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1

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01

2

Hazardous jarosite use in developing non-hazardous product for engineering application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jarosite released from zinc metal extraction process is hazardous in nature and its world wide disposal has become a major environmental concern. In this study, an attempt has been made to immobilise and recycle the jarosite released from Hindustan Zinc Limited, India, using CCRs, so called fly ash, and clay soil. Results revealed that the particle size of jarosite was finer than that of CCRs and had higher porosity and water holding capacity due to fine textured materials resulting in high surface area (10,496.18 ± 30.90 cm2/g). Jarosite contain higher concentration of toxic elements (lead, zinc, sulphur, cadmium, chromium and copper) than that of CCRs. Concentrations of radionuclides such as 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in jarosite found less than in CCRs are similar to that of soil. Statistically designed experiments on solidified/stabilised (s/s) sintered jarosite-CCRs products confirmed that the compressive strength of jarosite bricks reached as high as 140 kg/cm2 with 14.5% water absorption capacity at the combination of 3:1 ratio of jarosite and clay, respectively, but, concentrations of all the toxic elements recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-Toxicity Leachate Characteristics Procedure (TCLP) standard are not within the permissible limits. However, it is confirmed that the toxic elements leaching potentials of s/s-sintered products developed using 2:1 jarosite clay ratio with 15% CCRs comply with the USEPA-TCLP limits and also meet the quality for engineering applications

3

Link between domoic acid production and cell physiology after exchange of bacterial communities between toxic Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria are known to influence domoic acid (DA) production by Pseudo-nitzschia spp., but the link between DA production and physiology of diatoms requires more investigation. We compared a toxic P. multiseries to a non-toxic P. delicatissima, investigating links between DA production, physiological parameters, and co-occurring bacteria. Bacterial communities in cultures of both species were reduced by antibiotic treatment, and each of the diatoms was inoculated with the bacterial community of the other species. The physiology of P. delicatissima was minimally affected by the absence of bacteria or the presence of alien bacteria, and no DA was detected. P. multiseries grew faster without bacteria, did not produce a significant amount of DA, and exhibited physiological characteristics of healthy cells. When grown with alien bacteria, P. multiseries did not grow and produced more DA; the physiology of these cells was affected, with decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency, an increase in esterase activity, and almost 50% mortality of the cells. The alien bacterial community had morphological and cellular characteristics very different from the original bacteria, and the number of free-living bacteria per algal cell was much higher, suggesting the involvement of bacteria in DA production. PMID:24921979

Lelong, Aurélie; Hégaret, Hélène; Soudant, Philippe

2014-06-01

4

Link between Domoic Acid Production and Cell Physiology after Exchange of Bacterial Communities between Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Non-Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacteria are known to influence domoic acid (DA production by Pseudo-nitzschia spp., but the link between DA production and physiology of diatoms requires more investigation. We compared a toxic P. multiseries to a non-toxic P. delicatissima, investigating links between DA production, physiological parameters, and co-occurring bacteria. Bacterial communities in cultures of both species were reduced by antibiotic treatment, and each of the diatoms was inoculated with the bacterial community of the other species. The physiology of P. delicatissima was minimally affected by the absence of bacteria or the presence of alien bacteria, and no DA was detected. P. multiseries grew faster without bacteria, did not produce a significant amount of DA, and exhibited physiological characteristics of healthy cells. When grown with alien bacteria, P. multiseries did not grow and produced more DA; the physiology of these cells was affected, with decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency, an increase in esterase activity, and almost 50% mortality of the cells. The alien bacterial community had morphological and cellular characteristics very different from the original bacteria, and the number of free-living bacteria per algal cell was much higher, suggesting the involvement of bacteria in DA production.

Aurélie Lelong

2014-06-01

5

The production of hydrotalcite from magnesite ore as non-toxic heat stabiliser for polyvinyl chloride Hidrotalsiet, vervaardig uit magnesieterts, as niegiftige hittestabiliseerder vir polivinielchloried  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years polyvinyl chloride (PVC processors had to submit to worldwide pressure to convert to environmentally friendly stabilisers such as hydrotalcite (HT, since most of the heat stabilisers currently in use contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium or barium – these being highly toxic. The presently used HT production process is, however, very expensive as it involves the recovering of magnesium from seawater magnesia. The purpose of this study was to prove that it is indeed possible to produce cost effective and non-toxic HT from an alternative source. During this study the costing and heat stabilising ability of the hydrotalcite produced from magnesite was compared to that of commercially available heat stabilisers. The effect of the pre-mixing process, as well as the influence of particle size distribution was also investigated. A cost comparative and stabilising efficiency study indicated the cost effectiveness of HT produced from magnesite ore, in comparison with other commercially available stabilisers. The use of HT as produced from magnesite ore would indeed assist in the worldwide changeover to environmentally friendly stabilisers.Gedurende die afgelope paar jaar het die druk op polivinielchloried (PVC -verwerkers aansienlik toegeneem om na omgewingsvriendelike stabiliseerders soos hidrotalsiet (HT oor te skakel, aangesien die meeste hittestabiliseerders wat tans in gebruik is, giftige swaarmetale soos lood, kadmium, of barium bevat. Die vervaardigingsproses van HT is tans baie duur, aangesien dit die herwinning van magnesium uit seewatersoute behels. Hierdie studie is daarop gemik om te bewys dat dit wel moontlik is om meer bekostigbare en niegiftige HT uit magnesieterts te vervaardig. Tydens die studie is die doeltreffendheid en koste-implikasies van HT vervaardig uit magnesieterts, vergelyk met kommersieel beskikbare stabiliseerders asook HT-stabiliseerders soos vervaardig uit seewatersoute. Die effek van voorafvermengingsprosesse van die stabiliseerders en smeermiddels, asook partikelgrootteverspreiding op die finale stabiliseringsvermoë, is ook ondersoek. ’n Kostevergelykende studie het aangetoon dat PVC-verwerkers wel koste kan besnoei deur na hierdie plaaslik vervaardigde stabiliseerder oor te skakel. HT kan dus inderdaad as kostedoeltreffende en niegiftige stabiliseerder vir geplastiseerde PVC aangewend word. Die wêreldwye omskakeling na HT as omgewingsvriendelike stabiliseerder vir geplastiseerde PVC sal dus ekonomies meer lewensvatbaar word indien hierdie vorm van HT gebruik word.

J. van der Laan

2005-09-01

6

New Non-Toxic Holographic Photopolymer Material  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an increasing need for environmentally friendly holographic recording materials which can be produced in bulk with little risk to the health of workers in manufacturing. This is why the development of non-toxic photopolymer materials is crucial, and has attracted attention in recent years. Composition and preliminary characterization of a new non-toxic photopolymer material are presented. It operates well at a range of spatial frequencies, and achieves diffraction efficiencies and re...

Cody, Dervil; Naydenova, Izabela; Mihaylova, Emilia

2012-01-01

7

The production of hydrotalcite from magnesite ore as non-toxic heat stabiliser for polyvinyl chloride Hidrotalsiet, vervaardig uit magnesieterts, as niegiftige hittestabiliseerder vir polivinielchloried  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years polyvinyl chloride (PVC) processors had to submit to worldwide pressure to convert to environmentally friendly stabilisers such as hydrotalcite (HT), since most of the heat stabilisers currently in use contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium or barium – these being highly toxic. The presently used HT production process is, however, very expensive as it involves the recovering of magnesium from seawater magnesia. The purpose of this study was to prove that it is indeed ...

Laan, J.; Vorster, O. C.

2005-01-01

8

New non-toxic holographic photopolymer material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is an increasing need for environmentally friendly holographic recording materials which can be produced in bulk with little risk to the health of workers in manufacturing. This is why the development of non-toxic photopolymer materials is crucial, and has attracted attention in recent years. The composition and preliminary characterization of a new non-toxic photopolymer material are presented. It operates well at a range of spatial frequencies, and achieves diffraction efficiencies and refractive index modulation comparable to those of the known acrylamide-based photopolymers. (paper)

9

New non-toxic holographic photopolymer material  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing need for environmentally friendly holographic recording materials which can be produced in bulk with little risk to the health of workers in manufacturing. This is why the development of non-toxic photopolymer materials is crucial, and has attracted attention in recent years. The composition and preliminary characterization of a new non-toxic photopolymer material are presented. It operates well at a range of spatial frequencies, and achieves diffraction efficiencies and refractive index modulation comparable to those of the known acrylamide-based photopolymers.

Cody, D.; Naydenova, I.; Mihaylova, E.

2012-01-01

10

Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2011-01-01

11

A new, non-toxic, curing agent for synthetic polyolefins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate benzocyclobutene (BCB) derivatives as non-toxic curing agents to replace accelerated sulfur systems in certain synthetic biomedical materials. Prototype artificial spinal discs have been made and implanted in a few patients from a carbon black-filled copolymer of 1-hexene and 5-methyl-1,4-hexadiene (MHD), which is sulfur cured. The polymers investigated in this study were composed of 1-hexene, allyl-BCB, and MHD (or 7-methyl-1,6-octadiene, MOD). Curing was effected through reactions on BCB, forming carbon-carbon crosslinks. Preliminary cytotoxicity tests showed the material to be non-toxic, and the physical and mechanical properties of the BCB-cured materials were comparable with those of the sulfur-cured polymers. PMID:1472911

Fishback, T L; McMillin, C R; Farona, M F

1992-01-01

12

Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The effect of radioiodine in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of the study was to see the effect of radioiodine on thyroid size and function in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. We prospectively studied 55 non-toxic multinodular goitre patients treated with radioiodine of which 15 were males and 40 were females with age ranged from 25 years to 60 years (mean ± SD 40.45 ± 10.70 years) for a minimum of 12 months. Patients who were selected were those with local compression symptoms or for cosmetic reasons and the treatment was chosen because of a high operative risk or refusal to be operated on. Thyroid volume and T3, T4, TSH of all patients were determined before treatment and 6 months interval after treatment. Radioiodine was given in the dose ranged from 333 MBq (9 mCi) to 555 MBq (15 mCi) (mean ± SD 11.45 ± 2.04 mCi). The mean thyroid volume was reduced from 44.75 ± 37.44 ml to 28.76 ± 27.25 ml at 12 months (p < 0.001) i.e., reduced by 35.73%. Thyroid volume reduction at 6 months was 21.07%. Hypothyroidism occurred in 9.1% of the patients at 12 months. Side effects were few. Three cases developed radiation thyroiditis and two cases developed hyperthyroidism that was managed conservatively. It has been concluded that radioiodine is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre and may be the treatment of choice in elderly patients, in patients in whomlderly patients, in patients in whom surgery is contraindicated and in patients who are unwilling to undergo surgery. (author)

13

Cross-section measurements for the formation of manganese-52 and its isolation with a non-hazardous eluent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With respect to the production of no-carrier-added 52Mn nuclear reactions on natural chromium were investigated. Cross sections of the reactions natCr(p,x)48V, 48,49,51Cr, 52g,mMn were determined in the proton energy range of 7.6 to 45 MeV. Additionally, production yields of 52g,mMn and 51Cr were measured in the energy range from 8.2 to 16.9 MeV and therefrom the calculated saturation thick target yields were obtained as (2.55 ± 0.31), (6.96 ± 0.57), and (1.53 ± 0.15)GBq/?A, respectively. For in vivo applications like PET, low toxicity is critical and sufficient activity of a radiolabelled compounds mandatory. Thus, additional purification steps after separation of radionuclides and target materials have to be avoided. However, no isolation procedure has been reported in the literature so far where radiomanganese is directly obtained in a non-hazardous solution. Therefore a new separation procedure was developed utilizing the cation-exchange resin DOWEX 50W x 8 (H+-form). 52gMn was quantitatively isolated from 'bulk' chromium after 3 to 4 h in non-hazardous 0.067 M ammonium citrate solution. Up to 99% of 52gMn activity was harvested within 10 to 15 mL eluent solution with no measureable 51Cr impurities. (orig.)

14

Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site

15

Novel Non-toxic Antifouling/Fouling Release Nanocomposite Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling is a significant environmental problem. Traditional solutions to this problem have involved incorporation of toxic organometallic species into the paint. This approach while effective, is harmful to the environment. The resultant ban on the use of many of these coatings has created a need for alternative systems to control marine fouling. Silicones represent the only class of polymers currently used commercially, due to their inherently low surface energy, glass transition temperature, and modulus, combined with good chemical stability and ease of application. In this talk I will present our efforts to develop a new generation of practical, non-toxic coatings that combine antifouling/fouling release characteristics with good mechanical properties, ease of application and low cost. Specifically we have been focusing on a series of fouling release coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers and nanocomposites. The PDMS copolymers are much stronger than pure PDMS yet they exhibit fouling release performance comparable and, in some cases, better than pure PDMS.

Fang, Jason

2008-03-01

16

3-Alkylpyridinium compounds as potential non-toxic antifouling agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, around thirty bioactive 3-alkylpyridinium compounds, either in monomeric or oligomeric forms, have been identified in marine sponges belonging to the order Haplosclerida In this work, we have reviewed their biological activities, which include mainly cytotoxicity, ichthyotoxicity, inhibition of bacterial growth, and enzyme inhibition. Most of these activities increase with the increasing degree of oligomerization of the corresponding 3-alkylpyridinium compound. It was shown recently that 3-alkylpyridines also exhibit promising antifouling activities. Linear 3-octylpyridinium polymers (Poly-APS), isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Reniera sarai, showed a non-toxic reversible mechanism of settlement inhibition of Balanus amphitrite cypris larvae with an EC50 of 0.27 microg/mL. At the same time, their toxicity towards the organisms used in the toxicity bioassays (B. amphitrite nauplii, microalga Tetraselmis suecica and larvae of Mytilus galloprovincialis) was almost negligible in comparison to commercially available and currently used booster biocides based on copper and zinc complexes with pyrithione. Poly-APS and some other natural 3-alkylpyridines were also found to be very effective in preventing microbial biofilm formation. Preliminary tests have confirmed that some monomeric and oligomeric synthetic analogues of poly-APS also exert antifouling activity, which makes these compounds promising candidates as new environmentally-friendly ingredients in the new generation of antifouling coatings. PMID:16805440

Sepci?, K; Turk, T

2006-01-01

17

Pollution prevention benefits of non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves - 11000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. Shielding glovebox gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, i.e., hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the pollution prevention benefits of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. The nonhazardous substitutes are higher in cost, but this is offset by eliminating the costs associated with onsite waste handling of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) items. In the end, replacing lead with non-hazardous substitutes eliminates waste generation and future liability.

Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

18

Radioiodine therapy in non toxic multi nodular goitre, preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: Aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of 131I therapy in patients (pts) affected by non toxic multinodular goitre (NTMG). NTMG is a thyroid disease with a high prevalence, especially in low-iodine intake regions. Treatment of NTMG often requires surgery. However, thyroidectomy may be risky in some patients and radioiodine therapy could be an alternative treatment to reduce thyroid volume. We also evaluated if lithium administration can improve the efficacy of radioiodine treatment in this pts. Material and Methods: We enrolled 39 pts (8 males, 31 females; mean age 59 y, range 40-79 y) affected by NTMG. Mean thyroid volume (TV) at ultrasound was of 46.8 ml (range 18.5-87.3). Pts were randomised in 2 groups. Group 1: iodine therapy + lithium therapy 900 mg/die for 6 days; Group 2: iodine therapy alone. We also define 3 clusters of pts by TV. A:15-30 ml; B:31-40 ml; C: > 40 ml. The 131I activity (MBq) was calculated as follows: [4.44 (MBq) x 100/24 hours uptake (%)] x TV. All patients are evaluated for thyroid function and TV at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, since we postulate that major reduction in thyroid volume will occur 1 year after 131I therapy. Results: Up to now 16 pts were treated with 131I (mean activity: 512 MBq) and no side effects from 131I and lithium therapy were reported. Four out of 5 pts evaluated at 3 months (2 of group 1 and 3 of group 2) had a reduction in TV (mean value: 8.8 ml). Five out of 10 pts had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism at 1 week, likely as a consequence of thyroid tissue destruction. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest the safety and effectiveness of 131I treatment in NTMG. We expect to clarify the role of lithium administration in improving 131I efficacy. This therapy could have a future role in patients with NTMG that can't be submitted to surgery

19

Cross-section measurements for the formation of manganese-52 and its isolation with a non-hazardous eluent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With respect to the production of no-carrier-added {sup 52}Mn nuclear reactions on natural chromium were investigated. Cross sections of the reactions {sup nat}Cr(p,x){sup 48}V, {sup 48,49,51}Cr, {sup 52g,m}Mn were determined in the proton energy range of 7.6 to 45 MeV. Additionally, production yields of {sup 52g,m}Mn and {sup 51}Cr were measured in the energy range from 8.2 to 16.9 MeV and therefrom the calculated saturation thick target yields were obtained as (2.55 {+-} 0.31), (6.96 {+-} 0.57), and (1.53 {+-} 0.15)GBq/{mu}A, respectively. For in vivo applications like PET, low toxicity is critical and sufficient activity of a radiolabelled compounds mandatory. Thus, additional purification steps after separation of radionuclides and target materials have to be avoided. However, no isolation procedure has been reported in the literature so far where radiomanganese is directly obtained in a non-hazardous solution. Therefore a new separation procedure was developed utilizing the cation-exchange resin DOWEX 50W x 8 (H{sup +}-form). {sup 52g}Mn was quantitatively isolated from 'bulk' chromium after 3 to 4 h in non-hazardous 0.067 M ammonium citrate solution. Up to 99% of {sup 52g}Mn activity was harvested within 10 to 15 mL eluent solution with no measureable {sup 51}Cr impurities. (orig.)

Buchholz, M.; Spahn, I.; Scholten, B.; Coenen, H.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM-5: Nuklearchemie)

2013-10-01

20

The thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and its regulation in non-toxic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 35 patients with non-toxic goitre, surgically resected thyroid tissue was hydrolyzed with Pronase under anaerobic conditions in the presence of methylmercaptoimidazole. Total iodine, PBI, L-thyroxine (T3-RIA and T4 (D)) as well as triiodothyronine (T3-RIA) were determined in the tissue hydrolysates. The data obtained were compared with T4/T3 ratios in the serum, TRH test and thyroidal 131I uptake before operation. The total iodine, amounted to 112,6 +- 14.6 ?g/g tissue. The T4/T3 ratio was 11.37 +- 1.80. Using this procedure of tissue hydrolysis and RIA assays for iodothyronines, the yield for T4 and T3 is considerably higher than the one obtained with previous methods. As in animal experiments, evidence was given for human goitre that T3 is predominantly produced first in the case of decreased T4 production. Second in the case of iodine deficiency, and third in cases of increased TSH response after TRH. Patients with a large amount of iodine and T4 in their thyroids have a much smaller increase in serum TSH after TRH than do subjects with a much lower thyroidal T4 concentration. This occurs even through the thyroid hormone levels in serum in these groups are not different. No correlation between thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and serum T4/T3 ratio could be demonstrated even undsub> ratio could be demonstrated even under extreme conditions. This finding favors the assumption of a predominant extrathyroidal regulation for T4/T3 ratio in serum. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
21

Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

Cutbirth, J. Michael

2013-01-01

22

Analyses of Environmental Impacts of Non Hazardous Regional Landfills in Macedonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of potential environmental impacts for eight planned non-hazardous regional landfills in Macedonia. Waste quantities for each waste management region and landfill capacities are estimated. Expected leachate quantities are calculated using Water Balance Method. Analyses and comparison of the likely landfill leachate per capita are presented, demonstrating that higher rates of leachate are generated per capita in waste management regions with higher annual sums of rainfall. An assessment of the potential landfill impacts on the water environment taking into consideration local geology and hydrogeology conditions is presented. Some general measures for leachate treatment that are in compliance with the modern EU standards are indicated. The goal of the study is to facilitate a better understanding about the sustainable waste management practices in cases of landfilling of municipal solid waste.

Katerina Donevska

2013-12-01

23

Reduction in goiter size by 131I therapy in patients with non-toxic multinodular goiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective follow-up study of 131I treatment was performed in 10 females with non-toxic multinodular goiter. The median dose of 131I given was 20 mCi. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography. The median follow-up period was 26 months. Nine patients had a reduction of goiter size: thyroid volume decreased from 88±14.9 ml to 49±10.9 ml one year after 131I treatment. The relative decrease of goiter size was 48% after one year and 59% after two years. One patients did not respond and was referred for operation. Side effects were mild spontaneously resolving radiation thyroiditis in one patient and subclinical hypothyroidism in four patients. In conclusion, 131I treatment on non-toxic goiter is an effective treatment at the expense of post-radiation hypothyroidism. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

24

Effect of an acidic and readily-biodegradable non-hazardous industrial process waste on refuse decomposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-hazardous industrial process wastes are receiving increased interest from landfill owners, especially with respect to bioreactor operation. These wastes could benefit bioreactors as they represent sources of liquid, nutrients, and/or substrate as well as revenue. However, landfill operators should exercise caution in accepting these wastes, as some could have detrimental effects on refuse decomposition. In this research, the use of laboratory-scale tests to evaluate the effect of one such waste on refuse decomposition is demonstrated. The waste evaluated, referred to as burnt sugar, is an acidic byproduct of corn-based polylactic acid production and represents a source of readily-biodegradable carbon. Lactic acid was the primary constituent of the BS at 0.73 g/g and the COD was measured at 1230 mg COD/g. Testing protocols were adapted to address the specific concerns surrounding the material. Abiotic dissolution tests conducted at mesophilic temperatures indicated that the majority of the waste dissolved into leachate recirculated over a layer of the waste within several days. Abiotic mixing tests suggested that the waste would acidify refuse to pH 6.41 at a loading of 21.9 g/dry kg refuse. However, in biologically active tests, the refuse was able to convert loadings as high as 196.7 g/dry kg refuse to methane. As the loadings increased toward and beyond this level, pronounced detrimental effects to the refuse ecosystem were observed, including a decrease in pH, accumulation of volatile fatty acids and COD, and lag in methane production. The results suggested that actively decomposing refuse has the potential to attenuate relatively high loading of a rapidly degradable but acidic substrate. Nonetheless, caution in the implementation of a field program to accept rapidly biodegradable acidic wastes is critical. PMID:19954958

Sadri, Ahmad; Staley, Bryan F; Barlaz, Morton A; Xu, Fang; Hater, Gary R

2010-03-01

25

Barriers to Practice of Non-Hazardous Solid Waste Minimization by Industries in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Practice of waste minimization plays a significant role in sustainable development as the most acceptable method in the waste management hierarchy. This paper is a case study research on industrial non-hazardous wastes generated from different industrial activities in one of the major Malaysian industrial areas. This study is aimed at identifying the barriers of waste minimization practices in Malaysian industries. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods were applied in the study through the use of a structured questionnaire prepared on Likert scale and semi-structured interviews with respondents across thirty (30 factories. Data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using software and severity index tool. Findings reveal the barriers faced in practicing waste minimization by industries include the lack of time for separation of waste, absence of guidelines, regulations and limited accurate knowledge with severity index range of 62.5<=SI< 87.5, which were considered to be serious issues. Through the application of suitable educational and awareness programs for industrial stakeholders, an effective waste minimization practice can be achieved.

Shadi Kafi Mallak

2014-02-01

26

(WO/2004/104211) METHOD FOR DETECTING TOXIC AND NON-TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This invention is related to a method for detecting toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria. The method comprises that nucleic acid from a biological sample is brought into contact with an oligonucleotide designed to be specific for particular regions of the mcyE gene, the mcyE in combination with mcyD, and with an oligonucleotide designed to be specific for 16SrDNA, and the presence or absence of toxic cyanobacteria is detected by a suitable molecular biology method. The invention is related also ...

Sivonen, Kaarina; Rantala, Anne; Rouhianen, Leo; Fewer, David; Rajaniemi, Pirjo; Wilmotte, Annick; Boutte, Christophe; Grubisic, Stana; Balthasart, Pierre; Bellis, Gianluca; Rizzi, Ermano; Frosini, Andrea; Castiglioni, Bianca; Ventura, Stefano; Mugnai, Maria

2003-01-01

27

Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

28

A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The alarming rise in the obesity epidemic and growing concern for the pathologic consequences of the metabolic syndrome warrant great need for development of obesity-related pharmacotherapeutics. The search for such therapeutics is severely limited by the slow throughput of animal models of obesity. Amenable to placement into a 96 well plate, zebrafish larvae have emerged as one of the highest throughput vertebrate model organisms for performing small molecule screens. A method for visually identifying non-toxic molecular effectors of fat metabolism using a live transparent vertebrate was developed. Given that increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD via deletion of CD38 have been shown to prevent high fat diet induced obesity in mice in a SIRT-1 dependent fashion we explored the possibility of directly applying NAD to zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish larvae were incubated with daily refreshing of nile red containing media starting from a developmental stage of equivalent fat content among siblings (3 days post-fertilization, dpf and continuing with daily refreshing until 7 dpf. Results PPAR activators, beta-adrenergic agonists, SIRT-1 activators, and nicotinic acid treatment all caused predicted changes in fat, cholesterol, and gene expression consistent with a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fat metabolism signal transduction extending from man to zebrafish larvae. All changes in fat content were visually quantifiable in a relative fashion using live zebrafish larvae nile red fluorescence microscopy. Resveratrol treatment caused the greatest and most consistent loss of fat content. The resveratrol tetramer Vaticanol B caused loss of fat equivalent in potency to resveratrol alone. Significantly, the direct administration of NAD decreased fat content in zebrafish. Results from knockdown of a zebrafish G-PCR ortholog previously determined to decrease fat content in C. elegans support that future GPR142 antagonists may be effective non-toxic anti-obesity therapeutics. Conclusion Owing to the apparently high level of evolutionary conservation of signal transduction pathways regulating lipid metabolism, the zebrafish can be useful for identifying non-toxic small molecules or pharmacological target gene products for developing molecular therapeutics for treating clinical obesity. Our results support the promising potential in applying NAD or resveratrol where the underlying target protein likely involves Sirtuin family member proteins. Furthermore data supports future studies focused on determining whether there is a high concentration window for resveratrol that is effective and non-toxic in high fat obesity murine models.

Woollett Laura A

2008-08-01

29

Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants as well as the perspectives for future research directions.

Jean-Philippe Maréchal

2009-10-01

30

Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates on K. mikimotoi were substantially reduced in both copepods while their clearances of G. instiatum remained unaltered, suggesting active prey selection. Video observations of individual prey capture and feeding events showed prey rejection frequencies (caught and then released cells) that did not differ between mixed and mono-specific diets. This suggests that the selection between prey cells occurs prior to capture and that it is based on remote characterization of the cells.

Schultz, Mette; KiØrboe, Thomas

2009-01-01

31

Potent inhibition of copper corrosion in neutral chloride media by novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Two eco-friendly thiadiazole derivatives show high inhibition efficiency on copper. •Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. •Surface layers were also characterized by SEM coupled with EDX analysis. •Raman spectra reveals inhibitors suppress corrosion via formation of complex. •Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were calculated. -- Abstract: Inhibiting effect of two novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives on copper were investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution using weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Presence of inhibitors and increase of concentration greatly decrease corrosion rate, parameters determined from polarization curves and EIS plots show that inhibitors decrease both cathodic and anodic current densities, suppressing charge transfer process by adsorption on copper surface. Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. Surface layers were characterized by SEM coupled with EDX. Raman micro-spectroscopy reveals that inhibitor molecules suppress copper corrosion via formation of thiadiazole–Cu complex. Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were also evaluated

32

Therapy for non-toxic multinodular goiter. Radioiodine therapy as attractive alternative to surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need for therapy for nodular goiter results from the growth of thyroid nodules over decades and from the possibility of tracheal compression and worsening of respiratory function. Given the high prevalence of non-toxic goiter, the epidemiologically low incidence of clinically apparent thyroid cancer justifies non-surgical strategies. Randomised studies have shown that levothyroxine offers limited therapeutic effects and is inferior to radioiodine therapy regarding goiter shrinkage. When indication for a definitive therapy is given, the choice between resection and radioiodine therapy should consider volume of goiter, severity of clinical symptoms, thyroid uptake, patient's age, co-morbidity, previous resection of goiter, patient's profession and patient's wish. Even in large goiters between 100 and 300 ml radioiodine therapy showed consistent results with goiter size reduction from 35-40% one year and 40-60% two years after radioiodine therapy. Thyroid hormones to prevent recurrence of goiter are not necessary. Recurrent goiters were seldom observed after radioiodine therapy and resulted from initially very large goiters or uptake in dominante nodules or from low 131I activities. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) offers the opportunity to enhance the effect of radioiodine therapy. Observational studies have shown that rhTSH increases low 131I uptake in case of high alimentary iodine-supply by the factor 4, causes a more homogenous 131I distribution within the goiter and improves goiter reduction. A phase I study for dose finding is running in the USA. Conclusion: radioiodine therapy for shrinkage of large non-toxic goiter should not be restricted to elderly patients, or to patients with co-morbidity or high operative risk, but is an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with special professions (singer, teacher, speaker) or with the wish for a non-invasive treatment modality. (orig.)

33

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

34

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements

35

XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B {yields} X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V, E-mail: mironkle@rambler.ru [Institute of Electron Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Universitetska 21, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

2011-06-29

36

Non-Toxic, Low-Freezing, Drop-In Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-toxic, non-flammable, low-freezing heat transfer fluid is being developed for drop-in replacement within current and future heat transfer loops currently using water or alcohol-based coolants. Numerous water-soluble compounds were down-selected and screened for toxicological, physical, chemical, compatibility, thermodynamic, and heat transfer properties. Two fluids were developed, one with a freezing point near 0 C, and one with a suppressed freezing point. Both fluids contain an additive package to improve material compatibility and microbial resistance. The optimized sub-zero solution had a freezing point of 30 C, and a freezing volume expansion of 10-percent of water. The toxicity of the solutions was experimentally determined as LD(50) greater than 5g/kg. The solutions were found to produce minimal corrosion with materials identified by NASA as potentially existing in secondary cooling loops. Thermal/hydrodynamic performance exceeded that of glycol-based fluids with comparable freezing points for temperatures Tf greater than 20 C. The additive package was demonstrated as a buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption, and to prevent microbial growth. The optimized solutions were determined to have physically/chemically stable shelf lives for freeze/thaw cycles and longterm test loop tests.

Cutbirth, J. Michael

2012-01-01

37

A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 1014 cm-3) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production.

Major, J. D.; Treharne, R. E.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

2014-07-01

38

Prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in regularly menstruating women with non-toxic goitre or autoimmune thyroid disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The so called “big-big” prolactin (Prl, also known as macroprolactin is formed by Prl-immunoglobulin (Prl-IgG complexes and may cause elevation of serum Prl concentrations measured by standard assays, potentially leading to unnecessary investigations and/or treatment. In our study, we have endeavoured to assess the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in euthyroid, regularly menstruating women with thyroid disease, as well as to assess whether autoimmune thyroid disease may result in an increased prevalence of macroprolactinaemia. Material and methods We measured serum Prl in 182 regularly menstruating women aged 32.7?±?7.5 years (mean?±?SD, range 17–46 years who attended endocrine clinic either for investigation of non-toxic goitre (n?=?86, age 33.2?±?7.8 years or with autoimmune thyroid disease (n?=?96, age 32.3?±?7.2 years. Autoimmune thyroid disease was defined as raised titre of at least one anti-thyroid antibody [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg and/or anti-TSH-receptor (anti-TSH-R antibodies]. All women were clinically and biochemically euthyroid, either without or on treatment with L-thyroxine. In those with raised Prl (i.e., above 530 mIU/l we ruled out the presence of macroprolactinaemia by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation method. Results There was no significant age difference between women with and without autoimmune thyroid disease (p?=?0.84. Raised Prl concentrations were found in 10 women with thyroid disease (5.5%, and of those a significant macroprolactinaemia (i.e., reduction of Prl concentrations of more than 60% after PEG precipitation was found in 9 subjects (4.94%. There were no differences in the prevalence of macroprolactinaemia between women with autoimmune thyroid disease (4 out of 96, and without autoimmune thyroid disease (5 out of 86, p?=?0.75. Conclusions Approximately one out of twenty women with regular menses is likely to have raised serum Prl that is usually caused by the presence of macroprolactinaemia. Though structure of macroprolactin involves Prl-IgG complexes, there is no evidence that autoimmune thyroid disease is associated with raised prevalence of macroprolactinaemia.

Lewandowski Krzysztof C

2012-12-01

39

Separation of non-hazardous, non-radioactive components from ICPP calcine via chlorination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pyrochemical treatment method for separating non-radioactive from radioactive components in solid granular waste accumulated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was investigated. The goal of this study was to obtain kinetic and chemical separation data on the reaction products of the chlorination of the solid waste, known as calcine. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were completed to verify that a separation of radioactive and non-radioactive calcine components was possible. Bench-scale chlorination experiments were completed subsequently in a variety of reactor configurations including: a fixed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed around and not through the particle bed), a packed/fluidized-bed reactor, and a packed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed through the particle bed). Chemical analysis of the reaction products generated during the chlorination experiments verified the predictions made by the equilibrium calculations. An empirical first-order kinetic rate expression was developed for each of the reactor configurations. 20 refs., 16 figs., 21 tabs.

Nelson, L.O.

1995-05-01

40

Separation of non-hazardous, non-radioactive components from ICPP calcine via chlorination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pyrochemical treatment method for separating non-radioactive from radioactive components in solid granular waste accumulated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was investigated. The goal of this study was to obtain kinetic and chemical separation data on the reaction products of the chlorination of the solid waste, known as calcine. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were completed to verify that a separation of radioactive and non-radioactive calcine components was possible. Bench-scale chlorination experiments were completed subsequently in a variety of reactor configurations including: a fixed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed around and not through the particle bed), a packed/fluidized-bed reactor, and a packed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed through the particle bed). Chemical analysis of the reaction products generated during the chlorination experiments verified the predictions made by the equilibrium calculations. An empirical first-order kinetic rate expression was developed for each of the reactor configurations. 20 refs., 16 figs., 21 tabs

 
 
 
 
41

Pirenzepine affects scleral metabolic changes in myopia through a non-toxic mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whilst the precise mechanism regulating ocular growth is unknown, it has been shown that various pharmacological agents, including the muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine, are effective at preventing the development of myopia. A recent study, which demonstrated that muscarinic antagonists reduce the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and DNA in chick sclera in vitro, led to the suggestion that such drugs may act directly on the sclera, possibly through a toxic mechanism. Accepted markers of scleral metabolism and cell viability were used in conjunction with a non-invasive, physiological method of ocular growth regulation to determine whether the selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine inhibits the development of myopia via toxicity to the sclera. Chicks were monocularly deprived (MD) of pattern vision and given daily intravitreal injections of either pirenzepine (700 microg) or saline vehicle into the deprived eye over 5 days. Unoccluded animals also received intravitreal injections of either pirenzepine or saline into one eye (n=6, all groups). The contralateral eye of all animals was left untreated for comparison. Optical and ocular biometric measures were collected on the final experimental day. Following in vivo delivery of [(35)S] labelled sulphate, levels of sulphate incorporation into scleral glycosaminoglycans were measured in proteinase K digests following selective precipitation with alcian blue dye. The DNA content was also assessed through luminescence spectrometry after binding to Hoechst 33258 dye. To allow comparison with an accepted non-invasive, physiological method of ocular growth regulation, myopia was prevented in additional groups of MD animals by allowing 3hr of unoccluded vision each day, over 5 days, before levels of sulphate incorporation were measured. Scleral DNA content, a marker of cell viability, was not significantly altered between treated and control eyes in any injected group. Relative levels of sulphate incorporation (% difference between treated and contralateral control eyes) were significantly lower in the cartilaginous sclera of pirenzepine-MD animals, compared to saline-MD controls (+35.9 +/- 10.1% vs +121.2 +/- 28.6%, Psulphate incorporation in the cartilaginous sclera between the two groups (+87.2 +/- 33.1% vs +111.0 +/- 14.4%, P=0.53). No significant change was found in the levels of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the fibrous sclera of any pirenzepine treated group, when compared to the appropriate saline control. Relative patterns of sulphate incorporation, between treatment and control groups, were essentially identical at both time points examined, regardless of whether myopia was prevented through pirenzepine injection or periods of unoccluded vision. The present study shows that, at a dose of pirenzepine sufficient to prevent experimentally-induced axial myopia, glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the cartilaginous sclera was significantly reduced for a transient period following the injection. These pirenzepine-induced reductions in glycosaminoglycan synthesis were not caused by direct drug toxicity to scleral cells as these changes were reversible and no significant reduction in DNA content was observed in pirenzepine treated eyes. Similar patterns of scleral glycosaminoglycan synthesis changes were found following the provision of brief periods of unoccluded vision further demonstrating that pirenzepine is effective in myopia prevention via a non-toxic mechanism. Consequently, the prevention of myopia development in chicks, with either pirenzepine or brief periods of unoccluded vision, is associated with the transient modulation of scleral glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the cartilaginous sclera. PMID:11878823

Truong, Hue-Trung; Cottriall, Charles L; Gentle, Alex; McBrien, Neville A

2002-01-01

42

A non-toxic ligand for voxel-based MRI analysis of plaques in AD transgenic mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Amyloid plaques are a characteristic feature in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A novel non-toxic contrast agent is presented, Gd-DTPA-K6A?1–30, which is homologous to A?, and allows plaque detection in vivo. ?MRI was performed on AD model mice and controls prior to and following intra-carotid injection with Gd-DTPA-K6A?1–30 in mannitol solution, to transiently open the blood brain barrier. A gradient echo T2*-weighted sequence was used to provide 100 ?m isotropic resolution with imaging...

Sigurdsson, Einar M.; Wadghiri, Youssef Z.; Mosconi, Lisa; Blind, Jeffrey A.; Knudsen, Elin; Asuni, Ayodeji; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Tsui, Wai H.; Li, Yongsheng; Sadowski, Martin; Turnbull, Daniel H.; Leon, Mony J.; Wisniewski, Thomas

2008-01-01

43

The amino-acid sequence of two non-toxic mutants of diphtheria toxin: CRM45 and CRM197.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The amino-acid sequences of two diphtheria toxin-related, non-toxic proteins, CRM45 and CRM197 , were deduced from the complete sequence of their genes: tox 45 and tox 197. CRM45 lacks the last 149 C-terminal amino-acid residues, but is otherwise identical to diphtheria toxin: a single C----T transition introduces an "ochre" (TAA) termination signal in tox 45, after the codon for threonine-386. A single G----A transition was also found in tox 197, leading to the substitution of glycine-52, pr...

Giannini, G.; Rappuoli, R.; Ratti, G.

1984-01-01

44

Naphthoquinone-mediated inhibition of lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B/p300, basis for non-toxic inhibitor synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxynaphthoquinone-based inhibitors of the lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B (p300), such as plumbagin, are relatively toxic. Here, we report that free thiol reactivity and redox cycling properties greatly contribute to the toxicity of plumbagin. A reactive 3rd position in the naphthoquinone derivatives is essential for thiol reactivity and enhances redox cycling. Using this clue, we synthesized PTK1, harboring a methyl substitution at the 3rd position of plumbagin. This molecule loses its thiol reactivity completely and its redox cycling ability to a lesser extent. Mechanistically, non-competitive, reversible binding of the inhibitor to the lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) domain of p300 is largely responsible for the acetyltransferase inhibition. Remarkably, the modified inhibitor PTK1 was a nearly non-toxic inhibitor of p300. The present report elucidates the mechanism of acetyltransferase activity inhibition by 1,4-naphthoquinones, which involves redox cycling and nucleophilic adduct formation, and it suggests possible routes of synthesis of the non-toxic inhibitor. PMID:24469461

Vasudevarao, Mohankrishna Dalvoy; Mizar, Pushpak; Kumari, Sujata; Mandal, Somnath; Siddhanta, Soumik; Swamy, Mahadeva M M; Kaypee, Stephanie; Kodihalli, Ravindra C; Banerjee, Amrita; Naryana, Chandrabhas; Dasgupta, Dipak; Kundu, Tapas K

2014-03-14

45

A non-toxic ligand for voxel-based MRI analysis of plaques in AD transgenic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amyloid plaques are a characteristic feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A novel non-toxic contrast agent is presented, Gd-DTPA-K6Abeta1-30, which is homologous to Abeta, and allows plaque detection in vivo. microMRI was performed on AD model mice and controls prior to and following intracarotid injection with Gd-DTPA-K6Abeta1-30 in mannitol solution, to transiently open the blood-brain barrier. A gradient echo T2(*)-weighted sequence was used to provide 100 microm isotropic resolution with imaging times of 115 min. The scans were examined with voxel-based analysis (VBA) using statistical parametric mapping, for un-biased quantitative comparison of ligand-injected mice and controls. The results indicate that: (1) Gd-DTPA-K6Abeta1-30 is an effective, non-toxic, ligand for plaque detection when combined with VBA (piron deposition. (3) Smaller, earlier plaques require contrast ligand for MRI visualization. Our ligand when combined with VBA may be useful for following therapeutic approaches targeting amyloid in transgenic mouse models. PMID:17291630

Sigurdsson, Einar M; Wadghiri, Youssef Z; Mosconi, Lisa; Blind, Jeffrey A; Knudsen, Elin; Asuni, Ayodeji; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Tsui, Wai H; Li, Yongsheng; Sadowski, Martin; Turnbull, Daniel H; de Leon, Mony J; Wisniewski, Thomas

2008-06-01

46

Gold leaching by organic base polythionates: new non-toxic and secure technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article present a review on own experimental and some published data which are related with the gold leaching. It is well-known that the most common and usual process of the leaching with cyanide can be dangerous, needs a great water consumption, and additional costs for remediation of the poisoned and toxic sites. The experimental data described production of poythionates which are not toxic but perspective for the prosperous gold leaching. The paper dedicated to the safe gold leaching with thiosulfates and organic salts of polythionic acids (organic base polythionates). The method of production of these polythionates based on the Smolyaninov reaction is described in stages and in details for the first time. Possible application of the polythionates application in the gold leaching is discussed and its advantages are compared with the gold leaching by cyanation. PMID:24790825

Smolyaninov, Vladislav; Shekhvatova, Galina; Vainshtein, Mikhail

2014-01-01

47

Synthesis of Boron Nanorods by Smelting Non-Toxic Boron Oxide in Liquid Lithium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In contrast to the conventional bottom-up syntheses of boron nanostructures, a unique top-down and greener synthetic strategy is presented for boron nanorods involving nontoxic boron oxide powders ultrasonically smelted in liquid lithium under milder conditions. The product was thoroughly characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic emission spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and, UV-Vis spectroscopy, including structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM.

Narayan S. Hosmane

2010-01-01

48

Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (approx1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GW{sub peek}, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET. As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4 1/2 months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies. (Author)

Soendergaard, R.

2012-07-01

49

Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GWpeek, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET.As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4½ months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies.

SØndergaard, Roar

2012-01-01

50

Polymerization of Lactic Acid by MAGHNITE-H+ a Non-Toxic Montmorillonite Clay Catalyst  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as poly(lactic acid), is particularly important for constructing medical devices, controlled drug release matrix, including scaffolds and sutures, and has attracted growing interest in the biomedical field. Here, we report a novel approach to preparing poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PDLA) as a biodegradable polymer. We investigated in detail the reaction conditions for the simple direct polycondensation of D, L-lactic acid, including the reaction times, temperatures, and catalyst. The molecular weight of synthesized PDLA is dependent on both the reaction temperature, amount of catalyst and time. The optimum reaction condition to obtain PDLA by direct polycondensation using Maghnite-H+[1,2], a proton exchanged Montmorillonite clay, as catalyst was thus determined to be 120 °C, 5% amount of Maghnite-H+ for 28 h with a molecular weight of 7970. The method for PDLA synthesis established here will facilitate production of PDLA of various molecular weights, which may have a potential utility as biomaterials.

Harrane, A.; Belaouedj, M. A.; Meghabar, R.; Belbachir, M.

2008-08-01

51

Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au(25) nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au(25) clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au(+) ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of approximately 5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f(7/2) approximately 83.97 eV and Au 4f(5/2) approximately 87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size approximately 1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size approximately 8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at approximately 674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 microg ml(-1). Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR(+ve) oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au(25) clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer. PMID:20023317

Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

2010-02-01

52

Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au25 clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au+ ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of ~5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f7/2~83.97 eV and Au 4f5/2~87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size ~1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size ~8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at ~674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 µg ml-1. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR+ve oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au25 clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

2010-02-01

53

Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au{sub 25} nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au{sub 25} clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au{sup +} ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of {approx}5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f{sub 7/2{approx}}83.97 eV and Au 4f{sub 5/2{approx}}87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size {approx}1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size {approx}8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at {approx}674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR{sup +ve} oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au{sub 25} clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor [Amrita Centre for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Cochin, 682 041 (India); Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: manzoor_nanomed@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Technology, DST unit on Nanoscience, Chennai, 600 036 (India)

2010-02-05

54

Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au25 clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au+ ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of ?5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f7/2?83.97 eV and Au 4f5/2?87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size ?1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size ?8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at ?674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-8to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 ?g ml-1. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR+ve oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au25 clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

55

Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O-2 evolution and CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet MS in cells acclimated to low (7.9) and high pH (8.4 or 8.9). Species-specific differences in the mode of carbon acquisition were found. While extracellular carbonic anhydrase (eCA) activities increased with pH in P. multiseries and S. stellaris, N. navis-varingica exhibited low eCA activities independent of pH. Half-saturation concentrations (K-1/2) for photosynthetic O-2 evolution, which were highest in S. stellaris and lowest in P. multiseries, generally decreased with increasing pH. In terms of carbon source, all species took up both CO2 and HCO3-. K-1/2 values for inorganic carbon uptake decreased with increasing pH in two species, while in N. navis-varingica apparent affinities did not change. While the contribution of HCO3- to net fixation was more than 85% in S. stellaris, it was about 55% in P. multiseries and only approximately 30% in N. navis-varingica. The intracellular content of DA increased in P. multiseries and N. navis-varingica with increasing pH. Based on our data, we propose a novel role for eCA acting as C-i-recycling mechanism. With regard to pH-dependence of growth, the 'HCO3- user' S. stellaris was as sensitive as the 'CO2 user' N. navis-varingica. The suggested relationship between DA and carbon acquisition/C-i limitation could not be confirmed.

Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina

2008-01-01

56

Stimulation of wild-type, F508del- and G551D-CFTR chloride channels by non toxic modified pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine derivatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis is a major inherited disorder involving abnormalities of fluid and electrolyte transport in a number of different organs due to abnormal function of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR protein. We recently identified a family of CFTR activators, which contains the hit: RP107 [7-n-butyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl[5H]-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine]. Here, we further evaluated the effect of the chemical modifications of the RP107-OH radical on CFTR activation. The replacement of the OH radical by a fluorine atom at position 2 (RP193 or 4 (RP185 significantly decreased the toxicity of the compounds without altering the ability to activate CFTR, especially for RP193. The non-toxic compound RP193 has no effect on cAMP production but stimulates the channel activity of wild-type CFTR in stably transfected CHO cells, in human bronchial epithelial NuLi-1 cells and in primary culture of human bronchial epithelial cells. Whole cell and single patch clamp recordings showed that RP193 induced a linear, time and voltage-independent current, which was fully inhibited by two different and selective CFTR inhibitors (CFTRinh-172 and GPinh-5a. Moreover, RP193 stimulates CFTR in temperature-rescued CuFi-1 (F508del/F508del human bronchial epithelial cells and in CHO cells stably expressing G551D-CFTR. This study shows that it is feasible to reduce cytotoxicity of chemical compounds without affecting their potency to activate CFTR and to rescue the class 2 F508del-CFTR and class 3 G551D-CFTR CF mutant activities.

LucDannhoffer

2011-08-01

57

Femtomolar level sensing of inorganic arsenic(iii) in water and in living-systems using a non-toxic fluorescent probe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly selective femtomolar level sensing of inorganic arsenic(iii) as arsenious acid has been accomplished in water medium and in living-systems (on pollen grains of Tecoma stans; Candida albicans cells (IMTECH No. 3018) and Peperomia pellucida stem section) using a non-toxic fluorescent probe of a Cu(ii)-complex. PMID:25347547

Dey, Biswajit; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Hauli, Ipsit; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kanti; Fleck, Michel

2014-11-01

58

Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya been oil were irradiated by cobalt-60 gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 years after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures, thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 and 260 nm for films, 240 nm for liquid samples and also by following of -CH2-Cl band at 744 cm-i of IR spectra. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also show the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 years after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration have been also confirm spectrophotometry results and finally the most effective system has been chosen to compare the behaviour of Iranian PVC and Solvay PVC until 6 months after irradiation

59

Selection of Potent Non-Toxic Inhibitory Sequences from a Randomized HIV-1 Specific Lentiviral Short Hairpin RNA Library  

Science.gov (United States)

RNA interference (RNAi) has been considered as an efficient therapeutic approach against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, to establish a durable inhibition of HIV-1, multiple effective short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) need to be stably expressed to prevent the emergence of viral escape variants. In this study, we engineered a randomized lentiviral H1-promoter driven shRNA-library against the viral genome. Potent HIV-1 specific shRNAs were selected by ganciclovir treatment of cell lines stably expressing the cDNA of Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) fused to HIV-1 nucleotide sequences. More than 50% of 200 selected shRNAs inhibited an HIV-1 based luciferase reporter assay by more than 70%. Stable expression of some of those shRNAs in an HIV-1 permissive HeLa cell line inhibited infection of wild-type HIV-1 by more than 90%. The combination of a randomized shRNA-library directed against HIV-1 with a live cell selection procedure yielded non-toxic and highly efficient HIV-1 specific inhibitory sequences that could serve as valuable candidates for gene therapy studies. PMID:20949027

Pongratz, Carola; Yazdanpanah, Benjamin; Kashkar, Hamid; Lehmann, Maik J.; Krausslich, Hans-Georg; Kronke, Martin

2010-01-01

60

Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses  

Science.gov (United States)

Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like; calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya bean oil, were irradiated by 60-cobalt gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 yr after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 nm. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also shows the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 yr after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration has also confirmed the spectrophotometry results. Finally the most effective stabilizing system has been added to the Iranian PVC and its behaviour has been compared with the Solvay PVC for 6 months period after irradiation.

Naimian, F.

1999-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like; calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya bean oil, were irradiated by 60-cobalt gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 yr after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 nm. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also shows the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 yr after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration has also confirmed the spectrophotometry results. Finally the most effective stabilizing system has been added to the Iranian PVC and its behaviour has been compared with the Solvay PVC for 6 months period after irradiation

62

Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

2003-09-01

63

Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

64

Start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism in toxic and non-toxic accessions of Jatropha curcas L. and development of a codominant SCAR marker.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty six start codon targeted (SCoT) primers were used for characterization of 48 accessions of Jatropha curcas from different countries and include material with genetic variation for levels of phorbol esters, yield, seed oil content, test weight and plant type. SCoT analysis revealed high polymorphism and 74% of the primers generated polymorphic profiles. The SCoT6 primer discriminated edible and toxic accessions in a single reaction while the SCoT26 and 27 primers produced amplicons specific to toxic and non-toxic accessions, respectively. The polymorphic SCoT markers obtained with these three primers were converted to sequence characterized amplicon regions (SCARs) which resulted in codominant SCARs with SCoT6 primer and dominant SCARs with SCoT 26 and 27 primers. The codominant nature of SCoT6 primer and the resultant SCAR6 primer were validated on intraspecific hybrids derived from a cross between non-toxic and toxic accessions. The accession JP38 from Madagascar was found to be distinct and showed accession specific bands with 9 different SCoT primers. Sequence analysis of polymorphic amplicons obtained with SCoT6 primer showed a 65 bp deletion in accessions with low/zero phorbol esters. Diversity analysis separated the toxic and non-toxic accessions into two groups and the accessions JP29 and JP48 from Mexico formed a third cluster. PMID:23602106

Mulpuri, Sujatha; Muddanuru, Tarakeswari; Francis, George

2013-06-01

65

Development and design of a high pressure carbon dioxide system for the separation of hazardous contaminants from non-hazardous debris  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Air Force (USAF) Memorandum of Understanding, a system is being designed that will use high pressure carbon dioxide for the separation of oils, greases, and solvents from non-hazardous solid waste. The contaminants are dissolved into the high pressure carbon dioxide and precipitated out upon depressurization. The carbon dioxide solvent can then be recycled for continued use. Excellent extraction capability for common manufacturing oils, greases, and solvents has been measured. It has been observed that extraction performance follows the dilution model if a constant flow system is used. The solvents tested are extremely soluble and have been extracted to 100% under both liquid and mild supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. These data are being used to design a 200 liter extraction system

66

GIS-modelling the distribution of Rattus norvegicus in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats Rattus norvegicus in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundance. The first procedure has been previously applied, while the second has never been used until now. In this study, we valued the effectiveness of the interpolating procedure by modelling the distribution of brown rats in a large urban area of northern Italy. During spring and autumn 2004, we positioned non toxic baits in 119 spots distributed over the whole urbanized area of the city and we generated maps of rat presence/absence for the two seasons. Brown rats were irregularly scattered over the city and concentrated mainly around rivers and ditches, as well in the historic centre, particularly where buildings suffer poor maintenance. Seasonal variation of rat occurrence was also detected. Brown rat occurrence may be reliably predicted by the interpolation procedure, which appeared to be a more efficient approach to rat distribution modelling compared with landscape-based procedures. Riassunto Modelli GIS della distribuzione di Rattus norvegicus in ambiente urbano con utilizzo di esche non tossiche. I programmi GIS rappresentano un utile strumento per analizzare e modellizzare la distribuzione del ratto delle chiaviche Rattus norvegicus nelle aree urbane, fornendo mappe in grado di predire la presenza di questa specie su vaste aree. A questo scopo possono essere impiegate due procedure alternative: i modelli basati sul paesaggio, che utilizzano le caratteristiche ambientali desunte da mappe tematiche o immagini satellitari oppure ii tecniche di interpolazione che convertono insiemi di punti di presenza accertata in stime di abbondanza. Il primo approccio è già stato utilizzato, mentre il secondo non ci risulta essere ancora stato applicato nella gestione del ratto delle chiaviche. In questo studio è valutata l’efficacia del metodo di interpolazione nel predire la distribuzione di questo roditore in una grande area urbana del nord Italia. Nel corso della primavera e dell’autunno 2004, sono state posizionate esche non tossiche in 119 punti distribuiti sull’intera area urbana. I dati così raccolti sono stati utilizzati per generare mappe di presenza/assenza della specie nelle due stagioni di indagine. I ratti delle chiaviche sono risultati irregolarmente distribuiti in città e concentrati principalmente lungo i corsi d’acqua e nel centro storico soprattutto in presenza di edifici soggetti a scarsa manutenzione. Nel corso dell’indagine sono emerse differenze nella distribuzione fra le due stagioni di ricerca. La presenza del ratto delle chiaviche può effettivamente essere predetta mediante il processo di interpolazione: questo metodo risulta essere più efficiente rispetto a quello basato sull’analisi delle sole caratteristiche ambientali.

Roberto Sacchi

2008-07-01

67

Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter  

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Full Text Available Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro. Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 0.2 ?IU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 1.8 ?IU/ml

N.P. Viantri

2012-04-01

68

A method for the replacement of 137Cs with 40K as a non-hazardous radioactive tracer for open-source decommissioning research applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential of 40K as a radioactive tracer analogue of 137Cs in ion exchange experiments is reported. Solutions of varying concentrations of potassium chloride (KCl) have been monitored radiometrically in a sodium iodide well-counter to determine the activity-concentration relationship. Ion exchange reactions using an exemplar ion exchange resin, KCl and non-radioactive caesium chloride (CsCl) solutions have been studied radiometrically. The adsorbed amounts of potassium and caesium are observed, inferred from displaced K+ ions, to be consistent with the total exchange capacity of the resin. Adsorption isotherm models have been applied to the experimental data, with the Freundlich isotherm observed to fit the data with the highest degree of consistency. The reported results indicate that decontamination techniques involving hazardous isotopes of anthropogenic origin such as 137Cs can be developed, evaluated and optimised by substituting a chemically and physically similar non-hazardous radioactive isotope, in this case 40K. This represents a means by which innovative decontamination techniques and regimes might be identified without the need to use 137Cs and thus avoids additional generation of radioactive wastes. (author)

69

Non-hazardous organic solvents in the paraffin-embedding technique: a rational approach. Aliphatic monoesters for clearing and dewaxing: butyldecanoate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to substitute hazardous compounds, used in tissue processing and dewaxing, with compounds having lowest possible toxicity and inflammability without impairing the morphology, staining characteristics, or diagnostic value of the tissue sections. All aromatic compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. alkanes, isoparaffins, petroleum distillates, etc.) were rejected, primarily due to their high vapour pressure. Based on a theoretical study of compounds used for clearing, a number of non-hazardous potential substitutes were chosen. The following experimental study narrowed the group to three unbranched, saturated, aliphatic monoesters containing 12-14 carbon atoms. On large-scale testing of these compounds, we found butyldecanoate to be the closest to an ideal substitute for aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the histology department: the section quality is at least equal to that obtained with xylene. For dewaxing, it is used at 30-35 degrees C. Butyldecanoate is not suitable as a pre-mounting agent. In practice, this is no problem as modern mounting agents permit mounting of coverslips directly from ethanol without impairing the appearance of the section in the microscope. Butyldecanoate has only a slight odour, insignificant vapour pressure (< 0.01 kPa at 20 degrees C), and does not present a fire hazard (flash point 134 degrees C). The introduction of this compound in the laboratory poses no health hazard, and the substance is biodegradable. PMID:7648401

Lyon, H; Holm, I; Prentø, P; Balslev, E

1995-04-01

70

Non-hazardous organic solvents in the paraffin-embedding technique: a rational approach. Aliphatic monoesters for clearing and dewaxing: butyldecanoate.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to substitute hazardous compounds, used in tissue processing and dewaxing, with compounds having lowest possible toxicity and inflammability without impairing the morphology, staining characteristics, or diagnostic value of the tissue sections. All aromatic compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. alkanes, isoparaffins, petroleum distillates, etc.) were rejected, primarily due to their high vapour pressure. Based on a theoretical study of compounds used for clearing, a number of non-hazardous potential substitutes were chosen. The following experimental study narrowed the group to three unbranched, saturated, aliphatic monoesters containing 12-14 carbon atoms. On large-scale testing of these compounds, we found butyldecanoate to be the closest to an ideal substitute for aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the histology department: the section quality is at least equal to that obtained with xylene. For dewaxing, it is used at 30-35 degrees C. Butyldecanoate is not suitable as a pre-mounting agent. In practice, this is no problem as modern mounting agents permit mounting of coverslips directly from ethanol without impairing the appearance of the section in the microscope. Butyldecanoate has only a slight odour, insignificant vapour pressure (< 0.01 kPa at 20 degrees C), and does not present a fire hazard (flash point 134 degrees C). The introduction of this compound in the laboratory poses no health hazard, and the substance is biodegradable.

Lyon, H; Holm, I

1995-01-01

71

Simple and non-toxic fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)-patterned polymer surface for the formation of cell patterns  

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In this study, a facile and non-toxic method for the formation of cell-adhesive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) patterns on the surface of a non-biological polystyrene substrate (NPS) is developed to control cellular micro-organization. PVA thin films spin-coated onto the NPS are selectively irradiated with 150 keV H+ ions through a pattern mask and developed with deionized water to form negative-type PVA patterns. Well-defined stripe patterns of PVA with a width of 100 ?m are created on the NPS at a higher fluence than 5 × 1015 ions/cm2, and their surface chemical compositions are changed by ion irradiation without any significant morphological change. Based on the results of the protein adsorption test and in vitro cell culture, cancer cells are preferentially adhered and proliferated onto the more hydrophilic PVA regions of the PVA-patterned NPS, resulting in well-defined cell patterns.

Hwang, In-Tae; Jin, Yu-Ran; Oh, Min-Suk; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak

2014-10-01

72

Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric ?- amyloid (A? to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar A? is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible A? oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of A? aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh, was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. Results K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against A?42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-?-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic A? oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different A? conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. Conclusion K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

Sharoar Md

2012-12-01

73

Bacillus subtilis natto: a non-toxic source of poly-?-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of ?-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of this study was to test the effect of ?-PGA (produced by B. subtilis natto ATCC 15245) on the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying and to test the toxigenic potential of B. subtilis natto. 10% ?-PGA was found to protect Lactobacillus paracasei significantly better than 10% sucrose, whereas it showed comparable cryoprotectant activity to sucrose when it was used to protect Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum. Although ?-PGA is known to be non-toxic, it is crucial to ascertain the toxigenic potential of its source, B. subtilis natto. Presence of six genes that are known to encode for toxins were investigated: three component hemolysin (hbl D/A), three component non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheB), B. cereus enterotoxin T (bceT), enterotoxin FM (entFM), sphingomyelinase (sph) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase (piplc). From our investigations, none of these six genes were present in B. subtilis natto. Moreover, haemolytic and lecithinase activities were found to be absent. Our work contributes a biodegradable polymer from a non-toxic source for the cryoprotection of probiotic bacteria, thus improving their survival during the manufacturing process. PMID:23829836

Bhat, Aditya R; Irorere, Victor U; Bartlett, Terry; Hill, David; Kedia, Gopal; Morris, Mark R; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Radecka, Iza

2013-01-01

74

Synthesis of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone -co- methyl methacrylate by Maghnite-H+ a non-toxic catalyst  

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Full Text Available In the present work poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate copolymers were prepared successfully and cleanly by a one step process via cationic copolymerization of  N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP with methyl methacrylate (MMA, in heterogeneous phase using “Maghnite-H+” (Mag-H+ as catalyst in bulk, Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H+. Temperature is varied between 20 and 80 °C. The effects of reaction temperature, amount of Mag-H+ on the yield and the intrinsic viscosity (? were investigated. A typical reaction product of poly (NVP-co- MMA was analyzed by infra red spectroscopy (FTIR and 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy as well as by viscosimetry.

Mohamed Bennada

2014-07-01

75

Phototransformations of non-toxic antioxidants, the derivatives of 1,2-dihydroquinolines, in homogeneous and micellar solutions  

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Full Text Available Reactions of transient species photogenerated from 6-R-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinolines (TMDQ are very sensitive to medium variation. In anhydrous organic solvents, aminyl radicals were generated. They decay in the reaction of dimerization with the second-order rate constant decreasing in a row heptane>benzene>2-propanol. When passing from organic solvents to water, methanol, and water-alcohol solutions, the kinetics and the direction of the reaction crucially change. As a result of the photolysis, the product of the addition of a solvent to the double bond of heterocycle, 4-hydroxy- or 4-methoxy-6-R-2,2,4- tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is formed in water and methanol, respectively. The transformation is a complex reaction, and the formation of excited transient species is followed by a sequence of first-order and pseudo-first-order reactions. Unlike the photolysis in anhydrous organic solvents, the reaction in water and methanol does not involve aminyl radicals. In aqueous solutions, the first-order rate constants for the decay of transient species are higher in acidic and neutral solutions. At the pH close to pKa of the transient species, it drops, indicating that the neutral form is less reactive. The same product is formed over the whole range of pH. For the anionic surfactant (SDS in acidic and alkaline solutions, the apparent rate constant in the micellar solutions is lower than that in the aqueous (negative micellar catalysis. At the medium pH, a positive micellar catalysis is observed, and the rate constant of the decay depends linearly on the concentration of TMDQ in the micelles, indicative of the direct reaction between TMDQ and the cationic transient species.

T. D. Nekipelova

1999-01-01

76

LOS oligosaccharide modification enhances dendritic cell responses to meningococcal native outer membrane vesicles expressing a non-toxic lipid A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are released by many bacteria, and contain immunogenic antigens in addition to harmful inflammatory factors, like lipopolysaccharides. Chemically detoxified OMV have been used in vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis (Nm); however, little is known about their interaction with antigen presenting cells. In this study, we investigated the interaction of Nm OMV with human dendritic cells (DC) to gain further understanding of their biological activity. We engineered a novel serogroup B Nm that is unencapsulated (siaD), expresses pentacylated lipid A (lpxL1), hence conferring reduced toxicity, and expresses an lgtB oligosaccharide structure designed to target OMV to DC via DC-SIGN. We show that the lgtB moiety is critical for internalization of NOMV by DC. Furthermore, the lgtB moiety significantly enhances DC maturation, IL-10 and IL-23 production in the presence of a pentacylated lipid A. While different DC phenotypes were observed for each NOMV, this had little effect on Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation; however, lgtBsignificantly increased Th17 cell expansion in the presence of pentacylated lipid A. We believe that lpxL1/lgtB NOMV should be considered further as a vaccine vector, particularly considering the importance of lgtB in antigen uptake and further human studies on antigen-specific responses should be considered. PMID:24152255

Jones, Hannah E; Copland, Alastair; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Cohen, Jonathan; Brown, Jeremy; Klein, Nigel; van der Ley, Peter; Dixon, Garth

2014-04-01

77

Non-toxic complexing agent Tri-sodium citrate’s effect on chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films and its growth mechanism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? ZnS thin films were prepared by CBD using non-toxic complexing agent. ? The morphology of ZnS thin film was improved with Na3-citrate. ? The growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is depends upon the concentration of Na3-citrate. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the growth and characterizations of chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films prepared at pH 10. Aqueous zinc acetate and thiourea were used as precursors along with the non-toxic complexing agent, Na3-citrate. The effects of different concentrations of Na3-citrate from 0 to 0.2 M on the structural, morphological, compositional, chemical, and optical properties of ZnS thin films were studied. It was revealed through field emission scanning electron microscopy studies that an increase in the concentration of Na3-citrate leads to an improvement of the uniformity of the ZnS thin films and decrease in the grain size. Atomic force microscopy showed that the RMS value decreases with an increase in Na3-citrate concentration. X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallinity of ZnS thin films improves upon increasing concentration of Na3-citrate and that the films exhibit a hexagonal polycrystalline ZnS phase while deposited with 0.2 and 0.1 M Na3-citrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the signal intensity decreases for Zn 2p3/2 and S 2p1/2 as the concentration of Na3-citrate decreases from 0.2 to 0 M. It was shown by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy that approximately 80% transmission in the visible region and absorption edge shifts towards blue when the concentration of Na3-citrate increases from 0 to 0.2 M. The band gap energy of the ZnS film deposited without Na3-citrate was found to be 3.53 eV, while it increases from 3.73 to 3.80 eV with a decrease in Na3-citrate concentration from 0.2 to 0.025 M. The growth mechanism of CBD–ZnS thin film was found to be dependent on Na3-citrate concentration.

78

Radiolytic formation of non-toxic Cr(III) from toxic Cr(VI) in formate containing aqueous solutions: A system for water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr(VI) is radiolytically reduced to Cr(III) in presence formate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is pH, dose rate dependent. A mechanism is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr(VI) recovers when all the formate is consumed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation of wastewater can remove Cr(VI). - Abstract: Toxic hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the form of potassium dichromate was radiolytically reduced to non-toxic trivalent chromium Cr(III) in N{sub 2}O-saturated aqueous solutions containing formate. This reduction by the electron donor (CO{sub 2}H{center_dot}/CO{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) produced by continuous radiolysis of water, was a linear function of the absorbed dose. This reaction was pH and dose rate dependent. pH was an important parameter in the reduction, as it affects both chemical speciation of Cr(VI) and formate. Possible mechanisms related to dose rate dependence of removal of Cr(VI) are presented. At pH 3 a decrease in the radiation induced reduction of Cr(VI) was observed with increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration. A mechanism to account for this variation is proposed. These findings suggest that irradiation of Cr(VI) solutions in presence of formate can be effective, economical and simple means for treatment of waste water contaminated with hexavalent Cr(VI).

Djouider, Fathi, E-mail: fdjouider@kau.edu.sa [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

2012-07-15

79

Radiolytic formation of non-toxic Cr(III) from toxic Cr(VI) in formate containing aqueous solutions: A system for water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the form of potassium dichromate was radiolytically reduced to non-toxic trivalent chromium Cr(III) in N(2)O-saturated aqueous solutions containing formate. This reduction by the electron donor (CO(2)H/CO(2)(-)) produced by continuous radiolysis of water, was a linear function of the absorbed dose. This reaction was pH and dose rate dependent. pH was an important parameter in the reduction, as it affects both chemical speciation of Cr(VI) and formate. Possible mechanisms related to dose rate dependence of removal of Cr(VI) are presented. At pH 3 a decrease in the radiation induced reduction of Cr(VI) was observed with increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration. A mechanism to account for this variation is proposed. These findings suggest that irradiation of Cr(VI) solutions in presence of formate can be effective, economical and simple means for treatment of waste water contaminated with hexavalent Cr(VI). PMID:22595544

Djouider, Fathi

2012-07-15

80

A non-toxic reusable on-board propulsion system for orbiter upgrade and the human exploration and development of space  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-toxic on-board propulsion system for the Space Shuttle orbiter promises high payoffs in terms of safety, cost, reliability, reduced ground operations, and improved mission flexibility. Significant cost savings and safety enhancements can be realized by eliminating toxic propellant handling from the orbiter processing flow, including elimination of SCAPE suit operations, relaxing leakage concerns, and reducing propellant cost. Mission reliability and safety can be enhanced by reducing the number of critical components that must operate, while maintaining the same fault tolerance as the current propulsion systems. Mission flexibility and management of propellant reserves can be improved by combining the propellant storage and pressurization systems for the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and the reaction control system (RCS). The reduction and automation of checkout requirements for the upgraded propulsion system can enhance operational ease and reduce the turnaround cost. System integration with the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and the power system may save additional turnaround costs by sharing common components such as the storage tanks. Finally, there can be commonality of this technology with Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) missions that utilize oxygen produced from in-situ planetary resources. This is a major advancement in the state-of-the-art.

Hurlbert, Eric; Moreland, Robert

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Treatment of solitary, autonomously-functioning, non-toxic thyroid nodules with I131 Adenema tiroideo autónomo no tóxico tratamiento con I131  

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Full Text Available

Fifteen euthyroid patients (14 women and 1man with solitary autonomously functioning non-toxic thyroid nodules (AFTN were treated with high doses of I131 (mean 19.2 mCi. Diagnosis was made by I131 thyroid scan and triiodothyronine suppression test. The size of the nodule was determined by thyroid ecography both before and after treatment. Evaluation of thyroid function was performed clinically and by T3 T4 and TSH determinations before therapy and during follow.up. AII patients had complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Two cases of hypothyroidism were found in the first two years of follow-up. We have no explanation for this fact since extranodular thyroid tissue was suppressed and the patients were receiving oral triiodothyronine during radioidine treatment. The nodules decreasedin size In 9 of 13 patients followed (average decrease 45% and disappeared in other 2. our findings suggest that solitary non-toxic AFTN should be treated with I131 particularly if complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid tissue is found. If complete disappearance of the nodule is considered desirable surgical removal must be performed.

Se trataron 14 mujeres y un hombre, con adenomas tiroideos solitarios funcionalmente autónomos, no tóxicos, con I131 a una dosis promedio de 19.2 mCi. La gamagrafía tiroidea demostró hipercaptación del nódulo con supresión total del resto de la glándula. El tamaño del nódulo se determinó por medio de ecografía tiroidea antes y después del tratamiento, y su autonomía por la prueba de supresión con triyodotironina. El estado tiroideo se puso de presente clínicamente y por la medición de T3, T 4 y TSH en el plasma, antes de la terapia con el radiofármaco y durante la evolución postratamiento. En dos pacientes se presentó hipotiroidismo desde los dos primeros años del período de seguimiento, a pesar de que el tejido tiroideo circundante estaba suprimido y de la administración oral de triyodotironina simultáneamente con el yodo radioactivo. En 13 pacientes se logró hacer seguimiento; en 9 de ellos (69.2% hubo disminución del tamaño del nódulo (promedio de 45%; en dos desapareció y en otros dos no se modificó la lesión. Se sugiere que el tratamiento de los adenomas tiroideos autónomos no tóxicos con I131 es el más apropiado, especialmente si el tejido extranodular está suprimido; ello en vista de la Infrecuencia del hipotiroldismo postratamiento y de la inocultad y facilidad de su administración. Sin embargo, cuando se desea la desaparición total del adenoma y no existen contraindicaciones, debe recurrirse a la cirugía

Federico Uribe Londoño

1991-03-01

82

Isatin-3-N4-benzilthiosemicarbazone, a non-toxic thiosemicarbazone derivative, protects and reactivates rat and human cholinesterases inhibited by methamidophos in vitro and in silico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organophosphates (OPs), which are widely used as pesticides, are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. The inactivation of AChE results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, causing a cholinergic crisis that can lead to death. The classical treatment for OP poisoning is administration of oximes, but these compounds are ineffective in some cases. Here we determined whether the new compound isatin-3-N(4)-benzilthiosemicarbazone (IBTC), which in our previous study proved to be an antioxidant and antiatherogenic molecule, could protect and reactivate AChE and BChE. Toxicity of IBTC after subcutaneous injection in mice was measured using assays for oxidized diclorofluoresceine (DCF), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels, and catalase (CAT), sodium potassium (Na(+)/K(+)) ATPase, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) enzyme activities. The cytotoxicity was evaluated and the enzymatic activity of cholinesterase was measured in human blood samples. Molecular docking was used to predict the mechanism of IBTC interactions with the AChE active site. We found that IBTC did not increase the amount of DCF-RS or TBARS, did not reduce NPSH levels, and did not increase CAT, (Na(+)/K(+)) ATPase, ALA-D, or GPx activities. IBTC protected and reactivated both AChE and BChE activities. Molecular docking predicted that IBTC is positioned at the peripheral anionic site and in the acyl binding pocket of AChE and can interact with methamidophos, releasing the enzyme's active site. Our results suggest that IBTC, besides being an antioxidant and a promising antiatherogenic agent, is a non-toxic molecule for methamidophos poisoning treatment. PMID:22542756

Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; de Lima Portella, Rafael; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; da Rosa, Edovando José Flores; Amaral, Guilherme Pires; Garcia, Luiz Filipe Machado; Bresolin, Leandro; Carratu, Vanessa; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice

2012-09-01

83

Regulatory T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells contribute to the immune escape of papillary thyroid cancer coexisting with multinodular non-toxic goiter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunosuppressive lymphocytes, such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), play crucial roles in tumor escape. To investigate the roles of Tregs and pDCs in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) plus multinodular non-toxic goiter (MNG), thyroid tissue and blood samples from 30 patients with PTC plus MNG and 30 MNG alone were analyzed for CD4(+) T cell, CD8(+) T cell, FoxP3(+) Treg, ICOS(+)FoxP3(+) Treg, and pDC numbers by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of the cytokines interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well. Both in thyroid tissue and peripheral blood, the numbers of Foxp3(+) Treg were significantly higher in patients with PTC plus MNG compared to patients with MNG alone; and as a prognostic marker, ICOS(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs represent a stronger predictor of disease progression than the total numbers of Foxp3(+) Tregs. Furthermore, a positive correlation between pDC and ICOS(+)Foxp3(+) Treg numbers in tissue of patients with PTC plus MNG was observed, suggesting that PTC-derived pDCs may induce the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into ICOS(+)Foxp3(+)Tregs. This may be one of the mechanisms underlying tumor escape in PTC plus MNG patients. Our results suggest that Tregs and pDCs together contribute to the tumor escape in patients with PTC plus MNG. PMID:23264145

Yu, Hang; Huang, Xiaomei; Liu, Xiaosun; Jin, Hailong; Zhang, Ge'er; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Jiren

2013-08-01

84

Inhibition of sirtuin 2 with sulfobenzoic acid derivative AK1 is non-toxic and potentially neuroprotective in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tauopathies including tau-associated Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are characterized pathologically by the formation of tau-containing neurofibrillary aggregates and neuronal loss, which contribute to cognitive decline. There are currently no effective treatments to prevent or slow this neural systems failure. The rTg4510 mouse model, which expresses a mutant form of the tau protein associated with frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism-17, undergoes dramatic hippocampal and cortical neuronal loss making it an ideal model to study treatments for FTD-related neuronal loss. Sirtuins are a family of proteins involved in cell survival that have the potential to modulate neuronal loss in neurodegenerative disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that sirtuin 2 (SIRT2 inhibition would be non-toxic and prevent neurodegeneration in rTg4510 brain. In this study we delivered SIRT2 inhibitor AK1 directly to the hippocampus with an osmotic minipump and confirmed that it reached the target region both with histological assessment of delivery of a dye and with a pharmacodynamic marker, ABCA1 transcription, which was upregulated with AK1 treatment. AK1 treatment was found to be safe in wild-type mice and in the rTg4510 mouse model, and further, it provided some neuroprotection in the rTg4510 hippocampal circuitry. This study provides proof-of-concept for therapeutic benefits of SIRT2 inhibitors in both tau-associated FTD and Alzheimer’s disease, and suggests that development of potent, brain permeable SIRT2 inhibitors is warranted.

TaraLeighSpires-Jones

2012-03-01

85

Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. 131I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid 131I uptake is mandatory for 131I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid 131I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the 131I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged 131I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented 131I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

Bonnema, Steen J; Nielsen, Viveque E

2006-01-01

86

Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the open-quotes cradle to graveclose quotes ownership liabilities

87

Unentangled star-shape poly(?-caprolactone)s as phthalate-free PVC plasticizers designed for non-toxicity and improved migration resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop a nontoxic unentangled star-shape poly(?-caprolactone) (UESPCL) plasticizer with excellent migration resistance for the production of phthalate-free flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) by means of the ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone, initiated from the multifunctional core, combined with end-capping, and vacuum purification processes. UESPCL is a transparent liquid at room temperature and exhibits unentangled Newtonian behavior because of its extremely short branched segments. UESPCL is biologically safe without producing an acute toxicity response. Torque analysis measurements reveals that UESPCL offers a faster fusion rate and a higher miscibility with PVC compared to a typical plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum reveals that PVC and UESPCL are miscible with an average domain size of less than 8 nm. The flexibility and transparency of the PVC/UESPCL mixture, that is, phthalate-free flexible PVC, are comparable to the corresponding properties of the PVC/DEHP mixture, and the stretchability and fracture toughness of PVC/UESPCL are superior to the corresponding properties of the PVC/DEHP system. Most of all, PVC/UESPCL shows excellent migration resistance with a weight loss of less than 0.6% in a liquid phase, whereas DEHP migrated out of PVC/DEHP into a liquid phase with a weight loss of about 10%. PMID:24955769

Choi, Woohyuk; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

2014-07-23

88

Administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio não protege contra a intoxicação por este composto em ovinos / Repeated administration of non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate does not protect against poisoning by this compound in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar se repetidas doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MFA) induzem resistência à intoxicação por essa substância, 18 ovinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de nove animais cada. Os ovinos do Grupo 1 ingeriram doses crescentes não letai [...] s de MFA por seis períodos: 0,05mg/kg por 5 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias e 0,25mg/kg por 3 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam o MFA por 10 dias consecutivos; entre o terceiro e o quarto período e dentre os demais períodos de administração, os ovinos permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir o MFA. Quinze dias após o último período de administração os ovinos foram desafiados com a dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado a ingestão de MFA, estes ovinos receberam dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA no mesmo período em que o G1 foi desafiado. No desafio sete ovinos do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação e um ovino se recuperou. No Grupo 2 todos os animais manifestaram quadro clínico da intoxicação por MFA, no entanto, dois ovinos se recuperaram. Os coeficientes de mortalidade foram de 66,6% para o Grupo 1 e de 77,7% para o Grupo 2. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de MFA não protege contra a intoxicação aguda por este composto, portanto, outras alternativas para a profilaxia da intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA deverão ser pesquisadas, principalmente a utilização intraruminal de bactérias que hidrolisam MFA. Abstract in english With the objective to assess whether repeated non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) induce resistance to poisoning by this compound, 18 sheep were randomly divided into two experimental groups of nine animals each. Sheep from Group 1 ingested non-lethal increasing doses of MFA for six pe [...] riods: 0.05mg/kg for 5 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days and 0.25mg/kg for 3 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and third period the animals did not receive MFA for 10 consecutive days, between the third and fourth period and during the remaining periods of administration the sheep were left 15 days without ingesting MFA. Group 2 was not adapted to the ingestion of MFA and received a single dose of 1mg/kg of MFA at the same time that Group 1 was challenged. After challenge, seven sheep of Group 1 showed clinical signs of poisoning and one sheep recovered. In Group 2, all animals showed clinical signs of poisoning by MFA, however two sheep recovered. The mortality rate was 66.6% in Group 1 and 77.7% for Group 2. These results suggest that repeated administration of non-toxic doses of MFA does not protect against acute poisoning by this compound; therefore other alternatives of prophylaxis for poisoning by plants containing MFA should be searched, mainly the use of intraruminal bacteria that hydrolyze MFA.

Ariany C., Santos; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Rubiane F., Heckler; Stephanie C., Lima; Mariana L., Silva; Renato, Rezende; Nilton M., Carvalho; Ricardo A.A., Lemos.

89

Administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio não protege contra a intoxicação por este composto em ovinos / Repeated administration of non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate does not protect against poisoning by this compound in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar se repetidas doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MFA) induzem resistência à intoxicação por essa substância, 18 ovinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de nove animais cada. Os ovinos do Grupo 1 ingeriram doses crescentes não letai [...] s de MFA por seis períodos: 0,05mg/kg por 5 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias e 0,25mg/kg por 3 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam o MFA por 10 dias consecutivos; entre o terceiro e o quarto período e dentre os demais períodos de administração, os ovinos permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir o MFA. Quinze dias após o último período de administração os ovinos foram desafiados com a dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado a ingestão de MFA, estes ovinos receberam dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA no mesmo período em que o G1 foi desafiado. No desafio sete ovinos do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação e um ovino se recuperou. No Grupo 2 todos os animais manifestaram quadro clínico da intoxicação por MFA, no entanto, dois ovinos se recuperaram. Os coeficientes de mortalidade foram de 66,6% para o Grupo 1 e de 77,7% para o Grupo 2. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de MFA não protege contra a intoxicação aguda por este composto, portanto, outras alternativas para a profilaxia da intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA deverão ser pesquisadas, principalmente a utilização intraruminal de bactérias que hidrolisam MFA. Abstract in english With the objective to assess whether repeated non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) induce resistance to poisoning by this compound, 18 sheep were randomly divided into two experimental groups of nine animals each. Sheep from Group 1 ingested non-lethal increasing doses of MFA for six pe [...] riods: 0.05mg/kg for 5 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days and 0.25mg/kg for 3 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and third period the animals did not receive MFA for 10 consecutive days, between the third and fourth period and during the remaining periods of administration the sheep were left 15 days without ingesting MFA. Group 2 was not adapted to the ingestion of MFA and received a single dose of 1mg/kg of MFA at the same time that Group 1 was challenged. After challenge, seven sheep of Group 1 showed clinical signs of poisoning and one sheep recovered. In Group 2, all animals showed clinical signs of poisoning by MFA, however two sheep recovered. The mortality rate was 66.6% in Group 1 and 77.7% for Group 2. These results suggest that repeated administration of non-toxic doses of MFA does not protect against acute poisoning by this compound; therefore other alternatives of prophylaxis for poisoning by plants containing MFA should be searched, mainly the use of intraruminal bacteria that hydrolyze MFA.

Ariany C., Santos; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Rubiane F., Heckler; Stephanie C., Lima; Mariana L., Silva; Renato, Rezende; Nilton M., Carvalho; Ricardo A.A., Lemos.

2014-07-01

90

The phytochemical composition and in vitro antiviral activity of decoctions from galls of Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel. (Combretaceae and their relative non-toxicity for chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aqueous decoctions obtained from the galls of Guiera senegalensis were screened to determine their phytochemical composition and in vitro antiviral activity against fowlpox virus. In addition, we wanted to investigate the toxic effects, if any, of crude extracts in chickens. Steroids as well as cardiac glycosides not previously reported, an alkaloid, polyphenols and saponins were detected in the various fractions of organic solvents used for extracting the decoctions. Antiviral activity was determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay in primary chicken embryo skin cells. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (EC50 was shown to be 15.6 µg/ml. Toxicity for cells was established by determining the 50 % cytotoxic concentration (CCy50. A value of 90 µg/ml and a selectivity index (CCy50/EC50 of 5.8 were obtained. In vivo studies of toxicity were performed in chickens that were dosed orally with decoctions of several concentrations for 2 weeks and then monitored for 3 months. No significant changes in several blood chemical parameters were obtained, except for a significant decline in SGOT levels in birds dosed with 100 mg/kg. These levels were nevertheless within the accepted normal range. The findings suggest that aqueous decoctions of galls from G. senegalensis are non-toxic for chickens when administered orally, even at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg for 14 days.

A.G. Ouedraogo

2010-09-01

91

The adaptation of TSH secretion to autonomy in non-toxic goiter may be based-on active regulation of set-point and sensitivity of central TSH-receptors, perhaps by the microRNA (MIR) gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) feedback system is one of the most complex regulatory systems and it has intrigued researchers for more than 50 years. One of the unsolved problems of this regulation in humans is the hypothalamic and pituitary adaption to autonomous function of the thyroid gland in non-toxic goiter (NTG). A new hypothesis, that TSH secretion is actively regulated in NTG in response to changes in thyroid autonomy in order to keep the patient euthyroid, was discussed in the present study on basis of previous experimental data in NTG patients with different degree of autonomous function. The patients were submaximally suppressed for one month with a fixed daily dose of T3. Group data suggested an inverse correlation between TSH suppression and suppression of thyroid function. Group data also suggested that TSH suppression was significantly correlated to basal TSH. This means that a NTG patient with a low normal TSH in blood before suppression (basal TSH) and a high degree of autonomous function may exhibit a relatively high TSH suppression. This ensures a minimal stimulation of the thyroid gland thereby protecting the gland from developing hyperthyroidism. A patient with a high normal TSH in blood before suppression (basal TSH) and a low degree of autonomous function, may exhibit a relatively low TSH suppression, indicating a high stimulation of the thyroid gland thereby protecting the patient from developing hypothyroidism. It is hypothesized that this adaption of TSH secretion to autonomy in NTG patients may be based on active regulation of both the set- point of the central TSH-receptors and the sensitivity of these receptors as well. Such an active regulation of the HPT axis may be controlled by one of the newly found post-transcriptional genes called MIR (microRNA). PMID:16678353

Vadstrup, Steen

2006-01-01

92

Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis ha...

Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Edward Gakpe

2008-01-01

93

An update on prodrugs from natural products.  

Science.gov (United States)

A natural prodrug is a chemical compound or substance obtained from plants, microorganism, animal and marine sources. Natural products are small molecule source for Food and Drug Administration approved drugs and major sources for drug discovery. Most of the drugs for different ailment diseases undergo first pass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and the generation of toxic metabolites in body. Enormous numbers of prodrugs naturally present in plants, microorganism, animal and marine sources and those prodrugs undergoes chemical reaction to form non-toxic compounds. This review summarizes the list of prodrugs naturally present in the natural product. PMID:25312180

Kumar, Sekar Vinoth; Saravanan, Devarajan; Kumar, Balasubramanian; Jayakumar, Annamalai

2014-09-01

94

Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

95

Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipa...

Chi-Yang Yu; Liang-Yu Huang; I-Ching Kuan; Shiow-Ling Lee

2013-01-01

96

Indução de resistência à intoxicação por Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) mediante administração de doses sucessivas não tóxicas / Induction of resistance to Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) poisoning by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de comprovar se doses não tóxicas repetidas de Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. criam resistência à intoxicação, 12 caprinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de seis animais cada. No Grupo 1 foi induzida resistência mediante a administração, dur [...] ante quatro períodos alternados, de 0,02g/kg das folhas dessecadas de P. aeneofusca durante 5 dias, 0,02g/kg durante 5 dias, 0,03g/kg durante 5 dias e 0,03g/kg por mais 5 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam planta por 10 dias consecutivos e entre o terceiro e quarto período de administração os animais permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir a planta. Um caprino morreu subitamente quando estava recebendo 0,03 g/kg da planta, no terceiro período de administração. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado ao consumo de P. aeneofusca. Quinze dias após a adaptação ao consumo de P. aeneofusca do Grupo 1, os dois grupos receberam P. aeneofusca na dose diária de 0,03g/kg durante 19 dias. A partir do 20º dia de administração continuada a dose diária de P. aeneofusca foi aumentada para 0,04g/kg. Esta dose foi administrada por mais 12 dias. Os animais que mostraram sinais clínicos foram retirados do experimento imediatamente após a observação dos primeiros sinais. Um caprino do Grupo 2 apresentou sinais clínicos de intoxicação e morreu no 12º dia de administração e dois apresentaram sinais clínicos no 24º dia; um se recuperou e outro morreu. Após finalizada esta fase do experimento e para comprovar se os caprinos que não tinham adoecido no Grupo 2 tinham também adquirido resistência, foi introduzido outro grupo com três caprinos. Esses três caprinos (Grupo 3), os cinco caprinos do Grupo 1 e os três sobreviventes do Grupo 2, ingeriram uma dose diária de 0,06g/kg. Os três caprinos do Grupo 3 adoeceram no terceiro dia após o início da ingestão, dois morreram em forma hiperaguda e o outro recuperou-se após 10 dias. Todos os caprinos dos Grupos 1 e 2 ingeriram P. aeneofusca na dose de 0,06g/kg/dia durante nove dias sem apresentar nenhum sinal clínico. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram que a administração de doses não tóxicas repetidas de P. aeneofusca aumentam significativamente á resistência à intoxicação e que esta técnica poderia ser utilizada para o controle da intoxicação por P. aeneofusca e outras espécies de Palicourea com similar toxicidade. Os resultados de pesquisas anteriormente realizados sugerem que a resistência à intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA é devida a proliferação de bactérias que degradam MFA no rúmen. Abstract in english Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. is a toxic plant which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA). With the objective to investigate if repeated non-toxic doses of P. aeneofusca induce resistance to the intoxication by this plant, 12 goats were distributed in two similar groups. In Group 1, [...] resistance was induced by the administration of the dry plant, during four alternate periods: 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.03g/kg during 5 days, and 0.03g/kg during 5 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and the third period, the goats did not ingest P. aeneofusca for 10 days. Between the third and the fourth administration period the goats did not ingest the plant during 15 days. One goat died suddenly during the third administration period when was ingesting 0.03g/kg. The goats from Group 2 were not adapted to the consumption of P. aeneofusca. Fifteen days after the end of the adaptation period in Group 1, both groups ingested dry P. aeneofusca in the daily dose of 0.03g/kg during 19 days. From day 20 the daily dose was increased to 0.04g/kg, which was ingested for 12 days. The goats that showed clinical signs were removed from the experiment immediately after the observation of first signs. On

Murilo Duarte de, Oliveira; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Fabrício K.L., Carvalho; Genilson B., Silva; Walkleber S., Pereira; Rosane M.T., Medeiros.

2013-06-01

97

Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. PMID:21724330

Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

2011-09-15

98

Diacetone acrylamide-based non-toxic holographic photopolymer  

Science.gov (United States)

A new low-toxicity diacetone acrylamide-based photopolymer is developed and characterized. The environmentallycompatible photopolymer has been modified with the inclusion of glycerol. The incorporation of glycerol results in a uniform maximum refractive index modulation for recording intensities in the range of 1-20 mW/cm2. This may be attributed to glycerol's nature as a plasticizer, which allows for faster diffusion of un-reacted monomer within the grating during holographic recording. An optimum recording intensity of 0.5 mW/cm2 is observed for exposure energies of 20- 60 mW/cm2. The modified photopolymer achieves a refractive index modulation of 2.2×10-3, with diffraction efficiencies up to 90 % in 100 ?m layers. The photopolymer layers containing glycerol have improved stability and optical quality.

Cody, D.; Naydenova, I.; Mihaylova, E.

2012-06-01

99

Diacetone acrylamide-based non-toxic holographic photopolymer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new low-toxicity diacetone acrylamide-based photopolymer is developed and characterized. The environmentally-compatible photopolymer has been modified with the inclusion of glycerol. The incorporation of glycerol results in a uniform maximum refractive index modulation for recording intensities in the range of 1-20 mW/cm2. This may be attributed to glycerol’s nature as a plasticizer, which allows for faster diffusion of un-reacted monomer within the grating during holographic recording. A...

Cody, Dervil; Naydenova, Izabela; Mihaylova, Emilia

2012-01-01

100

ADVANCED NON-TOXIC SILICONE FOULING-RELEASE COATINGS  

Science.gov (United States)

This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated and validated the use of the duplex silicone fouling-release coating system developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), for use on boat hulls and power plant cooling water intake tunne...

 
 
 
 
101

The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

Cooper, Susan

1990-01-01

102

I-131-treatment of non-toxic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioiodine is a safe and effective treatment of thyroid enlargement with or - in the presence of significant amounts of autonomously functioning tissue - without true euthyroidism. The indications are esentially the same as for surgery, except the case of a goitre recidive and of recurrent nerve injury, for which radioiodine is the treatment of choise. On the contrary, large cold nodules and a suspicion of malignancy preclude it. The size reduction of about 40% is less than that obtained by surgery, but there are no side effects and no recurrences. Hypothyroidism occurs in 4% of the cases. Unfortunately, the number of specially equipped institutions that are allowed to perform radioiodine therapy is yet restricted. (orig.)

103

Properties prediction of non-toxic ice inhibitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toxic de-icing compounds currently employed in jet fuels (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether) dissolve in the water {open_quote}bottoms{close_quote} present in storage tanks, thus producing hazardous waste which requires expensive disposal. The fastest and most cost effective way to develop alternative compounds is to design desirable features theoretically and thus direct the synthesis of those candidates having sought after properties. Empirical and quantum mechanical approaches for partition coefficients calculations, as well as Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSAR) evaluations, were investigated. We demonstrate that molecular orbital calculations have to be used for a reliable prediction of partition coefficients, and moreover that the conformational response to solvent is significant. Although the values of the calculated partition coefficients are not in full agreement with experimental results, the trends are well reproduced. QSAR estimations to elucidate the toxicity of the proposed alternative compounds are reported and assessed. An approach for deriving phase diagrams of a binary mixture is outlined, where molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed on bulk systems consisting of pure water, pure de-icer, and binary mixtures of de-icer and water. Analysis of the NO trajectories yield insights into the de-icing mechanism and form a basis for comparison of different de-icers.

Pachter, R.; Trohalaki, S. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

1996-10-01

104

Shellac: A Non-Toxic Preservative for Human Embalming Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is extremely important to fix and preserve cadavers adequately not only for the sake of anatomical studies but also for the financial justification. However, the difficulties in handling and the problems of preservation of human anatomical preparations and the potential health and safety problems for staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories and the need to comply with increasingly restrictive exposure limits to components of embalming chemicals have led the research team to fashion a new embalming technique. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia through the years 2008-2010. About 10 cadavers were selected from the fridges of the dissection lab of the Anatomy Department; 5 for long-term preservation and five for softening purposes. The procedure involved rinsing the cadavers with the Shellac embalming solution in a pressurized tank, under a pressure of 1.5 bars for 3 days. In this study, it is revealed that there is a remarkably high embalming capacity of Shellac as shown from the well preserved dissected parts and organs in the softened cadavers. The remaining cadavers, intended for long-term preservation, mummified using Shellac could be retained in normal room conditions; whereby it was easy to soften again by simply replacing it inside the softening tank for 2-3 days. The significant use of Shellac throughout the embalming technique, as a less hazardous and financially more viable material, was discussed juxtapose more conventional and known toxic materials used in standard embalming techniques.

Gamal S. Abd El-Aziz

2011-01-01

105

Evaluation of non toxic alkyd primers by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to compare the protective capacity of several alkyd primers pigmented with 12.1 volume percent either of calcium phosphate or micronized zinc phosphate as anticorrosive pigments. A paint containing zinc chromate was used as reference. The performance of these paints on steel was assessed through Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) using a 3% NaCl solution. After 576 hr immersion, the paint with calcium phosphate and specially that with micronized zinc phosphate, showed a better behavior than paint with zinc chromate. Paint rating, using impedance parameters (ionic resistance and capacitance of the paint film, and breakpoint frequency), was in agreement with the visible paint deterioration and corrosion, In addition, there was a good correlation between these parameter and the open circuit corrosion potential of the metallic substrate.

Hernandez, L.S.; Garcia, G. [UASLP, San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Inst. of Metallurgy]|[UNLP, La Plata (Argentina); Lopez, C. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico)

1998-12-31

106

Non-toxic invert analog glass compositions of high modulus  

Science.gov (United States)

Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi are described. They and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consist essentially of, in mols, 15 to 40% SiO2, 6 to 15% Li2O, 24 to 45% of at least two bivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Ca, NzO, MgO and CuO; 13 to 39% of at least two trivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, La2O3, and Y2O3 and up to 15% of one or more tetravelent oxides selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2. The high modulus, low density glass compositions contain no toxic elements. The composition, glass density, Young's modulus, and specific modulus for 28 representative glasses are presented. The fiber modulus of five glasses are given.

Bacon, J. F. (inventor)

1974-01-01

107

Nanocrystalline WC with non-toxic Fe-Mn binder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cemented carbides, based on the tungsten carbide (WC), are very popular and useful in an industry. The most important metal us as a binder in this kind of materials is cobalt. It has many advantages as a binder: very good wettability, favourable solubility with WC and thermal conductivity similar to WC. However, cost of cobalt is very high because of its low natural resources. Cobalt is not also neutral for health. It is known as an allergen and same research shown that it could cause a cancer. This paper presents results of sintering the tungsten carbides with Fe-Mn alloys as the binders. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Siemiaszko, Dariusz [Military University of Technology, Department of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, ul. Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Rosinski, Marcin; Michalski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

2010-05-15

108

Environmental guidance documents for exploration, development, Production, and transportation of crude oil and natural gas in texas: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997-March 31, 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following technical report provides a detailed status report of the DOE grant project entitled ''Environmental Guidance Documents for Exploration, Development, Production, and Transportation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Texas.'' The grant funding allocated is for the purpose of provided the Railroad Commission of Texas (Commission) with resources and capabilities to draft, publish and distribute documents that provide guidance to oil and gas operators on issues concerning oil and gas naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) waste, oil and gas hazardous waste, remediation of crude oil spills, management of non-hazardous oil and gas wastes, and mechanical integrity testing of Class II injection and disposal wells

109

Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea. PMID:16769640

Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik

2006-01-01

110

Heavy metal removel from minewaters by alkaline waste products  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the serious environmental problems of the Western Urals area (Russia) is the consequence of the cessation of mining in the Kizel Coal Basin. After mine closure, acid mine waters (pH about 3) with excessive heavy metal contents began to pollute ground surface and rivers. The methodology of neutralization of acid mine water and heavy metal removal by alkaline waste products is discussed in the paper. Waste products are non-toxic and consist of 70-80% of calcite. As a result of neutralization, the sediment becomes a mixture of iron and gypsum hydroxide and carbonate calcium with neutral pH. Mobile forms of Fe, Al, Mn, Pb and others were not revealed. The pilot field experiment showed the prospect and low cost of this technology.

Maximovich, N. G.; Khayrulina, E. A.

2009-04-01

111

The use of NaCl addition for the improvement of polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Cupriavidus necator.  

Science.gov (United States)

External stress factors in the form of ionic species or temperature increases have been shown to produce a stress response leading to enhanced PHA production. The effect of five different NaCl concentrations, namely 3.5, 6.5, 9, 12 and 15 g/l NaCl on PHA productivity using Cupriavidus necator has been investigated alongside a control (no added NaCl). A dielectric spectroscopy probe was used to measure PHA accumulation online in conjunction with the chemical offline analysis of PHA. The highest PHA production was obtained with the addition of 9 g/l NaCl, which yielded 30% higher PHA than the control. Increasing the addition of NaCl to 15 g/l was found to inhibit the production of PHA. NaCl addition can therefore be used as a simple, low cost, sustainable, non toxic and non reactive external stress strategy for increasing PHA productivity. PMID:24835740

Passanha, Pearl; Kedia, Gopal; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J; Esteves, Sandra R

2014-07-01

112

Antifungal plant defensins: mechanisms of action and production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides that possess biological activity towards a broad range of organisms. Their activity is primarily directed against fungi, but bactericidal and insecticidal actions have also been reported. The mode of action of various antifungal plant defensins has been studied extensively during the last decades and several of their fungal targets have been identified to date. This review summarizes the mechanism of action of well-characterized antifungal plant defensins, including RsAFP2, MsDef1, MtDef4, NaD1 and Psd1, and points out the variety by which antifungal plant defensins affect microbial cell viability. Furthermore, this review summarizes production routes for plant defensins, either via heterologous expression or chemical synthesis. As plant defensins are generally considered non-toxic for plant and mammalian cells, they are regarded as attractive candidates for further development into novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:25153857

Vriens, Kim; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

2014-01-01

113

Antifungal Plant Defensins: Mechanisms of Action and Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides that possess biological activity towards a broad range of organisms. Their activity is primarily directed against fungi, but bactericidal and insecticidal actions have also been reported. The mode of action of various antifungal plant defensins has been studied extensively during the last decades and several of their fungal targets have been identified to date. This review summarizes the mechanism of action of well-characterized antifungal plant defensins, including RsAFP2, MsDef1, MtDef4, NaD1 and Psd1, and points out the variety by which antifungal plant defensins affect microbial cell viability. Furthermore, this review summarizes production routes for plant defensins, either via heterologous expression or chemical synthesis. As plant defensins are generally considered non-toxic for plant and mammalian cells, they are regarded as attractive candidates for further development into novel antimicrobial agents.

Kim Vriens

2014-08-01

114

Molecular targets of natural health products in arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) consume 'natural health products' (NHPs) whose therapeutic efficacy, toxicity and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In a previous issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy, Haqqi and colleagues characterized IL-1-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) isoforms in human OA chondrocytes. The cartilageprotective mechanisms of pomegranate extract involve diminishing MKK3-activated p38?, JNK, NF-?B and Runx2 pathways, which regulate inflammatory proteins and cartilage-destroying proteases. Epigallocatechin- 3-gallate, resveratrol, curcumin and other NHP active ingredients suppress multiple inflammatory and catabolic molecular mediators of arthritis. Non-toxicity, reduced severity and incidence of arthritis in animal models warrant testing NHP active ingredients for preventing human OA and RA. PMID:21345249

Khalifé, Sarah; Zafarullah, Muhammad

2011-01-01

115

Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review  

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Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis has been discussed with appropriate equipment details. The application of the biosurfactant includes biomedical, cosmetic and bioremediation. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DS10-129 showed significant applications in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in gasoline-spilled soil and petroleum oily sludge. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant enhanced the bioremediation process by releasing the weathered oil from the soil matrices and enhanced the bioavailability of hydrocarbons for microbial degradation. It is having potential applications in the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites.

Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman

2008-01-01

116

Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work is to investigate fuel characteristics of biodiesel and its production in European Union. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. In Europe the most important biofuel is biodiesel. In the European Union biodiesel is the by far biggest biofuel and represents 82% of the biofuel production. Biodiesel production for 2003 in EU-25 was 1,504,000 tons. (author)

117

Fast, easy ethanolysis of coconut oil for biodiesel production assisted by ultrasonication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel, consistituting an alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is non-toxic and biodegradable and has a low emission profile, is better from environmentally sensitive areas. Research study on alternative fuels is essential for increased energy security. Presently, biodiesel is produced mainly is batch reactor. In this process the required energy is given by heating accompanied by mechanical stirring which has several disadvantages because of time consuming high labour cost. Being methanol is a toxic chemical; the objective of this work is to produce coconut oil ethyl ester by using ultrasonic irradiation. The advantages of ethanol are non-toxic domestic all available, having higher carbon atoms which provide higher heat content. The optical conditions for biodiesel production is the molar ratio oil to ethanol 1:6, KOH catalyst 0.75wt.% of oil and 7min reaction time. The reaction time reduced 15-40 times comparing to the conventional batch processes and found >or=98% biodiesel yield. PMID:19945331

Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Gajendra; Poonam; Singh, C P

2010-03-01

118

Studies on the biological effects of ozone: 6. Production of transforming growth factor 1 by human blood after ozone treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

After exposing human whole blood from normal volunteers to ozone concentrations ranging from 22 to 156 micrograms/ml, we have shown that, upon incubation of up to 8 hours, there is a significant release of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta 1). In comparison to TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2 production is not influenced by ozone concentrations. In line with our previous findings it appears that blood, in the presence of heparin and 5mM Ca,2+ allows a consistent production of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF alpha) and the release of low and non-hazardous levels of free hemoglobin. These data support the contention that autohemotherapy performed after treating blood with ozone followed by reinfusion into the donor, may represent a valuable therapeutic approach for achieving immunoregulatory effects. PMID:7660851

Bocci, V; Luzzi, E; Corradeschi, F; Silvestri, S

1994-01-01

119

Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

2012-07-01

120

Silicone oil emulsions: strategies to improve their stability and applications in hair care products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicone oils have wide range of applications in personal care products due to their unique properties of high lubricity, non-toxicity, excessive spreading and film formation. They are usually employed in the form of emulsions due to their inert nature. Until now, different conventional emulsification techniques have been developed and applied to prepare silicone oil emulsions. The size and uniformity of emulsions showed important influence on stability of droplets, which further affect the application performance. Therefore, various strategies were developed to improve the stability as well as application performance of silicone oil emulsions. In this review, we highlight different factors influencing the stability of silicone oil emulsions and explain various strategies to overcome the stability problems. In addition, the silicone deposition on the surface of hair substrates and different approaches to increase their deposition are also discussed in detail. PMID:24279388

Nazir, H; Zhang, W; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Wang, L; Naseer, M M; Ma, G

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of gamma-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular weight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, known to react with conformational epitopes in native crotoxin. Linear epitopes are also preserved, as demonstrated by peptide mapping of the aggregates. These same aggregates can function as antigens to raise antisera which cross-react and neutralize crotoxin. Compared with crotoxin, the aggregates appear to be less myotoxic, largely devoid of phospholipase activity and virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that the irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

122

Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of ?-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

123

A review on steam-iron process as a hydrogen production/purifying/storage option  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fuel cell has the potential to become an important energy sector technology in the future, thanks to its ability to produce electrical energy from chemical energy with a high efficiency and without emission of pollutants. Fuel cells require pure hydrogen which is at the moment mainly produced by the steam methane reforming process. However, interest is growing in the steam iron process due to its ability to produce high purity hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the steam iron process through a review of recent research on the subject. This review showed that 100% pure hydrogen can be produced with the steam iron process and that removal of contaminants is minimal in this process; in addition iron is a non-toxic, inexpensive and stable material. This review highlighted that the steam iron process can be a good alternative for hydrogen production, purification and storage.

Ort, Nesibe; Yoruk, Sedat [Ataturk University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Turkey)], e-mail: nesibe.ort@atauni.edu.tr, email: syoruk@atauni.edu.tr; Dilmac, Omer F. [Yyldyz Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Turkey)], email: omerfarukdl@yahoo.com

2011-07-01

124

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of dimethoxymethane over CuZnO/Al2O3-niobium phosphate hybrid catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high hydrogen content of dimethoxymethane (DMM) and non toxicity make it suitable as a resource for hydrogen production used for applications like mobile systems. In this work, samples of niobium phosphate with high surface areas were synthesized, characterized and tested for the hydrolysis of DMM and were used as acidic components for the reforming of DMM to produce H2. Ammonia adsorption micro-calorimetry and isopropanol conversion results showed the high acidity of niobium phosphate with high surface area (394 m2/g). When this sample was mixed mechanically with CuZnO/Al2O3, the conversion of DMM was greatly enhanced comparing with using CuZnO/Al2O3 alone. At 533 K, almost 100% theoretical yield to H2 was achieved and the corresponding hydrogen production rate was found to be 1100 ml.g-1.h-1. (authors)

125

Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:24009546

Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

2013-01-01

126

Immobilization of an integral membrane protein for biotechnological phenylacetaldehyde production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) has previously been shown to be an integral membrane protein performing a highly selective, hydrolytic ring opening reaction of epoxides to yield pure aldehydes. Earlier studies had also shown a high sensitivity of SOIs toward their product phenylacetaldehyde which caused an irreversible inhibition and finally complete loss of activity at higher aldehyde concentrations. Here we report on the covalent immobilization of a styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) on SBA-15 silica carriers. The production of the SOI from a Rhodococcus strain was optimized, the enzyme was enriched and immobilized, and finally the biocatalyst was applied in aqueous as well as in two-phase systems. Linkage of the protein to epoxide or amino groups on the SBA-based carriers led to relatively poor stabilization of the enzyme in an aqueous system. But, improved stability was observed toward organic phases like the non-toxic phthalate-related 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (Hexamol DINCH) which here to our knowledge was used for the first time in a biotechnological application. With this two-phase system and the immobilized SOI, 1.6-2.0× higher product yields were reached and the lifetime of the biocatalyst was tremendously increased. PMID:24480569

Oelschlägel, Michel; Riedel, Anika; Zniszczo?, Aurelia; Szyma?ska, Katarzyna; Jarz?bski, Andrzej B; Schlömann, Michael; Tischler, Dirk

2014-03-20

127

76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

...materials. Economic efficiencies can be improved with...improved industrial efficiency,\\22\\ which, in...material sustainability and energy self sufficiency, while...for improved economic efficiency are recognized through...and boiler slag); foundry sand; silica...

2011-03-21

128

75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

...materials. Economic efficiency can be improved with...improved industrial efficiency,\\11\\ which, in...material sustainability and energy self sufficiency, while...for improved economic efficiency are recognized through...and boiler slag); foundry sand;...

2010-06-04

129

USE OF ELECTROLYZED WATER IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to use the properties of electrolyzed water to disinfect breeding halls and to water animals. The aim of the research was to find out whether elektrolyzed water used for desinfication of breedings hall and watering of animals influences selected indicators of the meat quality. Electrolyzed water is produced in a patent-protected device Envirolyte that produces biocide solution using potable water with added NaCl. The technology of production guarantees the product is entirely ecological, biologically fully degradable, non-toxic that can replace traditional chemical agents. Possibilities of disinfection using this solution have been verified directly in stables at the interval of 20, 40, 60 min. after application. Staphylococci and streptococci and enterococci were inactive always after 60 minutes of effect. There was significant decrease in the number of total number of microorganisms. Further, the solution of electrolyzed water was used to water poultry; and the affect on some of the properties of poultry meat, changes in pH, colour and loss of water (dripping in particular, was observed. Testing was carried out under working conditions in two breeding halls at a time and the technology of electrolyzed water to disinfect premises and to water chickens was used in one of the halls. When the chickens were slaughter mature, the poultry was slaughtered at the standard slaughterhouse and samples (127 pieces were taken in order to measure pH, colour and loss of water (dripping. The values of pH, colour and loss of water (dripping ascertained, processed by the T-test did not confirm the hypothesis of the assumed possible differences in occurrence of critical values of these indicators in both groups observed.

Dana Jirotková

2012-10-01

130

Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: re [...] cyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick) or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick), and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

C. B., Porciúncula; N. R., Marcilio; I. C., Tessaro; M., Gerchmann.

2012-06-01

131

Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick, and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

C. B. Porciúncula

2012-06-01

132

Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: re [...] cyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick) or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick), and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

C. B., Porciúncula; N. R., Marcilio; I. C., Tessaro; M., Gerchmann.

133

Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for X-ray-based inspection systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Transport Canada (TC), the Canadian Armed Forces, and other public security agencies have an interest in the assessment of the potential utility of advanced explosives detection technologies to aid in the detection and interdiction of commercial grade, military grade, and homemade or improvised explosives (HME or IE). The availability of suitable, non-hazardous, non-toxic, explosive simulants is of concern when assessing the potential utility of such detection systems. Lack of simulants limits the training opportunities, and ultimately the detection probability, of security personnel using these systems. While simulants for commercial and military grade explosives are available for a wide variety of detection technologies, the design and production of materials to simulate improvised explosives has not kept pace with this emerging threat. Funded by TC and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Visiontec Systems, and Optosecurity engaged in an effort to develop inert, non-toxic Xray interrogation simulants for IE materials such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and triacetone triperoxide. These simulants were designed to mimic key X-ray interrogation-relevant material properties of real improvised explosives, principally their bulk density and effective atomic number. Different forms of the simulants were produced and tested, simulating the different explosive threat formulations that could be encountered by front line security workers. These simulants comply with safety and stability requirements, and as best as possible match form and homogeneity. This paper outlines the research program, simulant design, and validation.

Faust, Anthony A.; Nacson, Sabatino; Koffler, Bruce; Bourbeau, Éric; Gagne, Louis; Laing, Robin; Anderson, C. J.

2014-05-01

134

Leaching of coal combustion products: Field and laboratory studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This study combines field monitoring and laboratory experiments to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the re-use of coal combustion by-products (CCPs). The monitoring data obtained from two full-scale CCP applications (i.e., re-use of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond and portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs) allowed environmental impacts to be evaluated under real or simulated in-service conditions. A complimentary laboratory leaching study elucidated fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that determine the leaching kinetics of inorganic contaminants from CCPs. In the first field study, water quality impacts associated with the re-use of FGD material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond were examined by monitoring the water quality of water samples collected from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner over a period of 5 years. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio non-toxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention might be due to both sorption and precipitation. In the second field study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under controlled loading and environmental conditions. Three types of portland-cement-concrete driving surfaces were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). None of the leachate concentrations for fluids collected from laboratory leaching tests exceeded the OhioEPA's non-toxic criteria. Surface runoff monitoring showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, while there were no significant differences in release rates between OPC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for K and Cr, the release of elements was associated with the particulate (>0.45 micron) phase rather than the dissolved phase. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Cheng, Chin-Min

135

Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel  

Science.gov (United States)

The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

2012-10-01

136

Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min. PMID:20221864

da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

2010-05-01

137

Photocatalytic hydrogen production of Co(OH)2 nanoparticle-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanorings  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of hydrogen from water using only a catalyst and solar energy is one of the most challenging and promising outlets for the generation of clean and renewable energy. Semiconductor photocatalysts for solar hydrogen production by water photolysis must employ stable, non-toxic, abundant and inexpensive visible-light absorbers capable of harvesting light photons with adequate potential to reduce water. Here, we show that ?-Fe2O3 can meet these requirements by means of using hydrothermally prepared nanorings. These iron oxide nanoring photocatalysts proved capable of producing hydrogen efficiently without application of an external bias. In addition, Co(OH)2 nanoparticles were shown to be efficient co-catalysts on the nanoring surface by improving the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Both nanoparticle-coated and uncoated nanorings displayed superior photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution when compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, showing themselves to be promising materials for water-splitting using only solar light.The production of hydrogen from water using only a catalyst and solar energy is one of the most challenging and promising outlets for the generation of clean and renewable energy. Semiconductor photocatalysts for solar hydrogen production by water photolysis must employ stable, non-toxic, abundant and inexpensive visible-light absorbers capable of harvesting light photons with adequate potential to reduce water. Here, we show that ?-Fe2O3 can meet these requirements by means of using hydrothermally prepared nanorings. These iron oxide nanoring photocatalysts proved capable of producing hydrogen efficiently without application of an external bias. In addition, Co(OH)2 nanoparticles were shown to be efficient co-catalysts on the nanoring surface by improving the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Both nanoparticle-coated and uncoated nanorings displayed superior photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution when compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, showing themselves to be promising materials for water-splitting using only solar light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Histograms of size distributions of NP-coated and as-prepared IONRs (Fig. S1 and S2); selected-area EDS spectrum of the IONR/Co(OH)2 NPs (Fig. S3); STEM images with details of the IONR/NP surface (Fig. S4); diffuse reflectance data (Fig. S5) and XPS survey spectra of IONRs (Fig. S6). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02195e

Wender, Heberton; Gonçalves, Renato V.; Dias, Carlos Sato B.; Zapata, Maximiliano J. M.; Zagonel, Luiz F.; Mendonça, Edielma C.; Teixeira, Sérgio R.; Garcia, Flávio

2013-09-01

138

Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation; Caracterizacao bioquimica e imunologica dos principais produtos gerados pela irradiacao de crotoxina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of {gamma}-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

Nascimento, Nanci do

1995-07-01

139

Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening ...

Jean-Philippe Maréchal; Claire Hellio

2009-01-01

140

Efficient, full-spectrum, long-lived, non-toxic microwave lamp for plant growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusion Systems Corporation has developed a mercury-free, low infrared, efficient microwave lamp using a benign sulfur based fill optimized for visible light. Our literature search and discussions with researchers directed us to enhance the bulbs red output. We have demonstrated a photosynthetic efficacy of over 2 micro-moles per microwave joule which corresponds to over 1.3 micro-moles per joule at the power main. Recent work has shown we can make additional increases in overall system efficiency. During the next two years, we expect to demonstrate a system capable of producing more than 1.5 micro-moles/joule measured at the power main with significantly less IR than alternative lamp systems. We determined optimal plant growth light requirements via a literature search and researcher input. We surveyed candidate lamp fill materials to be used in combination with sulfur and explored several methods of increasing photosynthetic efficacy.

Maclennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Ury, Michael G.; Gustafson, Paul

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Simple screening method to identify toxic/non-toxic ionic liquids: agar diffusion test adaptation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of ionic liquids (ILs), containing a diverse set of cations, anions and alkyl chain lengths, was screened for their antimicrobial activity toward four microorganisms, Escherichia coli CCT-0355, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-6533, Fusarium sp. LM03 and Candida albicans ATCC-76645. For that purpose an adaptation of the Agar Diffusion test was validated and successfully applied as a rapid screen method to identify toxic ILs, avoiding the use of more complex and expensive techniques. The effects of the cation alkyl chain length were studied, being observed both the "alkyl side chain" effect (increase in antimicrobial activity with the elongation of the alkyl chain) and "cut-off" effect (beyond a given chain length, the toxicity cannot be increased any further). Imidazolium-based ILs have in general, negative effects on the growth of these microorganisms dependent on the anion and alkyl chain length (growth inhibition halo from 1.98±0.04 mm for [C(2)mim]Cl to 39.53±0.81 mm for [C(10)mim]Cl). On the opposite, the phosphonium-based ILs do not seem to have negative effects for the longest alkyl chains (growth inhibition halos between 0.00±0.00 and 7.30±0.42 mm). It was also observed that the alkyl chain, cation family, and anion moiety all have significant effects on the antimicrobial activity these effects being well correlated with the lipophilicity of the ILs tested. The results also show that the microorganisms responses to the diverse ILs tested are dependent on their morphologic differences. PMID:22742861

Ventura, Sónia P M; de Barros, Rafael L F; Sintra, Tânia; Soares, Cleide M F; Lima, Alvaro S; Coutinho, João A P

2012-09-01

142

(2-Hydroxyethylammonium Lactates—Highly Biodegradable and Essentially Non-Toxic Ionic Liquids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (2-Hydroxyethylammonium lactates have been prepared by reactions of the corresponding (2-hydroxyethyl amines with lactic acid and characterized by their 1H NMR, IR, and mass spectra. They have been quantita- tively analyzed by HPLC, and their water contents have been determined by the Karl-Fischer method. The title salts are low-melting solids or viscous liquids, and they belong to the class of polar, hydrophilic ionic liquids. The toxicity and chemical and biological degradation of the synthesized ionic liquids have been evaluated by methods described in European Standards. The measurements showed these ionic liquids to be highly biodegradable and only slightly toxic substances. Condensation reactions of benzaldehyde with ethyl cyanoacetate and with acetophenone have been performed in these materials as solvents. The possibility of simultaneously applying these ionic liquids as both solvents and catalysts for the mentioned reactions has been demonstrated, as well as repeated use of the same ionic liquid for a number of condensation reactions without any purification.

Sanita Pavlovica

2011-08-01

143

I-131-treatment of non-toxic goitre. Radiojodtherapie der Struma mit Euthyreose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioiodine is a safe and effective treatment of thyroid enlargement with or - in the presence of significant amounts of autonomously functioning tissue - without true euthyroidism. The indications are esentially the same as for surgery, except the case of a goitre recidive and of recurrent nerve injury, for which radioiodine is the treatment of choise. On the contrary, large cold nodules and a suspicion of malignancy preclude it. The size reduction of about 40% is less than that obtained by surgery, but there are no side effects and no recurrences. Hypothyroidism occurs in 4% of the cases. Unfortunately, the number of specially equipped institutions that are allowed to perform radioiodine therapy is yet restricted. (orig.).

Leisner, B.; Grotefendt, M. (Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

1990-12-01

144

Application of powder metallurgy techniques for the development of non-toxic ammunition. Final CRADA report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and Delta Frangible Ammunition (DFA), was to identify and evaluate composite materials for the development of small arms ammunition. Currently available small arms ammunition utilizes lead as the major component of the projectile. The introduction of lead into the environment by these projectiles when they are expended is a rapidly increasing environmental problem. At certain levels, lead is a toxic metal to the environment and a continual health and safety concern for firearm users as well as those who must conduct lead recovery operations from the environment. DFA is a leading supplier of high-density mixtures, which will be used to replace lead-based ammunition in specific applications. Current non-lead ammunition has several limitations that prevent it from replacing lead-based ammunition in many applications (such as applications that require ballistics, weapon recoil, and weapon function identical to that of lead-based ammunition). The purpose of the CRADA was to perform the research and development to identify cost-effective materials to be used in small arms ammunition that eventually will be used in commercially viable, environmentally conscious, non-lead, frangible and/or non-frangible, ammunition.

Lowden, R. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kelly, R. [Delta Defense, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-05-30

145

Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.2 g L{sup -1} NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent.

Varvara, Simona [Department of Topography, ' 1 Decembrie 1918' University, 11-13 Nicolae Iorga Street, 510009 Alba Iulia (Romania); Muresan, Liana Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 11 Arany-Janos Street, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)], E-mail: limur@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Rahmouni, Kamal; Takenouti, Hisasi [UPMC LISE - UPR 15 of the CNRS, ' Pierre and Marie Curie' University, Paris (France)

2008-09-15

146

Nanodiamonds with silicon vacancy defects for non-toxic photostable fluorescent labeling of neural precursor cells  

CERN Document Server

Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. NPCs labeled with NDs exhibited normal cell viability and proliferative properties consistent with biocompatibility. We conclude that SiVcontaining NDs are a promising biomedical research tool for cellular labeling and optical imaging in stem cell research.

Merson, Tobias D; Aharonovich, Igor; Turbic, Alisa; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Turnley, Ann M

2013-01-01

147

Effects of non-toxic cryoprotective agents on the viability of cord blood derived MNCs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work investigates the effects of a variety of natural cryoprotectants in combination on post-thaw viability and apoptosis of cryopreserved mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from umbilical cord blood. The extracellular cryoprotectants (10 mM) namely trehalose, hydroxyl ethyl starch, polyvinyl pyrrolidine and intracellular CPAs (5 mM) like erythritol, taurine and ectoine were used to prepare different combinations of freezing medium following L9 (3(4)) Taguchi orthogonal array. Catalase, coenzyme Q10 and n-acetyl cystine (100 microg/m) were added as antioxidants. Among various combinations, freezing medium consisting of hydroxyl ethyl starch, ectoin and co-enzyme Q10 with 10% FBS is found to be most effective combination achieving maximum cell viability of 93%, 5.6% early apoptotic, 0.7% late apoptotic and 0.1% necrotic cells. SEM and phase contrast microscopy confirmed the normal cell morphology of the post-thaw cultured cells with retaining their membrane integrity. The survival rate of MNCs is higher than the rate achieved using conventional Me2SO. PMID:24448765

Bissoyi, Akalabya; Pramanik, K

2013-01-01

148

Human studies with 'high dose' metronidazole: a non-toxic radiosensitizer of hypoxic cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The serum concentrations of the radiosensitizer metronidazole have been determined in mice for both oral and intraperitoneal doses of the drug and these have been related to radiosensitization studies in murine tumour systems. In preliminary work before a possible clinical trial the serum metronidazole concentration/time curves have been determined in 7 patients using single doses of metronidazole of up to 15 g. The data suggested that a linear relationship exists between the metronidazole dose expressed in mg/kg and the peak serum concentration. The possibility of achieving radiosensitization of tumours in patients after tolerable doses of metronidazole is discussed in relation to enhancement ratios determined for in vitro and in vivo system. It is concluded that predictions from in vitro systems give values that are probably too optimistic. (author)

149

Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L-1 Na2SO4 + 0.2 g L-1 NaHCO3 at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent

150

Fast, non-toxic, and inexpensive n-butanol preparation of recombinant plasmids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various commercial and non-commercial plasmid preparation protocols are currently available. However, the kits are expensive and many of the protocols contain toxic chemicals. Here we present a novel, optimized and, therefore, very advantageous plasmid preparation protocol using n-butanol. The preparation can be performed quickly and no toxic chemicals are used, at overall costs of about one cent per plasmid preparation.

Brieger Jürgen

2000-01-01

151

Non-Toxic Fumigation and Alternative Control Techniques Against Fungal Colonization for Preserving Archaeological Oil Painting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, samples were collected from the deteriorated parts of archeological oil painting of Ismael pasha exhibited in Al-Gizyra museum, Egypt. The tested oil painting grounds belonged to the period from beginning of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th in Egypt were analysed and fungal deterioration aspects were examined by different techniques such as Scanning Eectron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The data show that calcium sulphate was the major component of the tested oil painting sample. Brittleness and deep cracks were observed as result of fungal damage. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from the tested Ismael pasha oil painting, belonging to the genera of Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Stemphylium and Trichoderima. The data reveal that Cladosporium cladosporioides contributed the broadest spectra in the tested oil painting. Screening for proteolytic and celluloytic enzyme activities indicate that the genera of Cadosporium, Alternaria and Aspergilli showed the highest significant enzyme activities. Comparative sensitivity to radiation against all isolated fungal species indicate that the treatment of the tested fungal species with diode laser lead to complete inhibition of all tested species after 15 min exposure time. Calcium sulfate at 0.10% concentration lead to the highest dry weight of C. cladosporioides (1.63 g/100 mL, while the change in pH was nearly non-significantly affected with sulphur concentration. Gel electrophoresis patterns of the most radioresistant species (C. cladosporioides reveal the dramatic loss of essentially all major protein bands after laser irradiation.

Neveen S.I. Geweely

2006-01-01

152

Toxic and non-toxic role of some metals in human body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metals included in this study were copper, iron, zinc, cadmium and lead. The copper, iron and zinc were selected because of their important biological role in human body while cadmium and lead were selected due to their toxic nature. During the past few years, the assessment of pollution of food resources has become a major subject of investigation all over the world. Human health may be directly affected by investing fruit and vegetables, if enhanced amounts of macro or micro nutrients are present in such edibles. In addition, the presence of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in general foodstuff can lead to the malfunction of organs and chronic toxicity in humans. (author)

153

Plant toxic and non-toxic nature of organic dyes through adsorption mechanism on cellulose surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effluents releasing from dyeing industries directly affect the soil, water, plant and human life. Among these dyes, plant poisoning, soil polluting and water polluting nature of organic dyes are not yet identified. The plant poisoning and non-poisoning organic dyes are identified through adsorption mechanism of cationic malachite green (MG) and anionic methyl orange (MO) on brinjal plant root powder (cellulose). The positive ?H(o) (44 kJ mol(-1)) of MG higher than 40 kJ mol(-1) confirmed the adsorption of MG on cellulose is chemisorption and the negative ?H(o) (-11 kJ mol(-1)) less than 40 kJ mol(-1) showed that the adsorption of MO on cellulose is physisorption. The ?G(o) values for the adsorption of MG and MO on BPR are not much increased with increase of temperature which indicated that the adsorption is independent of the temperature. The entropy change for the adsorption of MG and MO has proved that the MG (+?S(o)) has less disorder at the adsorption interface and MO (-?S(o)) has the high disorder at the adsorption interface. The recovery of both dyes has been studied in water at 80°C on BPR surface and observed that the MO recovery is 95% and MG is 10%. The poor desorption of MG is due to the strong chemisorption on BPR (cellulose) surface proves its plant poisoning nature. The high recovery of MO due to physisorption mechanism proves that MO is not poisoning the plant. PMID:21398036

Buvaneswari, Natesan; Kannan, Chellapandian

2011-05-15

154

Characterization of an inexpensive, non-toxic and highly sensitive microarray substrate.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An agarose film has been proposed as an efficient substrate for producing microarrays. The original film preparation procedure was simplified significantly by grafting the agarose layer directly onto unmodified microscope glass slides instead of aminated glass slides, and the blocking procedure was replaced with a wash in 0.1x standard saline citrate (SSC) and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) without decreasing the performance of the produced microarrays. Characterization of the grafted agarose film using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the agarose film had a 10-fold increase in surface roughness compared to glass and that the interior of the agarose film was porous, with pore sizes between 100-500 nm. A comparison of hybridization on aldehyde-activated agarose-coated microarray slides and commercial amino-reactive microarray slides showed that aldehyde-activated agarose-coated slides had the highest signal-to-noise ratio of 850, suggesting that the aldehyde-activated agarose microarray slides are suitable in applications where analytes have a wide concentration range. By immobilizing the DNA probes using ultraviolet (UV) light, the signal-to-noise ratio was further increased to 3000 on the agarose microarray slides. The specificity of the UV cross-linked DNA probes was demonstrated using 21 and 25 bp long capture probes, enabling discrimination of target molecules differing in only one base.

Dufva, Hans Martin; Petronis, Sarunas

2004-01-01

155

High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements  

Science.gov (United States)

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

2014-07-01

156

Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine ({sup 131}I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive {sup 131}I plus lithium (group I+L) or {sup 131}I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, {sup 131}I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after {sup 131}I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after {sup 131}I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, {sup 131}I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low {sup 131}I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

Vannucchi, Guia; Mannavola, Deborah; Dazzi, Davide; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Fugazzola, Laura [Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS (Pad. Granelli), Institute of Endocrine Sciences, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Rodari, Marcello; Tadayyon, Sara [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy)

2005-09-01

157

/ Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentrati [...] on of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1) indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

R.S., Abdel Hameed.

158

Discovery and Canine Preclinical Assessment of a Non-Toxic Procaspase-3-Activating Compound  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A critical event in the apoptotic cascade is the proteolytic activation of procaspases to active caspases. The caspase auto-activating compound PAC-1 induces cancer cell apoptosis and exhibits antitumor activity in murine xenograft models when administered orally as a lipid-based formulation or implanted subcutaneously as a cholesterol pellet. However, high doses of PAC-1 were found to induce neurotoxicity, prompting us to design and assess a novel PAC-1 derivative called S-PAC-1. Similar to ...

Peterson, Quinn P.; Hsu, Danny C.; Novotny, Chris J.; West, Diana C.; Kim, Dewey; Schmit, Joanna M.; Dirikolu, Levent; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Fan, Timothy M.

2010-01-01

159

Production of Modularised Product Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used to support the ideas.

Jacobsen, Peter

2004-01-01

160

Utilization of Jatropha deoiled seed cake for production of cellulases under solid-state fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic waste generated by Jatropha seed cake after utilization of biodiesel on one hand has stimulated the need to develop new technologies to treat the waste and on the other, forced us to reevaluate the efficient utilization of its nutritive potential for production of various high-value compounds and its conversion to non-toxic forms which could be used as animal feed stock. In this study, Jatropha seed cake was used for production of cellulases by new isolate of Thermoascus aurantiacus under solid-state fermentation. The interaction of nitrogen source concentration, moisture ratio, initial pH of the medium and inoculum size was investigated and modelled using response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Under optimized conditions endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase and filter paper activities were found to be 124.44, 28.86, 4.87 U/g of substrate, respectively. Characterization of endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase was done after partial purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by desalting. The endo-?-1,4-glucanase and ?-glucosidase showed maximum activity at 70 °C and pH 4. Saccharification studies performed with different lignocellulosic substrates showed that sugar cane bagasse was most susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The study suggests that Jatropha seed cake can be used as a viable nutrient source for cellulase production without any pretreatment under solid-state fermentation by T. aurantiacus. PMID:22451079

Dave, Bhaumik R; Sudhir, Ankit P; Pansuriya, Mehul; Raykundaliya, Dharmesh P; Subramanian, R B

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Biogas/Energy Production from waste (Municipal, Agricultural, Food)  

Every year a total of 4400 million cubic meters of liquid waste (Sewage) are ... \\trade and non-hazardous industrial refuse and treated bio-medical solid ... (\\Based on the performance of WtoE projects operating in Hyderabad, Vijayawada \\and ... incineration and composting but can very well utilized in biological \\treatment.

162

Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production  

Science.gov (United States)

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

2013-01-01

163

Selection and Properties of Alternative Forming Fluids for TRISO Fuel Kernel Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Doug Marshall; M. Baker; J. King; B. Gorman

2013-01-01

164

Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil, and water content (w/w of oil were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were 80% and 79%, respectively.

Chi-Yang Yu

2013-12-01

165

Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs. We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram, different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 °C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 ± 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC.

Chandra P. Singh

2010-01-01

166

Continuous low cost transesterification process for the production of coconut biodiesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors. We tested residence times of 16-43 min, stirring speeds of 200-800 rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25-1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 {sup o}C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 {+-} 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC. (author)

Kumar, G.; Kumar, D.; Singh, S.; Kothari, S.; Bhatt, S.; Singh, CH. P. [Department of Chemistry, Sahu Jain College, Najibabad, 246763 (India)

2010-07-01

167

Production and analysis of bio-diesel from non-edible oils. A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-diesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and it is derived from renewable resources, bio degradable and non-toxic in nature. Several bio-diesel production methods have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali catalyst gives high level of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl ester in short reaction time. The process of transesterification is affected by the reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature, purity of reactants free fatty acids and water content of oils or fats. In this work, an attempt has been made on review of bio-diesel production, methods of analyzing, bio-diesel standard, resources available, process developed performance in internal combustion engines, teardown analysis of bio-diesel B20 operated vehicle, recommendation for development of bio-fuels, environmental considerations, economic aspects and advantages. The technical tools and process for monitoring the transesterification reaction like TLC, GC, HPLC, GPC, {sup 1}H NMR and NIR have also been summarized in this paper. (author)

Murugesan, A.; Chinnusamy, T.R.; Krishnan, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637215, Tamil Nadu (India); Umarani, C. [Department of Chemistry, Government Arts College, Salem (India); Subramanian, R. [Department of Automobile Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India); Neduzchezhain, N. [Sabbatical, Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS, Pilani, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

2009-05-15

168

Optimized production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively. PMID:24336109

Yu, Chi-Yang; Huang, Liang-Yu; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Shiow-Ling

2013-01-01

169

Radioisotope Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The types of nuclear reactions for radioisotope production using nuclear reactors and cyclotrons are described. The question of purity and quality control of the products are discussed. (Atomindex citation 19:051075)

C. P. G. Silva

1987-01-01

170

Household Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that ... Arts and craft supplies Toxic substances in these products can cause harm if inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed ...

171

Antihydrogen production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antihydrogen production in ATHENA is analyzed more carefully. The most important peculiarities of the different experimental situations are discussed. The protonium production via the first matter-antimatter chemical reaction is commented too

172

Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: Another potential mechanism of immune-suppression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 deg. C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with > 85% inhibition at 1 ?g/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 ?g/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1? (83%) or TNF-? (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity

173

Hydrogen Production  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation provides an introduction to the basics of hydrogen production. Advantages of using hydrogen, information on current global hydrogen production, primary uses for hydrogen and hydrogen production processes are introduced. The presentation consists of 26 slides and may be downloaded in Microsoft Power Point file format.

2012-09-05

174

Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

2008-03-20

175

Product placement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The exhibition brought together a range of artists and product designers who share an interest in how objects are made, displayed / marketed and sold in contemporary culture. The exhibition questioned issues surrounding the production, technology and marketing of commodities, but on a wider scale, how (and by whom) participation in consumer activity is structured or framed. Each artist and product designer was ‘paired’ in order to produce a new object, multiple or edition for exhibiti...

Selby, Mark; Smith, Will

2012-01-01

176

Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forming fluid selection criteria developed for TRISO kernel production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ten candidates selected for further study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density, viscosity, and surface tension measured for first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Settling velocity and heat transfer rates calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fluids recommended for kernel production testing. - Abstract: Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of {approx}10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 Degree-Sign C and 80 Degree-Sign C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

Baker, M.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J.C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Gorman, B.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Marshall, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2013-01-15

177

Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Forming fluid selection criteria developed for TRISO kernel production. ? Ten candidates selected for further study. ? Density, viscosity, and surface tension measured for first time. ? Settling velocity and heat transfer rates calculated. ? Three fluids recommended for kernel production testing. - Abstract: Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol–gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ?10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

178

Agricultural Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

179

Production Office  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the "Production Office". This Production Office illustrates and explains the principles underlying the main construction processes examined during the virtual site visits and tours in this part of CIVCAL.

Kumaraswamy, Mohan

2002-01-01

180

Antiproton production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic definitions used in the physics literature on particle production are reviewed. The data on anti p production are interpreted in order to provide an estimate of the yield of anti p's from typical target at the antiproton accumulator, including the effects of re-absorption in the target. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
181

Uranium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alltime high for uranium concentrate production is expected to be reached in 1980. The average grade of ore fed to process will be up about 10% from last year. Some curtailments in uranium processing were announced, but three new processing plants began production in 1980. The prospects for 1981 are not as encouraging. The continuation of low prices and slow demand for U3O8 are expected to be reflected in a significant reduction in overall production and in the postponement of some plans for expansion and construction of uranium processing facilities. Increases in production capacity will occur when Plateau Resource's 750 TPD mill at Ticaboo, Utah, starts up early next year, and additional production of byproduct uranium is expected from western phosphate operations and from the southern states. These increases in capacity, however, will not offset the cutbacks in uranium processing already in force together with the additional curtailments anticipated during the course of 1981

182

Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil & Its Evaluation in Compression Ignition Engine Using RSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lack of energy, deterioration of the environment and hunger,these are the three problems the humans are facing in todays era. There is an exponential rise in the demand is arrising for petroleum based energy. This has been followed by problem of depleting conventional petroleum fuels and a hike in price of these fuels, almost on a regular basis. Moreover, these green house emissions are results of petroleum fuels and other forms of pollution in the environment. The rise in the price of the fuel has also been alarming for us to find alternate energy resource.The vegetable oils has proved to be a promising source to obtain fuels for IC engines. Like, biodiesel is biodegradable, non- toxic and renewable fuel. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oil by transesterification with alcohols. The high cost of raw materials and lack of modern technology has led to the commercialization which can optimize the biodiesel yield. A modified engine can lead to better engine performance along with lesser specific fuel consumption. In this thesis, Response Surface Methodology (RSM has been used which has focused on the optimization of biodiesel production, engine performance and exhaust emission parameters.

Jashan Deep Singha

2014-04-01

183

Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover for production of ethanol and carbon microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pretreatment of biomass is viewed as a critical step to make the cellulose accessible to enzymes and for an adequate yield of fermentable sugars in ethanol production. Recently, hydrothermal pretreatment methods have attracted a great deal of attention because it uses water which is a inherently present in green biomass, non-toxic, environmentally benign, and inexpensive medium. Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover was conducted in a flow through reactor to enhance and optimize the enzymatic digestibility. More than 80% of glucan digestibility was achieved by pretreatment at 190 oC. Addition of a small amount of K2CO3 (0.45-0.9 wt.%) can enhance the pretreatment and allow use of lower temperatures. Switchgrass pretreated at 190 oC only with water had higher internal surface area than that pretreated in the presence of K2CO3, but both the substrates showed similar glucan digestibility. In comparison to switchgrass, corn stover required milder pretreatment conditions. The liquid hydrolyzate generated during pretreatment was converted into carbon microspheres by hydrothermal carbonization, providing a value-added byproduct. The carbonization process was further examined by GC-MS analysis to understand the mechanism of microsphere formation.

184

Agriculture wastes conversion for biofertilizer production using beneficial microorganisms for sustainable agriculture applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: The emphasis of this study is to generate new valuable bioproducts from non-toxic cleaning waste for environmental healing technology. Methodology and Results: Comparisons between different types of biofertilizer formulations and the field trial effectiveness were done. Results indicated that biofertilizer C contained the highest N value (1.8% when compared with biofertilizers B and A, which only contained 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively. Biofertilizer A showed significant difference in the total count of yeast, mould, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrate oxidizing bacteria compared to biofertilizer B and C. Meanwhile, biofertilizer C was found to be significantly different from others in Lactobacillus sp. and nitrogen-fixing bacteria count. Photosynthetic total count and Actinomycetes sp. were not noticed in all formulations tested.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The findings of this study suggest that biofertilizer A is suitable to be used as a promotional biofertilizer in flower and fruit production, biofertilizer B can be used for a leafy crop, while biofertilizer C is good for the growth of roots and stem of plants.

Ali, S. I. S.

2013-01-01

185

Radioisotope production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67Ga, 81Rb/81mKr and 111In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 ?A). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123I, in the form of Na123I capsules as well as 123I-sodium hippurate, and 52Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

186

Absorbent hygiene products - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Absorbent hygiene products - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules /en/PCR/PCR-Forum/Absorbent-hygiene-products1/ Absorbent hygiene products - Environmental Product ... PCR Development PCR Forum Search Using EPDs PCR Forum Absorbent hygiene products PCR Forum Absorbent hygiene products Absorbent hygiene products by: Ellen ...April 2011, 7:13:38 AM (GMT +1) Thank you for your comments on the PCR for Absorbent Hygiene Products. The industry working group for the PCR will ...

187

Absorbent hygiene products - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Absorbent hygiene products - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules /en/PCR/PCR-Forum/Absorbent-hygiene-products/ Absorbent hygiene products - Environmental Product ... PCR Development PCR Forum Search Using EPDs PCR Forum Absorbent hygiene products PCR Forum Absorbent hygiene products Absorbent hygiene products by: Romeo ...Fater SpA, we have revised some parts of the PCR draft for Absorbent hygiene products.Please find attached the document with our comments highlighted ...

188

Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas. PMID:22782638

Dias, L A S; Missio, R F; Dias, D C F S

2012-01-01

189

ABLEDATA: Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pressure/Massage Modality Equipment, Respiratory Aids, Rolls, Sensory Integration, Stimulators, Therapy Furnishings, Thermal/Water Modality Equipment, Traction. Transportation Products to enable people with disabilities to drive or ride in cars, vans, trucks ...

190

Environmental impact of a coal combustion-desulphurisation plant: abatement capacity of desulphurisation process and environmental characterisation of combustion by-products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fate of trace elements in a combustion power plant equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) installation was studied in order to evaluate its emission abatement capacity. With this aim representative samples of feed coal, boiler slag, fly ash, limestone, FGD gypsum and FGD process water and wastewater were analysed for major and trace elements using the following techniques: inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), ion chromatography (IC), ion selective electrode (ISE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mass balances were established allowing to determine the element partitioning behaviour. It was found that, together with S, Hg, Cl, F, Se and As were those elements entering in the FGD plant primarily as gaseous species. The abatement capacity of the FGD plant for such elements offered values ranged from 96% to 100% for As, Cl, F, S and Se, and about 60% for Hg. The environmental characterisation of combustion by-products (boiler slag, fly ash and FGD gypsum) were also established according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. To this end, water leaching tests (EN-12457-4) were performed, analysing the elements with environmental concern by means of the aforementioned techniques. According to the leaching behaviour of combustion by-products studied, these could be disposed of in landfills for non-hazardous wastes. PMID:16890268

Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Tomás, A

2006-12-01

191

Rendering wastes obtained from gold analysis by the lead-fusion fire-assay method non-hazardous.  

Science.gov (United States)

The classical method of melting lead by fire-assay (Pb-FA) is the most frequently used analytical technique in gold prospection. The crucible solid waste which is generated in this process is usually characterized by chemical and mineralogical composition, granulometric size distribution, and classified according to Brazilian Environmental Regulations. This study demonstrates how acid leaching can be used to remove lead from waste originally classified as hazardous by treatment with hydrochloric and nitric acids followed by chemical precipitation in sodium metasilicate solution. It is shown that for every 1000 kg of hazardous waste, 995.6 kg of non-harzardous waste can be recovered. PMID:22771892

Magalhães, Fernanda Batalha; de Freitas Carvalho, Cornélio; Corrêa Netto Carvalho, Eduardo Lyse; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Gouvêa dos-Santos, Cláudio

2012-11-15

192

Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

Cunningham Drew S

2009-05-01

193

Radioisotope production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The past 12-month period marks the first full year of routine radioisotope production at the NAC. The main emphasis was placed on the improvement, rounding off and extension of production facilities; improvement and development of production procedures, concentrating on those radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals that have already been proven in routine medical diagnostic applications, and the streamlining and extension of the routine production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The production facilities which received attention were the target handling facilities, cooling systems, extension of the target transport system, completion of the second row of six hot cells together with the upgrading and extention of the hot-cell processing facilities, safety interlocking systems and targetry, including the development of a new Kr-gas target system for the production of 81Rb. Production procedures which received attention included 67Ga from Ge targets, the recovery of 67Cu from Zn targets, 111In via an indirect route, 201Tl from Tl targets and the labelling of a number of organic compounds such as MIBG, hippurate, amphetamines, fatty acids and IBZM with 123I. The registration of 123I-sodium hippurate and 123I capsules as medicines was finalized and further improvements were added to the pharmaceutical facilities and procedures. Almost 1000 consignments of radiopharmaceuticals,1000 consignments of radiopharmaceuticals, consisting mainly of 67Ga-citrate solutions, 81Rb/81m,Kr-generators, 123I-sodium iodide solutions and 123I-MIBG, were produced and delivered to South African hospitals and other organizations. 6 figs., 6 refs., 1 tab

194

Systemic productivity must complement structural productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Linguistic productivity is not just structural productivity (the making of assemblies), it also contains 'systemic productivity' (the productive placement within pluridimensional paradigms). An occurrential, dynamic model provides a cognitively founded explanation of systemic productivity.

Lavie, Rene?-joseph

2004-01-01

195

Bottom production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

2000-03-15

196

Bottom production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

197

Energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DOE supplies energy under two principal programs. It markets electricity generated by Federal hydroelectric installations, and it provides uranium enrichment services to meet domestic, foreign, and US Government requirements. In addition, the DOE produces and markets petroleum from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Electric power is sold at prices to recover production costs, including the return of capital with interest, and enriched uranium is sold at prices established to offset some of the costs of providing these services. Gross energy production costs and revenues for both hydroelectric power marketing and uranium enrichment for 1983, 1984, and 1985 are given

198

Hsp90 blockade modulates bullous pemphigoid IgG-induced IL-8 production by keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common subepidermal autoimmune blistering skin disease characterized by autoantibodies against the hemidesmosomal proteins BP180 and BP230. The cell stress chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been implicated in inflammatory responses, and recent evidence suggests that it represents a novel treatment target in autoimmune bullous diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the contribution of Hsp90 to the proinflammatory cytokine production in keratinocytes induced by autoantibodies to BP180 from BP patient serum. HaCaT cells were treated with purified human BP or normal IgG in the absence or presence of the Hsp90 blocker 17-DMAG and effects on viability, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 (cytokines critical for BP pathology), NF?B (their major transcription factor), and Hsp70 (marker of effective Hsp90 inhibition and potent negative regulator of inflammatory responses) were investigated. We found that BP IgG stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 release from HaCaT cells and that non-toxic doses of 17-DMAG inhibited this IL-8, but not IL-6 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Inhibition of this IL-8 production was also observed at the transcriptional level. In addition, 17-DMAG treatment blunted BP IgG-mediated upregulation of NF?B activity and was associated with Hsp70 induction. This study provides important insights that Hsp90 is involved as crucial regulator in anti-BP180 IgG-induced production of keratinocyte-derived IL-8. By adding to the knowledge of the multimodal anti-inflammatory effects of Hsp90 blockade, our data further support the introduction of Hsp90 inhibitors into the clinical setting for treatment of autoimmune diseases, especially for BP. PMID:24796797

Tukaj, Stefan; Grüner, Denise; Zillikens, Detlef; Kasperkiewicz, Michael

2014-11-01

199

Smart Productivity  

drivers of productivity – enterprise, competition, investment, innovation and skills. \\'Smart ... We hope that the case studies shown here will inspire further innovation \\in every region in order ...... value and wealth-creating jobs. CSEng has a .... \\communities and entrepreneurs about ... and 5,000 copies distributed to \\companies ...

200

Novolak Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

Aiba, Hiroshi

 
 
 
 
201

Production balance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In terms of the environment, the year 2011 was balanced in the company Slovenske elektrarne. The trend of a high share of electricity production from nuclear and hydro power plants persisted; therefore, a greater part of electricity supplies (88.5%) was not loaded by emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. (author)

202

Product stewardship in wollastonite production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In July 2002, NYCO Minerals, Inc., discovered a heretofore unknown contaminant in its wollastonite ore. The contaminant was first believed to be tremolite asbestos. Immediate efforts were made to eliminate this material. Additional studies were initiated to fully characterize the contaminant and its distribution in the ore body. Subsequent study by NYCO and their consultants led to the identification of the contaminant as a transition material (TM) intermediate between tremolite and talc. In vitro dissolution rate measurements indicated that the TM dissolved much more rapidly than tremolite asbestos. This article provides background information on wollastonite mineralogy and NYCO's product stewardship program (PSP). At present, NYCO Minerals uses selective mining to control the trace levels of TM in the ore and finished product verified by periodic monitoring of workplace air and finished product. PMID:18855155

Maxim, L Daniel; Niebo, Ron; Larosa, Salvatore; Johnston, Brad; Allison, Kimberly; McConnell, E E

2008-11-01

203

Iron(VI) and iron(V): environmentally-friendly oxidants in water and wastewater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summarizes the results of the studies on the treatment of water and wastewater by iron(VI) and iron(V). Fe(VI) and Fe(V) have high oxidizing power, selectivity, and a non-toxic by-product, Fe(III), that makes them environmentally-friendly oxidants. Rates of oxidation increase with a decrease in pH and are related to protonation of Fe(VI) and Fe(V). Oxidation of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing pollutants by Fe(VI) can be accomplished in seconds to minutes with formation of non-hazardous products. Fe(VI) can easily oxidize the amino acid components of microcystins and is a suitable disinfectant for detoxifying toxins in water. The oxidation of pollutants and amino acids with Fe(V) is 3-5 orders of magnitude faster than with Fe(VI). The use of ionizing radiation and photocatalytic techniques in the presence of Fe(VI) results in Fe(V) formation and may have synergistic effects on the oxidation of pollutants and removal of toxins in water and wastewater. (orig.)

Sharma, V.K. [Dept. of Chemistry, Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States)

2003-07-01

204

Lepton Production  

CERN Multimedia

*Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

2002-01-01

205

Sugar production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document on the production of sugar has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and ...

Jhj, Hulskotte; Ajcm, Matthijsen

2012-01-01

206

Resonance production  

CERN Document Server

Recent results on rho(770)/sup 0/, K(892)*/sup 0/, fLambda(1520) production in A+A and p+p collisions at SPS and RHIC energies are presented. These resonances are measured via their hadronic decay channels and used as a sensitive tool to examine the collision dynamics in the hadronic medium through their decay and regeneration. The modification of resonance mass, width and shape due to phase space and dynamical effects are discussed.

Fachini, P

2004-01-01

207

Production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this historical review, covering roughly the years from 1960 to 1980, some contributions are presented in an exemplary selection that bubble chambers have made to our understanding of particle production processes within the framework of the following phenomenological models: One-particle exchange (in particular one-pion exchange); Regge-pole exchange; duality, finite-energy sum rules and Veneziano models; multiperipheral model, multi-Regge exchange, loongitudinal phase space and diffraction dissociation. (orig.)

208

Soot production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document on soot production has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standard...

Mfj, Zevenhoven-onderwater; Ajcm, Matthijsen

2012-01-01

209

Solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis and production of hydrogen and oxygen - Annual report 2006; Photolyse de l'eau et production d'hydrogene et d'oxygene au moyen de l'energie solaire - Rapport annuel 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We pursued studies of solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis cell employing semi-transparent WO{sub 3} photo anode. The stability of the photo anode in different electrolytes has been evaluated. Long term photo-electrolysis runs allowed us to identify solutions of sodium chloride as being the optimum electrolytes for water cleavage in hydrogen and oxygen, with some amount of chlorine formed as a by-product. In particular, the photo-electrolysis of a 0.5 M solution of sodium chloride, which is a composition close to sea water, results in the formation of about 20% of chlorine at the WO{sub 3} photo anode with oxygen remaining the main product. Thus, the sea water appears as an abundant, non-toxic electrolyte suitable for massive hydrogen production via photo-electrolysis. Charge and mass transport are among the main factors determining the efficiency of nanostructured semiconducting photo-electrodes. In contrast with the prevailing current opinion, our results show that it is the migrational/diffusional transport within electrolyte filling the pores of the photo-electrode and not the electron diffusion across the semiconductor matrix which controls the photocurrent-voltage behaviour. Apparently, the only restrictions to the use of relatively thick nanostructured electrodes are the penetration depth of the incident light, the rate of diffusion/migration of the electro active species within the electrode and the conductivity of the electrolyte. (authors)

Augustynski, J.; Jorand Sartoretti, C.; Bilecka, I.; Solarska, R.

2006-11-15

210

Food production and nutrition in biosphere 2: results from the first mission September 1991 to September 1993  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m^2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time.

Silverstone, S. E.; Nelson, M.

211

The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body ?-radiation as acute doses.

212

Resole Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Resoles are phenol-formaldehyde condensation products prepared with a molar ratio of F:P of ? 1, basic catalysts, and lead to reactive phenolic resins with methylol functional groups. A wide variety of additives can be added to provide the final resin with the desired properties such as flame retardancy, plasticization, pigmentation, or improve processability by using release agents, wetting agents, and other surfactants. Most resoles are waterborne, but in some certain applications, they can be solvent based with either alcohols or ketones as solvents.

Lang, Jürgen; Cornick, Marc

213

Hydrogen production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

2010-07-01

214

Uranium production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interrelationship between uranium supply and the demands of the nuclear industry are considered. Changing forecasts of nuclear power development are illustrated. Long lead times between mine production of U concentrate and reactor fuel loading increase potential instability in the short term, leading to stock-piling. Intensity of loading and type of reactor also influence U demand. Actual load factors are, on average, below those estimated. Mine and mill capacity, and the effect of the enrichment market are discussed. Greater flexibility in enrichment contracts now permits variation in enrichment tails assays. (U.K.)

215

Hydrogen production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

216

Antiangiogenic Effect of Rutin and its Regulatory Effect on the Production of VEGF, IL-1? and TNF-? in Tumor Associated Macrophages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antiangiogenic activity of rutin was studied using in vivo as well as in vitro models. In vivo angiogenic activity was studied using B16F-10 melanoma cell-induced capillary formation in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of rutin significantly inhibited (43.35% the number of tumor directed capillaries induced by injecting B16F-10 melanoma cells on the ventral side of C57BL/6 mice. Rutin at non-toxic concentrations (5-25 ?g mL-1 inhibited the vessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay. Moreover, rutin was able to inhibit the proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of human endothelial cells, the key steps of angiogenesis. Present studies using Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs revealed that rutin could suppress the expression and production of VEGF and IL-1? and stimulate the production of TNF-?. Hence, the observed antiangiogenic activity of rutin is related to the regulation of these cytokines and growth factors by TAMs.

C. Guruvayoorappan

2007-01-01

217

Effects of addition glycerol co-product of biodiesel in the thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as secondary coolant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates the effects of glycerol concentration on thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as a secondary coolant in refrigeration systems by expansion-indirect. The processing of triglycerides for biodiesel production generates glycerol as co-product and there are concerns of environmental and economic order on the surplus of glycerol. The addition of glycerol in water alters the colligative and thermophysical properties (melting point, mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity). There are studies that prove the feasibility of using glycerol as an additive and this paper has the goal to verify the changes on properties compared with pure water. This comparison was made from data obtained by the software simulation and they analyzed using graphs and tables. It was shown that glycerol increases the density and dynamic viscosity, and reduces the specific heat and thermal conductivity. This behavior of water-glycerol solution is proportional to the mass concentration of glycerol and it is justified because the glycerol has low values of specific heat, thermal conductivity and high viscosity when compared with water. Despite the losses in the thermophysical properties, glycerol shows its potential application, because of the cryoscopic effect and it is a non-toxic substance at low cost. (author)

Medeiros, Pedro Samuel Gomes; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga; Fontes, Francisco de Assis Oliveira [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Energy Laboratory. Thermal Systems Studies Group], e-mail: cleiton@ufrnet.br

2010-07-01

218

A simple and cost-effective method for rapid purification of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC from Helicobacter pylori and its antibody production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Helicobacter pylori express abundant amounts of AhpC enzyme that functions to reduce organic hydroperoxides (ROOH into the corresponding non-toxic alcohols (ROH. This conserved antigen has been earlier described as specific and unique for H. pylori and therefore, both H. pylori AhpC and Anti-AhpC could be useful in the development of serologic and stool antigen tests, to detecting and monitoring H. pylori infection. AhpC may also serves as a potential target for an antimicrobial agent or for vaccine development. The aim of this study was to simplify isolation and purification of the AhpC and production of a highly specific polyclonal antibody against it. Methods and Results: In this paper a simple method was used for protein purification and antibody production which avoids both the long term AhpC protein purification procedure and the addition of Freund's adjuvant. One-dimensional preparative gel electrophoresis allows a single and short purification step and the high resolution capacity of this technique leads to a high level of purity of the protein and consequently to a very high specificity of the antibody. Moreover, it avoids contamination by other non-specific proteins which often appear during protein purification by column chromatographic techniques. Major Conclusion: The present method is simple, rapid and cost-effective and makes it possible to produce antibody for stool antigen enzyme immunoassay in short time and at low cost.

2008-08-01

219

Nail Care Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Cosmetics Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Products Products & Ingredients Products Aromatherapy Hair ...

220

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home ... Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Identifying Recalled Products Search the ...

 
 
 
 
221

Toward non-toxic antifouling: synthesis of hydroxy-, cinnamic acid-, sulfate-, and zosteric acid-labeled poly[3-hydroxyalkanoates].  

Science.gov (United States)

The side-chain double bonds of bacterial poly[3-hydroxyalkanoate-co-3-hydroxyalkenoate] (PHAE, 1) were transformed into thioether bonds (derivative 2) via the radical addition reaction of 11-mercapto-1-undecanol. The terminal hydroxy functionalities of derivative 2 were subsequently esterified with cinnamic acid (derivative 3), sulfatized with ClSO(3)H (derivative 4), or coupled with tert-butyldimethylsilyl-protected coumaric acid, to give, after deprotection with tetrabutylammonium fluoride (derivative 5) followed by sulfatization, p-(sulfooxy) cinnamic acid- (zosteric acid) labeled PHAE (derivative 6). The reactions proceeded with good yields and little side reactions, which was confirmed with (1)H NMR and GPC experiments. These functionalized polyesters are currently investigated as environmentally friendly coatings to protect surfaces from biofouling. PMID:15244464

Hany, Roland; Böhlen, Christine; Geiger, Thomas; Schmid, Manfred; Zinn, Manfred

2004-01-01

222

A Quantitative investigation on some toxic and non-toxic metals in popular medicinal herbs in Iranian market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the presence of heavy metals in some popular herbal medicines of the Iranian market. Primarily, this study was planned to do the task by the USP method. In the second step, those plants which contained more than 10 ppm of total heavymetals were analyzed by atomic absorption method. In this study, 43 popular herbal medicines were investigated according to the limit test procedure in the USP. It was found that 27 of theseplants contained less than 10 ppm heavy metals compared to a standard lead solution, while 16 contained more than 10 ppm. The presence of Pb (<2.5, Cd (<0.25, Co (<1 and Ni (<1.5could be considered safe.

Fazel Shamsa

2009-01-01

223

Determination of toxic and non toxic elements in samples of drinking water supplied of urban areas of Hyderabad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality of drinking water is regulated by most countries by recommended legal requirements. Of special importance for the developing countries is the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations of 1984 and onwards. Drinking water is most important material for the human consumption and as such must be free of bacterial pathogenic organism, toxic metals and compounds. In general ground water and surface water are used for drinking the scope of the examination must take into account the type of raw water. The control starts with the source from which the raw water is drawn, and continues through the storage reservoir and the various processing and distribution facilities, finally ending at the consumer end. In present study we have monitored raw water which supplied by canals from Indus River, to filter plant near Hyderabad and finally drinking water is consumed by people in Hyderabad area. The rapid and modern techniques of atomic absorption has been used to analyze and obtain interference free results of analytical interest. (author)

224

Elucidating the energetics of the interaction of non-toxic dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin: A calorimetric study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Curcumin binds to HSA with affinity of the order of 105 M?1. • The binding was favoured by negative enthalpy and positive entropy changes. • The binding was dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. • Negative heat capacity value along with enthalpy–entropy compensation was observed. -- Abstract: Thermodynamic quantities for the interaction of the anticancer dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin were measured by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The equilibrium constant of the complex formation at T = 293.15 K was found to be (5.25 ± 0.05) 105 M?1. The binding was exothermic with T?S0 = (24.82 ± 0.01) kJ · mol?1, where ?S0 is the standard molar entropy change and ?Ho = ?(7.28 ± 0.04) kJ · mol?1, where ?Ho is the standard molar enthalpy change. The stoichiometry of binding was established to be 1:1. The equilibrium constant decreased with increasing Na+ concentration. The equilibrium constant decreased from (5.25 ± 0.05) · 105 M?1 to (2.88 ± 0.03) · 105 M?1 by increasing the salt concentration from (10 to 50) mM. Both polyelectrolytic and non-polyelectrolytic forces contributed to the standard molar Gibbs free energy change. However the contribution from the latter was dominant and almost invariant at all Na+ concentrations. The negative standard molar heat capacity change along with significant enthalpy–entropy compensation suggests the involvement of multiple weak non-covalent forces in the binding process

225

Antagonists and non?toxic variants of the dominant wheat gliadin T cell epitope in coeliac disease  

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BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease (CD) is due to an inappropriate T cell mediated response to specific gluten peptides. Measured by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT, about half of the gliadin specific T cells induced with in vivo wheat gluten exposure in HLA-DQ2+ CD are specific for an alpha/beta-gliadin peptide (p57-73 QE65; QLQPFPQPELPYPQPQS) that includes two overlapping T cell epitopes (PFPQPELPY and PQPELPYPQ). AIM: To define minimally substituted variants of p57-73 QE65 universally devoid...

Anderson, Rp; Heel, Da; Tye-din, Ja; Jewell, Dp; Hill, Av

2006-01-01

226

Formation of non-toxic A? fibrils by small heat shock protein under heat-stress conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? We examined effect of the quaternary structure of yeast sHsp on A? aggregation. ? A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of sHsp, but not by dimeric sHsp. ? The fibrillar amyloids consisted of both A? and dimeric sHsp. ? They exhibited different inner structure and cytotoxicity from authentic A? amyloids. ? These results suggest the formation of new type fibrillar A? amyloid by sHsp. -- Abstract: Small heat shock protein (sHsp) is a molecular chaperone with a conserved alpha-crystallin domain that can prevent protein aggregation. It has been shown that sHsps exist as oligomers (12–40 mer) and their dissociation into small dimers or oligomers is functionally important. Since several sHsps are upregulated and co-localized with amyloid-? (A?) in senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sHsps are thought to be involved in AD. Previous studies have also shown that sHsp can prevent A? aggregation in vitro. However, it remains unclear how the quaternary structure of sHsp influences A? aggregation. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of the quaternary structure of sHsp on A? aggregation using sHsp from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHsp16.0) showing a clear temperature-dependent structural transition between an oligomer (30 °C) and dimer (50 °C) state. A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of SpHsp16.0. In contrast, amyloid fibrils were formed in the presence of dimeric SpHsp16.0. Interestingly, these amyloid fibrils consisted of both A? and SpHsp16.0 and showed a low ThT intensity and low cytotoxicity due to their low binding affinity to the cell surface. These results suggest the formation of novel fibrillar A? amyloid with different characteristics from that of the authentic A? amyloid fibrils formed in the absence of sHsp. Our results also suggest the potential protective role of sHsp in AD under stress conditions.

Sakono, Masafumi [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Saitama (Japan); Utsumi, Arata [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Zako, Tamotsu, E-mail: zako@riken.jp [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Abe, Tetsuya; Yohda, Masafumi [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Maeda, Mizuo [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2013-01-25

227

An Engineered Non-Toxic Superantigen Increases Cross Presentation of Hepatitis B Virus Nucleocapsids by Human Dendritic Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Virus like particles (VLPs) are potent immunogens capable of priming strong protective antibody responses due to their repetitive structural arrangement and affinity for specific B cell receptors. By contrast, T cell responses to VLPs can be weak due to inefficient uptake and processing by antigen presenting cells. We report here a novel strategy for increasing the T cell reactivity of a VLP, the nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus, through covalent coupling of M1, an engineered form of the Streptococcal superantigen SMEZ2, that binds MHC II with high affinity but lacks its T cell mitogenic capability. M1:HBcAg conjugates bound to dendritic cells and were efficiently endocytosed into late endosomes. Human dendritic cells pulsed with M1:HBcAgs stimulated HBV-specific CD8+ T cells more effectively than cells pulsed with native capsids indicating that the modified VLP was more effectively cross presented by APCs. Coupling of M1 was also able to induce significantly greater reactivity of human CD4+ T cells specific for a common T-helper epitope. These studies indicate the potential of recombinant superantigens to act as flexible molecular adjuvants that can be incorporated into various subunit vaccine platforms leading to enhanced T cell reactivity in humans. PMID:24690680

McIntosh, Julie D.; Manning, Kristy; Chokshi, Shilpa; Naoumov, Nikolai V.; Fraser, John D.; Dunbar, P. Rod; Taylor, John A.

2014-01-01

228

Absorbent hygiene products - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... The product category of absorbent hygiene products consists of female sanitary protection, baby diapers and adult incontinence products with subgroups as defined in the PCR, Table 1. Note that in this PCR, the following products are excluded: Toilet paper, handkerchiefs, towels,...

229

Experimental Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Mustard Oil  

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Full Text Available The demand for petroleum is increasing with each passing day. This may be attributed to the limited resources of petroleum crude. Hence there is an urgent need of developing alternative energy sources to meet the ever increasing energy demand. Biofuels are currently being considered from multidimensional perspectives, i.e. depleting fossil fuels, resources, environmental health, energy security and agricultural economy. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel [1]. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is produced primarily from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste mustard oil. The vegetable oils which are rich in oxygen can be used as future alternate fuels for the operation of diesel engine [2]. Biodiesel is produced from wasted mustard oil through alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Physical properties like density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point and pour point were found out for biodiesel produced from waste mustard oil. The same characteristic study was also carried out for conventional diesel fuel and used as a baseline for comparison. The values obtained from waste mustard oil ethyl ester (biodiesel is closely matched with the conventional diesel fuel and it can be used in diesel engine without any modification. Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100 or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines. Biodiesel is its capacity to lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to those of fossil fuels. There is an appreciable decrease in HC and CO2 emissions while the decrease in CO emission is marginal. However, emission of NOx is increased. Biodiesel is liquid which varies in color between golden and dark brown depending upon the production feedstock. It is immiscible with water, has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure. Typical ethyl ester biodiesel has a flash point of about 130ºC, biodiesel has a density of about 0.88 gm/cm3, less than that of water. Biodiesel has very good lubricating properties, significantly better than standard diesel which can prolong engine's life.

Rajat Subhra Samanta

2014-01-01

230

Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

White, G.J.

1998-08-03

231

Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests

232

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

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Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The ... Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources for You Sign up ...

233

Illegal Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Illegal Pesticide Products Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea and Tick Products for ... clear directions and safety warnings. Common Illegal Pest Products mothballs | pet products | insecticidal chalk | " Tres Pasitos " | antibacterial ...

234

Urinary incontinence products  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ... clean and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE PRODUCTS You can find most products at your ...

235

Reduction of metastatic and angiogenic potency of malignant cancer by Eupatorium fortunei via suppression of MMP-9 activity and VEGF production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eupatorium fortunei has long been used to treat nausea and poor appetite, and has been prescribed as a diuretic and detoxifying drug in Chinese medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that E. fortunei possesses anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-diabetic activities, as well as cytotoxicity to human leukemia cells. However, at non-toxic concentrations, the effects of an aqueous extract of E. fortunei (WEF) on the metastatic and angiogenic potential of malignant tumor cells have not been reported. In this study, we found that WEF suppressed the metastatic properties, including anchorage-independent colony formation, migration, and invasion, by downregulating the proteolytic activity of MMP-9. NF-?B activation and the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK were reduced significantly by WEF. Additionally, WEF inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis markedly, affecting HUVEC migration, tube formation by HUVECs, and microvessel sprouting from rat aortic rings via a reduction in VEGF in tumors. In a pulmonary metastasis model, daily administration of WEF at 50?mg/kg markedly decreased metastatic colonies of intravenously injected B16F10 cells on the lung surface in C57BL/6J mice. Further, none of the WEF-administered mice exhibited systemic toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that WEF is a potential therapeutic herbal product that may be useful for controlling malignant metastatic cancer. PMID:25385232

Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Yim, Nam-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

2014-01-01

236

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1994-10-01

237

The Impact of Nosema apis Z. Infestation of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L. Colonies after Using Different Treatment Methods and their Effects on the Population Levels of Workers and Honey Production on Consecutive Years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the natural occurance of Nosema apis in honey bee colonies and evaluated of N. apis presence in colonies after medical treatment with fumagillin and thymol in consecutive 3 years period. For this purpose, 208 honey bee colonies randomly selected for detection of N. apis infection from Aegean ecotype of Apis mellifera anatolica, 1 years old queen in April, 2002. The colony development performances and honey yields were evaluated through the years from 2002 to 2004. Infested colonies were classified in 3 groups as tried to be equalized in Nosema infestation level; Fumidil-B, thymol application and control (only sugar syrup feeding. The effects of using period of Fumidil-B, contains fumagillin and thymol on N. apis infected honeybee colonies were researched by determining winter losses, adult bees population, brood and honey production in consecutive years. Also, control group were impacted for same parameters. The adult bee worker population and brood surfaces of treated in both groups (Fumidil-B and thymol were increased significantly (p<0.05 by years from 2002 to 2004. Honey production of thymol group was exhibited significant (p<0.05 increase by years, consequently. Significant decrease (p<0.05 was recorded in control group for winter mortality, brood production, adult bee worker population and honey yield than the other treatment groups. The study was conducted that, observations of bee hives and regular treatment of infested colonies supported healthy and more productive honey bees. Leaving colonies un-medicated caused severe problems in colony production. Thymol could be suggested to beekeeper as a qualified Nosemiasis prevent agent; cheap, practical and non-toxic in hives for organic honey production. Moreover, with using thymol, residue-free bee products could be handled economically.

Banu Y?cel

2005-01-01

238

Extracting Product Features from Chinese Product Reviews  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the great development of e-commerce, the number of product reviews grows rapidly on the e-commerce websites. Review mining has recently received a lot of attention, which aims to discover the valuable information from the massive product reviews. Product feature extraction is one of the basic tasks of product review mining. Its effectiveness can influence significantly the performance of subsequent jobs. Double Propagation is a state-of-the-art technique in product feature extraction. In this paper, we apply the Double Propagation to the product feature exaction from Chinese product reviews and adopt some techniques to improve the precision and recall. First, indirect relations and verb product features are introduced to increase the recall. Second, when ranking candidate product features by using HITS, we expand the number of hubs by means of the dependency relation patterns between product features and opinion words to improve the precision. Finally, the Normalized Pattern Relevance is employed to filter the exacted product features. Experiments on diverse real-life datasets show promising results

Yahui Xi

2013-12-01

239

Transparency, entry, and productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the relationship between transparency on the consumer side and productivity of firms. We show that more transparent markets are characterized by higher average productivity as firms with low productivity abstain from entering these markets.

Gu, Yiquan; Wenzel, Tobias

2011-01-01

240

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

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241

Plasterboard product roadmaps  

... of a range of priority products. Plasterboard is one of these products. ... Further \\information. Plasterboard Sustainability Partnership ... Impact of Products). 2\\Source: Market Transformation Programme. Page last modified: 19 October 2010\\ ...

242

Identifying Recalled Products  

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Full Text Available ... Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical ... Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Identifying Recalled Products Search the Consumer Updates ...

243

Extremophile mediated hydrogen production for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from production of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 production from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological production of H2 as an end product or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 production by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass production, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 production was pH dependent but addition of simple, non-toxic physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 production and (4) H2 production rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068 medium containing cultures of T. neapolitana and no external H2 was added, hydrogenation was observed confirming the possibility of developing an integrated BioCat/ChemCat system. The 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of Methyl succinic acid, the hydrogenated product of the olefin. The concept was extended to Glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel that was catalytically upgraded to mixed alcohols in an aqueous medium. The next logical step is to evaluate these results in a continuous flow mode. The demonstrated results have implications in the development of next-generation hydrogenation reaction systems that would lead to the production of biofuels and other chemicals, depending on the substrate used.

Anjom, Mouzhgun

244

NATURAL PRODUCTS AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The products currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, non-toxic to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly products and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the production of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econômico, histórico e sustentável. A escassez de espécies resistentes à degradação biológica obrigou o homem a utilizar outras menos duráveis, principalmente de rápido crescimento, provenientes de reflorestamentos, como algumas espécies de Eucalyptus e de Pinus. Estas espécies possuem moderada ou nenhuma resistência ao ataque dos organismos xilófagos e necessitam de tratamentos preservantes. Os produtos preservantes utilizados atualmente possuem elevado grau de toxicidade, sendo potenciais riscos ambientais e para a saúde humana.  Assim, há uma crescente necessidade de desenvolver produtos químicos eficazes, não tóxicos para os seres humanos e para o meio ambiente. O direcionamento das pesquisas tem objetivado desenvolver produtos ambientalmente corretos e com viabilidade econômica, e uma alternativa é o uso do Crude Tall Oil (CTO, que é um resíduo no processamento de polpa de coníferas resinosas, para produção do papel Kraft. O tall oil, como agente de proteção, tem sido considerado promissor por reduzir significativamente a absorção de água capilar do alburno, removendo, assim um dos fatores que favorecem a madeira ser atacada por fungos e insetos: água, oxigênio e nutrientes. Pesquisas mostram que o tall oil pode ser utilizado puro, seja crude ou destilado, ou em combinação com biocidas.

Ricardo Marques Barreiros

2011-11-01

245

Production of heterologous protein by Methylobacterium extorquens in high cell density fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a model protein to study the recombinant protein production by the strain Methylobacterium extorquens ATCC 55366. Scale-up from shake flasks to 20 l fed-batch fermentation was achieved using methanol as a sole carbon and energy source and a completely minimal culture medium. Two different expression vectors were used to express GFP. Clone PCM-GFP containing the vector pCM110 with native promoter of the methanol dehydrogenase PmxaF produced approximately 100-fold more GFP than the clone PRK-GFP containing the vector pRK310 with the heterogeneous promoter Plac. Several fed-batch fermentations with and without selective pressure (tetracycline) were run in a 20 l stirred tank fermenter using the two different clones of M. extorquens. The methanol concentration was monitored with an on-line semiconductor gas sensor in the culture broth. It was maintained at a non-toxic level of 1.4 g l(-1) with an adaptative control which regulates the methanol feed rate. The same growth profile was achieved in all fermentations. The maximum growth rate (micro(max)) was 0.18 h(-1) with an overall yield (Y(X/S)) of 0.3 g g(-1) methanol. With this high cell density fermentation process, we obtained high levels (up to 4 g l(-1)) of GFP with the clone PCM-GFP. The maximum specific GFP production (Y(GFP/X)) with this clone was 80 mg g(-1) representing approximately 16% of the total cell protein. Additional feeding of pure oxygen to the fermenter permitted a longer phase of exponential growth but had no effect on the total yields of biomass and GFP. The specific GFP production of clone PCM-GFP remained unaffected in the presence or absence of selective pressure (tetracycline), within the initial 50 h of the fermentation culture. These results suggest that M. extorquens ATCC 55366 could be an interesting candidate for overexpression of recombinant proteins. PMID:14987765

Bélanger, L; Figueira, M M; Bourque, D; Morel, L; Béland, M; Laramée, L; Groleau, D; Míguez, C B

2004-02-16

246

Carbonate phosphonium salts as catalysts for the transesterification of dialkyl carbonates with diols. The competition between cyclic carbonates and linear dicarbonate products.  

Science.gov (United States)

At 90-120 °C, in the presence of methylcarbonate and bicarbonate methyltrioctylphosphonium salts as catalysts ([P8881][A]; [A] = MeOCO2 and HOCO2), the transesterification of non-toxic dimethyl- and diethyl-carbonate (DMC and DEC, respectively) with 1,X-diols (2 ? X ? 6) proceeds towards the formation of cyclic and linear products. In particular, 1,2-propanediol and ethylene glycol afford propylene- and ethylene-carbonate with selectivity and yields up to 95 and 90%, respectively; while, the reaction of DMC with higher diols such 1,3-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 2,2-dimethyl, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol produce linear C8-C10 dicarbonates of general formula MeOC(O)O???OC(O)OMe as the almost exclusive products. Of note, these dicarbonate derivatives are not otherwise accessible in good yields by other conventional base catalyzed methods. Among 1,3-diols, the only exception was 2-methyl 2,4-pentandiol that yields the corresponding cyclic carbonate, i.e. 4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one. In no one case, polycarbonates are observed. Such remarkable differences of product distributions are ascribed to the structure (branching and relative position of OH groups) of diols and to the role of cooperative (nucleophilic and electrophilic) catalysis which has been proved for onium salts. The investigated carbonate salts are not only effective in amounts as low as 0.5 mol%, but they are highly stable and recyclable. PMID:24825024

Selva, Maurizio; Caretto, Alessio; Noè, Marco; Perosa, Alvise

2014-06-28

247

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, ...

248

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, ...

249

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

250

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

251

Micro Products - Product Development and Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi-disciplinary competences. One example is sensors for chemical analysis of fluids, where chemistry, biology and flow mechanics all influence the design of the product and thereby the industrial fabrication of the product [1]. On the technological side the development has moved very fast, primarily driven by the need of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing micro products in metals, polymers and ceramics. For all technologies, however, it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production of micro products. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing.

Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

2003-01-01

252

Future Challenges and Possibilities for the Danish Long-line Production of Blue Mussels, Mytilus edilus (L) : With Special Focus on Filtration and Bioenergetics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of current velocity (0.05-1.4 m s-1) on the clearance rate of M. edulis was studied using an automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continuously. The effect of current velocity was studied on either three or twenty mussels. Current velocities of up to 1.4 m s-1 did not affect the clearance rates of M. edulis when twenty mussels were allowed to form self-organized clumps. However, when only three M. edulis were present, mussels became inactive at current velocities >0.6 m s-1. The tolerance to high current velocities provides opportunities for offshore production of blue mussels in Denmark since current velocities in the Danish coastal waters in general are below 1.4 m s-1. The effect of DST on clearance and respiration rate of M. edulis was studied in terms of exposures to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of either the non-toxic algal Rhodomonas salina or the DST-containing algal Dinophysis acuta. Our results showed that the clearance rate were reduced for mussels exposed to DST-containing D. acuta compared to mussels exposed to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of the non-toxic R. salina. Furthermore, closure of shell-valves was observed to occur earlier as well as the reduction in clearance rate became more pronounced with increasing concentrations of D. acuta. In addition, the total amount of DST accumulated in the mussels exceeded the regulatory limit for human consumption. However, DST-containing D. acuta did not have a severe effect on respiration rate. We concluded that DST most likely caused the reduction in clearance rate. Therefore DST-containing mussels can be a latent problem for mussel growth in future Danish offshore mussel production, as it is in other offshore mussel productions in Europe. Mussel growth and food depletion was studied within a mussel farm, located in the highly eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark. Using a variety of methods we obtained information on spatial (organism to farm scales) and temporal (seasonal) variations in food depletion. The results obtained by the different methods were integrated into a depletion model for the mussel farm. The results showed that high mussel growth rate was present during most of the year and that food depletion only occurred at different spatial scales within the farm. Furthermore, we showed that the mussel farm studied was under-utilized in terms of production of mussel biomass and a surplus of food was available to support the growth of more mussels than already produced. Finally, we investigated the potential of using mussels as a mitigation tool for removal of excess nutrients in eutrophic coastal waters. A full-scale long-line mussel farm optimized for cost efficient nutrient removal was established in Skive Fjord where biological and economic parameters related to nutrient removal were monitored throughout a full production cycle. We concluded that mitigation mussel cultures are a cost-effective measure for nutrient removal in coastal areas and can be used as an alternative or supplement to land-based mitigation measures.

Nielsen, Pernille

2014-01-01

253

HIV-1 Tat Triggers TGF-β Production and NK Cell Apoptosis that is Prevented by Pertussis Toxin B  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herein, we show that PTX-B and its non-toxic mutant PT9K/129G inhibit transcription and secretion of TGF-β elicited by HIV-1 Tat in NK cells. Moreover, Tat strongly activates the cJun component of the multimolecular complex AP-1, while TGF-β triggers cFos and cJun. Treatment of NK cells In turn,with PTX-B or PT9K/129G inhibits Tat and TGF-β-induced activation of AP-1. TGF-β enhances starvation-induced NK cell apoptosis, reduces the transcription of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and inhibits Akt phosphorylation induced by oligomerization of the triggering NK cell receptor NKG2D. All these TGF-β-mediated effects are prevented by PTX-B or PT9K/129G, through a PI-3K-dependent mechanism. Finally, PTX-B and PT9K/129G upregulate Bcl-xL, the isoform of Bcl-x that protects cells from starvation-induced apoptosis. Of note, in NK cells from patients with HIV-1 infection, mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was consistently lower than that of healthy donors; interestingly, TGF-β and Tat were detected in the sera of these patients. These data suggest that Tat-induced TGF-β production and the consequent NK cell failure, possibly occurring during early HIV-1 infection, may be regulated by PTX-B and PT9K/129G.

Maria Raffaella Zocchi

2006-01-01

254

PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically. The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation, transmission, storing, and retrieval of knowledge and information.

Vesterager, Johan

1997-01-01

255

FAQ - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

...Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Using EPDs Creating EPDs Product Category Rules (PCR) En Español In Italiano På Svenska Türkçe V Ceštine Subscribe ... PCR-RELATED issues Who prepares the PCR documents? What is the procedure for approving PCR documents? What is the validity of the ... PCR documents? Where to find information about existing PCR documents? How to comment on existing PCR documents? What is the ECO ... Is it possible to use a PCR Basic Module as Product Category Rules (PCR) when developing an EPD? How does ...

256

Productivity improvement action plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The productivity of four large central station electric power plants is analyzed. Aspects of operation, maintenance, organization, or equipment operation and repair, that cause one unit to have better productivity than another are determined. Conclusions identifying the underlying causes of lost productivity and recommendations for improving plant productivity are made

257

Product variety and reliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Murthy et al. [Murthy DNP, Rausand M, Virtanen S. Investment in new product reliability, Reliability Engineering and System Safety (accepted for publication)] proposed an approach to decide on product reliability in the context of new product development and identified two tasks for execution as part of the overall process. In this paper, we focus on the first task-determining the product reliability requirements.

258

Product variety and reliability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Murthy et al. [Murthy DNP, Rausand M, Virtanen S. Investment in new product reliability, Reliability Engineering and System Safety (accepted for publication)] proposed an approach to decide on product reliability in the context of new product development and identified two tasks for execution as part of the overall process. In this paper, we focus on the first task-determining the product reliability requirements.

Murthy, D.N.P. [Division of Mechanical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)], E-mail: p.murthy@uq.edu.au; Hagmark, P.-E.; Virtanen, S. [Institute of Machine Design and Operation, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

2009-10-15

259

Green fracing : as the U.S. frac debate rolls on, service firms are developing cleaner fracing products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apache Corporation fracing operations in British Columbia's Horn River Basin have involved 274 frac stimulations in 16 shale gas wells. The multi-stage horizontal well completions in the Horn River Basin are massive operations. The American Petroleum Institute has stated that hydraulic fracturing is so important that without it, the industry would lose 45 percent of domestic natural gas production and 17 percent of oil production within five years. The Marcellus fairway which covers parts of Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, West Virginia and Maryland, covers about 10 times the area of the core Barnett shale play. Production from the Marcellus may reach 489 trillion cubic feet of natural gas over a 50-year period. However, the amount of hydraulic fracing required for Marcellus production has raised concerns about potential harm to underground aquifers. Green Century Capital Management and New York State Common Retirement Fund are among the investor groups that are asking for greater transparency about the business and environmental risks associated with fracturing. Schlumberger has developed OpenFRAC, a new group of fracturing fluid additives that are all water-based. In order to eliminate contamination risks to formations, aquifers and product handlers, Trican unveiled its EcoClean-GSW slickwater system, which includes non-toxic, biodegradable and non-bioaccumulating additives. Sanjel Corporation in Canada also plans to unveil a new friction reducer as an alternative to polyacrylamides. However, in the short term, there may be higher costs and lower efficiency with the new enviro-friendly fracing fluids and additives. Water issues must also be addressed. Since slickwater fracing uses a lot of water, most companies are looking at the recycling and re-use of water. The B.C. Oil and Gas Commission is seeking to establish some ground rules to avoid conflict. A new Oil and Gas Activities Act will expand the commission's power to manage water withdrawals and provide for monitoring, water testing and reporting of drilling and fracing programs. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Budd, G.

2010-09-15

260

Innovation and productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What do we know about the relationship between innovation and productivity among firms? The workhorse model of this relationship is presented and the implications of analysis using this model and the usually available data on product and process innovation are derived. The recent empirical evidence on the relationship between innovation and productivity in firms is then surveyed. The conclusion is that there are substantial positive impacts of product innovation on revenue productivity,...

Hall, Bronwyn H.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Ocean Primary Productivity Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This site offers datasets of primary productivity measurements, computer source code, input data fields, and ocean productivity estimates for modeling purposes, as well as information on the activities of the NASA-sponsored Ocean Primary Productivity Working Group (OPPWG), which has been conducting round-robin algorithm testing exercises to compare the performance of various productivity models with the intent of establishing a NASA resident "consensus" algorithm for the routine generation of ocean productivity maps.

262

Ecological pig production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project investigates how the ecological pig production in Denmark can get a larger market share than it’s current one. We shall investigate the possibilities and the barriers of a further development of the ecological pig production in Denmark. In our project we will see the Danish pig production as a sociotechnical system where the ecological pig production is a niche and the conventional pig production is the dominating sociotechnical regime and technology. In this project our foc...

Nielsen, Sif Hummelgaard; Olsen, Astrid Olkjær; Lundberg, Martin; Olsson, Thorbjørn Venny

2013-01-01

263

Probiotic fermented dairy products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

Adnan Tamime

2003-04-01

264

Product Family Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven product development. While operating in the mass production paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single product this will in time lead to a patchwork of product variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a product family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing product design and the production setup with an eye re-design the products and/or the production setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the Product Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended Product Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a product family and the production setup. Furthermore, the model links the product design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the product family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future product design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.

Kvist, Morten

2010-01-01

265

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and gas production, production prices and production costs. 229...SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT...gas production, production prices and production costs... (1) The average sales price (including transfers)...

2010-04-01

266

Powder detergents production plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent production. The product meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite production, because all products with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

Stankovi? Mirjana S.

2003-01-01

267

BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-product relationship.

Tudor NISTORESCU

2014-06-01

268

Making Product Customization Profitable  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-production, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a product family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study it is shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%.

Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

2010-01-01

269

The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 degrees C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 degrees C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 microm. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The product of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures. PMID:17709183

Gualtieri, A F; Cavenati, C; Zanatto, I; Meloni, M; Elmi, G; Gualtieri, M Lassinantti

2008-04-01

270

The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 ?m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The product of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures

271

The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 {mu}m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The product of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures.

Gualtieri, A.F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e R.E., Via S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: alex@unimore.it; Cavenati, C.; Zanatto, I.; Meloni, M. [ZETADI S.r.l., Via dell' Artigianato 10, I-21010 Ferno (Italy); Elmi, G. [GE.PR.IN. S.r.l., Via Vaccari 48, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, M. Lassinantti [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e R.E., Via Campi 213/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

2008-04-01

272

Grain mill products - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... This group includes the following CPC classes: 231 Grain mill products- 2311 - Wheat and meslin flour- 2312 - Other cereal flours- 2313 - Groats, meal and pellets of wheat and other cereals- 2314 - Other cereal grain products (including corn flakes)- 2316 - Rice, semi- or wholly milled, or husked- 2317 - Other vegetable flours and meals- 2318 - Mixes and doughs for the preparation of bakers' wares Any comments to this PCR document may be given on the PCR Forum or directly to the PCR moderator during the period of validity. The PCR document may be downloaded in ...

273

Increasing productivity: Another approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

Norton, F.J.

1996-06-10

274

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalled Product Photos on Flickr - - Related Consumer Updates FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First ... Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training and Continuing Education Inspections/Compliance State & Local ...

275

Advances in production technology  

CERN Document Server

This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

2015-01-01

276

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For ...

277

Rational forest productivity decline.  

Science.gov (United States)

A whole forest optimisation model was employed to examine economic behaviour as it relates to long term, forest productivity decline in the boreal forests of Ontario, Canada. Our productivity investment model (PIM) incorporated a choice between productivity decline as represented by a drop in forest Site Class, and a fee to 'maintain' site productivity. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the point at which these fees exceeded the value of the differential in timber volume between upper and lower site classes. By varying discount rate, 'productivity investment frontiers' were constructed, which highlight the effects of the magnitude in productivity decline, maintenance fees, and harvest flow constraints upon the occurrence and schedule of productivity declines. In presenting this simple approach to exploring the effects of economic choice upon forest productivity decline, the phenomena of 'natural capital divestment' within forestry is described. PMID:12859006

MacLellan, James I; Carleton, T J

2003-01-01

278

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices ... Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources for You Sign up for Consumer Updates ...

279

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on this ... Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation- ...

280

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer ... Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation- ...

 
 
 
 
281

Baryon production at PEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of inclusive ? + anti ? production for 1.0 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 10.0 GeV/c and p + anti p production for 0.4 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 2.0 GeV/c show significant baryon production in e+e- annihilation at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV. ? + anti ? production represents 0.2 ?'s or anti ?'s per PEP event while the observed p + anti p production implies all baryon-antibaryon pair production is occurring at least as often as 0.6 per event, depending on the yet to be measured p + anti p production at high momentum. Comparisons are made with the first theoretical attempts to account for baryon production at these energies

282

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical ... Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol ? - Resources for You Sign up for Consumer ...

283

Antibacterials in Household Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... the Prudent Use of Antibiotics Antibacterials in household products What exactly is an antibacterial? How is it ... cleaners. Did you know that over 1000 commercial products contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Established in ...

284

MRSA and Food Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... VA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MRSA and Food Products Be food safe Studies over many years have ... Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in a variety of food products including retail meats and raw milk. While more ...

285

The Top 10 Products  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2008, American School & University showcased some of the hottest products in the industry. This article presents the 10 most requested, as determined by readers. Products include fluorescent lighting, concrete floor maintenance and exterior sheathing.

American School & University, 2008

2008-01-01

286

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

287

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Section Contents Menu Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

288

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... explains how FDA manages product recalls. - For More Information FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First Alert to ... FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information - Page Last Updated: 10/14/2014 Note: If ...

289

Butanol production from lignocellulosics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium spp. produce n-butanol in the acetone/butanol/ethanol process. For sustainable industrial scale butanol production, a number of obstacles need to be addressed including choice of feedstock, the low product yield, toxicity to production strain, multiple-end products and downstream processing of alcohol mixtures. This review describes the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks, bioprocess and metabolic engineering, downstream processing and catalytic refining of n-butanol. PMID:22526420

Jurgens, German; Survase, Shrikant; Berezina, Oxana; Sklavounos, Evangelos; Linnekoski, Juha; Kurkijärvi, Antti; Väkevä, Minna; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom

2012-08-01

290

Growth, productivity and employment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Productivity comparisons need to be based on a careful definition of the objectives. Labour productivity per hour worked is the best measure of prosperity per effort at any time, but can sometimes be achieved at the expense of unemployment or low capital productivity. Total factory productivity is the nearest measure we have to absolute efficiency, but that does not mean that it is an appropriate policy maximand. Performance can, therefore only be compared by looking at several different meas...

Turner, Adair

2000-01-01

291

The new productivity challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

"The single greatest challenge facing managers in the developed countries of the world is to raise the productivity of knowledge and service workers," writes Peter F. Drucker in "The New Productivity Challenge." Productivity, says Drucker, ultimately defeated Karl Marx; it gave common laborers the chance to earn the wages of skilled workers. Now five distinct steps will raise the productivity of knowledge and service workers--and not only stimulate new economic growth but also defuse rising social tensions. PMID:10114929

Drucker, P F

1991-01-01

292

Electrification and energy productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy productivity is crucial for sustainable development. We use cointegration analyses to investigate the effect of electricity on energy productivity in Swedish industry from 1930 to 1990. Electricity augmented energy productivity in those industrial branches that used electricity for multiple purposes. This productivity effect goes beyond 'book-keeping effects,' i. e. it is not only the result of electricity being produced in one sector (taking the energy transformation losses) and consumed in another (receiving the benefits). (author)

Enflo, Kerstin; Schoen, Lennart [Department of Economic History, Lund University (Sweden); Kander, Astrid [Department of Economic History, Lund University (Sweden); CIRCLE, Lund University, Box 117, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2009-09-15

293

Product placement in Filmen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Marketingbegriff Product Placement. Im theoretischen Teil wird Product Placement definiert und seine Historie beschrieben. Hauptziel des praktischen Teiles ist eine Filmanalyse des Product Placements. Es werden zwei Filme verglichen. Der tschechische Film "Raf?áci" und der letzte Bondfilm "Casino Royal".

Bi?lek, Jir?i?

2008-01-01

294

Coal production 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29

295

Drug Products Containing Phenylalanine  

Science.gov (United States)

PRODUCT PHE CONTENT OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS Cold and Allergy Non-prescription Products Alka-Seltzer Plus sparkling original flavor 8.4mg/ ... clear cough syrup 14mg/teaspoon Analgesic Non-prescription Products Advil, Childrens 50mg chewable tablets grape 2.1mg/ ...

296

Biodiesel production from sunflower oil using microwave assisted transesterification / by Nokuthula E. Magida  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biofuels are becoming more attractive worldwide because of the high energy demands and the fossil fuel resources that are being depleted. Biodiesel is one of the most attractive alternative energy sources to petroleum diesel fuel and it is renewable, non toxic, biodegradable, has low sulphur content and has a high flash point. Biodiesel can be generated from domestic natural resources such as coconuts, rapeseeds, soybeans, sunflower, and waste cooking o...

Magida, Nokuthula Ethel

2013-01-01

297

Biodiesel production by microalgae and macroalgae from north littoral portuguese coast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has many benefits. It is biodegradable, non-toxic and compared to petroleum-based diesel, has a more favorable combustion emission profile, such as low emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons. In brief, these merits make biodiesel a good alternative to petroleum based fuel. Biodiesel feedstocks derived from microalgae and macroalgae have emerged as one of the most promising alternative sources of lipid for use in biodiesel ...

Carvalho, Joana; Ribeiro, Andre?; Castro, Joana Daniela Fernandes; Vilarinho, Ca?ndida; Castro, F.

2011-01-01

298

Age, wage and productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same pace. However, other studies find no evidence of such an age related pay-productivity gap. We perform an analysis of the relationship between age, wage and productivity using a matched worker-firm pane...

Ours, Jan C.; Stoeldraijer, Lenny

2010-01-01

299

Product Structuring, an overview  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on Product Structuring. Product structuring plays an important role in creating products which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like production control.In the paper, the field of product structuring is defined and broken down into topics. For each of the topics, results of research are presented. Issues for further research are identified. The references in the paper refer to papers in the proceedings of the workshops.

Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

1997-01-01

300

Evolving production network structures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost reductions compared to the traditional manual planning results of our industrial partner.

Grunow, Martin; Alting, Leo

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Copolymer production plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed a project for the reconstruction of the copolymer production plant at "Zeolite Mira", Mira, Italy, using technology developed in the laboratories of the IGPC. The capacity of the reconstructed plant was increased from 17,000 to 25,000 t/y, in 1991 and the product quality was also improved.The product meets all quality regulation, as well as environmental regulations. There is no waste materials, and precautions were chosen to provide safe operation. This process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

Stankovi? Mirjana S.

2003-01-01

302

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l-1. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, er, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

303

Methode of preparation on mainly organic waste liquids containing radioactive or toxic materials for non-hazardeous and safe handling, transport and disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid waste containing organic radioactive or toxic material is solidified in blocks; the activity of the liquids may amount to 0-5 curies/l per solid block. Solidification is achieved by mixing with one or several monomeric monovinyl or polyvinyl compounds and polymerisation catalizers and by subsequent polymerisation. This occurs at temperatures in the range between 15 and 1500C. The liquid waste is charged in the range between 20 and 75 wt.%. With reference only to the polymerization mixture the monovinyl compounds are charged between 30 and 98%, the polyvinyl compounds between 2 and 30% and the catalizers between 0.01 and 10%. As to waste, all organic substances or adducts of extraction solvents with inorganic acids or salts are suited. As monovinyl compounds, styrene, vinyl toluene or methyl acrylate, as polyvinyl compounds, divinyl benzene and trivinyl benzene, and as catalizers, acetyl peroxide are used. Swelling as well as neutralizing agents may be added to the mixtures. The solidification is especially suited for tri-n-butyl-phosphate. (DG/PB)

304

Real-time, digital pulse-shape discrimination in non-hazardous fast liquid scintillation detectors: Prospects for safety and security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) in fast, organic scintillation detectors is a long-established technique used to separate neutrons and ? rays in mixed radiation fields. In the analogue domain the method can achieve separation in real time, but all knowledge of the pulses themselves is lost thereby preventing the possibility of any post- or repeated analysis. Also, it is typically reliant on electronic systems that are largely obsolete and which require significant experience to set up. In the digital domain, PSD is often more flexible but significant post-processing has usually been necessary to obtain neutron/?-ray separation. Moreover, the scintillation media on which the technique relies usually have a low flash point and are thus deemed hazardous. This complicates the ease with which they are used in industrial applications. In this paper, results obtained with a new portable digital pulse-shape discrimination instrument are described. This instrument provides real-time, digital neutron/? separation whilst preserving the synchronization with the time-of-arrival for each event, and realizing throughputs of 3 x 106 events per second. Furthermore, this system has been tested with a scintillation medium that is non-flammable and not hazardous. (authors)

305

Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: focus on the microbiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l(-1). Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency. PMID:20554377

Trois, Cristina; Coulon, Frédéric; de Combret, Cécile Polge; Martins, Jean M F; Oxarango, Laurent

2010-09-15

306

Characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gas and residues of a full scale fluidized bed combustor combusting non-hazardous industrial waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the fate of PAHs in full scale incinerators by analysing the concentration of the 16 EPA-PAHs in both the input waste and all the outputs of a full scale Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC). Of the analysed waste inputs i.e. Waste Water Treatment (WWT) sludge, Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR), RDF and ASR were the main PAH sources, with phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene being the most important PAHs. In the flue gas sampled at the stack, naphthalene was the only predominant PAH, indicating that the PAHs in FBC's combustion gas were newly formed and did not remain from the input waste. Of the other outputs, the boiler and fly ash contained no detectable levels of PAHs, whereas the flue gas cleaning residue contained only low concentrations of naphthalene, probably adsorbed from the flue gas. The PAH fingerprint of the bottom ash corresponded rather well to the PAH fingerprint of the RDF and ASR, indicating that the PAHs in this output, in contrast to the other outputs, were mainly remainders from the PAHs in the waste inputs. A PAH mass balance showed that the total PAH input/output ratio of the FBC ranged from about 100 to about 2600 depending on the waste input composition and the obtained combustion conditions. In all cases, the FBC was clearly a net PAH sink. PMID:25002370

Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

2014-11-01

307

Standard Specification for ESD Controlled Garments Required in Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments for Spacecraft for Non-Hazardous and Hazardous Operations  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

308

Residues of the Cork Industry as Carriers for the Production of Legume Inoculants / Résidus de l'Industrie du Liège comme Substrats pour la Production des Inoculums pour les Légumineuses / Resíduos da Indústria dos Aglomerados da Cortiça como Potenciais Substractos para a Produção de Inoculantes para Sementes de Leguminosas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O crescimento e a sobrevivência de duas estirpes de Rhizobium, uma de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, e outra de Mesorhizobium ciceri, foram usados para avaliação de resíduos da indústria dos aglomerados da cortiça como potenciais substractos para a produção de inoculantes para sementes de leg [...] uminosas. A turfa foi usada como controlo. 41 dias após a inoculação, o n.º das bactérias viáveis era elevado e semelhante em todos os substractos, aproximadamente 10(9) bactérias g-1. A sobrevivência durante os 450 dias de armazenamento permaneceu estável, entre 10(8) e 10(9). Os resíduos da cortiça mostraram possuir boas características de manuseio, boas capacidades de retenção de água, não apresentaram toxicidade, possuíam pH perto da neutralidade, indicando poderem ser utilizados como substractos alternativos à turfa na produção de inoculantes para leguminosas. Abstract in english Growth and survival of two rhizobial strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, and Mesorhizobium ciceri, were used to evaluate residues from the cork industry as potential carriers for production of rhizobial inoculants. A peat-based carrier was used as a control. 41 days after inoculation, the [...] number of viable bacteria was high, about 10(9) bacteria g-1 for all carriers. Rhizobial survival during storage (450 days) remained stable, between 10(8) and 10(9). The cork residues based carriers showed good handling properties and water holding capacities, they were non-toxic and had a nearly neutral pH. All these factors indicate that the use of these carriers is viable for the production of rhizobial inoculants.

Eugénio Mendes, Ferreira; Isabel Videira e, Castro.

2005-12-01

309

Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

310

75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal...

2010-04-08

311

Proteínas PEGiladas: producción, purificación y aplicaciones / PEGylated proteins: production, purification, and applications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La PEGilación es la conjugación de una proteína y/o péptido con una o más moléculas de poli(etilen glicol). El poli(etilen glicol) es un polímero no toxico, no inmunogénico y esto aprobado por la FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA). En los últimos años, la PEGilación ha sido utilizada para mejor [...] ar las propiedades fisicoquímicas de proteínas y drogas terapéuticas, por lo que esta tecnología ha impactado fuertemente a la industria bio-farmacéutica. La PEGilación permite prolongar el tiempo de residencia en el cuerpo, mejorar la estabilidad, aumentar la solubilidad, disminuir la proteólisis y excreción renal. Desde el surgimiento de esta tecnología, diferentes proteínas han sido PEGiladas para el tratamiento de enfermedades como: hepatitis C, leucemia, artritis reumatoide, etc. Este artículo de revisión presenta una descripción del desarrollo de la PEGilación en los últimos años, así como de los procedimientos usados para la producción de bio-conjugados. Además, se revisan las estrategias de purificación utilizadas para la recuperación de proteínas PEGiladas, siendo este uno de los grandes retos en el proceso debido a que la reacción de PEGilación puede generar bio-conjugados con diferentes grados de PEGilación. Por último, se presentan las aplicaciones de dichos bio-conjugados y los retos futuros que se identifican para su aplicación genérica. Abstract in english PEGylation is the covalent attachment of protein and/or peptide to poly(ethylene glycol). The poly(ethylene glycol) is a polymer, non toxic, non immunogenic, and FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) approved. In the last years, PEGylation has been used to improve the physicochemical properties of [...] some proteins and therapeutic drugs; this technology has impacted heavily on the bio-pharmaceutical industry. PEGylation prolongs the body-residence time and stability, decreases the proteolysis and renal excretion. Since the emergence of this technology, some proteins have been PEGylated for the treatment of diseases including hepatitis C, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. This review presents a description of the PEGylation development in the last years and the chemical procedures used to obtain some bio-conjugated products. Strategies of purification used to obtain PEGylated proteins are reviewed; purification is one of the major problems to establish suitable processes due to the fact that the reaction can generate bio-conjugates with different degree of PEGylation. Finally the applications of PEGylated proteins and the future challenges that are identified for generic application are presented.

K. P., Mayolo-Deloisa; M., Rito-Palomares.

2010-04-01

312

FAQ - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Login Using EPDs Creating EPDs Product Category Rules (PCR) En Español In Italiano På Svenska Türkçe V Ceštine Subscribe to our newsletter ... PCR-RELATED issues Who prepares the PCR documents? What is the procedure for approving PCR documents? What is the validity of the ... PCR documents? Where to find information about existing PCR documents? How to comment on existing PCR documents? What is the ECO ... Is it possible to use a PCR Basic Module as Product Category Rules (PCR) when developing an EPD? How does ...

313

Coal Production 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29

314

Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We study the cyclical behavior of labor productivity in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor productivity at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of productivity. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of productivity growth, thus supporting the supply shocks hypothesis as the main source of business cycles in Chile. The other 50% of the productivity changes is explained by reallocation of resources from less to more productive sectors as well as the presence of increasing returns. Variations in factor utilization were insignificant

LUCAS NAVARRO

2006-05-01

315

Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english We study the cyclical behavior of labor productivity in eighty industries of the Chilean manufacturing sector in the 1979-2001 period. We find that labor productivity at the sector-level is procyclical but it is a-cyclical when using aggregate data. We provide an analytical and empirical explanation [...] for this divergence. We also use an econometric model to quantify the determinants of productivity. The results indicate that technology shocks account for one half of productivity growth, thus supporting the supply shocks hypothesis as the main source of business cycles in Chile. The other 50% of the productivity changes is explained by reallocation of resources from less to more productive sectors as well as the presence of increasing returns. Variations in factor utilization were insignificant

LUCAS, NAVARRO; RAIMUNDO, SOTO.

316

Milk Production in Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few years Croatian economy is restructuring through the processes of market liberalization and closing to EU, which is demanding some significant changes. Agriculture is in the process of reforms on the basis of CAP (Common Agricultural Policy policies of the EU, and those changes are producing different effects in each agricultural sector. The most sensitive area is livestock production, especially cattle and milking cows (production of meat and milk. This sector has insufficient production. More precise, domestic production in Croatia can satisfy around 80% of one-year consumption. This study shows economic position of production and processing of milk with the emphasis on primary milk production, processing of milk, domestic market and export-import situation. The goal is to consider the situation, position and possibilities for development of this sector.

Petar Bosni?

2003-09-01

317

Energy efficiency in products and production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy efficiency is not simply about making energy savings, it is also about maintaining the quality of living conditions, service quality and volumes of production in industrial plants. Using energy effectively wherever and whenever possible in our everyday lives will most likely make a great positive contribution to our household budget, to the national economy and to the protection of the environment. Fossil fuels, like petroleum and coal, the most important energy sources, are being depleted. What is worse, greenhouse gas emissions, which cause global warming and climate change, are rising. So there is an urgent need to raise energy efficiency and prevent energy wastage. Economic development will be based on sustainable usage of natural resources. Therefore, a combined commitment to protecting the environment and preserving and ecological balance at every stage of production activities is the central guarantee natural resource sustainability. This paper provides information on various studies of how to achieve high energy efficiency with respect both to products and their production.

Tugrul, Kodaz [Arcelik (Turkey)], email: tugrul.kodaz@arcelik.com

2011-07-01

318

Particle production at HERA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent results on the properties of the hadronic final state at the HERA collider are presented. Strangeness production and correlations have been studied in the laboratory system for deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Inclusive $K^0_S$, $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production has been measured and compared to Monte Carlo model calculations. No significant $\\Lambda$ to $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production asymmetry was observed and the measured $\\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda})$ polarisations a...

Liu, Chuanlei

2006-01-01

319

Hyperon production with antiprotons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precision measurements of hyperon-antihyperon production with antiprotons permit detailed tests of strange quark pair production and decay. Recent measurements at LEAR of lambda-antilambda production are compared with selected calculations. A recent search in the K/sub s/K/sub s/ channel for ?(2230) formation and possible future searches for CP nonconservation in the lambda-antilambda system are also discussed. 17 refs., 13 figs

320

Green Product Innovation Strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary research framework is identified. The second stage involves theory-building, using case studies and literature interactively. This stage leads to the identification of elelments of product innovatio...

Driessen, P. H.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Productivity : -measurement and improvement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this paper is to analyze methods of measurement of labor productivity and introduce them to real business. The object of this paper is to investigate methods of measuring performance. The subject of this paper is the process of implementing methods to increase productivity. Methods (procedures) of the study. Pattern during the writing of this work was used by scientists articles information about the measurement and implementation of systems productivity. Recommendations for ...

Myronenko, Yana

2012-01-01

322

Fabricated steel products, except construction products, machinery and equipment (under development) - Environmental Product Declarations - Product C  

...01 (2013) Based on: Basic Module: Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment Related PCR(s): Fabricated steel construction products (under development) Contributor(s): CO2 Consulting (original PCR) Prepared by: IK Ingenieria PCR moderator(s): Gorka Benito Alonso Share Print Pcr documents Template for providing comments on PCR Final draft PCR Fabricated steel products, except construction products, machinery and equipment Login required Comments on this PCR Be the first discussing this PCR Start a discussion Using EPDs EPD Search What is an EPD®? The International EPD® System Climate Declarations ...

323

Nonhomogeneous matrix products  

CERN Document Server

Infinite products of matrices are used in nonhomogeneous Markov chains, Markov set-chains, demographics, probabilistic automata, production and manpower systems, tomography, and fractals. More recent results have been obtained in computer design of curves and surfaces. This book puts together much of the basic work on infinite products of matrices, providing a primary source for such work. This will eliminate the rediscovery of known results in the area, and thus save considerable time for researchers who work with infinite products of matrices. In addition, two chapters are included to show h

Hartfiel, Darald J

2001-01-01

324

Wages, productivity and aging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we estimate age based wage and productivity differentials using linked employer-employee Canadian data from the Workplace and Employee Survey 1999-2003. Data on the firm side is used to estimate production functions taking into account the age profile of the firm’s workforce. Data on the workers’ side is used to estimate wage equations that also depend on age. Results show concave age-wage and age-productivity profiles. Wage-productivity comparisons show that the producti...

Dostie, Benoi?t

2006-01-01

325

Choosing Safe Baby Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccines Your Child Needs Educators: Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With ... new gadgets and features available (not to mention the many product recalls). But one overriding consideration ...

326

TRMM Gridded Text Products  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

Stocker, Erich Franz

2007-01-01

327

Honeywell's Successful Productivity Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Honeywell productivity plan. Elements of this plan which are discussed include program management, the role of novelty, newsletters, incentives and recognition, ground rules, and feedback. (CT)

DeBoer, Larry M.

1982-01-01

328

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training ...

329

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training ...

330

Sustainable hydrogen production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

1996-01-01

331

Nanotechnology Consumer Product Inventory  

Science.gov (United States)

An inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer products currently on the market. After more than twenty years of basic and applied research, nanotechnologies are gaining in commercial use. Nanoscale materials now are in electronic, cosmetics, automotive and medical products. But it has been difficult to find out how many "nano" consumer products are on the market and which merchandise could be called "nano." While not comprehensive, this inventory gives the public the best available look at the 800+ manufacturer-identified nanotechnology-based consumer products currently on the market.

2011-02-11

332

Fission products experimental programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'Fission Products (FPs)' experimental programme was carried out from 1998 to 2004 in CEA/Valduc Apparatus B in the framework of the IRSN-AREVA NC Common Interest Program dealing with 'burnup credit' studies. It aims at compensating for the lack of critical experiments with FPs in the literature and validating a selection of 6 stable, non-volatile, fission products representing half of the irradiated fuel absorption of all fission products: 103Rh, 133Cs, 143Nd, 149Sm, 152Sm and 155Gd. This paper provides a more exhaustive approach of the keff results, uncertainties and tendencies associated with the different steps of the 'Fission Products' programme. (authors)

333

Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles application of organic matrix entrapped urea showed increase in plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights, root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate. PMID:24006800

Kumar, Manoj; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sainger, Manish; Sainger, Poonam A; Singh, Rana P

2013-01-01

334

Betulin and betulinic acid attenuate ethanol-induced liver stellate cell activation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokine (TNF-?, TGF-?) production and by influencing intracellular signaling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background/aims: Liver fibrosis has been reported to be inhibited in vivo by oleanolic and ursolic acids. However, the mechanisms of the action of those triterpenoids are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the antifibrotic potential of other triterpenes, betulin and betulinic acid, and to characterize their influence on the signal transduction pathways involved in ethanol-activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Methods: Investigated was the influence of preincubation of rat HSCs with betulin and betulinic acid, at non-toxic concentrations, on ethanol-induced toxicity, migration, and several markers of HSC activation such as smooth muscle ?-actin (?-SMA) and procollagen I expression, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and tumor growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), and production of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). To assess the mechanism of the action of those triterpenes, intracellular signals such as nuclear factor-?B (NF?B), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) induced by ethanol were examined. Results: In vitro, betulin, but not betulinic acid, protected HSCs against ethanol toxicity. However, both betulin and betulinic acid inhibited the production of ROS by HSCs treated with ethanol and inhibited their migration as well as ethanol-induced TNF-?, and TGF-?1, production. Betulin and betulinic acid down-regulated ethanol-induced production of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Betulin and betulinic acid, also decreased ethanol-induced activity of MMP-2. In ethanol-induced HSCs, betulin inhibited the activation of the p38 MAPK and the JNK transduction pathways, while betulinic acid inhibited the JNK transduction pathway only. They also significantly inhibited phosphorylation of I?B and Smad 3 and attenuated the activation of TGF-?1 and NF?B/I?B transduction signaling. Conclusion: The results indicated that betulin and betulinic acid inhibited ethanol-induced activation of HSCs on different levels, acting as antioxidants, inhibitors of cytokine production, and inhibitors of TGF-?, and NF?B/I?B transduction signaling. Betulin was also inhibitor of both JNK and p38 MAPK signal transduction, while betulinic acid inhibited only JNK. The remarkable inhibition of several markers of HCS activation makes triterpenes, especially betulin, promising agents for anti-fibrotic combination therapies.

335

Hydrogen production with HTGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present status and plan of the research and development in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) are reported on hydrogen production with High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). Connection technologies between the HTTR (High Temperature engineering Test Reactor) and a hydrogen production (methane steam reforming) process are being developed, in parallel with technology development on thermochemical IS process (water splitting). (author)

336

Phenomenology of ``Onium'' Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phenomenology of heavy quarkonia production in hadron collisions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared to data. Commonly used production models are shown to fail in explaining all the experimental findings. The shortcomings of these models are analysed and possible improvements are discussed.

Cacciari, Matteo

1995-01-01

337

Process, Product, and Playmaking  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

2009-01-01

338

The Productive Programmer  

CERN Document Server

Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The Productive Programmer offers critical timesaving and productivity tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.

Ford, Neal

2009-01-01

339

Diffractive production of mesons  

CERN Document Server

The interest in the study of diffractive meson production is discussed. The description of diffraction within Regge phenomenology is presented, and the QCD-based understanding of diffractive processes is given. Central production is reviewed, and the corresponding main results from the COMPASS experiment and from the experiments at the ISR, RHIC, TEVATRON and LHC collider are summarised.

Schicker, R

2014-01-01

340

Jet Production at HERA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent results from jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering to investigate parton dynamics at low x are reviewed. The results on jet production in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction used to test perturbative QCD are discussed and the values of ?(MZ) extracted from a QCD analysis of the data are presented. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Antihydrogen production temperature dependence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cold antihydrogen atoms were produced by mixing cold samples of antiprotons and positrons. The temperature of the positron plasma was increased by controlled radio-frequency (RF) heating, and the antihydrogen production was measured. Formation is observed to decrease with increased temperature but a simple power law scaling is not observed. Significant production is still present at room temperature

342

Productivity and Costs  

Science.gov (United States)

Productivity and costs of the third quarter show that, in both business and non-farm sectors, the productivity increases were larger, at 4.0 percent and 4.2 percent, respectively, than in the same sectors during the second quarter.

343

Accountability for Productivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

Wellman, Jane

2010-01-01

344

Primary Productivity: Marine Adaptation  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is designed to give students a better understanding of the concept of primary productivity and to have them use one or more methods to calculate primary productivity. Students will have also been introduced to the concepts of marine primary productivity, net productivity vs. gross productivity, and the importance of comparing dry weight versus wet weight. Marine primary producers are usually not plants as we typically think about them, but rather seaweeds or single cell algae. The classic example of a marine primary producer is a marine diatom. In this experiment students use marine diatoms to measure primary productivity. Real-time data from several sources may be used to increase understanding of this topic. Students will discover that although often ignored in the classroom, the marine environment produces 32 percent of the world's primary productivity on 71 percent of the Earth's surface area. Although this is far less than the 68 percent from the continental surfaces (29 percent of the Earth's surface area), this productivity is still very important.

Morrow, Angela

345

Mechanisms for tetralepton production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mechanisms that might explain the reported tetralepton events in neutrino scattering are evaluated and compared. The CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay ?N ? ?-?-?+ ?+X event looks like normal charm production plus an electromagnetic ?+?- pair. The Berkeley-Hawaii-FNAL-Seattle-Wisconsin anti ?N ? ?+e+e-e-X event may also be charm production plus vector meson decay to e+e-. (author)

346

Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen production from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions such as temperature and pH, fermentation modes and reactor types applied) are currently utilized at lab and pilot scale, for biohydrogen production. Although the process has strong potential for the production of energy from organic residues and wastes, the major challenge is to determine whether the economics and reliability of dark fermentative hydrogen production are sufficiently attractive for commercial application to be installed. Furthermore, storage and utilization of the produced hydrogen still faces challenges.

Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

2011-01-01

347

Product Placement in Cartoons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons product placement was found; most product placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory product placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of products available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon production based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.

Irena Oroz Štancl

2014-06-01

348

COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

Adrian MICU

2006-01-01

349

Inner product quadratures  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a n-term quadrature to integrate inner products of n functions, as opposed to a Gaussian quadrature to integrate 2n functions. We will characterize and provide computational tools to construct the inner product quadrature, and establish its connection to the Gaussian quadrature.

Chen, Yu

2012-01-01

350

Training for Productivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a method to demonstrate that Australian enterprises that invest in the training of their employees gain a return from that investment through an increase in employee productivity. The method, which compares enterprise expenditure on training of personnel with labor productivity across a…

Maglen, Leo; Hopkins, Sonnie; Burke, Gerald

351

Consumer Product Disassembly Lesson  

Science.gov (United States)

This document from Joe Orzali provides a classroom unit on consumer product disassembly. Students are asked to "critically analyze the life cycle of products," which will help them better understand larger related concepts like systems thinking, global climate change, ecological preservation and how what we buy and how items are produced impacts our environment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Orzali, Joe

2011-12-30

352

Managing electricity production effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

lace undue reliance on risk point estimates. Overall, the local impacts of electricity production appear to be comparable to or less than the end use risks from energy consumption. It appears likely that concerns about production impacts on a global or regional basis are more likely to affect energy choices in the next decade than are these local effects

353

Questionnaire typography and production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first. PMID:15677172

Gray, M

1975-06-01

354

The MACC Fire Products  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation gives an overview of the global fire emission monitoring products that have so far been developed in the projects GEMS "Global and regional Earth-system (Atmosphere) Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data" and MACC "Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate". The products are available either in real time with a time lag of about six hours or retrospectively starting in 2003. One line of products is based on the "Global Fire Emissions Database" (GFED) inventory. Another is based on satellite-based fire radiative power (FRP) observations that are routinely available in real time. The FRP products that are based on the geostationary Meteosat-9 observations, which are produced at the EUMETSAT LandSAF, resolve the diurnal variation of open fires in Africa and Southern Europe. The FRP products derived by MACC from geostationary GOES observations do the same for the Americas. The FRP products derived by NASA/NOAA from the polar orbiting MODIS observations provide complementary global coverage in roughly one day and serve as transfer standard between the different geostationary observations. All FRP products are merged in MACC to provide a consistent global map of fire activity, from which emission rates of various species are derived. The emission rates are subsequently used as lower boundary conditions for the atmospheric composition modeling in other parts of MACC. The products are also available to the public.

Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Schultz, Martin G.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Wooster, Martin J.; Xu, Weidong

2010-05-01

355

Antihydrogen production temperature dependence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cold antihydrogen atoms were produced by mixing cold samples of antiprotons and positrons. The temperature of the positron plasma was increased by controlled radio-frequency (RF) heating, and the antihydrogen production was measured. Formation is observed to decrease with increased temperature but a simple power law scaling is not observed. Significant production is still present at room temperature.

Amoretti, M.; Amsler, C.; Bazzano, G.; Bonomi, G.; Bouchta, A.; Bowe, P.D.; Canali, C.; Carraro, C.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Doser, M.; Fontana, A.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Funakoshi, R.; Genova, P.; Hangst, J.S.; Hayano, R.S.; Johnson, I.; Joergensen, L.V.; Kellerbauer, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Landua, R.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Macri, M.; Madsen, N.; Manuzio, G.; Marchesotti, M.; Mitchard, D.; Ottone, F.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Riedler, P.; Rotondi, A.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Venturelli, L.; Yamazaki, Y.; Werf, D.P. van der; Zurlo, N

2004-03-11

356

Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

Chaudhuri Surabhi

2005-12-01

357

Health products inspection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To protect public health, the Health Products Inspection is a public service mission where the application of regulations concerning activities on human health products and cosmetic products is verified. This mission permits a global approach to assess the health products risk-based benefit and, in monitoring by laboratory testing and by on site inspections, to verify their compliance with appropriate regulations. The seventy five inspectors perform about eight hundred inspections per year, in France and abroad. These inspections are related to data provided in the health products assessment and also to manufacturing and delivery practices. The French inspection body is also involved in the training of foreign inspectors and in the harmonization of national, European and international practices either for operators than for the competent authorities. (author)

358

Production of radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the research and development programme attention was given to various production procedures and the improvement of facilities. A method was developed for the purification of 28Mg, produced by the bombardment of magnesium targets, for medical use. Further work was done on the possible simultaneous production of 57Co and 109Cd and an improved manganese target for the production of 55Fe has been developed. A prototype 81Rb/ Krypton 81 m generator is being evaluated and the procedure for the separation of 85Sr from rubidium chloride targets has been improved. Futher work is being done to better our 111Inoxine product for blood platelet labelling and it is being tested for labelling efficiency. Preparations are being made for the determination of excitation functions. A final application for the registration of 123I-solution for oral applications and injections has been submitted to the Registrar of Medicine and various improvements have been introduced to the production facilities

359

Associated-quarkonium production  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the growing interest to measure associated-quarkonium production in a number of channels at the LHC. Whereas back-to-back production of quarkonium + isolated photon provides a unique way to extract gluon TMDs, observables such as quarkonium + W/Z can be of great help to better understand the quarkonium production mechanism as well as to shed light on double-parton scatterings. Along these lines, we also argue that quarkonium-pair production is a potentially rich source of information which only has started to be harvested. Finally, we discuss the relevance of studying the production of quarkonium + heavy-quark, as e.g. J/psi + charm and Upsilon + non-prompt J/psi.

Lansberg, J P

2014-01-01

360

Dry alcohol production plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

Stankovi? Mirjana S.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Hydrogen production by bio-ethanol reforming for small-scale fuel cell applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The depletion of fossil fuels in the future and availability of crude oil are serious concerns around the globe. Moreover, the green house gas (GHG) emissions, which have influence on the climate change and environmental problems on the earth, have to be reduced. In order to have a CO2 neutral energy production, renewable energy sources will be one of the solutions to cut-off GHG emissions and to gain energy security. Various biofuels, which can be produced sustainably from renewable raw materials, can be used and they are benign renewable energy carriers. Bio-ethanol as a raw material for H{sub 2} generation is a good alternative because of its non-toxicity, high energy density and easy delivery. Bio-ethanol can be produced from biomass like cellulosic materials, e.g. lignin or hemicelluloses, wood residuals, food industry side streams, etc., for example via fermentation. Production of bio-ethanol from these resources is in focus in research and the most sustainable way to produce it is studied widely. Bio-ethanol produced from sugar or corn based raw materials are of less interest due to the need of plants suitable for food production. The hydrogen production via bio-ethanol reforming for fuel cell applications has attracted significant interest both in academic and industrial research. Bio-ethanol reforming process can be done by three alternative ways as follows: (1) Steam reforming using water (SR) (Endothermic) (2) Dry reforming using CO{sub 2} (DR) (Endothermic) (3) Autothermal steam reforming using partial oxidation (OSR{sub +}POX) (Exothermic). Steam reforming and autothermal reforming are reported to be effective routes for producing hydrogen from ethanol. The catalyst plays a crucial role for the production of hydrogen through ethanol reforming. In the present study, several catalytic materials, mainly CNT (carbon nanotube) support based catalysts but also conventional reforming catalysts were tested and reported. In this study, the feasibility of carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalyst materials are investigated in ethanol reforming. Catalysts for the bio-ethanol reformer operating at low temperatures, i.e. below 400 degC, are needed. The research is focused on developing new and sustainable ways to produce hydrogen by ethanol reforming for e.g. small-scale fuel cell systems having electric output power below 10 kW. The technologies will cover low temperature bio-ethanol reforming, study of hydrogen selective membranes for produced gas stream purification as well as the combinations of these two; catalytic membrane reactors to produce pure hydrogen streams suitable for fuel cells. Pd based hydrogen selective catalytic membranes were studied to obtain high hydrogen gas selectivity and purity with good hydrogen permeability. Further, theoretical and experimental research works were done to find and optimise appropriate operating pressures and temperatures for a micro-reactor performance to achieve a good hydrogen gas yield in reforming. CFD will be used as one of the tools when designing an optimal micro reactor structure for reforming. This project is in cooperation with COST Action 543 'Research and Development of Bio-ethanol Processing for Fuel Cells, BIOETHANOL' (2006-2010)

Huuhtanen, M.; Seelam, P. K.; Turpeinen, E., Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: mika.huuhtanen@oulu.fi; Kordas, K. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Electrical and Information Engineering (Finland))

2009-07-01

362

76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2011 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

2011-04-19

363

77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2012 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

2012-04-11

364

77 FR 25538 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity production. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip...

2012-04-30

365

75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2010 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

2010-04-01

366

Product Category Rules - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... 2014-03-24 Lifts (elevators) (under development) 2014-04-11 Safety footwear - Footwear incorporating metal toe cap (unde... 2014-04-11 Fish, otherwise prepared or preserved; caviar and caviar sub... 2014-04-20 Under development Show all PCRs under development (26) ... 2011-12-05 Pumps for liquids; liquid elevators; mixers 2011-12-05 Beer 2011-12-01 Vegetables 2011-11-21 Jams, fruit jellies and marmalades 2011-11-15 Basic organic chemicals 2011-11-03 Basic inorganic chemicals n.e.c. 2011-11-03 Corrosion protection of fabricated steel products 2011-10-27 Hen eggs in shell, fresh 2011-10-24 Absorbent hygiene ...

367

History of glutamate production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1907 Kikunae Ikeda, a professor at the Tokyo Imperial University, began his research to identify the umami component in kelp. Within a year, he had succeeded in isolating, purifying, and identifying the principal component of umami and quickly obtained a production patent. In 1909 Saburosuke Suzuki, an entrepreneur, and Ikeda began the industrial production of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG). The first industrial production process was an extraction method in which vegetable proteins were treated with hydrochloric acid to disrupt peptide bonds. l-Glutamic acid hydrochloride was then isolated from this material and purified as MSG. Initial production of MSG was limited because of the technical drawbacks of this method. Better methods did not emerge until the 1950s. One of these was direct chemical synthesis, which was used from 1962 to 1973. In this procedure, acrylonitrile was the starting material, and optical resolution of dl-glutamic acid was achieved by preferential crystallization. In 1956 a direct fermentation method to produce glutamate was introduced. The advantages of the fermentation method (eg, reduction of production costs and environmental load) were large enough to cause all glutamate manufacturers to shift to fermentation. Today, total world production of MSG by fermentation is estimated to be 2 million tons/y (2 billion kg/y). However, future production growth will likely require further innovation. PMID:19640955

Sano, Chiaki

2009-09-01

368

Uranium production from phosphates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P2O5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

369

Manual of radioisotope production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable the reader to select processes most suitable to his local conditions

370

EPD Search - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

...fishery products Ores, stones and minerals Electricity, fuels and water Food products Textiles and leather products Forestry, wood and paper products Plastics, ...Pulp and Performance Chemicals AB Plastics, glass and chemical products Concentrated pigment dispersion Eurocolori Srl Plastics, glass and chemical products Polyurethane rigid panel ... Plastics, glass and chemical products Polyurethane rigid panel for thermal insulating 80 mm Stiferite S.r.l. Plastics, glass and chemical ...

371

Product innovation and product innovation marketing: theory and microeconometric evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper derives a three stage Cournot–oligopoly game for product innovation, expenditure on introducing the product and competition on the product market. Product innovation is assumed to increase consumer utility but is effective only if the innovating firm invests in marketing, so that consumers become aware of the newly developed product. Firms first decide whether or not to conduct product innovation and then determine their expenditure for bringing the new product to the market. In ...

Kaiser, Ulrich

2001-01-01

372

Product Development Risk Management in Product Development Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

It is necessary to manage product development risk in new product development process. This paper puts forward a risk management frame combined the traditional risk management framework and establishes a product development risk system in new product development, which provides new patterns for practice. It is helpful to raising the possibility of new product development success.

Key words: Product development risk management; Product development Process

Hanpeng ZHANG

2011-09-01

373

Wheat Production and Economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas production function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat production which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of production costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of production as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat productivity under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor, distance from home to field, hired labor, distance of farm to source of irrigation, number of irrigation, term of irrigation. Furthermore, the weakness of wheat production normally regards as a cost issue and lack of awareness wheat grower especially about wheat technical package. Conclusion: The study concluded that wheat production contribute significantly to farm sustainability and contribute to alleviation of malnutrition in the State. The actual production constraints restrict the sustainability of this important crop. The cooperation between international organizations and governmental institutions should tackle the hindrances of wheat production and achieve stability of wheat. There is a great potential for improvement the yield of the crop and an intervention of the State is needed to ease having the inputs of production especially irrigation water inputs.

Elgilany Ahmed

2011-01-01

374

Silicon production process evaluations  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

1982-01-01

375

Intelligent Distributed Production Control  

CERN Document Server

This editorial introduces the special issue of the Springer journal, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, on intelligent distributed production control. This special issue contains selected papers presented at the 13th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing - INCOM'2009 (Bakhtadze and Dolgui, 2009). The papers in this special issue were selected because of their high quality and their specific way of addressing the variety of issues dealing with intelligent distributed production control. Previous global discussions about the state of the art in intelligent distributed production control are provided, as well as exploratory guidelines for future research in this area.

Thomas, André; Valckenaers, Paul

2011-01-01

376

FAQ - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

...Login Uso de EPDs Creación de EPDs Regla de Categoría de Producto (PCR) En Español In Italiano På Svenska Türkçe V Ceštine Subscribe ... PCR-RELATED issues Who prepares the PCR documents? What is the procedure for approving PCR documents? What is the validity of the ... PCR documents? Where to find information about existing PCR documents? How to comment on existing PCR documents? What is the ECO ... Is it possible to use a PCR Basic Module as Product Category Rules (PCR) when developing an EPD? How does ...

377

Application of fractional factorial design to levan production by Zymomonas mobilis Aplicação do planejamento fatorial fracionário para a produção de levana por Zymomonas mobilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levan is a non-toxic, biologically active, extra cellular polysaccharide composed solely by fructose units. Optimization of levan production by Zymomonas mobilis strain ZAG-12 employing a 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed to analyze the influence of the temperature (20, 25 e 30ºC agitation (50, 75 e 100 rpm, and the initial concentrations of both sucrose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 and yeast extract (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0g.L-1 on final levan concentration. Aerobic fermentation was performed batchwise in 500mL Pyrex flasks for 72 hours. Biomass, ethanol, levan and sucrose were determined at beginning and also at end of the fermentations. The experiments showed that the final levan concentration depended on initial sucrose concentration, temperature and agitation velocity and that the initial concentration of yeast extract did not influence levan production. However, when the production of ethanol and biomass were considered, it became evident that yeast extract was a significant variable. The best conditions for levan production occurred at 100 rpm agitation, 20ºC and 250g.L-1 of initial sucrose resulting in 14.67g.L-1 of levan.Levana é um polissacarídeo extracelular, biologicamente ativo, não tóxico, contendo em sua estrutura apenas frutose. A maximização da produção de levana, por via fermentativa, pela linhagem de Zymomonas mobilis ZAG-12, foi estudada utilizando-se um planejamento fatorial de dois níveis 2(4-1, variando-se as concentrações iniciais de sacarose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 , extrato de levedura (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0 g.L-1, temperatura (20, 25 e 30ºC e agitação (50, 75 e 100 rpm. As fermentações foram desenvolvidas por processos descontínuos em frascos Pyrex roscados, de 500 mL, contendo 300 mL de meio a base de sacarose, por 72 horas. No início e ao final do processo, foram dosados: biomassa, etanol, levana e sacarose como açúcares redutores totais. A análise dos dados mostra que o aumento da produção de levana depende tanto dos efeitos da concentração inicial de sacarose, temperatura e agitação, isoladamente, quanto da interação entre agitação e temperatura na faixa experimental estudada. O extrato de levedura não afeta a produção de levana, entretanto, quando a resposta é produção de etanol e biomassa, fica evidente que essa variável é significativa. Os resultados demonstraram que as melhores condições para a produção em batelada ocorreram com 250g/L de sacarose inicial, 100 rpm de agitação, a 20ºC.

I.R. Melo

2007-03-01

378

Jet Production at HERA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I review the status of perturbative QCD calculations for jet production in eP-scattering at HERA. I will discuss possibilities of combining fixed order, especially higher order, calculations and parton showers.

Po?tter, B.

2001-01-01

379

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... quickly. - For More Information FDA Launches Consumer-friendly Web Search for Recalls [ARCHIVED] Improving Recall Information for ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs ...

380

Antimicrobial Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces. Antimicrobial products contain about 275 different ... mitigate growth or development of microbiological organisms; protect inanimate objects (for example floors and walls), industrial processes or ...

 
 
 
 
381

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training and Continuing Education Inspections/Compliance State & Local Officials Consumers Industry Health ...

382

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training and Continuing Education Inspections/Compliance State & Local Officials Consumers Industry Health ...

383

Other Fluoride Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Community Water Fluoridation Share Compartir Other Fluoride Products On this Page ... applied Fluoride varnish In the United States, water fluoridation is not the only form of fluoride delivery ...

384

Production of Diamond Monocrystals  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Production of Monocrystals and High-Strength Polycrystals of Diamond with Specified Properties by Shock and Quasi-Static Compression of Different Carbonaceous Materials Including Amorphous Carbon, Ultra-Dispersive Diamonds, Fullerits, etc.

385

The Integer Product Game  

Science.gov (United States)

Each of two players alternately selects an integer to multiply by another given integer to color the cell of an answer that matches a product on the game board. The first student to fill four cells in a row wins.

Connected Mathematics Project 2006

2010-05-17

386

Production of goods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Businesses are a type of social organization in which the interactions between the different parts are geared towards the achievement of an objective. The essential characteristic of the productive process is to transform resources in order to obtain goods or services with more value than the sum of the input. If the contrary occurs, the system dies as it is not capable of generating value that justifies its existence. Organizations produce either material goods that are tangible, or services, which are non tangible. Service production has exploded in recent years and health care organizations are an example of this. Health care organizations are highly complex productive systems that must be managed. It is well known that the quality of these services is the consequence of collaboration and cooperation between the elements that intervene in the production process.

Angélica Román

2012-01-01

387

Regional electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While France's final energy consumption remained stable between 2000 and 2010, this was not the case for its consumption of electricity, which increased by 13% over 10 years, and by 4.5% over five years. Production of electricity is concentrated into a few areas within the national territory, essentially as a result of geographical factors. Due, notably, to the presence of hydro generating, some regions produce a large proportion of the renewable electricity. Viewed at the level of the entire territory, production is not linked to local consumption. Some regions have high surpluses whereas others show important deficits, while overall production covers, on average, 114% of national needs. However, at the local level, measures by local authorities to control energy consumption and the development of renewables are beginning to show results. Production of renewable electricity, not including hydro, has grown greatly over a few years and still has a high potential. (authors)

388

Gravitino Production After Inflation  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the production of gravitinos in a cosmological background. Gravitinos can be produced during preheating after inflation due to a combined effect of interactions with an oscillating inflaton field and absence of conformal invariance. In order to get insight on conformal properties of gravitino we reformulate phenomenological supergravity in SU(2,2|1)-symmetric way. The Planck mass and F- and D-terms appear via the gauge-fixed value of a superfield that we call conformon. We find that in general the probability of gravitino production is not suppressed by the small gravitational coupling. This may lead to a copious production of gravitinos after inflation. Efficiency of the new non-thermal mechanism of gravitino production is very sensitive to the choice of the underlying theory. This may put strong constraints on certain classes of inflationary models.

Kallosh, Renata E; Linde, Andrei D; Van Proeyen, A; Kallosh, Renata; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Proeyen, Antoine Van

2000-01-01

389

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... necessary. In this Consumer Update video, FDA Recall Operations Team Leader Armando Zamora, explains how FDA manages ... Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & ...

390

Household Products Database: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... of their respective holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2014 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. Home | Brands | Manufacturers | Ingredients | Health Effects Copyright , ...

391

Radioactivity in consumer products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

1978-08-01

392

Genre in media production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

How do we explain changes in media genres? Are they the result of economic, technological or other kinds of structural forces; or are they the result of the change-producing agency of the media producers? And how are changes in media texts connected to contextual conditions for media production on micro-, meso- or macro levels? This article suggests that a theoretical approach using a pragmatic and socio-cognitive understanding of genre will help us to address these questions. This approach can highlight the interplay between human agency and different kinds of structural forces involved in specific professional media production cultures. Furthermore, it has the potential to integrate media texts and especially the micro- and meso levels of production. Using lessons learned and findings from my recent production study of Danish television satire, the article will argue three major methodological as well as knowledge-producing advantages of a genre approach.

Hanne Bruun

2011-12-01

393

[Production of rifamycin complex].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, by using synthetic medium and Streptomyces mediterranai rifamycin was produced by fermentation in laboratory scale. By means of spectrophotometric determination and microbiological assay, production of antibiotic by the organism was proved. PMID:3503969

Oner, M; Tamer, A U; Bursalio?lu, M

1987-10-01

394

JWST science data products  

Science.gov (United States)

Science data products for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) ©observations will be generated by the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) within the JWST Science and Operations Center (S&OC) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Data processing pipelines within the DMS will produce uncalibrated and calibrated exposure files, as well as higher level data products that result from combined exposures, such as mosaic images. Information to support the science observations, for example data from engineering telemetry, proposer inputs, and observation planning will be captured and incorporated into the science data products. All files will be generated in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format. The data products will be made available through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and adhere to International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) standard data protocols.

Swade, Daryl; Bushouse, Howard; Greene, Gretchen; Swam, Michael

2014-07-01

395

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting ... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Identifying Recalled Products Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates by ...

396

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available U.S. Food & Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

397

FDA 101: Product Recalls  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available U.S. Food & Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

398

Products in fusion systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction.

Henke, Ellen

2013-01-01

399

Identifying Recalled Products  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... E-mail | Consumer Updates RSS Feed FDA Consumer Safety Officer Armando Zamora explains what to do if ... Improving Recall Information for Consumers Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalled Product Photos on Flickr - - Related Consumer ...

400

Thermochromism in Commercial Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.

White, Mary Anne; Leblanc, Monique

1999-09-01

 
 
 
 
401

Fission products experimental programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 'Fission Products (FPs)' experimental programme was carried out from 1998 to 2004 in CEA/Valduc Apparatus B in the framework of the IRSN-AREVA NC Common Interest Program dealing with 'burnup credit' studies. It aims at compensating for the lack of critical experiments with FPs in the literature and validating a selection of 6 stable, non-volatile, fission products representing half of the irradiated fuel absorption of all fission products: {sup 103}Rh, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 155}Gd. This paper provides a more exhaustive approach of the k{sub eff} results, uncertainties and tendencies associated with the different steps of the 'Fission Products' programme. (authors)

Leclaire, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Anno, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (CEA/IPSN) (France); Girault, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-Sur-Tille (France); Letang, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

2006-07-01

402

Ethanol production from lignocellulose  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

2001-01-01

403

Turbomachinery in Biofuel Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the production processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel production process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...

Go?rling, Martin

2011-01-01

404

Buffalo Production and Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the book “Buffalo Production and Research”, edited by Antonio Borghese by FAO Regional Office for Europe, REU Technical Series 67, the state of art of the research, development, products and market of buffalo species in the world, is presented. The 14 chapters analyse single themes of principal problems concerning the breeding, the selection, the reproduction,the feeding, the milk and meat quality, the buffalo’s pathologies.

Alessandro Nardone

2011-02-01

405

Analytic Partial Crossed Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Partial actions of discrete abelian groups can be used to construct both groupoid C*-algebras and partial crossed product algebras. In each case there is a natural notion of an analytic subalgebra. We show that for countable subgroups of the real numbers and free partial actions, these constructions yield the same C*-algebras and the same analytic subalgebras. We also show that under suitable hypotheses an analytic partial crossed product preserves all the information in the...

Donsig, Allan P.; Hopenwasser, Alan

2003-01-01

406

Labour Productivity Superstatistics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss superstatistics theory of labour productivity. Productivity distribution across workers, firms and industrial sectors are studied empirically and found to obey power-distributions, in sharp contrast to the equilibrium theories of mainstream economics. The Pareto index is found to decrease with the level of aggregation, {\\it i.e.}, from workers to firms and to industrial sectors. In order to explain these phenomenological laws, we propose a superstatistics framewor...

Aoyama, Hideaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshi

2008-01-01

407

Massive lepton pair production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review of massive lepton pair production the Drell-Yan mechanism is defined in terms of the parton model, and the modifications expected from Quantum Chromodynamics description of the process are described. The problems of the phenomenology of the data are described. Included in addition are particle-type dependence, mass spectra, momentum spectra of lepton pairs, Quantum Chromodynamics phenomenology of lepton pair production, angular distributions, structure functions and quark distributions, and the future outlook. 40 references