WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-toxic non-hazardous product

  1. Technological, economic and social aspects of excavation utilisation for dumping municipal and non-toxic production waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukleja, K.; Tatarczyk, B. [Poltegor Institute for Opencast Mining, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Exhaustion of the areas suitable for dumping the production and municipal waste and ever growing social protests makes it necessary to try to find the new dumping space, which would not degrade the environment and would not agitate the public opinion. From the ecological, social and economic point of view worked out excavations make an attractive alternative for the future toxic waste dumping. In large strip mines the waste dumping area might be pre-shaped by means of selective excavation of upper layers and proper management of the dumping technology. In the smaller worked out open casts (quarries, clay, silt, marl and chalk mines) excavations would require proper shaping and sealing of a basin. In pit mines the sections of intact solid rock mass of working with the cut off hydraulic contact to the abyssal water contained in the complex of geological layers might be used for the purpose of dumping. The simpler method of finding space for waste dumping might be adaptation of some hydrotechnological objects, for example the mining waste water sedimentation basins and slurry settling tanks, as well as spoil banks. This paper puts a particular emphasis to the fact that all the activities connected with the adaptation for the waste dumping of worked out workings are significant. They require professional knowledge, as well as an intuition concerning their present and future ecological impact. 7 refs.

  2. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  3. Non-toxic antifouling strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea M. Magin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The term fouling generally refers to an undesirable process in which a surface becomes encrusted with material from the surrounding environment. In the case of biofouling, that material consists of organisms and their by-products e.g., extracellular polysaccharides and metabolites. Biofouling limits the performance of devices in numerous applications; however, this review focuses on antifouling biomaterials for marine and biomedical applications. The surface chemistry and physical properties of the substratum are both crucial to preventing the recruitment of biofouling organisms. Natural antifouling surfaces exhibit both chemical and physical attributes. The chemical structure is discussed briefly as it relates to both anti-fouling and fouling-release properties. However, our focus has been to study physical cues as they relate to the initial attachment of fouling organisms.

  4. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhen, E-mail: zhyang@niglas.ac.cn; Kong, Fanxiang, E-mail: fxkong@niglas.ac.cn; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation showed higher inhibition to non-toxin producing than toxin-producing strains on growth and photosynthetic activity. • Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly under UV-B radiation. • Higher resistance to UV-B radiation helped toxin-producing M. aeruginosa to predominate in the competition. - Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms.

  5. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation showed higher inhibition to non-toxin producing than toxin-producing strains on growth and photosynthetic activity. • Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly under UV-B radiation. • Higher resistance to UV-B radiation helped toxin-producing M. aeruginosa to predominate in the competition. - Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms

  6. 76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Incinerator PC Portland Cement PIC Product of Incomplete Combustion POTW Publicly Owned Treatment Works PVC... include: Generators Users Major boiler type and Major generator category NAICS* primary industry category... Manufacturing..... 32629 Non-Hazardous Waste 327310 Burning Cement Kilns. ] Glass and Glass...

  7. Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and test new, non-toxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. Vintage propulsion systems frequently use highly toxic...

  8. 100-lbf Non-Toxic Storable Liquid Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Road Maps for both Launch and In Space Propulsion call for the development of non-toxic, monopropellant reaction control systems to replace current...

  9. Cysteine as a non toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper alloys in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravgaard, Mari; van Lanschot, Jettie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine cysteine as an alternative to benzotriazole (BTA) for the conservation of archaeological objects with bronze disease. Investigation of the two inhibitors involved the use of electrochemical techniques, measurements of weight change in high humidity and comparative studies of colour changes in the corrosion products. The results obtained in this article demonstrate that cysteine could be a non-toxic alternative to BTA. Cysteine performed as well as BTA on pre-co...

  10. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  11. Non-Toxic Orbital Maneuvering System Engine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Claflin, Scott; Maeding, Chris; Butas, John

    1999-01-01

    Recent results using the Aestus engine operated with LOx/ethanol propellant are presented. An experimental program at Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power is underway to adapt this engine for the Boeing Reusable Space Systems Division non-toxic Orbital Maneuvering System/Reaction control System (OMS/RCS) system. Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace designed the Aestus as an nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) upper-stage engine for the Ariane 5. The non-toxic OMS/RCS system's preliminary design requires a LOx/ethanol (O2/C2H5OH) engine that operates with a mixture ratio of 1.8, a specific impulse of 323 seconds, and fits within the original OMS design envelope. This paper describes current efforts to meet these requirements including, investigating engine performance using LOx/ethanol, developing the en-ine system sizing package, and meeting the vehicle operation parameters. Data from hot-fire testing are also presented and discussed.

  12. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  13. Piezoelectric driven non-toxic injector for automated cell manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H B; Su, Hao; Chen, H Y; Mills, J K

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated by state-of-the-art robotic and computer technology, Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) automation aims to scale and seamlessly transfer the human hand movements into more precise and fast movements of the micro manipulator. Piezo-drill cell injection, a novel technique using piezo-driven pipettes with a very small mercury column, has significantly improves the survival rates of ICSI process. It is found that complications are due, in large part, to toxicity of mercury and the damage to the cell membrane because of the lateral tip oscillations of injector pipette. In this paper, a new design of piezo-driven cell injector is proposed for automated suspended cell injection. This new piezo-driven cell injector design centralizes the piezo oscillation power on the injector pipette which eliminates the vibration effect on other parts of the micromanipulator. Detrimental lateral tip oscillations of the injector pipette are attenuated to a desirable level even without the help of mercury column. This mercury-free injector can sublime the piezoelectric driven injection technique to completely non-toxic level with great research and commercial application in gene injection, in-vitro fertilization, ICSI and drug development. PMID:21335794

  14. Novel Non-toxic Antifouling/Fouling Release Nanocomposite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jason

    2008-03-01

    Biofouling is a significant environmental problem. Traditional solutions to this problem have involved incorporation of toxic organometallic species into the paint. This approach while effective, is harmful to the environment. The resultant ban on the use of many of these coatings has created a need for alternative systems to control marine fouling. Silicones represent the only class of polymers currently used commercially, due to their inherently low surface energy, glass transition temperature, and modulus, combined with good chemical stability and ease of application. In this talk I will present our efforts to develop a new generation of practical, non-toxic coatings that combine antifouling/fouling release characteristics with good mechanical properties, ease of application and low cost. Specifically we have been focusing on a series of fouling release coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers and nanocomposites. The PDMS copolymers are much stronger than pure PDMS yet they exhibit fouling release performance comparable and, in some cases, better than pure PDMS.

  15. Comparative gene expression in toxic versus non-toxic strains of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckner Gernot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis genes in the two existent Alexandrium tamarense EST libraries, we propose that the PSP toxin genes in dinoflagellates might be more different from their cyanobacterial counterparts than would be expected in the case of a recent gene transfer. As a starting point to identify possible PSP toxin-associated genes in dinoflagellates without relying on a priori sequence information, the sequences only present in mRNA pools of the toxic strain can be seen as putative candidates involved in toxin synthesis and regulation, or acclimation to intracellular PSP toxins.

  16. The thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and its regulation in non-toxic goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 35 patients with non-toxic goitre, surgically resected thyroid tissue was hydrolyzed with Pronase under anaerobic conditions in the presence of methylmercaptoimidazole. Total iodine, PBI, L-thyroxine (T3-RIA and T4 (D)) as well as triiodothyronine (T3-RIA) were determined in the tissue hydrolysates. The data obtained were compared with T4/T3 ratios in the serum, TRH test and thyroidal 131I uptake before operation. The total iodine, amounted to 112,6 +- 14.6 ?g/g tissue. The T4/T3 ratio was 11.37 +- 1.80. Using this procedure of tissue hydrolysis and RIA assays for iodothyronines, the yield for T4 and T3 is considerably higher than the one obtained with previous methods. As in animal experiments, evidence was given for human goitre that T3 is predominantly produced first in the case of decreased T4 production. Second in the case of iodine deficiency, and third in cases of increased TSH response after TRH. Patients with a large amount of iodine and T4 in their thyroids have a much smaller increase in serum TSH after TRH than do subjects with a much lower thyroidal T4 concentration. This occurs even through the thyroid hormone levels in serum in these groups are not different. No correlation between thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and serum T4/T3 ratio could be demonstrated even under extreme conditions. This finding favors the assumption of a predominant extrathyroidal regulation for T4/T3 ratio in serum. (orig.)

  17. Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per

    2014-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effects and to shape the delivery of value based care. Valid generic and disease specific tools are available for quantifying HRQoL in patients with non-toxic goitre. However, few studies have applied these validated instruments to assess HRQoL in patients with benign non-toxic goitre. Limited evidence suggests that patients with non-toxic goitre have HRQoL impairments in multiple HRQoL domains. While the HRQoL-impact of non-toxic goitre may be small relative to other severely disabling medical conditions, treatment is almost exclusively elected for HRQoL indications. Thus better quantification of HRQoL, particularly at better (or more favorable) levels where many patients score, is essential. Web and mobile technologies have eased the ability to deliver surveys to patients. Routine consideration of HRQoL provides the opportunity to monitor the impact of treatment on the outcomes most meaningful for patients and theopportunity to help shape the delivery of value based health care.

  18. Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

  19. Development of Non-hazardous Explosives for Security Training and Testing (NESTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The security force at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely used canines to search for explosives and other contraband substances. The use of threat quantities of explosive for realistic training in populated or sensitive Laboratory areas has not been permitted because of the hazard. To overcome this limitation a series of non-hazardous materials with authentic signatures have been prepared and evaluated. A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and canine (K-9) detection in a Beta Test Program

  20. Assessment of Cost Impacts of Using Non-Toxic Propulsion in Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, P. J.; Gies, O.; Stuhlberger, J.; Schmitz, H.-D.

    2002-01-01

    The growing costs of space missions, the need for increased mission performance, and concerns associated with environmental issues deeply influence propulsion system design and propellant selection criteria. A propellant's performance was defined in the past exclusively in terms of specific impulse and density, but now high-performance, non-toxic, non-sophisticated mono- propellant systems are key drivers, and are considered for development to replace the traditional hydrazine (N2H4) mono-propellant thrusters. The mono-propellants under consideration are propellant formulations, which should be environmentally friendly, should have a high density, equal or better performance and better thermal characteristics than hydrazine. These considerations raised interest specially in the candidates of Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN)-based propellants, Ammoniumdinitramide (ADN)-based propellants, Tri-ethanol (TEAN)-based propellants, Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF)-based propellants, Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-based propellants. A near-term objective in consideration of satellite related process optimisation is to significantly reduce on-ground operations costs and at the same time improve mission performance. A far-term objective is to obtain a system presenting a very high performance, illustrated by a high specific impulse. Moving to a "non-toxic" propulsion system seems to be a solution to these two goals. The sought after benefits for non-toxic spacecraft mono-propellant propulsion are under investigation taking into account the four main parameters which are mandatory for customer satisfaction while meeting the price constraints: - Reliability, availability, maintainability and safety, - Manufacturing, assembly, integration and test, - Launch preparation and support, - Ground support equipment. These benefits of non-toxic mono-propellants can be proven by various examples, like an expected reduction of development costs due the non-toxicity of propellants which might allow "easier" design, reducing some inhibits for ground safety, leading to a shorter development time, and consequently to reduced program costs. Operational costs could be reduced due to the use of non-toxic propellant. Their non-toxicity, in comparison to the traditional propellants, will avoid special safety procedures and also parallelisation of processes during all phases of AIT and launch preparations. The costs directly associated with propellant handling, transport and storage should be lower, also follow-on costs risk is minimised because of the elimination or significant reduction of toxic and carcinogenic characteristics of the propellants. The physical characteristic and properties of some of the propellants formulations mentioned, like a higher density than hydrazine, support the beneficial aspects: a global S/C weight reduction could be achieved due to smaller tanks.

  1. Structural studies on a non toxic homologue of type II RIPs from bitter gourd: Molecular basis of non toxicity, conformational selection and glycan structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thyageshwar Chandran; Alok Sharma; M Vijayan

    2015-12-01

    The structures of nine independent crystals of bitter gourd seed lectin (BGSL), a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPS, and its sugar complexes have been determined. The four-chain, two-fold symmetric, protein is made up of two identical two-chain modules, each consisting of a catalytic chain and a lectin chain, connected by a disulphide bridge. The lectin chain is made up of two domains. Each domain carries a carbohydrate binding site in type II RIPS of known structure. BGSL has a sugar binding site only on one domain, thus impairing its interaction at the cell surface. The adenine binding site in the catalytic chain is defective. Thus, defects in sugar binding as well as adenine binding appear to contribute to the non-toxicity of the lectin. The plasticity of the molecule is mainly caused by the presence of two possible well defined conformations of a surface loop in the lectin chain. One of them is chosen in the sugar complexes, in a case of conformational selection, as the chosen conformation facilitates an additional interaction with the sugar, involving an arginyl residue in the loop. The -glycosylation of the lectin involves a plant-specific glycan while that in toxic type H RIPS of known structure involves a glycan which is animal as well as plant specific.

  2. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates ...

  3. Radioiodine therapy of benign non-toxic goitre. Potential role of recombinant human TSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, S; Bonnema, S J; Hegedüs, L

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an update on recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH) augmented radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy and outlines its potential role in the treatment of symptomatic benign multinodular non-toxic goitre. In some countries, ¹³¹I has been used for three decades to reduce the size of nodular goitres. The feasibility of ¹³¹I therapy depends on an adequate thyroid ¹³¹I uptake. Based on a two-fold increase in thyroid ¹³¹I uptake, superiority studies have convincingly demonstrated that the absorbed thy...

  4. Interaction among Non-toxic Phytoplankton, Toxic Phytoplankton and Zooplankton: Inferences from Field Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, S; Bhattacharya, S.; Das, P; Chattopadhyay, J.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the mutual dependencies and interactions among different groups of species of the plankton population, based on an analysis of the long-term field observations carried out by our group in the North-West coast of the Bay of Bengal. The plankton community is structured into three groups of species, namely, non-toxic phytoplankton (NTP), toxic phytoplankton (TPP) and zooplankton. To find the pair-wise dependencies among the three groups of plankton, Pearson and partial correlation coe...

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZARDOUS, NON-HAZARDOUS and SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  6. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S; Richter, K-U; Hansen, Per Juel; Krock, B; Rost, B

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O-2 evolution and CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet MS in cells acclimated to low (7.9) and high pH (8.4 or 8.9). Species-s...

  7. The treatment of multinodular large non-toxic goiter using repeated doses of radioiodine (preliminary report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of study was to establish the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy using 131I in the group of patients with multinodular large non-toxic goiter. Material and methods: Therapy was undertaken in female patients disqualified from surgery due to high risk and these patients who didn't agree to surgery. Studies were performed in 7 women (age range: 62.82 yrs) with large goiters (2nd degree according to WHO classification and goiter volume assessed by USG over 100 cm3). Serum TSH, fT4, fT3, antithyroid antibodies (TPOAb, TgAb, TRAb) levels, urinary iodine concentration (UIE) were estimated in all patients parallel with radioiodine uptake test (after 5 and 24 hours), 131I thyroid scintigraphy and fine needle biopsy to exclude neoplasmatic transformation. These studies and therapy with 22 mCi 131I were repeated every 3 months. Results: Before therapy median thyroid volume was approximately 145 cm3 and during therapy gradually decreased to 76 cm3 after 6 months and to 65 cm3 after 12 months. Increase of TRAb can be a inhibiting factor of thyroid volume reduction. Other antithyroid antibodies showed marked tendency to rise but without significant correlation with radioiodine uptake and goiter reduction. After 12 months we found 2 patients with clinical and laboratory hypothyroidism. Conclusions: In some cases of multinodular large non-toxic goiter, the radioiodine therapy can be the best alternative way for L-thyroxine treatment or surgery therapy. The fractionated radioiodine therapy of multinodular large non-toxic goiter is safe and effective method but continuation of nodules observation is necessary. (author)

  8. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH)2 was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC

  9. Quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramon, Per; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Ekholm, Ola; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Frendl, Daniel M; Groenvold, Mogens; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Watt, Torquil

    2015-01-01

    Background While health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues often prompt treatment of benign non-toxic goiter (NTG), few clinical studies have systematically assessed HRQoL in patients with this condition. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate thyroid-related and generic HRQoL in patients with benign NTG, as compared to the general population, before and 6 months after treatment. Methods Thyroid-related and generic HRQoL were assessed with ThyPRO and SF-36, respective...

  10. Analyses of Environmental Impacts of Non Hazardous Regional Landfills in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Donevska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of potential environmental impacts for eight planned non-hazardous regional landfills in Macedonia. Waste quantities for each waste management region and landfill capacities are estimated. Expected leachate quantities are calculated using Water Balance Method. Analyses and comparison of the likely landfill leachate per capita are presented, demonstrating that higher rates of leachate are generated per capita in waste management regions with higher annual sums of rainfall. An assessment of the potential landfill impacts on the water environment taking into consideration local geology and hydrogeology conditions is presented. Some general measures for leachate treatment that are in compliance with the modern EU standards are indicated. The goal of the study is to facilitate a better understanding about the sustainable waste management practices in cases of landfilling of municipal solid waste.

  11. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

  12. A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woollett Laura A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alarming rise in the obesity epidemic and growing concern for the pathologic consequences of the metabolic syndrome warrant great need for development of obesity-related pharmacotherapeutics. The search for such therapeutics is severely limited by the slow throughput of animal models of obesity. Amenable to placement into a 96 well plate, zebrafish larvae have emerged as one of the highest throughput vertebrate model organisms for performing small molecule screens. A method for visually identifying non-toxic molecular effectors of fat metabolism using a live transparent vertebrate was developed. Given that increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD via deletion of CD38 have been shown to prevent high fat diet induced obesity in mice in a SIRT-1 dependent fashion we explored the possibility of directly applying NAD to zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish larvae were incubated with daily refreshing of nile red containing media starting from a developmental stage of equivalent fat content among siblings (3 days post-fertilization, dpf and continuing with daily refreshing until 7 dpf. Results PPAR activators, beta-adrenergic agonists, SIRT-1 activators, and nicotinic acid treatment all caused predicted changes in fat, cholesterol, and gene expression consistent with a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fat metabolism signal transduction extending from man to zebrafish larvae. All changes in fat content were visually quantifiable in a relative fashion using live zebrafish larvae nile red fluorescence microscopy. Resveratrol treatment caused the greatest and most consistent loss of fat content. The resveratrol tetramer Vaticanol B caused loss of fat equivalent in potency to resveratrol alone. Significantly, the direct administration of NAD decreased fat content in zebrafish. Results from knockdown of a zebrafish G-PCR ortholog previously determined to decrease fat content in C. elegans support that future GPR142 antagonists may be effective non-toxic anti-obesity therapeutics. Conclusion Owing to the apparently high level of evolutionary conservation of signal transduction pathways regulating lipid metabolism, the zebrafish can be useful for identifying non-toxic small molecules or pharmacological target gene products for developing molecular therapeutics for treating clinical obesity. Our results support the promising potential in applying NAD or resveratrol where the underlying target protein likely involves Sirtuin family member proteins. Furthermore data supports future studies focused on determining whether there is a high concentration window for resveratrol that is effective and non-toxic in high fat obesity murine models.

  13. A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin S; Alimov, Alexander P; Rilo, Horacio L; Jandacek, Ronald J; Woollett, Laura A; Penberthy, W Todd

    2008-01-01

    Background The alarming rise in the obesity epidemic and growing concern for the pathologic consequences of the metabolic syndrome warrant great need for development of obesity-related pharmacotherapeutics. The search for such therapeutics is severely limited by the slow throughput of animal models of obesity. Amenable to placement into a 96 well plate, zebrafish larvae have emerged as one of the highest throughput vertebrate model organisms for performing small molecule screens. A method for visually identifying non-toxic molecular effectors of fat metabolism using a live transparent vertebrate was developed. Given that increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) via deletion of CD38 have been shown to prevent high fat diet induced obesity in mice in a SIRT-1 dependent fashion we explored the possibility of directly applying NAD to zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish larvae were incubated with daily refreshing of nile red containing media starting from a developmental stage of equivalent fat content among siblings (3 days post-fertilization, dpf) and continuing with daily refreshing until 7 dpf. Results PPAR activators, beta-adrenergic agonists, SIRT-1 activators, and nicotinic acid treatment all caused predicted changes in fat, cholesterol, and gene expression consistent with a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fat metabolism signal transduction extending from man to zebrafish larvae. All changes in fat content were visually quantifiable in a relative fashion using live zebrafish larvae nile red fluorescence microscopy. Resveratrol treatment caused the greatest and most consistent loss of fat content. The resveratrol tetramer Vaticanol B caused loss of fat equivalent in potency to resveratrol alone. Significantly, the direct administration of NAD decreased fat content in zebrafish. Results from knockdown of a zebrafish G-PCR ortholog previously determined to decrease fat content in C. elegans support that future GPR142 antagonists may be effective non-toxic anti-obesity therapeutics. Conclusion Owing to the apparently high level of evolutionary conservation of signal transduction pathways regulating lipid metabolism, the zebrafish can be useful for identifying non-toxic small molecules or pharmacological target gene products for developing molecular therapeutics for treating clinical obesity. Our results support the promising potential in applying NAD or resveratrol where the underlying target protein likely involves Sirtuin family member proteins. Furthermore data supports future studies focused on determining whether there is a high concentration window for resveratrol that is effective and non-toxic in high fat obesity murine models. PMID:18752667

  14. Radioiodine therapy of benign non-toxic goitre. Potential role of recombinant human TSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, S; Bonnema, S J

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an update on recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH) augmented radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy and outlines its potential role in the treatment of symptomatic benign multinodular non-toxic goitre. In some countries, ¹³¹I has been used for three decades to reduce the size of nodular goitres. The feasibility of ¹³¹I therapy depends on an adequate thyroid ¹³¹I uptake. Based on a two-fold increase in thyroid ¹³¹I uptake, superiority studies have convincingly demonstrated that the absorbed thyroid ¹³¹I dose can be increased without increasing the administered ¹³¹I activity, resulting in a 35-56% amplification of goitre reduction at one-year post radioiodine compared to conventional (without rh-TSH) ¹³¹I therapy. Although patient satisfaction is not improved at one-year, this approach facilitates tracheal decompression and is particularly promising in large goitres. The majority of multinodular non-toxic goitre patients may not require amplified goitre reduction. But as an alternative strategy, rh-TSH allowsup to 80% reduction of the therapeutic ¹³¹I activity while still achieving goitre reduction comparable to that of conventional ¹³¹I therapy and maintaining high patient satisfaction. The dose-reduction (equality) strategy is attractive in terms of minimizing post-therapeutic restrictions and in reducing the potential risk of radiation-induced malignancy. Adverse effects like temporary thyroid swelling and thyroid hormone excess are to a large extent dose-dependent and generally 0.1mg rh-TSH or less is well tolerated. Based on these results we conclude that rh-TSH augmented ¹³¹I therapy is a promising new therapeutic principle allowing the tailoring of an optimal ¹³¹I therapy on the individual level.

  15. Therapy for non-toxic multinodular goiter. Radioiodine therapy as attractive alternative to surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for therapy for nodular goiter results from the growth of thyroid nodules over decades and from the possibility of tracheal compression and worsening of respiratory function. Given the high prevalence of non-toxic goiter, the epidemiologically low incidence of clinically apparent thyroid cancer justifies non-surgical strategies. Randomised studies have shown that levothyroxine offers limited therapeutic effects and is inferior to radioiodine therapy regarding goiter shrinkage. When indication for a definitive therapy is given, the choice between resection and radioiodine therapy should consider volume of goiter, severity of clinical symptoms, thyroid uptake, patient's age, co-morbidity, previous resection of goiter, patient's profession and patient's wish. Even in large goiters between 100 and 300 ml radioiodine therapy showed consistent results with goiter size reduction from 35-40% one year and 40-60% two years after radioiodine therapy. Thyroid hormones to prevent recurrence of goiter are not necessary. Recurrent goiters were seldom observed after radioiodine therapy and resulted from initially very large goiters or uptake in dominante nodules or from low 131I activities. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) offers the opportunity to enhance the effect of radioiodine therapy. Observational studies have shown that rhTSH increases low 131I uptake in case of high alimentary iodine-supply by the factor 4, causes a more homogenous 131I distribution within the goiter and improves goiter reduction. A phase I study for dose finding is running in the USA. Conclusion: radioiodine therapy for shrinkage of large non-toxic goiter should not be restricted to elderly patients, or to patients with co-morbidity or high operative risk, but is an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with special professions (singer, teacher, speaker) or with the wish for a non-invasive treatment modality. (orig.)

  16. Application of a non-hazardous vital dye for cell counting with automated cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo In; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Lee, Kiwon; Hong, Dongpyo; Lim, Hyunchang; Cho, Keunchang; Jung, Neoncheol; Yi, Yong Weon

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in automated cell counters enable us to count cells more easily with consistency. However, the wide use of the traditional vital dye trypan blue (TB) raises environmental and health concerns due to its potential teratogenic effects. To avoid this chemical hazard, it is of importance to introduce an alternative non-hazardous vital dye that is compatible with automated cell counters. Erythrosin B (EB) is a vital dye that is impermeable to biological membranes and is used as a food additive. Similarly to TB, EB stains only nonviable cells with disintegrated membranes. However, EB is less popular than TB and is seldom used with automated cell counters. We found that cell counting accuracy with EB was comparable to that with TB. EB was found to be an effective dye for accurate counting of cells with different viabilities across three different automated cell counters. In contrast to TB, EB was less toxic to cultured HL-60 cells during the cell counting process. These results indicate that replacing TB with EB for use with automated cell counters will significantly reduce the hazardous risk while producing comparable results. PMID:26399556

  17. Lead exposure in American black ducks after implementation of non-toxic shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2000-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent shotgun pellets has been recognized as an important disease of North American waterfowl since Bellrose's (1959) research >40 years ago. Nation-wide regulations banning the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting were established in 1991. We compared the prevalence of lead exposure in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering on 2 areas in Tennessee before (1986-88) and after the ban (1997-99) to assess the effect of the ban on lead shot on this species. Prevalence of elevated blood lead in black ducks declined by 44% from before (11.7% prevalence) to after (6.5% prevalence) the implementation of non-toxic shot. The reduction in lead exposure was pronounced in adult black ducks (from 14.3% to 5.3%). However, prevalence in lead exposure remained similar in juvenile black ducks (from 8.2% to 8.3%). Additional evidence from lead ingestion and lead poisoning mortality events also indicates that lead exposure has declined in waterfowl in the Mississippi flyway. We believe that lead ingestion will continue to decline, despite the persistence of lead shot in some wetlands. The impact of reduced lead exposure on waterfowl populations needs to be assessed.

  18. Non-Toxic, Low-Freezing, Drop-In Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    A non-toxic, non-flammable, low-freezing heat transfer fluid is being developed for drop-in replacement within current and future heat transfer loops currently using water or alcohol-based coolants. Numerous water-soluble compounds were down-selected and screened for toxicological, physical, chemical, compatibility, thermodynamic, and heat transfer properties. Two fluids were developed, one with a freezing point near 0 C, and one with a suppressed freezing point. Both fluids contain an additive package to improve material compatibility and microbial resistance. The optimized sub-zero solution had a freezing point of 30 C, and a freezing volume expansion of 10-percent of water. The toxicity of the solutions was experimentally determined as LD(50) greater than 5g/kg. The solutions were found to produce minimal corrosion with materials identified by NASA as potentially existing in secondary cooling loops. Thermal/hydrodynamic performance exceeded that of glycol-based fluids with comparable freezing points for temperatures Tf greater than 20 C. The additive package was demonstrated as a buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption, and to prevent microbial growth. The optimized solutions were determined to have physically/chemically stable shelf lives for freeze/thaw cycles and longterm test loop tests.

  19. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein composition. A simple, efficient, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from petiole explants of non-toxic J. curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ). The best induction of shoot buds (57.61%), and number of shoot buds (4.98) per explant were obtained when in vitro petiole explants were placed horizontally on MS medium supplemented with 2.27 mu M TDZ. The Induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 mu M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 mu M 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 mu M alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation and subsequent elongation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 mu M BA and 8.5 mu M IAA. The elongated shoots could be rooted on half-strength MS medium with 15 mu M IBA, 11.4 mu M IAA and 5.5 mu M NAA with more than 90% survival rate. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deferiprone, a non-toxic reagent for determination of iron in samples via sequential injection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragourpun, Kraivinee; Sakee, Uthai; Fernandez, Carlos; Kruanetr, Senee

    2015-05-01

    We present for the first time the use of deferiprone as a non-toxic complexing agent for the determination of iron by sequential injection analysis in pharmaceuticals and food samples. The method was based on the reaction of Fe(III) and deferiprone in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 to give a Fe(III)-deferiprone complex, which showed a maximum absorption at 460 nm. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity range for iron determination was found over the range of 0.05-3.0 ?g mL-1 with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9993. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.032 ?g mL-1 and 0.055 ?g mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the method was less than 5.0% (n = 11), and the percentage recovery was found in the range of 96.0-104.0%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of Fe(III) in pharmaceuticals, water and food samples with a sampling rate of 60 h-1.

  1. Radioiodine - an attractive alternative to surgery in large non-toxic multinodular goitres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporadic non-toxic goitre (SNG) is defined as thyroid enlargement in a euthyroid patient living in an area without endemic goitre. Because thyroid hormone function is within the reference range, the main problems are the signs of thyroid enlargement, thus reducing the size of the goitre is undoubtedly the primary goal of therapy. Although SNG is a common disease, there is no single optimal management of treatment strategy. L-thyroxine treatment, although only moderately effective and with reported reductions in goitre volume of less than 30%, is still used. Moreover, in patients over 60 years of age, long-term TSH-suppression treatment may cause iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and is associated with a significant risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation as well as osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women. In patients with huge goitres, the surgical removal of a gland is made most frequently. The great advantage of thyroid surgery is its immediate effect. Unfortunately, surgery carries a risk of goitre recurrence and complications, both surgical and anaesthesia-related. For those patients who do not want to be operated on, or have contraindications for invasive treatment, and taking into consideration the low efficacy of L-thyroxine treatment, the best option is radioiodine. Despite encouraging reports of the high efficacy of radioiodine in the treatment of SNG this method is still not commonly used by many clinicians. In our work we would like to point out the efficacy, adverse effects, and contraindications of using iodine-131. Going through the advantages and disadvantages of all accessible methods of treatment of SNG, we would like to focus on using radioiodine as an attractive alternative to surgery. (authors)

  2. Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac, Jacky; Tramel, Terri

    2003-01-01

    The current NASA Space Shuttle auxiliary propulsion system utilizes nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH), hypergolic propellants. This use of these propellants has resulted in high levels of maintenance and precautions that contribute to costly launch operations. By employing alternate propellant combinations, those less toxic to humans, the hazards and time required between missions can be significantly reduced. Use of alternate propellants can thereby increase the efficiency and lower the cost in launch operations. In support of NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI), TRW proposed a three-phase project structured to significantly increase the technology readiness of a high-performance reaction control subsystem (RCS) thruster using non-toxic propellant for an operationally efficient and reusable auxiliary propulsion system (APS). The project enables the development of an integrated primary/vernier thruster capable of providing dual-thrust levels of both 1000-lbf class thrust and 25-lbf thrust. The intent of the project is to reduce the risk associated with the development of an improved RCS flight design that meets the primary NASA objectives of improved safety and reliability while reducing systems operations and maintenance costs. TRW proposed two non-toxic auxiliary propulsion engine designs, one using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen and the other using liquid oxygen and liquid ethanol, as candidates to meet the goals of reliability and affordability at the RCS level. Both of these propellant combinations offer the advantage of a safe environment for maintenance, while at the same time providing adequate to excellent performance for a conventional liquid propulsion systems. The key enabling technology incorporated in both TRW thrusters is the coaxial liquid on liquid pintle injector. This paper will concentrate on only the design and testing of one of the thrusters, the liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) thruster. The LOX/LH2 thruster design includes a LOX-centered pintle injector, consisting of two rows of slots that create a radial spoke spray pattern in the combustion chamber. The main fuel injector creates a continuous sheet of LH2 originating upstream of the LOX pintle injector. The two propellants impinge at the pintle slots, where the resulting momentum ratio and spray pattern determines the combustion efficiency and thermal effects on the hardware. Another enabling technology used in the design of this thruster is fuel film cooling through a duct, lining the inner wall of the combustion chamber barrel section. The duct is also acts as a secondary fuel injection point. The variation in the amount of LH2 used for the duct allows for adjustments in the cooling capacity for the thruster. The Non-Toxic LOX-LH2 RCS Workhorse Thruster was tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Test Stand 500. Hot-fire tests were conducted between March 08, 2002 and April 05, 2002. All testing during the program base period were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LH2 injector stroke settings. The operating conditions that were surveyed varied thrust levels, mixture ratio and LH2 duct cooling flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The total accumulated burn time for the test program is 352.3 seconds. C* efficiency was calculated and found to be within expectable limits for most operating conditions. The temperature on the Haynes combustion chamber remained below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. The test results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster head-e design maintained cryogenic injection temperatures while firing, which validates the concept for

  3. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2015-05-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{? ? } ). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Toxin-Producing Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and Its Non-Toxic Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Zhang; Shu-Fei Zhang; Lin Lin; Da-Zhi Wang

    2014-01-01

    The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T), and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT) using RNA-seq. Al...

  5. Testing the Awareness of Hazardous Nature of Printmaking Materials among Printmaking Instructors in Traditional and Non-toxic Printmaking Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam N. Radaydeh; Sameer A. Otoom

    2005-01-01

    In art education, printmaking is one area that mostly deals with toxic materials that are hazardous to human health. This study investigated printmaking instructor awareness of hazardous printmaking materials. A questionnaire was designed for printmaking instructors and was mailed to a 20 instructors from the non-toxic printmaking programs and 20 instructors from traditional printmaking programs. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of respondents and the awaren...

  6. A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J D; Treharne, R E; Phillips, L J; Durose, K

    2014-07-17

    Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 10(14) cm(-3)) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production. PMID:25030171

  7. A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J. D.; Treharne, R. E.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 1014 cm-3) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production.

  8. Low-Cost High-Performance Non-Toxic Self-Pressurizing Storable Liquid Bi-Propellant Pressure-Fed Rocket Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exquadrum proposes a high-performance liquid bi-propellant rocket engine that uses propellants that are non-toxic, self-pressurizing, and low cost. The proposed...

  9. Development of a mathematical model for the production of solid fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Polanec, Brigita; Glodež, Sre?ko; Ekart, Janez; Samec, Niko; Kokalj, Filip

    2012-01-01

    The production of solid fuels from non-hazardous waste in Slovenia is becoming increasingly topical. After separation at the source the hierarchy of waste management is manifested in the mass and energy use of waste with a minimal damaging impact on the environment. There are two different qualities of solid fuels from non-hazardous waste, which represent energy-rich fractions from non-hazardous waste: - Residual Fuel Delivery (RDF), which is primarily intended for direct combustion and - Sol...

  10. The amino-acid sequence of two non-toxic mutants of diphtheria toxin: CRM45 and CRM197.

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, G.; Rappuoli, R.; Ratti, G

    1984-01-01

    The amino-acid sequences of two diphtheria toxin-related, non-toxic proteins, CRM45 and CRM197 , were deduced from the complete sequence of their genes: tox 45 and tox 197. CRM45 lacks the last 149 C-terminal amino-acid residues, but is otherwise identical to diphtheria toxin: a single C----T transition introduces an "ochre" (TAA) termination signal in tox 45, after the codon for threonine-386. A single G----A transition was also found in tox 197, leading to the substitution of glycine-52, pr...

  11. Synthesis of Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate by Maghnite-H+ a Non-toxic Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benadda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate copolymers were prepared successfully and cleanly by a one step process via cationic copolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP with methyl methacrylate (MMA, in heterogeneous phase using “Maghnite-H+” (Mag-H+ as catalyst in bulk, Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H+. Temperature is varied between 20 and 80 °C. The effects of reaction temperature, amount of Mag-H+ on the yield and the intrinsic viscosity (? were investigated. A typical reaction product of poly (NVP-co- MMA was analyzed by infra red spectroscopy (FTIR and 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy as well as by viscosimetry. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 24th November 2013; Revised: 30th June 2014; Accepted: 8th July 2014How to Cite: Benadda, M., Ferrahi, M.I., Belbachir, M. (2014. Synthesis of Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate by Maghnite-H+ a Non-toxic Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 201-206. (doi: 10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5743.201-206Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5743.201-206

  12. Separation of non-hazardous, non-radioactive components from ICPP calcine via chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L.O.

    1995-05-01

    A pyrochemical treatment method for separating non-radioactive from radioactive components in solid granular waste accumulated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was investigated. The goal of this study was to obtain kinetic and chemical separation data on the reaction products of the chlorination of the solid waste, known as calcine. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were completed to verify that a separation of radioactive and non-radioactive calcine components was possible. Bench-scale chlorination experiments were completed subsequently in a variety of reactor configurations including: a fixed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed around and not through the particle bed), a packed/fluidized-bed reactor, and a packed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed through the particle bed). Chemical analysis of the reaction products generated during the chlorination experiments verified the predictions made by the equilibrium calculations. An empirical first-order kinetic rate expression was developed for each of the reactor configurations. 20 refs., 16 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several...

  14. STUDY OF CLINICAL PROFILE OF NON - TOXIC GOITER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CORRELATION OF PATHOLOGY, LIPID PROFILE AND ANTIBODY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the morphology of non - toxic goiter , the role of auto - immunity and lipid abnormalities in overt and sub - clinical hypothyroid goiter patients. METHODS: A descriptive observational study was undertaken amongst goiter patients without thyrotoxic features comprising 50 randomly selected cases within the range of 12 - 65years. Goiter patients with thyrotoxic features , acute illness and other visceral diseases were excluded. The patients were evaluated with thyroid function tests , USG - thyroid , FNAC - thyroid , anti - TPO and lipid profile after thorough clinical examination. RESULTS : In my study , most patients were female (with male: female ratio 1:5.25 and were middle aged (betwe en age group 30 - 49years. Among all patients 60 %( i.e . 30 patients had Hashimoto’s thyroiditis , 24% (i.e. 12 patients had diffuse colloid goiter and 16% (i.e. 8 patients had nodular goiter. 52% (i.e. 26 of all patients and 76.6% (i.e. 23 of Hashimoto ’s goiter patients were anti - TPO positive. Majority of colloid goiter (i.e. 66.7% and nodular goiter (50% patients were euthyroid but majority of Hashimoto’s goiter patients were hypothyroid (65.38% overt and 33% sub - clinical. Majority of anti - TPO posit ive patients were hypothyroid (65.38% overt and 30.62% sub - clinical and majority of anti - TPO negative patients (66.67% were euthyroid. Within reference range of TSH , there was a linear increase in total serum cholesterol , LDL - cholesterol , triglyceride an d decrease in HDL - cholesterol with increase in TSH. This lipid profile changes are mainly seen in Hashimoto goiter patients . CONCLUSION : this study emphasizes the role of auto - immunity in non - toxic goiter patients especially Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patient s and lipid profile changes in those patients.

  15. Plant regeneration of non-toxic Jatropha curcas—impacts of plant growth regulators, source and type of explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-28

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 ?M TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 ?M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 ?M BAP and 5.5 ?M ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 ?M BAP and 8.5 ?M IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.

  16. Gold leaching by organic base polythionates: new non-toxic and secure technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Vladislav; Shekhvatova, Galina; Vainshtein, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article present a review on own experimental and some published data which are related with the gold leaching. It is well-known that the most common and usual process of the leaching with cyanide can be dangerous, needs a great water consumption, and additional costs for remediation of the poisoned and toxic sites. The experimental data described production of poythionates which are not toxic but perspective for the prosperous gold leaching. The paper dedicated to the safe gold leaching with thiosulfates and organic salts of polythionic acids (organic base polythionates). The method of production of these polythionates based on the Smolyaninov reaction is described in stages and in details for the first time. Possible application of the polythionates application in the gold leaching is discussed and its advantages are compared with the gold leaching by cyanation. PMID:24790825

  17. Gold leaching by organic base polythionates: new non-toxic and secure technology

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyaninov, Vladislav; Shekhvatova, Galina; Vainshtein, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article present a review on own experimental and some published data which are related with the gold leaching. It is well-known that the most common and usual process of the leaching with cyanide can be dangerous, needs a great water consumption, and additional costs for remediation of the poisoned and toxic sites. The experimental data described production of poythionates which are not toxic but perspective for the prosperous gold leaching. The paper dedicated to the safe gold leaching w...

  18. Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, R.

    2012-07-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (approx1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GW{sub peek}, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET. As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4 1/2 months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies. (Author)

  19. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, Roar

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GWpeek, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET.As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4½ months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies.

  20. Ultrafast laser based ``green'' synthesis of non-toxic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, S.; Kabashin, A. V.; Winnik, F. M.; Meunier, M.

    2008-12-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles offer novel promising properties for biological sensing and imaging, as well as in therapeutics. However, these applications are often complicated by the possible toxicity of conventional nanomaterials, arising as a result of inadequate purification procedures of nanoparticles obtained via synthetic pathways using toxic or non-biocompatible substances. We review novel femtosecond laser-assisted methods, which enable the preparation of metal nanomaterials in clean, biologically friendly aqueous environment (“green” synthesis) and thus completely solve the toxicity problem. The proposed methods, including laser ablation and fragmentation, make possible the production of stable metal colloids of extremely small size (˜2 nm) with a low coefficient of variation (15-25%). Those nanoparticles exhibit unique surface chemistry and can be used for bio-imaging, cancer treatment and nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor [Amrita Centre for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Cochin, 682 041 (India); Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: manzoor_nanomed@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Technology, DST unit on Nanoscience, Chennai, 600 036 (India)

    2010-02-05

    Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au{sub 25} nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au{sub 25} clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au{sup +} ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of {approx}5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f{sub 7/2{approx}}83.97 eV and Au 4f{sub 5/2{approx}}87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size {approx}1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size {approx}8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at {approx}674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR{sup +ve} oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au{sub 25} clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

  2. Polymerization of Lactic Acid by MAGHNITE-H+ a Non-Toxic Montmorillonite Clay Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrane, A.; Belaouedj, M. A.; Meghabar, R.; Belbachir, M.

    2008-08-01

    The development of synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as poly(lactic acid), is particularly important for constructing medical devices, controlled drug release matrix, including scaffolds and sutures, and has attracted growing interest in the biomedical field. Here, we report a novel approach to preparing poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PDLA) as a biodegradable polymer. We investigated in detail the reaction conditions for the simple direct polycondensation of D, L-lactic acid, including the reaction times, temperatures, and catalyst. The molecular weight of synthesized PDLA is dependent on both the reaction temperature, amount of catalyst and time. The optimum reaction condition to obtain PDLA by direct polycondensation using Maghnite-H+[1,2], a proton exchanged Montmorillonite clay, as catalyst was thus determined to be 120 °C, 5% amount of Maghnite-H+ for 28 h with a molecular weight of 7970. The method for PDLA synthesis established here will facilitate production of PDLA of various molecular weights, which may have a potential utility as biomaterials.

  3. Non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in surface waters: An integrated approach simulating application thresholds and resulting farm income effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, M A; Grovermann, C; Schreinemachers, P; Ingwersen, J; Lamers, M; Berger, T; Streck, T

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide application rates are high and increasing in upland agricultural systems in Thailand producing vegetables, fruits and ornamental crops, leading to the pollution of stream water with pesticide residues. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum per hectare application rates of two widely used pesticides that would achieve non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in the stream water and to evaluate how farm household incomes would be affected if farmers complied with these restricted application rates. For this purpose we perform an integrated modeling approach of a hydrological solute transport model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) and an agent-based farm decision model (Mathematical Programming-based Multi-Agent Systems, MPMAS). SWAT was used to simulate the pesticide fate and behavior. The model was calibrated to a 77 km(2) watershed in northern Thailand. The results show that to stay under a pre-defined eco-toxicological threshold, the current average application of chlorothalonil (0.80 kg/ha) and cypermethrin (0.53 kg/ha) would have to be reduced by 80% and 99%, respectively. The income effect of such reductions was simulated using MPMAS. The results suggest that if farm households complied with the application thresholds then their income would reduce by 17.3% in the case of chlorothalonil and by 38.3% in the case of cypermethrin. Less drastic income effects can be expected if methods of integrated pest management were more widely available. The novelty of this study is to combine two models from distinctive disciplines to evaluate pesticide reduction scenarios based on real-world data from a single study site. PMID:26431614

  4. Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like; calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya bean oil, were irradiated by 60-cobalt gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 yr after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 nm. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also shows the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 yr after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration has also confirmed the spectrophotometry results. Finally the most effective stabilizing system has been added to the Iranian PVC and its behaviour has been compared with the Solvay PVC for 6 months period after irradiation

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and its non-toxic mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Lin, Lin; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2014-11-01

    The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T), and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT) using RNA-seq. All clean reads were assembled de novo into a total of 113,674 unigenes, and 66,812 unigenes were annotated in the known databases. Out of them, 35 genes were found to express differentially between the two strains. The up-regulated genes in ACHK-NT were involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism processes, indicating that more carbon and energy were utilized for cell growth. Among the down-regulated genes, expression of a unigene assigned to the long isoform of sxtA, the initiator of toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, was significantly depressed, suggesting that this long transcript of sxtA might be directly involved in toxin biosynthesis and its depression resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize PSTs in ACHK-NT. In addition, 101 putative homologs of 12 cyanobacterial sxt genes were identified, and the sxtO and sxtZ genes were identified in dinoflagellates for the first time. The findings of this study should shed light on the biosynthesis of PSTs in the dinoflagellates. PMID:25421324

  6. Vaccination with non-toxic mutant toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces IL-17-dependent protection against Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kouji; Hu, Dong-Liang; Asano, Krisana; Nakane, Akio

    2015-06-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) is one of superantigens produced by Staphylococcus aureus. We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with non-toxic mutant TSST-1 (mTSST-1) develops host protection to lethal S. aureus infection in mice. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this protection is necessary to elucidate because the passive transfer of antibodies against TSST-1 fails to provide complete protection against S. aureus infection. In this study, the results showed that interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-producing cells were increased in the spleen cells of mTSST-1-vaccinated mice. The main source of IL-17A in mTSST-1-vaccinated mice was T-helper 17 (Th17) cells. The protective effect of vaccination was induced when the vaccinated wild type but not IL-17A-deficient mice were challenged with S. aureus. Gene expression of chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL1, and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages were increased in spleens and livers of vaccinated mice after infection. The IL-17A-dependent immune response was TSST-1 specific because TSST-1-deficient S. aureus failed to induce the response. The present study suggests that mTSST-1 vaccination is able to provide the IL-17A-dependent host defense against S. aureus infection which promotes chemokine-mediated infiltration of phagocytes into the infectious foci. PMID:25857736

  7. Identification of BP16 as a non-toxic cell-penetrating peptide with highly efficient drug delivery properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Marta; González-Bártulos, Marta; Soriano-Castell, David; Ribas, Xavi; Costas, Miquel; Tebar, Francesc; Massaguer, Anna; Feliu, Lidia; Planas, Marta

    2014-03-14

    Antimicrobial peptides are an interesting source of non-cytotoxic drug delivery vectors. Herein, we report on the identification of a new cell-penetrating peptide (KKLFKKILKKL-NH2, BP16) from a set of antimicrobial peptides selected from a library of cecropin-melittin hybrids (CECMEL11) previously designed to be used in plant protection. This set of peptides was screened for their cytotoxicity against breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, pancreas adenocarcinoma CAPAN-1 and mouse embryonic fibroblast 3T3 cell lines. BP16 resulted to be non-toxic against both malignant and non-malignant cells at concentrations up to 200 ?M. We demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy that BP16 is mainly internalized in the cells through a clathrin dependent endocytosis and that it efficiently accumulates in the cell cytoplasm. We confirmed that the cell-penetrating properties of BP16 are retained after conjugating it to the breast tumor homing peptide CREKA. Furthermore, we assessed the potential of BP16 as a drug delivery vector by conjugating the anticancer drug chlorambucil to BP16 and to a CREKA-BP16 conjugate. The efficacy of the drug increased between 6 and 9 times when conjugated to BP16 and between 2 and 4.5 times when attached to the CREKA-BP16 derivative. The low toxicity and the excellent cell-penetrating properties clearly suggest that BP16 is a suitable vector for the delivery of therapeutic agents into cells. PMID:24480922

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Toxin-Producing Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and Its Non-Toxic Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T, and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT using RNA-seq. All clean reads were assembled de novo into a total of 113,674 unigenes, and 66,812 unigenes were annotated in the known databases. Out of them, 35 genes were found to express differentially between the two strains. The up-regulated genes in ACHK-NT were involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism processes, indicating that more carbon and energy were utilized for cell growth. Among the down-regulated genes, expression of a unigene assigned to the long isoform of sxtA, the initiator of toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, was significantly depressed, suggesting that this long transcript of sxtA might be directly involved in toxin biosynthesis and its depression resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize PSTs in ACHK-NT. In addition, 101 putative homologs of 12 cyanobacterial sxt genes were identified, and the sxtO and sxtZ genes were identified in dinoflagellates for the first time. The findings of this study should shed light on the biosynthesis of PSTs in the dinoflagellates.

  9. Facile development of Au-ring microelectrode for in vivo analysis using non-toxic polydopamine as multifunctional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqing; Wang, Keqing; Xu, Yanan; Li, Linbo; Luo, Jingxuan; Wang, Chao

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we describe a facile and fast wet deposition technique to bottom-up fabricate Au-ring microelectrodes (Au-RMEs) using non-toxic polydopamine as multifunctional grafting material instead of commonly used (3-aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The Au-RMEs are fabricated by growing Au film uniformly inside of a pulled glass capillary. Au-RMEs with tip apex diameter ranging from 15 to 50?m were fabricated involving four consequent steps, i.e. hydroxylating the inside wall of a pulled glass capillaries, grafting adhesive polydopamine (PDA) film to hydroxyl group surface, seeding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto PDA surface and finally growing thickness-tunable gold layer on top of gold nanoparticles. After 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modification, the Au-RMEs obtain improved specificity and sensitivity for monitoring of dopamine (DA) with respect to alleviating ascorbic acid (AA) interference. The current response is in wide linearity to DA concentration in the range of 0.2-100.0?M with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and the detection limit as low as 50.0nM (S/N=3). In addition, the designed glass substrates of Au-RMEs were mechanically stronger and their tips can be further sharped by adjusting the pulling program. In order to demonstrate the utility of these fabricated microelectrodes in neurochemistry, Au-RMEs were used for electrochemical monitoring of DA release stimulated by K(+) in the striatum of rats. Thus, this study offers a novel and reliable strategy for preparing Au microelectrodes and maybe an attractive alternative to the traditional options for continuous and in vivo electrochemical monitoring of DA in various physiological processes. PMID:26623512

  10. Numerical simulation of ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based non-toxic aerospace propellant decomposition and combustion in a monopropellant thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Decomposition and combustion process of ADN-based thruster are studied. • Distribution of droplets is obtained during the process of spray hit on wire mesh. • Two temperature models are adopted to describe the heat transfer in porous media. • The influences brought by different mass flux and porosity are studied. - Abstract: Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) monopropellant is currently the most promising among all ‘green propellants’. In this paper, the decomposition and combustion process of liquid ADN-based ternary mixtures for propulsion are numerically studied. The R–R distribution model is used to study the initial boundary conditions of droplet distribution resulting from spray hit on a wire mesh based on PDA experiment. To simulate the heat-transfer characteristics between the gas–solid phases, a two-temperature porous medium model in a catalytic bed is used. An 11-species and 7-reactions chemistry model is used to study the catalytic and combustion processes. The final distribution of temperature, pressure, and other kinds of material component concentrations are obtained using the ADN thruster. The results of simulation conducted in the present study are well agree with previous experimental data, and the demonstration of the ADN thruster confirms that a good steady-state operation is achieved. The effects of spray inlet mass flux and porosity on monopropellant thruster performance are analyzed. The numerical results further show that a larger inlet mass flux results in better thruster performance and a catalytic bed porosity value of 0.5 can exhibit the best thruster performance. These findings can serve as a key reference for designing and testing non-toxic aerospace monopropellant thrusters

  11. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  12. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, L Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat; Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) ( Plow-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. PMID:12845488

  13. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  14. GIS-modelling the distribution of Rattus norvegicus in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sacchi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats Rattus norvegicus in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundance. The first procedure has been previously applied, while the second has never been used until now. In this study, we valued the effectiveness of the interpolating procedure by modelling the distribution of brown rats in a large urban area of northern Italy. During spring and autumn 2004, we positioned non toxic baits in 119 spots distributed over the whole urbanized area of the city and we generated maps of rat presence/absence for the two seasons. Brown rats were irregularly scattered over the city and concentrated mainly around rivers and ditches, as well in the historic centre, particularly where buildings suffer poor maintenance. Seasonal variation of rat occurrence was also detected. Brown rat occurrence may be reliably predicted by the interpolation procedure, which appeared to be a more efficient approach to rat distribution modelling compared with landscape-based procedures. Riassunto Modelli GIS della distribuzione di Rattus norvegicus in ambiente urbano con utilizzo di esche non tossiche. I programmi GIS rappresentano un utile strumento per analizzare e modellizzare la distribuzione del ratto delle chiaviche Rattus norvegicus nelle aree urbane, fornendo mappe in grado di predire la presenza di questa specie su vaste aree. A questo scopo possono essere impiegate due procedure alternative: i modelli basati sul paesaggio, che utilizzano le caratteristiche ambientali desunte da mappe tematiche o immagini satellitari oppure ii tecniche di interpolazione che convertono insiemi di punti di presenza accertata in stime di abbondanza. Il primo approccio è già stato utilizzato, mentre il secondo non ci risulta essere ancora stato applicato nella gestione del ratto delle chiaviche. In questo studio è valutata l’efficacia del metodo di interpolazione nel predire la distribuzione di questo roditore in una grande area urbana del nord Italia. Nel corso della primavera e dell’autunno 2004, sono state posizionate esche non tossiche in 119 punti distribuiti sull’intera area urbana. I dati così raccolti sono stati utilizzati per generare mappe di presenza/assenza della specie nelle due stagioni di indagine. I ratti delle chiaviche sono risultati irregolarmente distribuiti in città e concentrati principalmente lungo i corsi d’acqua e nel centro storico soprattutto in presenza di edifici soggetti a scarsa manutenzione. Nel corso dell’indagine sono emerse differenze nella distribuzione fra le due stagioni di ricerca. La presenza del ratto delle chiaviche può effettivamente essere predetta mediante il processo di interpolazione: questo metodo risulta essere più efficiente rispetto a quello basato sull’analisi delle sole caratteristiche ambientali.

  15. High concentrations of protein test substances may have non-toxic effects on Daphnia magna: implications for regulatory study designs and ecological risk assessments for GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Burns, Andrea; Hamer, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing for possible adverse effects of insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms (NTOs) is an important part of many ecological risk assessments for regulatory decision-making about the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops. To increase confidence in the risk assessments, regulatory guidelines for effects testing specify that representative surrogate species for NTOs are exposed to concentrations of insecticidal proteins that are in excess of worst-case predicted exposures in the field. High concentrations in effects tests are achieved by using protein test substances produced in microbes, such as Escherichia coli. In a study that exposed Daphnia magna to a single high concentration of a microbial test substance containing Vip3Aa20, the insecticidal protein in MIR162 maize, small reductions in growth were observed. These effects were surprising as many other studies strongly suggest that the activity of Vip3Aa20 is limited to Lepidoptera. A plausible explanation for the effect on growth is that high concentrations of test substance have a non-toxic effect on Daphnia, perhaps by reducing its feeding rate. A follow-up study tested that hypothesis by exposing D. magna to several concentrations of Vip3Aa20, and a high concentration of a non-toxic protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Vip3Aa20 and BSA had sporadic effects on the reproduction and growth of D. magna. The pattern of the effects suggests that they result from non-toxic effects of high concentrations of protein, and not from toxicity. The implications of these results for regulatory NTO effects testing and ERA of IRGM crops are discussed. PMID:25523175

  16. Study of 99mTc Pertechnetate Radiopharmaceuticals in Relation to Thyroid Hormone for Toxic and non-Toxic Diffuse Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Viantri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of the thyroid gland in the form of enlargement of the thyroid gland are called a goiter. Goiter is divided into two types, namely toxic and non-toxic diffuse goiter. Diagnosis could be done with thyroid scan (in vivo and test for thyroid hormone value (in vitro. Thyroid scan is applied by giving injection of 99mTc Pertechnetate as much as 2 - 5 mCi intravenally in the arm and then thyroid gland and salivary glands imaging were conducted in the fifth minute, tenth minute and fifteenth minute using gamma camera. Thyroid hormones test in blood is done with radioimmunoassay method. The same pattern showed the accumulation polad of the radioactive number from quotation of salivary glands. The accumulation percentage activity of 99mTc Pertechnetate in thyroid gland for the case of toxic diffuse goiter is larger than the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter. The results of this study indicate that the predictors for the case of toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by high thyroid uptake which the the value of T3 hormone 3.3 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 165 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 0.2 ?IU/ml. While the case of non-toxic diffuse goiter could be characterized by low thyroid uptake which the value of T3 hormone 1.2 ng/dl, the value of T4 hormone 90 nmol/l, and the value of TSH hormone 1.8 ?IU/ml

  17. Development and design of a high pressure carbon dioxide system for the separation of hazardous contaminants from non-hazardous debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Air Force (USAF) Memorandum of Understanding, a system is being designed that will use high pressure carbon dioxide for the separation of oils, greases, and solvents from non-hazardous solid waste. The contaminants are dissolved into the high pressure carbon dioxide and precipitated out upon depressurization. The carbon dioxide solvent can then be recycled for continued use. Excellent extraction capability for common manufacturing oils, greases, and solvents has been measured. It has been observed that extraction performance follows the dilution model if a constant flow system is used. The solvents tested are extremely soluble and have been extracted to 100% under both liquid and mild supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. These data are being used to design a 200 liter extraction system

  18. Evolution of autonomy in idiopathic non-toxic goiter, evaluated by regional suppressibility of sup(99m)Tc-uptake and TSH response to TRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen euthyroid patients with non-toxic goiter were studied, 7 had diffuse goiters and 10 had nodular goiters. The TSH response to TRH and the sup(99m)Tc-uptake were measured before and after T3 suppression. The uptake, measured with a gamma camera, was calculated for the whole gland and for a maximum of 6 regions within the thyroid gland. The suppressibility of sup(99m)Tc-uptake (percent change of uptake) ranged from 0 to 95%, it was significantly greater in patients with diffuse than in those with nodular goiters, and was alike in nodular and internodular tissue. The patients with diffuse goiter were significantly younger than those with nodular goiter. Abolished TSH response to TRH was seen in 2 patients with negative T3 suppression tests. In another 2 patients impaired TSH response was associated with impaired suppressibility. In 13 patients with normal TRH tests, the suppression of uptake was normal in 8 subnormal in 5. The results suggest that nodularity and functional autonomy may develop in non-toxic goiters. In some of these goiters the mass of autonomous tissue may be large enough to cause negative TRH tests, probably indicating hypersecretion of thyroid hormones, although not necessarily above the normal range. (orig.)

  19. Revealing the Function and the Structural Model of Ts4: Insights into the “Non-Toxic” Toxin from Tityus serrulatus Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela B.; Cerni, Felipe A.; Peigneur, Steve; Bordon, Karla C. F.; Tytgat, Jan; Arantes, Eliane C.

    2015-01-01

    The toxin, previously described as a “non-toxic” toxin, was isolated from the scorpion venom of Tityus serrulatus (Ts), responsible for the most severe and the highest number of accidents in Brazil. In this study, the subtype specificity and selectivity of Ts4 was investigated using six mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.2?Nav1.6 and Nav1.8) and two insect Nav channels (DmNav1 and BgNav). The electrophysiological assays showed that Ts4 specifically inhibited the fast inactivation of Nav1.6 channels, the most abundant sodium channel expressed in the adult central nervous system, and can no longer be classified as a “non-toxic peptide”. Based on the results, we could classify the Ts4 as a classical ?-toxin. The Ts4 3D-structural model was built based on the solved X-ray Ts1 3D-structure, the major toxin from Ts venom with which it shares high sequence identity (65.57%). The Ts4 model revealed a flattened triangular shape constituted by three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet and one ?-helix stabilized by four disulfide bonds. The absence of a Lys in the first amino acid residue of the N-terminal of Ts4 is probably the main responsible for its low toxicity. Other key amino acid residues important to the toxicity of ?- and ?-toxins are discussed here. PMID:26153865

  20. Revealing the Function and the Structural Model of Ts4: Insights into the "Non-Toxic" Toxin from Tityus serrulatus Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela B; Cerni, Felipe A; Peigneur, Steve; Bordon, Karla C F; Tytgat, Jan; Arantes, Eliane C

    2015-07-01

    The toxin, previously described as a "non-toxic" toxin, was isolated from the scorpion venom of Tityus serrulatus (Ts), responsible for the most severe and the highest number of accidents in Brazil. In this study, the subtype specificity and selectivity of Ts4 was investigated using six mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.2?Nav1.6 and Nav1.8) and two insect Nav channels (DmNav1 and BgNav). The electrophysiological assays showed that Ts4 specifically inhibited the fast inactivation of Nav1.6 channels, the most abundant sodium channel expressed in the adult central nervous system, and can no longer be classified as a "non-toxic peptide". Based on the results, we could classify the Ts4 as a classical ?-toxin. The Ts4 3D-structural model was built based on the solved X-ray Ts1 3D-structure, the major toxin from Ts venom with which it shares high sequence identity (65.57%). The Ts4 model revealed a flattened triangular shape constituted by three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet and one ?-helix stabilized by four disulfide bonds. The absence of a Lys in the first amino acid residue of the N-terminal of Ts4 is probably the main responsible for its low toxicity. Other key amino acid residues important to the toxicity of ?- and ?-toxins are discussed here. PMID:26153865

  1. Development of SCAR marker specific to non-toxic Jatropha curcas L. and designing a novel multiplexing PCR along with nrDNA ITS primers to circumvent the false negative detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mastan, Shaik G.

    2011-05-10

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub, has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel an emerging alternative to petro-diesel. In addition to the commercial value, it is also having medicinal and even high nutritional value to use as animal fodder which is limited due to the toxicity. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety of J. curcas in a mixed population and also for quality control since the toxic components of J. curcas has deleterious effect on animals. In the present study, the efforts were made to generate the specific SCAR marker for toxic and/or non-toxic J. curcas from RAPD markers. Among the markers specific for toxic and non-toxic varieties, four were selected, purified, cloned, sequenced, and designed primers out of which one set of primers NT-JC/SCAR I/OPQ15-F and R could able to discriminate the non-toxic with toxic Jatropha by giving expected 430 bp size amplification in non-toxic variety. Furthermore, novel multiplex PCR was designed using the nrDNA ITS primers to overcome the false negatives. Present work also demonstrates utility of the conserved regions of nrDNA coding genes in ruling out the artifacts in PCR-like false negatives frequently occur in SCAR due to various reasons. The specific SCAR markers generated in the present investigation will help to distinguish non-toxic from toxic varieties of J. curcas or vice versa, and isolated marker along with designed multiplex protocol has applications in quality control for selective cultivation of non-toxic variety and will also assist in breeding and molecular mapping studies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Quantification of plant cell wall monosaccharides by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with 2-aminobenzamide pre-column derivatization and a non-toxic reducing reagent 2-picoline borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingjing; Qin, Guochen; Ma, Jun; She, Yi-Min

    2015-10-01

    In this report, we described a sensitive method for quantifying plant cell wall monosaccharides using chemical derivatization, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography separation with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Monosaccharides were derivatized with 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) by reductive amination to increase the hydrophobicity and detected by ultraviolet absorption for HPLC-UV analysis. A non-toxic reductant, 2-picoline borane was utilized to replace the traditionally used sodium cyanoborohydride (NaCNBH3) to avoid the formation of toxic by-products. Experimental conditions were optimized using glucose as a model system to achieve a high reaction yield of 99%. Under the optimized conditions, we demonstrated that the derivatization yields of several saccharides with 2-AB using 2-picoline borane were all slightly higher than those observed using NaCNBH3. In plants, cell wall monosaccharides consist of arabinose, fucose, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucose, glucuronic acid, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose. Using our method, we successfully quantified these monosaccharides from Arabidopsis cell wall by HPLC-UV, and we obtained a good linearity at a wide dynamic range over five orders (1pmol through 10nmol of injection amount), a detection limit of ?0.1pmole, and a high precision and accuracy. PMID:26342873

  3. Investigating structural aspects to understand the putative/claimed non-toxicity of the Hg-based Ayurvedic drug Rasasindura using XAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Nitya; Lahiri, Debdutta; Rajput, Parasmani; Varma, Ramesh Chandra; Arun, A; Muraleedharan, T S; Pandey, K K; Maiti, Nandita; Jha, S N; Sharma, Surinder M

    2015-09-01

    XANES- and EXAFS-based analysis of the Ayurvedic Hg-based nano-drug Rasasindura has been performed to seek evidence of its non-toxicity. Rasasindura is determined to be composed of single-phase ?-HgS nanoparticles (size ?24?nm), free of Hg(0) or organic molecules; its structure is determined to be robust (based toxicity and establishes that chemical form, rather than content of heavy metals, is the correct parameter for evaluating the toxicity in these drugs. The stable ?-HgS form (strong Hg-S covalent bond and robust particle character) ensures the integrity of the drug during delivery and prevention of its reduction to Hg(0) within the human body. Further, these comparative studies establish that structural parameters (size dispersion, coordination configuration) are better controlled in Rasasindura. This places the Ayurvedic synthesis method on par with contemporary techniques of nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:26289275

  4. One-step green synthesis of non-hazardous dicarboxyl cellulose flocculant and its flocculation activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Liu, Hongyi; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2015-10-15

    The waste management of used flocculants is a thorny issue in the field of wastewater treatment. To natural cellulose based flocculants, utilization of hazardous cellulose solvent and simplification of synthetic procedure are the two urgent problems needing to be further improved. In this work, a series of natural dicarboxyl cellulose flocculants (DCCs) were one-step synthesized via Schiff-base route. The cellulose solvent (NaOH/Urea solution) was utilized during the synthesis process. The full-biodegradable flocculants avoid causing secondary pollution to environment. The chemical structure and solution property of the DCC products were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, TGA, FESEM, charge density and ?-potential. Kaolin suspension and effluent from paper mill were selected to evaluate the flocculation activity of the DCCs. Their flocculation performance was compared with that of commercial cationic polyacrylamide and poly aluminium chloride flocculants. The positive results showed that the NaOH/Urea solvent effectively promoted the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) conversion to DCC in the one-step synthesis reaction. The DCCs with the carboxylate content more than 1 mmol/g exhibited steady flocculation performance to kaolin suspension in the broad pH range from 4 to 10. Its flocculation capacity to the effluent from paper mill also showed excellent. PMID:25897798

  5. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase overexpression increases alkylation sensitivity by rapidly removing non-toxic 7-methylguanine adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Rinne, M. L.; Y He; Pachkowski, B. F.; Nakamura, J; Kelley, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that overexpression of N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG) dramatically sensitizes cells to alkylating agent-induced cytotoxicity. We recently demonstrated that this sensitivity is preceded by an increased production of AP sites and strand breaks, confirming that overexpression of MPG disrupts normal base excision repair and causes cell death through overproduction of toxic repair intermediates. Here we establish through site-directed mutagenesis that MPG-induced se...

  6. Non-hazardous organic solvents in the paraffin-embedding technique: a rational approach. Aliphatic monoesters for clearing and dewaxing: butyldecanoate.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H; Holm, I

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to substitute hazardous compounds, used in tissue processing and dewaxing, with compounds having lowest possible toxicity and inflammability without impairing the morphology, staining characteristics, or diagnostic value of the tissue sections. All aromatic compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. alkanes, isoparaffins, petroleum distillates, etc.) were rejected, primarily due to their high vapour pressure. Based on a theoretical study of compounds used for clearing, a number of non-hazardous potential substitutes were chosen. The following experimental study narrowed the group to three unbranched, saturated, aliphatic monoesters containing 12-14 carbon atoms. On large-scale testing of these compounds, we found butyldecanoate to be the closest to an ideal substitute for aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the histology department: the section quality is at least equal to that obtained with xylene. For dewaxing, it is used at 30-35 degrees C. Butyldecanoate is not suitable as a pre-mounting agent. In practice, this is no problem as modern mounting agents permit mounting of coverslips directly from ethanol without impairing the appearance of the section in the microscope. Butyldecanoate has only a slight odour, insignificant vapour pressure (< 0.01 kPa at 20 degrees C), and does not present a fire hazard (flash point 134 degrees C). The introduction of this compound in the laboratory poses no health hazard, and the substance is biodegradable.

  7. Phototransformations of non-toxic antioxidants, the derivatives of 1,2-dihydroquinolines, in homogeneous and micellar solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Nekipelova

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of transient species photogenerated from 6-R-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinolines (TMDQ are very sensitive to medium variation. In anhydrous organic solvents, aminyl radicals were generated. They decay in the reaction of dimerization with the second-order rate constant decreasing in a row heptane>benzene>2-propanol. When passing from organic solvents to water, methanol, and water-alcohol solutions, the kinetics and the direction of the reaction crucially change. As a result of the photolysis, the product of the addition of a solvent to the double bond of heterocycle, 4-hydroxy- or 4-methoxy-6-R-2,2,4- tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is formed in water and methanol, respectively. The transformation is a complex reaction, and the formation of excited transient species is followed by a sequence of first-order and pseudo-first-order reactions. Unlike the photolysis in anhydrous organic solvents, the reaction in water and methanol does not involve aminyl radicals. In aqueous solutions, the first-order rate constants for the decay of transient species are higher in acidic and neutral solutions. At the pH close to pKa of the transient species, it drops, indicating that the neutral form is less reactive. The same product is formed over the whole range of pH. For the anionic surfactant (SDS in acidic and alkaline solutions, the apparent rate constant in the micellar solutions is lower than that in the aqueous (negative micellar catalysis. At the medium pH, a positive micellar catalysis is observed, and the rate constant of the decay depends linearly on the concentration of TMDQ in the micelles, indicative of the direct reaction between TMDQ and the cationic transient species.

  8. Simple and non-toxic fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)-patterned polymer surface for the formation of cell patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Negative PVA patterns were formed on NPS substrates by selective ion irradiation. • The surface of PVA patterns was more hydrophilic than that of the NPS substrate. • Well-organized cell patterns were created on the PVA-patterned NPS substrates. • It can be due to the preferential adsorption of serum proteins on PVA patterns. - Abstract: In this study, a facile and non-toxic method for the formation of cell-adhesive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) patterns on the surface of a non-biological polystyrene substrate (NPS) is developed to control cellular micro-organization. PVA thin films spin-coated onto the NPS are selectively irradiated with 150 keV H+ ions through a pattern mask and developed with deionized water to form negative-type PVA patterns. Well-defined stripe patterns of PVA with a width of 100 ?m are created on the NPS at a higher fluence than 5 × 1015 ions/cm2, and their surface chemical compositions are changed by ion irradiation without any significant morphological change. Based on the results of the protein adsorption test and in vitro cell culture, cancer cells are preferentially adhered and proliferated onto the more hydrophilic PVA regions of the PVA-patterned NPS, resulting in well-defined cell patterns

  9. Simple and non-toxic fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)-patterned polymer surface for the formation of cell patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In-Tae; Jin, Yu-Ran [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Min-Suk [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, 699 Gumho-dong, Gwangyang, Jeonnam 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chan-Hee, E-mail: jch@kaeri.re.kr [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Hak, E-mail: jaehakchoi@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Negative PVA patterns were formed on NPS substrates by selective ion irradiation. • The surface of PVA patterns was more hydrophilic than that of the NPS substrate. • Well-organized cell patterns were created on the PVA-patterned NPS substrates. • It can be due to the preferential adsorption of serum proteins on PVA patterns. - Abstract: In this study, a facile and non-toxic method for the formation of cell-adhesive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) patterns on the surface of a non-biological polystyrene substrate (NPS) is developed to control cellular micro-organization. PVA thin films spin-coated onto the NPS are selectively irradiated with 150 keV H{sup +} ions through a pattern mask and developed with deionized water to form negative-type PVA patterns. Well-defined stripe patterns of PVA with a width of 100 ?m are created on the NPS at a higher fluence than 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, and their surface chemical compositions are changed by ion irradiation without any significant morphological change. Based on the results of the protein adsorption test and in vitro cell culture, cancer cells are preferentially adhered and proliferated onto the more hydrophilic PVA regions of the PVA-patterned NPS, resulting in well-defined cell patterns.

  10. Treatment of solitary, autonomously-functioning, non-toxic thyroid nodules with I131 Adenema tiroideo autónomo no tóxico tratamiento con I131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Fifteen euthyroid patients (14 women and 1man with solitary autonomously functioning non-toxic thyroid nodules (AFTN were treated with high doses of I131 (mean 19.2 mCi. Diagnosis was made by I131 thyroid scan and triiodothyronine suppression test. The size of the nodule was determined by thyroid ecography both before and after treatment. Evaluation of thyroid function was performed clinically and by T3 T4 and TSH determinations before therapy and during follow.up. AII patients had complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Two cases of hypothyroidism were found in the first two years of follow-up. We have no explanation for this fact since extranodular thyroid tissue was suppressed and the patients were receiving oral triiodothyronine during radioidine treatment. The nodules decreasedin size In 9 of 13 patients followed (average decrease 45% and disappeared in other 2. our findings suggest that solitary non-toxic AFTN should be treated with I131 particularly if complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid tissue is found. If complete disappearance of the nodule is considered desirable surgical removal must be performed.

    Se trataron 14 mujeres y un hombre, con adenomas tiroideos solitarios funcionalmente autónomos, no tóxicos, con I131 a una dosis promedio de 19.2 mCi. La gamagrafía tiroidea demostró hipercaptación del nódulo con supresión total del resto de la glándula. El tamaño del nódulo se determinó por medio de ecografía tiroidea antes y después del tratamiento, y su autonomía por la prueba de supresión con triyodotironina. El estado tiroideo se puso de presente clínicamente y por la medición de T3, T 4 y TSH en el plasma, antes de la terapia con el radiofármaco y durante la evolución postratamiento. En dos pacientes se presentó hipotiroidismo desde los dos primeros años del período de seguimiento, a pesar de que el tejido tiroideo circundante estaba suprimido y de la administración oral de triyodotironina simultáneamente con el yodo radioactivo. En 13 pacientes se logró hacer seguimiento; en 9 de ellos (69.2% hubo disminución del tamaño del nódulo (promedio de 45%; en dos desapareció y en otros dos no se modificó la lesión. Se sugiere que el tratamiento de los adenomas tiroideos autónomos no tóxicos con I131 es el más apropiado, especialmente si el tejido extranodular está suprimido; ello en vista de la Infrecuencia del hipotiroldismo postratamiento y de la inocultad y facilidad de su administración. Sin embargo, cuando se desea la desaparición total del adenoma y no existen contraindicaciones, debe recurrirse a la cirugía

  11. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen J; Nielsen, Viveque E

    2006-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. 131I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid 131I uptake is mandatory for 131I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid 131I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the 131I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged 131I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented 131I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

  12. Inhibition of sirtuin 2 with sulfobenzoic acid derivative AK1 is non-toxic and potentially neuroprotective in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TaraLeighSpires-Jones

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tauopathies including tau-associated Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are characterized pathologically by the formation of tau-containing neurofibrillary aggregates and neuronal loss, which contribute to cognitive decline. There are currently no effective treatments to prevent or slow this neural systems failure. The rTg4510 mouse model, which expresses a mutant form of the tau protein associated with frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism-17, undergoes dramatic hippocampal and cortical neuronal loss making it an ideal model to study treatments for FTD-related neuronal loss. Sirtuins are a family of proteins involved in cell survival that have the potential to modulate neuronal loss in neurodegenerative disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that sirtuin 2 (SIRT2 inhibition would be non-toxic and prevent neurodegeneration in rTg4510 brain. In this study we delivered SIRT2 inhibitor AK1 directly to the hippocampus with an osmotic minipump and confirmed that it reached the target region both with histological assessment of delivery of a dye and with a pharmacodynamic marker, ABCA1 transcription, which was upregulated with AK1 treatment. AK1 treatment was found to be safe in wild-type mice and in the rTg4510 mouse model, and further, it provided some neuroprotection in the rTg4510 hippocampal circuitry. This study provides proof-of-concept for therapeutic benefits of SIRT2 inhibitors in both tau-associated FTD and Alzheimer’s disease, and suggests that development of potent, brain permeable SIRT2 inhibitors is warranted.

  13. Isatin-3-N4-benzilthiosemicarbazone, a non-toxic thiosemicarbazone derivative, protects and reactivates rat and human cholinesterases inhibited by methamidophos in vitro and in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; de Lima Portella, Rafael; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; da Rosa, Edovando José Flores; Amaral, Guilherme Pires; Garcia, Luiz Filipe Machado; Bresolin, Leandro; Carratu, Vanessa; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice

    2012-09-01

    Organophosphates (OPs), which are widely used as pesticides, are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. The inactivation of AChE results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, causing a cholinergic crisis that can lead to death. The classical treatment for OP poisoning is administration of oximes, but these compounds are ineffective in some cases. Here we determined whether the new compound isatin-3-N(4)-benzilthiosemicarbazone (IBTC), which in our previous study proved to be an antioxidant and antiatherogenic molecule, could protect and reactivate AChE and BChE. Toxicity of IBTC after subcutaneous injection in mice was measured using assays for oxidized diclorofluoresceine (DCF), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels, and catalase (CAT), sodium potassium (Na(+)/K(+)) ATPase, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) enzyme activities. The cytotoxicity was evaluated and the enzymatic activity of cholinesterase was measured in human blood samples. Molecular docking was used to predict the mechanism of IBTC interactions with the AChE active site. We found that IBTC did not increase the amount of DCF-RS or TBARS, did not reduce NPSH levels, and did not increase CAT, (Na(+)/K(+)) ATPase, ALA-D, or GPx activities. IBTC protected and reactivated both AChE and BChE activities. Molecular docking predicted that IBTC is positioned at the peripheral anionic site and in the acyl binding pocket of AChE and can interact with methamidophos, releasing the enzyme's active site. Our results suggest that IBTC, besides being an antioxidant and a promising antiatherogenic agent, is a non-toxic molecule for methamidophos poisoning treatment. PMID:22542756

  14. Quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goiter : impact of disease, treatment response, and comparison with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramon, Per; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2015-01-01

    Background While health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues often prompt treatment of benign non-toxic goiter (NTG), few clinical studies have systematically assessed HRQoL in patients with this condition. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate thyroid-related and generic HRQoL in patients with benign NTG, as compared to the general population, before and 6 months after treatment. Methods Thyroid-related and generic HRQoL were assessed with ThyPRO and SF-36, respectively. Baseline and 6 month post-treatment HRQoL assessments were obtained from 111 patients with NTG who underwent radioiodine therapy (32%), hemithyroidectomy (53%), total thyroidectomy (12%), or cyst aspiration with ethanol application (4%). We enrolled euthyroid patients at baseline, 80% of whom remained euthyroid 6 months post-treatment with 20% experiencing subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Normative ThyPRO (n=739) and SF-36 (n=6,638) data were collected from representative general population samples. Score differences between patients and the general population were analysed with multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity and educational status. Changes in scores between baseline and follow-up were analysed with the paired t-test, and magnitudes of score changes were evaluated as effect-sizes (mean difference/SDbaseline; 0.2-0.5 indicating small, 0.5-0.8 moderate, and >0.8 large effects). Results Patients' baseline scores were significantly worse than those in the general population on nine of the 13 ThyPRO scales. Six months after treatment, the patients' ThyPRO scores had improved on 6 scales, with large/moderate effects on the Goiter Symptoms and Anxiety scales. However, on eight scales, the post-treatment patient scores were still significantly worse than the general population scores. At baseline, patients had worse scores than the general population on four of the eight SF-36 scales and the SF-36 Mental Component Summary, none of which improved after treatment. Conclusions Compared with the general population, patients with NTG had greatest HRQoL impairment at baseline on the Goiter Symptoms and Anxiety scales, which also demonstrated the largest post-treatment improvements. However, both disease-specific and generic HRQoL deficits persisted 6 months after treatment. In order to improve individualized care, future studies should focus on identifying risk factors for persistent HRQoL deficits and compare HRQoL effects of the various goiter treatment modalities in relation to thyroid phenotype.

  15. Non-toxic novel route synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnSxSe1?x thin films with tunable band gap characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic CBD route is used to deposit ZnS thin films. • The ZnSxSe1?x thin films formation takes place via annealing of ZnS thin films in Se atmosphere. • S/(S + Se) ratio found to be temperature dependent and easy tuning of band gap has been done by Se atom deposition. - Abstract: An environmentally benign chemical bath deposition (CBD) route was employed to deposit zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films. The CBD-ZnS thin films were further selenized in a furnace at various temperatures viz. 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C and the S/(S + Se) ratio was found to be dependent on the annealing temperature. The effects of S/(S + Se) ratio on the structural, compositional and optical properties of the ZnSxSe1?x (ZnSSe) thin films were investigated. EDS analysis showed that the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6 when the film annealing temperature increased from 200 to 500 °C. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies showed that all the films were uniform, pin hole free, smooth, and adhered well to the glass substrate. The X-ray diffraction study on the ZnSSe thin films showed the formation of the cubic phase, except for the unannealed ZnSSe thin film, which showed an amorphous phase. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Zn-S, Zn-Se, and insignificant Zn-OH bonds formation from the Zn 2p3/2, S 2p, Se 3d5/2, and O 1s atomic states, respectively. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy study showed ?80% transmittance in the visible region for all the ZnSSe thin films having various absorption edges. The tuning of the band gap energy of the ZnSSe thin films was carried out by selenizing CBD-ZnS thin films, and as the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6, the band gap energy decreased from 3.20 to 3.12 eV

  16. Non-toxic novel route synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1?x} thin films with tunable band gap characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agawane, G.L., E-mail: agawaneganesh@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Seung Wook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Vanalakar, S.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Electrochemical Mat. Lab., Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416-004 (India); Gurav, K.V.; Suryawanshi, M.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jae Ho, E-mail: yunjh92@kier.re.kr [Photovoltaic Research Group, KIER, Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyeok, E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic CBD route is used to deposit ZnS thin films. • The ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1?x} thin films formation takes place via annealing of ZnS thin films in Se atmosphere. • S/(S + Se) ratio found to be temperature dependent and easy tuning of band gap has been done by Se atom deposition. - Abstract: An environmentally benign chemical bath deposition (CBD) route was employed to deposit zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films. The CBD-ZnS thin films were further selenized in a furnace at various temperatures viz. 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C and the S/(S + Se) ratio was found to be dependent on the annealing temperature. The effects of S/(S + Se) ratio on the structural, compositional and optical properties of the ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1?x} (ZnSSe) thin films were investigated. EDS analysis showed that the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6 when the film annealing temperature increased from 200 to 500 °C. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies showed that all the films were uniform, pin hole free, smooth, and adhered well to the glass substrate. The X-ray diffraction study on the ZnSSe thin films showed the formation of the cubic phase, except for the unannealed ZnSSe thin film, which showed an amorphous phase. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Zn-S, Zn-Se, and insignificant Zn-OH bonds formation from the Zn 2p{sub 3/2}, S 2p, Se 3d{sub 5/2}, and O 1s atomic states, respectively. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy study showed ?80% transmittance in the visible region for all the ZnSSe thin films having various absorption edges. The tuning of the band gap energy of the ZnSSe thin films was carried out by selenizing CBD-ZnS thin films, and as the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6, the band gap energy decreased from 3.20 to 3.12 eV.

  17. Beneficial effects of Androctonus australis hector venom and its non-toxic fraction in the restoration of early hepatocyte-carcinogenesis induced by FB1 mycotoxin: Involvement of oxidative biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjia, Bekkari; Fatima, Laraba-Djebari

    2015-10-01

    Some venom components are known to present potential biological activities that are useful as tools in therapeutics. In this study anti-tumoral activity of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its purified fraction on early step of hepato-carcinogenesis initiated by Fumonisin (FB1), was tested. Initiated hepatic tumor was assessed in mice by decreased doses of Fumonisin B1 associated to phenobarbital. Scorpion venom was used to investigate its activity on initiated tumor by FB1. Evaluation of oxidative unbalance, enzymatic activities and DNA quantification in the liver were correlated with tissue analysis. Obtained results showed that the initiated pathogenesis by FB1 at seven months was characterized by tissue alterations and biomarker variations. These alterations were characterized by atypical lesions such as muffled nucleus, karyo- and cyto-megaly; up normal and large number of nuclei into hepatocytes. These alterations were confirmed by DNA alteration. An unbalance of oxidative status was also observed, characterized by an increased levels of respectively oxidant (NO and MDA) and antioxidant (GSH and catalase activity) mediators. Aah venom and its non-toxic fraction used at low doses seemed to be able to restore partially the hepatic altered tissue induced by FB1. Decreased levels of oxidative and anti-oxidative mediators were also observed. DNA in hepatocytes returned also to the physiological values. Structure of hepatic tissue showed restoration of some alterations such as karyo- and cyto-megaly; decrease of polyploidy hepatocytes induced by FB1. Aah venom and its non-toxic fraction seem to contain some bioactive components with anti-tumoral activity. Purification of this activity from non-toxic fraction F1 could be of interest to identify the components with anti-tumoral activities. PMID:26142225

  18. Relative quantification of PIK3CA gene expression level in fine-needle aspiration biopsy thyroid specimens collected from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and non-toxic goitre by real-time RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska-Durczy?ska Katarzyna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is important regulator of many cellular events, including apoptosis, proliferation and motility. PI3K pathway alterations (PIK3CA gene mutations and/or amplification have been observed in various human tumours. In the majority of diagnosed cases, mutations are localized in one of the three "hot spots" in the gene, responsible for coding catalytic subunit ? of class I PI3K (PIK3CA. Mutations and amplification of PIK3CA gene are characteristic for thyroid cancer, as well. Methods The aim of our study was to examine a gene expression level of PIK3CA in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB thyroid specimens in two types of thyroid lesions, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and non-toxic goitre (NTG. Following conventional cytological examination, 42 thyroid FNAB specimens, received from patients with PTC (n = 20 and NTG (n = 22, were quantitatively evaluated regarding PIK3CA expression level by real-time PCR in the ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. Results Significantly higher expression level (RQ of PIK3CA in PTC group has been noted in comparison with NTG group (p Conclusion These observations may suggest role of PIK3CA alterations in PTC carcinogenesis.

  19. Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Edward Gakpe

    2008-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis ha...

  20. Administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio não protege contra a intoxicação por este composto em ovinos / Repeated administration of non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate does not protect against poisoning by this compound in sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariany C., Santos; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Rubiane F., Heckler; Stephanie C., Lima; Mariana L., Silva; Renato, Rezende; Nilton M., Carvalho; Ricardo A.A., Lemos.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar se repetidas doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MFA) induzem resistência à intoxicação por essa substância, 18 ovinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de nove animais cada. Os ovinos do Grupo 1 ingeriram doses crescentes não letai [...] s de MFA por seis períodos: 0,05mg/kg por 5 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias e 0,25mg/kg por 3 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam o MFA por 10 dias consecutivos; entre o terceiro e o quarto período e dentre os demais períodos de administração, os ovinos permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir o MFA. Quinze dias após o último período de administração os ovinos foram desafiados com a dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado a ingestão de MFA, estes ovinos receberam dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA no mesmo período em que o G1 foi desafiado. No desafio sete ovinos do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação e um ovino se recuperou. No Grupo 2 todos os animais manifestaram quadro clínico da intoxicação por MFA, no entanto, dois ovinos se recuperaram. Os coeficientes de mortalidade foram de 66,6% para o Grupo 1 e de 77,7% para o Grupo 2. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de MFA não protege contra a intoxicação aguda por este composto, portanto, outras alternativas para a profilaxia da intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA deverão ser pesquisadas, principalmente a utilização intraruminal de bactérias que hidrolisam MFA. Abstract in english With the objective to assess whether repeated non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) induce resistance to poisoning by this compound, 18 sheep were randomly divided into two experimental groups of nine animals each. Sheep from Group 1 ingested non-lethal increasing doses of MFA for six pe [...] riods: 0.05mg/kg for 5 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days and 0.25mg/kg for 3 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and third period the animals did not receive MFA for 10 consecutive days, between the third and fourth period and during the remaining periods of administration the sheep were left 15 days without ingesting MFA. Group 2 was not adapted to the ingestion of MFA and received a single dose of 1mg/kg of MFA at the same time that Group 1 was challenged. After challenge, seven sheep of Group 1 showed clinical signs of poisoning and one sheep recovered. In Group 2, all animals showed clinical signs of poisoning by MFA, however two sheep recovered. The mortality rate was 66.6% in Group 1 and 77.7% for Group 2. These results suggest that repeated administration of non-toxic doses of MFA does not protect against acute poisoning by this compound; therefore other alternatives of prophylaxis for poisoning by plants containing MFA should be searched, mainly the use of intraruminal bacteria that hydrolyze MFA.

  1. Biovalorization of technical lignins for added-value products and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, J. C. Cardoso; Malcata, F.; Moreira, P.; Almeida-Vara, E.; Sena-Martins, G.

    2005-01-01

    Lignin is an abundant non-toxic amorphous natural polymer. Nowadays it is available a great variety and large amounts of technical lignins as by-products from the pulp and paper industries. Some successful biotechnological applications of enzymatically modified lignins are described in the literature, namely for the production of lignin based copolymers, binders for wood composites, chelating agents, compositions for treating porous materials, coatings, paintings and others. From a new specie...

  2. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Effects of oral exposure of pigs to deoxynivalenol (DON) sulfonate (DONS) as the non-toxic derivative of DON on tissue residues of DON and de-epoxy-DON and on DONS blood levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, S; Beyer, M; Breves, G; Valenta, H; Humpf, H-U

    2010-11-01

    The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is of outstanding importance in pig nutrition because of its frequent occurrence in cereal grains at levels high enough to cause adverse effects such as a decrease in feed intake and impairment of the immune system. Thus, simple decontamination procedures would be useful. The present study aimed to examine the effects of wet preservation of triticale contaminated with DON and zearalenone (ZON) with sodium metabisulphite (SBS) on the treatment-related non-toxic derivative of DON (DON-sulfonate, DONS), and on ZON and its metabolites in blood and various physiological specimens of piglets. The uncontaminated control triticale (CON) and the DON-contaminated triticale (FUS) were included in the diets either untreated or SBS treated (CON-SBS, FUS-SBS) and fed to piglets for 28 days starting from weaning. The diet concentrations for DON were 0.156, 0.084, 2.312 and 0.275 mg kg(-1), for DONS were <0.05, <0.05, <0.05 and 1.841 mg kg(-1), and for ZON were <0.001, 0.006, 0.017, and 0.016 mg kg(-1) for each of CON, CON-SBS, FUS and FUS-SBS, respectively. DONS was present in the blood of piglets fed the FUS-SBS at a median concentration of 15.5 ng ml(-1) (3-67 ng ml(-1)), while the median DON concentration amounted to 2 ng ml(-1) (0-5 ng ml(-1)) at the same time. The median DON concentration in the blood of piglets fed the FUS diet reached a median concentration of 10.5 ng ml(-1) (5-17 ng ml(-1)). Moreover, the relative differences between the DON concentrations in other physiological specimens (muscle, liver, kidney, bile and urine) in piglets fed the FUS-SBS and the FUS diet were comparable with the blood DON concentration differences. Although these differences can be taken as an indication for DONS stability after absorption and distribution further studies examining DONS in these other physiological specimens directly are necessary to substantiate this conclusion. Moreover, ZON and ?-zearalenol could only be detected in bile and urine where their levels were not influenced by the SBS treatment. PMID:20677033

  4. Hydrogen production by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for PEM fuel cells feeding

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, R. A.; Paiva, T.I; Branquinho, M.; Carvalho, S.; A.M.F.R.Pinto; C.M. Rangel

    2008-01-01

    In this work, hydrogen is produced by a hydrolysis process that uses sodium borohydride as a hydrogen carrier and storage media. High purity hydrogen is obtained at low temperatures with high volumetric and gravimetric storage efficiencies; reaction products are non-toxic. The produced hydrogen can be supply on-demand at specified flow by tailor made developed catalyst. Hydrogen feeding to a low power fuel cell was accomplished. According to experimental conditions conversion rates of 100% ar...

  5. Indução de resistência à intoxicação por Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) mediante administração de doses sucessivas não tóxicas / Induction of resistance to Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) poisoning by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murilo Duarte de, Oliveira; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Fabrício K.L., Carvalho; Genilson B., Silva; Walkleber S., Pereira; Rosane M.T., Medeiros.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comprovar se doses não tóxicas repetidas de Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. criam resistência à intoxicação, 12 caprinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de seis animais cada. No Grupo 1 foi induzida resistência mediante a administração, dur [...] ante quatro períodos alternados, de 0,02g/kg das folhas dessecadas de P. aeneofusca durante 5 dias, 0,02g/kg durante 5 dias, 0,03g/kg durante 5 dias e 0,03g/kg por mais 5 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam planta por 10 dias consecutivos e entre o terceiro e quarto período de administração os animais permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir a planta. Um caprino morreu subitamente quando estava recebendo 0,03 g/kg da planta, no terceiro período de administração. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado ao consumo de P. aeneofusca. Quinze dias após a adaptação ao consumo de P. aeneofusca do Grupo 1, os dois grupos receberam P. aeneofusca na dose diária de 0,03g/kg durante 19 dias. A partir do 20º dia de administração continuada a dose diária de P. aeneofusca foi aumentada para 0,04g/kg. Esta dose foi administrada por mais 12 dias. Os animais que mostraram sinais clínicos foram retirados do experimento imediatamente após a observação dos primeiros sinais. Um caprino do Grupo 2 apresentou sinais clínicos de intoxicação e morreu no 12º dia de administração e dois apresentaram sinais clínicos no 24º dia; um se recuperou e outro morreu. Após finalizada esta fase do experimento e para comprovar se os caprinos que não tinham adoecido no Grupo 2 tinham também adquirido resistência, foi introduzido outro grupo com três caprinos. Esses três caprinos (Grupo 3), os cinco caprinos do Grupo 1 e os três sobreviventes do Grupo 2, ingeriram uma dose diária de 0,06g/kg. Os três caprinos do Grupo 3 adoeceram no terceiro dia após o início da ingestão, dois morreram em forma hiperaguda e o outro recuperou-se após 10 dias. Todos os caprinos dos Grupos 1 e 2 ingeriram P. aeneofusca na dose de 0,06g/kg/dia durante nove dias sem apresentar nenhum sinal clínico. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram que a administração de doses não tóxicas repetidas de P. aeneofusca aumentam significativamente á resistência à intoxicação e que esta técnica poderia ser utilizada para o controle da intoxicação por P. aeneofusca e outras espécies de Palicourea com similar toxicidade. Os resultados de pesquisas anteriormente realizados sugerem que a resistência à intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA é devida a proliferação de bactérias que degradam MFA no rúmen. Abstract in english Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. is a toxic plant which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA). With the objective to investigate if repeated non-toxic doses of P. aeneofusca induce resistance to the intoxication by this plant, 12 goats were distributed in two similar groups. In Group 1, [...] resistance was induced by the administration of the dry plant, during four alternate periods: 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.03g/kg during 5 days, and 0.03g/kg during 5 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and the third period, the goats did not ingest P. aeneofusca for 10 days. Between the third and the fourth administration period the goats did not ingest the plant during 15 days. One goat died suddenly during the third administration period when was ingesting 0.03g/kg. The goats from Group 2 were not adapted to the consumption of P. aeneofusca. Fifteen days after the end of the adaptation period in Group 1, both groups ingested dry P. aeneofusca in the daily dose of 0.03g/kg during 19 days. From day 20 the daily dose was increased to 0.04g/kg, which was ingested for 12 days. The goats that showed clinical signs were removed from the experiment immediately after the observation of first signs. One goat from Group 2 showed clinical signs of poisoning and d

  6. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  7. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  8. Waterloo process for SCP production from waste biomass. [Single cell protein using Chaetomium cellulolyticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Young, M.; Daugulis, A.J.; Chahal, D.S.; MacDonald, D.G.

    1979-10-01

    A novel fermentation process has been developed for the bioconversion of agricultural and forestry wastes into proteinaceous feed/food products. The process is based on the mass microbial cultivation of a new cellulolytic fungus, Chaetomium Cellulolyticum, in solid-substrate systems. Preliminary feeding trials indicate that the SCP products are suitably nutritious, digestible, and non-toxic in animal feed protein rations. Economic analyses indicate that the process could be operated at a profit for a range of realistic scenarios in both developed and developing countries. 12 references

  9. Biosurfactant production using mixed cultures under non-aseptic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of surfactants is of increasing interest for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater and soil. Surfactants increase the accessibility of adsorbed hydrocarbons and mobilize immiscible petroleum hydrocarbons for treatment. Biosurfactants have the advantage of biodegradability and non-toxicity over their synthetic counterparts, and can be produced from renewable sources. In this study the production of biosurfactant from molasses was investigated in continuously stirred batch reactors. The effects of substrate concentration, yeast extract and peptone on biomass accumulation and biosurfactant production were investigated. Biosurfactant production was quantified by surface tension reduction and critical micelle dilution (CMD). Biosurfactant production was directly correlated with biomass production, and was improved with the addition of yeast extract. Centrifugation of the whole broth reduced surface tension. The performance of the biosurfactant produced from molasses under non-aseptic condition is comparable to other published results

  10. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.J. [Donlar Corporation (United States); Ravenscroft, P.D. [BP Exploration Operating Company, (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO{sub 2} corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Hydrogen fuel. Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is a highly energetic and non-toxic gas capable to generate heat by direct combustion with water and nitrogen oxides as residues, and to generate electricity through fuel cells with water as unique residue. Hydrogen is, like electricity, an energy vector because it does not exist at the free state in nature but always in a combined state, mainly in water and hydrocarbons. This article treats of hydrogen production. Producing hydrogen requires to extract it from its compounds using an energy consuming chemical or physico-chemical process: 1 - exploited or directly exploitable processes: from fossil fuels (vapo-reforming, partial oxidation), derived methods (auto-thermal reforming, methanol reforming, water vapor pyrolysis and plasma reforming, small-scale hydrogen generation), water electrolysis; 2 - processes under study: water dissociation using a nuclear reactor (high temperature electrolysis, thermochemical cycles), water photo-electrolysis, thermochemical biomass transformation, production by photosynthetic microorganisms; 3 - purification; 4 - environmental impact: CO2 capture and storage, hydrogen as best auxiliary of renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  12. Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra P. Singh; Sumit Bhatt; Kothari, S; Shailandra Singh; Kumar, D.; Gajendra Kumar,

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs). We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the product...

  13. Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Challenges arise in the propulsion systems for the new exploration architecture. The currently operational and proven storable hypergolic systems raise toxicity...

  14. Non-toxic dry-coated nanosilver for plasmonic biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios A. Sotiriou; Sannomiya, Takumi; Teleki, Alexandra; Krumeich, Frank; Vörös, Janos; PRATSINIS, SOTIRIS E.

    2010-01-01

    The plasmonic properties of noble metals facilitate their use for in-vivo bio-applications such as targeted drug delivery and cancer cell therapy. Nanosilver is best suited for such applications as it has the lowest plasmonic losses among all such materials in the UV-visible spectrum. Its toxicity, however, can destroy surrounding healthy tissues and thus, hinders its safe use. Here, that toxicity against a model biological system (Escherichia coli) is “cured” or blocked by coating nanosilver...

  15. Shellac: A Non-Toxic Preservative for Human Embalming Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal S. Abd El-Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important to fix and preserve cadavers adequately not only for the sake of anatomical studies but also for the financial justification. However, the difficulties in handling and the problems of preservation of human anatomical preparations and the potential health and safety problems for staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories and the need to comply with increasingly restrictive exposure limits to components of embalming chemicals have led the research team to fashion a new embalming technique. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia through the years 2008-2010. About 10 cadavers were selected from the fridges of the dissection lab of the Anatomy Department; 5 for long-term preservation and five for softening purposes. The procedure involved rinsing the cadavers with the Shellac embalming solution in a pressurized tank, under a pressure of 1.5 bars for 3 days. In this study, it is revealed that there is a remarkably high embalming capacity of Shellac as shown from the well preserved dissected parts and organs in the softened cadavers. The remaining cadavers, intended for long-term preservation, mummified using Shellac could be retained in normal room conditions; whereby it was easy to soften again by simply replacing it inside the softening tank for 2-3 days. The significant use of Shellac throughout the embalming technique, as a less hazardous and financially more viable material, was discussed juxtapose more conventional and known toxic materials used in standard embalming techniques.

  16. Heavy metal removel from minewaters by alkaline waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximovich, N. G.; Khayrulina, E. A.

    2009-04-01

    One of the serious environmental problems of the Western Urals area (Russia) is the consequence of the cessation of mining in the Kizel Coal Basin. After mine closure, acid mine waters (pH about 3) with excessive heavy metal contents began to pollute ground surface and rivers. The methodology of neutralization of acid mine water and heavy metal removal by alkaline waste products is discussed in the paper. Waste products are non-toxic and consist of 70-80% of calcite. As a result of neutralization, the sediment becomes a mixture of iron and gypsum hydroxide and carbonate calcium with neutral pH. Mobile forms of Fe, Al, Mn, Pb and others were not revealed. The pilot field experiment showed the prospect and low cost of this technology.

  17. Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis has been discussed with appropriate equipment details. The application of the biosurfactant includes biomedical, cosmetic and bioremediation. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DS10-129 showed significant applications in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in gasoline-spilled soil and petroleum oily sludge. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant enhanced the bioremediation process by releasing the weathered oil from the soil matrices and enhanced the bioavailability of hydrocarbons for microbial degradation. It is having potential applications in the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites.

  18. Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to investigate fuel characteristics of biodiesel and its production in European Union. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. In Europe the most important biofuel is biodiesel. In the European Union biodiesel is the by far biggest biofuel and represents 82% of the biofuel production. Biodiesel production for 2003 in EU-25 was 1,504,000 tons. (author)

  19. Fast, easy ethanolysis of coconut oil for biodiesel production assisted by ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Gajendra; Poonam; Singh, C P

    2010-03-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel, consistituting an alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is non-toxic and biodegradable and has a low emission profile, is better from environmentally sensitive areas. Research study on alternative fuels is essential for increased energy security. Presently, biodiesel is produced mainly is batch reactor. In this process the required energy is given by heating accompanied by mechanical stirring which has several disadvantages because of time consuming high labour cost. Being methanol is a toxic chemical; the objective of this work is to produce coconut oil ethyl ester by using ultrasonic irradiation. The advantages of ethanol are non-toxic domestic all available, having higher carbon atoms which provide higher heat content. The optical conditions for biodiesel production is the molar ratio oil to ethanol 1:6, KOH catalyst 0.75wt.% of oil and 7min reaction time. The reaction time reduced 15-40 times comparing to the conventional batch processes and found >or=98% biodiesel yield. PMID:19945331

  20. Isolation and molecular characterization of butanol tolerant bacterial strains for improved biobutanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindar, John; Arulselvi, Indra; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2014-11-01

    Butanol tolerance is a complex mechanism affecting the ability of microorganisms to generate economically viable quantities of butanol. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize butanol tolerant bacterial strains which can act as potential alternative hosts for butanol production. The potential bacterial isolates were screened, based on the non toxic effect on cell growth rate and degradation ability of sago waste which was used as a sole carbon source with butanol enrichment. During this study, it was found that a growth barrier existed between 1 to 5% butanol concentrations and only few selected isolates could tolerate upto 5% butanol after long term adaptation. Screening of five isolates proved to be more tolerant, which were identified as Bacillusmegaterium, B. aryabhattai, B. tequilensis, and B. circulans using 16S rDNA sequence. These isolates were markedly attractive to identify butanol tolerance specific stress response genes and further engineered to act as a genetic host for biobutanol production. PMID:25522516

  1. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon–nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beversdorf, Lucas J.; Miller, Todd R.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic vs. non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined 3 years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC) concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological research, and 10 years of molecular data to investigate the potential factors leading to the selection of toxic Microcystis and MC production. Our analysis revealed that nitrogen (N) speciation and inorganic carbon (C) availability might be important drivers of Microcystis population dynamics and that an imbalance in cellular C: N ratios may trigger MC production. More specifically, precipitous declines in ammonium concentrations lead to a transitional period of N stress, even in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, that we call the “toxic phase.” Following the toxic phase, temperature and cyanobacterial abundance remained elevated but MC concentrations drastically declined. Increases in ammonium due to lake turnover may have led to down regulation of MC synthesis or a shift in the community from toxic to non-toxic species. While total phosphorus (P) to total N ratios were relatively low over the time-series, MC concentrations were highest when total N to total P ratios were also highest. Similarly, high C: N ratios were also strongly correlated to the toxic phase. We propose a metabolic model that corroborates molecular studies and reflects our ecological observations that C and N metabolism may regulate MC production physiologically and ecologically. In particular, we hypothesize that an imbalance between 2-oxoglutarate and ammonium in the cell regulates MC synthesis in the environment. PMID:26029192

  2. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  3. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of ?-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  4. Production of a conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from Citrobacter Vi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoli, F; Rondini, S; Pisoni, I; Giannelli, C; Di Cioccio, V; Costantino, P; Saul, A; Martin, L B

    2012-01-20

    A conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was produced by chemically linking Vi, purified from Citrobacter, to the non-toxic mutant diphtheria toxin CRM(197) via an adipic dihydrazide spacer using N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide coupling chemistry. The polysaccharide purification process was developed based on Vi precipitation from culture supernatant with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), solubilization of the CTA-polysaccharide salt with ethanol followed by exchange of the CTA(+) counter ion with Na(+). The purified Vi polysaccharide was fully O-acetylated and with high purity. The conjugation process was optimized to obtain a scalable process that has been used for GMP production at pilot scale of vaccine currently in clinical trials. PMID:22172503

  5. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market.

  6. Valuable ingredients and feed toxicity evaluation of Microcystis aeruginosa acidolysis product in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shiqun; Zhou, Qing; Xu, Yudi; Vanogtrop, Floris; Guo, Qijin; Liu, Guofeng; Yan, Shaohua

    2015-10-01

    This research studied the extraction from Microcystis aeruginosa using hydrochloric acid method as a potentially valuable protein resource from eutrophic lakes. Amino acid composition, residual algal toxins, and heavy metals of the acidolysis product were studied. After 18?h of hydrochloric acid treatment, the product of M. aeruginosa contained 17 amino acids, 51.34% of total amino acid requirements, and 30.25% of the livestock and poultry essential amino acid (Eaa). The residual microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was 0.94?µg kg(-1), which was less than WHO drinking water limit of microcystins. The removal ratio of microcystins was higher than 99.99% during the process of hydrolysis. The concentration of heavy metals of the product was in compliance with feed standards. Furthermore, using Horn's method, Mouse Micronucleus Test and Sperm Shape Abnormality Test were conducted to study the forage safety of the product. Half lethal dose (LD50) of acidolysis product in mice was >9.09?g?kg(-1) body weight, actually belonging to non-toxic grade. Every dose treatment did not significantly increase activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ?-glutamyltransferase (?-GT). The results of both micronucleus test and sperm shape abnormality test were negative, which suggested the product with no mutagenicity and sperm malformation effects. This study indicated that the acidolysis product of M. aeruginosa was safe to be used as a feed ingredient. PMID:25649189

  7. Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Renjie; Jin, Wenbiao; Xi, Tingting; Yang, Qian; Han, Song-Fang; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems. PMID:26253865

  8. Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Porciúncula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick, and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

  9. Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. B., Porciúncula; N. R., Marcilio; I. C., Tessaro; M., Gerchmann.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: re [...] cyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick) or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick), and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

  10. Perspectives of Using Ultra-Fine Metals as Universal Safe BioStimulators to Get Cattle Breeding Quality Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have conducted investigations of ultra-fine metals biological activity with lab non-pedigree white rats, rabbits breed “Soviet chinchilla” and cattle young stock of the black and white breed as the most widely spread in the central part of Russia. One can see the possibility of using microelements of ultra-fine iron, cobalt and copper as cheap, non-toxic and highly effective biological catalyst of biochemical processes in the organism that improve physiological state, morphological and biochemical blood parameters increasing activity of the experimental animals’ ferment systems and their productivity and meat biological value. We have proved the ultra-fine powders safety when adding them to the animals’ diet.

  11. Leaching of coal combustion products: Field and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Min

    This study combines field monitoring and laboratory experiments to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the re-use of coal combustion by-products (CCPs). The monitoring data obtained from two full-scale CCP applications (i.e., re-use of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond and portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs) allowed environmental impacts to be evaluated under real or simulated in-service conditions. A complimentary laboratory leaching study elucidated fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that determine the leaching kinetics of inorganic contaminants from CCPs. In the first field study, water quality impacts associated with the re-use of FGD material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond were examined by monitoring the water quality of water samples collected from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner over a period of 5 years. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio non-toxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention might be due to both sorption and precipitation. In the second field study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under controlled loading and environmental conditions. Three types of portland-cement-concrete driving surfaces were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). None of the leachate concentrations for fluids collected from laboratory leaching tests exceeded the OhioEPA's non-toxic criteria. Surface runoff monitoring showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, while there were no significant differences in release rates between OPC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for K and Cr, the release of elements was associated with the particulate (>0.45 micron) phase rather than the dissolved phase. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  13. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation; Caracterizacao bioquimica e imunologica dos principais produtos gerados pela irradiacao de crotoxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Nanci do

    1995-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of {gamma}-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  14. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... ``solid waste'' to mean ``* * * any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply... plastics; spent solvents; coal refuse; waste water treatment sludge, and used oil. The six secondary... defines ``solid waste'' as ``* * *any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water...

  15. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...biosolid drying that destroys pathogens and bacteria. Specifically, raw sewage sludge is...ovens that destroy the pathogens and bacteria, removing any remaining water...transaction. This transaction could include money changing hands or, in other...

  16. 76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...would make almost every aluminum can from which we drink our sodas or newspapers on which we read the news ``solid wastes...material's combustion, waste heat recovery units are designed to cool the exhaust gas stream, and/or to recover,...

  17. Utilization of Jatropha deoiled seed cake for production of cellulases under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Bhaumik R; Sudhir, Ankit P; Pansuriya, Mehul; Raykundaliya, Dharmesh P; Subramanian, R B

    2012-10-01

    Toxic waste generated by Jatropha seed cake after utilization of biodiesel on one hand has stimulated the need to develop new technologies to treat the waste and on the other, forced us to reevaluate the efficient utilization of its nutritive potential for production of various high-value compounds and its conversion to non-toxic forms which could be used as animal feed stock. In this study, Jatropha seed cake was used for production of cellulases by new isolate of Thermoascus aurantiacus under solid-state fermentation. The interaction of nitrogen source concentration, moisture ratio, initial pH of the medium and inoculum size was investigated and modelled using response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Under optimized conditions endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase and filter paper activities were found to be 124.44, 28.86, 4.87 U/g of substrate, respectively. Characterization of endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase was done after partial purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by desalting. The endo-?-1,4-glucanase and ?-glucosidase showed maximum activity at 70 °C and pH 4. Saccharification studies performed with different lignocellulosic substrates showed that sugar cane bagasse was most susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The study suggests that Jatropha seed cake can be used as a viable nutrient source for cellulase production without any pretreatment under solid-state fermentation by T. aurantiacus. PMID:22451079

  18. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosm...

  19. Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvara, Simona [Department of Topography, ' 1 Decembrie 1918' University, 11-13 Nicolae Iorga Street, 510009 Alba Iulia (Romania); Muresan, Liana Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 11 Arany-Janos Street, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)], E-mail: limur@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Rahmouni, Kamal; Takenouti, Hisasi [UPMC LISE - UPR 15 of the CNRS, ' Pierre and Marie Curie' University, Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.2 g L{sup -1} NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent.

  20. Application of powder metallurgy techniques for the development of non-toxic ammunition. Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, R. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kelly, R. [Delta Defense, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-30

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and Delta Frangible Ammunition (DFA), was to identify and evaluate composite materials for the development of small arms ammunition. Currently available small arms ammunition utilizes lead as the major component of the projectile. The introduction of lead into the environment by these projectiles when they are expended is a rapidly increasing environmental problem. At certain levels, lead is a toxic metal to the environment and a continual health and safety concern for firearm users as well as those who must conduct lead recovery operations from the environment. DFA is a leading supplier of high-density mixtures, which will be used to replace lead-based ammunition in specific applications. Current non-lead ammunition has several limitations that prevent it from replacing lead-based ammunition in many applications (such as applications that require ballistics, weapon recoil, and weapon function identical to that of lead-based ammunition). The purpose of the CRADA was to perform the research and development to identify cost-effective materials to be used in small arms ammunition that eventually will be used in commercially viable, environmentally conscious, non-lead, frangible and/or non-frangible, ammunition.

  1. Non-Toxic, Low Freezing, Drop-in Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Drop-in heat transfer fluids replacements for ITCS and EVA suits were down-selected and characterized in Phase I for various metrics including density, heat...

  2. Fluoride at non-toxic dose affects odontoblast gene expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Tilmann; Houari, Sophia; Mauro, Nicole; MacDougall, Mary; Peters, Heiko; Berdal, Ariane

    2008-07-10

    Elevated fluoride intake may lead to local tissue disturbances, known as fluorosis. Towards an understanding of this effect, fluoride-induced molecular responses were analyzed in MO6-G3 cultured odontoblasts cells. NaF at 1mM changed expression of genes implicated in tissue formation and growth, without affecting cell proliferation or inducing stress factor RNAs. Up to 1mM NaF, DNA accumulation was not inhibited, whereas at 3mM, cells detached from their support and did not proliferate. Intracellular structures, characterized by EM, were normal up to 1mM, but at 3mM, necrotic features were evident. No sign of apoptotic transformation appeared at any NaF concentration. Fluoride-sensitive genes were identified by microarray analysis; expression levels of selected RNAs were determined by conventional and real-time RT-PCR. At 1mM fluoride, RNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins asporin and fibromodulin, and the cell membrane associated proteins periostin and IMT2A were 10-fold reduced. RNA coding for signaling factor TNF-receptor 9 was diminished to one-third, whereas that for the chemokine Scya-5 was enhanced 2.5-fold. These RNAs are present in vivo in tooth forming cells. This was demonstrated by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR on RNA from dissected tissue samples; for the presence and functioning of fibromodulin in dentin matrix, a more comprehensive study has earlier been performed by others [Goldberg, M., Septier, D., Oldberg, A., Young, M.F., Ameye, L.G., 2006. Fibromodulin deficient mice display impaired collagen fibrillogenesis in predentin as well as altered dentin mineralization and enamel formation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 54, 525-537]. Expression of most other RNA species, in particular of stress factor coding RNAs, was not altered. It was concluded that fluoride could influence the transcription pattern without inducing cell stress or apoptosis. In odontoblasts in vivo, aberrant expression of these fluoride-sensitive genes may impair the formation of the extracellular matrix and influence cell communication, with the possible consequence of fluorotic patterns of normal and deviant dentin. PMID:18511171

  3. Bacterial polysaccharide levan as stabilizing, non-toxic and functional coating material for microelement-nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Olesja M; Ivask, Angela; Kahru, Anne; Vija, Heiki; Titma, Tiina; Visnapuu, Meeri; Joost, Urmas; Pudova, Ksenia; Adamberg, Signe; Visnapuu, Triinu; Alamäe, Tiina

    2016-01-20

    Levan, fructose-composed biopolymer of bacterial origin, has potential in biotechnology due to its prebiotic and immunostimulatory properties. In this study levan synthesized by levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae was thoroughly characterized and used as multifunctional biocompatible coating material for microelement-nanoparticles (NPs) of selenium, iron and cobalt. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), hydrodynamic size measurements (DLS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the interaction of levan with NPs. Levan stabilized the dispersions of NPs, decreased their toxicity and had protective effect on human intestinal cells Caco-2. In addition, levan attached to cobalt NPs remained accessible as a substrate for the colon bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. We suggest that the combination of levan and nutritionally important microelements in the form of NPs serves as a first step towards a novel "2 in 1" approach for food supplements to provide safe and efficient delivery of microelements for humans and support beneficial gut microbiota with nutritional oligosaccharides. PMID:26572404

  4. Toxic and non-toxic role of some metals in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metals included in this study were copper, iron, zinc, cadmium and lead. The copper, iron and zinc were selected because of their important biological role in human body while cadmium and lead were selected due to their toxic nature. During the past few years, the assessment of pollution of food resources has become a major subject of investigation all over the world. Human health may be directly affected by investing fruit and vegetables, if enhanced amounts of macro or micro nutrients are present in such edibles. In addition, the presence of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in general foodstuff can lead to the malfunction of organs and chronic toxicity in humans. (author)

  5. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    OpenAIRE

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding...

  6. Nanodiamonds with silicon vacancy defects for non-toxic photostable fluorescent labeling of neural precursor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Merson, Tobias D; Aharonovich, Igor; Turbic, Alisa; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Turnley, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. NPCs labeled with NDs exhibited normal cell viability and proliferative properties consistent with biocompatibility. We conclude that SiVcontaining NDs are a promising biomedical research tool for cellular labeling and optical imaging in stem cell research.

  7. Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Abdel Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1 indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

  8. / Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.S., Abdel Hameed.

    Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentrati [...] on of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1) indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

  9. Non-Toxic, Non-flammable, Low FP Heat Exchanger Fluids Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed research addresses NASA 2004-1 SBIR Topic B3.01, "Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere." The objective of this proposed effort is to...

  10. 3-Aminothiophene-2-Acylhydrazones: Non-Toxic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Lead-Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Karla Cupertino da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different chemotypes are described as anti-inflammatory. Among them the N-acylhydrazones (NAH are highlighted by their privileged structure nature, being present in several anti-inflammatory drug-candidates. In this paper a series of functionalized 3-aminothiophene-2-acylhydrazone derivatives 5a–i were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. These new derivatives showed great anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency and efficacy. Compounds 5a and 5d stand out in this respect, and were also active in CFA-induced arthritis in rats. After daily treatment for seven days with 5a and 5d (50 µmol/Kg, by oral administration, these compounds were not renal or hepatotoxic nor immunosuppressive. Compounds 5a and 5d also displayed good drug-scores and low risk toxicity calculated in silico using the program OSIRIS Property Explorer.

  11. Phosphite cannot be used as a phosphorus source but is non-toxic for microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera-Quezada, Maribel M; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; López-Arredondo, Damar; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorous (P) plays a critical role for all living organisms as a structural component of RNA, DNA and phospholipids. Microalgae are autotrophs organisms that have been reported to only assimilate the fully oxidized phosphate (Pi) as P source. However, there are microorganisms capable of utilizing P reduced compounds (i.e. phosphite (Phi) and hypophosphite) as a sole P source, such as bacteria and cyanobacteria. In this study, we evaluated whether microalgae, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Botryococcus braunii and Ettlia oleoabundans, are capable of using Phi as a sole P source. Our studies revealed that these three microalgae are unable to use Phi as a sole P source. We also found that when Phi is present at concentrations equal or higher than that of Pi, Phi has an inhibitory effect on C. reinhardtii growth. However, since C. reinhardtii was able to survive for a long period of cultivation in the presence of high concentrations of Phi and to recover cell division capacity after transfer to media containing Pi, we noticed that Phi is not toxic for this microalga. We propose that the inhibitory effect of Phi on C. reinhardtii growth might be caused, at least in part, by a competition between the transport of Pi and Phi. PMID:25575997

  12. Non-toxic liquid scintillators with high light output based on phenyl-substituted siloxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Palma, M.; Carturan, S. M.; Degerlier, M.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Quaranta, A.

    2015-04-01

    The work describes the development of a new class of liquid scintillators based on polysiloxane liquid compounds. These materials are characterized by low toxicity, chemical inertness, very low volatility and low flammability, allowing their use without concerns even at high temperatures in vacuum. In this view different polysiloxane based liquids have been tested, with variable content and distribution of phenyl lateral substituents and added with suitable dyes, namely 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and Lumogen Violet (LV). Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used in order to study the emission feature of the various compounds and to investigate the spectral matching between siloxane solvents and dissolved primary dyes. Scintillation efficiency towards 60Co and 137Cs gamma rays, relative to commercial liquid scintillator (EJ-309), has been measured and the results have been related to the energy transfer and energy migration mechanism from monomer and excimer forming sites in liquid siloxanes.

  13. Characterization of an inexpensive, non-toxic and highly sensitive microarray substrate.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufva, Hans Martin; Petronis, Sarunas

    2004-01-01

    An agarose film has been proposed as an efficient substrate for producing microarrays. The original film preparation procedure was simplified significantly by grafting the agarose layer directly onto unmodified microscope glass slides instead of aminated glass slides, and the blocking procedure was replaced with a wash in 0.1x standard saline citrate (SSC) and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) without decreasing the performance of the produced microarrays. Characterization of the grafted agarose film using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the agarose film had a 10-fold increase in surface roughness compared to glass and that the interior of the agarose film was porous, with pore sizes between 100-500 nm. A comparison of hybridization on aldehyde-activated agarose-coated microarray slides and commercial amino-reactive microarray slides showed that aldehyde-activated agarose-coated slides had the highest signal-to-noise ratio of 850, suggesting that the aldehyde-activated agarose microarray slides are suitable in applications where analytes have a wide concentration range. By immobilizing the DNA probes using ultraviolet (UV) light, the signal-to-noise ratio was further increased to 3000 on the agarose microarray slides. The specificity of the UV cross-linked DNA probes was demonstrated using 21 and 25 bp long capture probes, enabling discrimination of target molecules differing in only one base.

  14. Fast and Non-Toxic In Situ Hybridization without Blocking of Repetitive Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Matthiesen, Steen H.; Hansen, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Formamide is the preferred solvent to lower the melting point and annealing temperature of nucleic acid strands in in situ hybridization (ISH). A key benefit of formamide is better preservation of morphology due to a lower incubation temperature. However, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), against unique DNA targets in tissue sections, an overnight hybridization is required to obtain sufficient signal intensity. Here, we identified alternative solvents and developed a new hybridiza...

  15. Fluoride at non-toxic dose affects odontoblast gene expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated fluoride intake may lead to local tissue disturbances, known as fluorosis. Towards an understanding of this effect, fluoride-induced molecular responses were analyzed in MO6-G3 cultured odontoblasts cells. NaF at 1 mM changed expression of genes implicated in tissue formation and growth, without affecting cell proliferation or inducing stress factor RNAs. Up to 1 mM NaF, DNA accumulation was not inhibited, whereas at 3 mM, cells detached from their support and did not proliferate. Intracellular structures, characterized by EM, were normal up to 1 mM, but at 3 mM, necrotic features were evident. No sign of apoptotic transformation appeared at any NaF concentration. Fluoride-sensitive genes were identified by microarray analysis; expression levels of selected RNAs were determined by conventional and real-time RT-PCR. At 1 mM fluoride, RNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins asporin and fibromodulin, and the cell membrane associated proteins periostin and IMT2A were 10-fold reduced. RNA coding for signaling factor TNF-receptor 9 was diminished to one-third, whereas that for the chemokine Scya-5 was enhanced 2.5-fold. These RNAs are present in vivo in tooth forming cells. This was demonstrated by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR on RNA from dissected tissue samples; for the presence and functioning of fibromodulin in dentin matrix, a more comprehensive study has earlier been performed by others [Goldberg, M., Septier, D., Oldberg, A., Young, M.F., Ameye, L.G., 2006. Fibromodulin deficient mice display impaired collagen fibrillogenesis in predentin as well as altered dentin mineralization and enamel formation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 54, 525-537]. Expression of most other RNA species, in particular of stress factor coding RNAs, was not altered. It was concluded that fluoride could influence the transcription pattern without inducing cell stress or apoptosis. In odontoblasts in vivo, aberrant expression of these fluoride-sensitive genes may impair the formation of the extracellular matrix and influence cell communication, with the possible consequence of fluorotic patterns of normal and deviant dentin

  16. Efficient, full-spectrum, long-lived, non-toxic microwave lamp for plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Ury, Michael G.; Gustafson, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Fusion Systems Corporation has developed a mercury-free, low infrared, efficient microwave lamp using a benign sulfur based fill optimized for visible light. Our literature search and discussions with researchers directed us to enhance the bulbs red output. We have demonstrated a photosynthetic efficacy of over 2 micro-moles per microwave joule which corresponds to over 1.3 micro-moles per joule at the power main. Recent work has shown we can make additional increases in overall system efficiency. During the next two years, we expect to demonstrate a system capable of producing more than 1.5 micro-moles/joule measured at the power main with significantly less IR than alternative lamp systems. We determined optimal plant growth light requirements via a literature search and researcher input. We surveyed candidate lamp fill materials to be used in combination with sulfur and explored several methods of increasing photosynthetic efficacy.

  17. Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs. We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram, different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 °C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 ± 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC.

  18. Continuous low cost transesterification process for the production of coconut biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G.; Kumar, D.; Singh, S.; Kothari, S.; Bhatt, S.; Singh, CH. P. [Department of Chemistry, Sahu Jain College, Najibabad, 246763 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors. We tested residence times of 16-43 min, stirring speeds of 200-800 rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25-1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 {sup o}C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 {+-} 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC. (author)

  19. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used to support the ideas.

  20. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to...

  1. Product Charisma

    OpenAIRE

    Gotzsch, Josiena

    2002-01-01

    Consumers are attracted by product designs that feel “alive” and that contain surprise elements. The right expressions in a product contribute to its attractiveness or “charisma”. Today, these intangible product attributes are an important way to differentiate a product from competitor's products. Companies in mature markets, especially, have a competitive advantage when they succeed in integrating “expressions” or “messages” into the product design that touches its user. This paper presents ...

  2. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. PMID:25827844

  3. Biomolecule-Mediated Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles using Dried Vitis vinifera (Raisin) Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Sharma; Ashish Ranjan Sharma; Riju Bhavesh; Jongbong Park; Bilguun Ganbold; Ju-Suk Nam; Sang-Soo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Biomolecule-mediated nanoparticle synthesis has recently gained the attention of researchers due to its ecofriendly and non-toxic nature. Metabolites from plant extracts represent a better alternative to chemical methods to fulfill the growing demand for non-hazardous nanoparticle synthesis routes. Selenium and its nanoparticles have an extensive range of applications. Thus, biofabrication of selenium nanoparticles can be potentially useful in various fields. This study reports a green appro...

  4. Glycerol: A promising Green Solvent and Reducing Agent for Metal-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation Reactions and Nanoparticles Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Victorio Cadierno; Alba E. Díaz-Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is a non-toxic, non-hazardous, non-volatile, biodegradable, and recyclable liquid that is generated as a byproduct in the manufacture of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils. Due to its easy availability, along with its unique combination of physical and chemical properties, glycerol has recently emerged as an economically appealing and safe solvent for organic synthesis. Recent works have also demonstrated that glycerol can be used as a hydrogen source in metal-catalyzed transfer hydr...

  5. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2008-01-01

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes, a reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services.

  6. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

  7. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  8. Productivity policy

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovsky, L.; Bond, S.; Harrison, R.; H Simpson

    2005-01-01

    In this Briefing Note, we first present internationally comparative evidence on the UK's productivity performance (Section 2) and some of the underlying "drivers" of productivity identified by the government (Section 3). We then provide an overview of productivity policy under both Labour governments since 1997, and discuss the recent direction of policy in this 2005 Election Briefing area (Section 4). Finally, we discuss the proposals of the three main parties in the area of productivity pol...

  9. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified respo...

  10. Role of physical adsorption in the interaction of fission and activation products with basaltic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate sink for all wastes -domestic, agricultural, industrial, toxic, non-toxic, radioactive, non-radioactive, conditioned or non-conditioned is the mother earth. The sub-surface is composed of soil cover and the bedrock-igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary and in general is either aquiclude/aquitard or aquifer but not aquifuge. In a multiple barrier system for the disposal of radioactive waste, the final barrier is the sub-surface formation of the waste disposal facility itself. Even after taking all precautions there is a remote possibility that over a period of time ground water may come in contact with waste matrix, dissolve in itself most of the radionuclides particularly long lived like Cs+, Sr2+, Ce3+ and Co2+ etc , and contaminate the sub-surface formation. The process of physical adsorption and chemisorption as well as desorption simultaneously take place and play a very important role in this interaction. Different formations like shale, amphibolite, granite and basalt have been considered for ground disposal or storage of radioactive waste. Interaction of Cs+, Sr2+, Ce3+ and Co2+ with crushed basalt was studied in this work. Data have been analysed by evaluating thermodynamic parameters as well as with the help of sorption equations. Interaction of Cs+ and Sr2+ with basalt is exothermic and spontaneous. Both physical adsorption and chemisorption (sorption and ion-exchange) play very important role in the interaction of fission and activation products with basaltic formation. (author)

  11. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil & Its Evaluation in Compression Ignition Engine Using RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashan Deep Singha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of energy, deterioration of the environment and hunger,these are the three problems the humans are facing in todays era. There is an exponential rise in the demand is arrising for petroleum based energy. This has been followed by problem of depleting conventional petroleum fuels and a hike in price of these fuels, almost on a regular basis. Moreover, these green house emissions are results of petroleum fuels and other forms of pollution in the environment. The rise in the price of the fuel has also been alarming for us to find alternate energy resource.The vegetable oils has proved to be a promising source to obtain fuels for IC engines. Like, biodiesel is biodegradable, non- toxic and renewable fuel. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oil by transesterification with alcohols. The high cost of raw materials and lack of modern technology has led to the commercialization which can optimize the biodiesel yield. A modified engine can lead to better engine performance along with lesser specific fuel consumption. In this thesis, Response Surface Methodology (RSM has been used which has focused on the optimization of biodiesel production, engine performance and exhaust emission parameters.

  12. Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover for production of ethanol and carbon microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretreatment of biomass is viewed as a critical step to make the cellulose accessible to enzymes and for an adequate yield of fermentable sugars in ethanol production. Recently, hydrothermal pretreatment methods have attracted a great deal of attention because it uses water which is a inherently present in green biomass, non-toxic, environmentally benign, and inexpensive medium. Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover was conducted in a flow through reactor to enhance and optimize the enzymatic digestibility. More than 80% of glucan digestibility was achieved by pretreatment at 190 oC. Addition of a small amount of K2CO3 (0.45-0.9 wt.%) can enhance the pretreatment and allow use of lower temperatures. Switchgrass pretreated at 190 oC only with water had higher internal surface area than that pretreated in the presence of K2CO3, but both the substrates showed similar glucan digestibility. In comparison to switchgrass, corn stover required milder pretreatment conditions. The liquid hydrolyzate generated during pretreatment was converted into carbon microspheres by hydrothermal carbonization, providing a value-added byproduct. The carbonization process was further examined by GC-MS analysis to understand the mechanism of microsphere formation.

  13. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD-lined basins. The FGD-lined basins had a greater richness of plant species but lower total plant productivity than did the claylined basins. Future research work investigating the use of FGD materials in the construction of landfill caps and liners, and wetland experiments at the medium to full-scale level is recommended.

  14. Fiscal 1998 regional consortium R and D project (Regional consortium field). Report on R and D of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials (1st fiscal year); 1998 nendo chiiki konsoshiamu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki konsoshiamu bun'ya (hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project aims at development of high-strength high- biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy with lower modulli of elasticity composed of non-toxic elements, phosphate calcium ceramics for improving the biocompatibility and coating technology, and establishment of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials. In fiscal 1998, the project promoted the following: Design of high-biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy materials, development of thermomechanical treatment for improving dynamic characteristics of such alloy, survey on practical melting and casting technologies and dental precision casting process, evaluation of the biocompatibility of the alloy by cytotoxicity, selection of tools for precision machining and surface finishing, control of contents, orientation and precipitation of biocompatible crystals such as {beta}- Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} fibers for further improvement of the biocompatibility. This paper also outlines the survey results on the market needs, market size and market share for the feasibility of these materials. (NEDO)

  15. Micronutrient cooperation in the suppression of HIV production in chronically and latently infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariwalla, Raxit J; Gangapurkar, Bhakti; Pandit, Anupriya; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Nutrients are known to display pharmacologic activity against viruses and to exert cooperative effects in cells. To study the influence of nutrient cooperation on HIV production in chronically infected T lymphocytes, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of nutrients on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) released into the culture supernatant. In unstimulated cells, low concentrations of single nutrients, namely ascorbic acid (AA), green tea polyphenols (GT) or lysine, did not significantly suppress HIV-1 RT production. However, when GT (25 µg/ml) and AA (32-64 µg/ml) were combined and applied to cells, extracellular RT was significantly reduced relative to the control. Combining GT (25 µg/ml) with lysine (25 µg/ml) also reduced the RT level to a greater extent (51% of control) than was observed wih lysine alone, and the addition of AA (16 µg/ml) to the combination further decreased RT to 17% of the control (p=0.06). Under the same assay conditions, the nucleoside analog azidothymidine did not significantly suppress HIV production at low to moderate concentrations (0.5-1.0 µg/ml), but did reduce the RT level to 40% of the control (p=0.02) at the highest dose tested (2 µg/ml). In unstimulated cells as well as in latently infected cells stimulated with mitogen (PMA or TNF-?), a nutrient mixture containing GT, AA and amino acids imparted significantly greater RT suppression than equivalent concentrations of key individual components. Nutrient effects on RT suppression were virus-specific and were not due to non-specific cellular toxicity. These results suggest that relatively non-toxic micronutrient combinations are more potent than single nutrients in suppressing virus production in chronically infected T cells, indicating that the constituent nutrients have a cooperative effect in HIV inhibition. PMID:21472250

  16. Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Drew S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

  17. Blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, R J

    1992-08-01

    Modern transfusion therapy offers the seriously ill patient an array of blood products, designed to improve oxygen delivery, maintain intravascular volume, suppress infection, and induce hemostasis. Depending on the patient's clinical circumstance, the choice of product may need to incorporate consideration of the state of intravascular volume, history of prior transfusion reactions, the possible existence of serum antibodies directed against the relevant blood component, and the risk of transmission of infectious disease, as well as the relative cost of the blood product chosen. Fortunately, the contemporary blood bank has acquired considerable expertise in preparing safe products and in providing sound guidance for the clinician in their proper use. PMID:1345491

  18. Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  19. Solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis and production of hydrogen and oxygen - Annual report 2006; Photolyse de l'eau et production d'hydrogene et d'oxygene au moyen de l'energie solaire - Rapport annuel 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustynski, J.; Jorand Sartoretti, C.; Bilecka, I.; Solarska, R.

    2006-11-15

    We pursued studies of solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis cell employing semi-transparent WO{sub 3} photo anode. The stability of the photo anode in different electrolytes has been evaluated. Long term photo-electrolysis runs allowed us to identify solutions of sodium chloride as being the optimum electrolytes for water cleavage in hydrogen and oxygen, with some amount of chlorine formed as a by-product. In particular, the photo-electrolysis of a 0.5 M solution of sodium chloride, which is a composition close to sea water, results in the formation of about 20% of chlorine at the WO{sub 3} photo anode with oxygen remaining the main product. Thus, the sea water appears as an abundant, non-toxic electrolyte suitable for massive hydrogen production via photo-electrolysis. Charge and mass transport are among the main factors determining the efficiency of nanostructured semiconducting photo-electrodes. In contrast with the prevailing current opinion, our results show that it is the migrational/diffusional transport within electrolyte filling the pores of the photo-electrode and not the electron diffusion across the semiconductor matrix which controls the photocurrent-voltage behaviour. Apparently, the only restrictions to the use of relatively thick nanostructured electrodes are the penetration depth of the incident light, the rate of diffusion/migration of the electro active species within the electrode and the conductivity of the electrolyte. (authors)

  20. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate th...

  1. Product Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains medical device names and associated information developed by the Center. It includes a three letter device product code and a Device Class...

  2. The Dynamics of Microcystis Genotypes and Microcystin Production and Associations with Environmental Factors during Blooms in Lake Chaohu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Chaohu, which is a large, shallow, hypertrophic freshwater lake in southeastern China, has been experiencing lake-wide toxic Microcystis blooms in recent decades. To illuminate the relationships between microcystin (MC production, the genotypic composition of the Microcystis community and environmental factors, water samples and associated environmental data were collected from June to October 2012 within Lake Chaohu. The Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and HPLC, respectively. The results showed that the abundances of Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations varied on spatial and temporal scales. Microcystis exists as a mixed population of toxic and non-toxic genotypes, and the proportion of toxic Microcystis genotypes ranged from 9.43% to 87.98%. Both Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that throughout the entire lake, the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations showed significant positive correlation with the total phosphorus and water temperature, suggesting that increases in temperature together with the phosphorus concentrations may promote more frequent toxic Microcystis blooms and higher concentrations of MC. Whereas, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC was negatively correlated with the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations, indicating that rising DIC concentrations may suppress toxic Microcystis abundance and reduce the MC concentrations in the future. Therefore, our results highlight the fact that future eutrophication and global climate change can affect the dynamics of toxic Microcystis blooms and hence change the MC levels in freshwater.

  3. Food production and nutrition in Biosphere 2: results from the first mission September 1991 to September 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, S E; Nelson, M

    1996-01-01

    The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time. PMID:11538814

  4. The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body ?-radiation as acute doses.

  5. Food production and nutrition in biosphere 2: results from the first mission September 1991 to September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, S. E.; Nelson, M.

    The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m^2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time.

  6. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance analysis and Activity-based Costing help managers to better understand the different profitability of customized product lines. The rather open questions at the end of the case study allow for an adjus...

  7. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/96 – 3/31/00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous retention giving rise to the potential use of these materials as a liners for wastewater treatment wetlands. While plant growth was observed to be less vigorous for FGD lined wetland mesocosms compared to the control, the above and below ground biomass were not significantly different. Cost estimates for FGD liners compared favorably with clay liners for varying haul distances.

  8. Effects of addition glycerol co-product of biodiesel in the thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as secondary coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Pedro Samuel Gomes; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga; Fontes, Francisco de Assis Oliveira [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Energy Laboratory. Thermal Systems Studies Group], e-mail: cleiton@ufrnet.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of glycerol concentration on thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as a secondary coolant in refrigeration systems by expansion-indirect. The processing of triglycerides for biodiesel production generates glycerol as co-product and there are concerns of environmental and economic order on the surplus of glycerol. The addition of glycerol in water alters the colligative and thermophysical properties (melting point, mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity). There are studies that prove the feasibility of using glycerol as an additive and this paper has the goal to verify the changes on properties compared with pure water. This comparison was made from data obtained by the software simulation and they analyzed using graphs and tables. It was shown that glycerol increases the density and dynamic viscosity, and reduces the specific heat and thermal conductivity. This behavior of water-glycerol solution is proportional to the mass concentration of glycerol and it is justified because the glycerol has low values of specific heat, thermal conductivity and high viscosity when compared with water. Despite the losses in the thermophysical properties, glycerol shows its potential application, because of the cryoscopic effect and it is a non-toxic substance at low cost. (author)

  9. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  10. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape or configuration of the product.

  11. Rendering wastes obtained from gold analysis by the lead-fusion fire-assay method non-hazardous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernanda Batalha; de Freitas Carvalho, Cornélio; Corrêa Netto Carvalho, Eduardo Lyse; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Gouvêa dos-Santos, Cláudio

    2012-11-15

    The classical method of melting lead by fire-assay (Pb-FA) is the most frequently used analytical technique in gold prospection. The crucible solid waste which is generated in this process is usually characterized by chemical and mineralogical composition, granulometric size distribution, and classified according to Brazilian Environmental Regulations. This study demonstrates how acid leaching can be used to remove lead from waste originally classified as hazardous by treatment with hydrochloric and nitric acids followed by chemical precipitation in sodium metasilicate solution. It is shown that for every 1000 kg of hazardous waste, 995.6 kg of non-harzardous waste can be recovered. PMID:22771892

  12. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

  13. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively. PMID:7736598

  14. Lepton Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    *Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

  15. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy ?s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp? collisions at the Tevatron at ?s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  16. Hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Combustion of fossil fuels currently provides about 86% of the world's energy. The conventional fossil fuel produces a great deal of greenhouse gas which was assumed to be responsible for the global warming. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive alternative to replace fossil fuels, but current hydrogen production uses fossil fuels as a raw material. Hydrogen production by thermo chemical water splitting, a process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, is an environmentally attractive way to produce hydrogen without using fossil fuels. Hydrogen is considered as an excellent candidate for the future energy system with its many advantages. Hydrogen can be transported for long distance; it can be stored in the form of compressed gas, liquids or hydrogenated compounds. It is clean, as water is the only product after burning. Therefore hydrogen is a promising candidate of alternate energy carrier in our future energy system

  17. Experimental Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Mustard Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Subhra Samanta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for petroleum is increasing with each passing day. This may be attributed to the limited resources of petroleum crude. Hence there is an urgent need of developing alternative energy sources to meet the ever increasing energy demand. Biofuels are currently being considered from multidimensional perspectives, i.e. depleting fossil fuels, resources, environmental health, energy security and agricultural economy. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel [1]. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is produced primarily from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste mustard oil. The vegetable oils which are rich in oxygen can be used as future alternate fuels for the operation of diesel engine [2]. Biodiesel is produced from wasted mustard oil through alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Physical properties like density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point and pour point were found out for biodiesel produced from waste mustard oil. The same characteristic study was also carried out for conventional diesel fuel and used as a baseline for comparison. The values obtained from waste mustard oil ethyl ester (biodiesel is closely matched with the conventional diesel fuel and it can be used in diesel engine without any modification. Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100 or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines. Biodiesel is its capacity to lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to those of fossil fuels. There is an appreciable decrease in HC and CO2 emissions while the decrease in CO emission is marginal. However, emission of NOx is increased. Biodiesel is liquid which varies in color between golden and dark brown depending upon the production feedstock. It is immiscible with water, has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure. Typical ethyl ester biodiesel has a flash point of about 130ºC, biodiesel has a density of about 0.88 gm/cm3, less than that of water. Biodiesel has very good lubricating properties, significantly better than standard diesel which can prolong engine's life.

  18. Synthesis of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone -co- methyl methacrylate) by Maghnite-H+ a non-toxic catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Bennada; Mohamed Issam Ferrahi; mohamed Belbachir

    2014-01-01

    In the present work poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) copolymers were prepared successfully and cleanly by a one step process via cationic copolymerization of  N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) with methyl methacrylate (MMA), in heterogeneous phase using “Maghnite-H+” (Mag-H+) as catalyst in bulk, Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H+. Temperature is varied between 20 and 80 °C. The effects of reaction temperature, amount o...

  19. A Quantitative investigation on some toxic and non-toxic metals in popular medicinal herbs in Iranian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Shamsa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the presence of heavy metals in some popular herbal medicines of the Iranian market. Primarily, this study was planned to do the task by the USP method. In the second step, those plants which contained more than 10 ppm of total heavymetals were analyzed by atomic absorption method. In this study, 43 popular herbal medicines were investigated according to the limit test procedure in the USP. It was found that 27 of theseplants contained less than 10 ppm heavy metals compared to a standard lead solution, while 16 contained more than 10 ppm. The presence of Pb (<2.5, Cd (<0.25, Co (<1 and Ni (<1.5could be considered safe.

  20. Formation of non-toxic A? fibrils by small heat shock protein under heat-stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We examined effect of the quaternary structure of yeast sHsp on A? aggregation. ? A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of sHsp, but not by dimeric sHsp. ? The fibrillar amyloids consisted of both A? and dimeric sHsp. ? They exhibited different inner structure and cytotoxicity from authentic A? amyloids. ? These results suggest the formation of new type fibrillar A? amyloid by sHsp. -- Abstract: Small heat shock protein (sHsp) is a molecular chaperone with a conserved alpha-crystallin domain that can prevent protein aggregation. It has been shown that sHsps exist as oligomers (12–40 mer) and their dissociation into small dimers or oligomers is functionally important. Since several sHsps are upregulated and co-localized with amyloid-? (A?) in senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sHsps are thought to be involved in AD. Previous studies have also shown that sHsp can prevent A? aggregation in vitro. However, it remains unclear how the quaternary structure of sHsp influences A? aggregation. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of the quaternary structure of sHsp on A? aggregation using sHsp from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHsp16.0) showing a clear temperature-dependent structural transition between an oligomer (30 °C) and dimer (50 °C) state. A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of SpHsp16.0. In contrast, amyloid fibrils were formed in the presence of dimeric SpHsp16.0. Interestingly, these amyloid fibrils consisted of both A? and SpHsp16.0 and showed a low ThT intensity and low cytotoxicity due to their low binding affinity to the cell surface. These results suggest the formation of novel fibrillar A? amyloid with different characteristics from that of the authentic A? amyloid fibrils formed in the absence of sHsp. Our results also suggest the potential protective role of sHsp in AD under stress conditions

  1. GIS-modelling the distribution of Rattus norvegicus in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Sacchi; Augusto Gentilli; Nicola Pilon; Franco Bernini

    2008-01-01

    Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats Rattus norvegicus in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundan...

  2. Ranitidine Drugs as <span class="hlt">Non-Toxic</span> Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>R.S. Abdel Hameed</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2265491525','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2265491525"><span id="translatedtitle">Time to reconsider nonsurgical therapy of benign <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> multinodular goitre: focus on recombinant human TSH augmented radioiodine therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Fast, Søren; Nielsen, Viveque Egsgaard; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Hegedüs, Laszlo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The treatment of benign multinodular goitre (MNG) is controversial, but surgery is recommended in large compressive goitres. While some patients decline surgery others may have contraindications due to comorbidity, since MNG is prevalent in the elderly. Therefore, non-surgical treatment alternatives are needed. Until recently, levothyroxine therapy was the preferred non-surgical alternative, but due to low efficacy and potential side-effects, it is not recommended for routine use in recent inter...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45053705','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45053705"><span id="translatedtitle">Elucidating the energetics of the interaction of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin: A calorimetric study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • Curcumin binds to HSA with affinity of the order of 105 M?1. • The binding was favoured by negative enthalpy and positive entropy changes. • The binding was dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. • Negative heat capacity value along with enthalpy–entropy compensation was observed. -- Abstract: Thermodynamic quantities for the interaction of the anticancer dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin were measured by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The equilibrium constant of the complex formation at T = 293.15 K was found to be (5.25 ± 0.05) 105 M?1. The binding was exothermic with T?S0 = (24.82 ± 0.01) kJ · mol?1, where ?S0 is the standard molar entropy change and ?Ho = ?(7.28 ± 0.04) kJ · mol?1, where ?Ho is the standard molar enthalpy change. The stoichiometry of binding was established to be 1:1. The equilibrium constant decreased with increasing Na+ concentration. The equilibrium constant decreased from (5.25 ± 0.05) · 105 M?1 to (2.88 ± 0.03) · 105 M?1 by increasing the salt concentration from (10 to 50) mM. Both polyelectrolytic and non-polyelectrolytic forces contributed to the standard molar Gibbs free energy change. However the contribution from the latter was dominant and almost invariant at all Na+ concentrations. The negative standard molar heat capacity change along with significant enthalpy–entropy compensation suggests the involvement of multiple weak non-covalent forces in the binding process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22224322','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22224322"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> A? fibrils by small heat shock protein under heat-stress conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Sakono, Masafumi [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Saitama (Japan); Utsumi, Arata [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Zako, Tamotsu, E-mail: zako@riken.jp [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Abe, Tetsuya; Yohda, Masafumi [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Maeda, Mizuo [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)</p> <p>2013-01-25</p> <p>Highlights: ? We examined effect of the quaternary structure of yeast sHsp on A? aggregation. ? A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of sHsp, but not by dimeric sHsp. ? The fibrillar amyloids consisted of both A? and dimeric sHsp. ? They exhibited different inner structure and cytotoxicity from authentic A? amyloids. ? These results suggest the formation of new type fibrillar A? amyloid by sHsp. -- Abstract: Small heat shock protein (sHsp) is a molecular chaperone with a conserved alpha-crystallin domain that can prevent protein aggregation. It has been shown that sHsps exist as oligomers (12–40 mer) and their dissociation into small dimers or oligomers is functionally important. Since several sHsps are upregulated and co-localized with amyloid-? (A?) in senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sHsps are thought to be involved in AD. Previous studies have also shown that sHsp can prevent A? aggregation in vitro. However, it remains unclear how the quaternary structure of sHsp influences A? aggregation. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of the quaternary structure of sHsp on A? aggregation using sHsp from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHsp16.0) showing a clear temperature-dependent structural transition between an oligomer (30 °C) and dimer (50 °C) state. A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of SpHsp16.0. In contrast, amyloid fibrils were formed in the presence of dimeric SpHsp16.0. Interestingly, these amyloid fibrils consisted of both A? and SpHsp16.0 and showed a low ThT intensity and low cytotoxicity due to their low binding affinity to the cell surface. These results suggest the formation of novel fibrillar A? amyloid with different characteristics from that of the authentic A? amyloid fibrils formed in the absence of sHsp. Our results also suggest the potential protective role of sHsp in AD under stress conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/a-super-cooled-non-toxic-non-flammable-phase-change-material-thermal-pack-for-portable-lif-6928a','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/a-super-cooled-non-toxic-non-flammable-phase-change-material-thermal-pack-for-portable-lif-6928a"><span id="translatedtitle">A Super Cooled, <span class="hlt">Non-toxic</span>, Non-flammable Phase Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The continuation of concept development and test of a water-based, advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sink is proposed. Utilizing a novel material choice for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/a-super-cooled-non-toxic-non-flammable-phase-change-material-thermal-pack-for-portable-lif','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/a-super-cooled-non-toxic-non-flammable-phase-change-material-thermal-pack-for-portable-lif"><span id="translatedtitle">A Super Cooled, <span class="hlt">Non-toxic</span>, Non-flammable Phase Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept development and test of a water-based, advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sink is proposed. Utilizing a novel material choice for both an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______312::9d598a703e08277bdd6264747c128e7b','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______312::9d598a703e08277bdd6264747c128e7b"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> lines for digital information <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Pankratius, Victor</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Digital information <span class="hlt">products</span> are an important class of widely used digital <span class="hlt">products</span>, whose core benefit is the delivery of information or education (e.g., electronic books, online newspapers, e-learning courses). This book introduces a novel and systematic approach, <span class="hlt">Product</span> Lines for Digital Information <span class="hlt">Products</span> (PLANT), which focuses on the creation of variants of such <span class="hlt">products</span> within a <span class="hlt">product</span> line, and which extends concepts from the area of software <span class="hlt">product</span> lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30025880','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30025880"><span id="translatedtitle">Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and <span class="hlt">production</span> sites for remediation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and <span class="hlt">production</span> sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (<span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/303932/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/303932/"><span id="translatedtitle">Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and <span class="hlt">production</span> sites for remediation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>White, G.J.</p> <p>1998-08-03</p> <p>The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and <span class="hlt">production</span> sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (<span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0870-83122010000200013&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0870-83122010000200013&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20291241','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20291241"><span id="translatedtitle">Concrete <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Anon</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Increased strength and durability in concrete <span class="hlt">products</span> can be achieved through the addition of fly ash during the manufacturing process. The properties of concrete are enhanced by fly ash. The benefits include cost and the environment. Fly ash is normally defined as finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal, carried from the combustion chamber to the furnace by exhaust gas. The main applications of fly ash in concrete <span class="hlt">products</span> are ready mix concrete, bridge decks and support footing, precast structures, blocks and bricks, and pipes. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has published standards to ensure that the desired physical properties of the concrete are achieved and the standards are found in CSA A23.1, detailing the engineering materials and mix proportions. The type of fly ash to be used for specific properties is important. Finishing and curing operations must be performed with care. The free lime generated by cement hydration reacts with fly ash, forming additional calcium silicate hydrate. Permeability of the concrete is reduced since the calcium silicate hydrate fills the void resulting from the cement pour. Some of the benefits to be derived from fly ash in concrete are: water reduction, improved workability, high ultimate strength, improved pumpability, and reduced heat of hydration. In addition, the life cycle costs are lower, and great strength is obtained. An environmental benefit results from the reduction of natural resource consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/pjbs/2005/1142-1145.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/pjbs/2005/1142-1145.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Nosema apis Z. Infestation of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L. Colonies after Using Different Treatment Methods and their Effects on the Population Levels of Workers and Honey <span class="hlt">Production</span> on Consecutive Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Banu Y?cel</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the natural occurance of Nosema apis in honey bee colonies and evaluated of N. apis presence in colonies after medical treatment with fumagillin and thymol in consecutive 3 years period. For this purpose, 208 honey bee colonies randomly selected for detection of N. apis infection from Aegean ecotype of Apis mellifera anatolica, 1 years old queen in April, 2002. The colony development performances and honey yields were evaluated through the years from 2002 to 2004. Infested colonies were classified in 3 groups as tried to be equalized in Nosema infestation level; Fumidil-B, thymol application and control (only sugar syrup feeding. The effects of using period of Fumidil-B, contains fumagillin and thymol on N. apis infected honeybee colonies were researched by determining winter losses, adult bees population, brood and honey <span class="hlt">production</span> in consecutive years. Also, control group were impacted for same parameters. The adult bee worker population and brood surfaces of treated in both groups (Fumidil-B and thymol were increased significantly (p<0.05 by years from 2002 to 2004. Honey <span class="hlt">production</span> of thymol group was exhibited significant (p<0.05 increase by years, consequently. Significant decrease (p<0.05 was recorded in control group for winter mortality, brood <span class="hlt">production</span>, adult bee worker population and honey yield than the other treatment groups. The study was conducted that, observations of bee hives and regular treatment of infested colonies supported healthy and more <span class="hlt">productive</span> honey bees. Leaving colonies un-medicated caused severe problems in colony <span class="hlt">production</span>. Thymol could be suggested to beekeeper as a qualified Nosemiasis prevent agent; cheap, practical and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> in hives for organic honey <span class="hlt">production</span>. Moreover, with using thymol, residue-free bee <span class="hlt">products</span> could be handled economically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1319::cd69c092dfd82e62c074b841bd9e5aca','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1319::cd69c092dfd82e62c074b841bd9e5aca"><span id="translatedtitle">On Demand <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development Customized For <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Mahmood, Shahriare</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The ultimate intention of this thesis was to analyze the present <span class="hlt">product</span> development and <span class="hlt">production</span> process at the client organization and to develop methods to improve the agility of the <span class="hlt">product</span> development and <span class="hlt">production</span> process. Thus the organization can be ready for on demand <span class="hlt">product</span> development and corresponding customization in <span class="hlt">production</span> by maintaining enough agility. The overall study will help the organization to comprehend the present process improvement potentials and guideline to ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003973.htm','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003973.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Urinary incontinence <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... are many <span class="hlt">products</span> to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which <span class="hlt">product</span> to choose based ... and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span> You can find most <span class="hlt">products</span> at your ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/saferproducts-api','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/saferproducts-api"><span id="translatedtitle">Safer<span class="hlt">Products</span> API</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission launched Safer<span class="hlt">Products</span>.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8345628','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8345628"><span id="translatedtitle">New particle <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The lectures on new particle <span class="hlt">production</span> include <span class="hlt">production</span> in e+e- annihilation, PSI and PSI- photoproduction and implications for charmed particle photoproduction, PSI and PSI hadronic <span class="hlt">production</span> and implications for charmed particle <span class="hlt">production</span>, evidence for the OZI rule in hadronic interactions, and direct lepton <span class="hlt">production</span> by hadrons and the relevance of this phenomenon to charmed particle <span class="hlt">production</span>. 109 references</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......143A','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......143A"><span id="translatedtitle">Extremophile mediated hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Anjom, Mouzhgun</p> <p></p> <p>Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from <span class="hlt">production</span> of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological <span class="hlt">production</span> of H2 as an end <span class="hlt">product</span> or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass <span class="hlt">production</span>, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> was pH dependent but addition of simple, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> and (4) H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068 medium containing cultures of T. neapolitana and no external H2 was added, hydrogenation was observed confirming the possibility of developing an integrated BioCat/ChemCat system. The 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of Methyl succinic acid, the hydrogenated <span class="hlt">product</span> of the olefin. The concept was extended to Glycerol, a by-<span class="hlt">product</span> of biodiesel that was catalytically upgraded to mixed alcohols in an aqueous medium. The next logical step is to evaluate these results in a continuous flow mode. The demonstrated results have implications in the development of next-generation hydrogenation reaction systems that would lead to the <span class="hlt">production</span> of biofuels and other chemicals, depending on the substrate used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Future+Challenges+and+Possibilities+for+the+Danish+Long-line+Production+of+Blue+Mussels%2C+%26lt%3Bi%26gt%3BMytilus+edilus%26lt%3B%2Fi%26gt%3B+%28L%29+%3A+With+Special+Focus+on+Filtration+and+Bioenergetics','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Future+Challenges+and+Possibilities+for+the+Danish+Long-line+Production+of+Blue+Mussels%2C+%26lt%3Bi%26gt%3BMytilus+edilus%26lt%3B%2Fi%26gt%3B+%28L%29+%3A+With+Special+Focus+on+Filtration+and+Bioenergetics"><span id="translatedtitle">Future Challenges and Possibilities for the Danish Long-line <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Blue Mussels, <i>Mytilus edilus</i> (L) : With Special Focus on Filtration and Bioenergetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, Pernille</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The effect of current velocity (0.05-1.4 m s-1) on the clearance rate of M. edulis was studied using an automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continuously. The effect of current velocity was studied on either three or twenty mussels. Current velocities of up to 1.4 m s-1 did not affect the clearance rates of M. edulis when twenty mussels were allowed to form self-organized clumps. However, when only three M. edulis were present, mussels became inactive at current velocities >0.6 m s-1. The tolerance to high current velocities provides opportunities for offshore <span class="hlt">production</span> of blue mussels in Denmark since current velocities in the Danish coastal waters in general are below 1.4 m s-1. The effect of DST on clearance and respiration rate of M. edulis was studied in terms of exposures to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of either the <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> algal Rhodomonas salina or the DST-containing algal Dinophysis acuta. Our results showed that the clearance rate were reduced for mussels exposed to DST-containing D. acuta compared to mussels exposed to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of the <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> R. salina. Furthermore, closure of shell-valves was observed to occur earlier as well as the reduction in clearance rate became more pronounced with increasing concentrations of D. acuta. In addition, the total amount of DST accumulated in the mussels exceeded the regulatory limit for human consumption. However, DST-containing D. acuta did not have a severe effect on respiration rate. We concluded that DST most likely caused the reduction in clearance rate. Therefore DST-containing mussels can be a latent problem for mussel growth in future Danish offshore mussel <span class="hlt">production</span>, as it is in other offshore mussel <span class="hlt">productions</span> in Europe. Mussel growth and food depletion was studied within a mussel farm, located in the highly eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark. Using a variety of methods we obtained information on spatial (organism to farm scales) and temporal (seasonal) variations in food depletion. The results obtained by the different methods were integrated into a depletion model for the mussel farm. The results showed that high mussel growth rate was present during most of the year and that food depletion only occurred at different spatial scales within the farm. Furthermore, we showed that the mussel farm studied was under-utilized in terms of <span class="hlt">production</span> of mussel biomass and a surplus of food was available to support the growth of more mussels than already produced. Finally, we investigated the potential of using mussels as a mitigation tool for removal of excess nutrients in eutrophic coastal waters. A full-scale long-line mussel farm optimized for cost efficient nutrient removal was established in Skive Fjord where biological and economic parameters related to nutrient removal were monitored throughout a full <span class="hlt">production</span> cycle. We concluded that mitigation mussel cultures are a cost-effective measure for nutrient removal in coastal areas and can be used as an alternative or supplement to land-based mitigation measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::2b506e5b350f10a85be65339c53a80e8','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::2b506e5b350f10a85be65339c53a80e8"><span id="translatedtitle">Replacing an Existing <span class="hlt">Product</span>'s <span class="hlt">Production</span> Within a Similar <span class="hlt">Product</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> by Using a Replacement Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Anita Kova? Kralj; Dejan Bencik</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><p>Existing processes for specific <span class="hlt">products</span> cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The <span class="hlt">product’s</span> price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. In our case, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the <span class="hlt">production</span> of dimethyl ether (DME). This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, and ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ufpel.edu.br/revistas/index.php/cienciadamadeira/article/view/80','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ufpel.edu.br/revistas/index.php/cienciadamadeira/article/view/80"><span id="translatedtitle">NATURAL <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span> AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ricardo Marques Barreiros</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The <span class="hlt">products</span> currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly <span class="hlt">products</span> and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econômico, histórico e sustentável. A escassez de espécies resistentes à degradação biológica obrigou o homem a utilizar outras menos duráveis, principalmente de rápido crescimento, provenientes de reflorestamentos, como algumas espécies de Eucalyptus e de Pinus. Estas espécies possuem moderada ou nenhuma resistência ao ataque dos organismos xilófagos e necessitam de tratamentos preservantes. Os produtos preservantes utilizados atualmente possuem elevado grau de toxicidade, sendo potenciais riscos ambientais e para a saúde humana.  Assim, há uma crescente necessidade de desenvolver produtos químicos eficazes, não tóxicos para os seres humanos e para o meio ambiente. O direcionamento das pesquisas tem objetivado desenvolver produtos ambientalmente corretos e com viabilidade econômica, e uma alternativa é o uso do Crude Tall Oil (CTO, que é um resíduo no processamento de polpa de coníferas resinosas, para produção do papel Kraft. O tall oil, como agente de proteção, tem sido considerado promissor por reduzir significativamente a absorção de água capilar do alburno, removendo, assim um dos fatores que favorecem a madeira ser atacada por fungos e insetos: água, oxigênio e nutrientes. Pesquisas mostram que o tall oil pode ser utilizado puro, seja crude ou destilado, ou em combinação com biocidas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17402520600645712','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17402520600645712"><span id="translatedtitle">HIV-1 Tat Triggers TGF-β <span class="hlt">Production</span> and NK Cell Apoptosis that is Prevented by Pertussis Toxin B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Maria Raffaella Zocchi</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Herein, we show that PTX-B and its <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> mutant PT9K/129G inhibit transcription and secretion of TGF-β elicited by HIV-1 Tat in NK cells. Moreover, Tat strongly activates the cJun component of the multimolecular complex AP-1, while TGF-β triggers cFos and cJun. Treatment of NK cells In turn,with PTX-B or PT9K/129G inhibits Tat and TGF-β-induced activation of AP-1. TGF-β enhances starvation-induced NK cell apoptosis, reduces the transcription of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and inhibits Akt phosphorylation induced by oligomerization of the triggering NK cell receptor NKG2D. All these TGF-β-mediated effects are prevented by PTX-B or PT9K/129G, through a PI-3K-dependent mechanism. Finally, PTX-B and PT9K/129G upregulate Bcl-xL, the isoform of Bcl-x that protects cells from starvation-induced apoptosis. Of note, in NK cells from patients with HIV-1 infection, mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was consistently lower than that of healthy donors; interestingly, TGF-β and Tat were detected in the sera of these patients. These data suggest that Tat-induced TGF-β <span class="hlt">production</span> and the consequent NK cell failure, possibly occurring during early HIV-1 infection, may be regulated by PTX-B and PT9K/129G.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108097202','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108097202"><span id="translatedtitle">PDT (<span class="hlt">Product</span> Data Technology), <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Society</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Vesterager, Johan</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that <span class="hlt">products</span> are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce <span class="hlt">products</span> dramatically. The use of ICT in engineering of <span class="hlt">products</span> constitutes <span class="hlt">product</span> data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/productsingredients/products/ucm127068.htm','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/productsingredients/products/ucm127068.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Nail Care <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... present practices of use and concentration in nail hardening <span class="hlt">products</span>, where the concentration of formaldehyde is typically ... Area <span class="hlt">Product</span> Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting <span class="hlt">Products</span> Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jmm/article/view/11324','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jmm/article/view/11324"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting <span class="hlt">Product</span> Features from Chinese <span class="hlt">Product</span> Reviews</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Yahui Xi</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available With the great development of e-commerce, the number of <span class="hlt">product</span> reviews grows rapidly on the e-commerce websites. Review mining has recently received a lot of attention, which aims to discover the valuable information from the massive <span class="hlt">product</span> reviews. <span class="hlt">Product</span> feature extraction is one of the basic tasks of <span class="hlt">product</span> review mining. Its effectiveness can influence significantly the performance of subsequent jobs. Double Propagation is a state-of-the-art technique in <span class="hlt">product</span> feature extraction. In this paper, we apply the Double Propagation to the <span class="hlt">product</span> feature exaction from Chinese <span class="hlt">product</span> reviews and adopt some techniques to improve the precision and recall. First, indirect relations and verb <span class="hlt">product</span> features are introduced to increase the recall. Second, when ranking candidate <span class="hlt">product</span> features by using HITS, we expand the number of hubs by means of the dependency relation patterns between <span class="hlt">product</span> features and opinion words to improve the precision. Finally, the Normalized Pattern Relevance is employed to filter the exacted <span class="hlt">product</span> features. Experiments on diverse real-life datasets show promising results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282191056','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282191056"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermophilic Biohydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are organic loadi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=research_asb::623b61965c656eaee9a01de02ec2909b','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=research_asb::623b61965c656eaee9a01de02ec2909b"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermophilic Biohydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are organic lo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:PDT+%28Product+Data+Technology%29%2C+Production+and+Society','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:PDT+%28Product+Data+Technology%29%2C+Production+and+Society"><span id="translatedtitle">PDT (<span class="hlt">Product</span> Data Technology), <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Society</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Vesterager, Johan</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that <span class="hlt">products</span> are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce <span class="hlt">products</span> dramatically. The use of ICT in engineering of <span class="hlt">products</span> constitutes <span class="hlt">product</span> data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation, transmission, storing, and retrieval of knowledge and information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Designing+Product+Families','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Designing+Product+Families"><span id="translatedtitle">Designing <span class="hlt">Product</span> Families</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Manufacturing companies that operate with <span class="hlt">products</span> aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect <span class="hlt">products</span> to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general <span class="hlt">products</span> based on average customer needs. This trend has led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized <span class="hlt">products</span> while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass <span class="hlt">production</span> enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of <span class="hlt">product</span> platforms as a foundation for the customization process, whereby the customized <span class="hlt">products</span> become variants of a <span class="hlt">product</span> family with a high degree of reuse and utilization of kinship between the individual variants.With this paper, we will discuss the development of platform based <span class="hlt">product</span> families from three points of view: Variety, Design Principles, and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Maturity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0870-63522005000200002&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0870-63522005000200002&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Residues of the Cork Industry as Carriers for the <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Legume Inoculants / Résidus de l'Industrie du Liège comme Substrats pour la <span class="hlt">Production</span> des Inoculums pour les Légumineuses / Resíduos da Indústria dos Aglomerados da Cortiça como Potenciais Substractos para a Produção de Inoculantes para Sementes de Leguminosas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Eugénio Mendes, Ferreira; Isabel Videira e, Castro.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O crescimento e a sobrevivência de duas estirpes de Rhizobium, uma de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, e outra de Mesorhizobium ciceri, foram usados para avaliação de resíduos da indústria dos aglomerados da cortiça como potenciais substractos para a produção de inoculantes para sementes de leg [...] uminosas. A turfa foi usada como controlo. 41 dias após a inoculação, o n.º das bactérias viáveis era elevado e semelhante em todos os substractos, aproximadamente 10(9) bactérias g-1. A sobrevivência durante os 450 dias de armazenamento permaneceu estável, entre 10(8) e 10(9). Os resíduos da cortiça mostraram possuir boas características de manuseio, boas capacidades de retenção de água, não apresentaram toxicidade, possuíam pH perto da neutralidade, indicando poderem ser utilizados como substractos alternativos à turfa na produção de inoculantes para leguminosas. Abstract in english Growth and survival of two rhizobial strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, and Mesorhizobium ciceri, were used to evaluate residues from the cork industry as potential carriers for <span class="hlt">production</span> of rhizobial inoculants. A peat-based carrier was used as a control. 41 days after inoculation, the [...] number of viable bacteria was high, about 10(9) bacteria g-1 for all carriers. Rhizobial survival during storage (450 days) remained stable, between 10(8) and 10(9). The cork residues based carriers showed good handling properties and water holding capacities, they were <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and had a nearly neutral pH. All these factors indicate that the use of these carriers is viable for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of rhizobial inoculants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::6a500f01e41d5f5037e0dc293f1b2662','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::6a500f01e41d5f5037e0dc293f1b2662"><span id="translatedtitle">BRAND - <span class="hlt">PRODUCT</span> INTERDEPENDENCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Nistorescu, Tudor; C?t?lin Mihail BARBU; Claudia Cristina PLOSCARU</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the <span class="hlt">products</span>. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a <span class="hlt">product</span>. However the <span class="hlt">product</span> is needed to render the brand tangible. The <span class="hlt">product</span> is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the <span class="hlt">product</span>, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to inve...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cscanada.net/index.php/est/article/view/2103','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://cscanada.net/index.php/est/article/view/2103"><span id="translatedtitle">Replacing an Existing <span class="hlt">Product</span>'s <span class="hlt">Production</span> Within a Similar <span class="hlt">Product</span> <span class="hlt">Production</span> by Using a Replacement Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Anita Kova? Kralj</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <p>Existing processes for specific <span class="hlt">products</span> cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The <span class="hlt">product’s</span> price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">production</span>. In our case, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the <span class="hlt">production</span> of dimethyl ether (DME. This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, and can be achieved by using replacement technique. We want to keep and transfer as many of the existing units from the previous <span class="hlt">production</span> to the new <span class="hlt">production</span>. Dimethyl ether is an organic compound with the formula CH<sub>3</sub>OCH<sub>3</sub>.  It is a colourless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds, and an aerosol propellant. DME can act as a clean fuel when burned in engines properly optimized for DME. The direct <span class="hlt">production</span> of DME would be cheaper than indirect when applied for new buildings. The same applies for retrofits, or the replacing of existing methanol - specific <span class="hlt">production</span> – a similar DME <span class="hlt">product</span> plant would be more rational for the direct <span class="hlt">production</span> of DME, because of greater efficiency, <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of DME <span class="hlt">production</span>, profit, and for 20 % more electricity generation.</p><p><strong>Key</strong><strong> </strong><strong>words:</strong> Dimetyl ether; Replacement; Methanol process; Indirect method; Direct method; Retrofit</p></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1399::aa1f4ff0fe1e136f741a23ecf67d4e58','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1399::aa1f4ff0fe1e136f741a23ecf67d4e58"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> from sunflower oil using microwave assisted transesterification / by Nokuthula E. Magida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Magida, Nokuthula Ethel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Biofuels are becoming more attractive worldwide because of the high energy demands and the fossil fuel resources that are being depleted. Biodiesel is one of the most attractive alternative energy sources to petroleum diesel fuel and it is renewable, <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">toxic</span>, biodegradable, has low sulphur content and has a high flash point. Biodiesel can be generated from domestic natural resources such as coconuts, rapeseeds, soybeans, sunflower, and waste cooking o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______307::87959b5d6d8ae7157977b651ae1eaefc','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______307::87959b5d6d8ae7157977b651ae1eaefc"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> by microalgae and macroalgae from north littoral portuguese coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Carvalho, Joana; Ribeiro, André; Castro, Joana Daniela Fernandes de; Vilarinho, Cândida; Castro, F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has many benefits. It is biodegradable, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and compared to petroleum-based diesel, has a more favorable combustion emission profile, such as low emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons. In brief, these merits make biodiesel a good alternative to petroleum based fuel. Biodiesel feedstocks derived from microalgae and macroalgae have emerged as one of the most promising alternative sources of lipid for use in biodiesel ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::6715f645cbecba49059708178d06f3ec','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::6715f645cbecba49059708178d06f3ec"><span id="translatedtitle">Agriculture wastes conversion for biofertilizer <span class="hlt">production</span> using beneficial microorganisms for sustainable agriculture applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Ali, S. I. S.; Aziz, R.; Awad, H. M.; Sarip, S. H. M.; Sarmidi, M. R.; Hanapi, S. Z.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aims: The emphasis of this study is to generate new valuable bioproducts from <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> cleaning waste for environmental healing technology. Methodology and Results: Comparisons between different types of biofertilizer formulations and the field trial effectiveness were done. Results indicated that biofertilizer C contained the highest N value (1.8%) when compared with biofertilizers B and A, which only contained 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively. Biofertilizer A showed significant difference in th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Product+Family+Assessment','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Product+Family+Assessment"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Kvist, Morten</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of <span class="hlt">products</span> that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven <span class="hlt">product</span> development. While operating in the mass <span class="hlt">production</span> paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single <span class="hlt">product</span> this will in time lead to a patchwork of <span class="hlt">product</span> variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a <span class="hlt">product</span> family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single <span class="hlt">products</span> to entire <span class="hlt">product</span> families and try to incorporate the development of <span class="hlt">product</span> variety into a future <span class="hlt">product</span> family. The key is to create fit between the <span class="hlt">product</span> design and <span class="hlt">production</span> setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing <span class="hlt">product</span> design and the <span class="hlt">production</span> setup with an eye re-design the <span class="hlt">products</span> and/or the <span class="hlt">production</span> setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a <span class="hlt">product</span> family and the <span class="hlt">production</span> setup. Furthermore, the model links the <span class="hlt">product</span> design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the <span class="hlt">product</span> family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future <span class="hlt">product</span> design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean <span class="hlt">production</span>, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a <span class="hlt">product</span> variety context, and discussed in relation to <span class="hlt">product</span> development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39083363','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39083363"><span id="translatedtitle">The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> in stoneware tile mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed <span class="hlt">product</span>. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the <span class="hlt">product</span> of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 ?m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The <span class="hlt">product</span> of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This <span class="hlt">product</span> can be safely recycled for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0367-598X/2003/0367-598X0302079S.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0367-598X/2003/0367-598X0302079S.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Powder detergents <span class="hlt">production</span> plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Stankovi? Mirjana S.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent <span class="hlt">production</span> plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a <span class="hlt">production</span> plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent <span class="hlt">production</span>. The <span class="hlt">product</span> meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent <span class="hlt">production</span> process is fully automatized, and the <span class="hlt">product</span> has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite <span class="hlt">production</span>, because all <span class="hlt">products</span> with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The <span class="hlt">production</span> process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Making+Product+Customization+Profitable','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Making+Product+Customization+Profitable"><span id="translatedtitle">Making <span class="hlt">Product</span> Customization Profitable</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture for companies that customize <span class="hlt">products</span> and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, <span class="hlt">product</span> assortment, supply-<span class="hlt">production</span>, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a <span class="hlt">product</span> family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study it is shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mnmk.ro/documents/2014_01/1-13-1-14.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.mnmk.ro/documents/2014_01/1-13-1-14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">BRAND - <span class="hlt">PRODUCT</span> INTERDEPENDENCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Tudor NISTORESCU</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the <span class="hlt">products</span>. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a <span class="hlt">product</span>. However the <span class="hlt">product</span> is needed to render the brand tangible. The <span class="hlt">product</span> is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the <span class="hlt">product</span>, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-<span class="hlt">product</span> relationship.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35016854','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35016854"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation chemical technology for <span class="hlt">production</span> of polymeric hydrogels for medical purposes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full text: Polymeric hydrogels are water-swelling cross-linked hydrophilic polymers with ability to store reversibly great amount of water (more than 1000 g of water per 1 g of dry polymer). At present they found a lot of different applications in highly developed countries in science and industry. The set of unique physicochemical and biomedical properties (regulated sorption ability in respect to water and biological liquids, biocompatibility, soft tissue state, permeability in respect to small and big molecules, <span class="hlt">non-toxicity</span>, etc.) allows their application in medicine. According to the clinical data there are no materials that can compete with hydrogels in development of endo-prostheses of soft-tissues in surgery, contact lenses for eyesight correction, hemo-compatible materials, novel for treatment of wounds and burns, targeted drug delivery systems. Polymeric hydrogels today practically substitute the traditional hydrophobic bases (Vaseline, lanolin) in technology of drug forms for development of ointments and dressings, containing natural and synthetic physiologically active substances. The advantages of hydrogels in comparison with hydrophobic analogues are obvious due to the drainage effect, homogenous distribution of drugs, better contact with wound, painless removing by water washing. The polymeric hydrogels are not produced in Kazakhstan in spite of the big source of raw materials. The aim of the present work is the development of radiation-chemical technology and development of polymeric biomedical hydrogels <span class="hlt">production</span> based on raw materials of Kazakhstan. The novel types of polymeric hydrogel materials are developed by the authors of the report based on vinyl ethers of glycols, which produced in 'Alash Ltd.' (Temirtau). The great fundamental information content has been obtained about these monomers and polymers including direct quantitative data of their structure formation mechanism and physicochemical properties. These data served as a basis for design of novel polymeric hydrogels of different type including so-called 'intelligent' materials, which are able to respond on small changes of environmental parameters (temperature, pH, electric field). According the biomedical tests the availability and competitive ability of these biomaterials is due to their unique stability to bio-destruction in aggressive infection media unlike of known hydrogels based on polyacrylamide, hydroxyalkyl acrylates, etc. This is connected with the absence of hydrolyzable bonds (ester, amide, etc.) in the structure of vinyl ethers. As the result of many years collaboration with a number of leading medical centers of Kazakhstan and Russia the possibility of wide and effective application of these hydrogel materials in different areas of medicine has bee found (contact hydrogel for ultrasonic diagnostics; hydrogel basis for medicinal and cosmetic ointments; hydrogel implant material)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20714496','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20714496"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Demirbas, Ayhan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Campus, 42031 Konya (Turkey)</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>This paper reviews the <span class="hlt">production</span> and characterization of biodiesel (BD or B) as well as the experimental work carried out by many researchers in this field. BD fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel (PD) fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. BD fuel can be used in any mixture with PD fuel as it has very similar characteristics but it has lower exhaust emissions. BD fuel has better properties than that of PD fuel such as renewable, biodegradable, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. There are more than 350 oil bearing crops identified, among which only sunflower, safflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed and peanut oils are considered as potential alternative fuels for diesel engines. The major problem associated with the use of pure vegetable oils as fuels, for Diesel engines are caused by high fuel viscosity in compression ignition. Dilution, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis and transesterification are the four techniques applied to solve the problems encountered with the high fuel viscosity. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, some engine performance problems still exist. The viscosity values of vegetable oils vary between 27.2 and 53.6mm{sup 2}/s whereas those of vegetable oil methyl esters between 3.59 and 4.63mm{sup 2}/s. The viscosity values of vegetable oil methyl esters highly decreases after transesterification process. Compared to no. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oil methyl esters were slightly viscous. The flash point values of vegetable oil methyl esters are highly lower than those of vegetable oils. An increase in density from 860 to 885kg/m{sup 3} for vegetable oil methyl esters or biodiesels increases the viscosity from 3.59 to 4.63mm{sup 2}/s and the increases are highly regular. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. The transesterfication of triglycerides by methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol, has proved to be the most promising process. Methanol is the commonly used alcohol in this process, due in part to its low cost. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-27382010000100003&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-27382010000100003&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteínas PEGiladas: producción, purificación y aplicaciones / PEGylated proteins: <span class="hlt">production</span>, purification, and applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>K. P., Mayolo-Deloisa; M., Rito-Palomares.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available La PEGilación es la conjugación de una proteína y/o péptido con una o más moléculas de poli(etilen glicol). El poli(etilen glicol) es un polímero no toxico, no inmunogénico y esto aprobado por la FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA). En los últimos años, la PEGilación ha sido utilizada para mejor [...] ar las propiedades fisicoquímicas de proteínas y drogas terapéuticas, por lo que esta tecnología ha impactado fuertemente a la industria bio-farmacéutica. La PEGilación permite prolongar el tiempo de residencia en el cuerpo, mejorar la estabilidad, aumentar la solubilidad, disminuir la proteólisis y excreción renal. Desde el surgimiento de esta tecnología, diferentes proteínas han sido PEGiladas para el tratamiento de enfermedades como: hepatitis C, leucemia, artritis reumatoide, etc. Este artículo de revisión presenta una descripción del desarrollo de la PEGilación en los últimos años, así como de los procedimientos usados para la producción de bio-conjugados. Además, se revisan las estrategias de purificación utilizadas para la recuperación de proteínas PEGiladas, siendo este uno de los grandes retos en el proceso debido a que la reacción de PEGilación puede generar bio-conjugados con diferentes grados de PEGilación. Por último, se presentan las aplicaciones de dichos bio-conjugados y los retos futuros que se identifican para su aplicación genérica. Abstract in english PEGylation is the covalent attachment of protein and/or peptide to poly(ethylene glycol). The poly(ethylene glycol) is a polymer, <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">toxic</span>, non immunogenic, and FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) approved. In the last years, PEGylation has been used to improve the physicochemical properties of [...] some proteins and therapeutic drugs; this technology has impacted heavily on the bio-pharmaceutical industry. PEGylation prolongs the body-residence time and stability, decreases the proteolysis and renal excretion. Since the emergence of this technology, some proteins have been PEGylated for the treatment of diseases including hepatitis C, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. This review presents a description of the PEGylation development in the last years and the chemical procedures used to obtain some bio-conjugated <span class="hlt">products</span>. Strategies of purification used to obtain PEGylated proteins are reviewed; purification is one of the major problems to establish suitable processes due to the fact that the reaction can generate bio-conjugates with different degree of PEGylation. Finally the applications of PEGylated proteins and the future challenges that are identified for generic application are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Glocalized+Production%3A+The+Evolution+of+Global+Production','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Glocalized+Production%3A+The+Evolution+of+Global+Production"><span id="translatedtitle">Glocalized <span class="hlt">Production</span>: The Evolution of Global <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Chavez, Marianna; Bilberg, Arne</p> <p></p> <p>In light of the challenges of the current globalized <span class="hlt">production</span> model, four global Danish companies were interviewed with the purpose of exploring “glocalized <span class="hlt">production</span>” as the new step and solution to the challenges of the “global village.” The research sought to gauge the interest on “glocalized <span class="hlt">production</span>” by key managers of these companies, and test three hypotheses: that a definition could be established from “glocalization” aspects, that it will reduce supply chain complexity, and that it can affect organizational trust levels. The results are presented along with suggestions to pave the way for future research on this emerging topic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22030742','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22030742"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolomics study on Fuzi and its processed <span class="hlt">products</span> using ultra-performance liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry coupled with pattern recognition analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Sun, Hui; Ni, Bei; Zhang, Aihua; Wang, Mo; Dong, Hui; Wang, Xijun</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx is named "Fuzi" which is widely distributed across Asia and North America and has been used to relieve joint pain and treat rheumatic diseases for over two thousand years. However, it has very narrow therapeutic ranges and despite the toxicological risk, its usage remains very high. A traditional Chinese processing approach (Paozhi, detoxifying measure) is necessary to remove the poisonous Aconitum alkaloids mainly deriving from the diester diterpene alkaloids (DDAs) including aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine. They can be decomposed into less or <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> derivatives through Paozhi that plays an essential role in detoxification. Processed Fuzi is mainly focused on the three main forms of Yanfuzi (YFZ), Heishunpian (HSP) and Baifupian (BFP) which are highly desirable in order to guarantee the clinical safety and their low toxicity in decoctions. The difference in metabolomic characters between Fuzi and its processed preparations is still completely unclear. Therefore, this paper was designed to investigate a comprehensive metabolome of Fuzi and its processed <span class="hlt">products</span> by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS) combined with pattern recognition methods. The difference in metabolic profiles between Fuzi and its processed preparations was well observed by the principal component analysis (PCA) of the MS spectra. Significant changes of 19 metabolite biomarkers were detected in the Fuzi samples and three preparations. The underlying regulations of Paozhi-perturbed metabolic pathways were also discussed according to the identified metabolites. The present study proves that UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS based metabolomic analysis greatly contributes to the investigation of Fuzi metabolism through Paozhi techniques, and provides useful information to further comprehensively understand the pharmacological activity and potential toxicity of processed Fuzi in a clinical environment. PMID:22030742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/268426-bQNMoQ/webviewable/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/268426-bQNMoQ/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing <span class="hlt">productivity</span>: Another approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Norton, F.J.</p> <p>1996-06-10</p> <p>An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its <span class="hlt">productivity</span> should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT <span class="hlt">productivity</span> by supporting organizational objectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8291793','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8291793"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenomenology of lepton <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The problem of lepton <span class="hlt">production</span> in hadronic collisions is reviewed. The following subjects are developed: the Drell-Yan model for continuous l+l- <span class="hlt">production</span>, vector mesons and clusters, and other sources of direct leptons</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/consumer-product-category-database','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/consumer-product-category-database"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Category Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer <span class="hlt">products</span>. The chemical use...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM143705.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM143705.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Problems Digesting Dairy <span class="hlt">Products</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Health Information www.fda.gov/consumer Problems Digesting Dairy <span class="hlt">Products</span>? D oes your stomach churn after you ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy <span class="hlt">products</span>. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/pesticide-product-label-system','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/pesticide-product-label-system"><span id="translatedtitle">Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Label System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide <span class="hlt">product</span> labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/outdoor-product-related-recalls','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/outdoor-product-related-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">Outdoor <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — Outdoor <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/household-product-related-recalls','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/household-product-related-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">Household <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — Household <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/fluoride_products/','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/fluoride_products/"><span id="translatedtitle">Other Fluoride <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Other Fluoride <span class="hlt">Products</span> Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... August 17, 2001;50(RR-14):1–42. Fluoride <span class="hlt">Products</span> Fluoride Toothpaste Form Concentrations of fluoride in ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transformer&pg=6&id=EJ253403','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transformer&pg=6&id=EJ253403"><span id="translatedtitle">Transformer Industry <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Slows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Otto, Phyllis Flohr</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Annual <span class="hlt">productivity</span> increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and <span class="hlt">product</span> standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a601006.html','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a601006.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocodone Combination <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... uses. Some hydrocodone combination <span class="hlt">products</span> are used to relieve moderate-to-severe pain. Other hydrocodone combination <span class="hlt">products</span> are used to relieve cough. Hydrocodone is in a class of medications ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/all-product-recalls','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/all-product-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">All <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — Recalls and <span class="hlt">product</span> safety news. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5880995/Lone%20Munk%20Afhandling%20MAN.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5880995/Lone%20Munk%20Afhandling%20MAN.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Munk, Lone</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based <span class="hlt">product</span> development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based <span class="hlt">product</span> development makes it possible to deliver <span class="hlt">product</span> variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources, and the subject has gained increased attention in industry and academia the past decade. Literature on platform-based <span class="hlt">product</span> development is often based on single case studies and it is sparsely verif...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______185::6a4f566cbb6fd50a4ea3c287d2811aef','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______185::6a4f566cbb6fd50a4ea3c287d2811aef"><span id="translatedtitle">Delayed multiattribute <span class="hlt">product</span> differentiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Weber, Thomas A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We develop a two-stage model for versioning <span class="hlt">products</span> with respect to both vertical and horizontal attributes. At first, a firm positions its top-quality “flagship” <span class="hlt">product</span> in a market with an imperfectly known distribution of tastes and reservation prices. In the second stage, the firm learns these consumer characteristics and has the option of extending its <span class="hlt">product</span> line by versioning the flagship <span class="hlt">product</span> using pure horizontal differentiation, quality degrading, or both. The firm's nonconvex ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::5d21980b3462ef5ccbb5d4dd7b9e68e2','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::5d21980b3462ef5ccbb5d4dd7b9e68e2"><span id="translatedtitle">Dry alcohol <span class="hlt">production</span> plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol <span class="hlt">production</span> plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a <span class="hlt">production</span> plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The <span class="hlt">product</span> meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol <span class="hlt">production</span> process is fully automatized. There...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2194660239','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2194660239"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Architecture Modularity Strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5136720/PhD%2013%202010%20Rasmus%20Pedersen%20Thesis.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5136720/PhD%2013%202010%20Rasmus%20Pedersen%20Thesis.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Pedersen, Rasmus</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This PhD thesis has the title <span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform Modelling. The thesis is about <span class="hlt">product</span> platforms and visual <span class="hlt">product</span> platform modelling. <span class="hlt">Product</span> platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation and the change in the global economy seem to be major factors. Manufacturing companies have experienced an intensifying competition and many companies face increasing demands for reductions in costs and lead tim...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://householdproducts.nlm.nih.gov/','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://householdproducts.nlm.nih.gov/"><span id="translatedtitle">Household <span class="hlt">Products</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Home Maintenance Arts & Crafts Pet Care Home Office Commercial / Institutional <span class="hlt">Product</span> Names Types of <span class="hlt">Products</span> Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More Resources What's under your kitchen sink, in your garage, in your bathroom, and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/2054525/files/ATL-PHYS-SLIDE-2015-719.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/2054525/files/ATL-PHYS-SLIDE-2015-719.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Top quark <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Boisvert, Veronique; The ATLAS collaboration</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent measurements on top quark <span class="hlt">production</span> are presented on behalf of Tevatron and LHC experiments. The measurements cover topics like inclusive and differential top quark pair (and single top quark) <span class="hlt">production</span> cross sections as well as associated <span class="hlt">production</span> of top quark pairs with a gauge bosons or with b-jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/6470510-QoK6yn/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/6470510-QoK6yn/"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal <span class="hlt">production</span> 1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-11-29</p> <p>Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span> 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal <span class="hlt">production</span>, the number of mines, prices, <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________70::62763fdf8e34ed39eb2926b800a6fba8','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________70::62763fdf8e34ed39eb2926b800a6fba8"><span id="translatedtitle">Planning <span class="hlt">Product</span> Support for Medical <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Goffin, Keith</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Product</span> support is a key aspect in the marketing of high-technology <span class="hlt">products</span>, since it strongly influences customer satisfaction and can also be an important source of revenue. Typical forms of support include operator training, equipment maintenance and, if necessary, repair - all of these are normally provided by manufacturers' support organizations. Good support is particularly important in some markets; an example is medical equipment where good operator training and qui...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-08/pdf/2010-7931.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-08/pdf/2010-7931.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-08</p> <p>...THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>, and Indian coal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/indoorenv/ConstructionIEQ.html','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/indoorenv/ConstructionIEQ.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Maintaining Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) during Construction and Renovation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... activities. Sources include drywall, plaster, concrete, soil, wood, masonry, flooring, roofing, and ductwork. <span class="hlt">Non</span> <span class="hlt">toxic</span> dusts are ... and coatings Adhesives Paints, varnishes and/or stains Wall coverings Cleaning agents Fuels and combustion <span class="hlt">products</span> Carpeting ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=tubitakulakb::c036f2f6d1d37d0aca76c95466904c72','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=tubitakulakb::c036f2f6d1d37d0aca76c95466904c72"><span id="translatedtitle">Chaos in <span class="hlt">product</span> maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>DE??RMENC?, Nedim; KOÇAK, ?ahin</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We discuss how chaos conditions on maps carry over to their <span class="hlt">products</span>. First we give a counterexample showing that the <span class="hlt">pro\\-duct</span> of two chaotic maps (in the sense of Devaney) need not be chaotic. We then remark that if two maps (or even one of them) exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, so does their <span class="hlt">product</span>; likewise, if two maps possess dense periodic points, so does their <span class="hlt">product</span>. On the other side, the <span class="hlt">product</span> of two topologically transitive maps need not be topolog...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Evolving+production+network+structures','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Evolving+production+network+structures"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolving <span class="hlt">production</span> network structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>When deciding about future <span class="hlt">production</span> network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the <span class="hlt">products</span> and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization modelling and assigns <span class="hlt">products</span> and capacity expansions to <span class="hlt">production</span> sites under the above constraints. It also considers the <span class="hlt">production</span> complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost reductions compared to the traditional manual planning results of our industrial partner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2044147','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2044147"><span id="translatedtitle">Handbook of <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The HANDBOOK OF <span class="hlt">PRODUCTION</span> SCHEDULING concentrates on real-world <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling in factories and industrial settings. It includes industry case studies that use innovative techniques as well as academic research results that can be used to improve real-world <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling. Its purpose is to present scheduling principles, advanced tools, and examples of innovative scheduling systems to persons who could use this information to improve <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling in their own organization.The intended audience includes: <span class="hlt">production</span> and plant managers, industrial engineers, operations res</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0139763','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0139763"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> on <span class="hlt">productive</span> and non-<span class="hlt">productive</span> surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Tesa?, Miroslav; Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, ?.; ?ermák, J.</p> <p></p> <p>Santa Cruz : University of Santa Cruz, 2006 - (Crow, S.). s. 216 [BIOGEOMON. International Symposium on Ecosystem Behavior /5./. 25.06.2006-30.06.2006, Santa Cruz] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/05/2312; GA ?R GA205/06/0375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : <span class="hlt">productive</span> surfaces * entropy Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.anpad.org.br/periodicos/arq_pdf/a_787.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.anpad.org.br/periodicos/arq_pdf/a_787.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Low income <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Maria Cecília Sobral</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on <span class="hlt">product</span> development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate <span class="hlt">products</span> and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular <span class="hlt">product</span>, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize <span class="hlt">products</span> and increase the <span class="hlt">production</span> scale; to extend the <span class="hlt">product</span> life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build <span class="hlt">product</span> images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43010255','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43010255"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone safety assurance during operation of 10 MeV RF electron linac by developing an air flow sensor and using ozone level monitor and interlock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A lot of ozone gas is produced due to breaking of air particles present in between the beam exit window of Linac and <span class="hlt">products</span> to be irradiated. Though the ozone gas is non-poisonous, <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, being much heavier than oxygen, it creates a depletion of oxygen near the scan horn area of LINAC. The allowable level of ozone is 100 ppb for the human occupancy. There is a 2.6 meter thick mild steel mobile shield for entering the operating personnel after irradiation near the scan horn area of LINAC. Two 20 HP ozone removal pumps are in operation to remove the ozone produced due to Linac operation, via 12 earth pits made in the irradiation area of LINAC. The human safety is ensured by continuously monitoring the ozone level (analog signal), the ozone removal speed by measuring air flow signals (analog signal) at different pits, the ON/OFF status (DI) of two pumps and interlocking the mobile shield opening with the 100 ppb level of ozone level. A potential free contact is generated against the 100 ppb level in the ozone monitor. An Air flow sensor with two analog inputs and two alarm outputs have been developed to ensure the ozone removal at various pits. A light transmitter-receiver is mounted at the two ends of the rotating fan, which rotates due to air flow. The count of light pulses is calibrated with the air flow speed. This paper discusses the details of the measures taken to ensure human safety against ozone produced during operation of LINAC. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44027850','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44027850"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Productivity</span> analysis of sunflower <span class="hlt">production</span> in Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) <span class="hlt">production</span>, 55% of the <span class="hlt">production</span> is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower <span class="hlt">production</span>. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas <span class="hlt">production</span> function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower <span class="hlt">production</span>. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=988467','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=988467"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by bio-ethanol reforming for small-scale fuel cell applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Huuhtanen, M.; Seelam, P. K.; Turpeinen, E., Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: mika.huuhtanen@oulu.fi; Kordas, K. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Electrical and Information Engineering (Finland))</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The depletion of fossil fuels in the future and availability of crude oil are serious concerns around the globe. Moreover, the green house gas (GHG) emissions, which have influence on the climate change and environmental problems on the earth, have to be reduced. In order to have a CO2 neutral energy <span class="hlt">production</span>, renewable energy sources will be one of the solutions to cut-off GHG emissions and to gain energy security. Various biofuels, which can be produced sustainably from renewable raw materials, can be used and they are benign renewable energy carriers. Bio-ethanol as a raw material for H{sub 2} generation is a good alternative because of its <span class="hlt">non-toxicity</span>, high energy density and easy delivery. Bio-ethanol can be produced from biomass like cellulosic materials, e.g. lignin or hemicelluloses, wood residuals, food industry side streams, etc., for example via fermentation. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of bio-ethanol from these resources is in focus in research and the most sustainable way to produce it is studied widely. Bio-ethanol produced from sugar or corn based raw materials are of less interest due to the need of plants suitable for food <span class="hlt">production</span>. The hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> via bio-ethanol reforming for fuel cell applications has attracted significant interest both in academic and industrial research. Bio-ethanol reforming process can be done by three alternative ways as follows: (1) Steam reforming using water (SR) (Endothermic) (2) Dry reforming using CO{sub 2} (DR) (Endothermic) (3) Autothermal steam reforming using partial oxidation (OSR{sub +}POX) (Exothermic). Steam reforming and autothermal reforming are reported to be effective routes for producing hydrogen from ethanol. The catalyst plays a crucial role for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of hydrogen through ethanol reforming. In the present study, several catalytic materials, mainly CNT (carbon nanotube) support based catalysts but also conventional reforming catalysts were tested and reported. In this study, the feasibility of carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalyst materials are investigated in ethanol reforming. Catalysts for the bio-ethanol reformer operating at low temperatures, i.e. below 400 degC, are needed. The research is focused on developing new and sustainable ways to produce hydrogen by ethanol reforming for e.g. small-scale fuel cell systems having electric output power below 10 kW. The technologies will cover low temperature bio-ethanol reforming, study of hydrogen selective membranes for produced gas stream purification as well as the combinations of these two; catalytic membrane reactors to produce pure hydrogen streams suitable for fuel cells. Pd based hydrogen selective catalytic membranes were studied to obtain high hydrogen gas selectivity and purity with good hydrogen permeability. Further, theoretical and experimental research works were done to find and optimise appropriate operating pressures and temperatures for a micro-reactor performance to achieve a good hydrogen gas yield in reforming. CFD will be used as one of the tools when designing an optimal micro reactor structure for reforming. This project is in cooperation with COST Action 543 'Research and Development of Bio-ethanol Processing for Fuel Cells, BIOETHANOL' (2006-2010)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822007000100010','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822007000100010"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of fractional factorial design to levan <span class="hlt">production</span> by Zymomonas mobilis Aplicação do planejamento fatorial fracionário para a produção de levana por Zymomonas mobilis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>I.R. Melo</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Levan is a <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, biologically active, extra cellular polysaccharide composed solely by fructose units. Optimization of levan <span class="hlt">production</span> by Zymomonas mobilis strain ZAG-12 employing a 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed to analyze the influence of the temperature (20, 25 e 30ºC agitation (50, 75 e 100 rpm, and the initial concentrations of both sucrose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 and yeast extract (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0g.L-1 on final levan concentration. Aerobic fermentation was performed batchwise in 500mL Pyrex flasks for 72 hours. Biomass, ethanol, levan and sucrose were determined at beginning and also at end of the fermentations. The experiments showed that the final levan concentration depended on initial sucrose concentration, temperature and agitation velocity and that the initial concentration of yeast extract did not influence levan <span class="hlt">production</span>. However, when the <span class="hlt">production</span> of ethanol and biomass were considered, it became evident that yeast extract was a significant variable. The best conditions for levan <span class="hlt">production</span> occurred at 100 rpm agitation, 20ºC and 250g.L-1 of initial sucrose resulting in 14.67g.L-1 of levan.Levana é um polissacarídeo extracelular, biologicamente ativo, não tóxico, contendo em sua estrutura apenas frutose. A maximização da produção de levana, por via fermentativa, pela linhagem de Zymomonas mobilis ZAG-12, foi estudada utilizando-se um planejamento fatorial de dois níveis 2(4-1, variando-se as concentrações iniciais de sacarose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 , extrato de levedura (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0 g.L-1, temperatura (20, 25 e 30ºC e agitação (50, 75 e 100 rpm. As fermentações foram desenvolvidas por processos descontínuos em frascos Pyrex roscados, de 500 mL, contendo 300 mL de meio a base de sacarose, por 72 horas. No início e ao final do processo, foram dosados: biomassa, etanol, levana e sacarose como açúcares redutores totais. A análise dos dados mostra que o aumento da produção de levana depende tanto dos efeitos da concentração inicial de sacarose, temperatura e agitação, isoladamente, quanto da interação entre agitação e temperatura na faixa experimental estudada. O extrato de levedura não afeta a produção de levana, entretanto, quando a resposta é produção de etanol e biomassa, fica evidente que essa variável é significativa. Os resultados demonstraram que as melhores condições para a produção em batelada ocorreram com 250g/L de sacarose inicial, 100 rpm de agitação, a 20ºC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/10133218/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/10133218/"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span> 1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-10-29</p> <p>Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span> 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal <span class="hlt">production</span>, the number of mines, prices, <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, employment, <span class="hlt">productive</span> capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of <span class="hlt">production</span>, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal <span class="hlt">production</span> and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317535','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317535"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Aubin, Francois; Atoyan, Hasmik; Robert, Jean-Marc; Atoyan, Tigran</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper explains how a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness may be defined and measured. Many aspects of consumer <span class="hlt">product</span> assessments are conducted sub-consciously and this process is closely examined. A <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness can be evaluated by measuring its advantages over alternative solutions based on specific criteria associated with fundamentals needs. When multiple criteria are involved, different weights are assigned to each. It should take into account the context in which the <span class="hlt">product</span> is used. For the purpose of this paper, we use a formula to determine the relative usefulness of a variety of <span class="hlt">products</span> in different contexts. We conclude that aspects of <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness, connected with sub-conscious human decision making processes, can be a major factor in predicting acceptance and rejection rates. PMID:22317535</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/9771530','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/9771530"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">Product</span> Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Gani, Rafiqul</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper highlights for a class of chemical <span class="hlt">products</span>, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) community. The chemical <span class="hlt">products</span> considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical <span class="hlt">products</span>, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::6936268dd0a991fa37c68d57450a1b18','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::6936268dd0a991fa37c68d57450a1b18"><span id="translatedtitle">Microsystem <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Polosky, M. -A.; Garcia, E. -J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem <span class="hlt">product</span> development. <span class="hlt">Product</span> development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a <span class="hlt">product</span>. Elemen...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27069110','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27069110"><span id="translatedtitle">Uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> in Romania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This article reviews uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> in Romania. Geological aspects of the country are discussed, and known uranium deposits are noted. Uranium mining and milling activities are also covered. Utilization of Romania's uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> industry will primarily be to supply the country's nuclear power program, and with the present adequate supplies and the operation of their recently revamped fuel <span class="hlt">production</span> facility, Romania should be self-reliant in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::44f68e28dc6564789ad79db6c0497cc5','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::44f68e28dc6564789ad79db6c0497cc5"><span id="translatedtitle">MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>?ubomíra Juhaniaková; Miroslava Ka?ániová</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery <span class="hlt">products</span>. In confectionery <span class="hlt">products</span> microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery <span class="hlt">products</span> were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectioner...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2192989572','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2192989572"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting for <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) <span class="hlt">production</span> function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view that factors of <span class="hlt">production</span> are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20071074','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20071074"><span id="translatedtitle">Hyperon <span class="hlt">production</span> with antiprotons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Precision measurements of hyperon-antihyperon <span class="hlt">production</span> with antiprotons permit detailed tests of strange quark pair <span class="hlt">production</span> and decay. Recent measurements at LEAR of lambda-antilambda <span class="hlt">production</span> are compared with selected calculations. A recent search in the K/sub s/K/sub s/ channel for ?(2230) formation and possible future searches for CP nonconservation in the lambda-antilambda system are also discussed. 17 refs., 13 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/244207808','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/244207808"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving pension <span class="hlt">product</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pension <span class="hlt">products</span> characterized by linking an individual's savings directly to market returns represent the most popular, growing pension domain globally. These <span class="hlt">products</span> are widely sold in contribution-defined pension schemes, labor market pensions, and individual schemes. However, available <span class="hlt">products</span> are designed with a tendency to assume greater risk the longer it is until retirement, but are not adjusted to individual preferences and circumstances. This paper develops an optimal asset allocatio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2287151426','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2287151426"><span id="translatedtitle">Property Rights and <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the effect of land titling on agricultural <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in Vietnam and the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> effects of single versus joint titling for husband and wife. Using a plot-fixed-effects approach our results show that obtaining a land title is associated with higher yields, for both individually and jointly held titles. We conclude that there is no tradeoff between joint titling and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, and so joint titles are potentially an effective way to improve women’s bargaining power wi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/243855240','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/243855240"><span id="translatedtitle">Smallholder pig <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range <span class="hlt">production</span> systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement and 32 practising free-range <span class="hlt">production</span> systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range <span class="hlt">production</span> systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses r...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______135::d6018601c29b14e375eb1424e94bdbd2','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______135::d6018601c29b14e375eb1424e94bdbd2"><span id="translatedtitle">Software <span class="hlt">Product</span> Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Fricker, Samuel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Software organizations evolve and maintain software solutions with more than a single development project. The delta specifications and artefacts that result from each project make reuse difficult and challenge a company’s ability to innovate. Software <span class="hlt">product</span> management is a growing discipline for understanding how to productise and align software with company strategy, how to evolve software, and how to coordinate <span class="hlt">product</span> stakeholders. With <span class="hlt">product</span> focus, in addition...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::a69f83e87e2649ff0e58bb1e2238f95a','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::a69f83e87e2649ff0e58bb1e2238f95a"><span id="translatedtitle">Indecomposable Fusion <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Kausch, Horst G.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We analyse the fusion <span class="hlt">products</span> of certain representations of the Virasoro algebra for c=-2 and c=-7 which are not completely reducible. We introduce a new algorithm which allows us to study the fusion <span class="hlt">product</span> level by level, and we use this algorithm to analyse the indecomposable components of these fusion <span class="hlt">products</span>. They form novel representations of the Virasoro algebra which we describe in detail. We also show that a suitably extended set of representations closes under ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/239714473','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/239714473"><span id="translatedtitle">Intake to <span class="hlt">Production</span> Ratio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its <span class="hlt">production</span> and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-<span class="hlt">production</span> ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical <span class="hlt">production</span> results in human exposure.METHODS: The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::1565a42d446ffc943940d1ac9803ecd5','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::1565a42d446ffc943940d1ac9803ecd5"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for improving flavor <span class="hlt">production</span> in a fermented food <span class="hlt">product</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Pastink, M.I.; De Vos, W. M.; Sikkema, J; Hugenholtz, J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The invention describes a method for improving flavor <span class="hlt">production</span> in a fermented food <span class="hlt">product</span>, a S. thermophilus strain wherein glutamate dehydrogenase is inactivated, as well as a food <span class="hlt">product</span> comprising such strain. Moreover, the invention describes a method for identifying S. thermophilus strains having improved flavor <span class="hlt">production</span>, and use thereof for improving flavor <span class="hlt">production</span> in a fermented food <span class="hlt">product</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1701368','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1701368"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonhomogeneous matrix <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Hartfiel, Darald J</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Infinite <span class="hlt">products</span> of matrices are used in nonhomogeneous Markov chains, Markov set-chains, demographics, probabilistic automata, <span class="hlt">production</span> and manpower systems, tomography, and fractals. More recent results have been obtained in computer design of curves and surfaces. This book puts together much of the basic work on infinite <span class="hlt">products</span> of matrices, providing a primary source for such work. This will eliminate the rediscovery of known results in the area, and thus save considerable time for researchers who work with infinite <span class="hlt">products</span> of matrices. In addition, two chapters are included to show h</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27023708','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27023708"><span id="translatedtitle">Beauty <span class="hlt">production</span> at DOe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We report on the measurement of the inclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> cross section of single muon, dimuon and heavy quarkonium states J/? and ? in pp collisions at ?(s) = 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We extract the inclusive b quark <span class="hlt">production</span> cross section and compare the results with next to leading order QCD predictions. For the first time the measurement of the J/? <span class="hlt">production</span> cross section is extended to the forward region. From the information on the J/? event topology, the muon impact parameter and the rate of ?c radiative decays we estimate the role of various charmonium <span class="hlt">production</span> mechanisms. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2009579','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2009579"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> systems engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Li, Jingshan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Describes methods for mathematical modeling of <span class="hlt">production</span> systemsProvides techniques for designing continuous improvement projects with predictable resultsOffers quantitative methods for selecting lean bufferingOffers measurement-based techniques for identifying bottleneck machines and bottleneck buffersAddresses the issue of <span class="hlt">product</span> qualityDescribes methods for analysis of transient behavior of <span class="hlt">production</span> linesOffers techniques for measurement-based management of <span class="hlt">production</span> systemsDescribes a software package, the PSE Toolbox, which implements algorithms developedIncludes numerous case studie</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11542925','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11542925"><span id="translatedtitle">Inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this review, the current status of inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span> is summarized. Among the reasons for studying inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span>, the following matters are enumerated: Resonance decay accounts for a sizable part of the inclusive single particle <span class="hlt">production</span>. Having non-zero spin, the polarization can be studied for obtaining information about the <span class="hlt">production</span> mechanism. And there are models which make prediction for the ratio of pseudoscalar to vector meson <span class="hlt">production</span>. 21 papers were submitted to this conference on inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span>. The problems of determining cross sections are related both to statistics and to the parametrization of the background. Generally at beam momenta above 100 GeV/c, all of the inclusive meson resonance cross sections are increasing, while the baryon resonance cross sections are falling or perhaps remaining constant. The examples of the x-dependence of inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span> are given, but there are much works still to be carried out. The quark-parton model makes prediction for the ratio of various inclusive resonance cross sections. The comparison between experiment and the theoretical prediction is shown. The inclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> of single particles is strongly affected by resonance <span class="hlt">production</span>. (Kako, I.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21547280','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21547280"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy efficiency in <span class="hlt">products</span> and <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Tugrul, Kodaz [Arcelik (Turkey)], email: tugrul.kodaz@arcelik.com</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Energy efficiency is not simply about making energy savings, it is also about maintaining the quality of living conditions, service quality and volumes of <span class="hlt">production</span> in industrial plants. Using energy effectively wherever and whenever possible in our everyday lives will most likely make a great positive contribution to our household budget, to the national economy and to the protection of the environment. Fossil fuels, like petroleum and coal, the most important energy sources, are being depleted. What is worse, greenhouse gas emissions, which cause global warming and climate change, are rising. So there is an urgent need to raise energy efficiency and prevent energy wastage. Economic development will be based on sustainable usage of natural resources. Therefore, a combined commitment to protecting the environment and preserving and ecological balance at every stage of <span class="hlt">production</span> activities is the central guarantee natural resource sustainability. This paper provides information on various studies of how to achieve high energy efficiency with respect both to <span class="hlt">products</span> and their <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::4cb2ba2d1401652a1b88387839198638','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::4cb2ba2d1401652a1b88387839198638"><span id="translatedtitle">Recombinant organisms for <span class="hlt">production</span> of industrial <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Adrio, Jose-Luis; Arnold L. Demain</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial <span class="hlt">production</span> of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/1461300/files/BOivzSJJcqhDA.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/1461300/files/BOivzSJJcqhDA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Standard Specification for ESD Controlled Garments Required in Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments for Spacecraft for <span class="hlt">Non-Hazardous</span> and Hazardous Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22063421','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22063421"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent [Laboratoire d' etude de Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, UMR 5564 (CNRS/INPG/IRD/UJF), Universite de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l{sup -1}. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44022610','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44022610"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l-1. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/57922678','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/57922678"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-hazardous</span> organic solvents in the paraffin-embedding technique: a rational approach. Aliphatic monoesters for clearing and dewaxing: butyldecanoate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Lyon, H; Holm, I; Prentø, P; Balslev, E</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to substitute hazardous compounds, used in tissue processing and dewaxing, with compounds having lowest possible toxicity and inflammability without impairing the morphology, staining characteristics, or diagnostic value of the tissue sections. All aromatic compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. alkanes, isoparaffins, petroleum distillates, etc.) were rejected, primarily due to their high vapour pressure. Based on a theoretical study of compounds used for clearing, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ann.ugal.ro/eco/Doc%202006/13.%20OK%20Adi%20Micu_2.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ann.ugal.ro/eco/Doc%202006/13.%20OK%20Adi%20Micu_2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">COMPETITIVE <span class="hlt">PRODUCT</span> ADVANTAGES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Adrian MICU</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some <span class="hlt">products</span> at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or <span class="hlt">product</span> advantages later.. Even when a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop <span class="hlt">product</span> advantages remain. The augmented <span class="hlt">product</span> that customers buy is more than the particular <span class="hlt">product</span> or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame <span class="hlt">product</span> from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic <span class="hlt">product</span> can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=188583','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=188583"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Placement in Cartoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Irena Oroz Štancl</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Product</span> placement is a marketing approach for integrating <span class="hlt">products</span> or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of <span class="hlt">product</span> placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons <span class="hlt">product</span> placement was found; most <span class="hlt">product</span> placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory <span class="hlt">product</span> placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of <span class="hlt">products</span> available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon <span class="hlt">production</span> based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::e9aaea49a86d8fe0799a5285ba362946','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::e9aaea49a86d8fe0799a5285ba362946"><span id="translatedtitle">Baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> in ALEPH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Becker, Ursula</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Several recent results of the ALEPH Collaboration covering different aspects of baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> on the Z resonance are presented. In particular <span class="hlt">production</span> rates of hyperons, the full kinematical reconstruction of the Lambda_b, observation of Xi_b in its semileptonic decay, and the measurements of the polarization of Lambda and Lambda_b baryons are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28006483','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28006483"><span id="translatedtitle">Quarkonia <span class="hlt">production</span> at CDF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We present the results of J/?, ?', ?c and ?(1S), ?(2S), ?(3S) <span class="hlt">production</span> in the proton-antiproton collisions at ?s = 1800 GeV measured with the CDF Detector. Contributions of different <span class="hlt">production</span> mechanisms are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40030411','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40030411"><span id="translatedtitle">Central Exclusive Dijet <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The ingredients of central exclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet <span class="hlt">production</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=262208','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=262208"><span id="translatedtitle">Biotechnology and derived <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived <span class="hlt">products</span> that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. <span class="hlt">Products</span> based on these technologies effectively co...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1253601','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1253601"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Productive</span> Programmer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Ford, Neal</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The <span class="hlt">Productive</span> Programmer offers critical timesaving and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED103978.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED103978.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors Predicting Educational <span class="hlt">Productivity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Hanes, Carol E.; Jordan, K. Forbis</p> <p></p> <p>Since 1968 educational <span class="hlt">productivity</span> studies at the University of Florida have been analyzing data from six States and one city. Linear regression was used to identify high and low <span class="hlt">productive</span> units by measuring the relationship between statistically selected input factors and a measure of student achievement. Discriminant analysis was employed to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::2b2d1590d5a8598c2a562150abca6be4','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::2b2d1590d5a8598c2a562150abca6be4"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> & Decay of Quarkonium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Fleming, Sean(University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In this talk I review NRQCD predictions for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of charmonium at the Tevatron. After a quick presentation of the NRQCD factorization formalism for <span class="hlt">production</span> and decay I review some old results and discuss how they compare to recent data. Following this I discuss some recent work done with Adam Leibovich and Ira Rothstein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185763557','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185763557"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved wound care <span class="hlt">product</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care <span class="hlt">product</span> comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care <span class="hlt">product</span>,and a methodof treating an infected wound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::87de61e66e5505954d32cd54f4f8d1a5','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::87de61e66e5505954d32cd54f4f8d1a5"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy-Quark <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Frixione, S.; Mangano, M.L.(CERN, PH-TH, Geneva, Switzerland); Nason, P; G. Ridolfi</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We review the present theoretical and experimental status of heavy quark <span class="hlt">production</span> in high-energy collisions. In particular, we cover hadro- and photoproduction at fixed target experiments, at HERA and at the hadron colliders, as well as aspects of heavy quark <span class="hlt">production</span> in e+e- collisions at the Z0 peak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::530f2f3b66f505a463e10dc5c9ed232d','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::530f2f3b66f505a463e10dc5c9ed232d"><span id="translatedtitle">Crossed <span class="hlt">product</span> tensor categories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Galindo, César</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A graded tensor category over a group $G$ will be called a crossed <span class="hlt">product</span> tensor category if every homogeneous component has at least one multiplicatively invertible object. Our main result is a description of the crossed <span class="hlt">product</span> tensor categories, graded monoidal functors, monoidal natural transformations, and braiding in terms of coherent outer $G$-actions over tensor categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16082735','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16082735"><span id="translatedtitle">ICF tritium <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The conceptual design of an ICF tritium <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor is described. The chamber design uses a beryllium multiplier and a liquid lithium breeder to achieve a tritium breeding ratio of 2.08. The annual net tritium <span class="hlt">production</span> of this 532 MW/sub t/ plant is 16.9 kg, and the estimated cost of tritium is $8100/g</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0246776','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0246776"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> line design.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526. ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : <span class="hlt">product</span> line design * <span class="hlt">product</span> differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Thermophilic+Biohydrogen+Production','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Thermophilic+Biohydrogen+Production"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermophilic Biohydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions such as temperature and pH, fermentation modes and reactor types applied) are currently utilized at lab and pilot scale, for biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Although the process has strong potential for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of energy from organic residues and wastes, the major challenge is to determine whether the economics and reliability of dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are sufficiently attractive for commercial application to be installed. Furthermore, storage and utilization of the produced hydrogen still faces challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-19/pdf/2011-9471.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-19/pdf/2011-9471.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-19</p> <p>...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>...year 2011 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-11/pdf/2012-8675.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-11/pdf/2012-8675.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-11</p> <p>...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>...year 2012 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-30/pdf/2012-10275.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-30/pdf/2012-10275.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 25538 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-30</p> <p>...THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-01/pdf/2010-7263.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-01/pdf/2010-7263.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>...year 2010 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-03/pdf/2013-07773.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-03/pdf/2013-07773.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-03</p> <p>...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>...year 2013 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.microbialcellfactories.com/content/4/1/36','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.microbialcellfactories.com/content/4/1/36"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by Cyanobacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Chaudhuri Surabhi</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/6741198/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/6741198/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> identification file</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Gray, C.E. (ed.)</p> <p>1978-06-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">product</span> identification file was compiled as an aid to the industrial hygienist who may encounter the <span class="hlt">products</span> listed in surveys for and studies of occupational health hazards. It is pointed out that the chemical composition of a <span class="hlt">product</span> may vary from year to year and some components may be added or deleted without an indication on the label. Some of the data in this file may not be complete depending on the analysis requested. For example, a solvent may be the only component for which the <span class="hlt">product</span> was analyzed. The file is arranged by listing the chemical manufacturer, followed by the trade name. In cases where no manufacturer is known, the trade name appears in alphabetical order. The log number and the chemist who analyzed the <span class="hlt">product</span> are listed for reference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37043933','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37043933"><span id="translatedtitle">Petroleum <span class="hlt">product</span> market outlook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery <span class="hlt">production</span> and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum <span class="hlt">products</span> in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery <span class="hlt">production</span>, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver <span class="hlt">products</span> to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum <span class="hlt">products</span> markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase <span class="hlt">production</span>; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum <span class="hlt">product</span> supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect <span class="hlt">product</span> distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian <span class="hlt">production</span> of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that <span class="hlt">production</span> in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher consumer prices in the 2005-2006 winter season. 2 tabs., 8 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1249::7def79fb04e3ae5b055c530cdde7aad8','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1249::7def79fb04e3ae5b055c530cdde7aad8"><span id="translatedtitle">Key activities for <span class="hlt">product</span> derivation in software <span class="hlt">product</span> lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Rabiser, Rick; O'Leary, Pádraig; Richardson, Ita</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>More and more organizations adopt software <span class="hlt">product</span> lines to leverage extensive reuse and deliver a multitude of benefits such as increased quality and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and a decrease in cost and time-to-market of their software development. When compared to the vast amount of research on developing <span class="hlt">product</span> lines, relatively little work has been dedicated to the actual use of <span class="hlt">product</span> lines to derive individual <span class="hlt">products</span>, i.e., the process of <span class="hlt">product</span> derivation. Existing approaches to <span class="hlt">product</span> deriva...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::c50b9931c792cbe7a10dae06fd97953a','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::c50b9931c792cbe7a10dae06fd97953a"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Development Risk Management in <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hanpeng; Yongbo MA</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><p>It is necessary to manage <span class="hlt">product</span> development risk in new <span class="hlt">product</span> development process. This paper puts forward a risk management frame combined the traditional risk management framework and establishes a <span class="hlt">product</span> development risk system in new <span class="hlt">product</span> development, which provides new patterns for practice. It is helpful to raising the possibility of new <span class="hlt">product</span> development success.</p><p><strong>Key words: </strong><span class="hlt">Product</span> development risk management; <span class="hlt">Product</span> de...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2265030674','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2265030674"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span>-Marketing Innovation, Skills, and Firm <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation for <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is hypothesized that <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is established that <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth. Moreover, <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation have independent roles in <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth, which...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=nora_uio__no::eb61ce0591cf7948adbc0d5151343a6c','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=nora_uio__no::eb61ce0591cf7948adbc0d5151343a6c"><span id="translatedtitle">Public goods <span class="hlt">production</span> and private sector <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Norman, Eva Benedicte Danielsen</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we study how the use of resources in the public sector affects industrial structure, the size and the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in knowledge-intensive clusters in local communities. We also discuss how these considerations should be implemented in costbenefit assessments of local public goods supply. The topics are studied in a setting where there are gains from agglomeration in knowledge-intensive industries, creating clusters of firms in such industries. We find that the primary effect is ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/562168','WWS-KAUST'); return false;" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/562168"><span id="translatedtitle">Volatile <span class="hlt">products</span> controlling Titan's tholins <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa">KAUST Repository</a></p> <p>Carrasco, Nathalie</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>A quantitative agreement between nitrile relative abundances and Titan\\'s atmospheric composition was recently shown with a reactor simulating the global chemistry occurring in Titan\\'s atmosphere (Gautier et al. [2011]. Icarus, 213, 625-635). Here we present a complementary study on the same reactor using an in situ diagnostic of the gas phase composition. Various initial N 2/CH 4 gas mixtures (methane varying from 1% to 10%) are studied, with a monitoring of the methane consumption and of the stable gas neutrals by in situ mass spectrometry. Atomic hydrogen is also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. A positive correlation is found between atomic hydrogen abundance and the inhibition function for aerosol <span class="hlt">production</span>. This confirms the suspected role of hydrogen as an inhibitor of heterogeneous organic growth processes, as found in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. [2010]. Icarus, 209, 704-714). The study of the gas phase organic <span class="hlt">products</span> is focussed on its evolution with the initial methane amount [CH 4] 0 and its comparison with the aerosol <span class="hlt">production</span> efficiency. We identify a change in the stationary gas phase composition for intermediate methane amounts: below [CH 4] 0=5%, the gas phase composition is mainly dominated by nitrogen-containing species, whereas hydrocarbons are massively produced for [CH 4] 0>5%. This predominance of N-containing species at lower initial methane amount, compared with the maximum gas-to solid conversion observed in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (2010) for identical methane amounts confirms the central role played by N-containing gas-phase compounds to produce tholins. Moreover, two protonated imines (methanimine CH 2NH and ethanamine CH 3CHNH) are detected in the ion composition in agreement with Titan\\'s INMS measurements, and reinforcing the suspected role of these chemical species on aerosol <span class="hlt">production</span>. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108107559','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108107559"><span id="translatedtitle">Micro <span class="hlt">Products</span> - <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development and Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Hans Nørgaard</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi-disciplinary competences. One example is sensors for chemical analysis of fluids, where chemistry, biology and flow mechanics all influence the design of the <span class="hlt">product</span> and thereby the industrial fabrication...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34065216','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34065216"><span id="translatedtitle">Manual of radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Manual of Radioisotope <span class="hlt">Production</span> has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span> for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of <span class="hlt">production</span>. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span>. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope <span class="hlt">production</span> processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of <span class="hlt">production</span> are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the <span class="hlt">production</span> processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of <span class="hlt">production</span> processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical <span class="hlt">production</span> for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable the reader to select processes most suitable to his local conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Product-Marketing+Innovation%2C+Skills%2C+and+Firm+Productivity+Growth','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Product-Marketing+Innovation%2C+Skills%2C+and+Firm+Productivity+Growth"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span>-Marketing Innovation, Skills, and Firm <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation for <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is hypothesized that <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is established that <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth. Moreover, <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation have independent roles in <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth, which cannot be attributed to organizational changes. Finally, we apply an instrument variable approach for firms, innovation choices to study endogeneity. The results strongly support the idea that <span class="hlt">product</span>–marketing innovation leads to faster <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth in skill-intensive firms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1999884','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1999884"><span id="translatedtitle">Infinite crossed <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Passman, Donald S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This groundbreaking monograph in advanced algebra addresses crossed <span class="hlt">products</span>. Author Donald S. Passman notes that crossed <span class="hlt">products</span> have advanced from their first occurrence in finite dimensional division algebras and central simple algebras to a closer relationship with the study of infinite group algebras, group-graded rings, and the Galois theory of noncommutative rings. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, the text examines crossed <span class="hlt">products</span> and group-graded rings, delta methods and semiprime rings, the symmetric ring of quotients, and prime ideals, bot</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajabssp.2011.332.338','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajabssp.2011.332.338"><span id="translatedtitle">Wheat <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Economics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Elgilany Ahmed</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and high cost of <span class="hlt">production</span> of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas <span class="hlt">production</span> function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of <span class="hlt">production</span> costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of <span class="hlt">production</span> as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat <span class="hlt">productivity</span> under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor, distance from home to field, hired labor, distance of farm to source of irrigation, number of irrigation, term of irrigation. Furthermore, the weakness of wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> normally regards as a cost issue and lack of awareness wheat grower especially about wheat technical package. Conclusion: The study concluded that wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> contribute significantly to farm sustainability and contribute to alleviation of malnutrition in the State. The actual <span class="hlt">production</span> constraints restrict the sustainability of this important crop. The cooperation between international organizations and governmental institutions should tackle the hindrances of wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> and achieve stability of wheat. There is a great potential for improvement the yield of the crop and an intervention of the State is needed to ease having the inputs of <span class="hlt">production</span> especially irrigation water inputs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/245255264','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/245255264"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving pension <span class="hlt">product</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The paper develops a pension <span class="hlt">product</span> that can be oered in a dened contribution pension scheme as a deferred or immediate life annuity. The <span class="hlt">product</span> is characterized by linking an individual's savings directly to market returns and differs from the <span class="hlt">products</span> available in the market by being adjusted to individual needs. We argue that the asset allocation, the payout prole and the insured sum should not only depend on the plan member's age (or time left to retirement), nor only on her risk preferenc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39065056','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39065056"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation processed polysaccharide <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique <span class="hlt">products</span>. In this communication, typical <span class="hlt">products</span> from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above <span class="hlt">products</span> were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/17/6/3645','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/17/6/3645"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Leonid M. Martyushev</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108079241','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108079241"><span id="translatedtitle">Preparing for a <span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Fiil-Nielsen, Ole; Munk, Lone; Mortensen, Niels Henrik</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Experience in the industry as well as recent related scientific publications show the benefits of <span class="hlt">product</span> development platforms. Companies use platforms to develop not a single but multiple <span class="hlt">products</span> (i.e. a <span class="hlt">product</span> family) simultaneously. When these <span class="hlt">product</span> development projects are coordinated they lead to increased sales due to more customized <span class="hlt">product</span> as well as decreased costs due to reuse, making a <span class="hlt">product</span> development platform a very profitable strategy for <span class="hlt">product</span> developing companies. A suc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41075785','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41075785"><span id="translatedtitle">Safety assessment of personal care <span class="hlt">products</span>/cosmetics and their ingredients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care <span class="hlt">products</span> (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care <span class="hlt">products</span> raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these <span class="hlt">products</span> and their ingredients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45107974','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45107974"><span id="translatedtitle">Fermentative biofuels <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in <span class="hlt">production</span> of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as <span class="hlt">products</span> of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for <span class="hlt">production</span> of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on <span class="hlt">production</span> limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2112699','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2112699"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> lifecycle management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Stark, John</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This third edition updates and adds to the successful second edition and gives the reader a thorough description of PLM, providing them with a full understanding of the theory and the practical skills to implement PLM within their own business environment. This new and expanded edition is fully updated to reflect the many technological and management advances made in PLM since the release of the second edition. Describing the environment in which <span class="hlt">products</span> are developed, manufactured and supported, before addressing the Five Pillars of PLM: business processes, <span class="hlt">product</span> data, PLM applications, Organisational Change Management (OCM) and Project Management, this book explains what <span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management is, and why it’s needed. The final part of the book addresses the PLM timeline, showing the typical steps and activities of a PLM project or initiative. “<span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management” will broaden the reader’s understanding of PLM, nurturing the skills needed to implement PLM successfully and to achi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902010000100012&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902010000100012&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting new <span class="hlt">product</span> sales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>R., Siriram; D.R., Snaddon.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new <span class="hlt">product</span> rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new <span class="hlt">products</span> come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight se [...] lected <span class="hlt">products</span> are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new <span class="hlt">product</span> sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/727DC25EA72180FAC325699100412855?OpenDocument&search=1','WWWISTC-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/727DC25EA72180FAC325699100412855?OpenDocument&search=1"><span id="translatedtitle">Boron Materials <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/projectsSearchByKeywords?OpenForm&type=All&lang=Eng">International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Investigation of the <span class="hlt">Production</span> Processes of Highly Pure Boric Acid and Elemental Boron Labeled with Boron-10 or Boron-11 Isotopes and of the Gain in Efficiency of the Boron Isotope Concentrating Process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.07802.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.07802.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical Schwinger pair <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Gies, Holger</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We investigate Schwinger pair <span class="hlt">production</span> in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair <span class="hlt">production</span> can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-<span class="hlt">production</span> rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair <span class="hlt">production</span> exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential BKT-type scaling and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/peanut-product-recalls','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/peanut-product-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">Peanut <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut <span class="hlt">products</span> distributed by Peanut Corporation of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/2046960/files/Poster-2015-505.pdf','WWS-CERN-MULTIMEDIA'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/2046960/files/Poster-2015-505.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Top <span class="hlt">Production</span> at LHCb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/collection/Multimedia%20%26%20Outreach?ln=en">CERN Multimedia</a></p> <p>Santana Rangel, Murilo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Single and pair top <span class="hlt">production</span> in the forward direction at the LHC allows for precision tests of the Standard Model. The observation of top quarks in 7 and 8 TeV data and prospects for precision measurements are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5673643/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5673643/"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioactivity in consumer <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)</p> <p>1978-08-01</p> <p>Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various <span class="hlt">products</span> containing radioactive sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/drugs-procedures-devices/over-the-counter/herbal-products-and-supplements.printerview.all.html','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/drugs-procedures-devices/over-the-counter/herbal-products-and-supplements.printerview.all.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Herbal <span class="hlt">Products</span> and Supplements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... or supplements change the way OTC or prescription medicines work? Yes. Herbal health <span class="hlt">products</span> or supplements can affect the way the body processes drugs. When this happens, your medicine may not work the way it should. For ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/current-amp-expired-product-list-c664d','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/current-amp-expired-product-list-c664d"><span id="translatedtitle">Current & Expired <span class="hlt">Product</span> List</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — List of pesticide <span class="hlt">products</span> licensed for distribution and sale in the state of Hawaii, including currently licensed and expired. This list is provided for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8346373','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8346373"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of uranium dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A three stage fluidized bed process is described for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to a ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by first, reacting hydrogen and steam with UF6 in a first fluidized bed in a temperature range of from about 475 to 6000C to form solid intermediate <span class="hlt">products</span> UO2F2 and U3O8; second, reacting hydrogen and steam with the intermediate <span class="hlt">products</span> in a second fluidized bed at a temperature ranging from about 575 to about 6750C to produce a second group of intermediate <span class="hlt">products</span> including UO2F2, U3O8, and UO2; and, third, reacting hydrogen and steam with the second group of intermediate <span class="hlt">products</span> in a third fluidized bed as a temperature of 575 to 6750C to produce ceramic grade UO2 powder having low residual content of fluorides and other foreign materials. 9 claims, 1 figure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/osu-chlorophyll-bloom-product','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/osu-chlorophyll-bloom-product"><span id="translatedtitle">OSU Chlorophyll Bloom <span class="hlt">Product</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This <span class="hlt">product</span> was developed for the Oregon coast based on the observed change between running 8-day composite chlorophyll-a (CHL) data obtained by the MODerate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/580109','WWS-KAUST'); return false;" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/580109"><span id="translatedtitle">From Environment to <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa">KAUST Repository</a></p> <p>Kodzius, Rimantas</p> <p>2014-04-29</p> <p>Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass <span class="hlt">production</span> of energy, food, and fine chemicals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/food-labeling/food-product-dating/food-product-dating','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/food-labeling/food-product-dating/food-product-dating"><span id="translatedtitle">Food <span class="hlt">Product</span> Dating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food <span class="hlt">Product</span> Dating "Sell by Feb 14" is a ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2193013807','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2193013807"><span id="translatedtitle">Goat <span class="hlt">production</span> check list</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen; Jensen, Hans Askov; Mandal, Torsen</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0160593','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0160593"><span id="translatedtitle">Proprietary policy and <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Jeong, Byeongju</p> <p></p> <p>-, ?. 287 (2006), s. 1-14. ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : proprietary regime * direct <span class="hlt">production</span> * model Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp287.pdf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0163385','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0163385"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring multifactor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana</p> <p></p> <p>-, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011025','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011025"><span id="translatedtitle">Land <span class="hlt">Product</span> Validation (LPV)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This presentation will discuss Land <span class="hlt">Product</span> Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/264291/files/9406269.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/264291/files/9406269.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep inelastic electropion <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Calogeracos, A; West, Geoffrey B; Norman Dombey; Geoffrey B West</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This paper is devoted to a study of possible scaling laws, and their logarithmic corrections, occurring in deep inelastic electropion <span class="hlt">production</span>. Both the exclusive and semi-exclusive processes are considered. Scaling laws, originally motivated from PCAC and current algebra considerations are examined, first in the framework of the parton model and QCD peturbation theory and then from the more formal perspective of the operator <span class="hlt">product</span> expansion and asymptotic freedom, (as expressed through the renormalization group). We emphasize that these processes allow scaling to be probed for the full amplitude rather than just its absorbtive part (as is the case in the conventional structure functions). Because of this it is not possible to give a formal derivation of scaling for deep inelastic electropion <span class="hlt">production</span> processes even if one believes that they are unambiguously sensitive to the light cone behavior of the operator <span class="hlt">product</span>. The origin of this is shown to be related to its behavior near x\\approx 0. Investiga...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0231764','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0231764"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimum entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> principle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Maes, C.; Neto?ný, Karel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 8, ?. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677. ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_<span class="hlt">production</span>_principle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/236217481','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/236217481"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Products</span> in fusion systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Henke, Ellen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We revisit the notion of a <span class="hlt">product</span> of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2015299','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2015299"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> lifecycle management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Stark, John</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This third edition updates and adds to the successful second edition and gives the reader a thorough description of PLM, providing them with a full understanding of the theory and the practical skills to implement PLM within their own business environment. This new and expanded edition is fully updated to reflect the many technological and management advances made in PLM since the release of the second edition. Describing the environment in which <span class="hlt">products</span> are developed, manufactured and supported, before addressing the Five Pillars of PLM: business processes, <span class="hlt">product</span> data, PLM applications, Organisational Change Management (OCM) and Project Management, this book explains what <span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management is, and why it’s needed. The final part of the book addresses the PLM timeline, showing the typical steps and activities of a PLM project or initiative. “<span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management” will broaden the reader’s understanding of PLM, nurturing the skills needed to implement PLM successfully and to achi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/1955-selawik-productivity-report','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/1955-selawik-productivity-report"><span id="translatedtitle">1955 Selawik <span class="hlt">productivity</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Handwritten report on nesting and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of various waterfowl species dabblers, seabirds, divers, geese. Provides description of early spring breeding...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/restricted-flavored-tobacco-products','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/restricted-flavored-tobacco-products"><span id="translatedtitle">Restricted Flavored Tobacco <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of flavored tobacco <span class="hlt">products</span> that may not be sold within 500 feet of a school in Chicago. See http://www.cityofchicago.org/health/tobacco for the specifics...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/nsp-production-reports','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/nsp-production-reports"><span id="translatedtitle">NSP <span class="hlt">Production</span> Reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP <span class="hlt">Production</span> Reports contain cumulative data on units assisted with NSP funds. An NSP grantee reports on the accomplishment of an activity when it meets an End...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9149E..04S','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9149E..04S"><span id="translatedtitle">JWST science data <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Swade, Daryl; Bushouse, Howard; Greene, Gretchen; Swam, Michael</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Science data <span class="hlt">products</span> for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) ©observations will be generated by the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) within the JWST Science and Operations Center (S&OC) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Data processing pipelines within the DMS will produce uncalibrated and calibrated exposure files, as well as higher level data <span class="hlt">products</span> that result from combined exposures, such as mosaic images. Information to support the science observations, for example data from engineering telemetry, proposer inputs, and observation planning will be captured and incorporated into the science data <span class="hlt">products</span>. All files will be generated in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format. The data <span class="hlt">products</span> will be made available through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and adhere to International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) standard data protocols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43058449','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43058449"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional electricity <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>While France's final energy consumption remained stable between 2000 and 2010, this was not the case for its consumption of electricity, which increased by 13% over 10 years, and by 4.5% over five years. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of electricity is concentrated into a few areas within the national territory, essentially as a result of geographical factors. Due, notably, to the presence of hydro generating, some regions produce a large proportion of the renewable electricity. Viewed at the level of the entire territory, <span class="hlt">production</span> is not linked to local consumption. Some regions have high surpluses whereas others show important deficits, while overall <span class="hlt">production</span> covers, on average, 114% of national needs. However, at the local level, measures by local authorities to control energy consumption and the development of renewables are beginning to show results. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of renewable electricity, not including hydro, has grown greatly over a few years and still has a high potential. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18044087','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18044087"><span id="translatedtitle">Model for Centauro <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We discuss briefly some features of the Centauro-type events reported by cosmic ray experiments and present a phenomenological model for their <span class="hlt">production</span>, based on the hypothesis of a QCD phase transition in coherently produced diffractive fireballs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/E5C5FA9A56B1FFDD4325690B001059EC?OpenDocument&search=1','WWWISTC-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/E5C5FA9A56B1FFDD4325690B001059EC?OpenDocument&search=1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of Diamond Monocrystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/projectsSearchByKeywords?OpenForm&type=All&lang=Eng">International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Production</span> of Monocrystals and High-Strength Polycrystals of Diamond with Specified Properties by Shock and Quasi-Static Compression of Different Carbonaceous Materials Including Amorphous Carbon, Ultra-Dispersive Diamonds, Fullerits, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.lenus.ie/hse/handle/10147/121465','LENUS-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.lenus.ie/hse/handle/10147/121465"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> concentrations for biological use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.lenus.ie/hse/">LENUS (Irish Health Repository)</a></p> <p>Prasad, Babu R</p> <p>2010-03-25</p> <p>Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs) have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped) have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours) co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel) were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation) were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to an increased concentration range of the QDs, while the gelatine coating acts as a barrier towards enhanced toxicity at higher QD concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39007254','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39007254"><span id="translatedtitle">Recombinant human thyrotropin prior to radioiodine therapy improves the size reduction of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> nodular goiter: a prospective randomized double-blinded trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full text: Background: rh TSH increases the thyroid 131I uptake (RAIU) and may have a role in the context of 131I therapy of goiter. No placebo-controlled trial has yet been performed. Methods: In a double-blinded trial, 57 patients with nodular nontoxic goiter (51 F, 6 M) were randomized to receive either 0.3 mg rh TSH (n=28) or placebo (n=29) 24 h before 131I. The thyroid dose was calculated based on thyroid size (measured by ultrasound) and RAUI at 24 h and 96 h. Thyroid size and function and patient satisfaction were monitored for 12 months. Results: At baseline the median goiter volume was 51 ml (range: 20-99 ml) in the placebo group and 59 ml (25-92 ml) in the rh TSH group (p=0.75). Three months after 131I the goiter size was reduced to 38 ml (15-78 ml) and 43 ml (20-75 ml) in the two groups, respectively (p=0.001 within groups, p=0.96 between groups). At 12 months, the corresponding figures were 27 ml (15-82 ml) and 20 ml (6-59 ml); p=0.001 within groups compared with baseline, p=0.12 between groups. The relative goiter reduction at this time was 46 ± 22% in the placebo group, and 61 ± 15% in the rh TSH group (p=0.004). In addition to the influence of rh TSH, the magnitude of the goiter reduction correlated inversely with the initial goiter volume (p=0.019), whereas no significant correlation was found with the RAIU during therapy or with the absorbed thyroid dose. Discomfort during 131I was reported by 10 patients in the placebo group and by 15 patients in the rh TSH group (p=0.12). Permanent hypothyroidism developed in 12% in the placebo group and in 52% in the rh TSH group (p=0.005). Patient satisfaction was generally very high without any major within group difference. Conclusion: In the first placebo-controlled double-blinded trial, we found that rh TSH prior to 131I -therapy significantly improves thyroid size reduction by 33%, with a four-fold higher rate of hypothyroidism. These effects are, at least partially, mediated through other mechanisms than an increase in the RAIU. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26038325','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26038325"><span id="translatedtitle">Extraction and characterization of lignin from oil palm biomass via ionic liquid dissolution and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate precipitation processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Mohtar, S S; Tengku Malim Busu, T N Z; Md Noor, A M; Shaari, N; Yusoff, N A; Bustam Khalil, M A; Abdul Mutalib, M I; Mat, H B</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to extract and characterize lignin from oil palm biomass (OPB) by dissolution in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]), followed by the lignin extraction through the CO2 gas purging prior to addition of aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O). The lignin yield, Y(L) (%wt.) was found to be dependent of the types of OPB observed for all precipitation methods used. The lignin recovery, RL (%wt.) obtained from CO2-AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O precipitation was, however dependent on the types of OPB, which contradicted to that of the acidified H2SO4 and HCl solutions of pH 0.7 and 2 precipitations. Only about 54% of lignin was recovered from the OPB. The FTIR results indicate that the monodispersed lignin was successfully extracted from the OPT, OPF and OPEFB having a molecular weight (MW) of 1331, 1263 and 1473 g/mol, and degradation temperature of 215, 207.5 and 272 °C, respectively. PMID:26038325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jnanobiotechnology.com/content/8/1/7','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.jnanobiotechnology.com/content/8/1/7"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> concentrations for biological use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Gérard Valérie A</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA capped have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to an increased concentration range of the QDs, while the gelatine coating acts as a barrier towards enhanced toxicity at higher QD concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______165::d43080a14c1a1c171351f182ffd033f6','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______165::d43080a14c1a1c171351f182ffd033f6"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of concrete <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Lê, Ngoc Dong</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Concrete producers must guarantee the quality of their <span class="hlt">products</span>, which induces a suitable control of the composition of the concrete produced. However, changes in the aggregate water content make the precise dosage of the various constituents difficult. The aim of this work is then to propose methods for the improvement of water dosage consistency, and for the on-line monitoring of workability, in the context of industrial concrete <span class="hlt">production</span>. An original procedure is first proposed to calibr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/101971645/Decoding_the_Productivity_Code_2_.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/101971645/Decoding_the_Productivity_Code_2_.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Decoding the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Hansen, David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This thesis introduces a new perspective on how organizations can achieve sustainable organizational performance in a changing world. By integrating Lean, the strength-based perspective, and organizational development, the false dichotomy and struggle between rationalization and employee well being, that is, the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> code of the 21st century, is dissolved. Today, organizations are pressured for operational efficiency, often in terms of <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, due to increased global competition, d...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e87d32aa3f9474e12938112d19556910','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e87d32aa3f9474e12938112d19556910"><span id="translatedtitle">CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Catalin Mihail BARBU</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this paper I discussed the factors that influence the cultural adaptation ofproducts. Globalization determines the companies to operate abroad;therefore the firms sell their <span class="hlt">products</span> to markets where the consumerpatterns might differ from their national market. It is of high importance to beable to understand and to adapt to local consumer habits. The culture has astrong influence on <span class="hlt">products</span> adaptation in particular, and on internationalmarketing in general. Companies must be able to adap...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______258::be42d2afd1e7cbcac3fa37152c5f152a','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______258::be42d2afd1e7cbcac3fa37152c5f152a"><span id="translatedtitle">Kaikaku in <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Yamamoto,Yuji</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In today’s fast-changing and dynamic business environment, the pressures on manufacturing companies to compete on the global arena have been intensified. <span class="hlt">Production</span> is challenged to handle and benefit from ever increasing competitions in terms of cost, delivery capability, and flexibility. In order to gain and sustain the competitive advantage under such circumstances, strong and constant development of <span class="hlt">production</span> must be ensured not only with continuous improvements but also with radical imp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::d42b7fc7d816985bfce16832feb9fb86','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::d42b7fc7d816985bfce16832feb9fb86"><span id="translatedtitle">Antibiotic Bead <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Amy; Demarest, Gerald; Rosen, Philip; DeCoster, Thomas A</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We are reporting a practical technique for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of antibiotic beads for use in combating musculoskeletal infections. The technique utilizes bead molds with tobramycin powder mixed with polymethylmethacr ylate on twisted wire strands to produce strands of 25 beads of various sizes. These beads are gas sterilized and available for use "off the shelf" in a manner that is much more efficient than traditional <span class="hlt">production</span> by hand on the back table in the operating room. Our technique was a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2020114','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2020114"><span id="translatedtitle">Clean hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Kumar, Sushant</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This brief covers novel techniques for clean hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> which primarily involve sodium hydroxide as an essential ingredient to the existing major hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> technologies. Interestingly, sodium hydroxide plays different roles and can act as a catalyst, reactant, promoter or even a precursor. The inclusion of sodium hydroxide makes these processes both kinetically and thermodynamically favorable.  In addition possibilities to produce cleaner hydrogen, in terms of carbon emissions, are described. Through modifications of steam methane reformation methods and coal-gasification p</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::f9ae7aa827649cefc26bf488ecf0f228','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::f9ae7aa827649cefc26bf488ecf0f228"><span id="translatedtitle">Open Beauty <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Sefkow, Felix</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We review measurements of open beauty <span class="hlt">production</span> at HERA, with emphasis on recent results based on lifetime signatures. The beauty cross sections in photoproduction and deep-inelastic scattering are found to be higher than expected in QCD at next-to-leading order. The discussion includes new results on beauty <span class="hlt">production</span> in e+e-, gamma-gamma and p-bar-p interactions. An outlook on the potential for measurements with the upgraded HERA collider and experiments is also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185907101','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185907101"><span id="translatedtitle">Leadership for <span class="hlt">product</span> development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Martensen, Anne; Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses how the research within <span class="hlt">product</span> development can be integrated with the research within quality management and business excellence, to achive what creates excellent quality in the innovation process. Elements and viewpoints can be linked together in a systematic and holistic way by applying the European Business Excellence Model to <span class="hlt">product</span> development. The innovation process differs in several fields from other processes in the company. For instance, research and development ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::1bd9b5c8423ae637c73edc944e187bdd','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::1bd9b5c8423ae637c73edc944e187bdd"><span id="translatedtitle">Powder detergents <span class="hlt">production</span> plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent <span class="hlt">production</span> plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a <span class="hlt">production</span> plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/193701984','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/193701984"><span id="translatedtitle">Globalization and <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on <span class="hlt">productivity</span> have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts to summarize the several and detailed mechanisms of self-selection and learning at the same time. This paper examines seven pathways so that the clear-cut consequences of the broad picture of globalization bec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1201::ce9fc759b0bb57adab482cbc7c288f03','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1201::ce9fc759b0bb57adab482cbc7c288f03"><span id="translatedtitle">Skills, Competitiveness and <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Khan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study reviews selected indicators on skills and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> for the period 2000-2008 using labour force survey data. The review of the labour market demonstrates the need of enhancement of skills as well as improved access to skills and education which are necessary to enter a virtuous circle of higher <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, employment, incomes growth, and development. Without a workforce that is continuously acquiring new and improved skills, it will be difficult for Pakistan to be competitive ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1128522/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1128522/"><span id="translatedtitle">Pretreated densified biomass <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek</p> <p>2014-03-18</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">product</span> comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the <span class="hlt">product</span> are also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185938381','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185938381"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing Joint <span class="hlt">Production</span> Motivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint <span class="hlt">production</span> motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint <span class="hlt">production</span> can be m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::6e8ac16c6d2b414b357e2adc71442d27','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::6e8ac16c6d2b414b357e2adc71442d27"><span id="translatedtitle">“Buffalo <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Research”</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Alessandro Nardone</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the book “Buffalo <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Research”,edited by Antonio Borghese by FAO Regional Office for Europe,REU Technical Series 67,the state of art of the research,development, <span class="hlt">products</span> and market of buffalo species in the world,is presented.The 14 chapters analyse sin- gle themes of principal problems concerning the breeding,the selection,the reproduction,the feeding,the milk and meat quality,the buffalo’s pathologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282421069','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282421069"><span id="translatedtitle">Nordic Noir <span class="hlt">Production</span> Values</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of <span class="hlt">production</span> values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of <span class="hlt">production</span> values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target groups, sales, funding and marketing/branding are as important as aesthetic principles. The Killing and The Bridge are used to illustrate how features such as setting, climate, light and language serve...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185759478','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185759478"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> and Process Modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This book covers the area of <span class="hlt">product</span> and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models. These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern <span class="hlt">product</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108109367','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108109367"><span id="translatedtitle">Defining <span class="hlt">product</span> service systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>There are a number of theories that describe the necessary improvements in global environmental performance in order to maintain status quo in our ecosystem [1, 2]. These theories are far reaching in their ambitions, and it is not immediately apparent as to how we should be able to achieve, for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the <span class="hlt">product</span> as an artefact with the service that the <span class="hlt">product</span> provides to the u...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______260::674e147909e85bde786767327a7f546d','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______260::674e147909e85bde786767327a7f546d"><span id="translatedtitle">Turbomachinery in Biofuel <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Görling, Martin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the <span class="hlt">production</span> processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel <span class="hlt">production</span> process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::351e5a4b0c0de0c451bb80f1c04bd115','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::351e5a4b0c0de0c451bb80f1c04bd115"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonparametric <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Jeong, Seok-Oh</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>How can we measure and compare the relative performance of <span class="hlt">production</span> units? If input and output variables are one dimensional, then the simplest way is to compute efficiency by calculating and comparing the ratio of output and input for each <span class="hlt">production</span> unit. This idea is inappropriate though, when multiple inputs or multiple outputs are observed. Consider a bank, for example, with three branches A, B, and C. The branches take the number of staff as the input, and measures outputs such as the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/pram/060/04/0841-0850','GOOGLE-IAS-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/pram/060/04/0841-0850"><span id="translatedtitle">$J/\\psi$ <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/">Indian Academy of Sciences (India)</a></p> <p>François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>For more than 25 years $J/\\Psi$ <span class="hlt">production</span> has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of $J/\\Psi$ <span class="hlt">production</span> will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and $J/\\Psi$ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::918c7f1a93c3ae3977369c8292a7f578','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::918c7f1a93c3ae3977369c8292a7f578"><span id="translatedtitle">Mycotoxins in poultry <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Resanovi? Radmila M.; Neši? Ksenija D.; Nesi? Vladimir D.; Pali? Todor D.; Ja?evi? Vesna M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and <span class="hlt">production</span> categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in <span class="hlt">production</span> performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185776235','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185776235"><span id="translatedtitle">Innovation in <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The course on Innovation in <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and <span class="hlt">product</span> development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format The core of the course is based upon case-studies, videos, lectures from industrial guests and related textbooks. A range of topics are focused upon in the various sections of the course and through a com...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37065167','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37065167"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas reserves, discoveries, <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The new 2000-2004 natural gas discoveries have permitted the replacement of existing reserves up to 71%. They are particularly concentrated in the Asia-Oceania area. The Middle-East and the offshore represent an increasing share in the world gas <span class="hlt">production</span>. Non-conventional gas resources are important too but they remain poorly exploited, except in the US where they represent 30% of the domestic gas <span class="hlt">production</span>. (J.S.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Defining+product+service+systems','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Defining+product+service+systems"><span id="translatedtitle">Defining <span class="hlt">product</span> service systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>There are a number of theories that describe the necessary improvements in global environmental performance in order to maintain status quo in our ecosystem [1, 2]. These theories are far reaching in their ambitions, and it is not immediately apparent as to how we should be able to achieve, for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the <span class="hlt">product</span> as an artefact with the service that the <span class="hlt">product</span> provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the <span class="hlt">product</span>. This enables a series of potential improvements to the <span class="hlt">product´s</span> performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of <span class="hlt">product</span> service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer, company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented <span class="hlt">product</span> development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us the design degrees of freedom necessary to create radical innovation. The article draws upon existing <span class="hlt">product</span> development and PSS theory and models and experiences from projects carried out with both industrialists and students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185953898','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185953898"><span id="translatedtitle">Soy <span class="hlt">production</span> and certification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Tomei, Julia; Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Joensen, Lilian; Monti, Mario; Jelsøe, Erling</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock <span class="hlt">production</span>, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification scheme that aims to promote responsible soy <span class="hlt">production</span> through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jmbfs.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/JMBFS_0006_Ka?ániová-and-Juhaniaková-2011.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.jmbfs.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/JMBFS_0006_Ka?ániová-and-Juhaniaková-2011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>?ubomíra Juhaniaková</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery <span class="hlt">products</span>. In confectionery <span class="hlt">products</span> microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery <span class="hlt">products</span> were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectionery <span class="hlt">products</span> were used. Numbers of coliforms bacteria in confectionery <span class="hlt">products</span> ranged from <1x101 to 4x102 cfu.g-1, the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1, the number of yeasts from <1x101 to 5.5x102 cfu.g-1, cells of Salmonella sp. were not detected and the number of staphylococci was from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1. All investigated samples of confectionary <span class="hlt">products</span> were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24027652','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24027652"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal <span class="hlt">production</span>, 1991</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Coal <span class="hlt">production</span> in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal <span class="hlt">production</span> that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal <span class="hlt">production</span> in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine <span class="hlt">production</span> occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of <span class="hlt">production</span> was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground <span class="hlt">production</span> was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11526828','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11526828"><span id="translatedtitle">Particle <span class="hlt">production</span> by neutrinos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A review is given of particle <span class="hlt">production</span> by neutrinos in charged-current inclusive and exclusive channels. The <span class="hlt">production</span> rates for various particles in neutrino-nucleon interactions at a beam energy of 25 GeV are compared. The mesons are, of course, dominated by pion <span class="hlt">production</span>. The p0(760) rate is an order of magnitude smaller. Strange and charm pseudoscalar mesons are a further factor of two down in rate. The strange vector mesons are suppressed by more than an order of magnitude relative to K0 <span class="hlt">production</span>; however, the charmed D*+(2010) is only a factor of two smaller in rate than the D0(1860). With regards to the baryons, most of them are, of course, nucleons. The ?0 and Y*(1385) rates are down by one and two orders of magnitudes, respectively. The lower limit on the charmed ?/sub c/++ baryon rate is similar to the Y*(1385) rate. Finally, the quasielastic and one-pion <span class="hlt">production</span> exclusive channels have about the same cross section as that of the D*+; associated <span class="hlt">production</span> of strange particles in the ?n ? ?-K+? channel and the ?S = +?? process ?p ? ?-pK+ are down by factors of five and twenty, respectively, compared to the quasielastic cross section</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2023320','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2023320"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in <span class="hlt">product</span> family and <span class="hlt">product</span> platform design methods & applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Jiao, Jianxin; Siddique, Zahed; Hölttä-Otto, Katja</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Advances in <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform Design: Methods & Applications highlights recent advances that have been made to support <span class="hlt">product</span> family and <span class="hlt">product</span> platform design and successful applications in industry. This book provides not only motivation for <span class="hlt">product</span> family and <span class="hlt">product</span> platform design—the “why” and “when” of platforming—but also methods and tools to support the design and development of families of <span class="hlt">products</span> based on shared platforms—the “what”, “how”, and “where” of platforming. It begins with an overview of recent <span class="hlt">product</span> family design research to introduce readers to the breadth of the topic and progresses to more detailed topics and design theory to help designers, engineers, and project managers plan, architect, and implement platform-based <span class="hlt">product</span> development strategies in their companies. This book also: Presents state-of-the-art methods and tools for <span class="hlt">product</span> family and <span class="hlt">product</span> platform design Adopts an integrated, systems view on <span class="hlt">product</span> family and pro...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/10510442/Norddesign_2012_hplb.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/10510442/Norddesign_2012_hplb.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling and using <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures in mechatronic <span class="hlt">product</span> development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The objective for the paper is to determine the role of a <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture modelling tool to support communication and to form the basis for developing and maintaining <span class="hlt">product</span> structures for improving development practices of complex <span class="hlt">products</span>. This paper contains descriptions, observations, and lessons learned from a case study in which the author tested a modelling tool to represent a <span class="hlt">product’s</span> architecture during <span class="hlt">product</span> development in a larger Danish company. The reasons leading to the us...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108097593','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108097593"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> State Modelling based on a Meta <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Larsen, Michael Holm; Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">products</span> often deviate from their original design and specifications when being produced, adjustments of the <span class="hlt">product</span> or process are required in order to meet specifications. A prerequisite for this adjustment, is appropriate and effectively collected shop floor data. The <span class="hlt">Product</span> State Model (PSM) is a <span class="hlt">product</span> model that contains continuously updated data regarding the outcome of the <span class="hlt">production</span> processes. The main contribution of this paper is a definition and a description of a <span class="hlt">Production</span> Met...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=2781&keyword=brand+AND+name&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=40315266&CFTOKEN=79062011','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=2781&keyword=brand+AND+name&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=40315266&CFTOKEN=79062011"><span id="translatedtitle">PESTICIDE <span class="hlt">PRODUCT</span> INFORMATION SYSTEM (PPIS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Information System (PPIS) contains information concerning all pesticide <span class="hlt">products</span> registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, <span class="hlt">product</span> names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pestic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.logforum.net/vol7/issue1/no3/7_1_3_11.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.logforum.net/vol7/issue1/no3/7_1_3_11.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling of virtual <span class="hlt">production</span> networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Nowadays many companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, specialize in a limited field of <span class="hlt">production</span>. It requires forming virtual <span class="hlt">production</span> networks of cooperating enterprises to manufacture better, faster and cheaper. Apart from that, some <span class="hlt">production</span> orders cannot be realized, because there is not a company of sufficient <span class="hlt">production</span> potential. In this case the virtual <span class="hlt">production</span> networks of cooperating companies can realize these <span class="hlt">production</span> orders. These networks have larger <span class="hlt">production</span> capacity and many different resources. Therefore it can realize many more <span class="hlt">production</span> orders together than each of them separately. Such organization allows for executing high quality <span class="hlt">product</span>. The maintenance costs of <span class="hlt">production</span> capacity and used resources are not so high. In this paper a methodology of rapid prototyping of virtual <span class="hlt">production</span> networks is proposed. It allows to execute <span class="hlt">production</span> orders on time considered existing logistic constraints. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::19b4064eba8ba7780ed1310e00e40fb3','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::19b4064eba8ba7780ed1310e00e40fb3"><span id="translatedtitle">On doubly warped <span class="hlt">product</span> immersions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Faghfouri, Morteza; Majidi, Ayyoub</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we study fundamental geometric properties of doubly warped <span class="hlt">product</span> immersion which is an extension of warped <span class="hlt">product</span> immersion. Moreover, we study geometric inequality for doubly warped <span class="hlt">products</span> isometrically immersed in arbitrary Riemannian manifolds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::332728fe6231bf64df34d85de6a62ffb','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::332728fe6231bf64df34d85de6a62ffb"><span id="translatedtitle">An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop <span class="hlt">Production</span>/ Special Job <span class="hlt">Production</span>/ Discrete <span class="hlt">Production</span>/ Batch Shop <span class="hlt">Production</span> Industries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Lavlesh Kumar Sharma; Ravindra Mohan Saxena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop <span class="hlt">production</span>/ Special job <span class="hlt">production</span>/ Discrete <span class="hlt">production</span>/ Batch shop <span class="hlt">production</span> industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop <span class="hlt">production</span> than in the continuous/ mass <span class="hlt">production</span> because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108117536','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108117536"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span>/Service-System Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Gall, Catherine</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>‘<span class="hlt">Product</span>/service-systems’ (PSS) are innovation strategies where instead of focusing on the value of selling physical <span class="hlt">products</span>, one focuses on the value of the utility of <span class="hlt">products</span> and services throughout the <span class="hlt">product’s</span> life period. This approach enables companies to provide customers with offerings that continuously deliver value and create a strong competitive advantage. PSS attempts to transcend the old industrial credo that value is embedded in <span class="hlt">products</span> and the consideration of ‘cost-quality-ti...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29002564','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29002564"><span id="translatedtitle">Uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> in Sweden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The history of uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> in Sweden is reviewed in the article. The World War II led to an exploitation of the Swedish alum shale on a large scale. In the last phase of the war it also became obvious that the shale might be used for energy <span class="hlt">production</span> of quite another kind than oil. In 1947 AB Atom energy was founded, an enterprise with one of its purposes to extract uranium for peaceful use. A plant with a yearly capacity of 120 tons of uranium was erected at Ranstad and ready for <span class="hlt">production</span> by 1965. From the start in Ranstad and for many years to come there was hardly any interest in an immediate large uranium <span class="hlt">production</span>. It was decided to use the plant for studies on its more effective exploitation in case of an expansion in the future, bearing in mind the reactor programme. In the course of time economical reasons began to speak against the project. The shale seemed to have a future neither as oil nor as uranium resource. The complete termination of the work on uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> from shale occurred in 1989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33066830','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33066830"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this work, various kinds of catalysts including a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> by gamma rays.The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A combination of EPR and spin-trapping method was also used to detect unstable radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to investigate the effect of catalysts and additives on the efficiency of H2 <span class="hlt">production</span>. A nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) catalyst that showed an excellent activity in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of H2 from water by gamma rays were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes that are main wastes of chemical cleaning wastewater. As a result, among the catalysts examined in this work, a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) showed the most efficient H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> and the efficiency increased upon reapplication. This catalyst was also successfully used to produce H2 with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/ibm/article/view/5291','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/ibm/article/view/5291"><span id="translatedtitle">Safety <span class="hlt">Production</span> Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Dapeng BAI</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available As with the booming development of the economy, the <span class="hlt">production</span> scales expand continuously, and the <span class="hlt">production</span> processes adopt a lot of new technologies and new materials. We are glad to see that a lot of new technologies are adopted and applied in the <span class="hlt">production</span>. Because the management can’t keep up with the expansion of the scale of the new technology, they do not have adequate understanding of the security features of new materials and new technologies, and they unilaterally pursue economic benefits, thus the <span class="hlt">production</span> accidents always occur. The fire, the explosion, the plane crash, the chemical and nuclear leakage accidents and so on seriously threat the safety and the health of human beings. The accidents not only cause economic losses, but also leave shadow and trauma to the mind of human a long time. The safety accidents leave a heavy baggage and unstable factors to the personal, the family and the society. There are three measures to control the accidents, namely technology, management and education, while the management is crucial and it is also the most important measure. Key words: Safety; Management; <span class="hlt">Production</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/952283-9MCWnU/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/952283-9MCWnU/"><span id="translatedtitle">Beauty <span class="hlt">production</span> at CDF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Shears, Tara; /Liverpool U.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>A review of recent measurements of beauty <span class="hlt">production</span>, based on proton antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV and using the CDF detector, is given. Previous measurements of beauty (b) quark <span class="hlt">production</span> at the Tevatron, carried out at centre-of-mass energies {radical}s = 1.8 TeV, have shown discrepancies when compared to Next to Leading Order (NLO) predictions [1]. Improved predictions and experimental procedures have reduced this discrepancy [2]. Improved parton density functions, better fragmentation functions and more complete theoretical calculations have improved theoretical accuracy. Experimentally, measurements of beauty <span class="hlt">production</span> at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are now presented in terms of b hadrons or B mesons, to avoid problems unfolding back to the quark level. In this review [3] measurements of inclusive beauty (where one beauty jet or hadron is reconstructed in the event), and beauty + X (where X can be a boson or another beauty jet or hadron), <span class="hlt">production</span> will be presented: inclusive beauty jet cross-section; semi and fully reconstructed B meson cross-section; beauty dijet cross-section; semi-reconstructed B B meson cross-section; Z boson + beauty jet cross-section. More information concerning other measurements of heavy quark <span class="hlt">production</span> can be found elsewhere [4].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1994411','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1994411"><span id="translatedtitle">Gestion de <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Courtois, Alain; Pillet, Maurice</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>n ouvrage de référence pour tous les gestionnaires de <span class="hlt">production</span> industrielle. Un cas concret d'entreprise fictive, fil rouge de l'ouvrage, pour expliquer et illustrer les différents outils et méthodes utilisés. Toutes les méthodes et tous les outils de gestion de <span class="hlt">production</span>, des plus traditionnels aux novateurs, explicités, comparés et illustrés. L'ouvrage, entièrement mis à jour, reflète toutes les évolutions liées à la gestion de <span class="hlt">production</span>. II se divise désormais en deux grandes partes ; la première regroupe les méthodes de base de la gestion de la <span class="hlt">production</span> ainsi que l'informatisation de celles-ci (chapitres 2 à 10) ; la seconde concerne les méthodes d'amélioration de la <span class="hlt">production</span> (chapitres 11 à 15), en mettant un accent fort sur la philosophie du Lean Manufacturing : L'entreprise en mouvement avec le Lean ; Les principaux outils du Lean ; Le pilotage d'atelier en flux tirés par la méthode Kanban ; L'implantation d'ateliers ; Les indicateurs de performance. Pour faciliter la le...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/394374-0wYSVt/webviewable/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/394374-0wYSVt/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Smoke <span class="hlt">production</span> in fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke <span class="hlt">production</span> and experimental methods for measuring smoke <span class="hlt">production</span> are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke <span class="hlt">production</span> from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building <span class="hlt">products</span>. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the <span class="hlt">production</span> of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930007713','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930007713"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of manufactured <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A wide range of <span class="hlt">products</span> can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the <span class="hlt">products</span> that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest <span class="hlt">products</span> on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the <span class="hlt">products</span> so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following <span class="hlt">products</span> are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJART...1d.114K','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJART...1d.114K"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">Product</span> Launching Ideas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Kiruthika, E.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Launching a new <span class="hlt">product</span> can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the <span class="hlt">product</span> will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful <span class="hlt">product</span> launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the <span class="hlt">product</span>, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the <span class="hlt">product</span> in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46015330','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46015330"><span id="translatedtitle">Report of the 2nd RCM on development of radiation-processed <span class="hlt">products</span> of natural polymers for application in agriculture, healthcare, industry and environment. Working Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and biodegradable natural polymers and natural polymer waste. The results of research work showed that depending on the irradiation conditions, natural polysaccharides (alginate, chitin/chitosan, carrageeneans, carboxylmethylcellulose, etc.) could be either degraded or crosslinked by radiation. This paved the way for development of many successful applications; some of them commercialized, for use in agriculture, health care and environmental protection. The inputs for the formulation of this CRP and the key issues that need to be addressed were provided by the Consultant’s Meeting on “Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Development of Finished <span class="hlt">Products</span> for Health Care, Agriculture and Environment” held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 26 – 30 March 2007. The main objective was defined as wide-spread promotion and general application of radiation processed natural materials, by coupling radiation technology and end-users to derive additional benefits from these value-added natural materials. The first RCM of the CRP was convened in Vienna on 21-25 April 2008. The participants presented and discussed the status of the field, the needs for further research, and various application possibilities. The work plan formulated during the meeting focused on harmonization of procedures for characterization of irradiated polymers, and protocols for investigation of the functional properties of degraded natural polymer <span class="hlt">products</span> and their field testing. A network for collaboration was also proposed. The Meeting Report was published and is available for all Member States. The second RCM of this CRP was held in Reims, France, on 12–16 October 2009. The meeting was attended by 14 participants who reported their individual research results obtained since the first RCM, as well as their further plans. This meeting report contains all these reports, as well as the reports by participants from Algeria, Japan and Thailand, who could not attend the meeting, but sent their contributions. The leaders of the harmonization exercise of the characterization procedures (Poland and UK) presented a detailed evaluation of the results and lessons learned, as well as the further plans. The report of Poland contains the summary of these findings. The detailed protocol for the determination of viscosity for chitosan solution, which was used by all participants, is given in the Annex</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/cddis-vlbi-products-eop','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/cddis-vlbi-products-eop"><span id="translatedtitle">CDDIS_VLBI_<span class="hlt">products</span>_eop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs) <span class="hlt">product</span> derived from analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data. These <span class="hlt">products</span> are the generated by analysis...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/pesticide-product-information-system-ppis','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/pesticide-product-information-system-ppis"><span id="translatedtitle">Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Information System (PPIS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Information System contains information concerning all pesticide <span class="hlt">products</span> registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Production+of+Metabolites','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Production+of+Metabolites"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of Metabolites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Katz, Michael unknown</p> <p></p> <p>A recombinant micro-organism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces and excretes into culture medium a stilbenoid metabolite <span class="hlt">product</span> when grown under stilbenoid <span class="hlt">production</span> conditions, which expresses in above native levels a ABC transporter which transports said stilbenoid out of said micro-organism cells to the culture medium. The genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces an auxotrophic phenotype which is compensated by a plasmid which also expresses one or more of said enzymes constituting said metabolic pathway producing said stilbenoid, an expression <span class="hlt">product</span> of the plasmid is genetically modified to include a ubiquitination tag sequence. Expression of an enzyme participating in catabolism of phenylalanine by the Ehrlich pathway is optionally reduced compared to its native expression level.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mnmk.ro/documents/2011/9_Barbu%20FFF.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.mnmk.ro/documents/2011/9_Barbu%20FFF.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Catalin Mihail BARBU</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In this paper I discussed the factors that influence the cultural adaptation ofproducts. Globalization determines the companies to operate abroad;therefore the firms sell their <span class="hlt">products</span> to markets where the consumerpatterns might differ from their national market. It is of high importance to beable to understand and to adapt to local consumer habits. The culture has astrong influence on <span class="hlt">products</span> adaptation in particular, and on internationalmarketing in general. Companies must be able to adapt their <span class="hlt">products</span>, but, inthe same time, to keep the note of originality, so that the global image ofbrand to gain consistency. Global brands provide a larger advantageregarding the marketing activities and costs. Savy companies are capable torecognize and to use cultural differences in their use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=31689','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=31689"><span id="translatedtitle">Additives in yoghurt <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Milna Tudor</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In yoghurt <span class="hlt">production</span>, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt <span class="hlt">production</span> are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6055027','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6055027"><span id="translatedtitle">Animal <span class="hlt">production</span> and health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Czerkawski, J.W.; Dargie, J.D.; Edqvist, L.E.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>The activities of the Animal Producton and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division are aimed at improving animal <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in developing Member States. In brief, the Section promotes applied research into ways of improving the nutrition, reproductive capacity and disease status of indigenous and imported breeds of livestock. In many instances the first stage in this process involves the collection of baseline data on different types of animals kept in both the same and differing environments, in order to identify constraints on <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Having identified these constraint(s), research can then be undertaken with a view to reducing their impact by introducing changes in the animal management system at minimal or no cost. As will be explained in the discussion which follows, the use of nuclear techniques helps animal scientists not only to identify constraints on livestock <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, but to minimize their impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/16/3/2146/','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/16/3/2146/"><span id="translatedtitle">Antiplasmodial Natural <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Cláudio R. Nogueira</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Malaria is a human infectious disease that is caused by four species of Plasmodium. It is responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year. Natural <span class="hlt">products</span> contain a great variety of chemical structures and have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. This review highlights studies on natural <span class="hlt">products</span> with antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity reported in the literature from January 2009 to November 2010. A total of 360 antiplasmodial natural <span class="hlt">products</span> comprised of terpenes, including iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, terpenoid benzoquinones, steroids, quassinoids, limonoids, curcubitacins, and lanostanes; flavonoids; alkaloids; peptides; phenylalkanoids; xanthones; naphthopyrones; polyketides, including halenaquinones, peroxides, polyacetylenes, and resorcylic acids; depsidones; benzophenones; macrolides; and miscellaneous compounds, including halogenated compounds and chromenes are listed in this review.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20188018-yVGPgC/webviewable/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20188018-yVGPgC/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of cyclotron radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Chun, Kwon Soo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki; Kim, Jang Hye; Kim, Gi Sup [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>In the project, 12,077mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 5,717mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 2,096mCi of {sup 123}l, 482mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 2,738mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 387,253,000won. In the <span class="hlt">production</span> of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F <span class="hlt">production</span>. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span> were improved. 7 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/124','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.potravinarstvo.com/journal1/index.php/potravinarstvo/article/view/124"><span id="translatedtitle">STALING OF BAKERY <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Jolana Karovi?ová</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The aim of this work was to write down a review article about various aspects connected with staling of bakery <span class="hlt">products</span>. Shelf life is directly associated with the staling process, which depends on the composition of bakery <span class="hlt">products</span> and important are storage conditions as well. In the article are described particular components (starch, nonstarch polysacharides, water and how they affect the staling process. Generally during staling of bakery <span class="hlt">products</span> occur  processes related with starch retrogradation, moisture redistribution from the crumb to the crust and other interactions between components. Staling process could be delayed by using various bakery improvers like enzymes, hydrocolloids, emulgators and other compounds. Also useful is the application of suitable packaging techniques.doi:10.5219/124</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::9cc38fc9602c613dbb8e2e40f7729747','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::9cc38fc9602c613dbb8e2e40f7729747"><span id="translatedtitle">Cooperative <span class="hlt">Product</span> Games</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Rosales, David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>I introduce cooperative <span class="hlt">product</span> games (CPGs), a cooperative game where every player has a weight, and the value of a coalition is the <span class="hlt">product</span> of the weights of the players in the coalition. I only look at games where the weights are at least $2$. I show that no player in such a game can be a dummy. I show that the game is convex, and therefore always has a non-empty core. I provide a simple method for finding a payoff vector in the core.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/sadh/027/02/0181-0208','GOOGLE-IAS-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/sadh/027/02/0181-0208"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> interval automata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/">Indian Academy of Sciences (India)</a></p> <p>Deepak D’Souza; P S Thiagarajan</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>We identify a subclass of timed automata called <span class="hlt">product</span> interval automata and develop its theory. These automata consist of a network of timed agents with the key restriction being that there is just one clock for each agent and the way the clocks are read and reset is determined by the distribution of shared actions across the agents. We show that the resulting automata admit a clean theory in both logical and language theoretic terms. We also show that <span class="hlt">product</span> interval automata are expressive enough to model the timed behaviour of asynchronous digital circuits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10275478','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10275478"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing <span class="hlt">production</span> conversions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Green, D L</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p>The ability to "move business" from one vendor to another has been one of the historical strengths of the centralized hospital materials management function. It continues to be one of the most effective economic motivators in the discounting of hospital supplies. Conversion to standardized <span class="hlt">products</span> is a proven way of moving business, but is it only effective where it is accompanied by good planning and the disciplined willingness to see the process through. This applies whether hospitals are using independent supply contracts, group purchasing contracts, prime vendor agreements, or stockless purchasing affiliations. It also applies to hospitals with active value analysis/<span class="hlt">product</span> standardization committees and those without them. PMID:10275478</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/543217/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/543217/"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect <span class="hlt">production</span> in ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>A review is given of several important defect <span class="hlt">production</span> and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect <span class="hlt">production</span> efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/121403-XsZ6pk/webviewable/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/121403-XsZ6pk/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>Biological hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/pram/066/04/0753-0764','GOOGLE-IAS-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/pram/066/04/0753-0764"><span id="translatedtitle">Hadron <span class="hlt">production</span> near threshold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/">Indian Academy of Sciences (India)</a></p> <p>B K Jain; N G Kelkar; K P Khmemchandani</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Final state interaction effects in $pp \\rightarrow p\\Lambda K^{+}$ and $pd \\rightarrow ^{3}He \\eta$ reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the $p\\Lambda$ potential and the $\\eta N$ scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between and and and 3He are described rigorously. The <span class="hlt">production</span> is described by the exchange of one pion and a -meson between two protons in the incident channel. The <span class="hlt">production</span> is described by a two-step model, where in the first step a pion is produced. This pion then produces an by interacting with another nucleon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11548997','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11548997"><span id="translatedtitle">Biotechnological <span class="hlt">production</span> of vanillin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the <span class="hlt">production</span> are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin <span class="hlt">production</span> are discussed. PMID:11548997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0809.3541.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0809.3541.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Labour <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Superstatistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Aoyama, Hideaki; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshi</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We discuss superstatistics theory of labour <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> distribution across workers, firms and industrial sectors are studied empirically and found to obey power-distributions, in sharp contrast to the equilibrium theories of mainstream economics. The Pareto index is found to decrease with the level of aggregation, {\\it i.e.}, from workers to firms and to industrial sectors. In order to explain these phenomenological laws, we propose a superstatistics framework, where the role of the fluctuating temperature is played by the fluctuating demand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20159912001','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20159912001"><span id="translatedtitle">Charm <span class="hlt">production</span> in SIBYLL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Riehn F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available SIBYLL 2.1 is an event generator for hadron interactions at the highest energies. It is commonly used to analyze and interpret extensive air shower measurements. In light of the first detection of PeV neutrinos by the IceCube collaboration the inclusive fluxes of muons and neutrinos in the atmosphere have become very important. Predicting these fluxes requires understanding of the hadronic <span class="hlt">production</span> of charmed particles since these contribute significantly to the fluxes at high energy through their prompt decay. We will present an updated version of SIBYLL that has been tuned to describe LHC data and extended to include the <span class="hlt">production</span> of charmed hadrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39120729','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39120729"><span id="translatedtitle">FDG decomposition <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this presentation authors present the results of analysis of decomposition <span class="hlt">products</span> of [18]fluorodexyglucose. It is concluded that the coupling of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation is a suitable tool for quantitative analysis of FDG radiopharmaceutical, i.e. assay of basic components (FDG, glucose), impurities (Kryptofix) and decomposition <span class="hlt">products</span> (gluconic and glucuronic acids etc.); 2-[18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) is sufficiently stable and resistant towards autoradiolysis; the content of radiochemical impurities (2-[18F]fluoro-gluconic and 2-[18F]fluoro-glucuronic acids in expired FDG did not exceed 1%</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1687::e82800260ffc490011652fe62480818b','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1687::e82800260ffc490011652fe62480818b"><span id="translatedtitle">Happiness and <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Oswald, Andrew J.; Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The paper provides evidence that happiness raises <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. In Experiment 1, a randomized trial is designed. Some subjects have their happiness levels increased, while those in a control group do not. Treated subjects have 12% greater <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in a paid piece-rate Niederle-Vesterlund task. They alter output but not the per-piece quality of their work. To check the robustness and lasting nature of this kind of effect, a complementary Experiment 2 is designed. In this, major real-world ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1409.7200.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1409.7200.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Top quark <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Senghi Soares, Mara</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We review the current status of the cross sections measurement of the top-quark at the LHC and at the Tevatron. Total <span class="hlt">production</span> cross sections, studies using single top quark events and differential $\\rm{t}\\bar{\\rm t}$ cross sections are discussed. The associated <span class="hlt">production</span> of top quark pairs with photons, Z and W bosons, including $\\rm{t}\\bar{\\rm t}$Z and $\\rm{t}\\bar{\\rm t}$W measurements shown for the first time at LHCP2014, are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Preparing+for+a+Product+Platform+%3A+Product+Family+Hierarchy+Procedure','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Preparing+for+a+Product+Platform+%3A+Product+Family+Hierarchy+Procedure"><span id="translatedtitle">Preparing for a <span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform : <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Hierarchy Procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Fiil-Nielsen, Ole; Munk, Lone</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Experience in the industry as well as recent related scientific publications show the benefits of <span class="hlt">product</span> development platforms. Companies use platforms to develop not a single but multiple <span class="hlt">products</span> (i.e. a <span class="hlt">product</span> family) simultaneously. When these <span class="hlt">product</span> development projects are coordinated they lead to increased sales due to more customized <span class="hlt">product</span> as well as decreased costs due to reuse, making a <span class="hlt">product</span> development platform a very profitable strategy for <span class="hlt">product</span> developing companies. A successful implementation of a <span class="hlt">product</span> development platform is not straightforward though. The introduction of <span class="hlt">product</span> platforms requires coordination of individual <span class="hlt">product</span> development projects. This coordination requires the clarification of reuse and variance through the projects. But which parts of a project should be reused and which parts should vary? Reuse in <span class="hlt">product</span> development platforms is based on commonalities and similarities in the <span class="hlt">product</span> family, and variance should be based on customer demands. To relate these terms and to improve the basis on which decisions are made, we need a way of visualizing the hierarchy of the <span class="hlt">product</span> family as well as the commonality and variance. This visualization method could then be used as a tool for creating the <span class="hlt">product</span> families, which <span class="hlt">product</span> development platforms depend upon. Experience also tells us that one of the primary negative aspects of <span class="hlt">product</span> developments platforms is the risk factor. When creating <span class="hlt">product</span> development platforms companies invest a lot of time in the planning of future activities and make major decisions effecting the future <span class="hlt">products</span> and <span class="hlt">production</span> facilities. If the <span class="hlt">product</span> development platform then fails to meet its expectations the companies loose almost everything they have invested. A tool for verifying the stability of the platform or ensuring that the platform can meet future demands will be very useful in the preparation process of a platform synthesis as well as in the updating or reengineering of an existing <span class="hlt">product</span> development platform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://vbn.aau.dk/ws/files/198514927/Impact_of_product_development_efforts_on_NPI_PC_capabilities.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://vbn.aau.dk/ws/files/198514927/Impact_of_product_development_efforts_on_NPI_PC_capabilities.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">product</span> development efforts on <span class="hlt">product</span> introduction and <span class="hlt">product</span> customization abilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Chaudhuri, Atanu; Dawar, Saloni</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the impact of efforts in new <span class="hlt">product</span> development-manufacturing integration (NPDMI) on new <span class="hlt">product</span> introduction (NPI) and <span class="hlt">product</span> customization (PC) abilities and the moderating effects of <span class="hlt">product</span> design complexity and importance of new <span class="hlt">product</span> development order winners (NPIOW) on the above relationships. The results from the data on 136 Indian manufacturing plants show that NPDMI, <span class="hlt">product</span> design complexity and NPIOW all have significant positive impact on NPI and PC abili...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______261::7b3c6645afde00c4f532bea9c594621d','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______261::7b3c6645afde00c4f532bea9c594621d"><span id="translatedtitle">Modifying Lean <span class="hlt">Production</span> for Implementation in <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Digital, Customized <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Kemperyd, Emmeline; Mideklint, Susanne</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To evaluate how lean <span class="hlt">production</span> should be modified to be suitable for implementation in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of digital, customized <span class="hlt">products</span> and how the first phase of this implementation can be conducted. Research Questions RQ1: What constitutes waste when producing digital, customized <span class="hlt">products</span>, and to what extent can the waste be eliminated? RQ2: Which lean concepts and tools are suitable to apply in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of digital, customized <span class="hlt">products</span>? RQ3: What steps are necessary for initial...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::2293845f7459ea4282e0d7b948e875f7','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::2293845f7459ea4282e0d7b948e875f7"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on <span class="hlt">Product</span> Association Modeling in Collaborative <span class="hlt">Product</span> Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Yu-Min Chiang; Meng-Feng Huang</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Many customers are no longer satisfied with mass-produced <span class="hlt">products</span>; they are demanding customization and rapid delivery of innovative <span class="hlt">products</span>. A new category of software, Collaborative <span class="hlt">Product</span> Design (CPD), uses Internet technology to deliver <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation at Internet speed and tie together <span class="hlt">product</span> design, engineering, marketing, and customers into a global knowledge net. CPD enables organizations to quickly respond to the market change, so it has become increasingly important. Though C...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::ad98c1d9a50c918c9842aea1f4a8ad86','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::ad98c1d9a50c918c9842aea1f4a8ad86"><span id="translatedtitle">Utilization of Biodiesel By-<span class="hlt">Products</span> for Biogas <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Nina Kolesárová; Miroslav Hut?an; Igor Bodík; Viera Špalková</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-<span class="hlt">products</span> from biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> as substrates for anaerobic digestion and <span class="hlt">production</span> of biogas. The process of biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other <span class="hlt">products</span>, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1687::c4e64f83583c1e4baeee50cbd3831886','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1687::c4e64f83583c1e4baeee50cbd3831886"><span id="translatedtitle">International Competition, <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Change and the Organisation of <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Eliasson, Gunnar</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The modern manufacturing firm competes with <span class="hlt">product</span> quality improvements rather than cost efficient <span class="hlt">production</span> of simpler <span class="hlt">products</span>. R&D spending, marketing, availability of spare parts and service facilities, customs designs, etc. embody the <span class="hlt">product</span> quality enhancing process, requiring considerable knowledge transfer and making information processing in a broad sense a major manufacturing activity. We can talk of a shift from a base in cost efficient processing to a <span class="hlt">product</span> technology base, i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::b76cc594647ac54145cccbc08053d4f4','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::b76cc594647ac54145cccbc08053d4f4"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Productivity</span> growth patterns in US dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> manufacturing plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We analyse the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth patterns in the US dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' <span class="hlt">productivity</span> by constructing transition matrices. We observe a cross-sectional dispersion in plant-level <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth in the industry. Even though the industry aggregate shows a small TFP growth rate -0.3%, quartile rank analysis ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/303766','WWS-KAUST'); return false;" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/303766"><span id="translatedtitle">Kronecker <span class="hlt">Products</span> on Preconditioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa">KAUST Repository</a></p> <p>Gao, Longfei</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Numerical techniques for linear systems arising from discretization of partial differential equations are nowadays essential for understanding the physical world. Among these techniques, iterative methods and the accompanying preconditioning techniques have become increasingly popular due to their great potential on large scale computation. In this work, we present preconditioning techniques for linear systems built with tensor <span class="hlt">product</span> basis functions. Efficient algorithms are designed for various problems by exploiting the Kronecker <span class="hlt">product</span> structure in the matrices, inherited from tensor <span class="hlt">product</span> basis functions. Specifically, we design preconditioners for mass matrices to remove the complexity from the basis functions used in isogeometric analysis, obtaining numerical performance independent of mesh size, polynomial order and continuity order; we also present a compound iteration preconditioner for stiffness matrices in two dimensions, obtaining fast convergence speed; lastly, for the Helmholtz problem, we present a strategy to `hide\\' its indefiniteness from Krylov subspace methods by eliminating the part of initial error that corresponds to those negative generalized eigenvalues. For all three cases, the Kronecker <span class="hlt">product</span> structure in the matrices is exploited to achieve high computational efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=224477','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=224477"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic strawberry <span class="hlt">production</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Modern commercial organic strawberry <span class="hlt">production</span> is a technical undertaking that encompasses many factors and poses many challenges. Growers must be aware of the compatibility of specific strawberry varieties with local climate, soil, plant pathogens, insect pests, and harvest schedules. Growers must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soybean&pg=3&id=ED217150','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soybean&pg=3&id=ED217150"><span id="translatedtitle">Soybean <span class="hlt">Production</span> Lesson Plan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Carlson, Keith R.</p> <p></p> <p>These lesson plans for teaching soybean <span class="hlt">production</span> in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:10478361','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:10478361"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmological <span class="hlt">production</span> of baryons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Departures from thermal equilibrium which are likely to occur in an expanding universe allow the <span class="hlt">production</span> of an appreciable net baryon density by processes which violate baryon-number conservation. It is shown that the resulting baryon to entropy ratio can be calculated in terms of purely microscopic quantities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.utgjiu.ro/revista/ec/pdf/2014-06/33_Iris%20Mihai.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.utgjiu.ro/revista/ec/pdf/2014-06/33_Iris%20Mihai.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">RECONSIDERING ECONOMIC <span class="hlt">PRODUCTIVITY</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>RIS A. MIHAI</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Economy has changed significantly over the past century, in part due to the scientific discoveries, due to the industrial revolution, to the research, development and innovation, but maybe the most important contributor to the economic development is the human resource. We have witnessed significant changes enhancing the levels of <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, both labor and capital. This paper analyzes <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in relation to its social and sustainability dimension. The paper follows a previous study, highlighting the most important findings identified and reinterpreting them on the basis of the most recent research papers produced by the scholars in the field. The analysis is focused on the most unsustainable economies worldwide, respectively, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Belgium, Kuwait, Singapore, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Macedonia, Japan and the United States of America – selected by considering their per capita ecological deficit. The research uses statistical data provided by the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank and the Global Footprint Network. The research combines economical, development and environmental indexes in our attempt to evaluate <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and to adjust it so that it considers the ecological deficit of the nations. The research hypothesis that generated the study is: the levels of economic <span class="hlt">productivity</span> obtained by countries are not limited by their biocapacities. The empirical analysis will verify the research question advocating for the need to consider the limited capacity of the planet, in term of natural resources, when promoting economic and social development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2186019615','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2186019615"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> development leadership</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Lindgren, Peter</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Peter Lindgren introducerer i sin artikel begrebet ”<span class="hlt">Product</span> Development Leadership”, som sætter fokus på produktudviklingens strategiske og markedsmæssige rolle. Begrebet omfatter bl.a. virksomhedens evne til at generere eller indfange ideer og udvikle disse via eksisterende eller nye måder at tilfredsstille kundernes behov og dermed skabe værdi for kunden og øge evnen til at være markedsledende og konkurrencedygtig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::34b653861e9826e07e2d7132fd7672a1','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::34b653861e9826e07e2d7132fd7672a1"><span id="translatedtitle">Simple tensor <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Hernandez, David</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Let F be the category of finite dimensional representations of an arbitrary quantum affine algebra. We prove that a tensor <span class="hlt">product</span> $S_1\\otimes ... \\otimes S_N$ of simple objects of F is simple if and only if for any $i < j$, $S_i\\otimes S_j$ is simple.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:9360567','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:9360567"><span id="translatedtitle">Canadian heavy water <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The paper reviews Canadian experience in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24074735','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24074735"><span id="translatedtitle">Zambian charcoal <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The recovery of miombo woodlands following clearance for woodfuel is being monitored at four sites in central Zambia. Charcoal <span class="hlt">production</span> removes 50% of the total woody biomass and the woodland regenerates from a pool of stunted old seedlings and stumps of cut trees. <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> is correlated to tree density before felling. Clearing of successive regrowth miombo does not appear to affect <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Annual wood biomass increment in unmanaged regrowth miombo is estimated at 2-3 t/ha pa of which about 1.1 t is cord wood suitable for charcoal <span class="hlt">production</span>. However, the charcoal spots within the deforested area are severely impacted by the carbonization process which destroys soil structure, seedlings and root stocks. Woodland regeneration on such spots is protracted. Fortunately, charcoal spots only cover 2-3% of the deforested area. The concern about land degradation due to deforestation caused by woodfuel harvesting for urban charcoal in the miombo woodland region of central and southern Africa is not supported by the results of this study. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38079933','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38079933"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding bottom <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We describe calculations of b overline b <span class="hlt">production</span> to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and next-to-next-to-leading logarithm (NNLL) near threshold in pp interactions. Our calculations are in good agreement with the b overline b total cross section measured by HERA-B</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::9c3561210faf0201385f2f4c56d0d61f','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::9c3561210faf0201385f2f4c56d0d61f"><span id="translatedtitle">Peroxy natural <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Liu, Dong-Ze; Liu, Ji-Kai</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This review covers the structures and biological activities of peroxy natural <span class="hlt">products</span> from a wide variety of terrestrial fungi, higher plants, and marine organisms. Syntheses that confirm or revise structures or stereochemistries have also been included, and 406 references are cited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108090625','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108090625"><span id="translatedtitle">Conditions for industrial <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing <span class="hlt">production</span> is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33048069','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33048069"><span id="translatedtitle">The hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper gives an overview on the implementing of the hydrogen as substitution fuel in the transportation sector. It presents also the problems of this fuel storage and exploitation and describes the <span class="hlt">production</span> modes and their safety. It also presents the main lines of the japan HTGR program. (A.L.B.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=designing+AND+productive+AND+failure&id=EJ955907','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=designing+AND+productive+AND+failure&id=EJ955907"><span id="translatedtitle">Designing for <span class="hlt">Productive</span> Failure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Kapur, Manu; Bielaczyc, Katerine</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe the design principles undergirding "<span class="hlt">productive</span> failure" (PF; M. Kapur, 2008). We then report findings from an ongoing program of research on PF in mathematical problem solving in 3 Singapore public schools with significantly different mathematical ability profiles, ranging from average to lower ability. In the 1st…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Predicting+safe+sandwich+production','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Predicting+safe+sandwich+production"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting safe sandwich <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Birk, Tina; Duan, Zhi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during <span class="hlt">production</span> and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation and serving. However, Danish sandwich producing companies find it challenging to comply with this and have expressed a need for more flexibility. The Danish guidelines do allow for a prolongation of the acceptable time outside the cold chain, if the safety of the specific <span class="hlt">production</span> can be documented. There is, therefore, room for developing targeted tools for evaluating the time-temperature scenarios in sandwich <span class="hlt">production</span>. This study describes a decision support tool developed to offer the producers more flexibility. Based on time/temperature measurements obtained during preparation combined with information on the prehistory of ingredients and the expected time/temperature conditions of distribution and serving, the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and psychrotrophic Clostridium botulinum in the sandwiches is predicted. Applying the lag times of these pathogens as the critical limit, the tool determines if the sandwich <span class="hlt">production</span> is safe by evaluating whether any of the lag times have been exceeded during the total preparation, distribution, and serving time. The growth models employed were built as part of the study using a “worst case” ingredient.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED414940.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED414940.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Information Based <span class="hlt">Productivity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Bennett, Scott</p> <p></p> <p>A digital project undertaken last year at Yale (Connecticut) offers an opportunity to explore <span class="hlt">productivity</span> matters. The project aimed at improving the quality of library support and of student learning in one of the most heavily enrolled undergraduate courses at Yale, "Introduction to the History of Art, from Prehistory to the Renaissance." The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Improving+pension+product+design','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Improving+pension+product+design"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving pension <span class="hlt">product</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pension <span class="hlt">products</span> characterized by linking an individual's savings directly to market returns represent the most popular, growing pension domain globally. These <span class="hlt">products</span> are widely sold in contribution-defined pension schemes, labor market pensions, and individual schemes. However, available <span class="hlt">products</span> are designed with a tendency to assume greater risk the longer it is until retirement, but are not adjusted to individual preferences and circumstances. This paper develops an optimal asset allocation strategy for a defined contribution plan by adjusting to individual needs, such that the expected utility of retirement benefits is maximized. An asset allocation strategy should not only depend on the plan member's age (or time left to retirement), nor only on her risk preferences, but should capture personal characteristics. Among other factors, we include current wealth, expected lifetime salary progression, expected social benefits, choice of assets, type of retirement distribution schedules, bequest motive and life insurance. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization technologies: stochastic control and multi-stage stochastic linear programming (SLP). As an example of an optimal pension <span class="hlt">product</span> design, we present the operations research methods, which have potential to stimulate new thinking and add to actuarial practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17324391','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17324391"><span id="translatedtitle">Butadiene <span class="hlt">production</span> process overview.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>White, Wm Claude</p> <p>2007-03-20</p> <p>Over 95% of butadiene is produced as a by-<span class="hlt">product</span> of ethylene <span class="hlt">production</span> from steam crackers. The crude C4 stream isolated from the steam cracking process is fed to butadiene extraction units, where butadiene is separated from the other C4s by extractive distillation. The amount of crude C4s produced in steam cracking is dependent on the composition of the feed to the cracking unit. Heavier feeds, such as naphtha, yield higher amounts of C4s and butadiene than do lighter feeds. Crackers using light feeds typically produce low quantities of C4s and do not have butadiene extraction units. Overall butadiene capacity is determined by ethylene cracker operating rates, the type of feed being cracked, and availability of butadiene extraction capacity. Global butadiene capacity is approximately 10.5 million metric tons, and global <span class="hlt">production</span> is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Crude C4s are traded globally, with the United States being the only significant net importer. Finished butadiene is also traded globally, with the largest exporters being Canada, Western Europe, Saudi Arabia and Korea. The largest net importers are Mexico, the United States and China. The global demand for butadiene is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber accounts for about 54% of global butadiene demand, with tire <span class="hlt">production</span> being the single most important end use of butadiene synthetic rubbers. Other major butadiene derivatives are acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene butadiene latex (about 24% of demand combined). PMID:17324391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43081982','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43081982"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithium ion battery <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: ? Sustainable battery manufacturing focus on more efficient methods and recycling. ? Temperature control and battery management system increase battery lifetime. ? Focus on increasing battery performance at low- and high temperatures. ? <span class="hlt">Production</span> capacity of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. - Abstract: Recently, new materials and chemistry for lithium ion batteries have been developed. There is a great emphasis on electrification in the transport sector replacing part of motor powered engines with battery powered applications. There are plans both to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the overall need for consumption of non-renewable liquid fuels. Even more significant applications are dependent on energy storage. Materials needed for battery applications require specially made high quality <span class="hlt">products</span>. Diminishing amounts of easily minable metal ores increase the consumption of separation and purification energy and chemicals. The metals are likely to be increasingly difficult to process. Iron, manganese, lead, zinc, lithium, aluminium, and nickel are still relatively abundant but many metals like cobalt and rare earths are becoming limited resources more rapidly. The global capacity of industrial-scale <span class="hlt">production</span> of larger lithium ion battery cells may become a limiting factor in the near future if plans for even partial electrification of vehicles or energy storage visions are realized. The energy capacity needed is huge and one has to be reminded that in terms of cars for example <span class="hlt">production</span> of 100 MWh equals the need of 3000 full-electric cars. Consequently annual <span class="hlt">production</span> capacity of 106 cars requires 100 factories each with a 300 MWh capacity. Present day lithium ion batteries have limitations but significant improvements have been achieved recently . The main challenges of lithium ion batteries are related to material deterioration, operating temperatures, energy and power output, and lifetime. Increased lifetime combined with a higher recycling rate of battery materials is essential for a sustainable battery industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23036234','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23036234"><span id="translatedtitle">Equipartition of entropy <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper deals with the optimal design or operation of heat and mass transfer processes and develops the following conjecture: for a given duty, the best configuration of the process is that in which the entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> rate is most uniformly distributed. This principle is first analyzed in detail on the simple example of tubular heat exchangers, and within the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics. A main result is established, which states that the total entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> is minimal when the local <span class="hlt">production</span> is uniformly distributed (equipartition). Corollaries then result, which relate the entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> and the variance of its distribution to economic factors such as the duty, the exchange area, the fluid flow-rates, and the temperature changes. The equipartition principle is then extended to multiple independent variables (time and space), multicomponent transfer, and non-linear but concave flux vs force relationship. Chemical Engineering examples are discussed, where the equipartition property has been applied implicitly or explicitly: design of distillation plates, cyclic distillation, optimal state of feed, and flow-sheets in chromatographic separations. Finally, a generalization of the equipartition principle is proposed, for systems with a distributed design variable (such as the size of the various elements of a system). The optimal distribution of investment is such that the investment in each element (properly amortized) is equal to the cost of irreversible energy degradation in this element. This is equivalent to saying that the ratio of these two quantities is uniformly distributed over the system, and reduces to equipartition of entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> when the cost factors are constant over the whole system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::44c613c66338329e1d3083f39c00c482','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::44c613c66338329e1d3083f39c00c482"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse <span class="hlt">production</span> systems for people</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, P.A., van; Mears, D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Environmentally sound greenhouse <span class="hlt">production</span> requires that: demand for market <span class="hlt">products</span> is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of <span class="hlt">production</span> <span class="hlt">products</span> to the environmental impacts from system. Engineering greenhouse <span class="hlt">production</span> systems to meet these requirements must include: a cost-effective and structurally sound facility; various sub-systems controlled to interact har...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Consumer+oriented+new+product+development','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Consumer+oriented+new+product+development"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumer oriented new <span class="hlt">product</span> development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>New <span class="hlt">product</span> development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new <span class="hlt">product</span> development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new <span class="hlt">product</span> introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evidence on new <span class="hlt">product</span> success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new <span class="hlt">product</span> development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::9e7d3f656a60de2266d52b5853051463','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::9e7d3f656a60de2266d52b5853051463"><span id="translatedtitle">Dragee <span class="hlt">product</span> based on sunflower</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Pajin Biljana S.; Jovanovi? Olga Lj.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for <span class="hlt">production</span> of confectionery <span class="hlt">products</span>. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee <span class="hlt">products</span>, and determining the final <span class="hlt">product</span> quality and shelf life. The dragee <span class="hlt">product</span> was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribu...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1255::2fb981842e7c9e1665b25efe6e4af270','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1255::2fb981842e7c9e1665b25efe6e4af270"><span id="translatedtitle">Mead <span class="hlt">production</span>: tradition versus modernity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Ramalhosa, Elsa; Gomes, Teresa; Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Honey is a natural <span class="hlt">product</span> with recognized physical and chemical properties, which contribute to its biological activity. However, honey is currently being sold at low prices, making it imperative to find alternatives to make apiculture a viable national enterprise. One of these alternatives could be mead <span class="hlt">production</span>. Despite the excellent properties of honey, mead <span class="hlt">production</span> faces several problems, namely, delays and “pouts” fermentations, lack of <span class="hlt">product</span> uniformity, and <span class="hlt">production</span> of yea...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011honc.book.1903Q','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011honc.book.1903Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclotron <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Medical Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Qaim, S. M.</p> <p></p> <p>Cyclotron <span class="hlt">products</span> are gaining in significance in diagnostic investigations via PET and SPECT, as well as in some therapeutic studies. The scientific and technological background of radionuclide <span class="hlt">production</span> using a cyclotron is briefly discussed. <span class="hlt">Production</span> methods of the commonly used positron and photon emitters are described and developments in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of some new positron emitters and therapeutic radionuclides outlined. Some perspectives of cyclotron <span class="hlt">production</span> of medical radionuclides are considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2194800251','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2194800251"><span id="translatedtitle">LCA of metal nanomaterial <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Miseljic, Mirko; Diaz, Elsa Gabriela Alvarado; Olsen, Stig Irving</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial <span class="hlt">product</span> has reached a new stage, where consumers in their daily life are frequently encountered with <span class="hlt">products</span> containing this new material class. Metal and metal-oxide nanomaterials are among the most commonly used ENMs in <span class="hlt">products</span>. Potential life cycle impacts arise from all life cycle stages of the ENM <span class="hlt">products</span>. Currently there are many unknowns related to the inputs and outputs from <span class="hlt">production</span> of ENMs and the potential impacts that aris...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185794125','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185794125"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumer oriented new <span class="hlt">product</span> development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>New <span class="hlt">product</span> development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new <span class="hlt">product</span> development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new <span class="hlt">product</span> introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evidence on new <span class="hlt">product</span> success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new <span class="hlt">product</span> development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/21226778-Eg5qDb/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/21226778-Eg5qDb/"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomimetic hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Krassen, Henning</p> <p>2009-05-15</p> <p>Hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen with outstanding efficiency. An electrode surface which is covered with active hydrogenase molecules becomes a promising alternative to platinum for electrochemical hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. To immobilize the hydrogenase on the electrode, the gold surface was modified by heterobifunctional molecules. A thiol headgroup on one side allowed the binding to the gold surface and the formation of a self-assembled monolayer. The other side of the molecules provided a surface with a high affinity for the hydrogenase CrHydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With methylviologen as a soluble energy carrier, electrons were transferred from carboxy-terminated electrodes to CrHydA1 and conducted to the active site (H-cluster), where they reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. A combined approach of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance allowed quantifying the hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> on a molecular level. Hydrogen was produced with a rate of 85 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. On a 1'- benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinum (BBP)-terminated surface, the electrons were mediated by the monolayer and no soluble electron carrier was necessary to achieve a comparable hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> rate (approximately 50% of the former system). The hydrogen evolution potential was determined to be -335 mV for the BBP-bound hydrogenase and -290 mV for the hydrogenase which was immobilized on a carboxy-terminated mercaptopropionic acid SAM. Therefore, both systems significantly reduce the hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> overpotential and allow electrochemical hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at an energy level which is close to the commercially applied platinum electrodes (hydrogen evolution potential of -270 mV). In order to couple hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> and photosynthesis, photosystem I (PS1) from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha were bound to each other. To accomplish tight binding of both proteins the PS1 subunit PsaE was genetically fused to the C-terminal end of the small subunit of MBH, i.e. close to the electron acceptor site of MBH. This fusion protein spontaneously assembled with the PsaE-deletion mutant of PS1. Crucial for a high hydrogen evolution rate of the system is an efficient electron transfer between both proteins. To allow this measurement, the PsaE-deletion mutant of PS1 was immobilized on a Ni-NTAterminated monolayer via a genetically introduced His-tag. The specificity of the assembly of fusion protein and deletion mutant was verified by SEIRAS. Surface plasmon resonance, gas chromatography and electrochemistry complemented this measurement and yielded the specific activity of the functional hybrid complex: 4500 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. The investigated complex allowed hydrogen evolution at potentials up to 85 mV, i.e. hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at a lower energy level than on a platinum electrode. In addition, the hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> rate was higher than for hydrogenase-modified electrodes without PS1. Beyond these specific results, the experimental setup can be used to quantify the hydrogen evolution rate on a molecular level for variable hydrogenases and hybrid complexes. This information will be used to choose the most efficient catalysts for introduction into the native system for in vivo hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44118917','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44118917"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustainable Multi-<span class="hlt">Product</span> Seafood <span class="hlt">Production</span> Planning Under Uncertainty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> fish <span class="hlt">production</span> planning produces simultaneously multi fish <span class="hlt">products</span> from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable <span class="hlt">production</span> planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as <span class="hlt">production</span> cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are <span class="hlt">production</span> and inventory levels for each <span class="hlt">product</span> and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood <span class="hlt">products</span>. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable <span class="hlt">production</span> planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.435a2040S','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.435a2040S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustainable Multi-<span class="hlt">Product</span> Seafood <span class="hlt">Production</span> Planning Under Uncertainty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Simanjuntak, Ruth; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J.; Mawengkang, Herman</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A multi-<span class="hlt">product</span> fish <span class="hlt">production</span> planning produces simultaneously multi fish <span class="hlt">products</span> from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable <span class="hlt">production</span> planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as <span class="hlt">production</span> cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are <span class="hlt">production</span> and inventory levels for each <span class="hlt">product</span> and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood <span class="hlt">products</span>. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable <span class="hlt">production</span> planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1407.8273.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1407.8273.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Holographic Entropy <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hong-Bao</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The suspicion that gravity is holographic has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. In this paper, we propose that such a holography can actually be observed in the context of Einstein's gravity and at least a class of generalized gravitational theories, based on a definite holographic principle where neither is the bulk space-time required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, echoing Wilson's formulation of quantum field theory. After showing the general equilibrium thermodynamics from the corresponding holographic dictionary, in particular, we provide a rather general proof of the equality between the entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> on the boundary and the increase of black hole entropy in the bulk, which can be regarded as strong support to this holographic principle. The entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> in the familiar holographic superconductors/superfluids is investigated as an important example, where the role played by the holographic renormalizatio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1572991','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1572991"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> ultra propre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Morvan, Gilles</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>L'ultra propreté se caractérise par l'absence de particules et la maîtrise de la contamination dans un environnement défini. Largement appliquée dans diverses industries (pharmacie, cosmétiques, dispositifs médicaux, chimie fine, biotechnologies, électronique et secteurs de pointe, agroalimentaire, plasturgie…), la technicité dans ce domaine est élevée, car principalement liée à la maîtrise des différentes sources de contaminations (eau, air ambiant, fluides, etc.). Véritable guide pratique, cet ouvrage détaille les points techniques essentiels pour permettre à l’ingénieur de trouver des solutions adéquates à chaque type de projet. La démarche passe par la rédaction de spécifications rigoureuses pour : - l’eau, essentielle à toutes <span class="hlt">productions</span>, - les équipements de <span class="hlt">production</span> ultra propre, - la démarche qualité et environnementale, - la démarche de suivi du projet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16071117','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16071117"><span id="translatedtitle">Animal health and <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and <span class="hlt">production</span> research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, <span class="hlt">production</span> of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46130935','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46130935"><span id="translatedtitle">Operator <span class="hlt">product</span> expansion algebra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Operator <span class="hlt">Product</span> Expansion (OPE) is a theoretical tool for studying the short distance behaviour of <span class="hlt">products</span> of local quantum fields. Over the past 40 years, the OPE has not only found widespread computational application in high-energy physics, but, on a more conceptual level, it also encodes fundamental information on algebraic structures underlying quantum field theories. I review new insights into the status and properties of the OPE within Euclidean perturbation theory, addressing in particular the topics of convergence and ''factorisation'' of the expansion. Further, I present a formula for the ''deformation'' of the OPE algebra caused by a quartic interaction. This formula can be used to set up a novel iterative scheme for the perturbative computation of OPE coefficients, based solely on the zeroth order coefficients (and renormalisation conditions) as initial input.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19005175','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19005175"><span id="translatedtitle">Fission <span class="hlt">product</span> revaporization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>One of the major developmental advances in severe accident analysis since the Reactor Safety Study relates to the accounting for radionuclide retention in the reactor coolant system (RCS). The retention is predicted to occur as materials released during core heatup and degradation are transported through the RCS to the break (broken pipe, relief valve, etc.). For accidents involving relatively long RCS-transit times (e.g., station blackout in PWRs), the fraction of released material predicted to remain in the RCS can be large. For example, calculations for the Surry station blackout sequence showed retention of approximately 80% of the cesium and iodine species. Factors affecting fission <span class="hlt">product</span> revaporization are post-vessel-failure thermal hydraulics, heat loss through vessel and pipe walls, and revaporization chemistry. The accident conditions relevant to this issue range from those present immediately after vessel failure to those present after containment failure. The factors that affect fission <span class="hlt">product</span> revaporization are discussed</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15022615','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15022615"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Old, present and new proceses for producing hydrogen are assessed critically. The emphasis throughout is placed on those processes which could be commercially viable before the turn of the century for large-scale hydrogen manufacture. Electrolysis of water is the only industrial process not dependent on fossil resources for large-scale hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> and is likely to remain so for the next two or three decades. While many new processes, including those utilizing sunlight directly or indirectly, are presently not considered to be commercially viable for large-scale hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>, research and development effort is needed to enhance our understanding of the nature of these processes. Water vapour electrolysis is compared with thermochemical processes: the former has the potential for displacing all other processes for producing hydrogen and oxygen from water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17087836','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17087836"><span id="translatedtitle">Milk and dairy <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy <span class="hlt">products</span>. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy <span class="hlt">products</span> in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21527051','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21527051"><span id="translatedtitle">Drilling and <span class="hlt">production</span> guidelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>NONE</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>The drilling and <span class="hlt">production</span> regulations merge the drilling regulations and the <span class="hlt">production</span> and conservation regulations in one document and mark an improvement in five principal areas. They are a mixture of prescriptive and goal- or performance-based regulations. The guidelines of each section of the regulations were described in this paper. Operators are obliged to meet the regulations, which are statutory instruments, and must be able to demonstrate their compliance to the appropriate board. The guidelines set out in this paper give help in understanding the requirements of the regulations and how to meet those requirements. In addition, in some instances, the guidelines give appropriate instructions for achieving regulatory compliance, although this may be unnecessary in certain cases. Not only guidance but standards and recommended practices are also significant for the development of goal- or performance-based regulations. The boards will continue to make the greatest effort to improve the guidelines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://phytomorphology.org/PDF/MP4/04117117.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://phytomorphology.org/PDF/MP4/04117117.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Microalgae: biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Babita Kumari</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical <span class="hlt">products</span>. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae for e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been done. The evaluation of available information suggests the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae <span class="hlt">production</span> is the key factor for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20052602','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20052602"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> cyclotron's project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In December 1986 the National Atomic Energy Commission signed a contract to aquire a <span class="hlt">production</span> cyclotron which will have a beam intensity up to 100 ?A and a maximum energy of 40 MeV. The concretion of this project will allow the country to supply itself of an important variety of medical radioisotopes. The advantages of these radioisotopes could be summarized in the following way: shorter periods, in some cases absence of beta-minus emission, as well as lower ? energies and radionuclides without carrier. All this will contribute to improve the radiological protection and a better quality information could be obtained with a minimum of radiation. The installation is divided into two areas: cyclotron area and <span class="hlt">production</span> area. This division results from the analysis of the safety problems that will appear. (M.E.L.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1207740/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1207740/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> Target Design Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)</p> <p>2015-07-28</p> <p>The Northstar <sup>99</sup>Mo <span class="hlt">production</span> target, a cylindrical length of <sup>100</sup>Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the <span class="hlt">production</span> to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30009340','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30009340"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span> in Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Production</span> of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO2 because irradiation TeO2 with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the <span class="hlt">production</span> of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/636793/files/0308130.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/636793/files/0308130.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutrino <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Resonances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Paschos, E A; Yu, J Y; Paschos, Emmanuel A.; Sakuda, Makoto; Yu, Ji--Young</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We take a fresh look at the analysis of resonance <span class="hlt">production</span> by neutrinos. We consider three resonances $P_{33}, P_{11}$ and $S_{11}$ with a detailed discussion of their form factors. The article presents results for free proton and neutron targets and discusses the corrections which appear on nuclear targets. The Pauli suppression factor is derived in the Fermi gas model and shown to apply to resonance <span class="hlt">production</span>. The importance of the various resonances is demonstrated with numerical calculations. The $\\Delta$-resonance is described by two formfactors and its differential cross sections are compared with experimental data. The article is self-contained and could be helpful to readers who wish to reproduce and use these cross sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/327208-9yVeEY/webviewable/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/327208-9yVeEY/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span> in Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Wan Anuar Wan Awang [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Production</span> of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the <span class="hlt">production</span> of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46106101','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46106101"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of 85Kr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Neutron capture and ?--decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr, which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore an essential tool to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. A 85Kr sample can be produced via the irradiation of a stable, metallic 82Se sample with ?-beam. The gas stays trapped inside selenium as long as the temperature remains below 50 circle C. Fulfilling this temperature limit during the irradiation is one of the main technical difficulties during the <span class="hlt">production</span> of 85Kr. Since the corresponding <span class="hlt">production</span> cross sections are not known well enough, an experiment was performed at the PTB in Braunschweig, Germany. Various ?-induced reactions on natural selenium were studied via the activation technique, and the preliminary results are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29044966','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29044966"><span id="translatedtitle">Downstream <span class="hlt">product</span> marketing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Petro-Canada's views regarding energy deregulation were presented. Their experience with gasoline retailing and their response to competition was also discussed. Petro-Canada regards deregulation as a good thing in terms of its promotion of fair competition. Industrial and residential consumers of energy will benefit from more efficient and innovative service. Today's consumers are very well informed about existing energy <span class="hlt">products</span> and while they are incredibly price sensitive, they still want to buy value. The relevance of brand names in a competitive market was examined. One reaction to the demanding customer has been to augment the base <span class="hlt">product</span> (the fuel) with other things, such as convenience store items, car washes, specialized bay businesses and promotional offerings. Petro-Canada has been successful in improving sales volumes with these sales strategies, and profits achieved indicate good target audience acceptance. Shareholders and the board of directors also appear to be in agreement with the Corporation's performance to date</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-77602015000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-77602015000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt"><span id="translatedtitle">TAXATION IN CHARCOAL <span class="hlt">PRODUCTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Christian Rainier Imaña</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal <span class="hlt">production</span>. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of charcoal was 9.76%. There was no municipal tax for charcoal. State taxes accounted 10% of the tax burden, the rest are federal taxes. COFINS was responsible for the largest tax burden: 3%, which confirms the Brazilian tax system is very non progressive. In Minas Gerais, Brazilian tax on goods and services (ICMS is deferred, the charcoal buyer has the obligation to collect this tax. This means the steel company accounts for the total burden of ICMS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20173214','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20173214"><span id="translatedtitle">Specialised conveyor belting <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Butterworth, R.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>Effective transporting and storage of coal in bulk material handling terminals and ports has long been a cornerstone of the American steel <span class="hlt">production</span> and power generation industries. Increasing volume demands combined with existing equipment capacities and overall aging facilities presents a formidable challenge for dock maintenance managers and superintendents. AFM Industries, through 25 years of practical experience on conveyor systems, works hand in hand with terminals and ports to reduce maintenance, increase capacities and improve the overall dependability and effectiveness of conveyor systems. Much of AFM's successes have been in the implementation of SFBT Semperit conveyor belting, especially SFBT's specialised steel cable belt <span class="hlt">products</span> such as SFBT Autostable. The article presents a case study of AFM's history and successes with the Pittsburgh and Conneaut Dock Company. 2 photos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16021007','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16021007"><span id="translatedtitle">Animal health and <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Some applications of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and <span class="hlt">production</span> research are reviewed. These include various techniques associated with both the qualitative localization and quantitative measurements of isotopes in animals; comparator studies in which measurement of the radioactivity in one part of a system will allow computation of the mass or volume in another part; in vivo and in vitro applications of isotope dilution studies; and the use of isotopes in dynamic systems analyses. The use of stable isotopes in mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance in animal research is also briefly reviewed. Finally some of the successful uses of radiation produced by radioactive sources or various types of generators of electromagnetic radiations in animal <span class="hlt">production</span> and health studies are described. (U.K.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14748596','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14748596"><span id="translatedtitle">?+ and ?- <span class="hlt">production</span> polarizations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We report preliminary results from Fermilab experiment E497 on the <span class="hlt">production</span> polarizations of ?+ and ?- hyperons. Hyperons were produced inclusively at non zero <span class="hlt">production</span> angles by 400 GeV/c protons incident on a Cu target. The polarization was analyzed by the weak decay asymmetry in the hadronic decay modes ?+ ? p?0 and ?- ? n?-. Based upon samples of 38,000 ?+ and 317,000 ?- decays we observe polarizations as a function of P/sub t/ which average 22% at an X of 0.53 for ?+ and 40% at X of 0.68 and 0.78 for ?-. The direction of polarization for both ?+ and ?- is in the direction of K/sub -p/ x K/sub ?/ where the K's are the momentum vectors of the incident proton and produced hyperon respectively. This is opposite to the direction of polarization of inclusively produced lambdas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/449145-FJm0jb/webviewable/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/449145-FJm0jb/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Photoelectrochemical hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The large-scale <span class="hlt">production</span> of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28057565','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28057565"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclotrons for isotope <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span>. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope <span class="hlt">production</span>, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::5205439daa8bcc37c6c92f383ab7053a','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::5205439daa8bcc37c6c92f383ab7053a"><span id="translatedtitle">COMPETITIVE <span class="hlt">PRODUCT</span> ADVANTAGES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Micu, Adrian; Micu, Angela Eliza</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some <span class="hlt">products</span> at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020090924','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020090924"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Filtration <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration <span class="hlt">products</span> which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::ceedd6ab746bb476ace2a506a41bbf51','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::ceedd6ab746bb476ace2a506a41bbf51"><span id="translatedtitle">Microalgae: biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Babita Kumari; Vinay Sharma</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical <span class="hlt">products</span>. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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