gamma}){sup 64}Cu or the {sup 64}Zn(n,p){sup 64}Cu reation. However, the specific activity was rather low and associated radionuclidic impurity was high. Therefore, it is suggested for cyclotron to develop {sup 64}Cu radioisotope with the high specific activity and low impurity.

  12. Radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes more frequently used in medicine are studied in the following aspects:their production main characteristics, disintegration products and the quality control to which they must be submitted in view of their ulterior application. (M.A.)

  13. Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an introduction to the basics of hydrogen production. Advantages of using hydrogen, information on current global hydrogen production, primary uses for hydrogen and hydrogen production processes are introduced. The presentation consists of 26 slides and may be downloaded in Microsoft Power Point file format.

  14. Agriculture wastes conversion for biofertilizer production using beneficial microorganisms for sustainable agriculture applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, S. I. S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The emphasis of this study is to generate new valuable bioproducts from non-toxic cleaning waste for environmental healing technology. Methodology and Results: Comparisons between different types of biofertilizer formulations and the field trial effectiveness were done. Results indicated that biofertilizer C contained the highest N value (1.8% when compared with biofertilizers B and A, which only contained 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively. Biofertilizer A showed significant difference in the total count of yeast, mould, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrate oxidizing bacteria compared to biofertilizer B and C. Meanwhile, biofertilizer C was found to be significantly different from others in Lactobacillus sp. and nitrogen-fixing bacteria count. Photosynthetic total count and Actinomycetes sp. were not noticed in all formulations tested.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The findings of this study suggest that biofertilizer A is suitable to be used as a promotional biofertilizer in flower and fruit production, biofertilizer B can be used for a leafy crop, while biofertilizer C is good for the growth of roots and stem of plants.

  15. Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover for production of ethanol and carbon microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretreatment of biomass is viewed as a critical step to make the cellulose accessible to enzymes and for an adequate yield of fermentable sugars in ethanol production. Recently, hydrothermal pretreatment methods have attracted a great deal of attention because it uses water which is a inherently present in green biomass, non-toxic, environmentally benign, and inexpensive medium. Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover was conducted in a flow through reactor to enhance and optimize the enzymatic digestibility. More than 80% of glucan digestibility was achieved by pretreatment at 190 oC. Addition of a small amount of K2CO3 (0.45-0.9 wt.%) can enhance the pretreatment and allow use of lower temperatures. Switchgrass pretreated at 190 oC only with water had higher internal surface area than that pretreated in the presence of K2CO3, but both the substrates showed similar glucan digestibility. In comparison to switchgrass, corn stover required milder pretreatment conditions. The liquid hydrolyzate generated during pretreatment was converted into carbon microspheres by hydrothermal carbonization, providing a value-added byproduct. The carbonization process was further examined by GC-MS analysis to understand the mechanism of microsphere formation.

  16. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil & Its Evaluation in Compression Ignition Engine Using RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashan Deep Singha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of energy, deterioration of the environment and hunger,these are the three problems the humans are facing in todays era. There is an exponential rise in the demand is arrising for petroleum based energy. This has been followed by problem of depleting conventional petroleum fuels and a hike in price of these fuels, almost on a regular basis. Moreover, these green house emissions are results of petroleum fuels and other forms of pollution in the environment. The rise in the price of the fuel has also been alarming for us to find alternate energy resource.The vegetable oils has proved to be a promising source to obtain fuels for IC engines. Like, biodiesel is biodegradable, non- toxic and renewable fuel. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oil by transesterification with alcohols. The high cost of raw materials and lack of modern technology has led to the commercialization which can optimize the biodiesel yield. A modified engine can lead to better engine performance along with lesser specific fuel consumption. In this thesis, Response Surface Methodology (RSM has been used which has focused on the optimization of biodiesel production, engine performance and exhaust emission parameters.

  17. Key factors which concur to the correct therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in free radical-induced diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    For many years now the world's scientific literature has been perfused with articles on the therapeutic potential of natural products, the vast majority of which have herbal origins, as in the case of free radical-induced diseases. What is often overlooked is the effort of researchers who take into consideration the preclinical and clinical evaluation of these herbal products, in order to demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy and safety. The first critical issue to be addressed in the early stages of the preclinical studies is related to pharmacokinetics, which is sometimes not very favorable, of some of these products, which limits the bioavailability after oral intake. In this regard, it is worthy underlining how it is often unethical to propose the therapeutic efficacy of a compound on the basis of preclinical results obtained with far higher concentrations to those which, hopefully, could be achieved in organs and tissues of subjects taking these products by mouth. The most widely used approach to overcome the problem related to the low bioavailability involves the complexation of the active ingredients of herbal products with non-toxic carriers that facilitate the absorption and distribution. Even the induction or inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes by herbal products, and the consequent variations of plasma concentrations of co-administered drugs, are phenomena to be carefully evaluated as they can give rise to side-effects. This risk is even greater when considering that people lack the perception of the risk arising from an over use of herbal products that, by their very nature, are considered risk-free. PMID:25954201

  18. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Walker, Harold; Mitsch, William

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD-lined basins. The FGD-lined basins had a greater richness of plant species but lower total plant productivity than did the claylined basins. Future research work investigating the use of FGD materials in the construction of landfill caps and liners, and wetland experiments at the medium to full-scale level is recommended.

  19. The in vitro effect of commercially available noble metal nanocolloids on the splenocyte proliferative response and cytokine production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma?aczewska, J

    2014-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles, currently among the most popular types of nanomaterials, are capable of penetrating through biological barriers once they enter a living organism. There, they can permeate into organs possessing the reticuloendothelial system, such as the spleen. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of commercial nanocolloids of noble metals (silver, gold and copper), recommended by the manufacturer as dietary supplements, on the in vitro viability, proliferative activity and production of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha) by mouse splenocytes. All of the analyzed colloids had some effect on the activity of mouse splenocytes. Silver colloid was characterized by high toxicity - concentrations of 1.25 ppm and above substantially depressed the viability of cells as well as their proliferative activity and ability to synthesize cytokines. The other two colloids were far less toxic than nanosilver, although their non-toxic concentrations had a significant effect on the production of cytokines by mitogen activated splenocytes. The colloid of gold decreased the level of IL-2, and the colloid of copper caused an increase in IL-2, IL6 and IL-10. At the same time, copper colloid alone induced the synthesis of IL-1beta in mitogen unstimulated cells. The results indicate that colloids of noble metals are capable of affecting the activity of immunocompetent cells in important peripheral organs of the immune system. PMID:24724468

  20. Hydrogen production from formic acid decomposition at room temperature using a Ag-Pd core-shell nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedsree, Karaked; Li, Tong; Jones, Simon; Chan, Chun Wong Aaron; Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Bagot, Paul A. J.; Marquis, Emmanuelle A.; Smith, George D. W.; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2011-05-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) has great potential as an in situ source of hydrogen for fuel cells, because it offers high energy density, is non-toxic and can be safely handled in aqueous solution. So far, there has been a lack of solid catalysts that are sufficiently active and/or selective for hydrogen production from formic acid at room temperature. Here, we report that Ag nanoparticles coated with a thin layer of Pd atoms can significantly enhance the production of H2 from formic acid at ambient temperature. Atom probe tomography confirmed that the nanoparticles have a core-shell configuration, with the shell containing between 1 and 10 layers of Pd atoms. The Pd shell contains terrace sites and is electronically promoted by the Ag core, leading to significantly enhanced catalytic properties. Our nanocatalysts could be used in the development of micro polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for portable devices and could also be applied in the promotion of other catalytic reactions under mild conditions.

  1. Nail Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Products Nail Care Products It is important to use nail products safely, ... top More in Products Aromatherapy Disposable Wipes Hair Products Makeup Nail Care Products Soaps & Lotions Tanning Products Tattoos & Permanent Makeup ...

  2. Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Drew S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

  3. Livestock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr. Mize

    2009-10-21

    In this project you will learn the basic principals of beef production. How does my steak get to my plate? Use your 4 column chart to record information about each step in beef production. Begin by learning about what cattle eat.Food/water resources. What are diseases in beef productionFoot and mouth diseaseMad cow disease? How do cattle grow to market weightFeedyardsDecatour county feedyard? How do we sale cattleCommerical bull salesCattle sales?Beef production How is beef quality controled Beef quality assurance? What are the different ...

  4. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alltime high for uranium concentrate production is expected to be reached in 1980. The average grade of ore fed to process will be up about 10% from last year. Some curtailments in uranium processing were announced, but three new processing plants began production in 1980. The prospects for 1981 are not as encouraging. The continuation of low prices and slow demand for U3O8 are expected to be reflected in a significant reduction in overall production and in the postponement of some plans for expansion and construction of uranium processing facilities. Increases in production capacity will occur when Plateau Resource's 750 TPD mill at Ticaboo, Utah, starts up early next year, and additional production of byproduct uranium is expected from western phosphate operations and from the southern states. These increases in capacity, however, will not offset the cutbacks in uranium processing already in force together with the additional curtailments anticipated during the course of 1981

  5. Solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis and production of hydrogen and oxygen - Annual report 2006; Photolyse de l'eau et production d'hydrogene et d'oxygene au moyen de l'energie solaire - Rapport annuel 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustynski, J.; Jorand Sartoretti, C.; Bilecka, I.; Solarska, R.

    2006-11-15

    We pursued studies of solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis cell employing semi-transparent WO{sub 3} photo anode. The stability of the photo anode in different electrolytes has been evaluated. Long term photo-electrolysis runs allowed us to identify solutions of sodium chloride as being the optimum electrolytes for water cleavage in hydrogen and oxygen, with some amount of chlorine formed as a by-product. In particular, the photo-electrolysis of a 0.5 M solution of sodium chloride, which is a composition close to sea water, results in the formation of about 20% of chlorine at the WO{sub 3} photo anode with oxygen remaining the main product. Thus, the sea water appears as an abundant, non-toxic electrolyte suitable for massive hydrogen production via photo-electrolysis. Charge and mass transport are among the main factors determining the efficiency of nanostructured semiconducting photo-electrodes. In contrast with the prevailing current opinion, our results show that it is the migrational/diffusional transport within electrolyte filling the pores of the photo-electrode and not the electron diffusion across the semiconductor matrix which controls the photocurrent-voltage behaviour. Apparently, the only restrictions to the use of relatively thick nanostructured electrodes are the penetration depth of the incident light, the rate of diffusion/migration of the electro active species within the electrode and the conductivity of the electrolyte. (authors)

  6. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    nutrients and ample solar radiation frequently trigger phytoplankton blooms in coastal polynias during Antarctic summer. Energy transfer model for primary productivity has been used to derive potential exploitable fishery resources in the Indian Ocean....

  7. Tanning Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Tanning Lamps, Booths, and Beds Sunless Tanning Sprays and Lotions Tanning Pills Tanning Lamps, Booths, and Beds Tanning lamps have become a popular method of maintaining a year-round tan, but their effects can be as dangerous as ...

  8. Record Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record Production is a website that has been created by record production professionals. Its main draw is the over 200 high quality streaming videos that feature tours of recording studios and interviews with the top record producers in the industry. Aside from the videos, the site also provides reviews of home and studio recording equipment, a news page that highlights updates to the site, as well as a forum.

  9. Product liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynard, Richard A; Legresley, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Product liability litigation has made important contributions to tobacco control, especially by uncovering incriminating industry documents and publicizing product dangers and industry misconduct. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 19 encourages Parties to strengthen legal procedures to facilitate these lawsuits and to establish mechanisms for mutual assistance. Creative lawyers will continue to find ways to bring the tobacco industry to justice in forums around the world. PMID:22345254

  10. Food production and nutrition in Biosphere 2: results from the first mission September 1991 to September 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, S E; Nelson, M

    1996-01-01

    The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time. PMID:11538814

  11. Food production and nutrition in biosphere 2: results from the first mission September 1991 to September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, S. E.; Nelson, M.

    The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m^2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time.

  12. The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body ?-radiation as acute doses.

  13. The Dynamics of Microcystis Genotypes and Microcystin Production and Associations with Environmental Factors during Blooms in Lake Chaohu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Chaohu, which is a large, shallow, hypertrophic freshwater lake in southeastern China, has been experiencing lake-wide toxic Microcystis blooms in recent decades. To illuminate the relationships between microcystin (MC production, the genotypic composition of the Microcystis community and environmental factors, water samples and associated environmental data were collected from June to October 2012 within Lake Chaohu. The Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and HPLC, respectively. The results showed that the abundances of Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations varied on spatial and temporal scales. Microcystis exists as a mixed population of toxic and non-toxic genotypes, and the proportion of toxic Microcystis genotypes ranged from 9.43% to 87.98%. Both Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that throughout the entire lake, the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations showed significant positive correlation with the total phosphorus and water temperature, suggesting that increases in temperature together with the phosphorus concentrations may promote more frequent toxic Microcystis blooms and higher concentrations of MC. Whereas, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC was negatively correlated with the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations, indicating that rising DIC concentrations may suppress toxic Microcystis abundance and reduce the MC concentrations in the future. Therefore, our results highlight the fact that future eutrophication and global climate change can affect the dynamics of toxic Microcystis blooms and hence change the MC levels in freshwater.

  14. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/96 – 3/31/00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl; Mitsch, William

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous retention giving rise to the potential use of these materials as a liners for wastewater treatment wetlands. While plant growth was observed to be less vigorous for FGD lined wetland mesocosms compared to the control, the above and below ground biomass were not significantly different. Cost estimates for FGD liners compared favorably with clay liners for varying haul distances.

  15. Redeployment-based drug screening identifies the anti-helminthic niclosamide as anti-myeloma therapy that also reduces free light chain production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite recent therapeutic advancements, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and new therapies are needed, especially for the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients. We have screened a panel of 100 off-patent licensed oral drugs for anti-myeloma activity and identified niclosamide, an anti-helminthic. Niclosamide, at clinically achievable non-toxic concentrations, killed MM cell lines and primary MM cells as efficiently as or better than standard chemotherapy and existing anti-myeloma drugs individually or in combinations, with little impact on normal donor cells. Cell death was associated with markers of both apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, niclosamide rapidly reduced free light chain (FLC) production by MM cell lines and primary MM. FLCs are a major cause of renal impairment in MM patients and light chain amyloid and FLC reduction is associated with reversal of tissue damage. Our data indicate that niclosamides anti-MM activity was mediated through the mitochondria with rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and production of mitochondrial superoxide. Niclosamide also modulated the nuclear factor-?B and STAT3 pathways in MM cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that MM cells can be selectively targeted using niclosamide while also reducing FLC secretion. Importantly, niclosamide is widely used at these concentrations with minimal toxicity

  16. Effects of addition glycerol co-product of biodiesel in the thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as secondary coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Pedro Samuel Gomes; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga; Fontes, Francisco de Assis Oliveira [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Energy Laboratory. Thermal Systems Studies Group], e-mail: cleiton@ufrnet.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of glycerol concentration on thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as a secondary coolant in refrigeration systems by expansion-indirect. The processing of triglycerides for biodiesel production generates glycerol as co-product and there are concerns of environmental and economic order on the surplus of glycerol. The addition of glycerol in water alters the colligative and thermophysical properties (melting point, mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity). There are studies that prove the feasibility of using glycerol as an additive and this paper has the goal to verify the changes on properties compared with pure water. This comparison was made from data obtained by the software simulation and they analyzed using graphs and tables. It was shown that glycerol increases the density and dynamic viscosity, and reduces the specific heat and thermal conductivity. This behavior of water-glycerol solution is proportional to the mass concentration of glycerol and it is justified because the glycerol has low values of specific heat, thermal conductivity and high viscosity when compared with water. Despite the losses in the thermophysical properties, glycerol shows its potential application, because of the cryoscopic effect and it is a non-toxic substance at low cost. (author)

  17. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape or configuration of the product.

  18. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  19. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  20. Novolak Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  1. Product liability

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    In these days of increasing legal actions against the medical profession, it is important for doctors to take heed of new regulations which affect the practice of medicine. The new Consumer Protection Act of 1987 covers product liability. This chapter stresses the importance for doctors of following the guidelines already laid down by the profession.

  2. Investigation of Paenibacillus alvei ARN63 ability for biodemulsifier production: medium optimization to break heavy crude oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirabadi, S Sh; Jahanmiri, A; Rahimpour, M R; Nia, B Rafie; Darvishi, P; Niazi, A

    2013-09-01

    The demulsifying performance of Paenibacillus alvei ARN63 (P. alvei), as a biodemulsifier-producing bacterium, for breaking water-in-heavy crude oil emulsion has been investigated. The produced lipopeptide biodemulsifier showed the potential to be used in the petroleum industry as an environmentally friendly and non-toxic material. To optimize the biodemulsifier production, the impacts of parameters such as temperature, pH, carbon source and carbon concentration at a constant agitation speed of 180 rpm and with ammonium sulfate as the sole nitrogen source (1.0 g/l) were studied in detail. Several normal paraffin compounds, vegetable oils and motor oil revealed the ability to be used as the carbon source for synthesis of biodemulsifier. The best biodemulsifier production was obtained employing motor oil as the carbon source with a concentration of 42.5 g/l at 37°C and pH 7.0 after 72 h of incubation. Under these conditions, the surface tension of the medium reduced from 58 mN/m to 24.7 mN/m and the biodemulsifier yield reached a value of 2.1 g/l. The demulsification ratio approached 77% and the produced biodemulsifier by P. alvei strain effectively broke water-in-heavy crude oil emulsion. According to biodemulsifier production and growth time course profiles, the biosynthesis was growth associated. Besides, the produced biodemulsifier had good stability during exposure to salinities up to 20%, temperatures up to 80°C and a wide pH range of 2-12. PMID:23660310

  3. Lepton Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    *Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

  4. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy ?s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp? collisions at the Tevatron at ?s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Mustard Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Subhra Samanta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for petroleum is increasing with each passing day. This may be attributed to the limited resources of petroleum crude. Hence there is an urgent need of developing alternative energy sources to meet the ever increasing energy demand. Biofuels are currently being considered from multidimensional perspectives, i.e. depleting fossil fuels, resources, environmental health, energy security and agricultural economy. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel [1]. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is produced primarily from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste mustard oil. The vegetable oils which are rich in oxygen can be used as future alternate fuels for the operation of diesel engine [2]. Biodiesel is produced from wasted mustard oil through alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Physical properties like density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point and pour point were found out for biodiesel produced from waste mustard oil. The same characteristic study was also carried out for conventional diesel fuel and used as a baseline for comparison. The values obtained from waste mustard oil ethyl ester (biodiesel is closely matched with the conventional diesel fuel and it can be used in diesel engine without any modification. Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100 or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines. Biodiesel is its capacity to lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to those of fossil fuels. There is an appreciable decrease in HC and CO2 emissions while the decrease in CO emission is marginal. However, emission of NOx is increased. Biodiesel is liquid which varies in color between golden and dark brown depending upon the production feedstock. It is immiscible with water, has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure. Typical ethyl ester biodiesel has a flash point of about 130ºC, biodiesel has a density of about 0.88 gm/cm3, less than that of water. Biodiesel has very good lubricating properties, significantly better than standard diesel which can prolong engine's life.

  6. Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests

  7. Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.

    1998-08-03

    The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

  8. Hydrogen production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

  9. Resonance Production

    OpenAIRE

    Fachini, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recent results on rho(770)^0, K(892)^*0, f_0(980), phi(1020), Delta(1232)^++, and Lambda(1520) production in A+A and p+p collisions at SPS and RHIC energies are presented. These resonances are measured via their hadronic decay channels and used as a sensitive tool to examine the collision dynamics in the hadronic medium through their decay and regeneration. The modification of resonance mass, width, and shape due to phase space and dynamical effects are discussed.

  10. Productivity Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    Many technologies used by the LDCs are developed in the OECD economies, and as such, are designed to make optimal use of the skills of these richer countries' workforces. Due to differences in the supply of skills, some of the tasks performed by skilled workers in the OECD economies will be carried out by unskilled workers in the LDCs. Since the technologies in these tasks are designed to be used by skilled workers, productivity in the LDCs will be low. Even when all countries have equal acce...

  11. The Impact of Nosema apis Z. Infestation of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L. Colonies after Using Different Treatment Methods and their Effects on the Population Levels of Workers and Honey Production on Consecutive Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Y?cel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the natural occurance of Nosema apis in honey bee colonies and evaluated of N. apis presence in colonies after medical treatment with fumagillin and thymol in consecutive 3 years period. For this purpose, 208 honey bee colonies randomly selected for detection of N. apis infection from Aegean ecotype of Apis mellifera anatolica, 1 years old queen in April, 2002. The colony development performances and honey yields were evaluated through the years from 2002 to 2004. Infested colonies were classified in 3 groups as tried to be equalized in Nosema infestation level; Fumidil-B, thymol application and control (only sugar syrup feeding. The effects of using period of Fumidil-B, contains fumagillin and thymol on N. apis infected honeybee colonies were researched by determining winter losses, adult bees population, brood and honey production in consecutive years. Also, control group were impacted for same parameters. The adult bee worker population and brood surfaces of treated in both groups (Fumidil-B and thymol were increased significantly (p<0.05 by years from 2002 to 2004. Honey production of thymol group was exhibited significant (p<0.05 increase by years, consequently. Significant decrease (p<0.05 was recorded in control group for winter mortality, brood production, adult bee worker population and honey yield than the other treatment groups. The study was conducted that, observations of bee hives and regular treatment of infested colonies supported healthy and more productive honey bees. Leaving colonies un-medicated caused severe problems in colony production. Thymol could be suggested to beekeeper as a qualified Nosemiasis prevent agent; cheap, practical and non-toxic in hives for organic honey production. Moreover, with using thymol, residue-free bee products could be handled economically.

  12. On Demand Product Development Customized For Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Shahriare

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate intention of this thesis was to analyze the present product development and production process at the client organization and to develop methods to improve the agility of the product development and production process. Thus the organization can be ready for on demand product development and corresponding customization in production by maintaining enough agility. The overall study will help the organization to comprehend the present process improvement potentials and guideline to ...

  13. Toric fiber products versus Segre products

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Thomas; Rauh, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The toric fiber product is an operation that combines two ideals that are homogeneous with respect to a grading by an affine monoid. The Segre product is a related construction that combines two multigraded rings. The quotient ring by a toric fiber product of two ideals is a subring of the Segre product, but in general this inclusion is strict. We contrast the two constructions and show that any Segre product can be presented as a toric fiber product without changing the inv...

  14. Niche products, generic products, and consumer search

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    We endogenize product differentiation in a model of sequential search with random firm-consumer match value à la Wolinsky (1986) and Anderson and Renault (1999). We focus on a product design choice by which a firm can control the dispersion of consumer valuations for its product; we interpret low dispersion products as ‘generic’ and high dispersion products as ‘nichy.’ Equilibrium product design depends on a feedback loop: when reservation utility is high (low), the marginal customer...

  15. Ranitidine Drugs as <span class="hlt">Non-Toxic</span> Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Abdel Hameed, R. S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25694076"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of HuperTacrines as <span class="hlt">Non-Toxic</span>, Cholinesterase Inhibitors for the Potential Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Chioua, Mourad; Perez, Marta; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Yanez, Matilde; Lopez, Manuela G; Romero, Alejandro; Cacabelos, Ramon; de la Bellacasa, Raimon Puig; Brogi, Simone; Butini, Stefania; Borrell, Jose I; Marco-Contelles, Jose</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes our preliminary results on the ADMET, synthesis, biochemical evaluation, and molecular modeling of racemic HuperTacrines (HT), new hybrids resulting from the juxtaposition of huperzine A and tacrine for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The synthesis of these HT was executed by Friedländer-type reactions of 2-amino-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitriles, or 7-amino-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridine- 8-carbonitriles, with cyclohexanone. In the biochemical evaluation, initial and particular attention was devoted to test their toxicity on human hepatoma cells, followed by the in vitro inhibition of human cholinesterases (hAChE, and hBuChE), and the kinetics/mechanism of the inhibition of the most potent HT; simultaneous molecular modeling on the best HT provided the key binding interactions with the human cholinesterases. >From these analyses, (±)-5-amino-3-methyl- 3,4,6,7,8,9-hexahydrobenzo[b][1,8]naphthyridin-2(1H)-one (HT1) and (±)-5-amino-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-3,4,6,7,8,9- hexahydrobenzo[b][1,8]naphthyridin-2(1H)-one (HT3) have emerged as characterized by extremely low liver toxicity reversible mixed-type, selective hAChE and, quite selective irreversible hBuChEIs, respectively, showing also good druglike properties for AD-targeted drugs. PMID:25694076</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27012817"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of toxic and <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">toxic</span> elements in samples of drinking water supplied of urban areas of Hyderabad</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The quality of drinking water is regulated by most countries by recommended legal requirements. Of special importance for the developing countries is the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations of 1984 and onwards. Drinking water is most important material for the human consumption and as such must be free of bacterial pathogenic organism, toxic metals and compounds. In general ground water and surface water are used for drinking the scope of the examination must take into account the type of raw water. The control starts with the source from which the raw water is drawn, and continues through the storage reservoir and the various processing and distribution facilities, finally ending at the consumer end. In present study we have monitored raw water which supplied by canals from Indus River, to filter plant near Hyderabad and finally drinking water is consumed by people in Hyderabad area. The rapid and modern techniques of atomic absorption has been used to analyze and obtain interference free results of analytical interest. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22224322"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> A? fibrils by small heat shock protein under heat-stress conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Sakono, Masafumi [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Saitama (Japan); Utsumi, Arata [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Zako, Tamotsu, E-mail: zako@riken.jp [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Abe, Tetsuya; Yohda, Masafumi [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Maeda, Mizuo [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)</p> <p>2013-01-25</p> <p>Highlights: ? We examined effect of the quaternary structure of yeast sHsp on A? aggregation. ? A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of sHsp, but not by dimeric sHsp. ? The fibrillar amyloids consisted of both A? and dimeric sHsp. ? They exhibited different inner structure and cytotoxicity from authentic A? amyloids. ? These results suggest the formation of new type fibrillar A? amyloid by sHsp. -- Abstract: Small heat shock protein (sHsp) is a molecular chaperone with a conserved alpha-crystallin domain that can prevent protein aggregation. It has been shown that sHsps exist as oligomers (12–40 mer) and their dissociation into small dimers or oligomers is functionally important. Since several sHsps are upregulated and co-localized with amyloid-? (A?) in senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sHsps are thought to be involved in AD. Previous studies have also shown that sHsp can prevent A? aggregation in vitro. However, it remains unclear how the quaternary structure of sHsp influences A? aggregation. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of the quaternary structure of sHsp on A? aggregation using sHsp from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHsp16.0) showing a clear temperature-dependent structural transition between an oligomer (30 °C) and dimer (50 °C) state. A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of SpHsp16.0. In contrast, amyloid fibrils were formed in the presence of dimeric SpHsp16.0. Interestingly, these amyloid fibrils consisted of both A? and SpHsp16.0 and showed a low ThT intensity and low cytotoxicity due to their low binding affinity to the cell surface. These results suggest the formation of novel fibrillar A? amyloid with different characteristics from that of the authentic A? amyloid fibrils formed in the absence of sHsp. Our results also suggest the potential protective role of sHsp in AD under stress conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45045277"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> A? fibrils by small heat shock protein under heat-stress conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: ? We examined effect of the quaternary structure of yeast sHsp on A? aggregation. ? A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of sHsp, but not by dimeric sHsp. ? The fibrillar amyloids consisted of both A? and dimeric sHsp. ? They exhibited different inner structure and cytotoxicity from authentic A? amyloids. ? These results suggest the formation of new type fibrillar A? amyloid by sHsp. -- Abstract: Small heat shock protein (sHsp) is a molecular chaperone with a conserved alpha-crystallin domain that can prevent protein aggregation. It has been shown that sHsps exist as oligomers (12–40 mer) and their dissociation into small dimers or oligomers is functionally important. Since several sHsps are upregulated and co-localized with amyloid-? (A?) in senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sHsps are thought to be involved in AD. Previous studies have also shown that sHsp can prevent A? aggregation in vitro. However, it remains unclear how the quaternary structure of sHsp influences A? aggregation. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of the quaternary structure of sHsp on A? aggregation using sHsp from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHsp16.0) showing a clear temperature-dependent structural transition between an oligomer (30 °C) and dimer (50 °C) state. A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of SpHsp16.0. In contrast, amyloid fibrils were formed in the presence of dimeric SpHsp16.0. Interestingly, these amyloid fibrils consisted of both A? and SpHsp16.0 and showed a low ThT intensity and low cytotoxicity due to their low binding affinity to the cell surface. These results suggest the formation of novel fibrillar A? amyloid with different characteristics from that of the authentic A? amyloid fibrils formed in the absence of sHsp. Our results also suggest the potential protective role of sHsp in AD under stress conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ijpr-online.com/docs/20092/IJPR534.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Quantitative investigation on some toxic and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> metals in popular medicinal herbs in Iranian market</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Fazel Shamsa</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the presence of heavy metals in some popular herbal medicines of the Iranian market. Primarily, this study was planned to do the task by the USP method. In the second step, those plants which contained more than 10 ppm of total heavymetals were analyzed by atomic absorption method. In this study, 43 popular herbal medicines were investigated according to the limit test procedure in the USP. It was found that 27 of theseplants contained less than 10 ppm heavy metals compared to a standard lead solution, while 16 contained more than 10 ppm. The presence of Pb (<2.5, Cd (<0.25, Co (<1 and Ni (<1.5could be considered safe.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/a-super-cooled-non-toxic-non-flammable-phase-change-material-thermal-pack-for-portable-lif"><span id="translatedtitle">A Super Cooled, <span class="hlt">Non-toxic</span>, Non-flammable Phase Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept development and test of a water-based, advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sink is proposed. Utilizing a novel material choice for both an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17638122"><span id="translatedtitle">Emu oil(s): a source of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> transdermal anti-inflammatory agents in aboriginal medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Whitehouse, M W; Turner, A G; Davis, C K; Roberts, M S</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The 'oil' obtained from emu fat can be a very effective inhibitor of chronic inflammation in rats when applied dermally (with a skin penetration enhancer). Assays for this activity using the adjuvant-induced arthritis model have shown: i. Considerable variability in potency of some commercial oil samples; ii. Little or no correlation of activity with colour or linolenic acid (18:3) content of the oil; iii. Relative stability of some active oils (to heat, ageing at room temperature); iv. The bulk of the anti-inflammatory activity was present in a low triglyceride fraction; and v. Potential arthritis-suppressant/immunoregulant activity of these active fractions. These studies point to the need for more rigid quality control before considering such a (now proven) traditional medicine as a complementary therapy.Repeated applications of selected oils did not induce any of the more prominent side-effects associated with NSAIDs (e.g. platelet inhibition, gastrotoxicity) or certain anti-arthritic drugs (proteinuria, leukopenia). PMID:17638122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45053705"><span id="translatedtitle">Elucidating the energetics of the interaction of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin: A calorimetric study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • Curcumin binds to HSA with affinity of the order of 105 M?1. • The binding was favoured by negative enthalpy and positive entropy changes. • The binding was dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. • Negative heat capacity value along with enthalpy–entropy compensation was observed. -- Abstract: Thermodynamic quantities for the interaction of the anticancer dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin were measured by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The equilibrium constant of the complex formation at T = 293.15 K was found to be (5.25 ± 0.05) 105 M?1. The binding was exothermic with T?S0 = (24.82 ± 0.01) kJ · mol?1, where ?S0 is the standard molar entropy change and ?Ho = ?(7.28 ± 0.04) kJ · mol?1, where ?Ho is the standard molar enthalpy change. The stoichiometry of binding was established to be 1:1. The equilibrium constant decreased with increasing Na+ concentration. The equilibrium constant decreased from (5.25 ± 0.05) · 105 M?1 to (2.88 ± 0.03) · 105 M?1 by increasing the salt concentration from (10 to 50) mM. Both polyelectrolytic and non-polyelectrolytic forces contributed to the standard molar Gibbs free energy change. However the contribution from the latter was dominant and almost invariant at all Na+ concentrations. The negative standard molar heat capacity change along with significant enthalpy–entropy compensation suggests the involvement of multiple weak non-covalent forces in the binding process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/saferproducts-api"><span id="translatedtitle">Safer<span class="hlt">Products</span> API</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission launched Safer<span class="hlt">Products</span>.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_IwRmGe&server=pvlbsrch11&v%3astate=root%7croot-20-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm182929.htm&rid=Ndoc24&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=f2236d5542a58b736925fab611783b4b&"><span id="translatedtitle">FDA 101: <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> Archived ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources for You ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_IwRmGe&server=pvlbsrch11&v%3astate=root%7croot-10-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc12&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> For ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003973.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Urinary incontinence <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... are many <span class="hlt">products</span> to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which <span class="hlt">product</span> to choose based ... and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span> You can find most <span class="hlt">products</span> at your ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......143A"><span id="translatedtitle">Extremophile mediated hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Anjom, Mouzhgun</p> <p></p> <p>Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from <span class="hlt">production</span> of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological <span class="hlt">production</span> of H2 as an end <span class="hlt">product</span> or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass <span class="hlt">production</span>, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> was pH dependent but addition of simple, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> and (4) H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068 medium containing cultures of T. neapolitana and no external H2 was added, hydrogenation was observed confirming the possibility of developing an integrated BioCat/ChemCat system. The 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of Methyl succinic acid, the hydrogenated <span class="hlt">product</span> of the olefin. The concept was extended to Glycerol, a by-<span class="hlt">product</span> of biodiesel that was catalytically upgraded to mixed alcohols in an aqueous medium. The next logical step is to evaluate these results in a continuous flow mode. The demonstrated results have implications in the development of next-generation hydrogenation reaction systems that would lead to the <span class="hlt">production</span> of biofuels and other chemicals, depending on the substrate used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Future+Challenges+and+Possibilities+for+the+Danish+Long-line+Production+of+Blue+Mussels%2C+%26lt%3Bi%26gt%3BMytilus+edilus%26lt%3B%2Fi%26gt%3B+%28L%29+%3A+With+Special+Focus+on+Filtration+and+Bioenergetics"><span id="translatedtitle">Future Challenges and Possibilities for the Danish Long-line <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Blue Mussels, <i>Mytilus edilus</i> (L) : With Special Focus on Filtration and Bioenergetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, Pernille</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The effect of current velocity (0.05-1.4 m s-1) on the clearance rate of M. edulis was studied using an automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continuously. The effect of current velocity was studied on either three or twenty mussels. Current velocities of up to 1.4 m s-1 did not affect the clearance rates of M. edulis when twenty mussels were allowed to form self-organized clumps. However, when only three M. edulis were present, mussels became inactive at current velocities >0.6 m s-1. The tolerance to high current velocities provides opportunities for offshore <span class="hlt">production</span> of blue mussels in Denmark since current velocities in the Danish coastal waters in general are below 1.4 m s-1. The effect of DST on clearance and respiration rate of M. edulis was studied in terms of exposures to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of either the <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> algal Rhodomonas salina or the DST-containing algal Dinophysis acuta. Our results showed that the clearance rate were reduced for mussels exposed to DST-containing D. acuta compared to mussels exposed to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of the <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> R. salina. Furthermore, closure of shell-valves was observed to occur earlier as well as the reduction in clearance rate became more pronounced with increasing concentrations of D. acuta. In addition, the total amount of DST accumulated in the mussels exceeded the regulatory limit for human consumption. However, DST-containing D. acuta did not have a severe effect on respiration rate. We concluded that DST most likely caused the reduction in clearance rate. Therefore DST-containing mussels can be a latent problem for mussel growth in future Danish offshore mussel <span class="hlt">production</span>, as it is in other offshore mussel <span class="hlt">productions</span> in Europe. Mussel growth and food depletion was studied within a mussel farm, located in the highly eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark. Using a variety of methods we obtained information on spatial (organism to farm scales) and temporal (seasonal) variations in food depletion. The results obtained by the different methods were integrated into a depletion model for the mussel farm. The results showed that high mussel growth rate was present during most of the year and that food depletion only occurred at different spatial scales within the farm. Furthermore, we showed that the mussel farm studied was under-utilized in terms of <span class="hlt">production</span> of mussel biomass and a surplus of food was available to support the growth of more mussels than already produced. Finally, we investigated the potential of using mussels as a mitigation tool for removal of excess nutrients in eutrophic coastal waters. A full-scale long-line mussel farm optimized for cost efficient nutrient removal was established in Skive Fjord where biological and economic parameters related to nutrient removal were monitored throughout a full <span class="hlt">production</span> cycle. We concluded that mitigation mussel cultures are a cost-effective measure for nutrient removal in coastal areas and can be used as an alternative or supplement to land-based mitigation measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::2b506e5b350f10a85be65339c53a80e8"><span id="translatedtitle">Replacing an Existing <span class="hlt">Product</span>'s <span class="hlt">Production</span> Within a Similar <span class="hlt">Product</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> by Using a Replacement Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Anita Kova? Kralj; Dejan Bencik</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><p>Existing processes for specific <span class="hlt">products</span> cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The <span class="hlt">product’s</span> price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. In our case, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the <span class="hlt">production</span> of dimethyl ether (DME). This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ufpel.edu.br/revistas/index.php/cienciadamadeira/article/view/80"><span id="translatedtitle">NATURAL <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span> AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ricardo Marques Barreiros</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The <span class="hlt">products</span> currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly <span class="hlt">products</span> and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econômico, histórico e sustentável. A escassez de espécies resistentes à degradação biológica obrigou o homem a utilizar outras menos duráveis, principalmente de rápido crescimento, provenientes de reflorestamentos, como algumas espécies de Eucalyptus e de Pinus. Estas espécies possuem moderada ou nenhuma resistência ao ataque dos organismos xilófagos e necessitam de tratamentos preservantes. Os produtos preservantes utilizados atualmente possuem elevado grau de toxicidade, sendo potenciais riscos ambientais e para a saúde humana.  Assim, há uma crescente necessidade de desenvolver produtos químicos eficazes, não tóxicos para os seres humanos e para o meio ambiente. O direcionamento das pesquisas tem objetivado desenvolver produtos ambientalmente corretos e com viabilidade econômica, e uma alternativa é o uso do Crude Tall Oil (CTO, que é um resíduo no processamento de polpa de coníferas resinosas, para produção do papel Kraft. O tall oil, como agente de proteção, tem sido considerado promissor por reduzir significativamente a absorção de água capilar do alburno, removendo, assim um dos fatores que favorecem a madeira ser atacada por fungos e insetos: água, oxigênio e nutrientes. Pesquisas mostram que o tall oil pode ser utilizado puro, seja crude ou destilado, ou em combinação com biocidas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17402520600645712"><span id="translatedtitle">HIV-1 Tat Triggers TGF-β <span class="hlt">Production</span> and NK Cell Apoptosis that is Prevented by Pertussis Toxin B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Maria Raffaella Zocchi</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Herein, we show that PTX-B and its <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> mutant PT9K/129G inhibit transcription and secretion of TGF-β elicited by HIV-1 Tat in NK cells. Moreover, Tat strongly activates the cJun component of the multimolecular complex AP-1, while TGF-β triggers cFos and cJun. Treatment of NK cells In turn,with PTX-B or PT9K/129G inhibits Tat and TGF-β-induced activation of AP-1. TGF-β enhances starvation-induced NK cell apoptosis, reduces the transcription of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and inhibits Akt phosphorylation induced by oligomerization of the triggering NK cell receptor NKG2D. All these TGF-β-mediated effects are prevented by PTX-B or PT9K/129G, through a PI-3K-dependent mechanism. Finally, PTX-B and PT9K/129G upregulate Bcl-xL, the isoform of Bcl-x that protects cells from starvation-induced apoptosis. Of note, in NK cells from patients with HIV-1 infection, mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was consistently lower than that of healthy donors; interestingly, TGF-β and Tat were detected in the sera of these patients. These data suggest that Tat-induced TGF-β <span class="hlt">production</span> and the consequent NK cell failure, possibly occurring during early HIV-1 infection, may be regulated by PTX-B and PT9K/129G.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986RMTME.......35L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Productivity</span>, components of automated <span class="hlt">production</span> systems viewed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Letsik, V. I.</p> <p>1986-03-01</p> <p>The developmet and expanded use of robotics was initiated to increase labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, ensure stable high quality instruments and necessary safety equipment, and to reduce the cost of <span class="hlt">products</span>. Robotics was introduced to cold stamping machining, loading and unloading, transport and warehousing, etc. Approximately 200 robots were introduced which replaced 50 people. Robotics and robotized technology applied to industrial plants for automation flexible <span class="hlt">production</span> systems, increase <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, quality improvement, and reduction of manpower is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_bnA3yw&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc7&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> For Consumers Print this page Share this page E-mail ... Safety Alerts Recalled <span class="hlt">Product</span> Photos on Flickr Related Consumer Updates FDA 101: <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls - From First Alert ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol3-sec58-124.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 58.124 - Denial or suspension of plant approval.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>...satisfactorily in regard to; (a) The classification of milk, (b) Proper segregation and disposal of unwholesome raw...Use of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> <span class="hlt">product</span> contact surfaces and prevention of adulteration of raw materials and <span class="hlt">products</span> with chemicals or other...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1106::dc6dfa430f3eead37b7cbc863ebcd0a8"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> Firms and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Variety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Caminal, Ramón; Granero, Luis M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this paper is to study the role of multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> firms in the market provision of <span class="hlt">product</span> variety. The analysis is conducted using the spokes model of non-localized competition proposed by Chen and Riordan (2007). Firstly, we show that multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> firms are at a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis single-<span class="hlt">product</span> firms and can only emerge if economies of scope are sufficiently strong. Secondly, under duopoly <span class="hlt">product</span> variety may be higher or lower with respect to both the first bes...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1404::852fef0b073c1fc01cddfb77dc354cb5"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> firms and <span class="hlt">product</span> variety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Caminal, Ramon</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this paper is to study the role of multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> firms in the market provision of <span class="hlt">product</span> variety. The analysis is conducted using the spokes model of non-localized competition proposed by Chen and Riordan (2007). Firstly, we show that multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> firms are at a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis single-<span class="hlt">product</span> firms and can only emerge if economies of scope are sufficiently strong. Secondly, under duopoly <span class="hlt">product</span> variety may be higher or lower with respect to both the first bes...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1203.0037.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Equivalent crossed <span class="hlt">products</span> and cross <span class="hlt">product</span> bialgebras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Panaite, Florin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In a previous paper we proved a result of the type "invariance under twisting" for Brzezinski's crossed <span class="hlt">products</span>. In this paper we prove a converse of this result, obtaining thus a characterization of what we call equivalent crossed <span class="hlt">products</span>. As an application, we characterize cross <span class="hlt">product</span> bialgebras (in the sense of Bespalov and Drabant) that are equivalent (in a certain sense) to a given cross <span class="hlt">product</span> bialgebra in which one of the factors is a bialgebra and whose coalgebra structure is a tensor <span class="hlt">product</span> coalgebra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39083363"><span id="translatedtitle">The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> in stoneware tile mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed <span class="hlt">product</span>. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the <span class="hlt">product</span> of the crystaaws require that the <span class="hlt">product</span> of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 ?m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The <span class="hlt">product</span> of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This <span class="hlt">product</span> can be safely recycled for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-sec437-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 437.1 - General applicability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>...Treatment and recovery of hazardous...<span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> industrial metal-bearing wastes...drying of POTW biosolids. <span class="hlt">Product</span> stewardship...treatment or recovery of its unused...appreciable metal or organic chemicals...temperature metals recovery...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:PDT+%28Product+Data+Technology%29%2C+Production+and+Society"><span id="translatedtitle">PDT (<span class="hlt">Product</span> Data Technology), <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Society</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Vesterager, Johan</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that <span class="hlt">products</span> are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce <span class="hlt">products</span> dramatically. The use of ICT in engineering of <span class="hlt">products</span> constitutes <span class="hlt">product</span> data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation, transmission, storing, and retrieval of knowledge and information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17709183"><span id="translatedtitle">The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 degrees C and safe recycling of the reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> in stoneware tile mixtures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Gualtieri, A F; Cavenati, C; Zanatto, I; Meloni, M; Elmi, G; Gualtieri, M Lassinantti</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 degrees C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed <span class="hlt">product</span>. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the <span class="hlt">product</span> of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 microm. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The <span class="hlt">product</span> of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This <span class="hlt">product</span> can be safely recycled for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures. PMID:17709183</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=4012"><span id="translatedtitle">Probiotic fermented dairy <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Adnan Tamime</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Fermented dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy <span class="hlt">products</span>. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and <span class="hlt">products</span>, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> together with fermented goat’s milk <span class="hlt">products</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.madehow.com/"><span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">Products</span> Are Made</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>How <span class="hlt">Products</span> Are Made explains and details the manufacturing process of a wide variety of <span class="hlt">products</span>, from daily household items to complicated electronic equipment and heavy machinery. The site provides descriptions of the step-by-step assembly and manufacturing process (complemented with illustrations and diagrams). Background information is also provided, such as how the item works, who invented the <span class="hlt">product</span>, raw materials used, <span class="hlt">product</span> applications, by-<span class="hlt">products</span>, possible future developments, quality-control procedures, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e9fcdda62bf412042ea38433c2e7258b"><span id="translatedtitle">Probiotic fermented dairy <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Fermented dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy <span class="hlt">products</span>. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and <span class="hlt">products</span>, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> together with fermented goat’s milk <span class="hlt">products</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______571::74df83c10f19c9a67aa745786e80e38e"><span id="translatedtitle">Framework of <span class="hlt">product</span> experience:</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Desmet, P.; Hekkert, P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we introduce a general framework for <span class="hlt">product</span> experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-<span class="hlt">product</span> interaction. Three distinct components or levels of <span class="hlt">product</span> experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional experience. All three components are distinguished in having their own lawful underlying process. The aesthetic level involves a <span class="hlt">product’s</span> capacity to delight one or more of our sensory modalities....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______651::e21917b8196f68641a0b0a4ef7c899e6"><span id="translatedtitle">Software <span class="hlt">Products</span> As Objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Jameson, Kevin</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes our experiences in modeling entire software <span class="hlt">products</span> (trees of software files) as objects. Container pnodes (<span class="hlt">product</span> nodes) have user-defined Internetunique names, data types, and methods (operations). Pnodes can contain arbitrary collections of software files that represent programs, libraries, documents, or other software <span class="hlt">products</span>. Pnodes can contain multiple software <span class="hlt">products</span>, so that header files, libraries, and program <span class="hlt">products</span> may all be stored within one pnode. Pno...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0870-63522005000200002-prt"><span id="translatedtitle">Residues of the Cork Industry as Carriers for the <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Legume Inoculants / Résidus de l'Industrie du Liège comme Substrats pour la <span class="hlt">Production</span> des Inoculums pour les Légumineuses / Resíduos da Indústria dos Aglomerados da Cortiça como Potenciais Substractos para a Produção de Inoculantes para Sementes de Leguminosas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Eugénio Mendes, Ferreira; Isabel Videira e, Castro.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O crescimento e a sobrevivência de duas estirpes de Rhizobium, uma de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, e outra de Mesorhizobium ciceri, foram usados para avaliação de resíduos da indústria dos aglomerados da cortiça como potenciais substractos para a produção de inoculantes para sementes de leg [...] uminosas. A turfa foi usada como controlo. 41 dias após a inoculação, o n.º das bactérias viáveis era elevado e semelhante em todos os substractos, aproximadamente 10(9) bactérias g-1. A sobrevivência durante os 450 dias de armazenamento permaneceu estável, entre 10(8) e 10(9). Os resíduos da cortiça mostraram possuir boas características de manuseio, boas capacidades de retenção de água, não apresentaram toxicidade, possuíam pH perto da neutralidade, indicando poderem ser utilizados como substractos alternativos à turfa na produção de inoculantes para leguminosas. Abstract in english Growth and survival of two rhizobial strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, and Mesorhizobium ciceri, were used to evaluate residues from the cork industry as potential carriers for <span class="hlt">production</span> of rhizobial inoculants. A peat-based carrier was used as a control. 41 days after inoculation, the [...] number of viable bacteria was high, about 10(9) bacteria g-1 for all carriers. Rhizobial survival during storage (450 days) remained stable, between 10(8) and 10(9). The cork residues based carriers showed good handling properties and water holding capacities, they were <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and had a nearly neutral pH. All these factors indicate that the use of these carriers is viable for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of rhizobial inoculants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://cscanada.net/index.php/est/article/view/2103"><span id="translatedtitle">Replacing an Existing <span class="hlt">Product</span>'s <span class="hlt">Production</span> Within a Similar <span class="hlt">Product</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> by Using a Replacement Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Anita Kova? Kralj</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <p>Existing processes for specific <span class="hlt">products</span> cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The <span class="hlt">product’s</span> price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. In our case, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the <span class="hlt">production</span> of dimethyl ether (DME. This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, and can be achieved by using replacement technique. We want to keep and transfer as many of the existing units from the previous <span class="hlt">production</span> to the new <span class="hlt">production</span>. Dimethyl ether is an organic compound with the formula CH<sub>3</sub>OCH<sub>3</sub>.  It is a colourless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds, and an aerosol propellant. DME can act as a clean fuel when burned in engines properly optimized for DME. The direct <span class="hlt">production</span> of DME would be cheaper than indirect when applied for new buildings. The same applies for retrofits, or the replacing of existing methanol - specific <span class="hlt">production</span> – a similar DME <span class="hlt">product</span> plant would be more rational for the direct <span class="hlt">production</span> of DME, because of greater efficiency, <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of DME <span class="hlt">production</span>, profit, and for 20 % more electricity generation.</p><p><strong>Key</strong><strong> </strong><strong>words:</strong> Dimetyl ether; Replacement; Methanol process; Indirect method; Direct method; Retrofit</p></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Product+Family+Assessment"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Kvist, Morten</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of <span class="hlt">products</span> that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven <span class="hlt">product</span> development. While operating in the mass <span class="hlt">production</span> paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single <span class="hlt">product</span> this will in time lead to a patchwork of <span class="hlt">product</span> variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a <span class="hlt">product</span> family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single <span class="hlt">products</span> to entire <span class="hlt">product</span> families and try to incorporate the development of <span class="hlt">product</span> variety into a future <span class="hlt">product</span> family. The key is to create fit between the <span class="hlt">product</span> design and <span class="hlt">production</span> setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing <span class="hlt">product</span> design and the <span class="hlt">production</span> setup with an eye re-design the <span class="hlt">products</span> and/or the <span class="hlt">production</span> setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a <span class="hlt">product</span> family and the <span class="hlt">production</span> setup. Furthermore, the model links the <span class="hlt">product</span> design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the <span class="hlt">product</span> family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future <span class="hlt">product</span> design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean <span class="hlt">production</span>, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a <span class="hlt">product</span> variety context, and discussed in relation to <span class="hlt">product</span> development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::6715f645cbecba49059708178d06f3ec"><span id="translatedtitle">Agriculture wastes conversion for biofertilizer <span class="hlt">production</span> using beneficial microorganisms for sustainable agriculture applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Ali, S. I. S.; Aziz, R.; Awad, H. M.; Sarip, S. H. M.; Sarmidi, M. R.; Hanapi, S. Z.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aims: The emphasis of this study is to generate new valuable bioproducts from <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> cleaning waste for environmental healing technology. Methodology and Results: Comparisons between different types of biofertilizer formulations and the field trial effectiveness were done. Results indicated that biofertilizer C contained the highest N value (1.8%) when compared with biofertilizers B and A, which only contained 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively. Biofertilizer A showed significant difference in th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1399::aa1f4ff0fe1e136f741a23ecf67d4e58"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> from sunflower oil using microwave assisted transesterification / by Nokuthula E. Magida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Magida, Nokuthula Ethel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Biofuels are becoming more attractive worldwide because of the high energy demands and the fossil fuel resources that are being depleted. Biodiesel is one of the most attractive alternative energy sources to petroleum diesel fuel and it is renewable, <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">toxic</span>, biodegradable, has low sulphur content and has a high flash point. Biodiesel can be generated from domestic natural resources such as coconuts, rapeseeds, soybeans, sunflower, and waste cooking o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1399::ea9e95e264cf8ee57ed536122a14e0c0"><span id="translatedtitle">The dynamics of toxic microcystis strains and microcystin <span class="hlt">production</span> in two hypertrofic South African reservoirs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Barnard, Sandra; Conradie, Karin Ronel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The South African impoundments of Hartbeespoort and Roodeplaat experience excessive blooms of Microcystis species each year. Microcystins, produced primarily by strains of cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix, are harmful cyanobacterial hepatotoxins. These bloom-forming cyanobacteria form toxic and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> strains that co-occur and are visually indistinguishable, but can be identified and quantified molecularly. We described the relationships between ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______307::87959b5d6d8ae7157977b651ae1eaefc"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> by microalgae and macroalgae from north littoral portuguese coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Carvalho, Joana; Ribeiro, Andr??; Castro, Joana Daniela Fernandes; Vilarinho, C??ndida; De Castro, F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has many benefits. It is biodegradable, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and compared to petroleum-based diesel, has a more favorable combustion emission profile, such as low emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons. In brief, these merits make biodiesel a good alternative to petroleum based fuel. Biodiesel feedstocks derived from microalgae and macroalgae have emerged as one of the most promising alternative sources of lipid for use in biodiesel ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46015330+46015330"><span id="translatedtitle">Report of the 2nd RCM on development of radiation-processed <span class="hlt">products</span> of natural polymers for application in agriculture, healthcare, industry and environment. Working MaterialReport of the 2nd RCM on development of radiation-processed <span class="hlt">products</span> of natural polymers for application in agriculture, healthcare, industry and environment. Working Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and biodegradable natural polymers and natural polymer waste. The results of research work showed that depending on the irradiation conditions, natural polysaccharides (alginate, chitin/chitosan, carrageeneans, carboxylmethylcellulose, etc.) could be either degraded or crosslinked by radiation. This paved the way for development of many successful applications; some of them commercialized, for use in agriculture, health care and environmental protection. The inputs for the formulation of this CRP and the key issues that need to be addressed were provided by the Consultant’s Meeting on “Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Development of Finished <span class="hlt">Products</span> for Health Care, Agriculture and Environment” held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 26 – 30 March 2007. The main objective was defined as wide-spread promotion and general application of radiation processed natural materials, by coupling radiation technology and end-users to derive additional benefits from these value-added natural materials. The first RCM of the CRP was convened in Vienna on 21-25 April 2008. The participants presented and discussed the status of the field, the needs for further research, and various application possibilities. The work plan formulated during the meeting focused on harmonization of procedures for characterization of irradiated polymers, and protocols for investigation of the functional properties of degraded natural polymer <span class="hlt">products</span> and their field testing. A network for collaboration was also proposed. The Meeting Report was published and is available for all Member States. The second RCM of this CRP was held in Reims, France, on 12–16 October 2009. The meeting was attended by 14 participants who reported their individual research results obtained since the first RCM, as well as their further plans. This meeting report contains all these reports, as well as the reports by participants from Algeria, Japan and Thailand, who could not attend the meeting, but sent their contributions. The leaders of the harmonization exercise of the characterization procedures (Poland and UK) presented a detailed evaluation of the results and lessons learned, as well as the further plans. The report of Poland contains the summary of these findings. The detailed protocol for the determination of viscosity for chitosan solution, which was used by all participants, is given in the AnnexRadiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and biodegradable natural polymers and natural polymer waste. The results of research work showed that depending on the irradiation conditions, natural polysaccharides (alginate, chitin/chitosan, carrageeneans, carboxylmethylcellulose, etc.) could be either degraded or crosslinked by radiation. This paved the way for development of many successful applications; some of them commercialized, for use in agriculture, health care and environmental protection. The inputs for the formulation of this CRP and the key issues that need to be addressed were provided by the Consultant’s Meeting on “Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Development of Finished <span class="hlt">Products</span> for Health Care, Agriculture and Environment” held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 26 – 30 March 2007. The main objective was defined as wide-spread promotion and general application of radiation processed natural materials, by coupling radiation technology and end-users to derive additional benefits from these value-added natural materials. The first RCM of the CRP was convened in Vienna on 21-25 April 2008. The participants presented and discussed the status of the field, the needs for further research, and various application possibilities. The work plan formulated during the meeting focused on harmonization of procedures for characterization of irradiated polymers, and protocols for investigation of the functional propertie</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Making+Product+Customization+Profitable"><span id="translatedtitle">Making <span class="hlt">Product</span> Customization Profitable</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture for companies that customize <span class="hlt">products</span> and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, <span class="hlt">product</span> assortment, supply-<span class="hlt">production</span>, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a <span class="hlt">product</span> family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study it is shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.mnmk.ro/documents/2014_01/1-13-1-14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">BRAND - <span class="hlt">PRODUCT</span> INTERDEPENDENCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Tudor NISTORESCU</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the <span class="hlt">products</span>. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a <span class="hlt">product</span>. However the <span class="hlt">product</span> is needed to render the brand tangible. The <span class="hlt">product</span> is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the <span class="hlt">product</span>, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-<span class="hlt">product</span> relationship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://householdproducts.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/household/prodtree?prodcat=Personal+Care"><span id="translatedtitle">Household <span class="hlt">Products</span> Database: Personal Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Product</span>, Manufacturer etc... Advanced Search Auto <span class="hlt">Products</span> Inside the Home Pesticides Landscape/Yard Personal Care Home Maintenance Arts & Crafts Pet Care Home Office Commercial / Institutional <span class="hlt">Products</span> Names Types of <span class="hlt">Products</span> Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ <span class="hlt">Product</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35016854"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation chemical technology for <span class="hlt">production</span> of polymeric hydrogels for medical purposes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full text: Polymeric hydrogels are water-swelling cross-linked hydrophilic polymers with ability to store reversibly great amount of water (more than 1000 g of water per 1 g of dry polymer). At present they found a lot of different applications in highly developed countries in science and industry. The set of unique physicochemical and biomedical properties (regulated sorption ability in respect to water and biological liquids, biocompatibility, soft tissue state, permeability in respect to small and big molecules, <span class="hlt">non-toxicity</span>, etc.) allows their application in medicine. According to the clinical data there are no materials that can compete with hydrogels in development of endo-prostheses of soft-tissues in surgery, contact lenses for eyesight correction, hemo-compatible materials, novel for treatment of wounds and burns, targeted drug delivery systems. Polymeric hydrogels today practically substitute the traditional hydrophobic bases (Vaseline, lanolin) in technology of drug forms for development of ointments and dressings, containing natural and synthetic physiologically active substances. The advantages of hydrogels in comparison with hydrophobic analogues are obvious due to the drainage effect, homogenous distribution of drugs, better contact with wound, painless removing by water washing. The polymeric hydrogels are not produced in Kazakhstan in spite of the big source of raw materials. The aim of the present work is the development of radiation-chemical technol development of radiation-chemical technology and development of polymeric biomedical hydrogels <span class="hlt">production</span> based on raw materials of Kazakhstan. The novel types of polymeric hydrogel materials are developed by the authors of the report based on vinyl ethers of glycols, which produced in 'Alash Ltd.' (Temirtau). The great fundamental information content has been obtained about these monomers and polymers including direct quantitative data of their structure formation mechanism and physicochemical properties. These data served as a basis for design of novel polymeric hydrogels of different type including so-called 'intelligent' materials, which are able to respond on small changes of environmental parameters (temperature, pH, electric field). According the biomedical tests the availability and competitive ability of these biomaterials is due to their unique stability to bio-destruction in aggressive infection media unlike of known hydrogels based on polyacrylamide, hydroxyalkyl acrylates, etc. This is connected with the absence of hydrolyzable bonds (ester, amide, etc.) in the structure of vinyl ethers. As the result of many years collaboration with a number of leading medical centers of Kazakhstan and Russia the possibility of wide and effective application of these hydrogel materials in different areas of medicine has bee found (contact hydrogel for ultrasonic diagnostics; hydrogel basis for medicinal and cosmetic ointments; hydrogel implant material)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1665-27382010000100003-mex"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteínas PEGiladas: producción, purificación y aplicaciones / PEGylated proteins: <span class="hlt">production</span>, purification, and applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>K. P., Mayolo-Deloisa; M., Rito-Palomares.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available La PEGilación es la conjugación de una proteína y/o péptido con una o más moléculas de poli(etilen glicol). El poli(etilen glicol) es un polímero no toxico, no inmunogénico y esto aprobado por la FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA). En los últimos años, la PEGilación ha sido utilizada para mejor [...] ar las propiedades fisicoquímicas de proteínas y drogas terapéuticas, por lo que esta tecnología ha impactado fuertemente a la industria bio-farmacéutica. La PEGilación permite prolongar el tiempo de residencia en el cuerpo, mejorar la estabilidad, aumentar la solubilidad, disminuir la proteólisis y excreción renal. Desde el surgimiento de esta tecnología, diferentes proteínas han sido PEGiladas para el tratamiento de enfermedades como: hepatitis C, leucemia, artritis reumatoide, etc. Este artículo de revisión presenta una descripción del desarrollo de la PEGilación en los últimos años, así como de los procedimientos usados para la producción de bio-conjugados. Además, se revisan las estrategias de purificación utilizadas para la recuperación de proteínas PEGiladas, siendo este uno de los grandes retos en el proceso debido a que la reacción de PEGilación puede generar bio-conjugados con diferentes grados de PEGilación. Por último, se presentan las aplicaciones de dichos bio-conjugados y los retos futuros que se identifican para su aplicación genérica. Abstract in english PEGylation is the covalent attachment of protein and/or peptide to poly(ethylene glycol). The poly(ethylene glycol) is a polymer, <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">toxic</span>, non immunogenic, and FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) approved. In the last years, PEGylation has been used to improve the physicochemical properties of [...] some proteins and therapeutic drugs; this technology has impacted heavily on the bio-pharmaceutical industry. PEGylation prolongs the body-residence time and stability, decreases the proteolysis and renal excretion. Since the emergence of this technology, some proteins have been PEGylated for the treatment of diseases including hepatitis C, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. This review presents a description of the PEGylation development in the last years and the chemical procedures used to obtain some bio-conjugated <span class="hlt">products</span>. Strategies of purification used to obtain PEGylated proteins are reviewed; purification is one of the major problems to establish suitable processes due to the fact that the reaction can generate bio-conjugates with different degree of PEGylation. Finally the applications of PEGylated proteins and the future challenges that are identified for generic application are presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Glocalized+Production%3A+The+Evolution+of+Global+Production"><span id="translatedtitle">Glocalized <span class="hlt">Production</span>: The Evolution of Global <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Chavez, Marianna; Bilberg, Arne</p> <p></p> <p>In light of the challenges of the current globalized <span class="hlt">production</span> model, four global Danish companies were interviewed with the purpose of exploring “glocalized <span class="hlt">production</span>” as the new step and solution to the challenges of the “global village.” The research sought to gauge the interest on “glocalized <span class="hlt">production</span>” by key managers of these companies, and test three hypotheses: that a definition could be established from “glocalization” aspects, that it will reduce supply chain complexity, and that it can affect organizational trust levels. The results are presented along with suggestions to pave the way for future research on this emerging topic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_bWVyCw&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-20-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc20&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... 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Health A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food ... <span class="hlt">Products</span> Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos Dispositivos que ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/consumer-product-category-database"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Category Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer <span class="hlt">products</span>. The chemical use...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_Kz97M8&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc3&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... when unsafe <span class="hlt">products</span> must be removed from the market, these numbers and dates can also help identify ... 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Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Consumer Updates: About FDA Cosmetics ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_rc3Rxa&server=pvlbsrch11&v%3astate=root%7croot-60-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm182929.htm&rid=Ndoc62&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=f2236d5542a58b736925fab611783b4b&"><span id="translatedtitle">FDA 101: <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available U.S. Food & Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/pesticide-product-label-system"><span id="translatedtitle">Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Label System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide <span class="hlt">product</span> labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14718778"><span id="translatedtitle">Baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> at PEP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of inclusive ? + anti ? <span class="hlt">production</span> for 1.0 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 10.0 GeV/c and p + anti p <span class="hlt">production</span> for 0.4 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 2.0 GeV/c show significant baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> in e+e- annihilation at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV. ? + anti ? <span class="hlt">production</span> represents 0.2 ?'s or anti ?'s per PEP event while the observed p + anti p <span class="hlt">production</span> implies all baryon-antibaryon pair <span class="hlt">production</span> is occurring at least as often as 0.6 per event, depending on the yet to be measured p + anti p <span class="hlt">production</span> at high momentum. Comparisons are made with the first theoretical attempts to account for baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> at these energies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_7ZvM9t&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-50-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm182929.htm&rid=Ndoc58&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=f2236d5542a58b736925fab611783b4b&"><span id="translatedtitle">FDA 101: <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... 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Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> Archived Content The content on ... Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_xZrdB8&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc2&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> For Consumers Print this page ... Problems to FDA More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1973438"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in <span class="hlt">production</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative <span class="hlt">Production</span> Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative <span class="hlt">Production</span> Technology, Individualised <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Virtual <span class="hlt">Production</span> Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising <span class="hlt">Production</span> Systems and Human Factors in <span class="hlt">Production</span> Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of <span class="hlt">production</span> is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of <span class="hlt">production</span>, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12859006"><span id="translatedtitle">Rational forest <span class="hlt">productivity</span> decline.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>MacLellan, James I; Carleton, T J</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A whole forest optimisation model was employed to examine economic behaviour as it relates to long term, forest <span class="hlt">productivity</span> decline in the boreal forests of Ontario, Canada. Our <span class="hlt">productivity</span> investment model (PIM) incorporated a choice between <span class="hlt">productivity</span> decline as represented by a drop in forest Site Class, and a fee to 'maintain' site <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the point at which these fees exceeded the value of the differential in timber volume between upper and lower site classes. By varying discount rate, '<span class="hlt">productivity</span> investment frontiers' were constructed, which highlight the effects of the magnitude in <span class="hlt">productivity</span> decline, maintenance fees, and harvest flow constraints upon the occurrence and schedule of <span class="hlt">productivity</span> declines. In presenting this simple approach to exploring the effects of economic choice upon forest <span class="hlt">productivity</span> decline, the phenomena of 'natural capital divestment' within forestry is described. PMID:12859006</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/all-product-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">All <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — Recalls and <span class="hlt">product</span> safety news. 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CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/outdoor-product-related-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">Outdoor <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — Outdoor <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_lsWBRn&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-10-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm182929.htm&rid=Ndoc11&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=f2236d5542a58b736925fab611783b4b&"><span id="translatedtitle">FDA 101: <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_lsWBRn&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc3&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Reporting Problems to FDA More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_hwIN6A&server=pvlbsrch10&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc9&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... a recalled <span class="hlt">product</span>. There are many numbers and dates on the foods, drugs, cosmetics, and other <span class="hlt">products</span> ... be removed from the market, these numbers and dates can also help identify them quickly. For More ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_TFguzZ&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-10-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm182929.htm&rid=Ndoc12&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=f2236d5542a58b736925fab611783b4b&"><span id="translatedtitle">FDA 101: <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> Archived Content The content on ... Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Consumer Updates: About FDA Cosmetics Dietary ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_TFguzZ&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc3&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> For Consumers Print this page ... Problems to FDA More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Consumer Updates: About FDA Cosmetics Dietary ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22030742"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolomics study on Fuzi and its processed <span class="hlt">products</span> using ultra-performance liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry coupled with pattern recognition analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Sun, Hui; Ni, Bei; Zhang, Aihua; Wang, Mo; Dong, Hui; Wang, Xijun</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx is named "Fuzi" which is widely distributed across Asia and North America and has been used to relieve joint pain and treat rheumatic diseases for over two thousand years. However, it has very narrow therapeutic ranges and despite the toxicological risk, its usage remains very high. A traditional Chinese processing approach (Paozhi, detoxifying measure) is necessary to remove the poisonous Aconitum alkaloids mainly deriving from the diester diterpene alkaloids (DDAs) including aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine. They can be decomposed into less or <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> derivatives through Paozhi that plays an essential role in detoxification. Processed Fuzi is mainly focused on the three main forms of Yanfuzi (YFZ), Heishunpian (HSP) and Baifupian (BFP) which are highly desirable in order to guarantee the clinical safety and their low toxicity in decoctions. The difference in metabolomic characters between Fuzi and its processed preparations is still completely unclear. Therefore, this paper was designed to investigate a comprehensive metabolome of Fuzi and its processed <span class="hlt">products</span> by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS) combined with pattern recognition methods. The difference in metabolic profiles between Fuzi and its processed preparations was well observed by the principal component analysis (PCA) of the MS spectra. Significant changes of 19 metabolite biomarkers were detected in the Fuzi samples and three preparations. The underlying regulations of Paozhi-perturbed metabolic pathways were also discussed according to the identified metabolites. The present study proves that UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS based metabolomic analysis greatly contributes to the investigation of Fuzi metabolism through Paozhi techniques, and provides useful information to further comprehensively understand the pharmacological activity and potential toxicity of processed Fuzi in a clinical environment. PMID:22030742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_7RVUL5&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-40-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc41&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... <span class="hlt">Products</span> Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::dcc7a73d89ad5df0dd0dca8e67870c45"><span id="translatedtitle">Social software <span class="hlt">product</span> lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Ali R.; Solis C.; Dalpiaz F; Maalej W.; Giorgini P.; Nuseibeh B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Software <span class="hlt">product</span> lines are an engineering paradigm meant to systematically configure software <span class="hlt">products</span> of reusable assets so that development effort and time are minimized. Config-uring a high-quality <span class="hlt">product</span> is a challenging design activity, main-ly because quality is a dynamic property and hardly predictable by designers at design time. In this position paper, we propose Social Software <span class="hlt">Product</span> Lines (SSPL) as a new development paradigm which involves users as collaborators in judging softw...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::9ad137ad2f541d7a326d5e7dc6070e51"><span id="translatedtitle">Procyclical <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> in Manufacturing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>LUCAS NAVARRO; RAIMUNDO SOTO</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We study the cyclical behavior of labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth, thus su...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10114929"><span id="translatedtitle">The new <span class="hlt">productivity</span> challenge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Drucker, P F</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>"The single greatest challenge facing managers in the developed countries of the world is to raise the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of knowledge and service workers," writes Peter F. Drucker in "The New <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Challenge." <span class="hlt">Productivity</span>, says Drucker, ultimately defeated Karl Marx; it gave common laborers the chance to earn the wages of skilled workers. Now five distinct steps will raise the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of knowledge and service workers--and not only stimulate new economic growth but also defuse rising social tensions. PMID:10114929</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=296955"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of entomopathogenic nematodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Production</span> technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. <span class="hlt">Production</span> approaches include in vivo and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo <span class="hlt">production</span> of EPNs appears to be th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20136015005"><span id="translatedtitle">Quarkonium <span class="hlt">Production</span> at LHCb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Pepe Altarelli Monica</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Full Text Available I will review a selection of LHCb results on the <span class="hlt">production</span> of heavy quarkonium states in pp collisions, including recent results on J/? and ?(nS(n = 1, 2, 3 <span class="hlt">production</span> at ?s = 8 TeV, as well as preliminary results on J/? <span class="hlt">production</span> in proton-lead collisions at ?sNN = 5 TeV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______258::c225d3a3163847f602b3e8e580c00bdc"><span id="translatedtitle">Corporate Greening : <span class="hlt">Product</span> and <span class="hlt">Production</span> Perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Guziana, Bozena</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This thesis describes corporate greening in general, and specifically the environmental technology (ET) sector as a green sector. The thesis has also particular focus on <span class="hlt">production</span> and <span class="hlt">products</span> related aspects and the influence of the environmental profile of the ET sector on the environmental engagement of companies in the sector. The study is based on a questionnaire-based survey, online surveys and on semi-structured open-ended interviews. The organizations within the ET sector were identi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45038520"><span id="translatedtitle">Betulin and betulinic acid attenuate ethanol-induced liver stellate cell activation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokine (TNF-?, TGF-?) <span class="hlt">production</span> and by influencing intracellular signaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Background/aims: Liver fibrosis has been reported to be inhibited in vivo by oleanolic and ursolic acids. However, the mechanisms of the action of those triterpenoids are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the antifibrotic potential of other triterpenes, betulin and betulinic acid, and to characterize their influence on the signal transduction pathways involved in ethanol-activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Methods: Investigated was the influence of preincubation of rat HSCs with betulin and betulinic acid, at <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> concentrations, on ethanol-induced toxicity, migration, and several markers of HSC activation such as smooth muscle ?-actin (?-SMA) and procollagen I expression, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and tumor growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), and <span class="hlt">production</span> of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). To assess the mechanism of the action of those triterpenes, intracellular signals such as nuclear factor-?B (NF?B), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) induced by ethanol were examined. Results: In vitro, betulin, but not betulinic acid, protected HSCs against ethanol toxicity. However, both betulin and betulinic acid inhibited the <span class="hlt">production</span> of ROS by HSCs treated with ethanol and inhibited their migration as well as ethanol-induced TNF-?, and TGF-?1, <span class="hlt">production</span>. Betulin and betulinic acid down-regulated ethanol-induced <span class="hlt">production</span> of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Betulin and betulinic acid, also decreased ethanol-induced activity of MMP-2. In ethanol-induced HSCs, betulin inhibited the activation of the p38 MAPK and the JNK transduction pathways, while betulinic acid inhibited the JNK transduction pathway only. They also significantly inhibited phosphorylation of I?B and Smad 3 and attenuated the activation of TGF-?1 and NF?B/I?B transduction signaling. Conclusion: The results indicated that betulin and betulinic acid inhibited ethanol-induced activation of HSCs on different levels, acting as antioxidants, inhibitors of cytokine <span class="hlt">production</span>, and inhibitors of TGF-?, and NF?B/I?B transduction signaling. Betulin was also inhibitor of both JNK and p38 MAPK signal transduction, while betulinic acid inhibited only JNK. The remarkable inhibition of several markers of HCS activation makes triterpenes, especially betulin, promising agents for anti-fibrotic combination therapies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43010255"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone safety assurance during operation of 10 MeV RF electron linac by developing an air flow sensor and using ozone level monitor and interlock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A lot of ozone gas is produced due to breaking of air particles present in between the beam exit window of Linac and <span class="hlt">products</span> to be irradiated. Though the ozone gas is non-poisonous, <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, being much heavier than oxygen, it creates a depletion of oxygen near the scan horn area of LINAC. The allowable level of ozone is 100 ppb for the human occupancy. There is a 2.6 meter thick mild steel mobile shield for entering the operating personnel after irradiation near the scan horn area of LINAC. Two 20 HP ozone removal pumps are in operation to remove the ozone produced due to Linac operation, via 12 earth pits made in the irradiation area of LINAC. The human safety is ensured by continuously monitoring the ozone level (analog signal), the ozone removal speed by measuring air flow signals (analog signal) at different pits, the ON/OFF status (DI) of two pumps and interlocking the mobile shield opening with the 100 ppb level of ozone level. A potential free contact is generated against the 100 ppb level in the ozone monitor. An Air flow sensor with two analog inputs and two alarm outputs have been developed to ensure the ozone removal at various pits. A light transmitter-receiver is mounted at the two ends of the rotating fan, which rotates due to air flow. The count of light pulses is calibrated with the air flow speed. This paper discusses the details of the measures taken to ensure human safety against ozone produced during operation of LINAC. (authorroduced during operation of LINAC. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Evolving+production+network+structures"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolving <span class="hlt">production</span> network structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>When deciding about future <span class="hlt">production</span> network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the <span class="hlt">products</span> and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization modelling and assigns <span class="hlt">products</span> and capacity expansions to <span class="hlt">production</span> sites under the above constraints. It also considers the <span class="hlt">production</span> complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost reductions compared to the traditional manual planning results of our industrial partner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::4faf1b128ea2dc730be122703136cadc"><span id="translatedtitle">Age, Wage and <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>VAN OURS, Jan C.; Stoeldraijer, Lenny</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while <span class="hlt">productivity</span> does not or does not increase at the same pace. However, other studies find no evidence of such an age related pay-<span class="hlt">productivity</span> gap. We perform an analysis of the relationship between age, wage and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> using a matched worker-firm pane...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.anpad.org.br/periodicos/arq_pdf/a_787.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Low income <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Maria Cecília Sobral</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on <span class="hlt">product</span> development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate <span class="hlt">products</span> and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular <span class="hlt">product</span>, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize <span class="hlt">products</span> and increase the <span class="hlt">production</span> scale; to extend the <span class="hlt">product</span> life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build <span class="hlt">product</span> images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44027850"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Productivity</span> analysis of sunflower <span class="hlt">production</span> in Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) <span class="hlt">production</span>, 55% of the <span class="hlt">production</span> is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower <span class="hlt">production</span>. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas <span class="hlt">production</span> function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower <span class="hlt">production</span>. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22234536"><span id="translatedtitle">Fermentative <span class="hlt">production</span> of isobutene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based <span class="hlt">production</span> might replace the petrochemical <span class="hlt">production</span> in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based <span class="hlt">production</span> might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and <span class="hlt">productivities</span>. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic <span class="hlt">production</span> close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative <span class="hlt">production</span> of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize <span class="hlt">product</span> toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene <span class="hlt">production</span> process is assessed. The <span class="hlt">production</span> costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the <span class="hlt">production</span> costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock. PMID:22234536</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822007000100010"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of fractional factorial design to levan <span class="hlt">production</span> by Zymomonas mobilis Aplicação do planejamento fatorial fracionário para a produção de levana por Zymomonas mobilis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>I.R. Melo</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Levan is a <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, biologically active, extra cellular polysaccharide composed solely by fructose units. Optimization of levan <span class="hlt">production</span> by Zymomonas mobilis strain ZAG-12 employing a 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed to analyze the influence of the temperature (20, 25 e 30ºC agitation (50, 75 e 100 rpm, and the initial concentrations of both sucrose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 and yeast extract (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0g.L-1 on final levan concentration. Aerobic fermentation was performed batchwise in 500mL Pyrex flasks for 72 hours. Biomass, ethanol, levan and sucrose were determined at beginning and also at end of the fermentations. The experiments showed that the final levan concentration depended on initial sucrose concentration, temperature and agitation velocity and that the initial concentration of yeast extract did not influence levan <span class="hlt">production</span>. However, when the <span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol and biomass were considered, it became evident that yeast extract was a significant variable. The best conditions for levan <span class="hlt">production</span> occurred at 100 rpm agitation, 20ºC and 250g.L-1 of initial sucrose resulting in 14.67g.L-1 of levan.Levana é um polissacarídeo extracelular, biologicamente ativo, não tóxico, contendo em sua estrutura apenas frutose. A maximização da produção de levana, por via fermentativa, pela linhagem de Zymomonas mobilis ZAG-12, foi estudada utilizando-se um planejamento fatorial de dois níveis 2(4-1, variando-se as concentrações iniciais de sacarose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 , extrato de levedura (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0 g.L-1, temperatura (20, 25 e 30ºC e agitação (50, 75 e 100 rpm. As fermentações foram desenvolvidas por processos descontínuos em frascos Pyrex roscados, de 500 mL, contendo 300 mL de meio a base de sacarose, por 72 horas. No início e ao final do processo, foram dosados: biomassa, etanol, levana e sacarose como açúcares redutores totais. A análise dos dados mostra que o aumento da produção de levana depende tanto dos efeitos da concentração inicial de sacarose, temperatura e agitação, isoladamente, quanto da interação entre agitação e temperatura na faixa experimental estudada. O extrato de levedura não afeta a produção de levana, entretanto, quando a resposta é produção de etanol e biomassa, fica evidente que essa variável é significativa. Os resultados demonstraram que as melhores condições para a produção em batelada ocorreram com 250g/L de sacarose inicial, 100 rpm de agitação, a 20ºC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317535"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Aubin, Francois; Atoyan, Hasmik; Robert, Jean-Marc; Atoyan, Tigran</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper explains how a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness may be defined and measured. Many aspects of consumer <span class="hlt">product</span> assessments are conducted sub-consciously and this process is closely examined. A <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness can be evaluated by measuring its advantages over alternative solutions based on specific criteria associated with fundamentals needs. When multiple criteria are involved, different weights are assigned to each. It should take into account the context in which the <span class="hlt">product</span> is used. For the purpose of this paper, we use a formula to determine the relative usefulness of a variety of <span class="hlt">products</span> in different contexts. We conclude that aspects of <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness, connected with sub-conscious human decision making processes, can be a major factor in predicting acceptance and rejection rates. PMID:22317535</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::1565a42d446ffc943940d1ac9803ecd5"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for improving flavor <span class="hlt">production</span> in a fermented food <span class="hlt">product</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Pastink, M.I.; De Vos, W. M.; Sikkema, J; Hugenholtz, J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The invention describes a method for improving flavor <span class="hlt">production</span> in a fermented food <span class="hlt">product</span>, a S. thermophilus strain wherein glutamate dehydrogenase is inactivated, as well as a food <span class="hlt">product</span> comprising such strain. Moreover, the invention describes a method for identifying S. thermophilus strains having improved flavor <span class="hlt">production</span>, and use thereof for improving flavor <span class="hlt">production</span> in a fermented food <span class="hlt">product</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::7cd26cf801575ff39ee2ccc01d4b0ba9"><span id="translatedtitle">A Quantum <span class="hlt">Production</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Tarrataca, Luís; Wichert, Andreas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">production</span> system is a theoretical model of computation relevant to the artificial intelligence field allowing for problem solving procedures such as hierarchical tree search. In this work we explore some of the connections between artificial intelligence and quantum computation by presenting a model for a quantum <span class="hlt">production</span> system. Our approach focuses on initially developing a model for a reversible <span class="hlt">production</span> system which is a simple mapping of Bennett's reversible Tu...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23047891"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionization of food <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various <span class="hlt">products</span> are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing <span class="hlt">products</span> - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked <span class="hlt">products</span>... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1687::757f321078746dad103c9441ac7e72c1"><span id="translatedtitle">Input <span class="hlt">production</span> joint venture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Rossini, Gianpaolo; Vergari, Cecilia</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In many industries it is quite common to observe firms delegating the <span class="hlt">production</span> of essential inputs to independent ventures jointly established with competing rivals. The diffusion of this arrangement and the favourable stance of competition authorities call for the assessment of the social and private desirability of Input <span class="hlt">Production</span> Joint Ventures (IPJV), which represent a form of input <span class="hlt">production</span> cooperation, not investigated so far. IPJV can be seen as an intermediate organizational sett...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::6a4abbaa784d4094f6d2a4e2826be742"><span id="translatedtitle">Quarkonium <span class="hlt">Production</span> at LHCb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Pepe Altarelli Monica</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>I will review a selection of LHCb results on the <span class="hlt">production</span> of heavy quarkonium states in pp collisions, including the recent results on J/psi and Y(nS) (n=1,2,3) <span class="hlt">production</span> at sqrt(s)=8TeV, as well as preliminary results on J/psi <span class="hlt">production</span> in proton-lead collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=5TeV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::31e495b4fb78df1fe349e4e02b79a414"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal axion <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Xue, Wei(INFN, Sezione di Trieste, SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 Italia)</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We reconsider thermal <span class="hlt">production</span> of axions in the early universe, including axion couplings to all Standard Model (SM) particles. Concerning the axion coupling to gluons, we find that thermal effects enhance the axion <span class="hlt">production</span> rate by a factor of few with respect to previous computations performed in the limit of small strong gauge coupling. Furthermore, we find that the top Yukawa coupling induces a much larger axion <span class="hlt">production</span> rate, unless the axion couples to SM particl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______550::4bc2ab643fba4424b6ea73c2c4aa7573"><span id="translatedtitle">Green <span class="hlt">Product</span> Innovation Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Driessen, P.H.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary research framework is identified. The second stage involves theory-building, using case studies and literature interactively. This stage leads to the identification of elelments of <span class="hlt">product</span> innovatio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840013336&hterms=productivity+employees+leaders+management&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dproductivity%2Bemployees%2Bleaders%2Bmanagement"><span id="translatedtitle">Nasa's Emerging <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Braunstein, D. R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The goals, membership, and organizational structure of the NASA <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Steering Committee are described as well as steps taken to make NASA a leader in the development and application of <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and quality concepts at every level of agency management. The overall strategy for the <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) Program is through employee involvement, both civil servant and contractor, in all phases of agency-wide activity. Elements of the PIQE program and initial thrusts are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1404::82369714ae7168108eaa83b2099faa69"><span id="translatedtitle">Cooperative <span class="hlt">production</span> and efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Beviá, Carmen</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We characterize the sharing rule for which a contribution mechanism achieves efficiency in a cooperative <span class="hlt">production</span> setting when agents are heterogeneous. The sharing rule bears no resemblance to those considered by the previous literature. We also show for a large class of sharing rules that if Nash equilibrium yields efficient allocations, the <span class="hlt">production</span> function displays constant returns to scale, a case in which cooperation in <span class="hlt">production</span> is useless.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2009579"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> systems engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Li, Jingshan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Describes methods for mathematical modeling of <span class="hlt">production</span> systemsProvides techniques for designing continuous improvement projects with predictable resultsOffers quantitative methods for selecting lean bufferingOffers measurement-based techniques for identifying bottleneck machines and bottleneck buffersAddresses the issue of <span class="hlt">product</span> qualityDescribes methods for analysis of transient behavior of <span class="hlt">production</span> linesOffers techniques for measurement-based management of <span class="hlt">production</span> systemsDescribes a software package, the PSE Toolbox, which implements algorithms developedIncludes numerous case studie</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.nanotechproject.org/inventories/consumer/"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanotechnology Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Inventory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer <span class="hlt">products</span> currently on the market. After more than twenty years of basic and applied research, nanotechnologies are gaining in commercial use. Nanoscale materials now are in electronic, cosmetics, automotive and medical <span class="hlt">products</span>. But it has been difficult to find out how many "nano" consumer <span class="hlt">products</span> are on the market and which merchandise could be called "nano." While not comprehensive, this inventory gives the public the best available look at the 800+ manufacturer-identified nanotechnology-based consumer <span class="hlt">products</span> currently on the market.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_zBeYFS&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc5&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Reporting Problems to FDA More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Tobacco ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1701368"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonhomogeneous matrix <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Hartfiel, Darald J</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Infinite <span class="hlt">products</span> of matrices are used in nonhomogeneous Markov chains, Markov set-chains, demographics, probabilistic automata, <span class="hlt">production</span> and manpower systems, tomography, and fractals. More recent results have been obtained in computer design of curves and surfaces. This book puts together much of the basic work on infinite <span class="hlt">products</span> of matrices, providing a primary source for such work. This will eliminate the rediscovery of known results in the area, and thus save considerable time for researchers who work with infinite <span class="hlt">products</span> of matrices. In addition, two chapters are included to show h</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::4cb2ba2d1401652a1b88387839198638"><span id="translatedtitle">Recombinant organisms for <span class="hlt">production</span> of industrial <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Adrio, Jose-luis; Demain, Arnold L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial <span class="hlt">production</span> of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21076215"><span id="translatedtitle">Valuable <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> from wood mill effluents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Mato, T; Ben, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Fibreboard <span class="hlt">production</span> is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final <span class="hlt">product</span> and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD), low pH and nutrients limitation. Aerobic and anaerobic processes have been used for their treatment. Presently, bioplastics <span class="hlt">production</span> (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHA) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being studied. Substrate requirements for these processes are a high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. PHA <span class="hlt">production</span> from wastewaters is carried out in three steps. First, complex organic matter is converted into volatile fatty acids (VFA) through acidogenic fermentation. Then, VFA are used as substrate in an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR), in which the enrichement of PHA producing bacteria from a mixed culture is favoured. Finally, the sludge from the SBR is fed with a pulse containing high VFA concentrations, resulting in PHA accumulation inside the cells. In this work, the possibility of applying this process to wood mill effluents is proposed. An acidification percentage of 37% and a storage yield (Y(STO)) of 0.23 Cmmol/Cmmol were obtained. PMID:21076215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cds.cern.ch/record/1461300/files/BOivzSJJcqhDA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Standard Specification for ESD Controlled Garments Required in Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments for Spacecraft for <span class="hlt">Non-Hazardous</span> and Hazardous Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44022610"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l-1. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, er, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Thermophilic+Biohydrogen+Production"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermophilic Biohydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions such as temperature and pH, fermentation modes and reactor types applied) are currently utilized at lab and pilot scale, for biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Although the process has strong potential for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of energy from organic residues and wastes, the major challenge is to determine whether the economics and reliability of dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are sufficiently attractive for commercial application to be installed. Furthermore, storage and utilization of the produced hydrogen still faces challenges.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::3728087336e1c90a739ba1764e956f0e"><span id="translatedtitle">OCTONION XY-<span class="hlt">PRODUCT</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Dixon, Geoffrey</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The octonion X-<span class="hlt">product</span> changes the octonion multiplication table, but does not change the role of the identity. The octonion XY-<span class="hlt">product</span> is very similar, but shifts the identity as well. This will be of interest to those applying th octonions to string theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1253601"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Productive</span> Programmer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Ford, Neal</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The <span class="hlt">Productive</span> Programmer offers critical timesaving and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::530f2f3b66f505a463e10dc5c9ed232d"><span id="translatedtitle">Crossed <span class="hlt">product</span> tensor categories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Galindo, César</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A graded tensor category over a group $G$ will be called a crossed <span class="hlt">product</span> tensor category if every homogeneous component has at least one multiplicatively invertible object. Our main result is a description of the crossed <span class="hlt">product</span> tensor categories, graded monoidal functors, monoidal natural transformations, and braiding in terms of coherent outer $G$-actions over tensor categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CZAPUBDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0246776"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> line design.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526. ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : <span class="hlt">product</span> line design * <span class="hlt">product</span> differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2013</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.0945.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Interleaved <span class="hlt">Product</span> LDPC Codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Baldi, Marco; Chiaraluce, Franco</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Product</span> LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of <span class="hlt">product</span> codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=productivity+AND+quality+AND+differences&pg=6&id=ED273820"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Productivity</span>: An Overview.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Swartz, Carl</p> <p></p> <p>This training package explains <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in terms of the difference between worker output and company input. Output is defined in terms of the <span class="hlt">products</span> and/or services of an organization (number and/or quality of units produced, efficiency of time use, marginal profits) and in terms of behavior (labor turnover, disruptions in routine, wasted…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/drugs-procedures-devices/over-the-counter/herbal-products-and-supplements.printerview.all.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Herbal <span class="hlt">Products</span> and Supplements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... change the way prescription or over-the-counter drugs work? Yes. Herbal health <span class="hlt">products</span> or supplements can affect the way the body ... or supplements change the way prescription or OTC drugs work? Yes. Herbal health <span class="hlt">products</span> or supplements can affect the way the body ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.pcc.edu/about/events/sustainability-training/documents/consumer-product-disassembly.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Disassembly Lesson</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Orzali, Joe</p> <p></p> <p>This document from Joe Orzali provides a classroom unit on consumer <span class="hlt">product</span> disassembly. Students are asked to "critically analyze the life cycle of <span class="hlt">products</span>," which will help them better understand larger related concepts like systems thinking, global climate change, ecological preservation and how what we buy and how items are produced impacts our environment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Improved+wound+care+product"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved wound care <span class="hlt">product</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Kirketerp-MØller, Klaus unknown</p> <p></p> <p>The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care <span class="hlt">product</span> comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care <span class="hlt">product</span>,and a methodof treating an infected wound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.meteconline.org/resources/Tomovic_S0700420.ppt"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Life Cycle Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Tomovic, Mileta M. (Mileta Milos)</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management is a PowerPoint presentation given at Sinclair Community College on May 8, 2007 by Mileta M. Tomovic of Purdue University. Ideas for introducing and maintaining a "creative environment" within academia were presented. The author addresses the fundamental aspects of <span class="hlt">production</span> and also sales of these items. This presentation is available for free download.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16082735"><span id="translatedtitle">ICF tritium <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The conceptual design of an ICF tritium <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor is described. The chamber design uses a beryllium multiplier and a liquid lithium breeder to achieve a tritium breeding ratio of 2.08. The annual net tritium <span class="hlt">production</span> of this 532 MW/sub t/ plant is 16.9 kg, and the estimated cost of tritium is $8100/g</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_p5BLOZ&server=pvlbsrch11&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc6&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed FDA Consumer Safety Officer Armando Zamora explains what to do if you think you may have a recalled <span class="hlt">product</span>. There are many numbers and dates on the foods, drugs, cosmetics, and other <span class="hlt">products</span> we use every ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::c349c5755e1e20805747473b7a5a1fdc"><span id="translatedtitle">Higgs Central Exclusive <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Cudell, Jean-René; Dechambre, Alice; Henandez, Oscar F.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We tune the calculation of central exclusive Higgs <span class="hlt">production</span> to the recent CDF central exclusive dijet data, and predict the cross section for the exclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> of Higgs boson at the LHC. It is always below 1 fb, and below 0.3 fb after experimental cuts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::7e436e5bb910dda75577db44425d3d18"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenomenology of ``Onium'' <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Cacciari, Matteo</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The phenomenology of heavy quarkonia <span class="hlt">production</span> in hadron collisions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared to data. Commonly used <span class="hlt">production</span> models are shown to fail in explaining all the experimental findings. The shortcomings of these models are analysed and possible improvements are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20148101005"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffractive <span class="hlt">production</span> of mesons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Schicker Rainer</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The interest in the study of diffractive meson <span class="hlt">production</span> is discussed. The description of diffraction within Regge phenomenology is presented, and the QCD-based understanding of diffractive processes is given. Central <span class="hlt">production</span> is reviewed, and the corresponding main results from the COMPASS experiment and from the experiments at the ISR, RHIC, TEVATRON and LHC collider are summarised.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=262208"><span id="translatedtitle">Biotechnology and derived <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived <span class="hlt">products</span> that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. <span class="hlt">Products</span> based on these technologies effectively co...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=188583"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Placement in Cartoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Irena Oroz Štancl</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Product</span> placement is a marketing approach for integrating <span class="hlt">products</span> or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of <span class="hlt">product</span> placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons <span class="hlt">product</span> placement was found; most <span class="hlt">product</span> placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory <span class="hlt">product</span> placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of <span class="hlt">products</span> available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon <span class="hlt">production</span> based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::dbe2578e2e4adb0c412ec0e44d6747c4"><span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic Antihydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Meier, Helmar; Halabuka, Zlatko; Hencken, Kai; Trautmann, Dirk; Baur, Gerhard</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We calculate the <span class="hlt">production</span> of relativistic antihydrogen atoms by bound-free pair <span class="hlt">production</span>. The cross section is calculated in the semiclassical approximation (SCA), or equivalently in the plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) using exact Dirac-Coulomb wave functions. We compare our calculations to the equivalent photon approximation (EPA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_AS4nu4&server=pvlbsrch11&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc1&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness [ARCHIVED] Your Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.mivlgu.ru/site_arch/educational_activities/journal_ec/journal_arch/N7/Myakishev,%20Tenjaeva.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Building Information <span class="hlt">production</span> Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Myakishev Yuri Dmitrievich</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The paper discusses the development of information technologies in the field of financial and economic activity of the enterprise. The analysis used computer aided <span class="hlt">production</span> management. Evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of the implementation of the software in an organization with a long <span class="hlt">production</span> cycle. Proposed to forecast the expected economic effects of automation planning and consideration of the project.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677172"><span id="translatedtitle">Questionnaire typography and <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Gray, M</p> <p>1975-06-01</p> <p>This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire <span class="hlt">production</span>. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and <span class="hlt">production</span> are discussed first. PMID:15677172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/6741198/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> identification file</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Gray, C.E. (ed.)</p> <p>1978-06-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">product</span> identification file was compiled as an aid to the industrial hygienist who may encounter the <span class="hlt">products</span> listed in surveys for and studies of occupational health hazards. It is pointed out that the chemical composition of a <span class="hlt">product</span> may vary from year to year and some components may be added or deleted without an indication on the label. Some of the data in this file may not be complete depending on the analysis requested. For example, a solvent may be the only component for which the <span class="hlt">product</span> was analyzed. The file is arranged by listing the chemical manufacturer, followed by the trade name. In cases where no manufacturer is known, the trade name appears in alphabetical order. The log number and the chemist who analyzed the <span class="hlt">product</span> are listed for reference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1407.7372.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Associated-quarkonium <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Lansberg, J P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We discuss the growing interest to measure associated-quarkonium <span class="hlt">production</span> in a number of channels at the LHC. Whereas back-to-back <span class="hlt">production</span> of quarkonium + isolated photon provides a unique way to extract gluon TMDs, observables such as quarkonium + W/Z can be of great help to better understand the quarkonium <span class="hlt">production</span> mechanism as well as to shed light on double-parton scatterings. Along these lines, we also argue that quarkonium-pair <span class="hlt">production</span> is a potentially rich source of information which only has started to be harvested. Finally, we discuss the relevance of studying the <span class="hlt">production</span> of quarkonium + heavy-quark, as e.g. J/psi + charm and Upsilon + non-prompt J/psi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14607286"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal viral <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Coombs, Daniel; Gilchrist, Michael A; Percus, Jerome; Perelson, Alan S</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>Viruses reproduce by multiplying within host cells. The reproductive fitness of a virus is proportional to the number of offspring it can produce during the lifetime of the cell it infects. If viral <span class="hlt">production</span> rates are independent of cell death rate, then one expects natural selection will favor viruses that maximize their <span class="hlt">production</span> rates. However, if increases in the viral <span class="hlt">production</span> rate lead to an increase in the cell death rate, then the viral <span class="hlt">production</span> rate that maximizes fitness may be less than the maximum. Here we pose the question of how fast should a virus replicate in order to maximize the number of progeny virions that it produces. We present a general mathematical framework for studying problems of this type, which may be adapted to many host-parasite systems, and use it to examine the optimal virus <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling problem from the perspective of the virus. PMID:14607286</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.microbialcellfactories.com/content/4/1/36"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by Cyanobacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Chaudhuri Surabhi</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H11G0939C"><span id="translatedtitle">SMAP Science Data <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Cuddy, D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will retrieve global surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on measurements acquired by remote sensing instruments that fly on an Earth orbiting satellite. The SMAP observatory will launch no earlier than January 8, 2015 into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The SMAP instrument suite includes a radiometer and synthetic aperture radar. This paper will describe the Science Data System (SDS) that will process the SMAP raw data into higher-level <span class="hlt">products</span>. SMAP data <span class="hlt">products</span> will provide calibrated radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperatures, derived geophysical parameters in the form of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states, daily maps of these geophysical parameters, as well as modeled analyses of global soil moisture and carbon flux in Boreal regions. The SDS is a fully automated system that will process the incoming raw data from the instruments, incorporate spacecraft and instrument engineering data, and use both dynamic and static ancillary <span class="hlt">products</span> from the scientific community. The SDS will produce 14 standard data <span class="hlt">product</span> processors. This paper will discuss the standard data <span class="hlt">products</span>, their format, metadata, quality assessment <span class="hlt">products</span>, as well as the planned release dates for the <span class="hlt">products</span> both Beta and Validated quality. The standard data <span class="hlt">products</span> will appear in Hierarchical Data Format-5 (HDF5) format. The <span class="hlt">products</span> will contain metadata that conform to the ISO 19115 standard. The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) will host and distribute SMAP Radar data, while the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will host and distribute all other SMAP <span class="hlt">products</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37043933"><span id="translatedtitle">Petroleum <span class="hlt">product</span> market outlook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery <span class="hlt">production</span> and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum <span class="hlt">products</span> in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery <span class="hlt">production</span>, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver <span class="hlt">products</span> to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum <span class="hlt">products</span> markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase <span class="hlt">production</span>; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum <span class="hlt">product</span> supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect <span class="hlt">product</span> distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian <span class="hlt">production</span> of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that <span class="hlt">production</span> in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports l higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher consumer prices in the 2005-2006 winter season. 2 tabs., 8 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::0442d56c520e42f3f07d4b2b4221eb30"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in gene expression and cytokine <span class="hlt">production</span> by crystalline vs. amorphous silica in human lung epithelial cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Perkins Timothy N; Shukla Arti; Peeters Paul M; Steinbacher Jeremy L; Landry Christopher C; Lathrop Sherrill A; Steele Chad; Reynaert Niki L; Wouters Emiel FM; Mossman Brooke T</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Background Exposure to respirable crystalline silica particles, as opposed to amorphous silica, is associated with lung inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), and potentially with lung cancer. We used Affymetrix/GeneSifter microarray analysis to determine whether gene expression profiles differed in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 2B) exposed to cristobalite vs. amorphous silica particles at <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and equal surface areas (75 and 150 × 106?m2/cm2). Bio-Plex a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11546580"><span id="translatedtitle">Uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> from phosphates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of uranium from phosphates is as a by-<span class="hlt">product</span> of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid <span class="hlt">production</span>; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable <span class="hlt">production</span> to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid <span class="hlt">production</span> utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P2O5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> plant. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://managementjournal.usamv.ro/pdf/vol14_4/art10.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">FISH <span class="hlt">PRODUCTION</span> WORLDWIDE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Georgiana Melania COSTAICHE</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Fishing is one of the oldest occupations, which over the years has gone through several stages. In the economic terms the increase in intensive industrial system of the fish is advantageous because the specific energy consumption is low, given that they not need to maintain body temperature at high temperatures. Having regard to demographic trends in continue increasing, and the tendency of decrease fisheries leads to increased the <span class="hlt">production</span> of aquaculture fish by order to ensure enough quantity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the evolution of fish <span class="hlt">production</span> worldwide and in particular to show the evolution of <span class="hlt">production</span> of fish from fisheries and aquaculture. To highlight the evolution global fish <span class="hlt">production</span> given two ways to get fish respectively from aquaculture and fisheries, that have used data from FAOSTAT for 2007-2012. Also we can see that approximately 90% of the fish <span class="hlt">production</span> is fished in the sea and only 10% in the territorial waters. The fish <span class="hlt">production</span> in Africa had an ascending trend in the period under review. Analyzing fish <span class="hlt">production</span> the share of total world continents is noted that Asia has a share of 68% in 2007 and increase to 73% in 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Product-Marketing+Innovation%2C+Skills%2C+and+Firm+Productivity+Growth"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span>-Marketing Innovation, Skills, and Firm <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation for <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is hypothesized that <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is established that <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth. Moreover, <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation have independent roles in <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth, which cannot be attributed to organizational changes. Finally, we apply an instrument variable approach for firms, innovation choices to study endogeneity. The results strongly support the idea that <span class="hlt">product</span>–marketing innovation leads to faster <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth in skill-intensive firms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34065216"><span id="translatedtitle">Manual of radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Manual of Radioisotope <span class="hlt">Production</span> has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span> for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of <span class="hlt">production</span>. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span>. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope <span class="hlt">production</span> processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of <span class="hlt">production</span> are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the <span class="hlt">production</span> processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of <span class="hlt">production</span> processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical <span class="hlt">production</span> for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable the reader to select processes most suitable to his local conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::d868e4d0f7fb6525586b77494b0fa945"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of sanitation <span class="hlt">products</span> in milk and cheese <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Samir Kalit; Jasmina Luka? Havranek</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Considering hygienic conditions in cheese <span class="hlt">production</span> the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* <span class="hlt">products</span> in milk and cheese <span class="hlt">production</span> on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation <span class="hlt">products</span>, during milk <span class="hlt">production</span>, significant (P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1999884"><span id="translatedtitle">Infinite crossed <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Passman, Donald S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This groundbreaking monograph in advanced algebra addresses crossed <span class="hlt">products</span>. Author Donald S. Passman notes that crossed <span class="hlt">products</span> have advanced from their first occurrence in finite dimensional division algebras and central simple algebras to a closer relationship with the study of infinite group algebras, group-graded rings, and the Galois theory of noncommutative rings. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, the text examines crossed <span class="hlt">products</span> and group-graded rings, delta methods and semiprime rings, the symmetric ring of quotients, and prime ideals, bot</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajabssp.2011.332.338"><span id="translatedtitle">Wheat <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Economics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Elgilany Ahmed</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and high cost of <span class="hlt">production</span> of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas <span class="hlt">production</span> function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of <span class="hlt">production</span> costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of <span class="hlt">production</span> as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat <span class="hlt">productivity</span> under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor, distance from home to field, hired labor, distance of farm to source of irrigation, number of irrigation, term of irrigation. Furthermore, the weakness of wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> normally regards as a cost issue and lack of awareness wheat grower especially about wheat technical package. Conclusion: The study concluded that wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> contribute significantly to farm sustainability and contribute to alleviation of malnutrition in the State. The actual <span class="hlt">production</span> constraints restrict the sustainability of this important crop. The cooperation between international organizations and governmental institutions should tackle the hindrances of wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> and achieve stability of wheat. There is a great potential for improvement the yield of the crop and an intervention of the State is needed to ease having the inputs of <span class="hlt">production</span> especially irrigation water inputs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39065056"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation processed polysaccharide <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique <span class="hlt">products</span>. In this communication, typical <span class="hlt">products</span> from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above <span class="hlt">products</span> were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/17/6/3645"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Leonid M. Martyushev</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23044760"><span id="translatedtitle">OPEC's <span class="hlt">production</span> policies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An enlightening study on the workings of OPEC its policies and practices, agreements and disagreements, and how each affects the world petroleum market. The book explores OPEC's <span class="hlt">production</span> patterns and quota agreements and the relationship between <span class="hlt">production</span> and pricing policies. Political compromises that have hindered OPEC <span class="hlt">production</span> agreements and their successful implementation are covered - compromises such as concessions made to the U.A.E. and those resulting from the Gulf war. Notable historical events are cited, and a look into the future at what we can expect of OPEC in coming years concludes the study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20674535"><span id="translatedtitle">Dragline <span class="hlt">production</span> record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Lumley, G. [GBI Consulting, Qld. (Australia)</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>In part eight of his series on dragline <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, Graham Lumley considers the lessons of a dragline that achieved the ultimate in <span class="hlt">production</span> - an M8050 moved 20.0 million BCMs in 2004. Others in the 'best practice' group of draglines include the BE1260W, BE1370W, BE1570W, M8200 and M8750. Factors impacting on dragline <span class="hlt">productivity</span> include management, mine planning, blasting, maintenance, and scheduling. The author believes that the average Australian dragline could achieve an extra 20% improvement by following best practice. 2 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41075785"><span id="translatedtitle">Safety assessment of personal care <span class="hlt">products</span>/cosmetics and their ingredients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care <span class="hlt">products</span> (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International AgencAn expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care <span class="hlt">products</span> raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these <span class="hlt">products</span> and their ingredients.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20005888"><span id="translatedtitle">Safety assessment of personal care <span class="hlt">products</span>/cosmetics and their ingredients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Nohynek, Gerhard J; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care <span class="hlt">products</span> (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO(2) and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care <span class="hlt">products</span> raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these <span class="hlt">products</span> and their ingredients. PMID:20005888</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/nsp-production-reports"><span id="translatedtitle">NSP <span class="hlt">Production</span> Reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP <span class="hlt">Production</span> Reports contain cumulative data on units assisted with NSP funds. An NSP grantee reports on the accomplishment of an activity when it meets an End...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9149E..04S"><span id="translatedtitle">JWST science data <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Swade, Daryl; Bushouse, Howard; Greene, Gretchen; Swam, Michael</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Science data <span class="hlt">products</span> for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) ©observations will be generated by the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) within the JWST Science and Operations Center (S&OC) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Data processing pipelines within the DMS will produce uncalibrated and calibrated exposure files, as well as higher level data <span class="hlt">products</span> that result from combined exposures, such as mosaic images. Information to support the science observations, for example data from engineering telemetry, proposer inputs, and observation planning will be captured and incorporated into the science data <span class="hlt">products</span>. All files will be generated in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format. The data <span class="hlt">products</span> will be made available through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and adhere to International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) standard data protocols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_1hoCEk&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-20-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc26&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation- ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span> Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates by ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45107974"><span id="translatedtitle">Fermentative biofuels <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in <span class="hlt">production</span> of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as <span class="hlt">products</span> of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for <span class="hlt">production</span> of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on <span class="hlt">production</span> limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/food-labeling/food-product-dating/food-product-dating"><span id="translatedtitle">Food <span class="hlt">Product</span> Dating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food <span class="hlt">Product</span> Dating "Sell by Feb 14" is a ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_NrVifv&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-10-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc10&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWWISTC-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/727DC25EA72180FAC325699100412855?OpenDocument&search=1"><span id="translatedtitle">Boron Materials <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/projectsSearchByKeywords?OpenForm&type=All&lang=Eng">International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Investigation of the <span class="hlt">Production</span> Processes of Highly Pure Boric Acid and Elemental Boron Labeled with Boron-10 or Boron-11 Isotopes and of the Gain in Efficiency of the Boron Isotope Concentrating Process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Employee+motivation%22&pg=2&id=EJ240933"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing Public Library <span class="hlt">Productivity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Samuelson, Howard</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Suggests ways of improving <span class="hlt">productivity</span> for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22446641"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyanobacterial biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Machado, Iara M P; Atsumi, Shota</p> <p>2012-11-30</p> <p>The development of new technologies for <span class="hlt">production</span> of alternative fuel became necessary to circumvent finite petroleum resources, associate rising costs, and environmental concerns due to rising fossil fuel CO? emissions. Several alternatives have been proposed to develop a sustainable industrial society and reduce greenhouse emissions. The idea of biological conversion of CO? to fuel and chemicals is receiving increased attention. In particular, the direct conversion of CO? with solar energy to biofuel by photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae and cyanobacteria has several advantages compared to traditional biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span> from plant biomass. Photosynthetic microorganisms have higher growth rates compared with plants, and the <span class="hlt">production</span> systems can be based on non-arable land. The advancement of synthetic biology and genetic manipulation has permitted engineering of cyanobacteria to produce non-natural chemicals typically not produced by these organisms in nature. This review addresses recent publications that utilize different approaches involving engineering cyanobacteria for <span class="hlt">production</span> of high value chemicals including biofuels. PMID:22446641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://ojs.statsbiblioteket.dk/index.php/mediekultur/article/view/4068"><span id="translatedtitle">Genre in media <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Hanne Bruun</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <p>How do we explain changes in media genres? Are they the result of economic, technological or other kinds of structural forces; or are they the result of the change-producing agency of the media producers? And how are changes in media texts connected to contextual conditions for media <span class="hlt">production</span> on micro-, meso- or macro levels? This article suggests that a theoretical approach using a pragmatic and socio-cognitive understanding of genre will help us to address these questions. This approach can highlight the interplay between human agency and different kinds of structural forces involved in specific professional media <span class="hlt">production</span> cultures. Furthermore, it has the potential to integrate media texts and especially the micro- and meso levels of <span class="hlt">production</span>. Using lessons learned and findings from my recent <span class="hlt">production</span> study of Danish television satire, the article will argue three major methodological as well as knowledge-producing advantages of a genre approach.</p></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:32022201"><span id="translatedtitle">PET radiopharmaceuticals <span class="hlt">production</span> facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Indications of PET tomography are described. the different units of a PET radiopharmaceuticals <span class="hlt">production</span> facility are mentioned: cyclotron or proton accelerator, radiopharmaceutical synthesis and radiopharmaceutical lab. The design criteria for complying with God Manufacturing Practice are discussed. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CZAPUBDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0163385"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring multifactor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana</p> <p></p> <p>-, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.cpsc.gov/"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Skip Navigation Report an Unsafe <span class="hlt">Product</span> Consumers Businesses Contact CPSC Website Design Feedback Consumers: Español Businesses: Español , ?? , Ti?ng Vi?t Connect with Us : Twitter YouTube GooglePlus Blog Flickr SlideShare ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWWISTC-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/E5C5FA9A56B1FFDD4325690B001059EC?OpenDocument&search=1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of Diamond Monocrystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/projectsSearchByKeywords?OpenForm&type=All&lang=Eng">International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Production</span> of Monocrystals and High-Strength Polycrystals of Diamond with Specified Properties by Shock and Quasi-Static Compression of Different Carbonaceous Materials Including Amorphous Carbon, Ultra-Dispersive Diamonds, Fullerits, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2015299"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> lifecycle management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Stark, John</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This third edition updates and adds to the successful second edition and gives the reader a thorough description of PLM, providing them with a full understanding of the theory and the practical skills to implement PLM within their own business environment. This new and expanded edition is fully updated to reflect the many technological and management advances made in PLM since the release of the second edition. Describing the environment in which <span class="hlt">products</span> are developed, manufactured and supported, before addressing the Five Pillars of PLM: business processes, <span class="hlt">product</span> data, PLM applications, Organisational Change Management (OCM) and Project Management, this book explains what <span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management is, and why it’s needed. The final part of the book addresses the PLM timeline, showing the typical steps and activities of a PLM project or initiative. “<span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management” will broaden the reader’s understanding of PLM, nurturing the skills needed to implement PLM successfully and to achi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Products+in+fusion+systems"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Products</span> in fusion systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Henke, Ellen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We revisit the notion of a <span class="hlt">product</span> of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43058449"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional electricity <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>While France's final energy consumption remained stable between 2000 and 2010, this was not the case for its consumption of electricity, which increased by 13% over 10 years, and by 4.5% over five years. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of electricity is concentrated into a few areas within the national territory, essentially as a result of geographical factors. Due, notably, to the presence of hydro generating, some regions produce a large proportion of the renewable electricity. Viewed at the level of the entire territory, <span class="hlt">production</span> is not linked to local consumption. Some regions have high surpluses whereas others show important deficits, while overall <span class="hlt">production</span> covers, on average, 114% of national needs. However, at the local level, measures by local authorities to control energy consumption and the development of renewables are beginning to show results. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of renewable electricity, not including hydro, has grown greatly over a few years and still has a high potential. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_nt3Xmx&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc9&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S2224-78902010000100012-sza"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting new <span class="hlt">product</span> sales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>R., Siriram; D.R., Snaddon.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new <span class="hlt">product</span> rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new <span class="hlt">products</span> come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight se [...] lected <span class="hlt">products</span> are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new <span class="hlt">product</span> sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5673643/"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioactivity in consumer <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)</p> <p>1978-08-01</p> <p>Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various <span class="hlt">products</span> containing radioactive sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/consumers/personal_home_5_3590195869.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Antibacterials in Household <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... type are the alcohols, chlorine (bleach), peroxides, and aldehydes. ? The second group consists mostly of newer compounds ... over 1000 commercial <span class="hlt">products</span> contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Established in 1981, the Alliance for the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_J3uUw8&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-40-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc47&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... manufacturers track inventory, while others help retailers ensure quality. But when unsafe <span class="hlt">products</span> must be removed from ... Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/health/illegalproducts/"><span id="translatedtitle">Illegal Pesticide <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Illegal Pesticide <span class="hlt">Products</span> Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea and Tick ... Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Questions on Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_zBeYFS&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-10-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm182929.htm&rid=Ndoc14&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=f2236d5542a58b736925fab611783b4b&"><span id="translatedtitle">FDA 101: <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... Consumers Consumer Updates Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Consumer Updates: About FDA Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Tobacco ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CZAPUBDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0160593"><span id="translatedtitle">Proprietary policy and <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Jeong, Byeongju</p> <p></p> <p>-, ?. 287 (2006), s. 1-14. ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : proprietary regime * direct <span class="hlt">production</span> * model Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp287.pdf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_hUKq3w&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-10-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm248864.htm&rid=Ndoc12&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=efecfe7683356c55d68e7579d7655147&"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Recalled <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available ... <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación ... Salud de la Mujer Suplementos Dietéticos Vacunas, Sangre y Productos Biológicos Page Last Updated: 02/13/2015 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e87d32aa3f9474e12938112d19556910"><span id="translatedtitle">CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Barbu, Catalin Mihail</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this paper I discussed the factors that influence the cultural adaptation ofproducts. Globalization determines the companies to operate abroad;therefore the firms sell their <span class="hlt">products</span> to markets where the consumerpatterns might differ from their national market. It is of high importance to beable to understand and to adapt to local consumer habits. The culture has astrong influence on <span class="hlt">products</span> adaptation in particular, and on internationalmarketing in general. Companies must be able to adap...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13646595"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffractive <span class="hlt">production</span> of charm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A perturbative quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of heavy-quark <span class="hlt">production</span> in hadron collisions is shown to account for the observed diffractive ?+/sub c/ <span class="hlt">production</span>. The dominant graphs are flavor excitation by gluons (qc-bar?qc-bar and gc-bar?gc-bar) of charm. The source of the charm is QCD evolution of the structure functions of the incoming hadrons. Estimates are made for the ?0/sub b/ cross section</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______165::d43080a14c1a1c171351f182ffd033f6"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of concrete <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Lê, Ngoc Dong</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Concrete producers must guarantee the quality of their <span class="hlt">products</span>, which induces a suitable control of the composition of the concrete produced. However, changes in the aggregate water content make the precise dosage of the various constituents difficult. The aim of this work is then to propose methods for the improvement of water dosage consistency, and for the on-line monitoring of workability, in the context of industrial concrete <span class="hlt">production</span>. An original procedure is first proposed to calibr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::6e8ac16c6d2b414b357e2adc71442d27"><span id="translatedtitle">“Buffalo <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Research”</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Alessandro Nardone</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the book “Buffalo <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Research”,edited by Antonio Borghese by FAO Regional Office for Europe,REU Technical Series 67,the state of art of the research,development, <span class="hlt">products</span> and market of buffalo species in the world,is presented.The 14 chapters analyse sin- gle themes of principal problems concerning the breeding,the selection,the reproduction,the feeding,the milk and meat quality,the buffalo’s pathologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1687::51456350ba678691a5c017bccefc05da"><span id="translatedtitle">Firm size and <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Leung, Danny; Meh, Ce?saire; Terajima, Yaz</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the relationship between firm size and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. In contrast to previous studies, this paper offers evidence of the relationship not only from manufacturing firms, but from non-manufacturing firms as well. Furthermore, the aggregate importance of the firm sizeproductivity relationship is gauged by calculating to what extent shifts in the distribution of employment over firm size categories has affected Canadian aggregate <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, and whether differences in the emp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______260::674e147909e85bde786767327a7f546d"><span id="translatedtitle">Turbomachinery in Biofuel <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Görling, Martin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the <span class="hlt">production</span> processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel <span class="hlt">production</span> process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e2776cddaba69b8a62508a3ced2895d0"><span id="translatedtitle">Wheat <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Economics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Elgilany Ahmed; Jamalludin Sulaiman; Saidatulakmal Mohd</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and high cost of <span class="hlt">production</span> of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS), wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belong...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14750384"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioactive consumer <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer <span class="hlt">products</span> and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer <span class="hlt">products</span> are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16029851"><span id="translatedtitle">Samarium metal <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In a method for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of samarium metal by reducing samarium oxide in a container with rare earth metal, vaporizing reduced samarium, and condensing a metal <span class="hlt">product</span>, the container for the samarium oxide and rare earth metal is lined on its inner surface with a disposable resistant metal foil having a thickness from about 0.001 inches to about 0.02 inches</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Defining+product+service+systems"><span id="translatedtitle">Defining <span class="hlt">product</span> service systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>There are a number of theories that describe the necessary improvements in global environmental performance in order to maintain status quo in our ecosystem [1, 2]. These theories are far reaching in their ambitions, and it is not immediately apparent as to how we should be able to achieve, for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the <span class="hlt">product</span> as an artefact with the service that the <span class="hlt">product</span> provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the <span class="hlt">product</span>. This enables a series of potential improvements to the <span class="hlt">product´s</span> performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of <span class="hlt">product</span> service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer, company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented <span class="hlt">product</span> development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us the design degrees of freedom necessary to create radical innovation. The article draws upon existing <span class="hlt">product</span> development and PSS theory and models and experiences from projects carried out with both industrialists and students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::d42b7fc7d816985bfce16832feb9fb86"><span id="translatedtitle">Antibiotic Bead <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Amy; Demarest, Gerald; Rosen, Philip; Decoster, Thomas A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We are reporting a practical technique for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of antibiotic beads for use in combating musculoskeletal infections. The technique utilizes bead molds with tobramycin powder mixed with polymethylmethacr ylate on twisted wire strands to produce strands of 25 beads of various sizes. These beads are gas sterilized and available for use "off the shelf" in a manner that is much more efficient than traditional <span class="hlt">production</span> by hand on the back table in the operating room. Our technique was a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2020114"><span id="translatedtitle">Clean hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Kumar, Sushant</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This brief covers novel techniques for clean hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> which primarily involve sodium hydroxide as an essential ingredient to the existing major hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> technologies. Interestingly, sodium hydroxide plays different roles and can act as a catalyst, reactant, promoter or even a precursor. The inclusion of sodium hydroxide makes these processes both kinetically and thermodynamically favorable.  In addition possibilities to produce cleaner hydrogen, in terms of carbon emissions, are described. Through modifications of steam methane reformation methods and coal-gasification p</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12619162"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">product</span> pricing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>One of the most uncertain elements in budget planning is estimating <span class="hlt">production</span> costs of items that have heretofore only been produced in prototype configurations and quantities. This paper examines the design and development of a mathematical model which computes appropriate prices for new and unique <span class="hlt">products</span>. The resulting model offers a producer a fair return on his investment and the consumer a fair purchase price</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______258::be42d2afd1e7cbcac3fa37152c5f152a"><span id="translatedtitle">Kaikaku in <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Yuji</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In today’s fast-changing and dynamic business environment, the pressures on manufacturing companies to compete on the global arena have been intensified. <span class="hlt">Production</span> is challenged to handle and benefit from ever increasing competitions in terms of cost, delivery capability, and flexibility. In order to gain and sustain the competitive advantage under such circumstances, strong and constant development of <span class="hlt">production</span> must be ensured not only with continuous improvements but also with radical i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::1bd9b5c8423ae637c73edc944e187bdd"><span id="translatedtitle">Powder detergents <span class="hlt">production</span> plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent <span class="hlt">production</span> plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a <span class="hlt">production</span> plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1201::ce9fc759b0bb57adab482cbc7c288f03"><span id="translatedtitle">Skills, Competitiveness and <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Khan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study reviews selected indicators on skills and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> for the period 2000-2008 using labour force survey data. The review of the labour market demonstrates the need of enhancement of skills as well as improved access to skills and education which are necessary to enter a virtuous circle of higher <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, employment, incomes growth, and development. Without a workforce that is continuously acquiring new and improved skills, it will be difficult for Pakistan to be competitive ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=215028"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Che, S.C.; Bredehoft, R.L. [Kinetics Technology International Corporation, San Dimas, CA (United States)</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>In the US, the total hydrogen supply for refinery consumption is about 2900 MMSCFD. About 60% of the hydrogen demand is met by the hydrogen co-produced in catalytic reforming. The remainder is generated by supplementary hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> facilities. Steam reforming is the most widely used. Both thermodynamics and kinetics of steam reforming of natural gas are reviewed. The configuration of conventional hydrogen plants are described. New improvements to maximize the efficiency of hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19033470"><span id="translatedtitle">Fission <span class="hlt">product</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The response of photovoltaic cells to heavy ions and fission <span class="hlt">products</span> have been tested on beam. Their main advantages are their extremely low price, their low sensitivity to energetic light ions with respect to fission <span class="hlt">products</span>, and the possibility to cut and fit them together to any shape without dead zone. The time output signals of a charge sensitive preamplifier connected to these cells allows fast coincidences. A resolution of 12ns (F.W.H.M.) have been measured between two cells</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::6010c5d70f1cf4d24f71663d627eb127"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence in <span class="hlt">product</span> spaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Grimmett, Geoffrey; Janson, Svante; Norris, James</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The theory of influence and sharp threshold is a key tool in probability and probabilistic combinatorics, with numerous applications. One significant aspect of the theory is directed at identifying the level of generality of the <span class="hlt">product</span> probability space that accommodates the event under study. We derive the influence inequality for a completely general <span class="hlt">product</span> space, by establishing a relationship to the Lebesgue cube studied by Bourgain, Kahn, Kalai, Katznelson, and Linial...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______135::63f02ddb685794d756af132255680460"><span id="translatedtitle">Balancing Software <span class="hlt">Product</span> Investments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Barney, Sebastian; Wohlin, Claes; Aurum, Aybu?ke</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The long-term sustainability of a software <span class="hlt">product</span> depends on more than developing features. Priorities are placed on aspects that support the development of software, like software <span class="hlt">product</span> quality (eg. ISO 9126), project constraints -- time and cost, and even the development of intellectual capital (IC). A greater focus on any one aspect takes priority from another, but as each aspects delivers a different type of value managers have trouble comparing and balancing th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::918c7f1a93c3ae3977369c8292a7f578"><span id="translatedtitle">Mycotoxins in poultry <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Resanovi? Radmila M.; Neši? Ksenija D.; Nesi? Vladimir D.; Pali? Todor D.; Ja?evi? Vesna M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and <span class="hlt">production</span> categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in <span class="hlt">production</span> performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2023320"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in <span class="hlt">product</span> family and <span class="hlt">product</span> platform design methods & applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Jiao, Jianxin; Siddique, Zahed; Hölttä-Otto, Katja</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Advances in <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform Design: Methods & Applications highlights recent advances that have been made to support <span class="hlt">product</span> family and <span class="hlt">product</span> platform design and successful applications in industry. This book provides not only motivation for <span class="hlt">product</span> family and <span class="hlt">product</span> platform design—the “why” and “when” of platforming—but also methods and tools to support the design and development of families of <span class="hlt">products</span> based on shared platforms—the “what”, “how”, and “where” of platforming. It begins with an overview of recent <span class="hlt">product</span> family design research to introduce readers to the breadth of the topic and progresses to more detailed topics and design theory to help designers, engineers, and project managers plan, architect, and implement platform-based <span class="hlt">product</span> development strategies in their companies. This book also: Presents state-of-the-art methods and tools for <span class="hlt">product</span> family and <span class="hlt">product</span> platform design Adopts an integrated, systems view on <span class="hlt">product</span> family and pro...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24027652"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal <span class="hlt">production</span>, 1991</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Coal <span class="hlt">production</span> in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal <span class="hlt">production</span> that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal <span class="hlt">production</span> in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine <span class="hlt">production</span> occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of <span class="hlt">production</span> was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground <span class="hlt">production</span> was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0809.3030.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Crowdsourcing, Attention and <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Huberman, Bernardo A; Wu, Fang</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The tragedy of the digital commons does not prevent the copious voluntary <span class="hlt">production</span> of content that one witnesses in the web. We show through an analysis of a massive data set from \\texttt{YouTube} that the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> exhibited in crowdsourcing exhibits a strong positive dependence on attention, measured by the number of downloads. Conversely, a lack of attention leads to a decrease in the number of videos uploaded and the consequent drop in <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, which in many cases asymptotes to no uploads whatsoever. Moreover, uploaders compare themselves to others when having low <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and to themselves when exceeding a threshold.The tragedy of the digital commons does not prevent the copious voluntary <span class="hlt">production</span> of content that one witnesses in the web. We show through an analysis of a massive data set from YouTube that the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> exhibited in crowdsourcing exhibits a strong positive dependence on attention, measured by the number of downloads. Conversely, a lack of attention leads to a decrease i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::e253ce79bb61090cd3249ab29140e03d"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> versus Process: Innovation Strategies of Multi-<span class="hlt">Product</span> Firms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Flach, Lisandra; Irlacher, Michael</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper studies the innovation strategies of multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> firms in industries with different scope for <span class="hlt">product</span> differentiation. In a simple model of multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> firms, we show that returns to <span class="hlt">product</span> versus process innovation are industry-specific. Demand and cost linkages induce a natural distinction between the returns to <span class="hlt">product</span> and process innovation. In highly differentiated industries, the cannibalization effect is lower and, therefore, firms invest more in <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation. In ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::78a81e8132a056c47cc350d9bc945648"><span id="translatedtitle">Two <span class="hlt">Products</span> Manufacturer’s <span class="hlt">Production</span> Decisions with Carbon Constraint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Lu, Li; Chen, Xu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we consider a manufacture which produces both ordinary <span class="hlt">products</span> and green <span class="hlt">products</span> in a monopoly market, and investigate his <span class="hlt">production</span> decisions with carbon constraint. Firstly, we derive the manufacturer’s optimal <span class="hlt">production</span> and maximum profit without carbon constraint. Then, we discuss the optimal <span class="hlt">production</span> and maximum profit with carbon constraint in different situation. The results indicate that manufacturer’s optimal <span class="hlt">production</span> and maximum profit with carbon constrai...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45108267"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural <span class="hlt">products</span> as radioprotective agents; past, present and future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost. Plants commonly used as dietary and or therapeutic agents have recently been the focus of attention since in most cases they are <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and are easily accepted for human use. The proposed talk will mainly deal on the radioprotective potential of some important plant and herbal extracts. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19062119"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiopharmaceutical <span class="hlt">production</span> at Lucas Heights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The difficult problems of operating and maintaining complex equipment, meeting despatch deadlines, ensuring <span class="hlt">product</span> quality, <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling and controlling staff are discussed in relation to Australia's national radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span> plant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12640682"><span id="translatedtitle">Europium, its <span class="hlt">production</span> and application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The possible development of europium <span class="hlt">production</span> is discussed. The information on europium abundance is presented. Cost benefit analysis of its <span class="hlt">production</span> is done. The methods of its <span class="hlt">production</span> are characterized. Europium applications are mentioned. (A.S.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::332728fe6231bf64df34d85de6a62ffb"><span id="translatedtitle">An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop <span class="hlt">Production</span>/ Special Job <span class="hlt">Production</span>/ Discrete <span class="hlt">Production</span>/ Batch Shop <span class="hlt">Production</span> Industries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Lavlesh Kumar Sharma; Ravindra Mohan Saxena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop <span class="hlt">production</span>/ Special job <span class="hlt">production</span>/ Discrete <span class="hlt">production</span>/ Batch shop <span class="hlt">production</span> industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop <span class="hlt">production</span> than in the continuous/ mass <span class="hlt">production</span> because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/pesticide-product-information-system-ppis1f38d"><span id="translatedtitle">Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Information System (PPIS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Information System contains information concerning all pesticide <span class="hlt">products</span> registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24323879"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimized <span class="hlt">Product</span> Quantization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Ge, Tiezheng; He, Kaiming; Ke, Qifa; Sun, Jian</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Product</span> quantization (PQ) is an effective vector quantization method. A <span class="hlt">product</span> quantizer can generate an exponentially large codebook at very low memory/time cost. The essence of PQ is to decompose the high-dimensional vector space into the Cartesian <span class="hlt">product</span> of subspaces and then quantize these subspaces separately. The optimal space decomposition is important for the PQ performance, but still remains an unaddressed issue. In this paper, we optimize PQ by minimizing quantization distortions \\wrt the space decomposition and the quantization codebooks. We present two novel solutions to this challenging optimization problem. The first solution iteratively solves two simpler sub-problems. The second solution is based on a Gaussian assumption and provides theoretical analysis of the optimality. We evaluate our optimized <span class="hlt">product</span> quantizers in three applications: (i) compact encoding for exhaustive ranking \\cite{Jegou2011a}, (ii) building inverted multi-indexing for non-exhaustive search \\cite{Babenko2012}, and (iii) compacting image representations for image retrieval \\cite{Jegou2010a}. In all applications our optimized <span class="hlt">product</span> quantizers outperform existing solutions. PMID:24323879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8290478"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing kaon <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Kaon <span class="hlt">production</span> data is examined with the view toward producing high quality beams in the future. Emphasis is placed upon the low momentum region, below 1 GeV/c, where the behavior of the kaon momentum spectrum is shown to be dominated by strongly momentum dependent kinematic factors. No complete experimental survey of <span class="hlt">production</span> cross sections at different incident proton energies exists from a single apparatus. Information on relative <span class="hlt">production</span> yields for different proton energies is important in the choice of parameters for an accelerator constructed primarily as a source of kaons. Data from different accelerators do exist and have been compiled. The key element in understanding how to present the data from different laboratories in a consistent way is an analysis of the effects of target material, target size, and <span class="hlt">production</span> angle. This analysis not only enables a unification of the data but also indicates simple, useful and powerful principles about optimizing target efficiency. A summary is presented of existing kaon <span class="hlt">production</span> facilities in the United States. These are all at proton accelerators. The possibility of using electron accelerators as kaon sources is examined. It is found that secondary beam fluxes can be obtained at electron linacs which are comparable to those obtained at proton synchrotrons</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJART...1d.114K"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">Product</span> Launching Ideas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Kiruthika, E.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Launching a new <span class="hlt">product</span> can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the <span class="hlt">product</span> will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful <span class="hlt">product</span> launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the <span class="hlt">product</span>, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the <span class="hlt">product</span> in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/394374-0wYSVt/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Smoke <span class="hlt">production</span> in fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke <span class="hlt">production</span> and experimental methods for measuring smoke <span class="hlt">production</span> are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke <span class="hlt">production</span> from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building <span class="hlt">products</span>. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40020654"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of titanium dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Titanium dioxide pigments provide whiteness and opacity to a vast range of everyday <span class="hlt">products</span> from coatings and plastics to inks and even cosmetics and food. Manufacturing takes place using two different processes - the so called 'sulphate' and 'chloride' routes - to produce more than 4.5 million t per year worldwide. Both routes start from impure TiO2 based feedstocks containing moderately enhanced concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin. Experts from the TiO2 <span class="hlt">production</span> industry and feedstock suppliers are assisting the IAEA in the development of a Safety Report concerning exposure to NORM within the TiO2 industry. The data assessment shows that, for both process routes, most of the radioactivity reports to the solid process wastes and there are no areas of concern related to <span class="hlt">products</span>, co-<span class="hlt">products</span> or liquid or gaseous effluents for <span class="hlt">production</span> units operating to current environmental standards. Risk assessments for the landfill disposal of solid process waste similarly did not indicate any areas of concern where current waste management practices were followed. Process deposits, typically scale material, can exhibit enhanced activity concentrations of radium. Specific management practices such as controlled vessel entry to restrict worker exposure to these materials may be necessary. With such measures, it is considered unlikely that a worker would receive an annual effective dose exceeding 1 mSv. (author)eeding 1 mSv. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33066830"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this work, various kinds of catalysts including a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> by gamma rays.The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A combination of EPR and spin-trapping method was also used to detect unstable radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to investigate the effect of catalysts and additives on the efficiency of H2 <span class="hlt">production</span>. A nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) catalyst that showed an excellent activity in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of H2 from water by gamma rays were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes that are main wastes of chemical cleaning wastewater. As a result, among the catalysts examined in this work, a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) showed the most efficient H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> and the efficiency increased upon reapplication. This catalyst was also successfully used to produce H2 with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1994411"><span id="translatedtitle">Gestion de <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Courtois, Alain; Pillet, Maurice</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>n ouvrage de référence pour tous les gestionnaires de <span class="hlt">production</span> industrielle. Un cas concret d'entreprise fictive, fil rouge de l'ouvrage, pour expliquer et illustrer les différents outils et méthodes utilisés. Toutes les méthodes et tous les outils de gestion de <span class="hlt">production</span>, des plus traditionnels aux novateurs, explicités, comparés et illustrés. L'ouvrage, entièrement mis à jour, reflète toutes les évolutions liées à la gestion de <span class="hlt">production</span>. II se divise désormais en deux grandes partes ; la première regroupe les méthodes de base de la gestion de la <span class="hlt">production</span> ainsi que l'informatisation de celles-ci (chapitres 2 à 10) ; la seconde concerne les méthodes d'amélioration de la <span class="hlt">production</span> (chapitres 11 à 15), en mettant un accent fort sur la philosophie du Lean Manufacturing : L'entreprise en mouvement avec le Lean ; Les principaux outils du Lean ; Le pilotage d'atelier en flux tirés par la méthode Kanban ; L'implantation d'ateliers ; Les indicateurs de performance. Pour faciliter la le...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46015330"><span id="translatedtitle">Report of the 2nd RCM on development of radiation-processed <span class="hlt">products</span> of natural polymers for application in agriculture, healthcare, industry and environment. Working Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and biodegradable natural polymers and natural polymer waste. The results of research work showed that depending on the irradiation conditions, natural polysaccharides (alginate, chitin/chitosan, carrageeneans, carboxylmethylcellulose, etc.) could be either degraded or crosslinked by radiation. This paved the way for development of many successful applications; some of them commercialized, for use in agriculture, health care and environmental protection. The inputs for the formulation of this CRP and the key issues that need to be addressed were provided by the Consultant’s Meeting on “Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Development of Finished <span class="hlt">Products</span> for Health Care, Agriculture and Environment” held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 26 – 30 March 2007. The main objective was defined as wide-spread promotion and general application of radiation processed natural materials, by coupling radiation technology and end-users to derive additional benefits from these value-added natural materials. The first RCM of the CRP was convened in Vienna on 21-25 April 2008. The participants presented and discussed the status of the field, the needs for further research, and various application possibilities. The work plan formulated during the meeting focused on harmonization of procedures for characterization of irradiated polymers, and protocols for investigation of the functional properties of degraded natural polymer <span class="hlt">products</span> and their field testing. A network for collaboration was also proposed. The Meeting Report was published and is available for all Member States. The second RCM of this CRP was held in Reims, France, on 12–16 October 2009. The meeting was attended by 14 participants who reported their individual research results obtained since the first RCM, as well as their further plans. This meeting report contains all these reports, as well as the reports by participants from Algeria, Japan and Thailand, who could not attend the meeting, but sent their contributions. The leaders of the harmonization exercise of the characterization procedures (Poland and UK) presented a detailed evaluation of the results and lessons learned, as well as the further plans. The report of Poland contains the summary of these findings. The detailed protocol for the determination of viscosity for chitosan solution, which was used by all participants, is given in the Annex</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-03/pdf/2013-07773.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-03</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices for Calendar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-11/pdf/2012-8675.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-11</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices for Calendar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-08/pdf/2010-7931.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-08</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices for Calendar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-19/pdf/2011-9471.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-19</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices for Calendar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-01/pdf/2010-7263.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices for Calendar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/16/3/2146/"><span id="translatedtitle">Antiplasmodial Natural <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Cláudio R. Nogueira</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Malaria is a human infectious disease that is caused by four species of Plasmodium. It is responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year. Natural <span class="hlt">products</span> contain a great variety of chemical structures and have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. This review highlights studies on natural <span class="hlt">products</span> with antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity reported in the literature from January 2009 to November 2010. A total of 360 antiplasmodial natural <span class="hlt">products</span> comprised of terpenes, including iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, terpenoid benzoquinones, steroids, quassinoids, limonoids, curcubitacins, and lanostanes; flavonoids; alkaloids; peptides; phenylalkanoids; xanthones; naphthopyrones; polyketides, including halenaquinones, peroxides, polyacetylenes, and resorcylic acids; depsidones; benzophenones; macrolides; and miscellaneous compounds, including halogenated compounds and chromenes are listed in this review.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-CERN-MULTIMEDIA&redirectUrl=http://www.lpta.univ-montp2.fr/users/qcd/hep.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Quarkonium <span class="hlt">Production</span> at LHCb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/collection/Multimedia%20%26%20Outreach?ln=en">CERN Multimedia</a></p> <p>Frosini, M</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Despite large experimental and theoretical efforts, quarkonium <span class="hlt">production</span> in hadronic collisions is not yet satisfactorily understood. Due to its forward geometry, LHCb has the unique opportunity to explore the field of quarkonium <span class="hlt">production</span> at high rapidity, thus exploring a new and unknown territory. We report the measurement of the double differential $J/\\psi$, $\\psi(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon$ cross section at LHCb with the data sample recorded by the LHCb experiment during the 2010 data taking. The $J/\\psi$ prompt components is separated from the <span class="hlt">products</span> of $b$-hadrons decays using topological information. The results are compared with several theoretical models and other experiments. Preliminary results and prospects for the exotic quarkonium states as $X(3872)$ and $X(4140)$ will also be given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:10443428"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy quark <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The alchemy of the <span class="hlt">production</span> of states containing the heavy quarks in hadron-hadron or photon-hadron collisions offers an opportunity to study hadronic dynamics in a manner not readily available elsewhere. The focus is on an approach based on a simple interpretation of QCD developed at Illinois and Argonne. This approach seems to offer the possibility of forming a connection between the dynamics of heavy particle <span class="hlt">production</span> and recent developments in the theory of large-transverse-momentum processes. It is very interesting to see how the connection with large-P/sub T/ emerges from a fairly reasonable model. In the model discussed, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of heavy quarks in photoproduction is thought of as arising from diagrams which constitute the lowest-order-QCD process available and are considered applicable either for a real photon or for a virtual photon arising from inelastic lepton scattering. 25 references</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=31689"><span id="translatedtitle">Additives in yoghurt <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Milna Tudor</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In yoghurt <span class="hlt">production</span>, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt <span class="hlt">production</span> are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Production+of+Metabolites"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of Metabolites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Katz, Michael unknown</p> <p></p> <p>A recombinant micro-organism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces and excretes into culture medium a stilbenoid metabolite <span class="hlt">product</span> when grown under stilbenoid <span class="hlt">production</span> conditions, which expresses in above native levels a ABC transporter which transports said stilbenoid out of said micro-organism cells to the culture medium. The genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces an auxotrophic phenotype which is compensated by a plasmid which also expresses one or more of said enzymes constituting said metabolic pathway producing said stilbenoid, an expression <span class="hlt">product</span> of the plasmid is genetically modified to include a ubiquitination tag sequence. Expression of an enzyme participating in catabolism of phenylalanine by the Ehrlich pathway is optionally reduced compared to its native expression level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/124"><span id="translatedtitle">STALING OF BAKERY <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Jolana Karovi?ová</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The aim of this work was to write down a review article about various aspects connected with staling of bakery <span class="hlt">products</span>. Shelf life is directly associated with the staling process, which depends on the composition of bakery <span class="hlt">products</span> and important are storage conditions as well. In the article are described particular components (starch, nonstarch polysacharides, water and how they affect the staling process. Generally during staling of bakery <span class="hlt">products</span> occur  processes related with starch retrogradation, moisture redistribution from the crumb to the crust and other interactions between components. Staling process could be delayed by using various bakery improvers like enzymes, hydrocolloids, emulgators and other compounds. Also useful is the application of suitable packaging techniques.doi:10.5219/124</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.mnmk.ro/documents/2011/9_Barbu%20FFF.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Catalin Mihail BARBU</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In this paper I discussed the factors that influence the cultural adaptation ofproducts. Globalization determines the companies to operate abroad;therefore the firms sell their <span class="hlt">products</span> to markets where the consumerpatterns might differ from their national market. It is of high importance to beable to understand and to adapt to local consumer habits. The culture has astrong influence on <span class="hlt">products</span> adaptation in particular, and on internationalmarketing in general. Companies must be able to adapt their <span class="hlt">products</span>, but, inthe same time, to keep the note of originality, so that the global image ofbrand to gain consistency. Global brands provide a larger advantageregarding the marketing activities and costs. Savy companies are capable torecognize and to use cultural differences in their use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20188018-yVGPgC/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of cyclotron radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Chun, Kwon Soo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki; Kim, Jang Hye; Kim, Gi Sup [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>In the project, 12,077mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 5,717mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 2,096mCi of {sup 123}l, 482mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 2,738mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 387,253,000won. In the <span class="hlt">production</span> of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F <span class="hlt">production</span>. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span> were improved. 7 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20188017-W2Z1pU/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of cyclotron radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Suh, Yong Sup; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>In the project, 11,492mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 4,384mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,245mCi of {sup 123}l, 523mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 1,283mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 304,723,000won. In the <span class="hlt">production</span> of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F <span class="hlt">production</span>. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span> were improved. 7 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Preparing+for+a+Product+Platform+%3A+Product+Family+Hierarchy+Procedure"><span id="translatedtitle">Preparing for a <span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform : <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Hierarchy Procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Fiil-Nielsen, Ole; Munk, Lone</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Experience in the industry as well as recent related scientific publications show the benefits of <span class="hlt">product</span> development platforms. Companies use platforms to develop not a single but multiple <span class="hlt">products</span> (i.e. a <span class="hlt">product</span> family) simultaneously. When these <span class="hlt">product</span> development projects are coordinated they lead to increased sales due to more customized <span class="hlt">product</span> as well as decreased costs due to reuse, making a <span class="hlt">product</span> development platform a very profitable strategy for <span class="hlt">product</span> developing companies. A successful implementation of a <span class="hlt">product</span> development platform is not straightforward though. The introduction of <span class="hlt">product</span> platforms requires coordination of individual <span class="hlt">product</span> development projects. This coordination requires the clarification of reuse and variance through the projects. But which parts of a project should be reused and which parts should vary? Reuse in <span class="hlt">product</span> development platforms is based on commonalities and similarities in the <span class="hlt">product</span> family, and variance should be based on customer demands. To relate these terms and to improve the basis on which decisions are made, we need a way of visualizing the hierarchy of the <span class="hlt">product</span> family as well as the commonality and variance. This visualization method could then be used as a tool for creating the <span class="hlt">product</span> families, which <span class="hlt">product</span> development platforms depend upon. Experience also tells us that one of the primary negative aspects of <span class="hlt">product</span> developments platforms is the risk factor. When creating <span class="hlt">product</span> development platforms companies invest a lot of time in the planning of future activities and make major decisions effecting the future <span class="hlt">products</span> and <span class="hlt">production</span> facilities. If the <span class="hlt">product</span> development platform then fails to meet its expectations the companies loose almost everything they have invested. A tool for verifying the stability of the platform or ensuring that the platform can meet future demands will be very useful in the preparation process of a platform synthesis as well as in the updating or reengineering of an existing <span class="hlt">product</span> development platform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=223710"><span id="translatedtitle">Cow and calf performance while grazing tall fescue pastures with either wild-type toxic endophyte or a <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> novel endophyte.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Schreb.) pastures are common in Northwest Arkansas but cattle performance has declined due to the toxicity caused by the wild-type endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in the fescue plant (E+). Our objectives were to compare performance by spring-calving cows grazing E+ t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=LENUS-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.lenus.ie/hse/handle/10147/121465"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> concentrations for biological use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.lenus.ie/hse/">LENUS (Irish Health Repository)</a></p> <p>Prasad, Babu R</p> <p>2010-03-25</p> <p>Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs) have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped) have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours) co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel) were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation) were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to an increased concentration range of the QDs, while the gelatine coating acts as a barrier towards enhanced toxicity at higher QD concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?DOI=10.4236/fns.2011.28115"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-Toxic</span> Effect of <i>Monascus purpureus</i> Extract on Lactic Acid Bacteria Suggested Their Application in Fermented Foods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Mohan-Kumari Honganoor Puttananjaiah</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of Monascus purpureus extract (MPE on probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB was investigated to ascertain its application in fermented foods. Viable count of LAB was not affected after 24 hours of incubation in Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS broth containing MPE. The agar well-diffusion assay did not show any inhibition zone. The biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides by LAB in culture medium supplemented with MPE increased antioxidant activities. These data suggest that, nutritive and biological functionality of fermented foods can be improved by the use of MPE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1577243"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulation of the human immune response by the <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and non-pyrogenic adjuvant aluminium hydroxide: effect on antigen uptake and antigen presentation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Mannhalter, J W; Neychev, H O; Zlabinger, G J; Ahmad, R; Eibl, M M</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The regulatory effects of an adjuvant (aluminium hydroxide) on the early phase of the immune response have been investigated. Adsorbing a soluble antigen (tetanus toxoid) to aluminium hydroxide led to a significant increase (P less than 0.001) in antigen-induced T-cell proliferation (macrophage-T-cell interaction, MTI) making aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed antigens especially suitable to study immunoregulatory changes in the early phase of the immune response. First studies revealed that this increase was due to an enhancement of antigen uptake by the antigen-presenting cell. However, under conditions allowing for the uptake of comparable amounts of soluble (TTs) or aluminium hydroxide-absorbed (TTAL) antigen, T-cell proliferation in response to TTAL was still higher than in response to TTS. This difference was especially pronounced if suboptimal antigen concentrations were used and could be explained by differences in the TTS-versus TTAL-induced release of interleukin-1 (IL-1). Pulsing with TTAL led to a substantial increase in IL-1 release by monocytes (MO) which then subsequently augmented antigen-induced T-cell proliferation. This was further supported by addition of exogenous IL-1 to cultures of T cells and TTS-pulsed MOs, which also significantly increased the T cells' proliferative response. These findings demonstrate that in the early phase of the immune response, aluminium hydroxide exerts its regulatory effect at the level of the antigen-presenting and mediator-releasing accessory cell. PMID:3876178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39007254"><span id="translatedtitle">Recombinant human thyrotropin prior to radioiodine therapy improves the size reduction of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> nodular goiter: a prospective randomized double-blinded trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full text: Background: rh TSH increases the thyroid 131I uptake (RAIU) and may have a role in the context of 131I therapy of goiter. No placebo-controlled trial has yet been performed. Methods: In a double-blinded trial, 57 patients with nodular nontoxic goiter (51 F, 6 M) were randomized to receive either 0.3 mg rh TSH (n=28) or placebo (n=29) 24 h before 131I. The thyroid dose was calculated based on thyroid size (measured by ultrasound) and RAUI at 24 h and 96 h. Thyroid size and function and patient satisfaction were monitored for 12 months. Results: At baseline the median goiter volume was 51 ml (range: 20-99 ml) in the placebo group and 59 ml (25-92 ml) in the rh TSH group (p=0.75). Three months after 131I the goiter size was reduced to 38 ml (15-78 ml) and 43 ml (20-75 ml) in the two groups, respectively (p=0.001 within groups, p=0.96 between groups). At 12 months, the corresponding figures were 27 ml (15-82 ml) and 20 ml (6-59 ml); p=0.001 within groups compared with baseline, p=0.12 between groups. The relative goiter reduction at this time was 46 ± 22% in the placebo group, and 61 ± 15% in the rh TSH group (p=0.004). In addition to the influence of rh TSH, the magnitude of the goiter reduction correlated inversely with the initial goiter volume (p=0.019), whereas no significant correlation was found with the RAIU during therapy or with the absorbed thyroid dose. Discomfort during 131I was reported by 1during 131I was reported by 10 patients in the placebo group and by 15 patients in the rh TSH group (p=0.12). Permanent hypothyroidism developed in 12% in the placebo group and in 52% in the rh TSH group (p=0.005). Patient satisfaction was generally very high without any major within group difference. Conclusion: In the first placebo-controlled double-blinded trial, we found that rh TSH prior to 131I -therapy significantly improves thyroid size reduction by 33%, with a four-fold higher rate of hypothyroidism. These effects are, at least partially, mediated through other mechanisms than an increase in the RAIU. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.jnanobiotechnology.com/content/8/1/7"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> concentrations for biological use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Gérard Valérie A</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA capped have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to an increased concentration range of the QDs, while the gelatine coating acts as a barrier towards enhanced toxicity at higher QD concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?DOI=10.4236/ajmb.2013.32011"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasmid instability when the hsp60 gene promoter is used to express the protective <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> fragment B of the diphtheria toxin in recombinant BCG</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Dilzamar V. Nascimento</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The genetic modification of the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG to deliver a protective Corynebacterium diphtheriae antigen in vivo could be a safer and less costly alternative to the new and more expensive DTP vaccines available today, in particular to third world-countries. The stability of expression of heterologous antigens in BCG, however, is a major challenge to the use of live recombinant bacteria in vaccine development and appears to be dependent to a certain extent, on a genetic compatibility between the expression cassette within the plasmid construct and the mycobacterium host. In the quest for the best recombinant BCG transformant to express the dtb gene of C. diphtheriae we generated two new rBCG strains by transforming the Moreau substrain of BCG with the mycobacterial expression vectors pUS973 and pUS977, each one carrying a different promoter to drive the expression of the target antigen. After transformation recombinant BCG clones were selected on Middlebrook 7H10 kanamycin Agar plates, expanded in Middlebrook 7H9 kanamycin Broth and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. rBCGs transformed with the construct carrying the weak PAN promoter from M. paratuberculosis stably expressed the dtb gene. Conversely, rBCGs transformed with the construct carrying the strong mycobacterium hsp60 promoter were unstable and consequently unfit for the expression of the C. diphtheriae gene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::32c804f2cbef89eed6f6fa4b164edf03"><span id="translatedtitle">A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Woollett Laura A; Jandacek Ronald J; Rilo Horacio L; Alimov Alexander P; Jones Kevin S; Penberthy W Todd</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Background The alarming rise in the obesity epidemic and growing concern for the pathologic consequences of the metabolic syndrome warrant great need for development of obesity-related pharmacotherapeutics. The search for such therapeutics is severely limited by the slow throughput of animal models of obesity. Amenable to placement into a 96 well plate, zebrafish larvae have emerged as one of the highest throughput vertebrate model organisms for performing small molecule screens. A m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::77f1d31dfe51283177e28ae9eeeeabc7"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of Sirtuin 2 with Sulfobenzoic Acid Derivative AK1 is <span class="hlt">Non-Toxic</span> and Potentially Neuroprotective in a Mouse Model of Frontotemporal Dementia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>TaraLeighSpires-Jones; LeoraMFox; RosePitstick</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Tauopathies including tau-associated Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are characterized pathologically by the formation of tau-containing neurofibrillary aggregates and neuronal loss, which contribute to cognitive decline. There are currently no effective treatments to prevent or slow this neural systems failure. The rTg4510 mouse model, which expresses a mutant form of the tau protein associated with frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism-17, undergoes dramatic hippocamp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16034682"><span id="translatedtitle">Could carnosine suppress zinc-mediated proteasome inhibition and neurodegeneration? Therapeutic potential of a <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> but non-patentable dipeptide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Hipkiss, Alan R</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Ageing and neurodegenerative conditions are often associated with proteasome dysfunction, possibly mediated by zinc and/or copper ions. Studies have shown that (i) the olfactory lobe is normally enriched in carnosine and zinc, (ii) carnosine can suppress copper and zinc toxicity in olfactory neurones, (iii) olfactory dysfunction is often associated with neurodegenerative conditions and (iv) elevated levels of zinc are found in brains of Alzheimer's patients. It is suggested that nasal administration of carnosine should be explored as a possible way of suppressing zinc/copper-mediated proteasome inhibition and consequent neurodegeneration. PMID:16034682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::e69aaf8e03deb62273174333452fb77f"><span id="translatedtitle">Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> aggregates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Sharoar Md; Thapa Arjun; Shahnawaz Mohammad; Ramasamy Vijay; Woo Eun-Rhan; Shin Song; Park Il-Seon</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric ?- amyloid (A?) to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar A? is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible A? oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of A? aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=213622"><span id="translatedtitle">Cow and Calf Performance While Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Either the Wild-Type Toxic Endophyte or a <span class="hlt">Non-Toxic</span> Novel Endophyte</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Schreb.) pastures are common in Northwest Arkansas but cattle performance has declined due to the toxicity caused by the wild-type endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in the fescue plant. Gelbvieh x Angus crossbred cows (n = 52; 1,023 lb initial BW) were allocated random...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22153708"><span id="translatedtitle">Facile synthesis of oxo-/thioxopyrimidines and tetrazoles C-C linked to sugars as novel <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> antioxidant acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Figueiredo, J A; Ismael, M I; Pinheiro, J M; Silva, A M S; Justino, J; Silva, F V M; Goulart, M; Mira, D; Araújo, M E M; Campoy, R; Rauter, A P</p> <p>2012-01-10</p> <p>Microwave-assisted synthesis of oxo-/thioxopyrimidines and tetrazoles linked to furanoses with D-xylo and D-ribo configuration, and to a D-galacto pyranose is reported and compared to conventional methods. Reaction of dialdofuranoses and dialdopyranoses with a ?-keto ester and urea or thiourea under microwave irradiation at 300 W gave in 10 min the target molecules containing the 2-oxo- or 2-thioxo-pyrimidine ring in high yield. The tetrazole-derived compounds were obtained in two steps by reaction of the formyl group with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, copper sulfate, triethylamine and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to give an intermediate nitrile, which was then treated with sodium azide. The use of microwave irradiation in the latter step also resulted in a considerably shorter reaction time (10 min) compared to hours under conventional heating to obtain a complete starting materials conversion. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ranged from 20% to 80% for compounds concentration of 100 ?g/mL, demonstrating the potential of this family of compounds for the control of Alzheimer's disease symptoms. Most of the compounds showed antioxidant activity in the ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, some of them exhibiting IC(50) values in the same order of magnitude as those of gallic acid. The bioactive compounds did not show cytotoxic effects to human lymphocytes using the MTT method adapted for non-adherent cells, nor genotoxicity determined by the short-term in vitro chromosomal aberration assay. PMID:22153708</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::9241e5c6b06f09741ab5134a11a68f9e"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">Product</span> Families for <span class="hlt">Product</span> Configuration Systems with <span class="hlt">Product</span> Variant Master</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article presents an evaluation of applying a suggested method for modelling <span class="hlt">product</span> families for <span class="hlt">product</span> configuration based on theory for modelling mechanical <span class="hlt">products</span>,systems theory and object-oriented modelling. The modelling technique includes a so-called <span class="hlt">product</span> variant master and CRC-cards for modelling and visualising the parts and properties of a complete <span class="hlt">product</span> family. The modelling techniques include: Customer, engineering and part views on the <span class="hlt">product</span> assortme...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______261::7b3c6645afde00c4f532bea9c594621d"><span id="translatedtitle">Modifying Lean <span class="hlt">Production</span> for Implementation in <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Digital, Customized <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Kemperyd, Emmeline; Mideklint, Susanne</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To evaluate how lean <span class="hlt">production</span> should be modified to be suitable for implementation in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of digital, customized <span class="hlt">products</span> and how the first phase of this implementation can be conducted. Research Questions RQ1: What constitutes waste when producing digital, customized <span class="hlt">products</span>, and to what extent can the waste be eliminated? RQ2: Which lean concepts and tools are suitable to apply in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of digital, customized <span class="hlt">products</span>? RQ3: What steps are necessary for initial...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15016220"><span id="translatedtitle">Resonance <span class="hlt">production</span> in ?? reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Experimental results on the exclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> of resonances in ?? collisions are reviewed. These include new measurements of the radiative widths of the pseudoscalar (eta,eta') and the tensor mesons (f, A2, f'). A comparison of these results with SU(3) is made. Upper limits for other states than f in ?? -> ?? are given. The searches for ?? <span class="hlt">production</span> of the states iota and theta as well as etasub(c) are presented and upper limits are given. Finally a limit is given for the rare decay f -> ?+?-2?0. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/543217-JoVeb7/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect <span class="hlt">production</span> in ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>A review is given of several important defect <span class="hlt">production</span> and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect <span class="hlt">production</span> efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/121403-XsZ6pk/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>Biological hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39120729"><span id="translatedtitle">FDG decomposition <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this presentation authors present the results of analysis of decomposition <span class="hlt">products</span> of [18]fluorodexyglucose. It is concluded that the coupling of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation is a suitable tool for quantitative analysis of FDG radiopharmaceutical, i.e. assay of basic components (FDG, glucose), impurities (Kryptofix) and decomposition <span class="hlt">products</span> (gluconic and glucuronic acids etc.); 2-[18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) is sufficiently stable and resistant towards autoradiolysis; the content of radiochemical impurities (2-[18F]fluoro-gluconic and 2-[18F]fluoro-glucuronic acids in expired FDG did not exceed 1%</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/reports/nassr/field/pcp-bban/"><span id="translatedtitle">Crop <span class="hlt">Production</span>: Annual Summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) (described in the June 4, 1998 Scout Report for Business and Economics) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has recently released the annual summary of US crop <span class="hlt">production</span>. Available in text or .pdf format, the summary contains "annual US data for acreage, yield, and <span class="hlt">production</span> by crop." In addition to statistical tables, the report includes reviews of crop progress and the weather in 1998. Reports from 1995-98 are also available in text format only.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29016951"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect <span class="hlt">production</span> in ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A review is given of several important defect <span class="hlt">production</span> and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AlN and Si3N4), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect <span class="hlt">production</span> efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14749079"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of ethers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A process for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of an ether by contacting an olefin and an alcohol with a catalyst comprising a zeolite having an XO2/Y2O3 ratio equal to or greater than 10, wherein X is silicon and/or germanium and Y is one or more of aluminium, iron, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, arsenic, manganese, gallium or boron, the zeolite being predominantly in the hydrogen form. The process is particularly suitable for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of methyl t-butyl ether from isobutene and methanol</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981aasp.book.....P"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogas: <span class="hlt">Production</span> and utilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Price, E. C.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.</p> <p></p> <p>Among the aspects of biogas <span class="hlt">production</span> and utilization covered are: (1) the microbiology and biochemistry of the acid and methane <span class="hlt">production</span> stages in the anaerobic process; (2) factors affecting the process, such as temperature, acidity and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations; (3) denitrification processes and systems; and (4) the process kinetics of suspended growth systems, packed columns, and fluidized beds. Also considered are such issues in the application of this technology as the digestion of municipal treatment plant sludges, animal wastes, food processing wastes and energy crops. Attention is in addition given to anaerobic digester design, offgas measurement of anaerobic digesters, and sludge treatment through soil conditioning and composting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::68f5e2222db4862b2b32121d6e5ea3d2"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Coconut Biodiesel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Singh, Chandra P.; Sumit Bhatt; Kothari, S.; Shailandra Singh; Kumar, D.; Gajendra Kumar,</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs). We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::2293845f7459ea4282e0d7b948e875f7"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on <span class="hlt">Product</span> Association Modeling in Collaborative <span class="hlt">Product</span> Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Yu-Min Chiang; Meng-Feng Huang</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Many customers are no longer satisfied with mass-produced <span class="hlt">products</span>; they are demanding customization and rapid delivery of innovative <span class="hlt">products</span>. A new category of software, Collaborative <span class="hlt">Product</span> Design (CPD), uses Internet technology to deliver <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation at Internet speed and tie together <span class="hlt">product</span> design, engineering, marketing, and customers into a global knowledge net. CPD enables organizations to quickly respond to the market change, so it has become increasingly important. Though C...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::55c7a9ba61c7c886f388a128d7efeeca"><span id="translatedtitle">Processes of Multi-<span class="hlt">production</span> <span class="hlt">Products</span> and Utilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Anita Kova? Kralj</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> Process <span class="hlt">production</span> of the different <span class="hlt">products</span> should be more economical. The fact is we target that more <span class="hlt">products</span> are being produced from raw materials. The basic primary goal is multi-<span class="hlt">production</span> <span class="hlt">product</span> processes, and the secondary goal is to save raw materials. During an oil crisis, the price of natural gas is too high, therefore the amount of natural gas could be reduced by 30 % by using cheaper raw materials or waste material. This paper aims at repla...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1249::8fd1063b9b65cddf2f75b2e0d68ef531"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactive visualisation to support <span class="hlt">product</span> configuration in software <span class="hlt">product</span> lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Cawley, Ciarán; Nestor, Daren; PreuBner, André; Botterweck, Goetz; Thiel, Steffen</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Software <span class="hlt">Product</span> Line engineering allows companies to realise significant improvements in time-to-market, cost, <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, and system quality. One major difficulty with software <span class="hlt">product</span> lines is that within industry there may exist thousands of variation points in a single <span class="hlt">product</span> line. This scale of variability can become extremely complex to manage resulting in a <span class="hlt">product</span> configuration process that bears significant costs. This paper presents a feature configuration ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::ad98c1d9a50c918c9842aea1f4a8ad86"><span id="translatedtitle">Utilization of Biodiesel By-<span class="hlt">Products</span> for Biogas <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Nina Kolesárová; Miroslav Hut?an; Igor Bodík; Viera Špalková</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-<span class="hlt">products</span> from biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> as substrates for anaerobic digestion and <span class="hlt">production</span> of biogas. The process of biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other <span class="hlt">products</span>, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26000897"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioprotective effect of meat <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A new technology for creation of meat food <span class="hlt">products</span> for prophylactic nutrition is developed. The new meat <span class="hlt">products</span> contain natural additives with proven antiradiation properties such as anthociana, pectin and vitamins. The examinations of three <span class="hlt">products</span> showed moderate decontaminating effects in relation to radiocesium. In case of total external irradiation these food <span class="hlt">products</span> have an pronounced radioprotective effect on haemopoiesis. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:10462819"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of uranium dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The description is given of a process for converting uranium hexafluoride UF6 into uranium oxide powder of ceramic grade having a residual fluoride level, in fluidised bed reactors. A mixture essentially comprising uranium hexafluoride and steam (H2O) at the rate of 2 to 8 moles of steam per mole of uranium is introduced into a first fluidised bed reactor maintained at a temperature of 475 to 6000C to produce an initial intermediate reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> comprising solid particles of uranyl fluoride UO2F2 and oxide U3O8 and a by-<span class="hlt">product</span> gas including hydrofluoric acid HF. The first solid <span class="hlt">product</span> from the intermediate reaction is sent to a second fluidised bed reactor where the molar fraction of hydrofluoric acid is adjusted so as to minimise the formation of uranium tetrafluoride UF4 by introducing extra steam and hydrogen into the second fluidised bed at the rate of 4 to 12 moles of steam and 1 to 6 moles of hydrogen per mole of uranium, whilst this second bed is maintained at between 575 and 6750C to produce a second intermediate reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> comprising uranium dioxide UO2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12620757"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct <span class="hlt">production</span> of chi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The formation of the states with positive charge conjugation through the neutral current is discussed. It can be evaluated in a simple and straightforward manner in the nonrelativistic quarkonium model, identifying the resonances as 3P1 bound state. The observation of this reaction would test the coupling of quarks to the axial part and of electrons to the vector and axial vector part of the neutral current. Although this process is neglegibly small for the Psub(c)/chi (3500), it may contribute a measurable amount, if a toponium system were found around 35 GeV. The competing mechanism of the formation - the electromagnetic annihilation of e+e- through two virtual photons into 1++ and 2++ states is also investigated. The various models (quarkonium model, vector dominance model, generalized vector dominance model) all consistently give values between 0.1 eV and 0.4 eV for Gamma(3P1 ? e+e-). In this case the electromagnetic <span class="hlt">production</span> dominates the weak <span class="hlt">production</span> whereas for heavier quarkonium systems the situation is reversed. Finally, it is quite straightforward to translate our results from QED to QCD. We then calculate chi <span class="hlt">production</span> in hadronic collisions, in particular the contribution which comes from quark-antiquark annihilation. This can be compared to estimates for charmonium <span class="hlt">production</span> by ''color evaporation'' which gives quite different results for which gives quite different results for the relative weight of chi0, chi1 and chi2 (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38102025"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of artificial radioelements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The techniques used in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of artificial radioelements are described, with special emphasis on the following points: - nuclear reactions and use of reactors; - chemical separation methods and methods for enriching the activity of preparations; - protection of personnel and handling methods. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=247849"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic watermelon <span class="hlt">production</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Research investigating certified organic <span class="hlt">production</span> requires a systems approach to determine the optimum combination of individual components to max...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24074735"><span id="translatedtitle">Zambian charcoal <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The recovery of miombo woodlands following clearance for woodfuel is being monitored at four sites in central Zambia. Charcoal <span class="hlt">production</span> removes 50% of the total woody biomass and the woodland regenerates from a pool of stunted old seedlings and stumps of cut trees. <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> is correlated to tree density before felling. Clearing of successive regrowth miombo does not appear to affect <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Annual wood biomass increment in unmanaged regrowth miombo is estimated at 2-3 t/ha pa of which about 1.1 t is cord wood suitable for charcoal <span class="hlt">production</span>. However, the charcoal spots within the deforested area are severely impacted by the carbonization process which destroys soil structure, seedlings and root stocks. Woodland regeneration on such spots is protracted. Fortunately, charcoal spots only cover 2-3% of the deforested area. The concern about land degradation due to deforestation caused by woodfuel harvesting for urban charcoal in the miombo woodland region of central and southern Africa is not supported by the results of this study. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=185507"><span id="translatedtitle">HISPANIC DAIRY <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hispanic-style cheeses and other dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> are increasing in popularity in the U.S., prompting research into the chemical basis for their characteristics. Variations in Hispanic-style cheeses arise from differences in their processing parameters, which allow the properties of the cheese to ran...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11554164"><span id="translatedtitle">Hadronic lepton pair <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The author describes a beam dump experiment at the CERN SPS for the study of ? pair <span class="hlt">production</span> by ?+-, K+-, and p(anti p) beams on a copper target at 39.5 GeV/c. The dependence of the cross sections from various parameters is discussed. (HSI)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPD....44..108H"><span id="translatedtitle">HMI Magnetic Field <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Hoeksema, Jon T.; HMI Magnetic Field Team</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on SDO has measured magnetic field, velocity, and intensity in the photosphere over the full disk continuously since May 2010 with arc-second resolution. Scalar images are measured every 45 seconds. From these basic observables the pipeline automatically identifies and tracks active regions on the solar disk. The vector magnetic field and a variety of summary quantities are determined every 720s in these tracked Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPS). Synoptic and synchronic maps are constructed daily and after each Carrington Rotation Most data <span class="hlt">products</span> are available with definitive scientific calibration after a few day deal at and in a quick-look near-real-time version a few minutes after the observations are made. Uncertainties are determined for the derived <span class="hlt">products</span>. All of the magnetic field <span class="hlt">products</span> along with movies and images suitable for browsing are available at http:://Hmi.stanford.edu/magnetic. Other <span class="hlt">products</span>, e.g. coronal field over active regions, can be computed on demand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CZAPUBDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0026935"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary <span class="hlt">production</span> in wetlands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Kv?t, Jan; Westlake, D. F.; Dykyjová, Dagmar; Marshall, E. J. P.; Ondok, P.</p> <p></p> <p>Cambridge : University Press, 1998 - (Westlake, D.; Kv?t, J.; Szczepanski, A.), s. 78-168 ISBN 0-521-22822-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/98/0727; GA AV ?R KSK2017602 Keywords : marshes * limitations * photosynthetic <span class="hlt">production</span> Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM143705.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Problems Digesting Dairy <span class="hlt">Products</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... A doctor can usually determine if you are lactose intolerant by taking a medical history. In some cases, the doctor may perform tests to help confirm the diagnosis. A simple way to test at home is to exclude all lactose-containing <span class="hlt">products</span> from your diet for two weeks ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.utgjiu.ro/revista/ec/pdf/2014-06/33_Iris%20Mihai.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">RECONSIDERING ECONOMIC <span class="hlt">PRODUCTIVITY</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>RIS A. MIHAI</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Economy has changed significantly over the past century, in part due to the scientific discoveries, due to the industrial revolution, to the research, development and innovation, but maybe the most important contributor to the economic development is the human resource. We have witnessed significant changes enhancing the levels of <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, both labor and capital. This paper analyzes <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in relation to its social and sustainability dimension. The paper follows a previous study, highlighting the most important findings identified and reinterpreting them on the basis of the most recent research papers produced by the scholars in the field. The analysis is focused on the most unsustainable economies worldwide, respectively, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Belgium, Kuwait, Singapore, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Macedonia, Japan and the United States of America – selected by considering their per capita ecological deficit. The research uses statistical data provided by the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank and the Global Footprint Network. The research combines economical, development and environmental indexes in our attempt to evaluate <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and to adjust it so that it considers the ecological deficit of the nations. The research hypothesis that generated the study is: the levels of economic <span class="hlt">productivity</span> obtained by countries are not limited by their biocapacities. The empirical analysis will verify the research question advocating for the need to consider the limited capacity of the planet, in term of natural resources, when promoting economic and social development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-KAUST&redirectUrl=http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/303766"><span id="translatedtitle">Kronecker <span class="hlt">Products</span> on Preconditioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa">KAUST Repository</a></p> <p>Gao, Longfei</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Numerical techniques for linear systems arising from discretization of partial differential equations are nowadays essential for understanding the physical world. Among these techniques, iterative methods and the accompanying preconditioning techniques have become increasingly popular due to their great potential on large scale computation. In this work, we present preconditioning techniques for linear systems built with tensor <span class="hlt">product</span> basis functions. Efficient algorithms are designed for various problems by exploiting the Kronecker <span class="hlt">product</span> structure in the matrices, inherited from tensor <span class="hlt">product</span> basis functions. Specifically, we design preconditioners for mass matrices to remove the complexity from the basis functions used in isogeometric analysis, obtaining numerical performance independent of mesh size, polynomial order and continuity order; we also present a compound iteration preconditioner for stiffness matrices in two dimensions, obtaining fast convergence speed; lastly, for the Helmholtz problem, we present a strategy to `hide\\' its indefiniteness from Krylov subspace methods by eliminating the part of initial error that corresponds to those negative generalized eigenvalues. For all three cases, the Kronecker <span class="hlt">product</span> structure in the matrices is exploited to achieve high computational efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=476341"><span id="translatedtitle">Revitalizing <span class="hlt">production</span> logging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Bamforth, S. [BP Exploration Operating Co., Poole (United Kingdom); Besson, C.; Stephenson, K.; Whittaker, C. [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Catala, G. [Schlumberger, Clamart (France); Rouault, G.; Theron, B. [Schlumberger Riboud Product Centre, Clamart (France); Conort, G. [Schlumberger Wireline and Testing, Montrouge (France); Lenn, C. [Schlumberger Wireline and Testing, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Roscoe, B. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield CT (United States); Brown, G. [BP Exploration Operating Co., Sunbury on Thames (United Kingdom)</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Over the past ten years, drilling has increasingly involved more high-angle and horizontal boreholes for cost reduction and efficient field development. This has resulted in wellbores with different fluid flow characteristics than traditional wells and many mature fields with complex well <span class="hlt">production</span> problems. Recently developed logging technologies to diagnose these problems are discussed. 22 figs., 19 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Predicting+safe+sandwich+production"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting safe sandwich <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Birk, Tina; Duan, Zhi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during <span class="hlt">production</span> and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation and serving. However, Danish sandwich producing companies find it challenging to comply with this and have expressed a need for more flexibility. The Danish guidelines do allow for a prolongation of the acceptable time outside the cold chain, if the safety of the specific <span class="hlt">production</span> can be documented. There is, therefore, room for developing targeted tools for evaluating the time-temperature scenarios in sandwich <span class="hlt">production</span>. This study describes a decision support tool developed to offer the producers more flexibility. Based on time/temperature measurements obtained during preparation combined with information on the prehistory of ingredients and the expected time/temperature conditions of distribution and serving, the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and psychrotrophic Clostridium botulinum in the sandwiches is predicted. Applying the lag times of these pathogens as the critical limit, the tool determines if the sandwich <span class="hlt">production</span> is safe by evaluating whether any of the lag times have been exceeded during the total preparation, distribution, and serving time. The growth models employed were built as part of the study using a “worst case” ingredient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14585619"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of biobased <span class="hlt">products</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Rex</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Research conducted over the past seven years by the biotechnology byproducts consortium (BBC) addresses its mission to investigate the opportunities to add value to agricultural <span class="hlt">products</span>, byproducts and coproducts and to manage the wastewater arising from agribusinesses in an environmentally favorable way. Since a wide variety of research approaches have been taken, the results are collected in five topic groups: (1) bioremediation that includes anaerobic fermentations of wastes to produce methane and hydrogen, the genetics of methanogenesis and in situ remediation of contaminated aquifer systems, landfill leachates and industrial effluents; (2) land application of fermentation byproducts and their use in animal feeds; (3) biocatalytic studies of transformations of components of corn and soybean oils, peroxidases present in plant <span class="hlt">products</span>, such as soybean hulls; (4) biochemical reactions for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of de-icers from industrial water streams, biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> from fats and greases, biodegradable plastics from polymerizable sugar derivatives, single cell foods derived from fungal growth on waste streams, and bacterial polysaccharides from Erwinia species; (5) separation and recovery of components by membrane technologies. PMID:14585619</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.5745.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">production</span> asymmetries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Gordon, Hamish</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The knowledge of charm <span class="hlt">production</span> asymmetries is an important prerequisite for many of the possible searches for CP violation in charm. Measurements of these asymmetries at hadron colliders can also help to improve our understanding of QCD. These proceedings review existing measurements and discuss some of the experimental challenges of determining charge asymmetries at the per-mille level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31043818"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of radioactive stents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the last years radioactive stents proved to inhibit neointima formation. This report describes the actual status of producing such radioactive stents. Different methods of radioactive Stent <span class="hlt">production</span> are considered. The ion beam implantation of P-32 applied at the Research Center Karlsruhe will be described in more detail. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v%3afile=viv_B4j7TT&server=pvlbsrch12&v%3astate=root%7croot-20-10%7c0&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.fda.gov%2fForConsumers%2fConsumerUpdates%2fucm182929.htm&rid=Ndoc25&v%3aframe=redirect&v%3aredirect-hash=f2236d5542a58b736925fab611783b4b&"><span id="translatedtitle">FDA 101: <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">Medline Plus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available U.S. Food & Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> ... Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Improving+pension+product+design"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving pension <span class="hlt">product</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pension <span class="hlt">products</span> characterized by linking an individual's savings directly to market returns represent the most popular, growing pension domain globally. These <span class="hlt">products</span> are widely sold in contribution-defined pension schemes, labor market pensions, and individual schemes. However, available <span class="hlt">products</span> are designed with a tendency to assume greater risk the longer it is until retirement, but are not adjusted to individual preferences and circumstances. This paper develops an optimal asset allocation strategy for a defined contribution plan by adjusting to individual needs, such that the expected utility of retirement benefits is maximized. An asset allocation strategy should not only depend on the plan member's age (or time left to retirement), nor only on her risk preferences, but should capture personal characteristics. Among other factors, we include current wealth, expected lifetime salary progression, expected social benefits, choice of assets, type of retirement distribution schedules, bequest motive and life insurance. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization technologies: stochastic control and multi-stage stochastic linear programming (SLP). As an example of an optimal pension <span class="hlt">product</span> design, we present the operations research methods, which have potential to stimulate new thinking and add to actuarial practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soybean+AND+pest&id=ED217150"><span id="translatedtitle">Soybean <span class="hlt">Production</span> Lesson Plan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Carlson, Keith R.</p> <p></p> <p>These lesson plans for teaching soybean <span class="hlt">production</span> in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0352-4906/2009/0352-49060916007R.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mycotoxins in poultry <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Resanovi? Radmila M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and <span class="hlt">production</span> categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in <span class="hlt">production</span> performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease in body mass, number and quality of eggs, greater food conversion, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression results in increased sensitivity to infective agents and a bad vaccinal response. Morevover, mycotoxin residues in poultry meat, eggs and <span class="hlt">products</span> derived from them pose a threat to human health. In order to prevent and reduce the negative implications of mycotoxins in the poultry <span class="hlt">production</span>, it is necessary to create both global and national strategies for combatting mycotoxins, advance diagnostic techniques and procedures, intensify the control of food quality, introduce new limits on the maximum amount of mycotoxins allowed in food and poultry feed used for certain species and categories of animals, and synchronise it with the European standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.collabnfab.org/resources/2011_stem_production_guitar_standards.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Guitar <span class="hlt">Production</span> Standards Blueprints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This PDF document provides a few blueprints for guitar <span class="hlt">production</span> standards. The drawings include some cross-sections and close-up details. Measurements are also provided. The features illustrated are common to all 25-1/2" scale length guitars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.wisc-online.com/learn/career-clusters/stem/eng12504/tpm--total-productive-maintenance"><span id="translatedtitle">Total <span class="hlt">Productive</span> Maintenance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Krueger, Kaye</p> <p></p> <p>Created by Kaye Krueger of Wisconsin Online Resource Center, this presentation allows user to read about how total <span class="hlt">productive</span> maintenance can prevent breakdowns, defects, and a variety of other losses. This is a nice brief introduction to this important topic in manufacturing engineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33048069"><span id="translatedtitle">The hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper gives an overview on the implementing of the hydrogen as substitution fuel in the transportation sector. It presents also the problems of this fuel storage and exploitation and describes the <span class="hlt">production</span> modes and their safety. It also presents the main lines of the japan HTGR program. (A.L.B.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://betobaccofree.hhs.gov/about-tobacco/Smoked-Tobacco-Products/"><span id="translatedtitle">Smoked Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... light,” “low,” or “mild” in <span class="hlt">product</span> labeling and advertisements. This provision went into effect on June 22, 2010. All cigarettes are harmful. ... which makes it easier to smoke—especially for children and teens. Many ... effects of menthol cigarettes . Read the announcement that the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::0266b01386d64c5df9a899bfd8b507af"><span id="translatedtitle">Qudit homological <span class="hlt">product</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Farkas, Máté; Vrana, Péter</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this note we show that the random homological <span class="hlt">product</span> code construction of Bravyi and Hastings can be extended to qudits of dimension D with D an odd prime. While the result is not surprising, the proof does require new ideas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::cf555bac66222b6bfef4ae55b9e50cd5"><span id="translatedtitle">Higgs <span class="hlt">Production</span> at NNLO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Ravindran, V.; Smith, J.; Neerven, W. L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We describe the calculation of inclusive Higgs boson <span class="hlt">production</span> at hadronic colliders at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. We have used the technique developed in reference [4]. Our results agree with those published earlier in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.saferproducts.gov/"><span id="translatedtitle">Safer<span class="hlt">Products</span>.gov</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... sent to your business before they are posted online. Sign up with the Business Portal to get reports quickly. Get Started Do ... Safe: Watch and Share Report an Unsafe <span class="hlt">Product</span> Business Sign In Search Recalls & Reports Advanced ... OF USE | PRIVACY | NO FEAR | OPEN GOVERNMENT ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.vidacollection.org/browse/browseRecords/detail?recordId=786"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco companies and <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Adrian Pingstone (None; )</p> <p>2008-03-19</p> <p>Tobacco companies have been restricted in what they can do to advertise their <span class="hlt">products</span>. Some have been accused of soliciting children to begin smoking. Most tobacco companies are required to place some type of warning label on their packages warning smokers of the diseases that tobacco use can cause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Conditions+for+industrial+production"><span id="translatedtitle">Conditions for industrial <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, JØrgen Munthe</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing <span class="hlt">production</span> is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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