WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-toxic non-hazardous product

  1. Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

  2. The production of hydrotalcite from magnesite ore as non-toxic heat stabiliser for polyvinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Laan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years polyvinyl chloride (PVC processors had to submit to worldwide pressure to convert to environmentally friendly stabilisers such as hydrotalcite (HT, since most of the heat stabilisers currently in use contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium or barium – these being highly toxic. The presently used HT production process is, however, very expensive as it involves the recovering of magnesium from seawater magnesia. The purpose of this study was to prove that it is indeed possible to produce cost effective and non-toxic HT from an alternative source. During this study the costing and heat stabilising ability of the hydrotalcite produced from magnesite was compared to that of commercially available heat stabilisers. The effect of the pre-mixing process, as well as the influence of particle size distribution was also investigated. A cost comparative and stabilising efficiency study indicated the cost effectiveness of HT produced from magnesite ore, in comparison with other commercially available stabilisers. The use of HT as produced from magnesite ore would indeed assist in the worldwide changeover to environmentally friendly stabilisers.

  3. Hazardous jarosite use in developing non-hazardous product for engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosite released from zinc metal extraction process is hazardous in nature and its world wide disposal has become a major environmental concern. In this study, an attempt has been made to immobilise and recycle the jarosite released from Hindustan Zinc Limited, India, using CCRs, so called fly ash, and clay soil. Results revealed that the particle size of jarosite was finer than that of CCRs and had higher porosity and water holding capacity due to fine textured materials resulting in high surface area (10,496.18 ± 30.90 cm2/g). Jarosite contain higher concentration of toxic elements (lead, zinc, sulphur, cadmium, chromium and copper) than that of CCRs. Concentrations of radionuclides such as 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in jarosite found less than in CCRs are similar to that of soil. Statistically designed experiments on solidified/stabilised (s/s) sintered jarosite-CCRs products confirmed that the compressive strength of jarosite bricks reached as high as 140 kg/cm2 with 14.5% water absorption capacity at the combination of 3:1 ratio of jarosite and clay, respectively, but, concentrations of all the toxic elements recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-Toxicity Leachate Characteristics Procedure (TCLP) standard are not within the permissible limits. However, it is confirmed that the toxic elements leaching potentials of s/s-sintered products developed using 2:1 jarosite clay ratio with 15% CCRs comply with the USEPA-TCLP limits and also meet the quality for engineering applications

  4. Technological, economic and social aspects of excavation utilisation for dumping municipal and non-toxic production waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukleja, K.; Tatarczyk, B. [Poltegor Institute for Opencast Mining, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Exhaustion of the areas suitable for dumping the production and municipal waste and ever growing social protests makes it necessary to try to find the new dumping space, which would not degrade the environment and would not agitate the public opinion. From the ecological, social and economic point of view worked out excavations make an attractive alternative for the future toxic waste dumping. In large strip mines the waste dumping area might be pre-shaped by means of selective excavation of upper layers and proper management of the dumping technology. In the smaller worked out open casts (quarries, clay, silt, marl and chalk mines) excavations would require proper shaping and sealing of a basin. In pit mines the sections of intact solid rock mass of working with the cut off hydraulic contact to the abyssal water contained in the complex of geological layers might be used for the purpose of dumping. The simpler method of finding space for waste dumping might be adaptation of some hydrotechnological objects, for example the mining waste water sedimentation basins and slurry settling tanks, as well as spoil banks. This paper puts a particular emphasis to the fact that all the activities connected with the adaptation for the waste dumping of worked out workings are significant. They require professional knowledge, as well as an intuition concerning their present and future ecological impact. 7 refs.

  5. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  6. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  7. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation showed higher inhibition to non-toxin producing than toxin-producing strains on growth and photosynthetic activity. • Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly under UV-B radiation. • Higher resistance to UV-B radiation helped toxin-producing M. aeruginosa to predominate in the competition. - Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms

  8. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhen, E-mail: zhyang@niglas.ac.cn; Kong, Fanxiang, E-mail: fxkong@niglas.ac.cn; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation showed higher inhibition to non-toxin producing than toxin-producing strains on growth and photosynthetic activity. • Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly under UV-B radiation. • Higher resistance to UV-B radiation helped toxin-producing M. aeruginosa to predominate in the competition. - Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms.

  9. Non-toxic antifouling strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea M. Magin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The term fouling generally refers to an undesirable process in which a surface becomes encrusted with material from the surrounding environment. In the case of biofouling, that material consists of organisms and their by-products e.g., extracellular polysaccharides and metabolites. Biofouling limits the performance of devices in numerous applications; however, this review focuses on antifouling biomaterials for marine and biomedical applications. The surface chemistry and physical properties of the substratum are both crucial to preventing the recruitment of biofouling organisms. Natural antifouling surfaces exhibit both chemical and physical attributes. The chemical structure is discussed briefly as it relates to both anti-fouling and fouling-release properties. However, our focus has been to study physical cues as they relate to the initial attachment of fouling organisms.

  10. Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and test new, non-toxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. Vintage propulsion systems frequently use highly toxic...

  11. Cysteine as a non toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper alloys in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravgaard, Mari; van Lanschot, Jettie

    2012-01-01

    studies of colour changes in the corrosion products. The results obtained in this article demonstrate that cysteine could be a non-toxic alternative to BTA. Cysteine performed as well as BTA on pre-corroded coupons with bronze disease in high humidity and showed acceptable results during testing for...

  12. 100-lbf Non-Toxic Storable Liquid Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Road Maps for both Launch and In Space Propulsion call for the development of non-toxic, monopropellant reaction control systems to replace current...

  13. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  14. Non-Toxic Orbital Maneuvering System Engine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Claflin, Scott; Maeding, Chris; Butas, John

    1999-01-01

    Recent results using the Aestus engine operated with LOx/ethanol propellant are presented. An experimental program at Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power is underway to adapt this engine for the Boeing Reusable Space Systems Division non-toxic Orbital Maneuvering System/Reaction control System (OMS/RCS) system. Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace designed the Aestus as an nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) upper-stage engine for the Ariane 5. The non-toxic OMS/RCS system's preliminary design requires a LOx/ethanol (O2/C2H5OH) engine that operates with a mixture ratio of 1.8, a specific impulse of 323 seconds, and fits within the original OMS design envelope. This paper describes current efforts to meet these requirements including, investigating engine performance using LOx/ethanol, developing the en-ine system sizing package, and meeting the vehicle operation parameters. Data from hot-fire testing are also presented and discussed.

  15. 3-Alkylpyridinium compounds as potential non-toxic antifouling agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepci?, K; Turk, T

    2006-01-01

    To date, around thirty bioactive 3-alkylpyridinium compounds, either in monomeric or oligomeric forms, have been identified in marine sponges belonging to the order Haplosclerida In this work, we have reviewed their biological activities, which include mainly cytotoxicity, ichthyotoxicity, inhibition of bacterial growth, and enzyme inhibition. Most of these activities increase with the increasing degree of oligomerization of the corresponding 3-alkylpyridinium compound. It was shown recently that 3-alkylpyridines also exhibit promising antifouling activities. Linear 3-octylpyridinium polymers (Poly-APS), isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Reniera sarai, showed a non-toxic reversible mechanism of settlement inhibition of Balanus amphitrite cypris larvae with an EC50 of 0.27 microg/mL. At the same time, their toxicity towards the organisms used in the toxicity bioassays (B. amphitrite nauplii, microalga Tetraselmis suecica and larvae of Mytilus galloprovincialis) was almost negligible in comparison to commercially available and currently used booster biocides based on copper and zinc complexes with pyrithione. Poly-APS and some other natural 3-alkylpyridines were also found to be very effective in preventing microbial biofilm formation. Preliminary tests have confirmed that some monomeric and oligomeric synthetic analogues of poly-APS also exert antifouling activity, which makes these compounds promising candidates as new environmentally-friendly ingredients in the new generation of antifouling coatings. PMID:16805440

  16. Novel Non-toxic Antifouling/Fouling Release Nanocomposite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jason

    2008-03-01

    Biofouling is a significant environmental problem. Traditional solutions to this problem have involved incorporation of toxic organometallic species into the paint. This approach while effective, is harmful to the environment. The resultant ban on the use of many of these coatings has created a need for alternative systems to control marine fouling. Silicones represent the only class of polymers currently used commercially, due to their inherently low surface energy, glass transition temperature, and modulus, combined with good chemical stability and ease of application. In this talk I will present our efforts to develop a new generation of practical, non-toxic coatings that combine antifouling/fouling release characteristics with good mechanical properties, ease of application and low cost. Specifically we have been focusing on a series of fouling release coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers and nanocomposites. The PDMS copolymers are much stronger than pure PDMS yet they exhibit fouling release performance comparable and, in some cases, better than pure PDMS.

  17. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  18. Piezoelectric driven non-toxic injector for automated cell manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H B; Su, Hao; Chen, H Y; Mills, J K

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated by state-of-the-art robotic and computer technology, Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) automation aims to scale and seamlessly transfer the human hand movements into more precise and fast movements of the micro manipulator. Piezo-drill cell injection, a novel technique using piezo-driven pipettes with a very small mercury column, has significantly improves the survival rates of ICSI process. It is found that complications are due, in large part, to toxicity of mercury and the damage to the cell membrane because of the lateral tip oscillations of injector pipette. In this paper, a new design of piezo-driven cell injector is proposed for automated suspended cell injection. This new piezo-driven cell injector design centralizes the piezo oscillation power on the injector pipette which eliminates the vibration effect on other parts of the micromanipulator. Detrimental lateral tip oscillations of the injector pipette are attenuated to a desirable level even without the help of mercury column. This mercury-free injector can sublime the piezoelectric driven injection technique to completely non-toxic level with great research and commercial application in gene injection, in-vitro fertilization, ICSI and drug development. PMID:21335794

  19. Development of Non-hazardous Explosives for Security Training and Testing (NESTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The security force at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely used canines to search for explosives and other contraband substances. The use of threat quantities of explosive for realistic training in populated or sensitive Laboratory areas has not been permitted because of the hazard. To overcome this limitation a series of non-hazardous materials with authentic signatures have been prepared and evaluated. A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and canine (K-9) detection in a Beta Test Program

  20. Comparative gene expression in toxic versus non-toxic strains of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckner Gernot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis genes in the two existent Alexandrium tamarense EST libraries, we propose that the PSP toxin genes in dinoflagellates might be more different from their cyanobacterial counterparts than would be expected in the case of a recent gene transfer. As a starting point to identify possible PSP toxin-associated genes in dinoflagellates without relying on a priori sequence information, the sequences only present in mRNA pools of the toxic strain can be seen as putative candidates involved in toxin synthesis and regulation, or acclimation to intracellular PSP toxins.

  1. Washing wool with surfactants and a non-toxic solvent microemulsion: influence of water hardness

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Fité, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    In this work, detersive power (soil removal) was studied after washing a soiled wool fabric with addition of a non-toxic solvent microemulsion to conventional washing detergent formulations with the aim of improving the performance of the conventional washing. The non-toxic solvent used was dimethyl sulfoxide micro-dispersed with an amphoteric surfactant as emulsifier. The fabric was washed with biodegradable non-ionic surfactants such as an alcohol ethoxylate (AE) with 7 mE.O. and an alkyl p...

  2. The thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and its regulation in non-toxic goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 35 patients with non-toxic goitre, surgically resected thyroid tissue was hydrolyzed with Pronase under anaerobic conditions in the presence of methylmercaptoimidazole. Total iodine, PBI, L-thyroxine (T3-RIA and T4 (D)) as well as triiodothyronine (T3-RIA) were determined in the tissue hydrolysates. The data obtained were compared with T4/T3 ratios in the serum, TRH test and thyroidal 131I uptake before operation. The total iodine, amounted to 112,6 +- 14.6 ?g/g tissue. The T4/T3 ratio was 11.37 +- 1.80. Using this procedure of tissue hydrolysis and RIA assays for iodothyronines, the yield for T4 and T3 is considerably higher than the one obtained with previous methods. As in animal experiments, evidence was given for human goitre that T3 is predominantly produced first in the case of decreased T4 production. Second in the case of iodine deficiency, and third in cases of increased TSH response after TRH. Patients with a large amount of iodine and T4 in their thyroids have a much smaller increase in serum TSH after TRH than do subjects with a much lower thyroidal T4 concentration. This occurs even through the thyroid hormone levels in serum in these groups are not different. No correlation between thyroidal T4/T3 ratio and serum T4/T3 ratio could be demonstrated even under extreme conditions. This finding favors the assumption of a predominant extrathyroidal regulation for T4/T3 ratio in serum. (orig.)

  3. Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per

    2014-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effects and to shape the delivery of value based care. Valid generic and disease specific tools are available for quantifying HRQoL in patients with non-toxic goitre. However, few studies have applied these validated instruments to assess HRQoL in patients with benign non-toxic goitre. Limited evidence suggests that patients with non-toxic goitre have HRQoL impairments in multiple HRQoL domains. While the HRQoL-impact of non-toxic goitre may be small relative to other severely disabling medical conditions, treatment is almost exclusively elected for HRQoL indications. Thus better quantification of HRQoL, particularly at better (or more favorable) levels where many patients score, is essential. Web and mobile technologies have eased the ability to deliver surveys to patients. Routine consideration of HRQoL provides the opportunity to monitor the impact of treatment on the outcomes most meaningful for patients and theopportunity to help shape the delivery of value based health care.

  4. Radioiodine therapy of benign non-toxic goitre. Potential role of recombinant human TSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, S; Bonnema, S J; Hegedüs, L

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an update on recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH) augmented radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy and outlines its potential role in the treatment of symptomatic benign multinodular non-toxic goitre. In some countries, ¹³¹I has been used for three decades to reduce the size of nodular goitres...

  5. Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

  6. Assessment of Cost Impacts of Using Non-Toxic Propulsion in Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, P. J.; Gies, O.; Stuhlberger, J.; Schmitz, H.-D.

    2002-01-01

    The growing costs of space missions, the need for increased mission performance, and concerns associated with environmental issues deeply influence propulsion system design and propellant selection criteria. A propellant's performance was defined in the past exclusively in terms of specific impulse and density, but now high-performance, non-toxic, non-sophisticated mono- propellant systems are key drivers, and are considered for development to replace the traditional hydrazine (N2H4) mono-propellant thrusters. The mono-propellants under consideration are propellant formulations, which should be environmentally friendly, should have a high density, equal or better performance and better thermal characteristics than hydrazine. These considerations raised interest specially in the candidates of Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN)-based propellants, Ammoniumdinitramide (ADN)-based propellants, Tri-ethanol (TEAN)-based propellants, Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF)-based propellants, Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-based propellants. A near-term objective in consideration of satellite related process optimisation is to significantly reduce on-ground operations costs and at the same time improve mission performance. A far-term objective is to obtain a system presenting a very high performance, illustrated by a high specific impulse. Moving to a "non-toxic" propulsion system seems to be a solution to these two goals. The sought after benefits for non-toxic spacecraft mono-propellant propulsion are under investigation taking into account the four main parameters which are mandatory for customer satisfaction while meeting the price constraints: - Reliability, availability, maintainability and safety, - Manufacturing, assembly, integration and test, - Launch preparation and support, - Ground support equipment. These benefits of non-toxic mono-propellants can be proven by various examples, like an expected reduction of development costs due the non-toxicity of propellants which might allow "easier" design, reducing some inhibits for ground safety, leading to a shorter development time, and consequently to reduced program costs. Operational costs could be reduced due to the use of non-toxic propellant. Their non-toxicity, in comparison to the traditional propellants, will avoid special safety procedures and also parallelisation of processes during all phases of AIT and launch preparations. The costs directly associated with propellant handling, transport and storage should be lower, also follow-on costs risk is minimised because of the elimination or significant reduction of toxic and carcinogenic characteristics of the propellants. The physical characteristic and properties of some of the propellants formulations mentioned, like a higher density than hydrazine, support the beneficial aspects: a global S/C weight reduction could be achieved due to smaller tanks.

  7. Non-toxic antifouling activity of polymeric 3-alkylpyridinium salts from the Mediterranean sponge Reniera sarai (Pulitzer-Finali).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faimali, Marco; Sepci?, Kristina; Turk, Tom; Geraci, Sebastiano

    2003-02-01

    The antifouling activity and toxicity of polymeric 3-alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Reniera sarai were studied. The activity of these natural products was compared to that of zinc and copper complexes of pyrithione, two non-persistent booster biocides successfully used in current antifouling coatings. Larvae of Balanus amphitrite (cyprids and nauplii) were used to monitor settlement inhibition and the extent to which inhibition was due to toxicity. The microalga Tetraselmis suecica and larvae of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were used in toxicity bioassays. Compared to the booster biocides, poly-APS were less effective at inhibiting cyprid settlement, but their effects were non toxic and reversible, with very low toxicity against the organisms used in the toxicity bioassays. Although encouraging, these results are not enough to warrant the use of poly-APS as a potential commercial antifoulant. They however justify possible future efforts to chemically synthesize poly-APS analogues for further tests. PMID:14618688

  8. Structural studies on a non toxic homologue of type II RIPs from bitter gourd: Molecular basis of non toxicity, conformational selection and glycan structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thyageshwar Chandran; Alok Sharma; M Vijayan

    2015-12-01

    The structures of nine independent crystals of bitter gourd seed lectin (BGSL), a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPS, and its sugar complexes have been determined. The four-chain, two-fold symmetric, protein is made up of two identical two-chain modules, each consisting of a catalytic chain and a lectin chain, connected by a disulphide bridge. The lectin chain is made up of two domains. Each domain carries a carbohydrate binding site in type II RIPS of known structure. BGSL has a sugar binding site only on one domain, thus impairing its interaction at the cell surface. The adenine binding site in the catalytic chain is defective. Thus, defects in sugar binding as well as adenine binding appear to contribute to the non-toxicity of the lectin. The plasticity of the molecule is mainly caused by the presence of two possible well defined conformations of a surface loop in the lectin chain. One of them is chosen in the sugar complexes, in a case of conformational selection, as the chosen conformation facilitates an additional interaction with the sugar, involving an arginyl residue in the loop. The -glycosylation of the lectin involves a plant-specific glycan while that in toxic type H RIPS of known structure involves a glycan which is animal as well as plant specific.

  9. Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from bitter gourd: Molecular basis of non-toxicity, conformational selection and glycan structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Thyageshwar; Sharma, Alok; Vijayan, M

    2015-12-01

    The structures of nine independent crystals of bitter gourd seed lectin (BGSL), a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs, and its sugar complexes have been determined. The four-chain, two-fold symmetric, protein is made up of two identical two-chain modules, each consisting of a catalytic chain and a lectin chain, connected by a disulphide bridge. The lectin chain is made up of two domains. Each domain carries a carbohydrate binding site in type II RIPs of known structure. BGSL has a sugar binding site only on one domain, thus impairing its interaction at the cell surface. The adenine binding site in the catalytic chain is defective. Thus, defects in sugar binding as well as adenine binding appear to contribute to the non-toxicity of the lectin. The plasticity of the molecule is mainly caused by the presence of two possible well defined conformations of a surface loop in the lectin chain. One of them is chosen in the sugar complexes, in a case of conformational selection, as the chosen conformation facilitates an additional interaction with the sugar, involving an arginyl residue in the loop. The N-glycosylation of the lectin involves a plant-specific glycan while that in toxic type II RIPs of known structure involves a glycan which is animal as well as plant specific. PMID:26648038

  10. Analyses of Environmental Impacts of Non Hazardous Regional Landfills in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Donevska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of potential environmental impacts for eight planned non-hazardous regional landfills in Macedonia. Waste quantities for each waste management region and landfill capacities are estimated. Expected leachate quantities are calculated using Water Balance Method. Analyses and comparison of the likely landfill leachate per capita are presented, demonstrating that higher rates of leachate are generated per capita in waste management regions with higher annual sums of rainfall. An assessment of the potential landfill impacts on the water environment taking into consideration local geology and hydrogeology conditions is presented. Some general measures for leachate treatment that are in compliance with the modern EU standards are indicated. The goal of the study is to facilitate a better understanding about the sustainable waste management practices in cases of landfilling of municipal solid waste.

  11. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates ...

  12. Radioiodine therapy of benign non-toxic goitre. Potential role of recombinant human TSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, S; Bonnema, S J; Hegedüs, L

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an update on recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH) augmented radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy and outlines its potential role in the treatment of symptomatic benign multinodular non-toxic goitre. In some countries, ¹³¹I has been used for three decades to reduce the size of nodular goitres. The feasibility of ¹³¹I therapy depends on an adequate thyroid ¹³¹I uptake. Based on a two-fold increase in thyroid ¹³¹I uptake, superiority studies have convincingly demonstrated that the absorbed thy...

  13. Application of a non-hazardous vital dye for cell counting with automated cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo In; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Lee, Kiwon; Hong, Dongpyo; Lim, Hyunchang; Cho, Keunchang; Jung, Neoncheol; Yi, Yong Weon

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in automated cell counters enable us to count cells more easily with consistency. However, the wide use of the traditional vital dye trypan blue (TB) raises environmental and health concerns due to its potential teratogenic effects. To avoid this chemical hazard, it is of importance to introduce an alternative non-hazardous vital dye that is compatible with automated cell counters. Erythrosin B (EB) is a vital dye that is impermeable to biological membranes and is used as a food additive. Similarly to TB, EB stains only nonviable cells with disintegrated membranes. However, EB is less popular than TB and is seldom used with automated cell counters. We found that cell counting accuracy with EB was comparable to that with TB. EB was found to be an effective dye for accurate counting of cells with different viabilities across three different automated cell counters. In contrast to TB, EB was less toxic to cultured HL-60 cells during the cell counting process. These results indicate that replacing TB with EB for use with automated cell counters will significantly reduce the hazardous risk while producing comparable results. PMID:26399556

  14. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH)2 was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC

  15. The treatment of multinodular large non-toxic goiter using repeated doses of radioiodine (preliminary report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of study was to establish the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy using 131I in the group of patients with multinodular large non-toxic goiter. Material and methods: Therapy was undertaken in female patients disqualified from surgery due to high risk and these patients who didn't agree to surgery. Studies were performed in 7 women (age range: 62.82 yrs) with large goiters (2nd degree according to WHO classification and goiter volume assessed by USG over 100 cm3). Serum TSH, fT4, fT3, antithyroid antibodies (TPOAb, TgAb, TRAb) levels, urinary iodine concentration (UIE) were estimated in all patients parallel with radioiodine uptake test (after 5 and 24 hours), 131I thyroid scintigraphy and fine needle biopsy to exclude neoplasmatic transformation. These studies and therapy with 22 mCi 131I were repeated every 3 months. Results: Before therapy median thyroid volume was approximately 145 cm3 and during therapy gradually decreased to 76 cm3 after 6 months and to 65 cm3 after 12 months. Increase of TRAb can be a inhibiting factor of thyroid volume reduction. Other antithyroid antibodies showed marked tendency to rise but without significant correlation with radioiodine uptake and goiter reduction. After 12 months we found 2 patients with clinical and laboratory hypothyroidism. Conclusions: In some cases of multinodular large non-toxic goiter, the radioiodine therapy can be the best alternative way for L-thyroxine treatment or surgery therapy. The fractionated radioiodine therapy of multinodular large non-toxic goiter is safe and effective method but continuation of nodules observation is necessary. (author)

  16. Quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramon, Per; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Ekholm, Ola; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Frendl, Daniel M; Groenvold, Mogens; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Watt, Torquil

    2015-01-01

    Background While health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues often prompt treatment of benign non-toxic goiter (NTG), few clinical studies have systematically assessed HRQoL in patients with this condition. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate thyroid-related and generic HRQoL in patients with benign NTG, as compared to the general population, before and 6 months after treatment. Methods Thyroid-related and generic HRQoL were assessed with ThyPRO and SF-36, respective...

  17. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S; Richter, K-U; Hansen, Per Juel; Krock, B; Rost, B

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O-2 evolution and CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet MS in cells acclimated to low (7.9) and high pH (8.4 or 8.9). Species-s...

  18. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

  19. A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woollett Laura A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alarming rise in the obesity epidemic and growing concern for the pathologic consequences of the metabolic syndrome warrant great need for development of obesity-related pharmacotherapeutics. The search for such therapeutics is severely limited by the slow throughput of animal models of obesity. Amenable to placement into a 96 well plate, zebrafish larvae have emerged as one of the highest throughput vertebrate model organisms for performing small molecule screens. A method for visually identifying non-toxic molecular effectors of fat metabolism using a live transparent vertebrate was developed. Given that increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD via deletion of CD38 have been shown to prevent high fat diet induced obesity in mice in a SIRT-1 dependent fashion we explored the possibility of directly applying NAD to zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish larvae were incubated with daily refreshing of nile red containing media starting from a developmental stage of equivalent fat content among siblings (3 days post-fertilization, dpf and continuing with daily refreshing until 7 dpf. Results PPAR activators, beta-adrenergic agonists, SIRT-1 activators, and nicotinic acid treatment all caused predicted changes in fat, cholesterol, and gene expression consistent with a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fat metabolism signal transduction extending from man to zebrafish larvae. All changes in fat content were visually quantifiable in a relative fashion using live zebrafish larvae nile red fluorescence microscopy. Resveratrol treatment caused the greatest and most consistent loss of fat content. The resveratrol tetramer Vaticanol B caused loss of fat equivalent in potency to resveratrol alone. Significantly, the direct administration of NAD decreased fat content in zebrafish. Results from knockdown of a zebrafish G-PCR ortholog previously determined to decrease fat content in C. elegans support that future GPR142 antagonists may be effective non-toxic anti-obesity therapeutics. Conclusion Owing to the apparently high level of evolutionary conservation of signal transduction pathways regulating lipid metabolism, the zebrafish can be useful for identifying non-toxic small molecules or pharmacological target gene products for developing molecular therapeutics for treating clinical obesity. Our results support the promising potential in applying NAD or resveratrol where the underlying target protein likely involves Sirtuin family member proteins. Furthermore data supports future studies focused on determining whether there is a high concentration window for resveratrol that is effective and non-toxic in high fat obesity murine models.

  20. A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin S; Alimov, Alexander P; Rilo, Horacio L; Jandacek, Ronald J; Woollett, Laura A; Penberthy, W Todd

    2008-01-01

    Background The alarming rise in the obesity epidemic and growing concern for the pathologic consequences of the metabolic syndrome warrant great need for development of obesity-related pharmacotherapeutics. The search for such therapeutics is severely limited by the slow throughput of animal models of obesity. Amenable to placement into a 96 well plate, zebrafish larvae have emerged as one of the highest throughput vertebrate model organisms for performing small molecule screens. A method for visually identifying non-toxic molecular effectors of fat metabolism using a live transparent vertebrate was developed. Given that increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) via deletion of CD38 have been shown to prevent high fat diet induced obesity in mice in a SIRT-1 dependent fashion we explored the possibility of directly applying NAD to zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish larvae were incubated with daily refreshing of nile red containing media starting from a developmental stage of equivalent fat content among siblings (3 days post-fertilization, dpf) and continuing with daily refreshing until 7 dpf. Results PPAR activators, beta-adrenergic agonists, SIRT-1 activators, and nicotinic acid treatment all caused predicted changes in fat, cholesterol, and gene expression consistent with a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fat metabolism signal transduction extending from man to zebrafish larvae. All changes in fat content were visually quantifiable in a relative fashion using live zebrafish larvae nile red fluorescence microscopy. Resveratrol treatment caused the greatest and most consistent loss of fat content. The resveratrol tetramer Vaticanol B caused loss of fat equivalent in potency to resveratrol alone. Significantly, the direct administration of NAD decreased fat content in zebrafish. Results from knockdown of a zebrafish G-PCR ortholog previously determined to decrease fat content in C. elegans support that future GPR142 antagonists may be effective non-toxic anti-obesity therapeutics. Conclusion Owing to the apparently high level of evolutionary conservation of signal transduction pathways regulating lipid metabolism, the zebrafish can be useful for identifying non-toxic small molecules or pharmacological target gene products for developing molecular therapeutics for treating clinical obesity. Our results support the promising potential in applying NAD or resveratrol where the underlying target protein likely involves Sirtuin family member proteins. Furthermore data supports future studies focused on determining whether there is a high concentration window for resveratrol that is effective and non-toxic in high fat obesity murine models. PMID:18752667

  1. Potent inhibition of copper corrosion in neutral chloride media by novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Two eco-friendly thiadiazole derivatives show high inhibition efficiency on copper. •Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. •Surface layers were also characterized by SEM coupled with EDX analysis. •Raman spectra reveals inhibitors suppress corrosion via formation of complex. •Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were calculated. -- Abstract: Inhibiting effect of two novel non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives on copper were investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution using weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Presence of inhibitors and increase of concentration greatly decrease corrosion rate, parameters determined from polarization curves and EIS plots show that inhibitors decrease both cathodic and anodic current densities, suppressing charge transfer process by adsorption on copper surface. Thermodynamic calculation indicates chemisorption obeys Langmuir isotherm. Surface layers were characterized by SEM coupled with EDX. Raman micro-spectroscopy reveals that inhibitor molecules suppress copper corrosion via formation of thiadiazole–Cu complex. Relationships between inhibition efficiency and molecular orbital were also evaluated

  2. Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Jean-Philippe; Hellio, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants) as well as the perspectives for future research directions. PMID:20087457

  3. Therapy for non-toxic multinodular goiter. Radioiodine therapy as attractive alternative to surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for therapy for nodular goiter results from the growth of thyroid nodules over decades and from the possibility of tracheal compression and worsening of respiratory function. Given the high prevalence of non-toxic goiter, the epidemiologically low incidence of clinically apparent thyroid cancer justifies non-surgical strategies. Randomised studies have shown that levothyroxine offers limited therapeutic effects and is inferior to radioiodine therapy regarding goiter shrinkage. When indication for a definitive therapy is given, the choice between resection and radioiodine therapy should consider volume of goiter, severity of clinical symptoms, thyroid uptake, patient's age, co-morbidity, previous resection of goiter, patient's profession and patient's wish. Even in large goiters between 100 and 300 ml radioiodine therapy showed consistent results with goiter size reduction from 35-40% one year and 40-60% two years after radioiodine therapy. Thyroid hormones to prevent recurrence of goiter are not necessary. Recurrent goiters were seldom observed after radioiodine therapy and resulted from initially very large goiters or uptake in dominante nodules or from low 131I activities. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) offers the opportunity to enhance the effect of radioiodine therapy. Observational studies have shown that rhTSH increases low 131I uptake in case of high alimentary iodine-supply by the factor 4, causes a more homogenous 131I distribution within the goiter and improves goiter reduction. A phase I study for dose finding is running in the USA. Conclusion: radioiodine therapy for shrinkage of large non-toxic goiter should not be restricted to elderly patients, or to patients with co-morbidity or high operative risk, but is an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with special professions (singer, teacher, speaker) or with the wish for a non-invasive treatment modality. (orig.)

  4. Determinants of non-toxicity in the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letley, Darren P; Rhead, Joanne L; Twells, Rachel J; Dove, Brian; Atherton, John C

    2003-07-18

    The Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, is naturally polymorphic, the two most diverse regions being the signal region (which can be type s1 or s2) and the mid region (m1 or m2). Previous work has shown which features of vacA make peptic ulcer and gastric cancer-associated type s1/m1 and s1/m2 strains toxic. vacA s2/m2 strains are associated with lower peptic ulcer and gastric cancer risk and are non-toxic. We now define the features of vacA that determine the non-toxicity of these strains. To do this, we deleted parts of vacA and constructed isogenic hybrid strains in which regions of vacA were exchanged between toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. We showed that a naturally occurring 12-amino acid hydrophilic N-terminal extension found on s2 VacA blocks vacuolating activity as its removal (to make the strain s1-like) confers activity. The mid region of s2/m2 vacA does not cause the non-vacuolating phenotype, but if VacA is unblocked, it confers cell line specificity of vacuolation as in natural s1/m2 strains. Chromosomal replacement of vacA in a non-toxigenic strain with vacA from a toxigenic strain confers full vacuolating activity proving that this activity is entirely controlled by elements within vacA. This work defines why H. pylori strains with different vacA allelic structures have differing toxicity and provides a rational basis for vacA typing schemes. PMID:12738773

  5. Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominick, J

    2008-12-18

    This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

  6. Remediation of lead-contaminated soil with non-toxic biodegradable natural ligands extracted from soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Woo; Kim, Chulsung

    2012-01-01

    Bench-scale soil washing studies were performed to evaluate the potential application of non-toxic, biodegradable extracted soybean-complexing ligands for the remediation of lead-contaminated soils. Results showed that, with extracted soybean-complexing ligands, lead solubility extensively increased when pH of the solution was higher than 6, and approximately 10% (500 mg/kg) of lead was removed from a rifle range soil. Two potential primary factors controlling the effectiveness of lead extraction from lead-contaminated soils with natural ligands are adsorption of extracted aqueous lead ions onto the ground soybean and the pH of the extraction solution. More complexing ligands were extracted from the ground soybean as the reaction pH increased. As a result, significantly higher lead extraction efficiency was observed under basic environments. In addition, less adsorption onto soybean was observed when the pH of the solution was higher than 7. Among two available Lewis base functional groups in the extracted soybean-complexing ligands such as carboxylate and the alpha-amino functional groups, the non-protonated alpha-amino functional groups may play an important role for the dissolution of lead from lead-contaminated soil through the formation of soluble lead--ligand complexes. PMID:23393984

  7. Non-Toxic, Low-Freezing, Drop-In Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    A non-toxic, non-flammable, low-freezing heat transfer fluid is being developed for drop-in replacement within current and future heat transfer loops currently using water or alcohol-based coolants. Numerous water-soluble compounds were down-selected and screened for toxicological, physical, chemical, compatibility, thermodynamic, and heat transfer properties. Two fluids were developed, one with a freezing point near 0 C, and one with a suppressed freezing point. Both fluids contain an additive package to improve material compatibility and microbial resistance. The optimized sub-zero solution had a freezing point of 30 C, and a freezing volume expansion of 10-percent of water. The toxicity of the solutions was experimentally determined as LD(50) greater than 5g/kg. The solutions were found to produce minimal corrosion with materials identified by NASA as potentially existing in secondary cooling loops. Thermal/hydrodynamic performance exceeded that of glycol-based fluids with comparable freezing points for temperatures Tf greater than 20 C. The additive package was demonstrated as a buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption, and to prevent microbial growth. The optimized solutions were determined to have physically/chemically stable shelf lives for freeze/thaw cycles and longterm test loop tests.

  8. Deferiprone, a non-toxic reagent for determination of iron in samples via sequential injection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragourpun, Kraivinee; Sakee, Uthai; Fernandez, Carlos; Kruanetr, Senee

    2015-05-01

    We present for the first time the use of deferiprone as a non-toxic complexing agent for the determination of iron by sequential injection analysis in pharmaceuticals and food samples. The method was based on the reaction of Fe(III) and deferiprone in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 to give a Fe(III)-deferiprone complex, which showed a maximum absorption at 460 nm. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity range for iron determination was found over the range of 0.05-3.0 μg mL-1 with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9993. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.032 μg mL-1 and 0.055 μg mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the method was less than 5.0% (n = 11), and the percentage recovery was found in the range of 96.0-104.0%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of Fe(III) in pharmaceuticals, water and food samples with a sampling rate of 60 h-1.

  9. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein composition. A simple, efficient, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from petiole explants of non-toxic J. curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ). The best induction of shoot buds (57.61%), and number of shoot buds (4.98) per explant were obtained when in vitro petiole explants were placed horizontally on MS medium supplemented with 2.27 mu M TDZ. The Induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 mu M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 mu M 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 mu M alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation and subsequent elongation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 mu M BA and 8.5 mu M IAA. The elongated shoots could be rooted on half-strength MS medium with 15 mu M IBA, 11.4 mu M IAA and 5.5 mu M NAA with more than 90% survival rate. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radioiodine - an attractive alternative to surgery in large non-toxic multinodular goitres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporadic non-toxic goitre (SNG) is defined as thyroid enlargement in a euthyroid patient living in an area without endemic goitre. Because thyroid hormone function is within the reference range, the main problems are the signs of thyroid enlargement, thus reducing the size of the goitre is undoubtedly the primary goal of therapy. Although SNG is a common disease, there is no single optimal management of treatment strategy. L-thyroxine treatment, although only moderately effective and with reported reductions in goitre volume of less than 30%, is still used. Moreover, in patients over 60 years of age, long-term TSH-suppression treatment may cause iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and is associated with a significant risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation as well as osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women. In patients with huge goitres, the surgical removal of a gland is made most frequently. The great advantage of thyroid surgery is its immediate effect. Unfortunately, surgery carries a risk of goitre recurrence and complications, both surgical and anaesthesia-related. For those patients who do not want to be operated on, or have contraindications for invasive treatment, and taking into consideration the low efficacy of L-thyroxine treatment, the best option is radioiodine. Despite encouraging reports of the high efficacy of radioiodine in the treatment of SNG this method is still not commonly used by many clinicians. In our work we would like to point out the efficacy, adverse effects, and contraindications of using iodine-131. Going through the advantages and disadvantages of all accessible methods of treatment of SNG, we would like to focus on using radioiodine as an attractive alternative to surgery. (authors)

  11. Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac, Jacky; Tramel, Terri

    2003-01-01

    The current NASA Space Shuttle auxiliary propulsion system utilizes nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH), hypergolic propellants. This use of these propellants has resulted in high levels of maintenance and precautions that contribute to costly launch operations. By employing alternate propellant combinations, those less toxic to humans, the hazards and time required between missions can be significantly reduced. Use of alternate propellants can thereby increase the efficiency and lower the cost in launch operations. In support of NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI), TRW proposed a three-phase project structured to significantly increase the technology readiness of a high-performance reaction control subsystem (RCS) thruster using non-toxic propellant for an operationally efficient and reusable auxiliary propulsion system (APS). The project enables the development of an integrated primary/vernier thruster capable of providing dual-thrust levels of both 1000-lbf class thrust and 25-lbf thrust. The intent of the project is to reduce the risk associated with the development of an improved RCS flight design that meets the primary NASA objectives of improved safety and reliability while reducing systems operations and maintenance costs. TRW proposed two non-toxic auxiliary propulsion engine designs, one using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen and the other using liquid oxygen and liquid ethanol, as candidates to meet the goals of reliability and affordability at the RCS level. Both of these propellant combinations offer the advantage of a safe environment for maintenance, while at the same time providing adequate to excellent performance for a conventional liquid propulsion systems. The key enabling technology incorporated in both TRW thrusters is the coaxial liquid on liquid pintle injector. This paper will concentrate on only the design and testing of one of the thrusters, the liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) thruster. The LOX/LH2 thruster design includes a LOX-centered pintle injector, consisting of two rows of slots that create a radial spoke spray pattern in the combustion chamber. The main fuel injector creates a continuous sheet of LH2 originating upstream of the LOX pintle injector. The two propellants impinge at the pintle slots, where the resulting momentum ratio and spray pattern determines the combustion efficiency and thermal effects on the hardware. Another enabling technology used in the design of this thruster is fuel film cooling through a duct, lining the inner wall of the combustion chamber barrel section. The duct is also acts as a secondary fuel injection point. The variation in the amount of LH2 used for the duct allows for adjustments in the cooling capacity for the thruster. The Non-Toxic LOX-LH2 RCS Workhorse Thruster was tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Test Stand 500. Hot-fire tests were conducted between March 08, 2002 and April 05, 2002. All testing during the program base period were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LH2 injector stroke settings. The operating conditions that were surveyed varied thrust levels, mixture ratio and LH2 duct cooling flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The total accumulated burn time for the test program is 352.3 seconds. C* efficiency was calculated and found to be within expectable limits for most operating conditions. The temperature on the Haynes combustion chamber remained below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. The test results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster head-e design maintained cryogenic injection temperatures while firing, which validates the concept for

  12. Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac, Jacky; Tramel, Terri

    2003-01-01

    The current NASA Space Shuttle auxiliary propulsion system utilizes nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH), hypergolic propellants. This use of these propellants has resulted in high levels of maintenance and precautions that contribute to costly launch operations. By employing alternate propellant combinations, those less toxic to humans, the hazards and time required between missions can be significantly reduced. Use of alternate propellants can thereby increase the efficiency and lower the cost in launch operations. In support of NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI), TRW proposed a three-phase project structured to significantly increase the technology readiness of a high-performance reaction control subsystem (RCS) thruster using non-toxic propellant for an operationally efficient and reusable auxiliary propulsion system (APS). The project enables the development of an integrated primary/vernier thruster capable of providing dual-thrust levels of both 1000-lbf class thrust and 25-lbf thrust. The intent of the project is to reduce the risk associated with the development of an improved RCS flight design that meets the primary NASA objectives of improved safety and reliability while reducing systems operations and maintenance costs. TRW proposed two non-toxic auxiliary propulsion engine designs, one using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen and the other using liquid oxygen and liquid ethanol, as candidates to meet the goals of reliability and affordability at the RCS level. Both of these propellant combinations offer the advantage of a safe environment for maintenance, while at the same time providing adequate to excellent performance for a conventional liquid propulsion systems. The key enabling technology incorporated in both TRW thrusters is the coaxial liquid on liquid pintle injector. This paper will concentrate on only the design and testing of one of the thrusters, the liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) thruster. The LOX/LH2 thruster design includes a LOX-centered pintle injector, consisting of two rows of slots that create a radial spoke spray pattern in the combustion chamber. The main fuel injector creates a continuous sheet of LH2 originating upstream of the LOX pintle injector. The two propellants impinge at the pintle slots, where the resulting momentum ratio and spray pattern determines the combustion efficiency and thermal effects on the hardware. Another enabling technology used in the design of this thruster is fuel film cooling through a duct, lining the inner wall of the combustion chamber barrel section. The duct is also acts as a secondary fuel injection point. The variation in the amount of LH2 used for the duct allows for adjustments in the cooling capacity for the thruster. The Non-Toxic LOX-LH2 RCS Workhorse Thruster was tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Test Stand 500. Hot-fire tests were conducted between March 08, 2002 and April 05, 2002. All testing during the program base period were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LH2 injector stroke settings. The operating conditions that were surveyed varied thrust levels, mixture ratio and LH2 duct cooling flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The total accumulated burn time for the test program is 352.3 seconds. C* efficiency was calculated and found to be within expectable limits for most operating conditions. The temperature on the Haynes combustion chamber remained below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. The test results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster head-e design maintained cryogenic injection temperatures while firing, which validates the concept for minimal heat soak back. By injecting fuel into the duct, the throat temperatures were manageable, yet the split of fuel through the cooling duct does not compromise the overall combustion efficiency, which indicates that, provided proper design refinement, such a concept can be applied to a high-performance version of the thruster. These hot fire tests demonstrate the robustness of the duct design concept and good capability to withstand off-nominal operating conditions without adversely impacting the thermal response of the engine, a key design feature for a cryogenic thruster.

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus and mesophilic moulds in air in the surrounding environment downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Olivier; Robert, Samuel; Debeaupuis, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Non-hazardous waste landfilling has the potential to release biological agents into the air, notably mould spores. Some species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, may be a cause of concern for at-risk nearby residents. However, air concentration in the surrounding environment of non-hazardous waste landfill sites is poorly documented. An extensive sampling programme was designed to investigate the relationship between culturable mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus concentrations in air and distance downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites. On-site and off-site repeated measurements were performed at four landfill sites during cold and warm seasons. A high-flow air-sampler device was selected so as to allow peak concentration measurement. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explain variability in the concentrations in air over time and across sites, seasons, instantaneous meteorological conditions and discharged waste tonnage. Concentrations of mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus at off-site upwind sampling locations were compared with concentrations at each of the downwind sampling locations. At the tipping face location, peak concentration reached 480,000CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and 9300CFUm(-3) for A. fumigatus. Compared with upwind background levels, these concentrations were, on average, approximately 20 and 40 times higher respectively. A steep decline in the concentration of both mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus was observed between the tipping face location and the downwind property boundary (reduction by 77% and 84% respectively), followed by a low decline leading to a 90% and 94% reduction in concentration at 200m from the property boundary and beyond. With the 200m and 500m downwind sampling point values added together, the 97.5th percentile of concentration was 6013CFUm(-3) and 87CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus, respectively. Other determining factors were the discharged waste tonnage, the season, instantaneous temperature and wind velocity for mesophilic mould, and instantaneous temperature for A. fumigatus. At 200m and 500 downwind from the property boundary, mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus concentrations were still higher than the local background level. However, whilst statistically significant, this increase does not suggest an excess risk to nearby residents' health when compared with the wide range of outdoor background levels reported in literature. These findings suggest that moulds and A. fumigatus may be transported beyond 200m from the property boundary in concentrations above those found locally upwind of the landfill site. Nevertheless, for exposure assessment purposes, comparison should also be made with background levels in wider areas which are either residential or through which people travel to work for example. PMID:26915642

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Toxin-Producing Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and Its Non-Toxic Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Zhang; Shu-Fei Zhang; Lin Lin; Da-Zhi Wang

    2014-01-01

    The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T), and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT) using RNA-seq. Al...

  15. Testing the Awareness of Hazardous Nature of Printmaking Materials among Printmaking Instructors in Traditional and Non-toxic Printmaking Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam N. Radaydeh; Sameer A. Otoom

    2005-01-01

    In art education, printmaking is one area that mostly deals with toxic materials that are hazardous to human health. This study investigated printmaking instructor awareness of hazardous printmaking materials. A questionnaire was designed for printmaking instructors and was mailed to a 20 instructors from the non-toxic printmaking programs and 20 instructors from traditional printmaking programs. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of respondents and the awaren...

  16. Separation of non-hazardous, non-radioactive components from ICPP calcine via chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyrochemical treatment method for separating non-radioactive from radioactive components in solid granular waste accumulated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was investigated. The goal of this study was to obtain kinetic and chemical separation data on the reaction products of the chlorination of the solid waste, known as calcine. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were completed to verify that a separation of radioactive and non-radioactive calcine components was possible. Bench-scale chlorination experiments were completed subsequently in a variety of reactor configurations including: a fixed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed around and not through the particle bed), a packed/fluidized-bed reactor, and a packed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed through the particle bed). Chemical analysis of the reaction products generated during the chlorination experiments verified the predictions made by the equilibrium calculations. An empirical first-order kinetic rate expression was developed for each of the reactor configurations. 20 refs., 16 figs., 21 tabs

  17. Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac, Jacky; Dang, Lisa; Tramel, Terri; Paseur, Lila; Champion, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under NASA sponsorship, Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) designed, built and tested two non-toxic, reaction control engines, one using liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) and the other using liquid oxygen and ethanol. This paper presents the design and testing of the LOX/LH2 thruster. The two key enabling technologies are the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector and the fuelcooling duct. The workhorse thruster was hotfire tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Test Stand 500 in March and April of 2002. All tests were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LHp injector settings. The operating conditions surveyed were 70 to 100% thrust levels, mixture ratios from 3.27 to 4.29, and LH2 duct cooling from 18.0 to 25.5% fuel flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The performance of the engine reached 95% C* efficiency. The temperature on the Haynes chamber remained well below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. These results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster headend design maintained cryogenic injection temperatures while firing, which validates the selected injector design approach for minimal heat soak-back. Also, off -nominal operation without adversely impacting the thermal response of the engine showed the robustness of the duct design, a key design feature for this application. By injecting fuel into the duct, the throat temperatures are manageable, yet the split of fuel through the cooling duct does not compromise the overall combstion efficiency, which indicates that, provided proper design refinement, such a concept could be applied to a high-performance version of the thruster.

  18. A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J. D.; Treharne, R. E.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 1014 cm-3) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production.

  19. A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J D; Treharne, R E; Phillips, L J; Durose, K

    2014-07-17

    Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 10(14) cm(-3)) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production. PMID:25030171

  20. Evaluation of the non-toxic mutant of the diphtheria toxin K51E/E148K as carrier protein for meningococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecetta, S; Vijayakrishnan, B; Romano, M R; Proietti, D; Surdo, P Lo; Balocchi, C; Mori, E; Davis, B G; Berti, F

    2016-03-01

    Diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 is a common carrier protein for glycoconjugate vaccines, which has been proven an effective protein vector for, among others, meningococcal carbohydrates. The wide-range use of this protein in massive vaccine production requires constant increase of production yields and adaptability to an ever-growing market. Here we compare CRM197 with the alternative diphtheria non-toxic variant DT-K51E/E148K, an inactive mutant that can be produced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. Biophysical characterization of DT-K51E/E148K suggested high similarity with CRM197, with main differences in their alpha-helical content, and a suitable purity for conjugation and vaccine preparation. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA) glycoconjugates were synthesized using CRM197 and DT-K51E/E148K as carrier proteins, obtaining the same conjugation yields and comparable biophysical profiles. Mice were then immunized with these CRM197 and DT-K51E/E148K conjugates, and essentially identical immunogenic and protective effects were observed. Overall, our data indicate that DT-K51E/E148K is a readily produced protein that now allows the added flexibility of E. coli production in vaccine development and that can be effectively used as protein carrier for a meningococcal conjugate vaccine. PMID:26845738

  1. Low-Cost High-Performance Non-Toxic Self-Pressurizing Storable Liquid Bi-Propellant Pressure-Fed Rocket Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exquadrum proposes a high-performance liquid bi-propellant rocket engine that uses propellants that are non-toxic, self-pressurizing, and low cost. The proposed...

  2. Disposal of Toxic and Non-Toxic Waste through Lasers : Destruction of toxic solids, liquids and gases Models and Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The report discusses the destruction of toxic and non-toxic solids, liquids and gases through lasers. In order to completely understand the project first chapters describes the basics about laser and plasma separately, from definition to types, components and categories. Differences between laser and microwave system are covered in this chapter as well. Besides lasers there are different technologies that are currently being used to destroy toxic and non-toxic materials. These technologies we...

  3. The amino-acid sequence of two non-toxic mutants of diphtheria toxin: CRM45 and CRM197.

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, G.; Rappuoli, R.; Ratti, G

    1984-01-01

    The amino-acid sequences of two diphtheria toxin-related, non-toxic proteins, CRM45 and CRM197 , were deduced from the complete sequence of their genes: tox 45 and tox 197. CRM45 lacks the last 149 C-terminal amino-acid residues, but is otherwise identical to diphtheria toxin: a single C----T transition introduces an "ochre" (TAA) termination signal in tox 45, after the codon for threonine-386. A single G----A transition was also found in tox 197, leading to the substitution of glycine-52, pr...

  4. Development of a mathematical model for the production of solid fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Polanec, Brigita; Glodež, Sre?ko; Ekart, Janez; Samec, Niko; Kokalj, Filip

    2012-01-01

    The production of solid fuels from non-hazardous waste in Slovenia is becoming increasingly topical. After separation at the source the hierarchy of waste management is manifested in the mass and energy use of waste with a minimal damaging impact on the environment. There are two different qualities of solid fuels from non-hazardous waste, which represent energy-rich fractions from non-hazardous waste: - Residual Fuel Delivery (RDF), which is primarily intended for direct combustion and - Sol...

  5. Naphthoquinone-mediated Inhibition of Lysine Acetyltransferase KAT3B/p300, Basis for Non-toxic Inhibitor Synthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevarao, Mohankrishna Dalvoy; Mizar, Pushpak; Kumari, Sujata; Mandal, Somnath; Siddhanta, Soumik; Swamy, Mahadeva MM; Kaypee, Stephanie; Kodihalli, Ravindra C; Banerjee, Amrita; Naryana, Chandrabhas; Dasgupta, Dipak; Kundu, Tapas K.

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxynaphthoquinone-based inhibitors of the lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B (p300), such as plumbagin, are relatively toxic. Here, we report that free thiol reactivity and redox cycling properties greatly contribute to the toxicity of plumbagin. A reactive 3rd position in the naphthoquinone derivatives is essential for thiol reactivity and enhances redox cycling. Using this clue, we synthesized PTK1, harboring a methyl substitution at the 3rd position of plumbagin. This molecule loses its thiol reactivity completely and its redox cycling ability to a lesser extent. Mechanistically, non-competitive, reversible binding of the inhibitor to the lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) domain of p300 is largely responsible for the acetyltransferase inhibition. Remarkably, the modified inhibitor PTK1 was a nearly non-toxic inhibitor of p300. The present report elucidates the mechanism of acetyltransferase activity inhibition by 1,4-naphthoquinones, which involves redox cycling and nucleophilic adduct formation, and it suggests possible routes of synthesis of the non-toxic inhibitor. PMID:24469461

  6. Naphthoquinone-mediated inhibition of lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B/p300, basis for non-toxic inhibitor synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevarao, Mohankrishna Dalvoy; Mizar, Pushpak; Kumari, Sujata; Mandal, Somnath; Siddhanta, Soumik; Swamy, Mahadeva M M; Kaypee, Stephanie; Kodihalli, Ravindra C; Banerjee, Amrita; Naryana, Chandrabhas; Dasgupta, Dipak; Kundu, Tapas K

    2014-03-14

    Hydroxynaphthoquinone-based inhibitors of the lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B (p300), such as plumbagin, are relatively toxic. Here, we report that free thiol reactivity and redox cycling properties greatly contribute to the toxicity of plumbagin. A reactive 3rd position in the naphthoquinone derivatives is essential for thiol reactivity and enhances redox cycling. Using this clue, we synthesized PTK1, harboring a methyl substitution at the 3rd position of plumbagin. This molecule loses its thiol reactivity completely and its redox cycling ability to a lesser extent. Mechanistically, non-competitive, reversible binding of the inhibitor to the lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) domain of p300 is largely responsible for the acetyltransferase inhibition. Remarkably, the modified inhibitor PTK1 was a nearly non-toxic inhibitor of p300. The present report elucidates the mechanism of acetyltransferase activity inhibition by 1,4-naphthoquinones, which involves redox cycling and nucleophilic adduct formation, and it suggests possible routes of synthesis of the non-toxic inhibitor. PMID:24469461

  7. Non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in surface waters: An integrated approach simulating application thresholds and resulting farm income effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, M A; Grovermann, C; Schreinemachers, P; Ingwersen, J; Lamers, M; Berger, T; Streck, T

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide application rates are high and increasing in upland agricultural systems in Thailand producing vegetables, fruits and ornamental crops, leading to the pollution of stream water with pesticide residues. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum per hectare application rates of two widely used pesticides that would achieve non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in the stream water and to evaluate how farm household incomes would be affected if farmers complied with these restricted application rates. For this purpose we perform an integrated modeling approach of a hydrological solute transport model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) and an agent-based farm decision model (Mathematical Programming-based Multi-Agent Systems, MPMAS). SWAT was used to simulate the pesticide fate and behavior. The model was calibrated to a 77 km(2) watershed in northern Thailand. The results show that to stay under a pre-defined eco-toxicological threshold, the current average application of chlorothalonil (0.80 kg/ha) and cypermethrin (0.53 kg/ha) would have to be reduced by 80% and 99%, respectively. The income effect of such reductions was simulated using MPMAS. The results suggest that if farm households complied with the application thresholds then their income would reduce by 17.3% in the case of chlorothalonil and by 38.3% in the case of cypermethrin. Less drastic income effects can be expected if methods of integrated pest management were more widely available. The novelty of this study is to combine two models from distinctive disciplines to evaluate pesticide reduction scenarios based on real-world data from a single study site. PMID:26431614

  8. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, seve...

  9. Synthesis of Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate by Maghnite-H+ a Non-toxic Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benadda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate copolymers were prepared successfully and cleanly by a one step process via cationic copolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP with methyl methacrylate (MMA, in heterogeneous phase using “Maghnite-H+” (Mag-H+ as catalyst in bulk, Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H+. Temperature is varied between 20 and 80 °C. The effects of reaction temperature, amount of Mag-H+ on the yield and the intrinsic viscosity (? were investigated. A typical reaction product of poly (NVP-co- MMA was analyzed by infra red spectroscopy (FTIR and 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy as well as by viscosimetry. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 24th November 2013; Revised: 30th June 2014; Accepted: 8th July 2014How to Cite: Benadda, M., Ferrahi, M.I., Belbachir, M. (2014. Synthesis of Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate by Maghnite-H+ a Non-toxic Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 201-206. (doi: 10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5743.201-206Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5743.201-206

  10. Plant regeneration of non-toxic Jatropha curcas—impacts of plant growth regulators, source and type of explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-28

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 μM TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 μM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 μM BAP and 5.5 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 μM BAP and 8.5 μM IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.

  11. STUDY OF CLINICAL PROFILE OF NON - TOXIC GOITER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CORRELATION OF PATHOLOGY, LIPID PROFILE AND ANTIBODY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the morphology of non - toxic goiter , the role of auto - immunity and lipid abnormalities in overt and sub - clinical hypothyroid goiter patients. METHODS: A descriptive observational study was undertaken amongst goiter patients without thyrotoxic features comprising 50 randomly selected cases within the range of 12 - 65years. Goiter patients with thyrotoxic features , acute illness and other visceral diseases were excluded. The patients were evaluated with thyroid function tests , USG - thyroid , FNAC - thyroid , anti - TPO and lipid profile after thorough clinical examination. RESULTS : In my study , most patients were female (with male: female ratio 1:5.25 and were middle aged (betwe en age group 30 - 49years. Among all patients 60 %( i.e . 30 patients had Hashimoto’s thyroiditis , 24% (i.e. 12 patients had diffuse colloid goiter and 16% (i.e. 8 patients had nodular goiter. 52% (i.e. 26 of all patients and 76.6% (i.e. 23 of Hashimoto ’s goiter patients were anti - TPO positive. Majority of colloid goiter (i.e. 66.7% and nodular goiter (50% patients were euthyroid but majority of Hashimoto’s goiter patients were hypothyroid (65.38% overt and 33% sub - clinical. Majority of anti - TPO posit ive patients were hypothyroid (65.38% overt and 30.62% sub - clinical and majority of anti - TPO negative patients (66.67% were euthyroid. Within reference range of TSH , there was a linear increase in total serum cholesterol , LDL - cholesterol , triglyceride an d decrease in HDL - cholesterol with increase in TSH. This lipid profile changes are mainly seen in Hashimoto goiter patients . CONCLUSION : this study emphasizes the role of auto - immunity in non - toxic goiter patients especially Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patient s and lipid profile changes in those patients.

  12. Gold leaching by organic base polythionates: new non-toxic and secure technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Vladislav; Shekhvatova, Galina; Vainshtein, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article present a review on own experimental and some published data which are related with the gold leaching. It is well-known that the most common and usual process of the leaching with cyanide can be dangerous, needs a great water consumption, and additional costs for remediation of the poisoned and toxic sites. The experimental data described production of poythionates which are not toxic but perspective for the prosperous gold leaching. The paper dedicated to the safe gold leaching with thiosulfates and organic salts of polythionic acids (organic base polythionates). The method of production of these polythionates based on the Smolyaninov reaction is described in stages and in details for the first time. Possible application of the polythionates application in the gold leaching is discussed and its advantages are compared with the gold leaching by cyanation. PMID:24790825

  13. Gold leaching by organic base polythionates: new non-toxic and secure technology

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyaninov, Vladislav; Shekhvatova, Galina; Vainshtein, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article present a review on own experimental and some published data which are related with the gold leaching. It is well-known that the most common and usual process of the leaching with cyanide can be dangerous, needs a great water consumption, and additional costs for remediation of the poisoned and toxic sites. The experimental data described production of poythionates which are not toxic but perspective for the prosperous gold leaching. The paper dedicated to the safe gold leaching w...

  14. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, Roar

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GWpeek, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET.As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4½ months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies.

  15. Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, R.

    2012-07-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (approx1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GW{sub peek}, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET. As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4 1/2 months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies. (Author)

  16. Ultrafast laser based ``green'' synthesis of non-toxic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, S.; Kabashin, A. V.; Winnik, F. M.; Meunier, M.

    2008-12-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles offer novel promising properties for biological sensing and imaging, as well as in therapeutics. However, these applications are often complicated by the possible toxicity of conventional nanomaterials, arising as a result of inadequate purification procedures of nanoparticles obtained via synthetic pathways using toxic or non-biocompatible substances. We review novel femtosecond laser-assisted methods, which enable the preparation of metal nanomaterials in clean, biologically friendly aqueous environment (“green” synthesis) and thus completely solve the toxicity problem. The proposed methods, including laser ablation and fragmentation, make possible the production of stable metal colloids of extremely small size (˜2 nm) with a low coefficient of variation (15-25%). Those nanoparticles exhibit unique surface chemistry and can be used for bio-imaging, cancer treatment and nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Polymerization of Lactic Acid by MAGHNITE-H+ a Non-Toxic Montmorillonite Clay Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrane, A.; Belaouedj, M. A.; Meghabar, R.; Belbachir, M.

    2008-08-01

    The development of synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as poly(lactic acid), is particularly important for constructing medical devices, controlled drug release matrix, including scaffolds and sutures, and has attracted growing interest in the biomedical field. Here, we report a novel approach to preparing poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PDLA) as a biodegradable polymer. We investigated in detail the reaction conditions for the simple direct polycondensation of D, L-lactic acid, including the reaction times, temperatures, and catalyst. The molecular weight of synthesized PDLA is dependent on both the reaction temperature, amount of catalyst and time. The optimum reaction condition to obtain PDLA by direct polycondensation using Maghnite-H+[1,2], a proton exchanged Montmorillonite clay, as catalyst was thus determined to be 120 °C, 5% amount of Maghnite-H+ for 28 h with a molecular weight of 7970. The method for PDLA synthesis established here will facilitate production of PDLA of various molecular weights, which may have a potential utility as biomaterials.

  18. Molecular-receptor-specific, non-toxic, near-infrared-emitting Au cluster-protein nanoconjugates for targeted cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retnakumari, Archana; Setua, Sonali; Menon, Deepthy; Ravindran, Prasanth; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor [Amrita Centre for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Cochin, 682 041 (India); Muhammed, Habeeb; Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: manzoor_nanomed@yahoo.com [Indian Institute of Technology, DST unit on Nanoscience, Chennai, 600 036 (India)

    2010-02-05

    Molecular-receptor-targeted imaging of folate receptor positive oral carcinoma cells using folic-acid-conjugated fluorescent Au{sub 25} nanoclusters (Au NCs) is reported. Highly fluorescent Au{sub 25} clusters were synthesized by controlled reduction of Au{sup +} ions, stabilized in bovine serum albumin (BSA), using a green-chemical reducing agent, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C). For targeted-imaging-based detection of cancer cells, the clusters were conjugated with folic acid (FA) through amide linkage with the BSA shell. The bioconjugated clusters show excellent stability over a wide range of pH from 4 to 14 and fluorescence efficiency of {approx}5.7% at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), indicating effective protection of nanoclusters by serum albumin during the bioconjugation reaction and cell-cluster interaction. The nanoclusters were characterized for their physico-chemical properties, toxicity and cancer targeting efficacy in vitro. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests binding energies correlating to metal Au 4f{sub 7/2{approx}}83.97 eV and Au 4f{sub 5/2{approx}}87.768 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of individual nanoclusters of size {approx}1 nm and protein cluster aggregates of size {approx}8 nm. Photoluminescence studies show bright fluorescence with peak maximum at {approx}674 nm with the spectral profile covering the near-infrared (NIR) region, making it possible to image clusters at the 700-800 nm emission window where the tissue absorption of light is minimum. The cell viability and reactive oxygen toxicity studies indicate the non-toxic nature of the Au clusters up to relatively higher concentrations of 500 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. Receptor-targeted cancer detection using Au clusters is demonstrated on FR{sup +ve} oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB) and breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7, where the FA-conjugated Au{sub 25} clusters were found internalized in significantly higher concentrations compared to the negative control cell lines. This study demonstrates the potential of using non-toxic fluorescent Au nanoclusters for the targeted imaging of cancer.

  19. A self-adjustable four-point probing system using polymeric three dimensional coils and non-toxic liquid metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyunbaatar, Nomin-Erdene; Choi, Yong Soo; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a self-adjustable four-point probe (S4PP) system with a square configuration. The S4PP system consists of 3D polymer coil springs for the independent operation of each tungsten (W) probe, microfluidic channels filled with a nontoxic liquid metal, and a LabView-based control system. The 3D coil springs made by PMMA are fabricated with a 3D printer and are positioned in a small container filled with the non-toxic liquid metal. This unique configuration allows independent self-adjustment of the probe heights for precise measurements of the electrical properties of both flexible and large-step-height microsamples. The feasibility of the fabricated S4PP system is evaluated by measuring the specific resistance of Cr and Au thin films deposited on silicon wafers. The system is then employed to evaluate the electrical properties of a Au thin film deposited onto a flexible and easily breakable silicon diaphragm (spring constant: ˜3.6 × 10-5 N/m). The resistance of the Cr thin films (thickness: 450 nm) with step heights of 60 and 90 ?m is also successfully characterized. These experimental results indicate that the proposed S4PP system can be applied to common metals and semiconductors as well as flexible and large-step-height samples.

  20. Emulsifying Activity and Stability of a Non-Toxic Bioemulsifier Synthesized by Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Otto Ortega-Morales

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A previously reported bacterial bioemulsifier, here termed microbactan, was further analyzed to characterize its lipid component, molecular weight, ionic character and toxicity, along with its bioemulsifying potential for hydrophobic substrates at a range of temperatures, salinities and pH values. Analyses showed that microbactan is a high molecular weight (700 kDa, non-ionic molecule. Gas chromatography of the lipid fraction revealed the presence of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids; thus microbactan may be considered a glycolipoprotein. Microbactan emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons and oils to various extents; the highest emulsification index was recorded against motor oil (96%. The stability of the microbactan-motor oil emulsion model reached its highest level (94% at 50 °C, pH 10 and 3.5% NaCl content. It was not toxic to Artemia salina nauplii. Microbactan is, therefore, a non-toxic and non-ionic bioemulsifier of high molecular weight with affinity for a range of oily substrates. Comparative phylogenetic assessment of the 16S rDNA gene of Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 with genes derived from other marine Microbacterium species suggested that this genus is well represented in coastal zones. The chemical nature and stability of the bioemulsifier suggest its potential application in bioremediation of marine environments and in cosmetics.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and its non-toxic mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Lin, Lin; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2014-11-01

    The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T), and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT) using RNA-seq. All clean reads were assembled de novo into a total of 113,674 unigenes, and 66,812 unigenes were annotated in the known databases. Out of them, 35 genes were found to express differentially between the two strains. The up-regulated genes in ACHK-NT were involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism processes, indicating that more carbon and energy were utilized for cell growth. Among the down-regulated genes, expression of a unigene assigned to the long isoform of sxtA, the initiator of toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, was significantly depressed, suggesting that this long transcript of sxtA might be directly involved in toxin biosynthesis and its depression resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize PSTs in ACHK-NT. In addition, 101 putative homologs of 12 cyanobacterial sxt genes were identified, and the sxtO and sxtZ genes were identified in dinoflagellates for the first time. The findings of this study should shed light on the biosynthesis of PSTs in the dinoflagellates. PMID:25421324

  2. Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya been oil were irradiated by cobalt-60 gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 years after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures, thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 and 260 nm for films, 240 nm for liquid samples and also by following of -CH2-Cl band at 744 cm-i of IR spectra. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also show the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 years after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration have been also confirm spectrophotometry results and finally the most effective system has been chosen to compare the behaviour of Iranian PVC and Solvay PVC until 6 months after irradiation

  3. Effect of non-toxic stabilizers on the gamma stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) at sterilizing doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma stabilization of PVC at sterilizing doses has been studied in the presence of various mixtures of non-toxic stabilizers. Plasticized PVC containing three different stabilizers like; calcium stearate, zinc stearate and epoxidized soya bean oil, were irradiated by 60-cobalt gamma ray at doses of 25-100 kGy and the effect of irradiation on the structural changes has been investigated up to 2 yr after irradiation. In the presence of this stabilizing system unstable allylic chlorine units were converted to stable allylic structures thus retarding the development of polyene sequences. This has been detected by the changes in UV absorbance at 290 nm. The changes of carbonyl index which has been studied by FTIR spectra, also shows the effectiveness of this stabilizing system up to 2 yr after irradiation. Measurements of Cl concentration has also confirmed the spectrophotometry results. Finally the most effective stabilizing system has been added to the Iranian PVC and its behaviour has been compared with the Solvay PVC for 6 months period after irradiation

  4. Identification of BP16 as a non-toxic cell-penetrating peptide with highly efficient drug delivery properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Marta; González-Bártulos, Marta; Soriano-Castell, David; Ribas, Xavi; Costas, Miquel; Tebar, Francesc; Massaguer, Anna; Feliu, Lidia; Planas, Marta

    2014-03-14

    Antimicrobial peptides are an interesting source of non-cytotoxic drug delivery vectors. Herein, we report on the identification of a new cell-penetrating peptide (KKLFKKILKKL-NH2, BP16) from a set of antimicrobial peptides selected from a library of cecropin-melittin hybrids (CECMEL11) previously designed to be used in plant protection. This set of peptides was screened for their cytotoxicity against breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, pancreas adenocarcinoma CAPAN-1 and mouse embryonic fibroblast 3T3 cell lines. BP16 resulted to be non-toxic against both malignant and non-malignant cells at concentrations up to 200 ?M. We demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy that BP16 is mainly internalized in the cells through a clathrin dependent endocytosis and that it efficiently accumulates in the cell cytoplasm. We confirmed that the cell-penetrating properties of BP16 are retained after conjugating it to the breast tumor homing peptide CREKA. Furthermore, we assessed the potential of BP16 as a drug delivery vector by conjugating the anticancer drug chlorambucil to BP16 and to a CREKA-BP16 conjugate. The efficacy of the drug increased between 6 and 9 times when conjugated to BP16 and between 2 and 4.5 times when attached to the CREKA-BP16 derivative. The low toxicity and the excellent cell-penetrating properties clearly suggest that BP16 is a suitable vector for the delivery of therapeutic agents into cells. PMID:24480922

  5. Vaccination with non-toxic mutant toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces IL-17-dependent protection against Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kouji; Hu, Dong-Liang; Asano, Krisana; Nakane, Akio

    2015-06-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) is one of superantigens produced by Staphylococcus aureus. We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with non-toxic mutant TSST-1 (mTSST-1) develops host protection to lethal S. aureus infection in mice. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this protection is necessary to elucidate because the passive transfer of antibodies against TSST-1 fails to provide complete protection against S. aureus infection. In this study, the results showed that interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-producing cells were increased in the spleen cells of mTSST-1-vaccinated mice. The main source of IL-17A in mTSST-1-vaccinated mice was T-helper 17 (Th17) cells. The protective effect of vaccination was induced when the vaccinated wild type but not IL-17A-deficient mice were challenged with S. aureus. Gene expression of chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL1, and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages were increased in spleens and livers of vaccinated mice after infection. The IL-17A-dependent immune response was TSST-1 specific because TSST-1-deficient S. aureus failed to induce the response. The present study suggests that mTSST-1 vaccination is able to provide the IL-17A-dependent host defense against S. aureus infection which promotes chemokine-mediated infiltration of phagocytes into the infectious foci. PMID:25857736

  6. A self-adjustable four-point probing system using polymeric three dimensional coils and non-toxic liquid metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyunbaatar, Nomin-Erdene; Choi, Yong Soo; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a self-adjustable four-point probe (S4PP) system with a square configuration. The S4PP system consists of 3D polymer coil springs for the independent operation of each tungsten (W) probe, microfluidic channels filled with a nontoxic liquid metal, and a LabView-based control system. The 3D coil springs made by PMMA are fabricated with a 3D printer and are positioned in a small container filled with the non-toxic liquid metal. This unique configuration allows independent self-adjustment of the probe heights for precise measurements of the electrical properties of both flexible and large-step-height microsamples. The feasibility of the fabricated S4PP system is evaluated by measuring the specific resistance of Cr and Au thin films deposited on silicon wafers. The system is then employed to evaluate the electrical properties of a Au thin film deposited onto a flexible and easily breakable silicon diaphragm (spring constant: ?3.6 × 10(-5) N/m). The resistance of the Cr thin films (thickness: 450 nm) with step heights of 60 and 90 ?m is also successfully characterized. These experimental results indicate that the proposed S4PP system can be applied to common metals and semiconductors as well as flexible and large-step-height samples. PMID:26724065

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Toxin-Producing Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and Its Non-Toxic Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T, and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT using RNA-seq. All clean reads were assembled de novo into a total of 113,674 unigenes, and 66,812 unigenes were annotated in the known databases. Out of them, 35 genes were found to express differentially between the two strains. The up-regulated genes in ACHK-NT were involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism processes, indicating that more carbon and energy were utilized for cell growth. Among the down-regulated genes, expression of a unigene assigned to the long isoform of sxtA, the initiator of toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, was significantly depressed, suggesting that this long transcript of sxtA might be directly involved in toxin biosynthesis and its depression resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize PSTs in ACHK-NT. In addition, 101 putative homologs of 12 cyanobacterial sxt genes were identified, and the sxtO and sxtZ genes were identified in dinoflagellates for the first time. The findings of this study should shed light on the biosynthesis of PSTs in the dinoflagellates.

  8. Numerical simulation of ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based non-toxic aerospace propellant decomposition and combustion in a monopropellant thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Decomposition and combustion process of ADN-based thruster are studied. • Distribution of droplets is obtained during the process of spray hit on wire mesh. • Two temperature models are adopted to describe the heat transfer in porous media. • The influences brought by different mass flux and porosity are studied. - Abstract: Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) monopropellant is currently the most promising among all ‘green propellants’. In this paper, the decomposition and combustion process of liquid ADN-based ternary mixtures for propulsion are numerically studied. The R–R distribution model is used to study the initial boundary conditions of droplet distribution resulting from spray hit on a wire mesh based on PDA experiment. To simulate the heat-transfer characteristics between the gas–solid phases, a two-temperature porous medium model in a catalytic bed is used. An 11-species and 7-reactions chemistry model is used to study the catalytic and combustion processes. The final distribution of temperature, pressure, and other kinds of material component concentrations are obtained using the ADN thruster. The results of simulation conducted in the present study are well agree with previous experimental data, and the demonstration of the ADN thruster confirms that a good steady-state operation is achieved. The effects of spray inlet mass flux and porosity on monopropellant thruster performance are analyzed. The numerical results further show that a larger inlet mass flux results in better thruster performance and a catalytic bed porosity value of 0.5 can exhibit the best thruster performance. These findings can serve as a key reference for designing and testing non-toxic aerospace monopropellant thrusters

  9. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  10. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, L Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat; Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) ( Plow-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. PMID:12845488

  11. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  12. Facile development of Au-ring microelectrode for in vivo analysis using non-toxic polydopamine as multifunctional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqing; Wang, Keqing; Xu, Yanan; Li, Linbo; Luo, Jingxuan; Wang, Chao

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we describe a facile and fast wet deposition technique to bottom-up fabricate Au-ring microelectrodes (Au-RMEs) using non-toxic polydopamine as multifunctional grafting material instead of commonly used (3-aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The Au-RMEs are fabricated by growing Au film uniformly inside of a pulled glass capillary. Au-RMEs with tip apex diameter ranging from 15 to 50?m were fabricated involving four consequent steps, i.e. hydroxylating the inside wall of a pulled glass capillaries, grafting adhesive polydopamine (PDA) film to hydroxyl group surface, seeding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto PDA surface and finally growing thickness-tunable gold layer on top of gold nanoparticles. After 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modification, the Au-RMEs obtain improved specificity and sensitivity for monitoring of dopamine (DA) with respect to alleviating ascorbic acid (AA) interference. The current response is in wide linearity to DA concentration in the range of 0.2-100.0?M with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and the detection limit as low as 50.0nM (S/N=3). In addition, the designed glass substrates of Au-RMEs were mechanically stronger and their tips can be further sharped by adjusting the pulling program. In order to demonstrate the utility of these fabricated microelectrodes in neurochemistry, Au-RMEs were used for electrochemical monitoring of DA release stimulated by K(+) in the striatum of rats. Thus, this study offers a novel and reliable strategy for preparing Au microelectrodes and maybe an attractive alternative to the traditional options for continuous and in vivo electrochemical monitoring of DA in various physiological processes. PMID:26623512

  13. Development and design of a high pressure carbon dioxide system for the separation of hazardous contaminants from non-hazardous debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Air Force (USAF) Memorandum of Understanding, a system is being designed that will use high pressure carbon dioxide for the separation of oils, greases, and solvents from non-hazardous solid waste. The contaminants are dissolved into the high pressure carbon dioxide and precipitated out upon depressurization. The carbon dioxide solvent can then be recycled for continued use. Excellent extraction capability for common manufacturing oils, greases, and solvents has been measured. It has been observed that extraction performance follows the dilution model if a constant flow system is used. The solvents tested are extremely soluble and have been extracted to 100% under both liquid and mild supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. These data are being used to design a 200 liter extraction system

  14. GIS-modelling the distribution of Rattus norvegicus in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sacchi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats Rattus norvegicus in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundance. The first procedure has been previously applied, while the second has never been used until now. In this study, we valued the effectiveness of the interpolating procedure by modelling the distribution of brown rats in a large urban area of northern Italy. During spring and autumn 2004, we positioned non toxic baits in 119 spots distributed over the whole urbanized area of the city and we generated maps of rat presence/absence for the two seasons. Brown rats were irregularly scattered over the city and concentrated mainly around rivers and ditches, as well in the historic centre, particularly where buildings suffer poor maintenance. Seasonal variation of rat occurrence was also detected. Brown rat occurrence may be reliably predicted by the interpolation procedure, which appeared to be a more efficient approach to rat distribution modelling compared with landscape-based procedures. Riassunto Modelli GIS della distribuzione di Rattus norvegicus in ambiente urbano con utilizzo di esche non tossiche. I programmi GIS rappresentano un utile strumento per analizzare e modellizzare la distribuzione del ratto delle chiaviche Rattus norvegicus nelle aree urbane, fornendo mappe in grado di predire la presenza di questa specie su vaste aree. A questo scopo possono essere impiegate due procedure alternative: i modelli basati sul paesaggio, che utilizzano le caratteristiche ambientali desunte da mappe tematiche o immagini satellitari oppure ii tecniche di interpolazione che convertono insiemi di punti di presenza accertata in stime di abbondanza. Il primo approccio è già stato utilizzato, mentre il secondo non ci risulta essere ancora stato applicato nella gestione del ratto delle chiaviche. In questo studio è valutata l’efficacia del metodo di interpolazione nel predire la distribuzione di questo roditore in una grande area urbana del nord Italia. Nel corso della primavera e dell’autunno 2004, sono state posizionate esche non tossiche in 119 punti distribuiti sull’intera area urbana. I dati così raccolti sono stati utilizzati per generare mappe di presenza/assenza della specie nelle due stagioni di indagine. I ratti delle chiaviche sono risultati irregolarmente distribuiti in città e concentrati principalmente lungo i corsi d’acqua e nel centro storico soprattutto in presenza di edifici soggetti a scarsa manutenzione. Nel corso dell’indagine sono emerse differenze nella distribuzione fra le due stagioni di ricerca. La presenza del ratto delle chiaviche può effettivamente essere predetta mediante il processo di interpolazione: questo metodo risulta essere più efficiente rispetto a quello basato sull’analisi delle sole caratteristiche ambientali.

  15. One-step green synthesis of non-hazardous dicarboxyl cellulose flocculant and its flocculation activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Liu, Hongyi; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2015-10-15

    The waste management of used flocculants is a thorny issue in the field of wastewater treatment. To natural cellulose based flocculants, utilization of hazardous cellulose solvent and simplification of synthetic procedure are the two urgent problems needing to be further improved. In this work, a series of natural dicarboxyl cellulose flocculants (DCCs) were one-step synthesized via Schiff-base route. The cellulose solvent (NaOH/Urea solution) was utilized during the synthesis process. The full-biodegradable flocculants avoid causing secondary pollution to environment. The chemical structure and solution property of the DCC products were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, TGA, FESEM, charge density and ?-potential. Kaolin suspension and effluent from paper mill were selected to evaluate the flocculation activity of the DCCs. Their flocculation performance was compared with that of commercial cationic polyacrylamide and poly aluminium chloride flocculants. The positive results showed that the NaOH/Urea solvent effectively promoted the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) conversion to DCC in the one-step synthesis reaction. The DCCs with the carboxylate content more than 1 mmol/g exhibited steady flocculation performance to kaolin suspension in the broad pH range from 4 to 10. Its flocculation capacity to the effluent from paper mill also showed excellent. PMID:25897798

  16. One-step green synthesis of non-hazardous dicarboxyl cellulose flocculant and its flocculation activity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management of used flocculants is a thorny issue in the field of wastewater treatment. To natural cellulose based flocculants, utilization of hazardous cellulose solvent and simplification of synthetic procedure are the two urgent problems needing to be further improved. In this work, a series of natural dicarboxyl cellulose flocculants (DCCs) were one-step synthesized via Schiff-base route. The cellulose solvent (NaOH/Urea solution) was utilized during the synthesis process. The full-biodegradable flocculants avoid causing secondary pollution to environment. The chemical structure and solution property of the DCC products were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, TGA, FESEM, charge density and ?-potential. Kaolin suspension and effluent from paper mill were selected to evaluate the flocculation activity of the DCCs. Their flocculation performance was compared with that of commercial cationic polyacrylamide and poly aluminium chloride flocculants. The positive results showed that the NaOH/Urea solvent effectively promoted the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) conversion to DCC in the one-step synthesis reaction. The DCCs with the carboxylate content more than 1 mmol/g exhibited steady flocculation performance to kaolin suspension in the broad pH range from 4 to 10. Its flocculation capacity to the effluent from paper mill also showed excellent

  17. High concentrations of protein test substances may have non-toxic effects on Daphnia magna: implications for regulatory study designs and ecological risk assessments for GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Burns, Andrea; Hamer, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing for possible adverse effects of insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms (NTOs) is an important part of many ecological risk assessments for regulatory decision-making about the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops. To increase confidence in the risk assessments, regulatory guidelines for effects testing specify that representative surrogate species for NTOs are exposed to concentrations of insecticidal proteins that are in excess of worst-case predicted exposures in the field. High concentrations in effects tests are achieved by using protein test substances produced in microbes, such as Escherichia coli. In a study that exposed Daphnia magna to a single high concentration of a microbial test substance containing Vip3Aa20, the insecticidal protein in MIR162 maize, small reductions in growth were observed. These effects were surprising as many other studies strongly suggest that the activity of Vip3Aa20 is limited to Lepidoptera. A plausible explanation for the effect on growth is that high concentrations of test substance have a non-toxic effect on Daphnia, perhaps by reducing its feeding rate. A follow-up study tested that hypothesis by exposing D. magna to several concentrations of Vip3Aa20, and a high concentration of a non-toxic protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Vip3Aa20 and BSA had sporadic effects on the reproduction and growth of D. magna. The pattern of the effects suggests that they result from non-toxic effects of high concentrations of protein, and not from toxicity. The implications of these results for regulatory NTO effects testing and ERA of IRGM crops are discussed. PMID:25523175

  18. Graphene oxide selectively targets cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: implications for non-toxic cancer treatment, via "differentiation-based nano-therapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Marco; Verre, Andrea F; Iliut, Maria; Peiris-Pagés, Maria; Ozsvari, Bela; Gandara, Ricardo; Cappello, Anna Rita; Sotgia, Federica; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Lisanti, Michael P

    2015-02-28

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a.k.a. cancer stem cells (CSCs), are difficult to eradicate with conventional approaches to cancer treatment, such as chemo-therapy and radiation. As a consequence, the survival of residual CSCs is thought to drive the onset of tumor recurrence, distant metastasis, and drug-resistance, which is a significant clinical problem for the effective treatment of cancer. Thus, novel approaches to cancer therapy are needed urgently, to address this clinical need. Towards this end, here we have investigated the therapeutic potential of graphene oxide to target cancer stem cells. Graphene and its derivatives are well-known, relatively inert and potentially non-toxic nano-materials that form stable dispersions in a variety of solvents. Here, we show that graphene oxide (of both big and small flake sizes) can be used to selectively inhibit the proliferative expansion of cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types. For this purpose, we employed the tumor-sphere assay, which functionally measures the clonal expansion of single cancer stem cells under anchorage-independent conditions. More specifically, we show that graphene oxide effectively inhibits tumor-sphere formation in multiple cell lines, across 6 different cancer types, including breast, ovarian, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancers, as well as glioblastoma (brain). In striking contrast, graphene oxide is non-toxic for "bulk" cancer cells (non-stem) and normal fibroblasts. Mechanistically, we present evidence that GO exerts its striking effects on CSCs by inhibiting several key signal transduction pathways (WNT, Notch and STAT-signaling) and thereby inducing CSC differentiation. Thus, graphene oxide may be an effective non-toxic therapeutic strategy for the eradication of cancer stem cells, via differentiation-based nano-therapy. PMID:25708684

  19. Graphene oxide selectively targets cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: Implications for non-toxic cancer treatment, via “differentiation-based nano-therapy”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Marco; Verre, Andrea F.; Iliut, Maria; Peiris-Pagés, Maria; Ozsvari, Bela; Gandara, Ricardo; Cappello, Anna Rita; Sotgia, Federica; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a.k.a. cancer stem cells (CSCs), are difficult to eradicate with conventional approaches to cancer treatment, such as chemo-therapy and radiation. As a consequence, the survival of residual CSCs is thought to drive the onset of tumor recurrence, distant metastasis, and drug-resistance, which is a significant clinical problem for the effective treatment of cancer. Thus, novel approaches to cancer therapy are needed urgently, to address this clinical need. Towards this end, here we have investigated the therapeutic potential of graphene oxide to target cancer stem cells. Graphene and its derivatives are well-known, relatively inert and potentially non-toxic nano-materials that form stable dispersions in a variety of solvents. Here, we show that graphene oxide (of both big and small flake sizes) can be used to selectively inhibit the proliferative expansion of cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types. For this purpose, we employed the tumor-sphere assay, which functionally measures the clonal expansion of single cancer stem cells under anchorage-independent conditions. More specifically, we show that graphene oxide effectively inhibits tumor-sphere formation in multiple cell lines, across 6 different cancer types, including breast, ovarian, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancers, as well as glioblastoma (brain). In striking contrast, graphene oxide is non-toxic for “bulk” cancer cells (non-stem) and normal fibroblasts. Mechanistically, we present evidence that GO exerts its striking effects on CSCs by inhibiting several key signal transduction pathways (WNT, Notch and STAT-signaling) and thereby inducing CSC differentiation. Thus, graphene oxide may be an effective non-toxic therapeutic strategy for the eradication of cancer stem cells, via differentiation-based nano-therapy. PMID:25708684

  20. Visualization and enrichment of live putative cancer stem cell populations following p53 inactivation or Bax deletion using non-toxic fluorescent dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joshua E; Hart, Lori S; Dicker, David T; Wang, Wenge; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2009-01-01

    Putative cancer stem cell (CSC) populations efflux dyes such as Hoechst 33342 giving rise to side populations (SP) that can be analyzed or isolated by flow cytometry. However, Hoechst 33342 is highly toxic, more so to non-SP cells, and thus presents difficulties in interpreting in vivo studies where non-SP cells appear less tumorigenic than SP cells in immunodeficient mice. We searched for non-toxic dyes to circumvent this problem as well as to image these putative CSCs. We found that the flu...

  1. Revealing the Function and the Structural Model of Ts4: Insights into the “Non-Toxic” Toxin from Tityus serrulatus Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela B.; Cerni, Felipe A.; Peigneur, Steve; Bordon, Karla C. F.; Tytgat, Jan; Arantes, Eliane C.

    2015-01-01

    The toxin, previously described as a “non-toxic” toxin, was isolated from the scorpion venom of Tityus serrulatus (Ts), responsible for the most severe and the highest number of accidents in Brazil. In this study, the subtype specificity and selectivity of Ts4 was investigated using six mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.2?Nav1.6 and Nav1.8) and two insect Nav channels (DmNav1 and BgNav). The electrophysiological assays showed that Ts4 specifically inhibited the fast inactivation of Nav1.6 channels, the most abundant sodium channel expressed in the adult central nervous system, and can no longer be classified as a “non-toxic peptide”. Based on the results, we could classify the Ts4 as a classical ?-toxin. The Ts4 3D-structural model was built based on the solved X-ray Ts1 3D-structure, the major toxin from Ts venom with which it shares high sequence identity (65.57%). The Ts4 model revealed a flattened triangular shape constituted by three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet and one ?-helix stabilized by four disulfide bonds. The absence of a Lys in the first amino acid residue of the N-terminal of Ts4 is probably the main responsible for its low toxicity. Other key amino acid residues important to the toxicity of ?- and ?-toxins are discussed here. PMID:26153865

  2. Revealing the Function and the Structural Model of Ts4: Insights into the "Non-Toxic" Toxin from Tityus serrulatus Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela B; Cerni, Felipe A; Peigneur, Steve; Bordon, Karla C F; Tytgat, Jan; Arantes, Eliane C

    2015-07-01

    The toxin, previously described as a "non-toxic" toxin, was isolated from the scorpion venom of Tityus serrulatus (Ts), responsible for the most severe and the highest number of accidents in Brazil. In this study, the subtype specificity and selectivity of Ts4 was investigated using six mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.2?Nav1.6 and Nav1.8) and two insect Nav channels (DmNav1 and BgNav). The electrophysiological assays showed that Ts4 specifically inhibited the fast inactivation of Nav1.6 channels, the most abundant sodium channel expressed in the adult central nervous system, and can no longer be classified as a "non-toxic peptide". Based on the results, we could classify the Ts4 as a classical ?-toxin. The Ts4 3D-structural model was built based on the solved X-ray Ts1 3D-structure, the major toxin from Ts venom with which it shares high sequence identity (65.57%). The Ts4 model revealed a flattened triangular shape constituted by three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet and one ?-helix stabilized by four disulfide bonds. The absence of a Lys in the first amino acid residue of the N-terminal of Ts4 is probably the main responsible for its low toxicity. Other key amino acid residues important to the toxicity of ?- and ?-toxins are discussed here. PMID:26153865

  3. Evolution of autonomy in idiopathic non-toxic goiter, evaluated by regional suppressibility of sup(99m)Tc-uptake and TSH response to TRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen euthyroid patients with non-toxic goiter were studied, 7 had diffuse goiters and 10 had nodular goiters. The TSH response to TRH and the sup(99m)Tc-uptake were measured before and after T3 suppression. The uptake, measured with a gamma camera, was calculated for the whole gland and for a maximum of 6 regions within the thyroid gland. The suppressibility of sup(99m)Tc-uptake (percent change of uptake) ranged from 0 to 95%, it was significantly greater in patients with diffuse than in those with nodular goiters, and was alike in nodular and internodular tissue. The patients with diffuse goiter were significantly younger than those with nodular goiter. Abolished TSH response to TRH was seen in 2 patients with negative T3 suppression tests. In another 2 patients impaired TSH response was associated with impaired suppressibility. In 13 patients with normal TRH tests, the suppression of uptake was normal in 8 subnormal in 5. The results suggest that nodularity and functional autonomy may develop in non-toxic goiters. In some of these goiters the mass of autonomous tissue may be large enough to cause negative TRH tests, probably indicating hypersecretion of thyroid hormones, although not necessarily above the normal range. (orig.)

  4. Development of SCAR marker specific to non-toxic Jatropha curcas L. and designing a novel multiplexing PCR along with nrDNA ITS primers to circumvent the false negative detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mastan, Shaik G.

    2011-05-10

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub, has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel an emerging alternative to petro-diesel. In addition to the commercial value, it is also having medicinal and even high nutritional value to use as animal fodder which is limited due to the toxicity. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety of J. curcas in a mixed population and also for quality control since the toxic components of J. curcas has deleterious effect on animals. In the present study, the efforts were made to generate the specific SCAR marker for toxic and/or non-toxic J. curcas from RAPD markers. Among the markers specific for toxic and non-toxic varieties, four were selected, purified, cloned, sequenced, and designed primers out of which one set of primers NT-JC/SCAR I/OPQ15-F and R could able to discriminate the non-toxic with toxic Jatropha by giving expected 430 bp size amplification in non-toxic variety. Furthermore, novel multiplex PCR was designed using the nrDNA ITS primers to overcome the false negatives. Present work also demonstrates utility of the conserved regions of nrDNA coding genes in ruling out the artifacts in PCR-like false negatives frequently occur in SCAR due to various reasons. The specific SCAR markers generated in the present investigation will help to distinguish non-toxic from toxic varieties of J. curcas or vice versa, and isolated marker along with designed multiplex protocol has applications in quality control for selective cultivation of non-toxic variety and will also assist in breeding and molecular mapping studies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Quantification of plant cell wall monosaccharides by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with 2-aminobenzamide pre-column derivatization and a non-toxic reducing reagent 2-picoline borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingjing; Qin, Guochen; Ma, Jun; She, Yi-Min

    2015-10-01

    In this report, we described a sensitive method for quantifying plant cell wall monosaccharides using chemical derivatization, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography separation with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Monosaccharides were derivatized with 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) by reductive amination to increase the hydrophobicity and detected by ultraviolet absorption for HPLC-UV analysis. A non-toxic reductant, 2-picoline borane was utilized to replace the traditionally used sodium cyanoborohydride (NaCNBH3) to avoid the formation of toxic by-products. Experimental conditions were optimized using glucose as a model system to achieve a high reaction yield of 99%. Under the optimized conditions, we demonstrated that the derivatization yields of several saccharides with 2-AB using 2-picoline borane were all slightly higher than those observed using NaCNBH3. In plants, cell wall monosaccharides consist of arabinose, fucose, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucose, glucuronic acid, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose. Using our method, we successfully quantified these monosaccharides from Arabidopsis cell wall by HPLC-UV, and we obtained a good linearity at a wide dynamic range over five orders (1pmol through 10nmol of injection amount), a detection limit of ?0.1pmole, and a high precision and accuracy. PMID:26342873

  6. The delivery of poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles loaded with non-toxic drug to overcome drug resistance for the treatment of neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhulekar, Jhilmil

    Neuroblastoma is a rare cancer of the sympathetic nervous system. A neuroblastoma tumor develops in the nerve tissue and is diagnosed in infants and children. Approximately 10.2 per million children under the age of 15 are affected in the United States and is slightly more common in boys. Neuroblastoma constitutes 6% of all childhood cancers and has a long-term survival rate of only 15%. There are approximately 700 new cases of neuroblastoma each year in the United States. With such a low rate of survival, the development of more effective treatment methods is necessary. A number of therapies are available for the treatment of these tumors; however, clinicians and their patients face the challenges of systemic side effects and drug resistance of the tumor cells. The application of nanoparticles has the potential to provide a safer and more effective method of delivery drugs to tumors. The advantage of using nanoparticles for drug delivery is the ability to specifically or passively target tumors while reducing the harmful side effects of chemotherapeutics. Drug delivery via nanoparticles can also allow for lower dosage requirements with controlled release of the drugs, which can further reduce systemic toxicity. The aim of this research was to develop a polymeric nanoparticle drug delivery system for the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma. Nanoparticles composed of a poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer were formulated to deliver a non-toxic drug in combination with Temozolomide, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of neuroblastoma. The non-toxic drug acts as an inhibitor to the DNA-repair protein present in neuroblastoma cells that is responsible for inducing drug resistance in the cells, which would potentially allow for enhanced temozolomide activity. A variety of studies were completed to prove the nanoparticles' low toxicity, loading abilities, and uptake into cells. Additionally, studies were performed to determine the individual effect on cell toxicity of each drug and in combination. Finally, nanoparticles were loaded with the non-toxic drug and delivered with free temozolomide to determine the overall efficacy of the drugs in reducing neuroblastoma cell viability.

  7. Investigating structural aspects to understand the putative/claimed non-toxicity of the Hg-based Ayurvedic drug Rasasindura using XAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Nitya; Lahiri, Debdutta; Rajput, Parasmani; Varma, Ramesh Chandra; Arun, A; Muraleedharan, T S; Pandey, K K; Maiti, Nandita; Jha, S N; Sharma, Surinder M

    2015-09-01

    XANES- and EXAFS-based analysis of the Ayurvedic Hg-based nano-drug Rasasindura has been performed to seek evidence of its non-toxicity. Rasasindura is determined to be composed of single-phase ?-HgS nanoparticles (size ?24?nm), free of Hg(0) or organic molecules; its structure is determined to be robust (based toxicity and establishes that chemical form, rather than content of heavy metals, is the correct parameter for evaluating the toxicity in these drugs. The stable ?-HgS form (strong Hg-S covalent bond and robust particle character) ensures the integrity of the drug during delivery and prevention of its reduction to Hg(0) within the human body. Further, these comparative studies establish that structural parameters (size dispersion, coordination configuration) are better controlled in Rasasindura. This places the Ayurvedic synthesis method on par with contemporary techniques of nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:26289275

  8. The potentiation effect makes the difference: Non-toxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles enhance Cu nanoparticle toxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Conde, Estefanía; Fernández, Marta [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Garching 85747 (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    Here we examined whether the addition of a non-toxic concentration (6.25 μg/mL) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs: 19, 35 and 57 nm, respectively) modulates the cytotoxicity of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs, 63 nm in size) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxic effect of CuNPs on HepG2 cells was markedly enhanced by the ZnONPs, the largest ZnONPs causing the highest increase in toxicity. However, CuNPs cytotoxicity was not affected by co-incubation with medium containing only zinc ions, indicating the increase in toxicity might be attributed to the particle form of ZnONPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of CuNPs and ZnONPs inside the cells co-exposed to both types of NP and outflow of cytoplasm through the damaged cell membrane. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determined an increase in the concentration of zinc and a decrease in that of copper in co-exposed cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that accumulation of large numbers of ZnONPs in the cells alters cellular membranes and the cytotoxicity of CuNPs is increased. - Highlights: • ZnONPs at non-toxic concentrations increased the toxicity of CuNPs in vitro. • ZnONPs of larger size provoked a stronger synergistic effect with CuNPs. • The synergistic effect was attributed to the particle fraction of ZnONPs.

  9. Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharoar Md

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric ?- amyloid (A? to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar A? is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible A? oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of A? aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh, was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. Results K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against A?42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-?-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic A? oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different A? conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. Conclusion K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of A?42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

  10. The potentiation effect makes the difference: Non-toxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles enhance Cu nanoparticle toxicity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we examined whether the addition of a non-toxic concentration (6.25 μg/mL) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs: 19, 35 and 57 nm, respectively) modulates the cytotoxicity of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs, 63 nm in size) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxic effect of CuNPs on HepG2 cells was markedly enhanced by the ZnONPs, the largest ZnONPs causing the highest increase in toxicity. However, CuNPs cytotoxicity was not affected by co-incubation with medium containing only zinc ions, indicating the increase in toxicity might be attributed to the particle form of ZnONPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of CuNPs and ZnONPs inside the cells co-exposed to both types of NP and outflow of cytoplasm through the damaged cell membrane. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determined an increase in the concentration of zinc and a decrease in that of copper in co-exposed cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that accumulation of large numbers of ZnONPs in the cells alters cellular membranes and the cytotoxicity of CuNPs is increased. - Highlights: • ZnONPs at non-toxic concentrations increased the toxicity of CuNPs in vitro. • ZnONPs of larger size provoked a stronger synergistic effect with CuNPs. • The synergistic effect was attributed to the particle fraction of ZnONPs

  11. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase overexpression increases alkylation sensitivity by rapidly removing non-toxic 7-methylguanine adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Rinne, M. L.; Y He; Pachkowski, B. F.; Nakamura, J; Kelley, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that overexpression of N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG) dramatically sensitizes cells to alkylating agent-induced cytotoxicity. We recently demonstrated that this sensitivity is preceded by an increased production of AP sites and strand breaks, confirming that overexpression of MPG disrupts normal base excision repair and causes cell death through overproduction of toxic repair intermediates. Here we establish through site-directed mutagenesis that MPG-induced se...

  12. Phototransformations of non-toxic antioxidants, the derivatives of 1,2-dihydroquinolines, in homogeneous and micellar solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Nekipelova

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of transient species photogenerated from 6-R-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinolines (TMDQ are very sensitive to medium variation. In anhydrous organic solvents, aminyl radicals were generated. They decay in the reaction of dimerization with the second-order rate constant decreasing in a row heptane>benzene>2-propanol. When passing from organic solvents to water, methanol, and water-alcohol solutions, the kinetics and the direction of the reaction crucially change. As a result of the photolysis, the product of the addition of a solvent to the double bond of heterocycle, 4-hydroxy- or 4-methoxy-6-R-2,2,4- tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is formed in water and methanol, respectively. The transformation is a complex reaction, and the formation of excited transient species is followed by a sequence of first-order and pseudo-first-order reactions. Unlike the photolysis in anhydrous organic solvents, the reaction in water and methanol does not involve aminyl radicals. In aqueous solutions, the first-order rate constants for the decay of transient species are higher in acidic and neutral solutions. At the pH close to pKa of the transient species, it drops, indicating that the neutral form is less reactive. The same product is formed over the whole range of pH. For the anionic surfactant (SDS in acidic and alkaline solutions, the apparent rate constant in the micellar solutions is lower than that in the aqueous (negative micellar catalysis. At the medium pH, a positive micellar catalysis is observed, and the rate constant of the decay depends linearly on the concentration of TMDQ in the micelles, indicative of the direct reaction between TMDQ and the cationic transient species.

  13. Discovery of potent, novel, non-toxic anti-malarial compounds via quantum modelling, virtual screening and in vitro experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaludov Nikola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing resistance towards existing anti-malarial therapies emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Additionally, many malaria drugs in use today have high toxicity and low therapeutic indices. Gradient Biomodeling, LLC has developed a quantum-model search technology that uses quantum similarity and does not depend explicitly on chemical structure, as molecules are rigorously described in fundamental quantum attributes related to individual pharmacological properties. Therapeutic activity, as well as toxicity and other essential properties can be analysed and optimized simultaneously, independently of one another. Such methodology is suitable for a search of novel, non-toxic, active anti-malarial compounds. Methods A set of innovative algorithms is used for the fast calculation and interpretation of electron-density attributes of molecular structures at the quantum level for rapid discovery of prospective pharmaceuticals. Potency and efficacy, as well as additional physicochemical, metabolic, pharmacokinetic, safety, permeability and other properties were characterized by the procedure. Once quantum models are developed and experimentally validated, the methodology provides a straightforward implementation for lead discovery, compound optimizzation and de novo molecular design. Results Starting with a diverse training set of 26 well-known anti-malarial agents combined with 1730 moderately active and inactive molecules, novel compounds that have strong anti-malarial activity, low cytotoxicity and structural dissimilarity from the training set were discovered and experimentally validated. Twelve compounds were identified in silico and tested in vitro; eight of them showed anti-malarial activity (IC50 ≤ 10 μM, with six being very effective (IC50 ≤ 1 μM, and four exhibiting low nanomolar potency. The most active compounds were also tested for mammalian cytotoxicity and found to be non-toxic, with a therapeutic index of more than 6,900 for the most active compound. Conclusions Gradient's metric modelling approach and electron-density molecular representations can be powerful tools in the discovery and design of novel anti-malarial compounds. Since the quantum models are agnostic of the particular biological target, the technology can account for different mechanisms of action and be used for de novo design of small molecules with activity against not only the asexual phase of the malaria parasite, but also against the liver stage of the parasite development, which may lead to true causal prophylaxis.

  14. Simple and non-toxic fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)-patterned polymer surface for the formation of cell patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Negative PVA patterns were formed on NPS substrates by selective ion irradiation. • The surface of PVA patterns was more hydrophilic than that of the NPS substrate. • Well-organized cell patterns were created on the PVA-patterned NPS substrates. • It can be due to the preferential adsorption of serum proteins on PVA patterns. - Abstract: In this study, a facile and non-toxic method for the formation of cell-adhesive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) patterns on the surface of a non-biological polystyrene substrate (NPS) is developed to control cellular micro-organization. PVA thin films spin-coated onto the NPS are selectively irradiated with 150 keV H+ ions through a pattern mask and developed with deionized water to form negative-type PVA patterns. Well-defined stripe patterns of PVA with a width of 100 ?m are created on the NPS at a higher fluence than 5 × 1015 ions/cm2, and their surface chemical compositions are changed by ion irradiation without any significant morphological change. Based on the results of the protein adsorption test and in vitro cell culture, cancer cells are preferentially adhered and proliferated onto the more hydrophilic PVA regions of the PVA-patterned NPS, resulting in well-defined cell patterns

  15. Simple and non-toxic fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)-patterned polymer surface for the formation of cell patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In-Tae; Jin, Yu-Ran [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Min-Suk [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, 699 Gumho-dong, Gwangyang, Jeonnam 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chan-Hee, E-mail: jch@kaeri.re.kr [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Hak, E-mail: jaehakchoi@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Negative PVA patterns were formed on NPS substrates by selective ion irradiation. • The surface of PVA patterns was more hydrophilic than that of the NPS substrate. • Well-organized cell patterns were created on the PVA-patterned NPS substrates. • It can be due to the preferential adsorption of serum proteins on PVA patterns. - Abstract: In this study, a facile and non-toxic method for the formation of cell-adhesive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) patterns on the surface of a non-biological polystyrene substrate (NPS) is developed to control cellular micro-organization. PVA thin films spin-coated onto the NPS are selectively irradiated with 150 keV H{sup +} ions through a pattern mask and developed with deionized water to form negative-type PVA patterns. Well-defined stripe patterns of PVA with a width of 100 ?m are created on the NPS at a higher fluence than 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, and their surface chemical compositions are changed by ion irradiation without any significant morphological change. Based on the results of the protein adsorption test and in vitro cell culture, cancer cells are preferentially adhered and proliferated onto the more hydrophilic PVA regions of the PVA-patterned NPS, resulting in well-defined cell patterns.

  16. Treatment of solitary, autonomously-functioning, non-toxic thyroid nodules with I131 Adenema tiroideo autónomo no tóxico tratamiento con I131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Fifteen euthyroid patients (14 women and 1man with solitary autonomously functioning non-toxic thyroid nodules (AFTN were treated with high doses of I131 (mean 19.2 mCi. Diagnosis was made by I131 thyroid scan and triiodothyronine suppression test. The size of the nodule was determined by thyroid ecography both before and after treatment. Evaluation of thyroid function was performed clinically and by T3 T4 and TSH determinations before therapy and during follow.up. AII patients had complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Two cases of hypothyroidism were found in the first two years of follow-up. We have no explanation for this fact since extranodular thyroid tissue was suppressed and the patients were receiving oral triiodothyronine during radioidine treatment. The nodules decreasedin size In 9 of 13 patients followed (average decrease 45% and disappeared in other 2. our findings suggest that solitary non-toxic AFTN should be treated with I131 particularly if complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid tissue is found. If complete disappearance of the nodule is considered desirable surgical removal must be performed.

    Se trataron 14 mujeres y un hombre, con adenomas tiroideos solitarios funcionalmente autónomos, no tóxicos, con I131 a una dosis promedio de 19.2 mCi. La gamagrafía tiroidea demostró hipercaptación del nódulo con supresión total del resto de la glándula. El tamaño del nódulo se determinó por medio de ecografía tiroidea antes y después del tratamiento, y su autonomía por la prueba de supresión con triyodotironina. El estado tiroideo se puso de presente clínicamente y por la medición de T3, T 4 y TSH en el plasma, antes de la terapia con el radiofármaco y durante la evolución postratamiento. En dos pacientes se presentó hipotiroidismo desde los dos primeros años del período de seguimiento, a pesar de que el tejido tiroideo circundante estaba suprimido y de la administración oral de triyodotironina simultáneamente con el yodo radioactivo. En 13 pacientes se logró hacer seguimiento; en 9 de ellos (69.2% hubo disminución del tamaño del nódulo (promedio de 45%; en dos desapareció y en otros dos no se modificó la lesión. Se sugiere que el tratamiento de los adenomas tiroideos autónomos no tóxicos con I131 es el más apropiado, especialmente si el tejido extranodular está suprimido; ello en vista de la Infrecuencia del hipotiroldismo postratamiento y de la inocultad y facilidad de su administración. Sin embargo, cuando se desea la desaparición total del adenoma y no existen contraindicaciones, debe recurrirse a la cirugía

  17. Inhibition of sirtuin 2 with sulfobenzoic acid derivative AK1 is non-toxic and potentially neuroprotective in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TaraLeighSpires-Jones

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tauopathies including tau-associated Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are characterized pathologically by the formation of tau-containing neurofibrillary aggregates and neuronal loss, which contribute to cognitive decline. There are currently no effective treatments to prevent or slow this neural systems failure. The rTg4510 mouse model, which expresses a mutant form of the tau protein associated with frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism-17, undergoes dramatic hippocampal and cortical neuronal loss making it an ideal model to study treatments for FTD-related neuronal loss. Sirtuins are a family of proteins involved in cell survival that have the potential to modulate neuronal loss in neurodegenerative disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that sirtuin 2 (SIRT2 inhibition would be non-toxic and prevent neurodegeneration in rTg4510 brain. In this study we delivered SIRT2 inhibitor AK1 directly to the hippocampus with an osmotic minipump and confirmed that it reached the target region both with histological assessment of delivery of a dye and with a pharmacodynamic marker, ABCA1 transcription, which was upregulated with AK1 treatment. AK1 treatment was found to be safe in wild-type mice and in the rTg4510 mouse model, and further, it provided some neuroprotection in the rTg4510 hippocampal circuitry. This study provides proof-of-concept for therapeutic benefits of SIRT2 inhibitors in both tau-associated FTD and Alzheimer’s disease, and suggests that development of potent, brain permeable SIRT2 inhibitors is warranted.

  18. Isatin-3-N4-benzilthiosemicarbazone, a non-toxic thiosemicarbazone derivative, protects and reactivates rat and human cholinesterases inhibited by methamidophos in vitro and in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; de Lima Portella, Rafael; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; da Rosa, Edovando José Flores; Amaral, Guilherme Pires; Garcia, Luiz Filipe Machado; Bresolin, Leandro; Carratu, Vanessa; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice

    2012-09-01

    Organophosphates (OPs), which are widely used as pesticides, are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. The inactivation of AChE results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, causing a cholinergic crisis that can lead to death. The classical treatment for OP poisoning is administration of oximes, but these compounds are ineffective in some cases. Here we determined whether the new compound isatin-3-N(4)-benzilthiosemicarbazone (IBTC), which in our previous study proved to be an antioxidant and antiatherogenic molecule, could protect and reactivate AChE and BChE. Toxicity of IBTC after subcutaneous injection in mice was measured using assays for oxidized diclorofluoresceine (DCF), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels, and catalase (CAT), sodium potassium (Na(+)/K(+)) ATPase, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) enzyme activities. The cytotoxicity was evaluated and the enzymatic activity of cholinesterase was measured in human blood samples. Molecular docking was used to predict the mechanism of IBTC interactions with the AChE active site. We found that IBTC did not increase the amount of DCF-RS or TBARS, did not reduce NPSH levels, and did not increase CAT, (Na(+)/K(+)) ATPase, ALA-D, or GPx activities. IBTC protected and reactivated both AChE and BChE activities. Molecular docking predicted that IBTC is positioned at the peripheral anionic site and in the acyl binding pocket of AChE and can interact with methamidophos, releasing the enzyme's active site. Our results suggest that IBTC, besides being an antioxidant and a promising antiatherogenic agent, is a non-toxic molecule for methamidophos poisoning treatment. PMID:22542756

  19. Non-toxic novel route synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1?x} thin films with tunable band gap characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agawane, G.L., E-mail: agawaneganesh@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Seung Wook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Vanalakar, S.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Electrochemical Mat. Lab., Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416-004 (India); Gurav, K.V.; Suryawanshi, M.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jae Ho, E-mail: yunjh92@kier.re.kr [Photovoltaic Research Group, KIER, Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyeok, E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic CBD route is used to deposit ZnS thin films. • The ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1?x} thin films formation takes place via annealing of ZnS thin films in Se atmosphere. • S/(S + Se) ratio found to be temperature dependent and easy tuning of band gap has been done by Se atom deposition. - Abstract: An environmentally benign chemical bath deposition (CBD) route was employed to deposit zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films. The CBD-ZnS thin films were further selenized in a furnace at various temperatures viz. 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C and the S/(S + Se) ratio was found to be dependent on the annealing temperature. The effects of S/(S + Se) ratio on the structural, compositional and optical properties of the ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1?x} (ZnSSe) thin films were investigated. EDS analysis showed that the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6 when the film annealing temperature increased from 200 to 500 °C. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies showed that all the films were uniform, pin hole free, smooth, and adhered well to the glass substrate. The X-ray diffraction study on the ZnSSe thin films showed the formation of the cubic phase, except for the unannealed ZnSSe thin film, which showed an amorphous phase. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Zn-S, Zn-Se, and insignificant Zn-OH bonds formation from the Zn 2p{sub 3/2}, S 2p, Se 3d{sub 5/2}, and O 1s atomic states, respectively. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy study showed ?80% transmittance in the visible region for all the ZnSSe thin films having various absorption edges. The tuning of the band gap energy of the ZnSSe thin films was carried out by selenizing CBD-ZnS thin films, and as the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6, the band gap energy decreased from 3.20 to 3.12 eV.

  20. Quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goiter : impact of disease, treatment response, and comparison with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramon, Per; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2015-01-01

    Background While health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues often prompt treatment of benign non-toxic goiter (NTG), few clinical studies have systematically assessed HRQoL in patients with this condition. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate thyroid-related and generic HRQoL in patients with benign NTG, as compared to the general population, before and 6 months after treatment. Methods Thyroid-related and generic HRQoL were assessed with ThyPRO and SF-36, respectively. Baseline and 6 month post-treatment HRQoL assessments were obtained from 111 patients with NTG who underwent radioiodine therapy (32%), hemithyroidectomy (53%), total thyroidectomy (12%), or cyst aspiration with ethanol application (4%). We enrolled euthyroid patients at baseline, 80% of whom remained euthyroid 6 months post-treatment with 20% experiencing subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Normative ThyPRO (n=739) and SF-36 (n=6,638) data were collected from representative general population samples. Score differences between patients and the general population were analysed with multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity and educational status. Changes in scores between baseline and follow-up were analysed with the paired t-test, and magnitudes of score changes were evaluated as effect-sizes (mean difference/SDbaseline; 0.2-0.5 indicating small, 0.5-0.8 moderate, and >0.8 large effects). Results Patients' baseline scores were significantly worse than those in the general population on nine of the 13 ThyPRO scales. Six months after treatment, the patients' ThyPRO scores had improved on 6 scales, with large/moderate effects on the Goiter Symptoms and Anxiety scales. However, on eight scales, the post-treatment patient scores were still significantly worse than the general population scores. At baseline, patients had worse scores than the general population on four of the eight SF-36 scales and the SF-36 Mental Component Summary, none of which improved after treatment. Conclusions Compared with the general population, patients with NTG had greatest HRQoL impairment at baseline on the Goiter Symptoms and Anxiety scales, which also demonstrated the largest post-treatment improvements. However, both disease-specific and generic HRQoL deficits persisted 6 months after treatment. In order to improve individualized care, future studies should focus on identifying risk factors for persistent HRQoL deficits and compare HRQoL effects of the various goiter treatment modalities in relation to thyroid phenotype.

  1. Non-toxic novel route synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnSxSe1?x thin films with tunable band gap characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic CBD route is used to deposit ZnS thin films. • The ZnSxSe1?x thin films formation takes place via annealing of ZnS thin films in Se atmosphere. • S/(S + Se) ratio found to be temperature dependent and easy tuning of band gap has been done by Se atom deposition. - Abstract: An environmentally benign chemical bath deposition (CBD) route was employed to deposit zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films. The CBD-ZnS thin films were further selenized in a furnace at various temperatures viz. 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C and the S/(S + Se) ratio was found to be dependent on the annealing temperature. The effects of S/(S + Se) ratio on the structural, compositional and optical properties of the ZnSxSe1?x (ZnSSe) thin films were investigated. EDS analysis showed that the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6 when the film annealing temperature increased from 200 to 500 °C. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies showed that all the films were uniform, pin hole free, smooth, and adhered well to the glass substrate. The X-ray diffraction study on the ZnSSe thin films showed the formation of the cubic phase, except for the unannealed ZnSSe thin film, which showed an amorphous phase. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Zn-S, Zn-Se, and insignificant Zn-OH bonds formation from the Zn 2p3/2, S 2p, Se 3d5/2, and O 1s atomic states, respectively. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy study showed ?80% transmittance in the visible region for all the ZnSSe thin films having various absorption edges. The tuning of the band gap energy of the ZnSSe thin films was carried out by selenizing CBD-ZnS thin films, and as the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6, the band gap energy decreased from 3.20 to 3.12 eV

  2. Beneficial effects of Androctonus australis hector venom and its non-toxic fraction in the restoration of early hepatocyte-carcinogenesis induced by FB1 mycotoxin: Involvement of oxidative biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjia, Bekkari; Fatima, Laraba-Djebari

    2015-10-01

    Some venom components are known to present potential biological activities that are useful as tools in therapeutics. In this study anti-tumoral activity of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its purified fraction on early step of hepato-carcinogenesis initiated by Fumonisin (FB1), was tested. Initiated hepatic tumor was assessed in mice by decreased doses of Fumonisin B1 associated to phenobarbital. Scorpion venom was used to investigate its activity on initiated tumor by FB1. Evaluation of oxidative unbalance, enzymatic activities and DNA quantification in the liver were correlated with tissue analysis. Obtained results showed that the initiated pathogenesis by FB1 at seven months was characterized by tissue alterations and biomarker variations. These alterations were characterized by atypical lesions such as muffled nucleus, karyo- and cyto-megaly; up normal and large number of nuclei into hepatocytes. These alterations were confirmed by DNA alteration. An unbalance of oxidative status was also observed, characterized by an increased levels of respectively oxidant (NO and MDA) and antioxidant (GSH and catalase activity) mediators. Aah venom and its non-toxic fraction used at low doses seemed to be able to restore partially the hepatic altered tissue induced by FB1. Decreased levels of oxidative and anti-oxidative mediators were also observed. DNA in hepatocytes returned also to the physiological values. Structure of hepatic tissue showed restoration of some alterations such as karyo- and cyto-megaly; decrease of polyploidy hepatocytes induced by FB1. Aah venom and its non-toxic fraction seem to contain some bioactive components with anti-tumoral activity. Purification of this activity from non-toxic fraction F1 could be of interest to identify the components with anti-tumoral activities. PMID:26142225

  3. A laboratory study of the oxidation of non toxic Cr(III) to toxic Cr(VI) by OH{sup •} free radicals in simulated atmospheric water droplets conditions: Potential environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouider, Fathi, E-mail: fathid@yahoo.com; Hussain, Ahmad

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Oxidation of non toxic Cr(III) to toxic Cr(VI) is a major environmental hazard. • oxidation by OH{sup .} free radicals generated by water radiolysis. • Oxidation is maximum at pH 4. • A mechanism is proposed. - Abstract: In atmospheric waters, oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) by OH{sup •} free radicals is a major environmental hazard since non-toxic species is transformed into toxic one. It is important to obtain some details concerning this oxidation reaction. In this study we simulated this oxidation by steady state radiolysis using {sup 60}Co radioactive source and pulse radiolysis technique using a 2.5 MeV van de Graaff electron accelerator and investigated its kinetics in the pH range 1 to 9. Our findings showed that the reaction was highly pH dependant with a maximum yield at pH 4. The electron transfer proceeds via an inner sphere mechanism with (i) formation of the [OH{sup •} –Cr(III)] adduct with an equilibrium constant of 2.34 × 10{sup 4} mol{sup ?1} dm{sup ?3} then (ii) followed by an electron transfer from Cr(III) to OH{sup •} within the adduct with a rate constant of 2.51 × 10{sup 4} s{sup ?1}. The implication of this oxidation to atmospheric chromium contamination is discussed.

  4. Relative quantification of PIK3CA gene expression level in fine-needle aspiration biopsy thyroid specimens collected from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and non-toxic goitre by real-time RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska-Durczy?ska Katarzyna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is important regulator of many cellular events, including apoptosis, proliferation and motility. PI3K pathway alterations (PIK3CA gene mutations and/or amplification have been observed in various human tumours. In the majority of diagnosed cases, mutations are localized in one of the three "hot spots" in the gene, responsible for coding catalytic subunit ? of class I PI3K (PIK3CA. Mutations and amplification of PIK3CA gene are characteristic for thyroid cancer, as well. Methods The aim of our study was to examine a gene expression level of PIK3CA in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB thyroid specimens in two types of thyroid lesions, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and non-toxic goitre (NTG. Following conventional cytological examination, 42 thyroid FNAB specimens, received from patients with PTC (n = 20 and NTG (n = 22, were quantitatively evaluated regarding PIK3CA expression level by real-time PCR in the ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. Results Significantly higher expression level (RQ of PIK3CA in PTC group has been noted in comparison with NTG group (p Conclusion These observations may suggest role of PIK3CA alterations in PTC carcinogenesis.

  5. A laboratory study of the oxidation of non toxic Cr(III) to toxic Cr(VI) by OH(•) free radicals in simulated atmospheric water droplets conditions: potential environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouider, Fathi; Hussain, Ahmad

    2014-07-15

    In atmospheric waters, oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) by OH(•) free radicals is a major environmental hazard since non-toxic species is transformed into toxic one. It is important to obtain some details concerning this oxidation reaction. In this study we simulated this oxidation by steady state radiolysis using (60)Co radioactive source and pulse radiolysis technique using a 2.5MeV van de Graaff electron accelerator and investigated its kinetics in the pH range 1 to 9. Our findings showed that the reaction was highly pH dependant with a maximum yield at pH 4. The electron transfer proceeds via an inner sphere mechanism with (i) formation of the [OH(•)-Cr(III)] adduct with an equilibrium constant of 2.34×10(4)mol(-1)dm(-3) then (ii) followed by an electron transfer from Cr(III) to OH(•) within the adduct with a rate constant of 2.51×10(4)s(-1). The implication of this oxidation to atmospheric chromium contamination is discussed. PMID:24862466

  6. Administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio não protege contra a intoxicação por este composto em ovinos / Repeated administration of non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate does not protect against poisoning by this compound in sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariany C., Santos; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Rubiane F., Heckler; Stephanie C., Lima; Mariana L., Silva; Renato, Rezende; Nilton M., Carvalho; Ricardo A.A., Lemos.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar se repetidas doses não tóxicas de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MFA) induzem resistência à intoxicação por essa substância, 18 ovinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de nove animais cada. Os ovinos do Grupo 1 ingeriram doses crescentes não letai [...] s de MFA por seis períodos: 0,05mg/kg por 5 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,08mg/kg por 4 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias; 0,1mg/kg por 3 dias e 0,25mg/kg por 3 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam o MFA por 10 dias consecutivos; entre o terceiro e o quarto período e dentre os demais períodos de administração, os ovinos permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir o MFA. Quinze dias após o último período de administração os ovinos foram desafiados com a dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado a ingestão de MFA, estes ovinos receberam dose única de 1mg/kg de MFA no mesmo período em que o G1 foi desafiado. No desafio sete ovinos do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação e um ovino se recuperou. No Grupo 2 todos os animais manifestaram quadro clínico da intoxicação por MFA, no entanto, dois ovinos se recuperaram. Os coeficientes de mortalidade foram de 66,6% para o Grupo 1 e de 77,7% para o Grupo 2. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a administração repetida de doses não tóxicas de MFA não protege contra a intoxicação aguda por este composto, portanto, outras alternativas para a profilaxia da intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA deverão ser pesquisadas, principalmente a utilização intraruminal de bactérias que hidrolisam MFA. Abstract in english With the objective to assess whether repeated non-toxic doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) induce resistance to poisoning by this compound, 18 sheep were randomly divided into two experimental groups of nine animals each. Sheep from Group 1 ingested non-lethal increasing doses of MFA for six pe [...] riods: 0.05mg/kg for 5 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.08mg/kg for 4 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days; 0.1mg/kg for 3 days and 0.25mg/kg for 3 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and third period the animals did not receive MFA for 10 consecutive days, between the third and fourth period and during the remaining periods of administration the sheep were left 15 days without ingesting MFA. Group 2 was not adapted to the ingestion of MFA and received a single dose of 1mg/kg of MFA at the same time that Group 1 was challenged. After challenge, seven sheep of Group 1 showed clinical signs of poisoning and one sheep recovered. In Group 2, all animals showed clinical signs of poisoning by MFA, however two sheep recovered. The mortality rate was 66.6% in Group 1 and 77.7% for Group 2. These results suggest that repeated administration of non-toxic doses of MFA does not protect against acute poisoning by this compound; therefore other alternatives of prophylaxis for poisoning by plants containing MFA should be searched, mainly the use of intraruminal bacteria that hydrolyze MFA.

  7. Evaluation of recombinant forms of the shiga toxin variant Stx2eB subunit and non-toxic mutant Stx2e as vaccine candidates against porcine edema disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshio; Matsui, Takeshi; Takita, Eiji; Kadoyama, Yumiko; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Kato, Ko; Sawada, Kazutoshi; Hamabata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    Porcine edema disease (ED) is a communicable disease of shoats caused by infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli. Stx2e is classified as a 1A5B-type toxin and is a decisive virulence determinant of ED. The single A subunit of Stx2e possesses enzymatic activity and is accompanied by a pentamer of B subunits, which binds to the host receptor and delivers the A subunit into the cell. In the present study, we used a mouse model to evaluate the immunogenicity of 3 ED vaccine candidates: a non-toxic mutant holotoxin mStx2e and 2 Stx2eB-based fusion proteins, Stx2eA2B-His and Stx2eB-His. Systemic inoculation of mice with mStx2e- and the Stx2eB-derived antigens induced anti-Stx2e IgG responses that were fully and partially capable of neutralizing Stx2e cellular cytotoxicity, respectively. Intranasal immunization with mStx2e protected the mice from subsequent intraperitoneal challenge with a lethal dose of Stx2e, whereas immunization with Stx2eA2B-His and Stx2eB-His afforded partial protection. Analysis of serum cytokines revealed that mStx2e, but not the Stx2eB-based antigens, was capable of inducing a Th2-type immune response. These results suggest that although the Stx2eB-based antigens elicited an immune response to Stx2e, they did so through a different mechanism to the Th2-type response induced by mStx2e. PMID:23728257

  8. Cork Design: A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation:

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre, A.C.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study Cork Design: A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation comprises the systematic implementation of sustainable product innovation within the Portuguese cork sector, through action research. Cork is a natural, recyclable, non-toxic, and renewable resource, which stems from the bark of the cork oak in the Mediterranean cork forest (Montado) and it has been proven to be an excellent material for sustainable product innovation. The research focuses on a...

  9. Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Edward Gakpe

    2008-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis ha...

  10. Effects of oral exposure of pigs to deoxynivalenol (DON) sulfonate (DONS) as the non-toxic derivative of DON on tissue residues of DON and de-epoxy-DON and on DONS blood levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, S; Beyer, M; Breves, G; Valenta, H; Humpf, H-U

    2010-11-01

    The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is of outstanding importance in pig nutrition because of its frequent occurrence in cereal grains at levels high enough to cause adverse effects such as a decrease in feed intake and impairment of the immune system. Thus, simple decontamination procedures would be useful. The present study aimed to examine the effects of wet preservation of triticale contaminated with DON and zearalenone (ZON) with sodium metabisulphite (SBS) on the treatment-related non-toxic derivative of DON (DON-sulfonate, DONS), and on ZON and its metabolites in blood and various physiological specimens of piglets. The uncontaminated control triticale (CON) and the DON-contaminated triticale (FUS) were included in the diets either untreated or SBS treated (CON-SBS, FUS-SBS) and fed to piglets for 28 days starting from weaning. The diet concentrations for DON were 0.156, 0.084, 2.312 and 0.275 mg kg(-1), for DONS were <0.05, <0.05, <0.05 and 1.841 mg kg(-1), and for ZON were <0.001, 0.006, 0.017, and 0.016 mg kg(-1) for each of CON, CON-SBS, FUS and FUS-SBS, respectively. DONS was present in the blood of piglets fed the FUS-SBS at a median concentration of 15.5 ng ml(-1) (3-67 ng ml(-1)), while the median DON concentration amounted to 2 ng ml(-1) (0-5 ng ml(-1)) at the same time. The median DON concentration in the blood of piglets fed the FUS diet reached a median concentration of 10.5 ng ml(-1) (5-17 ng ml(-1)). Moreover, the relative differences between the DON concentrations in other physiological specimens (muscle, liver, kidney, bile and urine) in piglets fed the FUS-SBS and the FUS diet were comparable with the blood DON concentration differences. Although these differences can be taken as an indication for DONS stability after absorption and distribution further studies examining DONS in these other physiological specimens directly are necessary to substantiate this conclusion. Moreover, ZON and ?-zearalenol could only be detected in bile and urine where their levels were not influenced by the SBS treatment. PMID:20677033

  11. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Biovalorization of technical lignins for added-value products and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, J. C. Cardoso; Malcata, F.; Moreira, P.; Almeida-Vara, E.; Sena-Martins, G.

    2005-01-01

    Lignin is an abundant non-toxic amorphous natural polymer. Nowadays it is available a great variety and large amounts of technical lignins as by-products from the pulp and paper industries. Some successful biotechnological applications of enzymatically modified lignins are described in the literature, namely for the production of lignin based copolymers, binders for wood composites, chelating agents, compositions for treating porous materials, coatings, paintings and others. From a new specie...

  13. Indução de resistência à intoxicação por Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) mediante administração de doses sucessivas não tóxicas / Induction of resistance to Palicourea aeneofusca (Rubiaceae) poisoning by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murilo Duarte de, Oliveira; Franklin, Riet-Correa; Fabrício K.L., Carvalho; Genilson B., Silva; Walkleber S., Pereira; Rosane M.T., Medeiros.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comprovar se doses não tóxicas repetidas de Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. criam resistência à intoxicação, 12 caprinos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais de seis animais cada. No Grupo 1 foi induzida resistência mediante a administração, dur [...] ante quatro períodos alternados, de 0,02g/kg das folhas dessecadas de P. aeneofusca durante 5 dias, 0,02g/kg durante 5 dias, 0,03g/kg durante 5 dias e 0,03g/kg por mais 5 dias. Entre o primeiro e o segundo período de administração e entre o segundo e o terceiro período os animais não receberam planta por 10 dias consecutivos e entre o terceiro e quarto período de administração os animais permaneceram 15 dias sem ingerir a planta. Um caprino morreu subitamente quando estava recebendo 0,03 g/kg da planta, no terceiro período de administração. O Grupo 2 não foi adaptado ao consumo de P. aeneofusca. Quinze dias após a adaptação ao consumo de P. aeneofusca do Grupo 1, os dois grupos receberam P. aeneofusca na dose diária de 0,03g/kg durante 19 dias. A partir do 20º dia de administração continuada a dose diária de P. aeneofusca foi aumentada para 0,04g/kg. Esta dose foi administrada por mais 12 dias. Os animais que mostraram sinais clínicos foram retirados do experimento imediatamente após a observação dos primeiros sinais. Um caprino do Grupo 2 apresentou sinais clínicos de intoxicação e morreu no 12º dia de administração e dois apresentaram sinais clínicos no 24º dia; um se recuperou e outro morreu. Após finalizada esta fase do experimento e para comprovar se os caprinos que não tinham adoecido no Grupo 2 tinham também adquirido resistência, foi introduzido outro grupo com três caprinos. Esses três caprinos (Grupo 3), os cinco caprinos do Grupo 1 e os três sobreviventes do Grupo 2, ingeriram uma dose diária de 0,06g/kg. Os três caprinos do Grupo 3 adoeceram no terceiro dia após o início da ingestão, dois morreram em forma hiperaguda e o outro recuperou-se após 10 dias. Todos os caprinos dos Grupos 1 e 2 ingeriram P. aeneofusca na dose de 0,06g/kg/dia durante nove dias sem apresentar nenhum sinal clínico. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram que a administração de doses não tóxicas repetidas de P. aeneofusca aumentam significativamente á resistência à intoxicação e que esta técnica poderia ser utilizada para o controle da intoxicação por P. aeneofusca e outras espécies de Palicourea com similar toxicidade. Os resultados de pesquisas anteriormente realizados sugerem que a resistência à intoxicação por plantas que contêm MFA é devida a proliferação de bactérias que degradam MFA no rúmen. Abstract in english Palicourea aeneofusca (Müll. Arg.) Standl. is a toxic plant which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA). With the objective to investigate if repeated non-toxic doses of P. aeneofusca induce resistance to the intoxication by this plant, 12 goats were distributed in two similar groups. In Group 1, [...] resistance was induced by the administration of the dry plant, during four alternate periods: 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.02g/kg during 5 days, 0.03g/kg during 5 days, and 0.03g/kg during 5 days. Between the first and second period of administration and between the second and the third period, the goats did not ingest P. aeneofusca for 10 days. Between the third and the fourth administration period the goats did not ingest the plant during 15 days. One goat died suddenly during the third administration period when was ingesting 0.03g/kg. The goats from Group 2 were not adapted to the consumption of P. aeneofusca. Fifteen days after the end of the adaptation period in Group 1, both groups ingested dry P. aeneofusca in the daily dose of 0.03g/kg during 19 days. From day 20 the daily dose was increased to 0.04g/kg, which was ingested for 12 days. The goats that showed clinical signs were removed from the experiment immediately after the observation of first signs. One goat from Group 2 showed clinical signs of poisoning and d

  14. Photocatalytic hydrogen production of Co(OH)2 nanoparticle-coated {\\alpha}-Fe2O3 nanorings

    OpenAIRE

    Wender, Heberton; Gonçalves, Renato V.; Dias, Carlos Sato B.; Zapata, Maximiliano J. M.; Zagonel, Luiz F.; Mendonça, Edielma C.; Teixeira, Sérgio R.; Garcia, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    The production of hydrogen from water using only a catalyst and solar energy is one of the most challenging and promising outlets for the generation of clean and renewable energy. Semiconductor photocatalysts for solar hydrogen production by water photolysis must employ stable, non-toxic, abundant and inexpensive visible-light absorbers capable of harvesting light photons with adequate potential to reduce water. Here, we show that a-Fe2O3 can meet these requirements by means of using hydrothe...

  15. Hydrogen production by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for PEM fuel cells feeding

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, R. A.; Paiva, T.I; Branquinho, M.; Carvalho, S.; A.M.F.R.Pinto; C.M. Rangel

    2008-01-01

    In this work, hydrogen is produced by a hydrolysis process that uses sodium borohydride as a hydrogen carrier and storage media. High purity hydrogen is obtained at low temperatures with high volumetric and gravimetric storage efficiencies; reaction products are non-toxic. The produced hydrogen can be supply on-demand at specified flow by tailor made developed catalyst. Hydrogen feeding to a low power fuel cell was accomplished. According to experimental conditions conversion rates of 100% ar...

  16. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes. PMID:19075839

  17. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  18. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  19. Aspects and environmental impacts associated with the production of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Navas de García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete plants are important to the economy of a country. However, this industry causes major environmental impacts in each of the steps involved in the manufacturing process of concrete production which are analyzed in this research. In addition, the perception of experts and workers in the area, about the environmental impacts associated with the activity of a producer of concrete was evaluated. The methodology used for the analysis of steps in the production process was as kind documentary. For to evaluate perception of environmental impacts the methodology used was descriptive non experimental, using interviews with workers related to the manufacturing process of the concrete. Among the major identified environmental impacts are dust emissions and improper handling of effluents, hazardous and non-hazardous materials. Among the proposals put forward to address these impacts include: installation of dust collectors, settling tanks, management plans for hazardous and non-hazardous materials, among others. An analysis of the results incorporating the principles of corporate social responsibility for improving or minimizing adverse impacts are detected proposed

  20. Hydrogen fuel. Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is a highly energetic and non-toxic gas capable to generate heat by direct combustion with water and nitrogen oxides as residues, and to generate electricity through fuel cells with water as unique residue. Hydrogen is, like electricity, an energy vector because it does not exist at the free state in nature but always in a combined state, mainly in water and hydrocarbons. This article treats of hydrogen production. Producing hydrogen requires to extract it from its compounds using an energy consuming chemical or physico-chemical process: 1 - exploited or directly exploitable processes: from fossil fuels (vapo-reforming, partial oxidation), derived methods (auto-thermal reforming, methanol reforming, water vapor pyrolysis and plasma reforming, small-scale hydrogen generation), water electrolysis; 2 - processes under study: water dissociation using a nuclear reactor (high temperature electrolysis, thermochemical cycles), water photo-electrolysis, thermochemical biomass transformation, production by photosynthetic microorganisms; 3 - purification; 4 - environmental impact: CO2 capture and storage, hydrogen as best auxiliary of renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  1. LT-IIb(T13I), a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Christopher J; Chadwick, Chrystal M; Mandell, Lorrie M; Hu, John C; O'Hara, Joanne M; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Connell, Terry D

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I) is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I) to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab) and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I). While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I) were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®), LT-IIb(T13I) was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I) as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense. PMID:23936344

  2. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.J. [Donlar Corporation (United States); Ravenscroft, P.D. [BP Exploration Operating Company, (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO{sub 2} corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Biosurfactant production using mixed cultures under non-aseptic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of surfactants is of increasing interest for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater and soil. Surfactants increase the accessibility of adsorbed hydrocarbons and mobilize immiscible petroleum hydrocarbons for treatment. Biosurfactants have the advantage of biodegradability and non-toxicity over their synthetic counterparts, and can be produced from renewable sources. In this study the production of biosurfactant from molasses was investigated in continuously stirred batch reactors. The effects of substrate concentration, yeast extract and peptone on biomass accumulation and biosurfactant production were investigated. Biosurfactant production was quantified by surface tension reduction and critical micelle dilution (CMD). Biosurfactant production was directly correlated with biomass production, and was improved with the addition of yeast extract. Centrifugation of the whole broth reduced surface tension. The performance of the biosurfactant produced from molasses under non-aseptic condition is comparable to other published results

  4. Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Challenges arise in the propulsion systems for the new exploration architecture. The currently operational and proven storable hypergolic systems raise toxicity...

  5. Shellac: A Non-Toxic Preservative for Human Embalming Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal S. Abd El-Aziz; Raid M. Hamdy; Abdulmonem A. Al-Hayani A. Al-Hayani; Badawoud, Mohamed H.; Saleh Aldaqal; Yahya Bedir

    2011-01-01

    It is extremely important to fix and preserve cadavers adequately not only for the sake of anatomical studies but also for the financial justification. However, the difficulties in handling and the problems of preservation of human anatomical preparations and the potential health and safety problems for staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories and the need to comply with increasingly restrictive exposure limits to components of embalming chemicals have led the research team to fashion...

  6. Shellac: A Non-Toxic Preservative for Human Embalming Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal S. Abd El-Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important to fix and preserve cadavers adequately not only for the sake of anatomical studies but also for the financial justification. However, the difficulties in handling and the problems of preservation of human anatomical preparations and the potential health and safety problems for staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories and the need to comply with increasingly restrictive exposure limits to components of embalming chemicals have led the research team to fashion a new embalming technique. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia through the years 2008-2010. About 10 cadavers were selected from the fridges of the dissection lab of the Anatomy Department; 5 for long-term preservation and five for softening purposes. The procedure involved rinsing the cadavers with the Shellac embalming solution in a pressurized tank, under a pressure of 1.5 bars for 3 days. In this study, it is revealed that there is a remarkably high embalming capacity of Shellac as shown from the well preserved dissected parts and organs in the softened cadavers. The remaining cadavers, intended for long-term preservation, mummified using Shellac could be retained in normal room conditions; whereby it was easy to soften again by simply replacing it inside the softening tank for 2-3 days. The significant use of Shellac throughout the embalming technique, as a less hazardous and financially more viable material, was discussed juxtapose more conventional and known toxic materials used in standard embalming techniques.

  7. The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

  8. Hematite Core Nanoparticles with Carbon Shell: Potential for Environmentally Friendly Production from Iron Mining Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stević, Dragana; Mihajlović, Dijana; Kukobat, Radovan; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Sagisaka, Kento; Kaneko, Katsumi; Atlagić, Suzana Gotovac

    2016-02-01

    Hematite nanoparticles with amorphous, yet relatively uniform carbon shell, were produced based exclusively on the waste sludge from the iron mine as the raw material. The procedure for acid digestion-based purification of the sludge with the full recovery of acid vapors and the remaining non-toxic rubble is described. Synthesis of the hematite nanoparticles was performed by the arrested precipitation method with cationic surfactant. The particles were thoroughly characterized and the potential of their economical production for the battery industry is indicated.

  9. Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra P. Singh; Sumit Bhatt; Kothari, S; Shailandra Singh; Kumar, D.; Gajendra Kumar,

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs). We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the product...

  10. Testing of cement-solidified products for hazardous material judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the low-level radioactive waste treatment facility (LWTF), the cement solidification process is being studied on its applicability as a method for preparing waste packages from sodium-nitrate-containing low-level liquid waste generated at reprocessing plants. Solidified products prepared by the use of this process contain nitrate (sodium nitrate) and nitrite (sodium nitrite), and such products might come under the category of the Class 1 Hazardous Material (oxidative solid) under the Fire Services Act. Thus it has been determined that cement-solidified products prepared from simulated liquid waste will be tested to judge whether they should be treated as hazardous'. Cement-solidified products, which are planned to be disposed of in the form of waste packages of 200-liter drum size, fall within the category of 'articles other than powder or granular material' under the Fire Services Act. Considering this, it has been determined that cement-solidified products will be judged by the tube test and mass combustion test. In addition to those tests, assuming that cement-solidified products might be reprocessed by pulverization or other means, it has been determined that cement-solidified products will be subjected to the combustion test and the falling ball impact test. Test results and knowledge obtained are summarized below. 1. Results of the judgment test for hazardous material. (1) The tube test and the mass combustion test have both proved that cement-solidified products are not regarded as 'hazardous', and hence cement-solidified products have proved to be 'non-hazardous' in synthetic judgment. (2) The combustion test and the falling ball impact test have both proved that cement-solidified products come under 'Rank 3', and hence cement-solidified products have proved to be 'non-hazardous' in synthetic judgment. 2. Knowledge obtained. In preparing cement-solidified products for the above tests, their salt contents were adjusted to 55 wt%. This means that the test results obtained also apply to the case of cement-solidified products as long as their salt contents do not exceed 55 wt%. (author)

  11. Heavy metal removel from minewaters by alkaline waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximovich, N. G.; Khayrulina, E. A.

    2009-04-01

    One of the serious environmental problems of the Western Urals area (Russia) is the consequence of the cessation of mining in the Kizel Coal Basin. After mine closure, acid mine waters (pH about 3) with excessive heavy metal contents began to pollute ground surface and rivers. The methodology of neutralization of acid mine water and heavy metal removal by alkaline waste products is discussed in the paper. Waste products are non-toxic and consist of 70-80% of calcite. As a result of neutralization, the sediment becomes a mixture of iron and gypsum hydroxide and carbonate calcium with neutral pH. Mobile forms of Fe, Al, Mn, Pb and others were not revealed. The pilot field experiment showed the prospect and low cost of this technology.

  12. Production, Characterisation and Applications of Biosurfactants-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds released by microorganisms. They are biodegradable non-toxic and ecofreindly materials. In this review we have updated the information about different microbial surfactants. The biosurfactant production depends on the fermentation conditions, environmental factors and nutrient availability. The extraction of the biosurfactants from the cell-free supernatant using the solvent extraction procedure and the qualitative and quantitative analysis has been discussed with appropriate equipment details. The application of the biosurfactant includes biomedical, cosmetic and bioremediation. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DS10-129 showed significant applications in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in gasoline-spilled soil and petroleum oily sludge. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant enhanced the bioremediation process by releasing the weathered oil from the soil matrices and enhanced the bioavailability of hydrocarbons for microbial degradation. It is having potential applications in the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites.

  13. Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to investigate fuel characteristics of biodiesel and its production in European Union. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. In Europe the most important biofuel is biodiesel. In the European Union biodiesel is the by far biggest biofuel and represents 82% of the biofuel production. Biodiesel production for 2003 in EU-25 was 1,504,000 tons. (author)

  14. Fast, easy ethanolysis of coconut oil for biodiesel production assisted by ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Gajendra; Poonam; Singh, C P

    2010-03-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel, consistituting an alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is non-toxic and biodegradable and has a low emission profile, is better from environmentally sensitive areas. Research study on alternative fuels is essential for increased energy security. Presently, biodiesel is produced mainly is batch reactor. In this process the required energy is given by heating accompanied by mechanical stirring which has several disadvantages because of time consuming high labour cost. Being methanol is a toxic chemical; the objective of this work is to produce coconut oil ethyl ester by using ultrasonic irradiation. The advantages of ethanol are non-toxic domestic all available, having higher carbon atoms which provide higher heat content. The optical conditions for biodiesel production is the molar ratio oil to ethanol 1:6, KOH catalyst 0.75wt.% of oil and 7min reaction time. The reaction time reduced 15-40 times comparing to the conventional batch processes and found >or=98% biodiesel yield. PMID:19945331

  15. Nature helps: from research to products against blood-sucking arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2009-11-01

    Today, there is a trend in research to return to plant extracts as remedies against endo- and ectoparasites. Many daily appearing papers describe the efficacy of different plant extracts. However, the second step, to develop a product for the market (that could settle obvious needs), is in general not done. Thus, many results will be forgotten soon and the work was done in vain. The present review shows in examples that very efficacious biocidal and repellent products were developed from extracts of the plants Vitex agnus castus, Azadirachta indica, and from others which produce etheric oils. Of course, it is needed that the extracts have to be tested seriously for their activity, non-toxicity, tolerability, and user compliance. However, the selected examples show that it is worthwhile to consider plants in the fight against endo- and ectoparasites. PMID:19774397

  16. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  17. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of γ-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  18. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of dimethoxymethane over CuZnO/Al2O3-niobium phosphate hybrid catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high hydrogen content of dimethoxymethane (DMM) and non toxicity make it suitable as a resource for hydrogen production used for applications like mobile systems. In this work, samples of niobium phosphate with high surface areas were synthesized, characterized and tested for the hydrolysis of DMM and were used as acidic components for the reforming of DMM to produce H2. Ammonia adsorption micro-calorimetry and isopropanol conversion results showed the high acidity of niobium phosphate with high surface area (394 m2/g). When this sample was mixed mechanically with CuZnO/Al2O3, the conversion of DMM was greatly enhanced comparing with using CuZnO/Al2O3 alone. At 533 K, almost 100% theoretical yield to H2 was achieved and the corresponding hydrogen production rate was found to be 1100 ml.g-1.h-1. (authors)

  19. Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, L.

    1998-06-09

    A composition and methods are disclosed for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid. 2 figs.

  20. Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY); Petrakis, Leon (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1998-06-09

    A composition and methods for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid.

  1. 76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... January 2, 2009 (74 FR 41). We then published a proposed rule on June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31844). Today's... mined coal refuse that previously had not been usable as coal, and clean cellulosic biomass. These fuels... ANPRM (74 FR 41, January 2, 2009) and the proposed rule (75 FR 31843, June 4, 2010).) The records...

  2. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... ``solid waste'' to mean ``* * * any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply... plastics; spent solvents; coal refuse; waste water treatment sludge, and used oil. The six secondary... defines ``solid waste'' as ``* * *any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water...

  3. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...biosolid drying that destroys pathogens and bacteria. Specifically, raw sewage sludge is...ovens that destroy the pathogens and bacteria, removing any remaining water...transaction. This transaction could include money changing hands or, in other...

  4. 76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...would make almost every aluminum can from which we drink our sodas or newspapers on which we read the news ``solid wastes...material's combustion, waste heat recovery units are designed to cool the exhaust gas stream, and/or to recover,...

  5. Overview of EU Thermie gasification projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniatis, K [Directorate General for Energy, DO XVII European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    1999-07-01

    Gasification of biomass and non-hazardous, non-toxic waste derived fuels is recognised as an attractive process for energy generation with high relative efficiencies and good environmental performance. Although there has been significant progress in understanding the design and modelling of gasifiers, the problems of efficient gas cleaning can only be overcome with relative expensive technologies which can only be justified at high capacities of power production. For this reason, the Energy from Biomass and Waste sector of the THERMIE programme concentrated on Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) projects and other large scale projects based on fluidized bed systems. These projects cover various feedstocks streams based either on wood residues or on waste recovered fuels such as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), and used tyres. This paper provides-tan overview of the ongoing projects on this subject and presents their status and progress. (orig.)

  6. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market.

  7. Leachates from plastic consumer products--screening for toxicity with Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Damberg, Jeanette; Dave, Göran; Larsson, Ke

    2009-03-01

    Plastic products can contain chemicals that are hazardous to human health and the environment. In this study, it was investigated if various plastic products emit hazardous chemical substances to water. Two leaching methods (batch and diffusion tests) were used and the leachates were tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Nine out of 32 tested plastic product leachates had Daphnia 48-h EC(50)s ranging from 5 to 80 g plastic material L(-1). For the remaining 23 products no effect on mobility was seen even at the highest test concentrations (70-100 g plastic material L(-1)). A compact disc (recordable) was the most toxic plastic product, but the toxicity was traced to the silver layer not the polycarbonate plastic material. The other products that displayed toxicity were made of either plasticized PVC (artificial leather, bath tub toy, inflatable bathing ring and table cloth) or polyurethane (artificial leather, floor coating and children's handbag). While the Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) for compact discs using sodium thiosulfate addition showed that silver was causing the toxicity, the TIE for artificial leather using C18 cartridges showed that hydrophobic compounds were causing the toxicity. Acute toxicity tests of plastic product leachates were found to be useful for screening purposes for differentiating between toxic and non-toxic products. PMID:19108869

  8. Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Renjie; Jin, Wenbiao; Xi, Tingting; Yang, Qian; Han, Song-Fang; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems. PMID:26253865

  9. Valuable ingredients and feed toxicity evaluation of Microcystis aeruginosa acidolysis product in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shiqun; Zhou, Qing; Xu, Yudi; Vanogtrop, Floris; Guo, Qijin; Liu, Guofeng; Yan, Shaohua

    2015-10-01

    This research studied the extraction from Microcystis aeruginosa using hydrochloric acid method as a potentially valuable protein resource from eutrophic lakes. Amino acid composition, residual algal toxins, and heavy metals of the acidolysis product were studied. After 18?h of hydrochloric acid treatment, the product of M. aeruginosa contained 17 amino acids, 51.34% of total amino acid requirements, and 30.25% of the livestock and poultry essential amino acid (Eaa). The residual microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was 0.94?µg kg(-1), which was less than WHO drinking water limit of microcystins. The removal ratio of microcystins was higher than 99.99% during the process of hydrolysis. The concentration of heavy metals of the product was in compliance with feed standards. Furthermore, using Horn's method, Mouse Micronucleus Test and Sperm Shape Abnormality Test were conducted to study the forage safety of the product. Half lethal dose (LD50) of acidolysis product in mice was >9.09?g?kg(-1) body weight, actually belonging to non-toxic grade. Every dose treatment did not significantly increase activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ?-glutamyltransferase (?-GT). The results of both micronucleus test and sperm shape abnormality test were negative, which suggested the product with no mutagenicity and sperm malformation effects. This study indicated that the acidolysis product of M. aeruginosa was safe to be used as a feed ingredient. PMID:25649189

  10. USE OF ELECTROLYZED WATER IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Jirotková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to use the properties of electrolyzed water to disinfect breeding halls and to water animals. The aim of the research was to find out whether elektrolyzed water used for desinfication of breedings hall and watering of animals influences selected indicators of the meat quality. Electrolyzed water is produced in a patent-protected device Envirolyte that produces biocide solution using potable water with added NaCl. The technology of production guarantees the product is entirely ecological, biologically fully degradable, non-toxic that can replace traditional chemical agents. Possibilities of disinfection using this solution have been verified directly in stables at the interval of 20, 40, 60 min. after application. Staphylococci and streptococci and enterococci were inactive always after 60 minutes of effect. There was significant decrease in the number of total number of microorganisms. Further, the solution of electrolyzed water was used to water poultry; and the affect on some of the properties of poultry meat, changes in pH, colour and loss of water (dripping in particular, was observed. Testing was carried out under working conditions in two breeding halls at a time and the technology of electrolyzed water to disinfect premises and to water chickens was used in one of the halls. When the chickens were slaughter mature, the poultry was slaughtered at the standard slaughterhouse and samples (127 pieces were taken in order to measure pH, colour and loss of water (dripping. The values of pH, colour and loss of water (dripping ascertained, processed by the T-test did not confirm the hypothesis of the assumed possible differences in occurrence of critical values of these indicators in both groups observed.

  11. Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. B., Porciúncula; N. R., Marcilio; I. C., Tessaro; M., Gerchmann.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: re [...] cyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick) or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick), and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

  12. Perspectives of Using Ultra-Fine Metals as Universal Safe BioStimulators to Get Cattle Breeding Quality Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have conducted investigations of ultra-fine metals biological activity with lab non-pedigree white rats, rabbits breed “Soviet chinchilla” and cattle young stock of the black and white breed as the most widely spread in the central part of Russia. One can see the possibility of using microelements of ultra-fine iron, cobalt and copper as cheap, non-toxic and highly effective biological catalyst of biochemical processes in the organism that improve physiological state, morphological and biochemical blood parameters increasing activity of the experimental animals’ ferment systems and their productivity and meat biological value. We have proved the ultra-fine powders safety when adding them to the animals’ diet.

  13. Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Porciúncula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick, and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

  14. Leaching of coal combustion products: Field and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Min

    This study combines field monitoring and laboratory experiments to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the re-use of coal combustion by-products (CCPs). The monitoring data obtained from two full-scale CCP applications (i.e., re-use of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond and portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs) allowed environmental impacts to be evaluated under real or simulated in-service conditions. A complimentary laboratory leaching study elucidated fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that determine the leaching kinetics of inorganic contaminants from CCPs. In the first field study, water quality impacts associated with the re-use of FGD material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond were examined by monitoring the water quality of water samples collected from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner over a period of 5 years. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio non-toxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention might be due to both sorption and precipitation. In the second field study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under controlled loading and environmental conditions. Three types of portland-cement-concrete driving surfaces were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). None of the leachate concentrations for fluids collected from laboratory leaching tests exceeded the OhioEPA's non-toxic criteria. Surface runoff monitoring showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, while there were no significant differences in release rates between OPC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for K and Cr, the release of elements was associated with the particulate (>0.45 micron) phase rather than the dissolved phase. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

    1975-01-01

    The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

  16. Production of 64Cu Radioisotope for PET Radiotracer and Radiotherapy Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity Copper-64 radioisotope production employed a cyclotron has been investigated of great interest for PET imaging tracer and targeted radioimmunotherapy agent. The 64Cu radioisotope decays with two distinguished modes: emitting ?+-particle (0.66 MeV, 17.4 %), which allows PET imaging, and emitting ?--particle of 0.579 MeV (39 %) suited for targeted radiotherapy with a half-life of 12.7 h reasonably long enough duration to require for molecule uptake to targeting tumor. The therapeutic potential of 64Cu labeling with tumor targeting molecules like monoclonal antibodies has been demonstrated by achieving therapeutic doses and non-toxicity. Several production methods have been investigated for the production of 64Cu radioisotope, proton beam irradiation of an enriched 64Ni target, or deuteron irradiation to 68Zn target. In this paper, we describe the proposed development process of 64Cu radioisotope with the comparison of theoretical production yields using 64Ni(p,n)64Cu and 68Zn(p,?n)64Cu nuclear reactions. Also, utilizing a nuclear reactor the production of 64Cu radioisotope had been carried either via the 63Cu(n,?)64Cu or the 64Zn(n,p)64Cu reation. However, the specific activity was rather low and associated radionuclidic impurity was high. Therefore, it is suggested for cyclotron to develop 64Cu radioisotope with the high specific activity and low impurity

  17. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for X-ray-based inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; Nacson, Sabatino; Koffler, Bruce; Bourbeau, Éric; Gagne, Louis; Laing, Robin; Anderson, C. J.

    2014-05-01

    Transport Canada (TC), the Canadian Armed Forces, and other public security agencies have an interest in the assessment of the potential utility of advanced explosives detection technologies to aid in the detection and interdiction of commercial grade, military grade, and homemade or improvised explosives (HME or IE). The availability of suitable, non-hazardous, non-toxic, explosive simulants is of concern when assessing the potential utility of such detection systems. Lack of simulants limits the training opportunities, and ultimately the detection probability, of security personnel using these systems. While simulants for commercial and military grade explosives are available for a wide variety of detection technologies, the design and production of materials to simulate improvised explosives has not kept pace with this emerging threat. Funded by TC and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Visiontec Systems, and Optosecurity engaged in an effort to develop inert, non-toxic Xray interrogation simulants for IE materials such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and triacetone triperoxide. These simulants were designed to mimic key X-ray interrogation-relevant material properties of real improvised explosives, principally their bulk density and effective atomic number. Different forms of the simulants were produced and tested, simulating the different explosive threat formulations that could be encountered by front line security workers. These simulants comply with safety and stability requirements, and as best as possible match form and homogeneity. This paper outlines the research program, simulant design, and validation.

  18. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  19. Non-toxic O-quaternized chitosan materials with better water solubility and antimicrobial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Wen-Shuai; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Chen, Qin; Cong, Wei; Zhao, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Five water-soluble O-quaternary ammonium salt-chitosans (QAS-CS) bearing N-methyl-N-R-N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R=-benzyl (chloride, BNQAS-CS), -dodecyl (C12QAS-CS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS-CS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS-CS), -octadecyl (C18QAS-CS)) were prepared, respectively. They were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis. Through chemical modification of O-quaternized chitosans, the water solubility of all QAS-CS was improved distinctly. Their antibacterial properties indicate good antibacterial abilities against gram-positive bacteria and bad against gram-negative bacteria, therein, C12QAS-CS and C14QAS-CS are the best. More importantly, their cytotoxicity was markedly lower than the corresponding QAS monomers by evaluating for AT2 cell line using CCK-8 assay. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial chitosan materials with better water solubility, better antimicrobial ability and lower cytotoxicity for primary additive agent of self-owned intellectual band-aids. PMID:26712700

  20. Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L-1 Na2SO4 + 0.2 g L-1 NaHCO3 at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent

  1. Non-Toxic, Non-flammable, Low FP Heat Exchanger Fluids Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed research addresses NASA 2004-1 SBIR Topic B3.01, "Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere." The objective of this proposed effort is to...

  2. Fast, non-toxic, and inexpensive n-butanol preparation of recombinant plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Brieger

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Various commercial and non-commercial plasmid preparation protocols are currently available. However, the kits are expensive and many of the protocols contain toxic chemicals. Here we present a novel, optimized and, therefore, very advantageous plasmid preparation protocol using n-butanol. The preparation can be performed quickly and no toxic chemicals are used, at overall costs of about one cent per plasmid preparation.Atualmente vários protocolos comerciais e não comerciais para preparação de plasmídeos estão disponíveis. Contudo, os kits são caros e muitos dos protocolos contêm substâncias químicas tóxicas. Apresentamos neste trabalho um novo, otimizado e portanto muito vantajoso protocolo para preparação de plasmídios usando n-butanol. A preparação pode ser efetuada rapidamente, sem adição de substâncias químicas tóxicas e a um custo total de aproximadamente um centavo (americano por preparação.

  3. Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvara, Simona [Department of Topography, ' 1 Decembrie 1918' University, 11-13 Nicolae Iorga Street, 510009 Alba Iulia (Romania); Muresan, Liana Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 11 Arany-Janos Street, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)], E-mail: limur@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Rahmouni, Kamal; Takenouti, Hisasi [UPMC LISE - UPR 15 of the CNRS, ' Pierre and Marie Curie' University, Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.2 g L{sup -1} NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent.

  4. Toxic and non-toxic role of some metals in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metals included in this study were copper, iron, zinc, cadmium and lead. The copper, iron and zinc were selected because of their important biological role in human body while cadmium and lead were selected due to their toxic nature. During the past few years, the assessment of pollution of food resources has become a major subject of investigation all over the world. Human health may be directly affected by investing fruit and vegetables, if enhanced amounts of macro or micro nutrients are present in such edibles. In addition, the presence of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in general foodstuff can lead to the malfunction of organs and chronic toxicity in humans. (author)

  5. Characterization of an inexpensive, non-toxic and highly sensitive microarray substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufva, Hans Martin; Petronis, Sarunas; Jensen, L. B.; Krag, C.; Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2004-01-01

    film had a 10-fold increase in surface roughness compared to glass and that the interior of the agarose film was porous, with pore sizes between 100-500 nm. A comparison of hybridization on aldehyde-activated agarose-coated microarray slides and commercial amino-reactive microarray slides showed that......An agarose film has been proposed as an efficient substrate for producing microarrays. The original film preparation procedure was simplified significantly by grafting the agarose layer directly onto unmodified microscope glass slides instead of aminated glass slides, and the blocking procedure was...... aldehyde-activated agarose-coated slides had the highest signal-to-noise ratio of 850, suggesting that the aldehyde-activated agarose microarray slides are suitable in applications where analytes have a wide concentration range. By immobilizing the DNA probes using ultraviolet (UV) light, the signal...

  6. Effects of non-toxic cryoprotective agents on the viability of cord blood derived MNCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoyi, Akalabya; Pramanik, K

    2013-01-01

    The present work investigates the effects of a variety of natural cryoprotectants in combination on post-thaw viability and apoptosis of cryopreserved mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from umbilical cord blood. The extracellular cryoprotectants (10 mM) namely trehalose, hydroxyl ethyl starch, polyvinyl pyrrolidine and intracellular CPAs (5 mM) like erythritol, taurine and ectoine were used to prepare different combinations of freezing medium following L9 (3(4)) Taguchi orthogonal array. Catalase, coenzyme Q10 and n-acetyl cystine (100 microg/m) were added as antioxidants. Among various combinations, freezing medium consisting of hydroxyl ethyl starch, ectoin and co-enzyme Q10 with 10% FBS is found to be most effective combination achieving maximum cell viability of 93%, 5.6% early apoptotic, 0.7% late apoptotic and 0.1% necrotic cells. SEM and phase contrast microscopy confirmed the normal cell morphology of the post-thaw cultured cells with retaining their membrane integrity. The survival rate of MNCs is higher than the rate achieved using conventional Me2SO. PMID:24448765

  7. Non-Toxic, Low Freezing, Drop-in Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Drop-in heat transfer fluids replacements for ITCS and EVA suits were down-selected and characterized in Phase I for various metrics including density, heat...

  8. Human studies with 'high dose' metronidazole: a non-toxic radiosensitizer of hypoxic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum concentrations of the radiosensitizer metronidazole have been determined in mice for both oral and intraperitoneal doses of the drug and these have been related to radiosensitization studies in murine tumour systems. In preliminary work before a possible clinical trial the serum metronidazole concentration/time curves have been determined in 7 patients using single doses of metronidazole of up to 15 g. The data suggested that a linear relationship exists between the metronidazole dose expressed in mg/kg and the peak serum concentration. The possibility of achieving radiosensitization of tumours in patients after tolerable doses of metronidazole is discussed in relation to enhancement ratios determined for in vitro and in vivo system. It is concluded that predictions from in vitro systems give values that are probably too optimistic. (author)

  9. Opioid growth factor (OGF) for hepatoblastoma: a novel non-toxic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosnitzky, Moshe; Finegold, Milton J; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

    2013-08-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver malignancy in children, typically diagnosed before age 2. The survival rate for hepatoblastoma has increased dramatically in the last 30 years, but the typical chemotherapeutic agents used for treatment are associated with significant toxicity. In this report, the authors present two cases of hepatoblastoma treated with surgical resection and a novel biotherapeutic regimen that included opioid growth factor (OGF). Case #1 is an infant diagnosed with a large mass on prenatal ultrasound. After subsequent diagnosis of hepatoblastoma, she was treated with one course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy at approximately 1 week of age. Following significant complications from the chemotherapy (neutropenic fever, pneumonia and sepsis), the patient's parents declined further chemotherapy, and the infant was treated with surgical resection and opioid growth factor (OGF)/low dose naltrexone (LDN). She is currently at close to 10 years disease-free survival. Case #2 is a child diagnosed with a liver mass on ultrasound at 20 months of age, later biopsy-proven to represent hepatoblastoma. Due to existing co-morbidities including autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and hypertension, and indications from the biopsy that the tumor might be insensitive to chemotherapy, the parents elected not to proceed with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The patient was treated with surgical resection and OGF/LDN, and is currently at more than 5 years disease-free survival. This case series highlights the need for less toxic treatment options than conventional chemotherapy. Modulation of the OGF-OGF receptor axis represents a promising safe and therapeutic avenue for effective treatment of hepatoblastoma. PMID:23275062

  10. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    OpenAIRE

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding...

  11. Fast and Non-Toxic In Situ Hybridization without Blocking of Repetitive Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Matthiesen, Steen H.; Hansen, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Formamide is the preferred solvent to lower the melting point and annealing temperature of nucleic acid strands in in situ hybridization (ISH). A key benefit of formamide is better preservation of morphology due to a lower incubation temperature. However, in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), against unique DNA targets in tissue sections, an overnight hybridization is required to obtain sufficient signal intensity. Here, we identified alternative solvents and developed a new hybridiza...

  12. Non-toxic poly(ethylene terephthalate)/clay nanocomposites with enhanced barrier properties

    KAUST Repository

    Hayrapetyan, Suren

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the technological need for poly(ethylene terephthalate) materials with improved barrier properties together with the requirement for sustainability this study focuses on an eco-friendly sulfonated polyester as clay compatibilizer to facilitate polymer mixing during melt compounding. We demonstrate that the nanocomposites based on sulfonated polyester are a reliable alternative to their imidazolium counterparts, exhibiting enhanced properties (water vapor and UV transmission), without sacrificing the excellent transparency, clarity and mechanical strength of the matrix. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Abdel Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1 indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

  14. / Ranitidine Drugs as Non-Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.S., Abdel Hameed.

    Full Text Available Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentrati [...] on of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. The maximum protection efficiency of 90% has been obtained at 400 ppm. On the other hand, the efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of dissolution and adsorption were calculated and discussed. The negative value of ?Gads (-40 kJ mol-1) indicates spontaneous chemical adsorption. Results obtained from polarization, EIS and weight loss measurements are in good agreement with each other.

  15. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar

    2012-01-01

    -band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were...... manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4½ months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved...

  16. Bacterial polysaccharide levan as stabilizing, non-toxic and functional coating material for microelement-nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Olesja M; Ivask, Angela; Kahru, Anne; Vija, Heiki; Titma, Tiina; Visnapuu, Meeri; Joost, Urmas; Pudova, Ksenia; Adamberg, Signe; Visnapuu, Triinu; Alamäe, Tiina

    2016-01-20

    Levan, fructose-composed biopolymer of bacterial origin, has potential in biotechnology due to its prebiotic and immunostimulatory properties. In this study levan synthesized by levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae was thoroughly characterized and used as multifunctional biocompatible coating material for microelement-nanoparticles (NPs) of selenium, iron and cobalt. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), hydrodynamic size measurements (DLS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the interaction of levan with NPs. Levan stabilized the dispersions of NPs, decreased their toxicity and had protective effect on human intestinal cells Caco-2. In addition, levan attached to cobalt NPs remained accessible as a substrate for the colon bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. We suggest that the combination of levan and nutritionally important microelements in the form of NPs serves as a first step towards a novel "2 in 1" approach for food supplements to provide safe and efficient delivery of microelements for humans and support beneficial gut microbiota with nutritional oligosaccharides. PMID:26572404

  17. Nanodiamonds with silicon vacancy defects for non-toxic photostable fluorescent labeling of neural precursor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Merson, Tobias D; Aharonovich, Igor; Turbic, Alisa; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Turnley, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. NPCs labeled with NDs exhibited normal cell viability and proliferative properties consistent with biocompatibility. We conclude that SiVcontaining NDs are a promising biomedical research tool for cellular labeling and optical imaging in stem cell research.

  18. Non-toxic agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system containing gallic acid for antifungal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P-L; Gambari, R; Kok, S H-L; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Bian, Z-X; Lee, K K-H; Chui, C-H

    2015-02-01

    Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is a common species of Aspergillus molds. Cutaneous aspergillosis usually occurs in skin sites near intravenous injection and approximately 6% of cutaneous aspergillosis cases which do not involve burn or HIV-infected patients are caused by A. niger. Biomaterials and biopharmaceuticals produced from microparticle-based drug delivery systems have received much attention as microencapsulated drugs offer an improvement in therapeutic efficacy due to better human absorption. The frequently used crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, in gelatin-based microencapsulation systems is considered harmful to human beings. In order to tackle the potential risks, agarose has become an alternative polymer to be used with gelatin as wall matrix materials of microcapsules. In the present study, we report the eco-friendly use of an agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system to enhance the antifungal activity of gallic acid and reduce its potential cytotoxic effects towards human skin keratinocytes. We used optimal parameter combinations, such as an agarose/gelatin ratio of 1:1, a polymer/oil ratio of 1:60, a surfactant volume of 1% w/w and a stirring speed of 900 rpm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of microencapsulated gallic acid (62.5 µg/ml) was significantly improved when compared with that of the original drug (>750 µg/ml). The anti-A. niger activity of gallic acid -containing microcapsules was much stronger than that of the original drug. Following 48 h of treatment, skin cell survival was approximately 90% with agarose/gelatin microcapsules containing gallic acid, whereas cell viability was only 25-35% with free gallic acid. Our results demonstrate that agarose/gelatin-based microcapsules containing gallic acid may prove to be helpful in the treatment of A. niger-induced skin infections near intravenous injection sites. PMID:25482299

  19. Non-toxic liquid scintillators with high light output based on phenyl-substituted siloxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Palma, M.; Carturan, S. M.; Degerlier, M.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Quaranta, A.

    2015-04-01

    The work describes the development of a new class of liquid scintillators based on polysiloxane liquid compounds. These materials are characterized by low toxicity, chemical inertness, very low volatility and low flammability, allowing their use without concerns even at high temperatures in vacuum. In this view different polysiloxane based liquids have been tested, with variable content and distribution of phenyl lateral substituents and added with suitable dyes, namely 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and Lumogen Violet (LV). Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used in order to study the emission feature of the various compounds and to investigate the spectral matching between siloxane solvents and dissolved primary dyes. Scintillation efficiency towards 60Co and 137Cs gamma rays, relative to commercial liquid scintillator (EJ-309), has been measured and the results have been related to the energy transfer and energy migration mechanism from monomer and excimer forming sites in liquid siloxanes.

  20. Phosphite cannot be used as a phosphorus source but is non-toxic for microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera-Quezada, Maribel M; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; López-Arredondo, Damar; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorous (P) plays a critical role for all living organisms as a structural component of RNA, DNA and phospholipids. Microalgae are autotrophs organisms that have been reported to only assimilate the fully oxidized phosphate (Pi) as P source. However, there are microorganisms capable of utilizing P reduced compounds (i.e. phosphite (Phi) and hypophosphite) as a sole P source, such as bacteria and cyanobacteria. In this study, we evaluated whether microalgae, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Botryococcus braunii and Ettlia oleoabundans, are capable of using Phi as a sole P source. Our studies revealed that these three microalgae are unable to use Phi as a sole P source. We also found that when Phi is present at concentrations equal or higher than that of Pi, Phi has an inhibitory effect on C. reinhardtii growth. However, since C. reinhardtii was able to survive for a long period of cultivation in the presence of high concentrations of Phi and to recover cell division capacity after transfer to media containing Pi, we noticed that Phi is not toxic for this microalga. We propose that the inhibitory effect of Phi on C. reinhardtii growth might be caused, at least in part, by a competition between the transport of Pi and Phi. PMID:25575997

  1. Efficient, non-toxic anion transport by synthetic carriers in cells and epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Valkenier, Hennie; Judd, Luke W.; Brotherhood, Peter R.; Hussain, Sabir; Cooper, James A.; Jurček, Ondřej; Sparkes, Hazel A.; Sheppard, David N.; Davis, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane anion transporters (anionophores) have potential for new modes of biological activity, including therapeutic applications. In particular they might replace the activity of defective anion channels in conditions such as cystic fibrosis. However, data on the biological effects of anionophores are scarce, and it remains uncertain whether such molecules are fundamentally toxic. Here, we report a biological study of an extensive series of powerful anion carriers. Fifteen anionophores were assayed in single cells by monitoring anion transport in real time through fluorescence emission from halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein. A bis-(p-nitrophenyl)ureidodecalin shows especially promising activity, including deliverability, potency and persistence. Electrophysiological tests show strong effects in epithelia, close to those of natural anion channels. Toxicity assays yield negative results in three cell lines, suggesting that promotion of anion transport may not be deleterious to cells. We therefore conclude that synthetic anion carriers are realistic candidates for further investigation as treatments for cystic fibrosis.

  2. Fluoride at non-toxic dose affects odontoblast gene expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated fluoride intake may lead to local tissue disturbances, known as fluorosis. Towards an understanding of this effect, fluoride-induced molecular responses were analyzed in MO6-G3 cultured odontoblasts cells. NaF at 1 mM changed expression of genes implicated in tissue formation and growth, without affecting cell proliferation or inducing stress factor RNAs. Up to 1 mM NaF, DNA accumulation was not inhibited, whereas at 3 mM, cells detached from their support and did not proliferate. Intracellular structures, characterized by EM, were normal up to 1 mM, but at 3 mM, necrotic features were evident. No sign of apoptotic transformation appeared at any NaF concentration. Fluoride-sensitive genes were identified by microarray analysis; expression levels of selected RNAs were determined by conventional and real-time RT-PCR. At 1 mM fluoride, RNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins asporin and fibromodulin, and the cell membrane associated proteins periostin and IMT2A were 10-fold reduced. RNA coding for signaling factor TNF-receptor 9 was diminished to one-third, whereas that for the chemokine Scya-5 was enhanced 2.5-fold. These RNAs are present in vivo in tooth forming cells. This was demonstrated by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR on RNA from dissected tissue samples; for the presence and functioning of fibromodulin in dentin matrix, a more comprehensive study has earlier been performed by others [Goldberg, M., Septier, D., Oldberg, A., Young, M.F., Ameye, L.G., 2006. Fibromodulin deficient mice display impaired collagen fibrillogenesis in predentin as well as altered dentin mineralization and enamel formation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 54, 525-537]. Expression of most other RNA species, in particular of stress factor coding RNAs, was not altered. It was concluded that fluoride could influence the transcription pattern without inducing cell stress or apoptosis. In odontoblasts in vivo, aberrant expression of these fluoride-sensitive genes may impair the formation of the extracellular matrix and influence cell communication, with the possible consequence of fluorotic patterns of normal and deviant dentin

  3. Efficient, full-spectrum, long-lived, non-toxic microwave lamp for plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Ury, Michael G.; Gustafson, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Fusion Systems Corporation has developed a mercury-free, low infrared, efficient microwave lamp using a benign sulfur based fill optimized for visible light. Our literature search and discussions with researchers directed us to enhance the bulbs red output. We have demonstrated a photosynthetic efficacy of over 2 micro-moles per microwave joule which corresponds to over 1.3 micro-moles per joule at the power main. Recent work has shown we can make additional increases in overall system efficiency. During the next two years, we expect to demonstrate a system capable of producing more than 1.5 micro-moles/joule measured at the power main with significantly less IR than alternative lamp systems. We determined optimal plant growth light requirements via a literature search and researcher input. We surveyed candidate lamp fill materials to be used in combination with sulfur and explored several methods of increasing photosynthetic efficacy.

  4. Product Charisma

    OpenAIRE

    Gotzsch, Josiena

    2002-01-01

    Consumers are attracted by product designs that feel “alive” and that contain surprise elements. The right expressions in a product contribute to its attractiveness or “charisma”. Today, these intangible product attributes are an important way to differentiate a product from competitor's products. Companies in mature markets, especially, have a competitive advantage when they succeed in integrating “expressions” or “messages” into the product design that touches its user. This paper presents ...

  5. Straight-chain halocarbon forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production – Tests with yttria-stabilized zirconia microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • YSZ TRISO kernels formed in three alternative, non-hazardous forming fluids. • Kernels characterized for size, shape, pore/grain size, density, and composition. • Bromotetradecane is suitable for further investigation with uranium-based precursor. - Abstract: Current methods of TRISO fuel kernel production in the United States use a sol–gel process with trichloroethylene (TCE) as the forming fluid. After contact with radioactive materials, the spent TCE becomes a mixed hazardous waste, and high costs are associated with its recycling or disposal. Reducing or eliminating this mixed waste stream would not only benefit the environment, but would also enhance the economics of kernel production. Previous research yielded three candidates for testing as alternatives to TCE: 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane. This study considers the production of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) kernels in silicone oil and the three chosen alternative formation fluids, with subsequent characterization of the produced kernels and used forming fluid. Kernels formed in silicone oil and bromotetradecane were comparable to those produced by previous kernel production efforts, while those produced in chlorooctadecane and iodododecane experienced gelation issues leading to poor kernel formation and geometry

  6. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation; Caracterizacao bioquimica e imunologica dos principais produtos gerados pela irradiacao de crotoxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Nanci do

    1995-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of {gamma}-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  7. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosm...

  8. Utilization of Jatropha deoiled seed cake for production of cellulases under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Bhaumik R; Sudhir, Ankit P; Pansuriya, Mehul; Raykundaliya, Dharmesh P; Subramanian, R B

    2012-10-01

    Toxic waste generated by Jatropha seed cake after utilization of biodiesel on one hand has stimulated the need to develop new technologies to treat the waste and on the other, forced us to reevaluate the efficient utilization of its nutritive potential for production of various high-value compounds and its conversion to non-toxic forms which could be used as animal feed stock. In this study, Jatropha seed cake was used for production of cellulases by new isolate of Thermoascus aurantiacus under solid-state fermentation. The interaction of nitrogen source concentration, moisture ratio, initial pH of the medium and inoculum size was investigated and modelled using response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Under optimized conditions endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase and filter paper activities were found to be 124.44, 28.86, 4.87 U/g of substrate, respectively. Characterization of endo-?-1,4-glucanase, ?-glucosidase was done after partial purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by desalting. The endo-?-1,4-glucanase and ?-glucosidase showed maximum activity at 70 °C and pH 4. Saccharification studies performed with different lignocellulosic substrates showed that sugar cane bagasse was most susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The study suggests that Jatropha seed cake can be used as a viable nutrient source for cellulase production without any pretreatment under solid-state fermentation by T. aurantiacus. PMID:22451079

  9. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks...

  10. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  11. Productivity policy

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovsky, L.; Bond, S.; Harrison, R.; H Simpson

    2005-01-01

    In this Briefing Note, we first present internationally comparative evidence on the UK's productivity performance (Section 2) and some of the underlying "drivers" of productivity identified by the government (Section 3). We then provide an overview of productivity policy under both Labour governments since 1997, and discuss the recent direction of policy in this 2005 Election Briefing area (Section 4). Finally, we discuss the proposals of the three main parties in the area of productivity pol...

  12. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The...... implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes, a...... reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained...

  13. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  14. Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs. We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram, different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 °C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 ± 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC.

  15. Continuous low cost transesterification process for the production of coconut biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G.; Kumar, D.; Singh, S.; Kothari, S.; Bhatt, S.; Singh, CH. P. [Department of Chemistry, Sahu Jain College, Najibabad, 246763 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors. We tested residence times of 16-43 min, stirring speeds of 200-800 rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25-1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 {sup o}C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 {+-} 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC. (author)

  16. Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Ko, Ya-Wen; Shieh, Zhu-Xin; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-11-15

    Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal. PMID:19570608

  17. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycerine phase and the continuous lost of catalyst. A maximum soy biodiesel yield of 85% was obtained by BaO in 14 minutes, whereas, PbO, MnO2, CaO and MgO gave a maximum yields of 84%, 80%, 78% and 66% respectively at 215°C. The overall reaction order of PbO, MnO2, BaO, CaO and MgO was found to be 1, 1, 3, 1 and 1 respectively. The highest rate constant was observed for BaO, which was 0.0085 g2.mole-2.min-1. The performance of biodiesel in terms of type (e.g., NOx, and CO) and quantity of emissions was tested using soy biodiesel, blends of biodiesel and ethanol, and differently aged diesel engines. It was determined that saturated methyl esters, and relatively high oxygen content in the fuel, caused by addition of ethanol, increased the NOx emissions from new diesel engines compared to petroleum diesel.

  18. Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: Another potential mechanism of immune-suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 deg. C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with > 85% inhibition at 1 ?g/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 ?g/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1? (83%) or TNF-? (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity

  19. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. PMID:25827844

  20. Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  1. Agricultural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  2. Rendering wastes obtained from gold analysis by the lead-fusion fire-assay method non-hazardous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernanda Batalha; de Freitas Carvalho, Cornélio; Corrêa Netto Carvalho, Eduardo Lyse; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Gouvêa dos-Santos, Cláudio

    2012-11-15

    The classical method of melting lead by fire-assay (Pb-FA) is the most frequently used analytical technique in gold prospection. The crucible solid waste which is generated in this process is usually characterized by chemical and mineralogical composition, granulometric size distribution, and classified according to Brazilian Environmental Regulations. This study demonstrates how acid leaching can be used to remove lead from waste originally classified as hazardous by treatment with hydrochloric and nitric acids followed by chemical precipitation in sodium metasilicate solution. It is shown that for every 1000 kg of hazardous waste, 995.6 kg of non-harzardous waste can be recovered. PMID:22771892

  3. Biomolecule-Mediated Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles using Dried Vitis vinifera (Raisin) Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Sharma; Ashish Ranjan Sharma; Riju Bhavesh; Jongbong Park; Bilguun Ganbold; Ju-Suk Nam; Sang-Soo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Biomolecule-mediated nanoparticle synthesis has recently gained the attention of researchers due to its ecofriendly and non-toxic nature. Metabolites from plant extracts represent a better alternative to chemical methods to fulfill the growing demand for non-hazardous nanoparticle synthesis routes. Selenium and its nanoparticles have an extensive range of applications. Thus, biofabrication of selenium nanoparticles can be potentially useful in various fields. This study reports a green appro...

  4. Glycerol: A promising Green Solvent and Reducing Agent for Metal-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation Reactions and Nanoparticles Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Victorio Cadierno; Alba E. Díaz-Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is a non-toxic, non-hazardous, non-volatile, biodegradable, and recyclable liquid that is generated as a byproduct in the manufacture of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils. Due to its easy availability, along with its unique combination of physical and chemical properties, glycerol has recently emerged as an economically appealing and safe solvent for organic synthesis. Recent works have also demonstrated that glycerol can be used as a hydrogen source in metal-catalyzed transfer hydr...

  5. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management -...

  6. Product Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains medical device names and associated information developed by the Center. It includes a three letter device product code and a Device Class...

  7. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil & Its Evaluation in Compression Ignition Engine Using RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashan Deep Singha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of energy, deterioration of the environment and hunger,these are the three problems the humans are facing in todays era. There is an exponential rise in the demand is arrising for petroleum based energy. This has been followed by problem of depleting conventional petroleum fuels and a hike in price of these fuels, almost on a regular basis. Moreover, these green house emissions are results of petroleum fuels and other forms of pollution in the environment. The rise in the price of the fuel has also been alarming for us to find alternate energy resource.The vegetable oils has proved to be a promising source to obtain fuels for IC engines. Like, biodiesel is biodegradable, non- toxic and renewable fuel. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oil by transesterification with alcohols. The high cost of raw materials and lack of modern technology has led to the commercialization which can optimize the biodiesel yield. A modified engine can lead to better engine performance along with lesser specific fuel consumption. In this thesis, Response Surface Methodology (RSM has been used which has focused on the optimization of biodiesel production, engine performance and exhaust emission parameters.

  8. Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover for production of ethanol and carbon microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretreatment of biomass is viewed as a critical step to make the cellulose accessible to enzymes and for an adequate yield of fermentable sugars in ethanol production. Recently, hydrothermal pretreatment methods have attracted a great deal of attention because it uses water which is a inherently present in green biomass, non-toxic, environmentally benign, and inexpensive medium. Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover was conducted in a flow through reactor to enhance and optimize the enzymatic digestibility. More than 80% of glucan digestibility was achieved by pretreatment at 190 oC. Addition of a small amount of K2CO3 (0.45-0.9 wt.%) can enhance the pretreatment and allow use of lower temperatures. Switchgrass pretreated at 190 oC only with water had higher internal surface area than that pretreated in the presence of K2CO3, but both the substrates showed similar glucan digestibility. In comparison to switchgrass, corn stover required milder pretreatment conditions. The liquid hydrolyzate generated during pretreatment was converted into carbon microspheres by hydrothermal carbonization, providing a value-added byproduct. The carbonization process was further examined by GC-MS analysis to understand the mechanism of microsphere formation.

  9. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate th...

  10. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD-lined basins. The FGD-lined basins had a greater richness of plant species but lower total plant productivity than did the claylined basins. Future research work investigating the use of FGD materials in the construction of landfill caps and liners, and wetland experiments at the medium to full-scale level is recommended.

  11. Cordless Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Apollo-era technology spurred the development of cordless products that we take for granted everyday. In the 1960s, NASA asked Black Decker to develop a special drill that would be powerful enough to cut through hard layers of the lunar surface and be lightweight, compact, and operate under its own power source, allowing Apollo astronauts to collect lunar samples further away from the Lunar Experiment Module. In response, Black Decker developed a computer program that analyzed and optimized drill motor operations. From their analysis, engineers were able to design a motor that was powerful yet required minimal battery power to operate. Since those first days of cordless products, Black Decker has continued to refine this technology and they now sell their rechargeable products worldwide (i.e. the Dustbuster, cordless tools for home and industrial use, and medical tools.)

  12. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  13. Radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current programs of 51 accelerators (all but 2 of which are cyclotrons) producing radionuclides for medical use have been tabulated. With very few exceptions, notably 123I and 201Tl, only those radionuclides which are not available from the 9 commercial sources are made on the 42 non-commercial machines. Development of new radionuclides is mostly focused on short-lived positron emitters, or on generator systems, and some of the more innovative production methods are discussed. The cyclotrons now offered by the major manufacturers are reviewed in the light of present trends in radionuclide production and other influencing factors

  14. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... analysis and Activity-based Costing help managers to better understand the different profitability of customized product lines. The rather open questions at the end of the case study allow for an adjustment to the level of knowledge of the students. Students will need to reflect on how a mechanical...

  15. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...

  16. Production balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of the environment, the year 2011 was balanced in the company Slovenske elektrarne. The trend of a high share of electricity production from nuclear and hydro power plants persisted; therefore, a greater part of electricity supplies (88.5%) was not loaded by emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. (author)

  17. Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Drew S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

  18. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape or configuration of the product.

  19. Fiscal 1998 regional consortium R and D project (Regional consortium field). Report on R and D of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials (1st fiscal year); 1998 nendo chiiki konsoshiamu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki konsoshiamu bun'ya (hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project aims at development of high-strength high- biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy with lower modulli of elasticity composed of non-toxic elements, phosphate calcium ceramics for improving the biocompatibility and coating technology, and establishment of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials. In fiscal 1998, the project promoted the following: Design of high-biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy materials, development of thermomechanical treatment for improving dynamic characteristics of such alloy, survey on practical melting and casting technologies and dental precision casting process, evaluation of the biocompatibility of the alloy by cytotoxicity, selection of tools for precision machining and surface finishing, control of contents, orientation and precipitation of biocompatible crystals such as {beta}- Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} fibers for further improvement of the biocompatibility. This paper also outlines the survey results on the market needs, market size and market share for the feasibility of these materials. (NEDO)

  20. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  1. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively. PMID:7736598

  2. Lepton Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    *Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

  3. Coherent production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coherent reaction is a process which maintains the nucleus in its ground state. A coherent process can be either elastic or inelastic. In the second case the process is called diffraction dissociation or coherent production. In this contribution the physical meaning of the coherent mechanism is explained by mentioning the main features of the coherent elastic processes and results from coherent reactions are compared with some incoherent data. (Auth.)

  4. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy ?s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp? collisions at the Tevatron at ?s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  5. Basophil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Denburg, Judah A.; Davison, Maureen; Bienenstock, John

    1980-01-01

    Factors influencing basophil production from the bone marrow of ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs have been examined in vitro. Autologous co-cultures of marrow and spleen cells from OA-immune animals contained significantly higher numbers of basophils after 7 d of liquid culture in the presence of OA, compared with control co-cultures or with marrow cultures alone (P < 0.005).

  6. Hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Combustion of fossil fuels currently provides about 86% of the world's energy. The conventional fossil fuel produces a great deal of greenhouse gas which was assumed to be responsible for the global warming. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive alternative to replace fossil fuels, but current hydrogen production uses fossil fuels as a raw material. Hydrogen production by thermo chemical water splitting, a process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, is an environmentally attractive way to produce hydrogen without using fossil fuels. Hydrogen is considered as an excellent candidate for the future energy system with its many advantages. Hydrogen can be transported for long distance; it can be stored in the form of compressed gas, liquids or hydrogenated compounds. It is clean, as water is the only product after burning. Therefore hydrogen is a promising candidate of alternate energy carrier in our future energy system

  7. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape or...

  8. Hydrogen production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César A. C., Sequeira; Diogo M. F., Santos.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Discutem-se processos de obtenção de hidrogénio. Em particular, considera-se a produção electrolítica de hidrogénio em meio aquoso, à escala industrial, e à custa de energia eléctrica renovável (solar, vento, marés, etc.). Fazem-se ainda algumas previsões acerca do armazenamento, transporte e possív [...] eis aplicações do hidrogénio electrolítico. Abstract in english Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered. [...

  9. Concrete products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Increased strength and durability in concrete products can be achieved through the addition of fly ash during the manufacturing process. The properties of concrete are enhanced by fly ash. The benefits include cost and the environment. Fly ash is normally defined as finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal, carried from the combustion chamber to the furnace by exhaust gas. The main applications of fly ash in concrete products are ready mix concrete, bridge decks and support footing, precast structures, blocks and bricks, and pipes. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has published standards to ensure that the desired physical properties of the concrete are achieved and the standards are found in CSA A23.1, detailing the engineering materials and mix proportions. The type of fly ash to be used for specific properties is important. Finishing and curing operations must be performed with care. The free lime generated by cement hydration reacts with fly ash, forming additional calcium silicate hydrate. Permeability of the concrete is reduced since the calcium silicate hydrate fills the void resulting from the cement pour. Some of the benefits to be derived from fly ash in concrete are: water reduction, improved workability, high ultimate strength, improved pumpability, and reduced heat of hydration. In addition, the life cycle costs are lower, and great strength is obtained. An environmental benefit results from the reduction of natural resource consumption.

  10. The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body γ-radiation as acute doses.

  11. Food production and nutrition in biosphere 2: results from the first mission September 1991 to September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, S. E.; Nelson, M.

    The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m^2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time.

  12. The Dynamics of Microcystis Genotypes and Microcystin Production and Associations with Environmental Factors during Blooms in Lake Chaohu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Chaohu, which is a large, shallow, hypertrophic freshwater lake in southeastern China, has been experiencing lake-wide toxic Microcystis blooms in recent decades. To illuminate the relationships between microcystin (MC production, the genotypic composition of the Microcystis community and environmental factors, water samples and associated environmental data were collected from June to October 2012 within Lake Chaohu. The Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and HPLC, respectively. The results showed that the abundances of Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations varied on spatial and temporal scales. Microcystis exists as a mixed population of toxic and non-toxic genotypes, and the proportion of toxic Microcystis genotypes ranged from 9.43% to 87.98%. Both Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that throughout the entire lake, the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations showed significant positive correlation with the total phosphorus and water temperature, suggesting that increases in temperature together with the phosphorus concentrations may promote more frequent toxic Microcystis blooms and higher concentrations of MC. Whereas, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC was negatively correlated with the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations, indicating that rising DIC concentrations may suppress toxic Microcystis abundance and reduce the MC concentrations in the future. Therefore, our results highlight the fact that future eutrophication and global climate change can affect the dynamics of toxic Microcystis blooms and hence change the MC levels in freshwater.

  13. Solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis and production of hydrogen and oxygen - Annual report 2006; Photolyse de l'eau et production d'hydrogene et d'oxygene au moyen de l'energie solaire - Rapport annuel 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustynski, J.; Jorand Sartoretti, C.; Bilecka, I.; Solarska, R.

    2006-11-15

    We pursued studies of solar-light-driven photo-electrolysis cell employing semi-transparent WO{sub 3} photo anode. The stability of the photo anode in different electrolytes has been evaluated. Long term photo-electrolysis runs allowed us to identify solutions of sodium chloride as being the optimum electrolytes for water cleavage in hydrogen and oxygen, with some amount of chlorine formed as a by-product. In particular, the photo-electrolysis of a 0.5 M solution of sodium chloride, which is a composition close to sea water, results in the formation of about 20% of chlorine at the WO{sub 3} photo anode with oxygen remaining the main product. Thus, the sea water appears as an abundant, non-toxic electrolyte suitable for massive hydrogen production via photo-electrolysis. Charge and mass transport are among the main factors determining the efficiency of nanostructured semiconducting photo-electrodes. In contrast with the prevailing current opinion, our results show that it is the migrational/diffusional transport within electrolyte filling the pores of the photo-electrode and not the electron diffusion across the semiconductor matrix which controls the photocurrent-voltage behaviour. Apparently, the only restrictions to the use of relatively thick nanostructured electrodes are the penetration depth of the incident light, the rate of diffusion/migration of the electro active species within the electrode and the conductivity of the electrolyte. (authors)

  14. A Quantitative investigation on some toxic and non-toxic metals in popular medicinal herbs in Iranian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Shamsa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the presence of heavy metals in some popular herbal medicines of the Iranian market. Primarily, this study was planned to do the task by the USP method. In the second step, those plants which contained more than 10 ppm of total heavymetals were analyzed by atomic absorption method. In this study, 43 popular herbal medicines were investigated according to the limit test procedure in the USP. It was found that 27 of theseplants contained less than 10 ppm heavy metals compared to a standard lead solution, while 16 contained more than 10 ppm. The presence of Pb (<2.5, Cd (<0.25, Co (<1 and Ni (<1.5could be considered safe.

  15. Synthesis of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone -co- methyl methacrylate) by Maghnite-H+ a non-toxic catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Bennada; Mohamed Issam Ferrahi; mohamed Belbachir

    2014-01-01

    In the present work poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) copolymers were prepared successfully and cleanly by a one step process via cationic copolymerization of  N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) with methyl methacrylate (MMA), in heterogeneous phase using “Maghnite-H+” (Mag-H+) as catalyst in bulk, Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H+. Temperature is varied between 20 and 80 °C. The effects of reaction temperature, amount o...

  16. Non-toxic and environmentally friendly route for preparation of copper indium sulfide based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Substrate structure of spray pyrolyzed CuInS2/In2S3 heterojunction solar cells. • Low cost and environmentally friendly fabrication of CuInS2 based solar cells. • Low RF power deposition of TCO layer. • AZO–Ag–AZO sandwich structure. • Effect of the thickness of buffer layer on the photovoltaic performance. - Abstract: In this study, copper based thin film solar cells with substrate structure have been built via spray pyrolysis method. Toxic material usage was avoided during the material deposition and the post-treatment steps. Novel device configuration of Mo/CuInS2/In2S3/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO was studied as a function of the In2S3 buffer layer thickness. In order to utilize the zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductive layers, deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD), on top of the spray pyrolyzed thin films, the RF power was lowered to 30 W. Although this minimized the unwanted penetration of the highly energetic particles, created during PVD process, sheet resistivity of the AZO films increased enormously. Hence very thin silver layer has been deposited between two AZO films. This resulted the decrease in the sheet resistivity more than 106 times. Electrical measurements under illumination revealed that short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (?) of the Mo/CuInS2/In2S3/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO type solar cells increased with increasing the thickness of the In2S3 layer. The maximum Jsc of 9.20 mA/cm2, Voc of 0.43 V, FF of 0.44 have been observed for the 0.94 ?m-thick In2S3 layer. Extraordinarily thick buffer layer provided better diffusion barrier between the absorber and the TCO layers and also resulted better photosensitivity. These could be the key factors to produce substrate configuration of the spray pyrolyzed thin film solar cells

  17. Time to reconsider nonsurgical therapy of benign non-toxic multinodular goitre: focus on recombinant human TSH augmented radioiodine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Søren; Nielsen, Viveque Egsgaard; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of benign multinodular goitre (MNG) is controversial, but surgery is recommended in large compressive goitres. While some patients decline surgery others may have contraindications due to comorbidity, since MNG is prevalent in the elderly. Therefore, non-surgical treatment alternatives are needed. Until recently, levothyroxine therapy was the preferred non-surgical alternative, but due to low efficacy and potential side-effects, it is not recommended for routine use in recent inter...

  18. GIS-modelling the distribution of Rattus norvegicus in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Sacchi; Augusto Gentilli; Nicola Pilon; Franco Bernini

    2008-01-01

    Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats Rattus norvegicus in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundan...

  19. A Super Cooled, Non-toxic, Non-flammable Phase Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept development and test of a water-based, advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sink is proposed. Utilizing a novel material choice for both an...

  20. A Super Cooled, Non-toxic, Non-flammable Phase Change Material Thermal Pack for Portable Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The continuation of concept development and test of a water-based, advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sink is proposed. Utilizing a novel material choice for...

  1. Ranitidine Drugs as <span class="hlt">Non-Toxic</span> Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>R.S. Abdel Hameed</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Expired ranitidine was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl using different techniques: weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance (Rp) value increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. Results obtained revealed that ranitidine performed excellently as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in this medium at 303 K. The protection efficiency increased with increa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22224322','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22224322"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> A? fibrils by small heat shock protein under heat-stress conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Sakono, Masafumi [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Saitama (Japan); Utsumi, Arata [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Zako, Tamotsu, E-mail: zako@riken.jp [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Abe, Tetsuya; Yohda, Masafumi [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Maeda, Mizuo [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)</p> <p>2013-01-25</p> <p>Highlights: ? We examined effect of the quaternary structure of yeast sHsp on A? aggregation. ? A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of sHsp, but not by dimeric sHsp. ? The fibrillar amyloids consisted of both A? and dimeric sHsp. ? They exhibited different inner structure and cytotoxicity from authentic A? amyloids. ? These results suggest the formation of new type fibrillar A? amyloid by sHsp. -- Abstract: Small heat shock protein (sHsp) is a molecular chaperone with a conserved alpha-crystallin domain that can prevent protein aggregation. It has been shown that sHsps exist as oligomers (12–40 mer) and their dissociation into small dimers or oligomers is functionally important. Since several sHsps are upregulated and co-localized with amyloid-? (A?) in senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sHsps are thought to be involved in AD. Previous studies have also shown that sHsp can prevent A? aggregation in vitro. However, it remains unclear how the quaternary structure of sHsp influences A? aggregation. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of the quaternary structure of sHsp on A? aggregation using sHsp from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHsp16.0) showing a clear temperature-dependent structural transition between an oligomer (30 °C) and dimer (50 °C) state. A? aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of SpHsp16.0. In contrast, amyloid fibrils were formed in the presence of dimeric SpHsp16.0. Interestingly, these amyloid fibrils consisted of both A? and SpHsp16.0 and showed a low ThT intensity and low cytotoxicity due to their low binding affinity to the cell surface. These results suggest the formation of novel fibrillar A? amyloid with different characteristics from that of the authentic A? amyloid fibrils formed in the absence of sHsp. Our results also suggest the potential protective role of sHsp in AD under stress conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45053705','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45053705"><span id="translatedtitle">Elucidating the energetics of the interaction of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin: A calorimetric study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Highlights: • Curcumin binds to HSA with affinity of the order of 105 M?1. • The binding was favoured by negative enthalpy and positive entropy changes. • The binding was dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. • Negative heat capacity value along with enthalpy–entropy compensation was observed. -- Abstract: Thermodynamic quantities for the interaction of the anticancer dietary pigment curcumin with human serum albumin were measured by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The equilibrium constant of the complex formation at T = 293.15 K was found to be (5.25 ± 0.05) 105 M?1. The binding was exothermic with T?S0 = (24.82 ± 0.01) kJ · mol?1, where ?S0 is the standard molar entropy change and ?Ho = ?(7.28 ± 0.04) kJ · mol?1, where ?Ho is the standard molar enthalpy change. The stoichiometry of binding was established to be 1:1. The equilibrium constant decreased with increasing Na+ concentration. The equilibrium constant decreased from (5.25 ± 0.05) · 105 M?1 to (2.88 ± 0.03) · 105 M?1 by increasing the salt concentration from (10 to 50) mM. Both polyelectrolytic and non-polyelectrolytic forces contributed to the standard molar Gibbs free energy change. However the contribution from the latter was dominant and almost invariant at all Na+ concentrations. The negative standard molar heat capacity change along with significant enthalpy–entropy compensation suggests the involvement of multiple weak non-covalent forces in the binding process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185770730','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185770730"><span id="translatedtitle">From <span class="hlt">Product</span> Models to <span class="hlt">Product</span> State Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Larsen, Michael Holm</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A well-known technology designed to handle <span class="hlt">product</span> data is <span class="hlt">Product</span> Models. <span class="hlt">Product</span> Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of <span class="hlt">product</span> state information. Hence, the concept of a <span class="hlt">Product</span> State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1183975/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1183975/"><span id="translatedtitle">Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-<span class="hlt">Products</span> in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)</p> <p>2000-12-31</p> <p>This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-<span class="hlt">products</span> generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10<sup>-7</sup> cm/sec (3 x 10<sup>-9</sup> ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> criteria for coal combustion by-<span class="hlt">products</span>, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous retention giving rise to the potential use of these materials as a liners for wastewater treatment wetlands. While plant growth was observed to be less vigorous for FGD lined wetland mesocosms compared to the control, the above and below ground biomass were not significantly different. Cost estimates for FGD liners compared favorably with clay liners for varying haul distances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21605964','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21605964"><span id="translatedtitle">Stabilization/solidification of fly ashes and concrete <span class="hlt">production</span> from bottom and circulating ashes produced in a power plant working under mono and co-combustion conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Mendes, Benilde</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Two combustion tests were performed in a fluidized bed combustor of a thermo-electric power plant: (1) combustion of coal; (2) co-combustion of coal (68.7% w/w), sewage sludge (9.2% w/w) and meat and bone meal (MBM) (22.1% w/w). Three samples of ashes (bottom, circulating and fly ashes) were collected in each combustion test. The ashes were submitted to the following assays: (a) evaluation of the leaching behaviour; (b) stabilization/solidification of fly ashes and evaluation of the leaching behaviour of the stabilized/solidified (s/s) materials; (c) <span class="hlt">production</span> of concrete from bottom and circulating ashes. The eluates of all materials were submitted to chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations. The crude ashes have shown similar chemical and ecotoxicological properties. The s/s materials have presented compressive strengths between 25 and 40 MPa, low emission levels of metals through leaching and were classified as <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> materials. The formulations of concrete have presented compressive strengths between 12 and 24 MPa. According to the Dutch Building Materials Decree, some concrete formulations can be used in both scenarios of limited moistening and without insulation, and with permanent moistening and with insulation. PMID:21605964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20946782','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20946782"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> from steam reforming of dimethoxymethane over CuZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-niobium phosphate hybrid catalysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Qing Sun; Jianyi Shen [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, (China); Qing Sun; Jianyi Shen; Aline Auroux [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, 2 Av. Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex, (France)</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>The high hydrogen content of dimethoxymethane (DMM) and <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">toxicity</span> make it suitable as a resource for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> used for applications like mobile systems. In this work, samples of niobium phosphate with high surface areas were synthesized, characterized and tested for the hydrolysis of DMM and were used as acidic components for the reforming of DMM to produce H{sub 2}. Ammonia adsorption micro-calorimetry and isopropanol conversion results showed the high acidity of niobium phosphate with high surface area (394 m{sup 2}/g). When this sample was mixed mechanically with CuZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the conversion of DMM was greatly enhanced comparing with using CuZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alone. At 533 K, almost 100% theoretical yield to H{sub 2} was achieved and the corresponding hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> rate was found to be 1100 ml.g{sup -1}.h{sup -1}. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/21564138/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/21564138/"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of addition glycerol co-<span class="hlt">product</span> of biodiesel in the thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as secondary coolant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Medeiros, Pedro Samuel Gomes; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga; Fontes, Francisco de Assis Oliveira [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Energy Laboratory. Thermal Systems Studies Group], e-mail: cleiton@ufrnet.br</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>This paper evaluates the effects of glycerol concentration on thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as a secondary coolant in refrigeration systems by expansion-indirect. The processing of triglycerides for biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> generates glycerol as co-<span class="hlt">product</span> and there are concerns of environmental and economic order on the surplus of glycerol. The addition of glycerol in water alters the colligative and thermophysical properties (melting point, mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity). There are studies that prove the feasibility of using glycerol as an additive and this paper has the goal to verify the changes on properties compared with pure water. This comparison was made from data obtained by the software simulation and they analyzed using graphs and tables. It was shown that glycerol increases the density and dynamic viscosity, and reduces the specific heat and thermal conductivity. This behavior of water-glycerol solution is proportional to the mass concentration of glycerol and it is justified because the glycerol has low values of specific heat, thermal conductivity and high viscosity when compared with water. Despite the losses in the thermophysical properties, glycerol shows its potential application, because of the cryoscopic effect and it is a <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> substance at low cost. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46049307','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46049307"><span id="translatedtitle">Redeployment-based drug screening identifies the anti-helminthic niclosamide as anti-myeloma therapy that also reduces free light chain <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Despite recent therapeutic advancements, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and new therapies are needed, especially for the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients. We have screened a panel of 100 off-patent licensed oral drugs for anti-myeloma activity and identified niclosamide, an anti-helminthic. Niclosamide, at clinically achievable <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> concentrations, killed MM cell lines and primary MM cells as efficiently as or better than standard chemotherapy and existing anti-myeloma drugs individually or in combinations, with little impact on normal donor cells. Cell death was associated with markers of both apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, niclosamide rapidly reduced free light chain (FLC) <span class="hlt">production</span> by MM cell lines and primary MM. FLCs are a major cause of renal impairment in MM patients and light chain amyloid and FLC reduction is associated with reversal of tissue damage. Our data indicate that niclosamides anti-MM activity was mediated through the mitochondria with rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and <span class="hlt">production</span> of mitochondrial superoxide. Niclosamide also modulated the nuclear factor-κB and STAT3 pathways in MM cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that MM cells can be selectively targeted using niclosamide while also reducing FLC secretion. Importantly, niclosamide is widely used at these concentrations with minimal toxicity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1319::3506c56907c475fbe5ff5f3c7f13506b','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1319::3506c56907c475fbe5ff5f3c7f13506b"><span id="translatedtitle">On Demand <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development Customized For <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Mahmood, Shahriare</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The ultimate intention of this thesis was to analyze the present <span class="hlt">product</span> development and <span class="hlt">production</span> process at the client organization and to develop methods to improve the agility of the <span class="hlt">product</span> development and <span class="hlt">production</span> process. Thus the organization can be ready for on demand <span class="hlt">product</span> development and corresponding customization in <span class="hlt">production</span> by maintaining enough agility. The overall study will help the organization to comprehend the present process improvement potentials and guideline to ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185776235','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185776235"><span id="translatedtitle">Innovation in <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The course on Innovation in <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and <span class="hlt">product</span> development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format The...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in <span class="hlt">product</span> development are considered: - Humans and <span class="hlt">products</span> - Needs and <span class="hlt">products</span> - <span class="hlt">Product</span> life - Teams creating <span class="hlt">products</span> - <span class="hlt">Products</span> creating business - <span class="hlt">Product</span> development models - Organising <span class="hlt">product</span> development - <span class="hlt">Product</span> development tools...... - The future of <span class="hlt">product</span> development....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/saferproducts-api','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/saferproducts-api"><span id="translatedtitle">Safer<span class="hlt">Products</span> API</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission launched Safer<span class="hlt">Products</span>.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003973.htm','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003973.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Urinary incontinence <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... are many <span class="hlt">products</span> to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which <span class="hlt">product</span> to choose based ... and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span> You can find most <span class="hlt">products</span> at your ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8345628','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8345628"><span id="translatedtitle">New particle <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The lectures on new particle <span class="hlt">production</span> include <span class="hlt">production</span> in e+e- annihilation, PSI and PSI- photoproduction and implications for charmed particle photoproduction, PSI and PSI hadronic <span class="hlt">production</span> and implications for charmed particle <span class="hlt">production</span>, evidence for the OZI rule in hadronic interactions, and direct lepton <span class="hlt">production</span> by hadrons and the relevance of this phenomenon to charmed particle <span class="hlt">production</span>. 109 references</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30025880','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:30025880"><span id="translatedtitle">Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and <span class="hlt">production</span> sites for remediation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and <span class="hlt">production</span> sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (<span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/303932/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/303932/"><span id="translatedtitle">Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and <span class="hlt">production</span> sites for remediation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>White, G.J.</p> <p>1998-08-03</p> <p>The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and <span class="hlt">production</span> sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (<span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1699c0022Z','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1699c0022Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> from rice bran under subcritical condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In-situ ethyl biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108095203','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108095203"><span id="translatedtitle">The structuring of <span class="hlt">products</span> and <span class="hlt">product</span> programmes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Andreasen, Mogens myrup; Hansen, Claus thorp; Mortensen, Niels henrik</p> <p></p> <p>Structure means the way in which things are build up. A composed <span class="hlt">product</span> does not exhibit one structure, but hides in its structure of parts several different structuring principles, which fit the <span class="hlt">product</span> for <span class="hlt">production</span> and service and make it a member of a <span class="hlt">product</span> programme, where other family...... members may be created by variation.The structuring of <span class="hlt">products</span> and <span class="hlt">product</span> families is a complex design task. This article aims at classifying the many structuring types, which are built into a <span class="hlt">product</span>. The fact that different structures are superimposed in the final <span class="hlt">product</span>, makes the design synthesis...... complex and raises a need for aids.Among aids for structuring computer support seems feasible. The need for modelling the <span class="hlt">product</span> and its structural aspects is eluciated. A modelling framework is proposed, and the need for modelling different structure types by use of an enhanced modelling is shown. This...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/11/26070','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/11/26070"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of Two Novel Methoxy-Isoflavones from Biotransformation of 8-Hydroxydaidzein by Recombinant Escherichia coli Expressing O-Methyltransferase SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Chien-Min Chiang</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Biotransformation of 8-hydroxydaidzein by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing O-methyltransferase (OMT SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius was investigated. Two metabolites were isolated and identified as 7,4?-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-isoflavone (1 and 8,4?-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-isoflavone (2, based on mass, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and 13C-NMR spectrophotometric analysis. The maximum <span class="hlt">production</span> yields of compound (1 and (2 in a 5-L fermenter were 9.3 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L, respectively. The two methoxy-isoflavones showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in cultured B16 melanoma cells under <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> conditions. Among the effects, compound (1 decreased melanogenesis to 63.5% of the control at 25 ?M. This is the first report on the 8-O-methylation activity of OMT toward isoflavones. In addition, the present study also first identified compound (1 with potent melanogenesis inhibitory activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/874208','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/874208"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological <span class="hlt">production</span> of <span class="hlt">products</span> from waste gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)</p> <p>2002-01-22</p> <p>A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol <span class="hlt">production</span>, into useful <span class="hlt">products</span>. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various <span class="hlt">products</span>, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end <span class="hlt">products</span> are then recovered, separated and purified.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/4655226','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/4655226"><span id="translatedtitle">Making <span class="hlt">Product</span> Customization Profitable</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Boelskifte, Per; Hansen, Christian Lindschou</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture for companies that customize <span class="hlt">products</span> and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, <span class="hlt">product</span> assortment, supply-<span class="hlt">product</span>...... shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108107559','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108107559"><span id="translatedtitle">Micro <span class="hlt">Products</span> - <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development and Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Hans Nørgaard</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi...... technologies, however, it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial <span class="hlt">production</span> of micro <span class="hlt">products</span>. As the <span class="hlt">products</span> through <span class="hlt">product</span> development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing <span class="hlt">production</span> technologies...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jmm/article/view/11324','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jmm/article/view/11324"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting <span class="hlt">Product</span> Features from Chinese <span class="hlt">Product</span> Reviews</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Yahui Xi</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available With the great development of e-commerce, the number of <span class="hlt">product</span> reviews grows rapidly on the e-commerce websites. Review mining has recently received a lot of attention, which aims to discover the valuable information from the massive <span class="hlt">product</span> reviews. <span class="hlt">Product</span> feature extraction is one of the basic tasks of <span class="hlt">product</span> review mining. Its effectiveness can influence significantly the performance of subsequent jobs. Double Propagation is a state-of-the-art technique in <span class="hlt">product</span> feature extraction. In this paper, we apply the Double Propagation to the <span class="hlt">product</span> feature exaction from Chinese <span class="hlt">product</span> reviews and adopt some techniques to improve the precision and recall. First, indirect relations and verb <span class="hlt">product</span> features are introduced to increase the recall. Second, when ranking candidate <span class="hlt">product</span> features by using HITS, we expand the number of hubs by means of the dependency relation patterns between <span class="hlt">product</span> features and opinion words to improve the precision. Finally, the Normalized Pattern Relevance is employed to filter the exacted <span class="hlt">product</span> features. Experiments on diverse real-life datasets show promising results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/189275225','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/189275225"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermophilic Biohydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type ferme...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1595::d7387b4f90b2bfe5704fc901ff450b25','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1595::d7387b4f90b2bfe5704fc901ff450b25"><span id="translatedtitle">Valuable <span class="hlt">product</span> <span class="hlt">production</span> from wood mill effluents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Mato, T.; Ben, M; Kennes, Christian; Veiga, María C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Fibreboard <span class="hlt">production</span> is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final <span class="hlt">product</span> and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD), low pH and nutrients limitation. Aerobic and anaerobic processes have been used for their treatment. Presently, bioplastics <span class="hlt">production</span> (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHA) f...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108097202','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108097202"><span id="translatedtitle">PDT (<span class="hlt">Product</span> Data Technology), <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Society</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Vesterager, Johan</p> <p></p> <p>Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that <span class="hlt">products</span> are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce <span class="hlt">products</span> dramatically....... The use of ICT in engineering of <span class="hlt">products</span> constitutes <span class="hlt">product</span> data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:PDT+%28Product+Data+Technology%29%2C+Production+and+Society','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:PDT+%28Product+Data+Technology%29%2C+Production+and+Society"><span id="translatedtitle">PDT (<span class="hlt">Product</span> Data Technology), <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Society</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Vesterager, Johan</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that <span class="hlt">products</span> are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce <span class="hlt">products</span> dramatically. The use of ICT in engineering of <span class="hlt">products</span> constitutes <span class="hlt">product</span> data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation, transmission, storing, and retrieval of knowledge and information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ufpel.edu.br/revistas/index.php/cienciadamadeira/article/view/80','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ufpel.edu.br/revistas/index.php/cienciadamadeira/article/view/80"><span id="translatedtitle">NATURAL <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span> AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ricardo Marques Barreiros</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The <span class="hlt">products</span> currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly <span class="hlt">products</span> and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econômico, histórico e sustentável. A escassez de espécies resistentes à degradação biológica obrigou o homem a utilizar outras menos duráveis, principalmente de rápido crescimento, provenientes de reflorestamentos, como algumas espécies de Eucalyptus e de Pinus. Estas espécies possuem moderada ou nenhuma resistência ao ataque dos organismos xilófagos e necessitam de tratamentos preservantes. Os produtos preservantes utilizados atualmente possuem elevado grau de toxicidade, sendo potenciais riscos ambientais e para a saúde humana.  Assim, há uma crescente necessidade de desenvolver produtos químicos eficazes, não tóxicos para os seres humanos e para o meio ambiente. O direcionamento das pesquisas tem objetivado desenvolver produtos ambientalmente corretos e com viabilidade econômica, e uma alternativa é o uso do Crude Tall Oil (CTO, que é um resíduo no processamento de polpa de coníferas resinosas, para produção do papel Kraft. O tall oil, como agente de proteção, tem sido considerado promissor por reduzir significativamente a absorção de água capilar do alburno, removendo, assim um dos fatores que favorecem a madeira ser atacada por fungos e insetos: água, oxigênio e nutrientes. Pesquisas mostram que o tall oil pode ser utilizado puro, seja crude ou destilado, ou em combinação com biocidas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108093519','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108093519"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Structuring, an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Tichem, Marcel; Storm, Ton; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; MacCallum, Ken J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on <span class="hlt">Product</span> Structuring. <span class="hlt">Product</span> structuring plays an important role in creating <span class="hlt">products</span> which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like <span class="hlt">production</span> contr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=research_asb::623b61965c656eaee9a01de02ec2909b','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=research_asb::623b61965c656eaee9a01de02ec2909b"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermophilic Biohydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are organic lo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282191056','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282191056"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermophilic Biohydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are organic loadi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......143A','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......143A"><span id="translatedtitle">Extremophile mediated hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Anjom, Mouzhgun</p> <p></p> <p>Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from <span class="hlt">production</span> of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological <span class="hlt">production</span> of H2 as an end <span class="hlt">product</span> or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass <span class="hlt">production</span>, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> was pH dependent but addition of simple, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> and (4) H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068 medium containing cultures of T. neapolitana and no external H2 was added, hydrogenation was observed confirming the possibility of developing an integrated BioCat/ChemCat system. The 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of Methyl succinic acid, the hydrogenated <span class="hlt">product</span> of the olefin. The concept was extended to Glycerol, a by-<span class="hlt">product</span> of biodiesel that was catalytically upgraded to mixed alcohols in an aqueous medium. The next logical step is to evaluate these results in a continuous flow mode. The demonstrated results have implications in the development of next-generation hydrogenation reaction systems that would lead to the <span class="hlt">production</span> of biofuels and other chemicals, depending on the substrate used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46131248','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:46131248"><span id="translatedtitle">Ergonomic <span class="hlt">Product</span> Design 21</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This book explains basic of ergonomic <span class="hlt">product</span> design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes <span class="hlt">product</span> design to access the human engineering in development of new <span class="hlt">product</span> and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware <span class="hlt">product</span> and software <span class="hlt">product</span> in automobile, telephones for ergonomic <span class="hlt">product</span> in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic <span class="hlt">product</span> in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/227746475','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/227746475"><span id="translatedtitle">Upgrading Uncompetitive <span class="hlt">Products</span> Economically</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Lu, Hua; Jensen, C.S.</p> <p></p> <p>The skyline of a multidimensional point set consists of the points that are not dominated by other points. In a scenario where <span class="hlt">product</span> features are represented by multidimensional points, the skyline points may be viewed as representing competitive <span class="hlt">products</span>. A <span class="hlt">product</span> provider may wish to upgrade...... uncompetitive <span class="hlt">products</span> to become competitive, but wants to take into account the upgrading cost. We study the top-k <span class="hlt">product</span> upgrading problem. Given a set P of competitor <span class="hlt">products</span>, a set T of <span class="hlt">products</span> that are candidates for upgrade, and an upgrading cost function f that applies to T , the problem is to return...... the k <span class="hlt">products</span> in T that can be upgraded to not be dominated by any <span class="hlt">products</span> in P at the lowest cost. This problem is non-trivial due to not only the large data set sizes, but also to the many possibilities for upgrading a <span class="hlt">product</span>. We identify and provide solutions for the different options for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108102518','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108102518"><span id="translatedtitle">Designing <span class="hlt">Product</span> Families</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Manufacturing companies that operate with <span class="hlt">products</span> aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect <span class="hlt">products</span> to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general <span class="hlt">products</span> based on average customer needs. This trend ha......: Variety, Design Principles, and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Maturity.......Manufacturing companies that operate with <span class="hlt">products</span> aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect <span class="hlt">products</span> to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general <span class="hlt">products</span> based on average customer needs. This trend has...... led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized <span class="hlt">products</span> while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass <span class="hlt">production</span> enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of <span class="hlt">product</span> platforms as a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________83::5a8422361293d2a4920df32543b5929f','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________83::5a8422361293d2a4920df32543b5929f"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinearities in <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Théophile T. Azomahou; Diene, Bity; DIENE, Mbaye</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We use country panel data spanning over 1998-2008 for both developed and developing countries to study the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth when countries are close to the technology frontier. Relying on a semi-parametric generalized additive model, we estimate both reduced and structural forms for total factor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth. We consider three measurements of frontier: the economy with the highest level of <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth, the world <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth and the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth of the US...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::a7d4d4d1becab3137e62a4eb2e4812f7','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::a7d4d4d1becab3137e62a4eb2e4812f7"><span id="translatedtitle">Innovation and <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Hall, Bronwyn H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>What do we know about the relationship between innovation and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> among firms? The workhorse model of this relationship is presented and the implications of analysis using this model and the usually available data on <span class="hlt">product</span> and process innovation are derived. The recent empirical evidence on the relationship between innovation and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in firms is then surveyed. The conclusion is that there are substantial positive impacts of <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation on revenue <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, but t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Product+Family+Assessment','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Product+Family+Assessment"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Kvist, Morten</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of <span class="hlt">products</span> that are – at a relatively low price - custom fitted to suit their exact needs and at the same time maintain a profitable business. In the pursuit of growth companies tend to focus on customer demand and market driven <span class="hlt">product</span> development. While operating in the mass <span class="hlt">production</span> paradigm and focusing on the cost of the single <span class="hlt">product</span> this will in time lead to a patchwork of <span class="hlt">product</span> variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a <span class="hlt">product</span> family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are beginning to change their focus from single <span class="hlt">products</span> to entire <span class="hlt">product</span> families and try to incorporate the development of <span class="hlt">product</span> variety into a future <span class="hlt">product</span> family. The key is to create fit between the <span class="hlt">product</span> design and <span class="hlt">production</span> setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between the existing <span class="hlt">product</span> design and the <span class="hlt">production</span> setup with an eye re-design the <span class="hlt">products</span> and/or the <span class="hlt">production</span> setup is the main topic for this research project. This research contributes with a visual modelling formalism which has its basis in the <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Master Plan (PFMP) presented in the work of Ulf Harlou [2006], hence the notion: PFMP2 – the extended <span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Master Plan. The model can used to build an overview of dispositional relations between the design of a <span class="hlt">product</span> family and the <span class="hlt">production</span> setup. Furthermore, the model links the <span class="hlt">product</span> design to commercial and quality aspects of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the <span class="hlt">product</span> family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future <span class="hlt">product</span> design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature and on the ideas of lean <span class="hlt">production</span>, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a <span class="hlt">product</span> variety context, and discussed in relation to <span class="hlt">product</span> development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Future+Challenges+and+Possibilities+for+the+Danish+Long-line+Production+of+Blue+Mussels%2C+%26lt%3Bi%26gt%3BMytilus+edilus%26lt%3B%2Fi%26gt%3B+%28L%29+%3A+With+Special+Focus+on+Filtration+and+Bioenergetics','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Future+Challenges+and+Possibilities+for+the+Danish+Long-line+Production+of+Blue+Mussels%2C+%26lt%3Bi%26gt%3BMytilus+edilus%26lt%3B%2Fi%26gt%3B+%28L%29+%3A+With+Special+Focus+on+Filtration+and+Bioenergetics"><span id="translatedtitle">Future Challenges and Possibilities for the Danish Long-line <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Blue Mussels, <i>Mytilus edilus</i> (L) : With Special Focus on Filtration and Bioenergetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, Pernille</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The effect of current velocity (0.05-1.4 m s-1) on the clearance rate of M. edulis was studied using an automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continuously. The effect of current velocity was studied on either three or twenty mussels. Current velocities of up to 1.4 m s-1 did not affect the clearance rates of M. edulis when twenty mussels were allowed to form self-organized clumps. However, when only three M. edulis were present, mussels became inactive at current velocities >0.6 m s-1. The tolerance to high current velocities provides opportunities for offshore <span class="hlt">production</span> of blue mussels in Denmark since current velocities in the Danish coastal waters in general are below 1.4 m s-1. The effect of DST on clearance and respiration rate of M. edulis was studied in terms of exposures to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of either the <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> algal Rhodomonas salina or the DST-containing algal Dinophysis acuta. Our results showed that the clearance rate were reduced for mussels exposed to DST-containing D. acuta compared to mussels exposed to equivalent bio-volume cell concentrations of the <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> R. salina. Furthermore, closure of shell-valves was observed to occur earlier as well as the reduction in clearance rate became more pronounced with increasing concentrations of D. acuta. In addition, the total amount of DST accumulated in the mussels exceeded the regulatory limit for human consumption. However, DST-containing D. acuta did not have a severe effect on respiration rate. We concluded that DST most likely caused the reduction in clearance rate. Therefore DST-containing mussels can be a latent problem for mussel growth in future Danish offshore mussel <span class="hlt">production</span>, as it is in other offshore mussel <span class="hlt">productions</span> in Europe. Mussel growth and food depletion was studied within a mussel farm, located in the highly eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark. Using a variety of methods we obtained information on spatial (organism to farm scales) and temporal (seasonal) variations in food depletion. The results obtained by the different methods were integrated into a depletion model for the mussel farm. The results showed that high mussel growth rate was present during most of the year and that food depletion only occurred at different spatial scales within the farm. Furthermore, we showed that the mussel farm studied was under-utilized in terms of <span class="hlt">production</span> of mussel biomass and a surplus of food was available to support the growth of more mussels than already produced. Finally, we investigated the potential of using mussels as a mitigation tool for removal of excess nutrients in eutrophic coastal waters. A full-scale long-line mussel farm optimized for cost efficient nutrient removal was established in Skive Fjord where biological and economic parameters related to nutrient removal were monitored throughout a full <span class="hlt">production</span> cycle. We concluded that mitigation mussel cultures are a cost-effective measure for nutrient removal in coastal areas and can be used as an alternative or supplement to land-based mitigation measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0367-598X/2003/0367-598X0302079S.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0367-598X/2003/0367-598X0302079S.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Powder detergents <span class="hlt">production</span> plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Stankovi? Mirjana S.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent <span class="hlt">production</span> plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a <span class="hlt">production</span> plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent <span class="hlt">production</span>. The <span class="hlt">product</span> meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent <span class="hlt">production</span> process is fully automatized, and the <span class="hlt">product</span> has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite <span class="hlt">production</span>, because all <span class="hlt">products</span> with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The <span class="hlt">production</span> process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35077256','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35077256"><span id="translatedtitle">Recover of <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in acids sulfate soils by means of addition organic and lime amendments under greenhouse conditions at Boyaca</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In flooded zones of Boyaca have been identified acid sulfate soil (SSA), restricted for extremes acidity originated for reactions of chemical and biological oxide-reduction by organic material of sulfur iron (pyrite), forming this way big quantities of sulfuric acid and high concentrations of Al toxic, besides it is characterized for being recent soils, with excessive quantities of S; high levels of organic matter and in some parts affected for salts and sodium that together with flooded areas and bad drenated make them inadequate for the establishing of cultivation. For this reason, it is looked for to make <span class="hlt">productive</span> this SSA of high influence in the area of watering district. Starting with calcareous and organics rocks in winter pasture, the Resources to used were Ca (OH)2 and dolomite in doses of 10,25,50 and 100 t/ha; hen dung 5,10,20 and 30 t/ha mixes with limes hen dung 10+5, 10+10,25+20 and 50+30 using A. sative like indicator plant in a design completely on random with 22 treatments, correspond to ca (OH)2 25,50 ton/ha, dolomite 10,2.50 ton/ha and the mixes with calcareous rocks and hen dung with doses of 25+20 and 50+30 ton/ha respectively, which obtained the best answer in the development of the plant (biomass), reflected in the physical-chemical dynamic of the SSA. Due to this treatments increased in two units of pH, decreased the content of salts and the concentration of aluminum of <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> change, with respect to the initial soil, the soil with doses greater to 50 t/ha Ca (OH)2 evidenced over-limed together with the of hen-dung (5,10 t/ha) and the initial soil presented a restricted in develop and recuperation, indicating the conditions adverse in SSA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://findresearcher.sdu.dk:8443/ws/files/107978791/MCH_01.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="https://findresearcher.sdu.dk:8443/ws/files/107978791/MCH_01.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Glocalized <span class="hlt">Production</span>: The Evolution of Global <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Chavez, Marianna; Bilberg, Arne</p> <p></p> <p>In light of the challenges of the current globalized <span class="hlt">production</span> model, four global Danish companies were interviewed with the purpose of exploring “glocalized <span class="hlt">production</span>” as the new step and solution to the challenges of the “global village.” The research sought to gauge the interest on “glocalized...... <span class="hlt">production</span>” by key managers of these companies, and test three hypotheses: that a definition could be established from “glocalization” aspects, that it will reduce supply chain complexity, and that it can affect organizational trust levels. The results are presented along with suggestions to pave the way for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mnmk.ro/documents/2014_01/1-13-1-14.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.mnmk.ro/documents/2014_01/1-13-1-14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">BRAND - <span class="hlt">PRODUCT</span> INTERDEPENDENCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Tudor NISTORESCU</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the <span class="hlt">products</span>. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a <span class="hlt">product</span>. However the <span class="hlt">product</span> is needed to render the brand tangible. The <span class="hlt">product</span> is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the <span class="hlt">product</span>, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-<span class="hlt">product</span> relationship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11554070','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11554070"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent <span class="hlt">production</span> and inclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> on nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Recent observations of strong enhancement in the inclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> of certain particles with small p/sub T/ and large x from heavy nuclei is explained by Coulomb excitation of the projectile and its subsequent decay into the observed particle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________70::62763fdf8e34ed39eb2926b800a6fba8','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________70::62763fdf8e34ed39eb2926b800a6fba8"><span id="translatedtitle">Planning <span class="hlt">Product</span> Support for Medical <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Goffin, Keith</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Product</span> support is a key aspect in the marketing of high-technology <span class="hlt">products</span>, since it strongly influences customer satisfaction and can also be an important source of revenue. Typical forms of support include operator training, equipment maintenance and, if necessary, repair - all of these are normally provided by manufacturers' support organizations. Good support is particularly important in some markets; an example is medical equipment where good operator training and qui...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44022610','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44022610"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l-1. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25002370','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25002370"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gas and residues of a full scale fluidized bed combustor combusting <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> industrial waste.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This paper studies the fate of PAHs in full scale incinerators by analysing the concentration of the 16 EPA-PAHs in both the input waste and all the outputs of a full scale Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC). Of the analysed waste inputs i.e. Waste Water Treatment (WWT) sludge, Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR), RDF and ASR were the main PAH sources, with phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene being the most important PAHs. In the flue gas sampled at the stack, naphthalene was the only predominant PAH, indicating that the PAHs in FBC's combustion gas were newly formed and did not remain from the input waste. Of the other outputs, the boiler and fly ash contained no detectable levels of PAHs, whereas the flue gas cleaning residue contained only low concentrations of naphthalene, probably adsorbed from the flue gas. The PAH fingerprint of the bottom ash corresponded rather well to the PAH fingerprint of the RDF and ASR, indicating that the PAHs in this output, in contrast to the other outputs, were mainly remainders from the PAHs in the waste inputs. A PAH mass balance showed that the total PAH input/output ratio of the FBC ranged from about 100 to about 2600 depending on the waste input composition and the obtained combustion conditions. In all cases, the FBC was clearly a net PAH sink. PMID:25002370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/1461300/files/BOivzSJJcqhDA.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/1461300/files/BOivzSJJcqhDA.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Standard Specification for ESD Controlled Garments Required in Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments for Spacecraft for <span class="hlt">Non-Hazardous</span> and Hazardous Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43130226','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43130226"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-time, digital pulse-shape discrimination in <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> fast liquid scintillation detectors: Prospects for safety and security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) in fast, organic scintillation detectors is a long-established technique used to separate neutrons and ? rays in mixed radiation fields. In the analogue domain the method can achieve separation in real time, but all knowledge of the pulses themselves is lost thereby preventing the possibility of any post- or repeated analysis. Also, it is typically reliant on electronic systems that are largely obsolete and which require significant experience to set up. In the digital domain, PSD is often more flexible but significant post-processing has usually been necessary to obtain neutron/?-ray separation. Moreover, the scintillation media on which the technique relies usually have a low flash point and are thus deemed hazardous. This complicates the ease with which they are used in industrial applications. In this paper, results obtained with a new portable digital pulse-shape discrimination instrument are described. This instrument provides real-time, digital neutron/? separation whilst preserving the synchronization with the time-of-arrival for each event, and realizing throughputs of 3 x 106 events per second. Furthermore, this system has been tested with a scintillation medium that is non-flammable and not hazardous. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22063421','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22063421"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent [Laboratoire d' etude de Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, UMR 5564 (CNRS/INPG/IRD/UJF), Universite de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l{sup -1}. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/57922678','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/57922678"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-hazardous</span> organic solvents in the paraffin-embedding technique: a rational approach. Aliphatic monoesters for clearing and dewaxing: butyldecanoate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Lyon, H; Holm, I; Prentø, P; Balslev, E</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to substitute hazardous compounds, used in tissue processing and dewaxing, with compounds having lowest possible toxicity and inflammability without impairing the morphology, staining characteristics, or diagnostic value of the tissue sections. All aromatic compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. alkanes, isoparaffins, petroleum distillates, etc.) were rejected, primarily due to their high vapour pressure. Based on a theoretical study of compounds used for clearing, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27009125','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27009125"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> sharing agreements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper, which was presented at the <span class="hlt">Production</span> Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. <span class="hlt">Production</span> sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/consumer-product-category-database','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/consumer-product-category-database"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Category Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer <span class="hlt">products</span>. The chemical use...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/household-product-related-recalls','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/household-product-related-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">Household <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — Household <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/pesticide-product-label-system','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/pesticide-product-label-system"><span id="translatedtitle">Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Label System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide <span class="hlt">Product</span> Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide <span class="hlt">product</span> labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/outdoor-product-related-recalls','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/outdoor-product-related-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">Outdoor <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — Outdoor <span class="hlt">Product</span> Related Recalls. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1973438','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1973438"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in <span class="hlt">production</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative <span class="hlt">Production</span> Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative <span class="hlt">Production</span> Technology, Individualised <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Virtual <span class="hlt">Production</span> Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising <span class="hlt">Production</span> Systems and Human Factors in <span class="hlt">Production</span> Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of <span class="hlt">production</span> is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of <span class="hlt">production</span>, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14718778','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14718778"><span id="translatedtitle">Baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> at PEP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of inclusive ? + anti ? <span class="hlt">production</span> for 1.0 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 10.0 GeV/c and p + anti p <span class="hlt">production</span> for 0.4 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 2.0 GeV/c show significant baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> in e+e- annihilation at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV. ? + anti ? <span class="hlt">production</span> represents 0.2 ?'s or anti ?'s per PEP event while the observed p + anti p <span class="hlt">production</span> implies all baryon-antibaryon pair <span class="hlt">production</span> is occurring at least as often as 0.6 per event, depending on the yet to be measured p + anti p <span class="hlt">production</span> at high momentum. Comparisons are made with the first theoretical attempts to account for baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> at these energies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a601006.html','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a601006.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocodone Combination <span class="hlt">Products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... uses. Some hydrocodone combination <span class="hlt">products</span> are used to relieve moderate-to-severe pain. Other hydrocodone combination <span class="hlt">products</span> are used to relieve cough. Hydrocodone is in a class of medications ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/all-product-recalls','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/all-product-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">All <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Consumer <span class="hlt">Product</span> Safety Commission — Recalls and <span class="hlt">product</span> safety news. CPSC is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of serious injury or death from thousands of types of consumer...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8291793','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8291793"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenomenology of lepton <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The problem of lepton <span class="hlt">production</span> in hadronic collisions is reviewed. The following subjects are developed: the Drell-Yan model for continuous l+l- <span class="hlt">production</span>, vector mesons and clusters, and other sources of direct leptons</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transformer&pg=6&id=EJ253403','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transformer&pg=6&id=EJ253403"><span id="translatedtitle">Transformer Industry <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Slows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Otto, Phyllis Flohr</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Annual <span class="hlt">productivity</span> increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and <span class="hlt">product</span> standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/268426-bQNMoQ/webviewable/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/268426-bQNMoQ/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing <span class="hlt">productivity</span>: Another approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Norton, F.J.</p> <p>1996-06-10</p> <p>An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its <span class="hlt">productivity</span> should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT <span class="hlt">productivity</span> by supporting organizational objectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5166343-EdSj2H/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5166343-EdSj2H/"><span id="translatedtitle">Baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> at PEP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Goldhaber, G.; Weiss, J.M.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>Measurements of inclusive ..lambda.. + anti ..lambda.. <span class="hlt">production</span> for 1.0 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 10.0 GeV/c and p + anti p <span class="hlt">production</span> for 0.4 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 2.0 GeV/c show significant baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV. ..lambda.. + anti ..lambda.. <span class="hlt">production</span> represents 0.2 ..lambda..'s or anti ..lambda..'s per PEP event while the observed p + anti p <span class="hlt">production</span> implies all baryon-antibaryon pair <span class="hlt">production</span> is occurring at least as often as 0.6 per event, depending on the yet to be measured p + anti p <span class="hlt">production</span> at high momentum. Comparisons are made with the first theoretical attempts to account for baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> at these energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______234::6ab2ae20194473db9b691ef68088a8d3','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______234::6ab2ae20194473db9b691ef68088a8d3"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Architecture Modularity Strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______185::6a4f566cbb6fd50a4ea3c287d2811aef','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______185::6a4f566cbb6fd50a4ea3c287d2811aef"><span id="translatedtitle">Delayed multiattribute <span class="hlt">product</span> differentiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Thomas A. Weber</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We develop a two-stage model for versioning <span class="hlt">products</span> with respect to both vertical and horizontal attributes. At first, a firm positions its top-quality “flagship” <span class="hlt">product</span> in a market with an imperfectly known distribution of tastes and reservation prices. In the second stage, the firm learns these consumer characteristics and has the option of extending its <span class="hlt">product</span> line by versioning the flagship <span class="hlt">product</span> using pure horizontal differentiation, quality degrading, or both. The firm's nonconvex ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::dcc7a73d89ad5df0dd0dca8e67870c45','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::dcc7a73d89ad5df0dd0dca8e67870c45"><span id="translatedtitle">Social software <span class="hlt">product</span> lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Ali R.; Solis C.; 231.\tDalpiaz F; Maalej W.; Giorgini P; Nuseibeh B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Software <span class="hlt">product</span> lines are an engineering paradigm meant to systematically configure software <span class="hlt">products</span> of reusable assets so that development effort and time are minimized. Config-uring a high-quality <span class="hlt">product</span> is a challenging design activity, main-ly because quality is a dynamic property and hardly predictable by designers at design time. In this position paper, we propose Social Software <span class="hlt">Product</span> Lines (SSPL) as a new development paradigm which involves users as collaborators in judging softw...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::5d21980b3462ef5ccbb5d4dd7b9e68e2','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::5d21980b3462ef5ccbb5d4dd7b9e68e2"><span id="translatedtitle">Dry alcohol <span class="hlt">production</span> plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol <span class="hlt">production</span> plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a <span class="hlt">production</span> plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The <span class="hlt">product</span> meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol <span class="hlt">production</span> process is fully automatized. There...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0139763','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0139763"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> on <span class="hlt">productive</span> and non-<span class="hlt">productive</span> surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Tesa?, Miroslav; Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, ?.; ?ermák, J.</p> <p></p> <p>Santa Cruz : University of Santa Cruz, 2006 - (Crow, S.). s. 216 [BIOGEOMON. International Symposium on Ecosystem Behavior /5./. 25.06.2006-30.06.2006, Santa Cruz] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/05/2312; GA ?R GA205/06/0375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : <span class="hlt">productive</span> surfaces * entropy Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::6823f5d5bf8181671ab3c2a6039e0a12','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::6823f5d5bf8181671ab3c2a6039e0a12"><span id="translatedtitle">Strangeness <span class="hlt">Production</span> at COSY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Hinterberger, Frank; Machner, Hartmut; Siudak, Regina</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The paper gives an overview of strangeness-<span class="hlt">production</span> experiments at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. Results on kaon-pair and phi meson <span class="hlt">production</span> in pp, pd and dd collisions, hyperon-<span class="hlt">production</span> experiments and Lambda p final-state interaction studies are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/2054525/files/ATL-PHYS-SLIDE-2015-719.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/2054525/files/ATL-PHYS-SLIDE-2015-719.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Top quark <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Boisvert, Veronique; The ATLAS collaboration</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent measurements on top quark <span class="hlt">production</span> are presented on behalf of Tevatron and LHC experiments. The measurements cover topics like inclusive and differential top quark pair (and single top quark) <span class="hlt">production</span> cross sections as well as associated <span class="hlt">production</span> of top quark pairs with a gauge bosons or with b-jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://householdproducts.nlm.nih.gov/','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://householdproducts.nlm.nih.gov/"><span id="translatedtitle">Household <span class="hlt">Products</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Home Maintenance Arts & Crafts Pet Care Home Office Commercial / Institutional <span class="hlt">Product</span> Names Types of <span class="hlt">Products</span> Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More Resources What's under your kitchen sink, in your garage, in your bathroom, and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/6470510-QoK6yn/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/6470510-QoK6yn/"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal <span class="hlt">production</span> 1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-11-29</p> <p>Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span> 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal <span class="hlt">production</span>, the number of mines, prices, <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=tubitakulakb::c036f2f6d1d37d0aca76c95466904c72','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=tubitakulakb::c036f2f6d1d37d0aca76c95466904c72"><span id="translatedtitle">Chaos in <span class="hlt">product</span> maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>DE??RMENC?, Nedim; KOÇAK, ?ahin</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We discuss how chaos conditions on maps carry over to their <span class="hlt">products</span>. First we give a counterexample showing that the <span class="hlt">pro\\-duct</span> of two chaotic maps (in the sense of Devaney) need not be chaotic. We then remark that if two maps (or even one of them) exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, so does their <span class="hlt">product</span>; likewise, if two maps possess dense periodic points, so does their <span class="hlt">product</span>. On the other side, the <span class="hlt">product</span> of two topologically transitive maps need not be topolog...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/7544060','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/7544060"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolving <span class="hlt">production</span> network structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.; Alting, Leo</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>When deciding about future <span class="hlt">production</span> network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the <span class="hlt">products</span> and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns <span class="hlt">products</span> and capacity expansions to <span class="hlt">production</span> sites under the above constraints. It also considers the <span class="hlt">production</span> complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2044147','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2044147"><span id="translatedtitle">Handbook of <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The HANDBOOK OF <span class="hlt">PRODUCTION</span> SCHEDULING concentrates on real-world <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling in factories and industrial settings. It includes industry case studies that use innovative techniques as well as academic research results that can be used to improve real-world <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling. Its purpose is to present scheduling principles, advanced tools, and examples of innovative scheduling systems to persons who could use this information to improve <span class="hlt">production</span> scheduling in their own organization.The intended audience includes: <span class="hlt">production</span> and plant managers, industrial engineers, operations res</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282324014','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282324014"><span id="translatedtitle">Connecting the <span class="hlt">Production</span> Multiple</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Lichen, Alex Yu; Mouritsen, Jan</p> <p></p> <p>company which was implementing sales and operations planning (S&OP) process to foster integration on its demand chain. Although actors wanted to see what it is to produce, that is to say, the object <span class="hlt">Production</span>, as a singular object that could be diffused across time and space, <span class="hlt">Production</span> became more...... multiple because the S&OP process itself is a fluid object, but there is still possibility to organise the messy <span class="hlt">Production</span>. There are connections between the <span class="hlt">Production</span> multiple and the managerial technology fluid. The fluid enacted the multiplicity of <span class="hlt">Production</span> thus making it more difficult to be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.anpad.org.br/periodicos/arq_pdf/a_787.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.anpad.org.br/periodicos/arq_pdf/a_787.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Low income <span class="hlt">product</span> innovation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Maria Cecília Sobral</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on <span class="hlt">product</span> development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate <span class="hlt">products</span> and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular <span class="hlt">product</span>, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize <span class="hlt">products</span> and increase the <span class="hlt">production</span> scale; to extend the <span class="hlt">product</span> life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build <span class="hlt">product</span> images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN12A..06Z','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN12A..06Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Suomi Npp <span class="hlt">Products</span> Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Zhou, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A suite of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environment Data Records (EDRs) is generated from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) operational environmental satellite system. The <span class="hlt">products</span> include atmospheric, ocean, land surface and cryospheric <span class="hlt">products</span> from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS); atmospheric sounding <span class="hlt">products</span> from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS); and ozone <span class="hlt">products</span> from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). These EDRs undergo a rigorous validation process and algorithm updates to achieve a <span class="hlt">product</span> maturity needed for end user applications. Since the successful launch of Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite in October 2011, significant progresses have been made on calibration and validation of the SNPP data <span class="hlt">products</span>. By far all <span class="hlt">products</span> were publicly available and most <span class="hlt">products</span> were ready for operational evaluation. Most <span class="hlt">products</span> also are expected to meet requirements and work is underway to reach validated maturity status and fully operational use. Further developments and improvements of the algorithms for J1 have been planned based on the JPSS requirements and lessons learned from SNPP. Sensitivity and impact studies are performed as sensor test data become available. For the majority of data <span class="hlt">products</span>, no significant changes in sensor input and corresponding sensor degradation are expected. However, the J1 <span class="hlt">products</span> will undergo the same rigorous calibration and validation process as the S-NPP <span class="hlt">products</span> once the on-orbit data are available. The schedule for the maturity of the J1 data <span class="hlt">products</span> however is expected to be accelerated compared to that for S-NPP as lessons learned from the S-NPP mission will be applied to the J1 satellite data. In the presentation, we will provide an overview of the latest SNPP data <span class="hlt">products</span>' quality status and the plan forward for JPSS-1 algorithm updates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1001.4436.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1001.4436.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Specification of <span class="hlt">Products</span> and <span class="hlt">Product</span> Lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Ariel; 10.4204/EPTCS.15.4</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The study of variability in software development has become increasingly important in recent years. A common mechanism to represent the variability in a <span class="hlt">product</span> line is by means of feature models. However, the relationship between these models and UML design models is not straightforward. UML statecharts are extended introducing variability in their main components, so that the behavior of <span class="hlt">product</span> lines can be specified. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a rule-based approach that defines a transformation strategy from extended statecharts to concrete UML statecharts. This is accomplished via the use of feature models, in order to describe the common and variant components, in such a way that, starting from different feature configurations and applying the rule-based method, concrete state machines corresponding to different <span class="hlt">products</span> of a line can be obtained.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://findresearcher.sdu.dk:8443/ws/files/118365254/HE_play_2015_Play_as_production.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="https://findresearcher.sdu.dk:8443/ws/files/118365254/HE_play_2015_Play_as_production.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Play as <span class="hlt">production</span> – <span class="hlt">production</span> as game?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Eichberg, Henning</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Play-related <span class="hlt">products</span> and their export have through recent decades contributed to a certain Danish image on the world level – with Lego bricks at the commercial end and adventure playgrounds at the pedagogical end. The phenomena of toy <span class="hlt">production</span> and play exports challenge our understanding of what...... “play” and “game” are, and of their social as well as political significance. At the municipal level, the city of Odense – “city of Hans Christian Andersen” – is branding itself as “city of play”. On the international level, Danish play-related <span class="hlt">products</span> have expanded on the world market. In the field of...... for the play foray of market and state. These empirical phenomena lead to some more theoretical questions. One question concerns the connection between play and Danishness. How are patterns of play and cultural identity related to each other? Other questions concern the relation between play and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-08/pdf/2010-7931.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-08/pdf/2010-7931.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-08</p> <p>...THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>, and Indian coal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39083363','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39083363"><span id="translatedtitle">The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 deg. C and safe recycling of the reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> in stoneware tile mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into <span class="hlt">non-hazardous</span> mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 deg. C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed <span class="hlt">product</span>. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the <span class="hlt">product</span> of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 ?m. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos minerals in this temperature-induced process. The <span class="hlt">product</span> of transformation of cement-asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This <span class="hlt">product</span> can be safely recycled for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3-5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1399::aa1f4ff0fe1e136f741a23ecf67d4e58','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1399::aa1f4ff0fe1e136f741a23ecf67d4e58"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> from sunflower oil using microwave assisted transesterification / by Nokuthula E. Magida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Magida, Nokuthula Ethel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Biofuels are becoming more attractive worldwide because of the high energy demands and the fossil fuel resources that are being depleted. Biodiesel is one of the most attractive alternative energy sources to petroleum diesel fuel and it is renewable, <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">toxic</span>, biodegradable, has low sulphur content and has a high flash point. Biodiesel can be generated from domestic natural resources such as coconuts, rapeseeds, soybeans, sunflower, and waste cooking o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______307::87959b5d6d8ae7157977b651ae1eaefc','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______307::87959b5d6d8ae7157977b651ae1eaefc"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> by microalgae and macroalgae from north littoral portuguese coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Carvalho, Joana; Ribeiro, André; Castro, Joana Daniela Fernandes de; Vilarinho, Cândida; Castro, F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has many benefits. It is biodegradable, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and compared to petroleum-based diesel, has a more favorable combustion emission profile, such as low emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons. In brief, these merits make biodiesel a good alternative to petroleum based fuel. Biodiesel feedstocks derived from microalgae and macroalgae have emerged as one of the most promising alternative sources of lipid for use in biodiesel ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21547280','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21547280"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy efficiency in <span class="hlt">products</span> and <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Tugrul, Kodaz [Arcelik (Turkey)], email: tugrul.kodaz@arcelik.com</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Energy efficiency is not simply about making energy savings, it is also about maintaining the quality of living conditions, service quality and volumes of <span class="hlt">production</span> in industrial plants. Using energy effectively wherever and whenever possible in our everyday lives will most likely make a great positive contribution to our household budget, to the national economy and to the protection of the environment. Fossil fuels, like petroleum and coal, the most important energy sources, are being depleted. What is worse, greenhouse gas emissions, which cause global warming and climate change, are rising. So there is an urgent need to raise energy efficiency and prevent energy wastage. Economic development will be based on sustainable usage of natural resources. Therefore, a combined commitment to protecting the environment and preserving and ecological balance at every stage of <span class="hlt">production</span> activities is the central guarantee natural resource sustainability. This paper provides information on various studies of how to achieve high energy efficiency with respect both to <span class="hlt">products</span> and their <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::4cb2ba2d1401652a1b88387839198638','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::4cb2ba2d1401652a1b88387839198638"><span id="translatedtitle">Recombinant organisms for <span class="hlt">production</span> of industrial <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Adrio, Jose-Luis; Arnold L. Demain</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial <span class="hlt">production</span> of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5136720/PhD%2013%202010%20Rasmus%20Pedersen%20Thesis.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5136720/PhD%2013%202010%20Rasmus%20Pedersen%20Thesis.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Pedersen, Rasmus</p> <p></p> <p>important assets in a <span class="hlt">product</span> platform, yet activities, working patterns, processes and knowledge can also be reused in a platform approach. Encapsulation is seen as a process in which the different elements of a platform are grouped into well defined and self-contained units which are decoupled from each......This PhD thesis has the title <span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform Modelling. The thesis is about <span class="hlt">product</span> platforms and visual <span class="hlt">product</span> platform modelling. <span class="hlt">Product</span> platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation and the...... change in the global economy seem to be major factors. Manufacturing companies have experienced an intensifying competition and many companies face increasing demands for reductions in costs and lead times in development and <span class="hlt">production</span>. At the same time many customers have raised their demands for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/10133218/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/10133218/"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span> 1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-10-29</p> <p>Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span> 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal <span class="hlt">production</span>, the number of mines, prices, <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, employment, <span class="hlt">productive</span> capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of <span class="hlt">production</span>, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal <span class="hlt">production</span> and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/188750191','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/188750191"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">product</span> development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their <span class="hlt">product</span> development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated <span class="hlt">product</span> development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... operational solutions to counteract the negative impacts with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a unique look into global <span class="hlt">product</span> development through an investigation of its impact on the organisation, the <span class="hlt">product</span> development process, and the <span class="hlt">product</span>. Furthermore, it shows the solutions...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their <span class="hlt">product</span> development process. They consequently implemented various...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317535','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317535"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Aubin, Francois; Atoyan, Hasmik; Robert, Jean-Marc; Atoyan, Tigran</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper explains how a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness may be defined and measured. Many aspects of consumer <span class="hlt">product</span> assessments are conducted sub-consciously and this process is closely examined. A <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness can be evaluated by measuring its advantages over alternative solutions based on specific criteria associated with fundamentals needs. When multiple criteria are involved, different weights are assigned to each. It should take into account the context in which the <span class="hlt">product</span> is used. For the purpose of this paper, we use a formula to determine the relative usefulness of a variety of <span class="hlt">products</span> in different contexts. We conclude that aspects of <span class="hlt">product</span>'s usefulness, connected with sub-conscious human decision making processes, can be a major factor in predicting acceptance and rejection rates. PMID:22317535</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5107866/ProductFamilyAssessment_PhDthesis_MortenKvist.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5107866/ProductFamilyAssessment_PhDthesis_MortenKvist.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Family Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Kvist, Morten</p> <p></p> <p>cost of the single <span class="hlt">product</span> this will in time lead to a patchwork of <span class="hlt">product</span> variants, features, parts, and process technologies – i.e. a <span class="hlt">product</span> family so complex that it becomes a burden in the companies’ daily operation. As a consequence there has been an increase in the number of companies that are...... research literature and on the ideas of lean <span class="hlt">production</span>, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a <span class="hlt">product</span> variety context, and discussed in relation to <span class="hlt">product</span> development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an...... industrial setting at Danfoss Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5880995/Lone%20Munk%20Afhandling%20MAN.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://orbit.dtu.dk/ws/files/5880995/Lone%20Munk%20Afhandling%20MAN.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Munk, Lone</p> <p></p> <p>The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based <span class="hlt">product</span> development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based <span class="hlt">product</span> development makes it possible to deliver <span class="hlt">product</span> variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources......, and the subject has gained increased attention in industry and academia the past decade. Literature on platform-based <span class="hlt">product</span> development is often based on single case studies and it is sparsely verified if expected effects are achieved. This makes it difficult to put forward realistic expectations...... for companies engaging in platform-based <span class="hlt">product</span> development. Similarly platform assessment criteria lack empirical verification regarding relevance and sufficiency. The thesis focuses on • the process of identifying and estimating internal effects, • verification of performance of <span class="hlt">product</span> platforms...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2194660239','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2194660239"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Architecture Modularity Strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures and......, the following key elements of <span class="hlt">product</span> architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of...... modularization embedded in <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures, by taking the key elements as the main variables. Various managerial and theoretical implications of the modularization function are drawn. For instance, the function can be used as a framework to aid to examine various leveraging forces behind new <span class="hlt">product</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______942::10111b0bd722b0b6b15c7430ca30f739','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______942::10111b0bd722b0b6b15c7430ca30f739"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolving individualised consumer <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Dean, Lionel, T; Atkinson, Paul; Unver, Ertu</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The origins of this project began in 2002 with experimentation into the application of computer generated random form to 3D <span class="hlt">product</span> design. Advances in the Rapid Prototyping industry were offering the possibility of mass-produced one-off consumer <span class="hlt">products</span>. Computer based 3D solid models were created that would randomly mutate within parameter envelopes set by the designer. At any given point the mutation could be halted and a real-world <span class="hlt">product</span> generated via digital manufacture (Rapid Prot...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20071074','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20071074"><span id="translatedtitle">Hyperon <span class="hlt">production</span> with antiprotons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Precision measurements of hyperon-antihyperon <span class="hlt">production</span> with antiprotons permit detailed tests of strange quark pair <span class="hlt">production</span> and decay. Recent measurements at LEAR of lambda-antilambda <span class="hlt">production</span> are compared with selected calculations. A recent search in the K/sub s/K/sub s/ channel for ξ(2230) formation and possible future searches for CP nonconservation in the lambda-antilambda system are also discussed. 17 refs., 13 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1061::e06a0ec746ac5c9a8d479524a26b1c00','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1061::e06a0ec746ac5c9a8d479524a26b1c00"><span id="translatedtitle">Mining Experiential <span class="hlt">Product</span> Cases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Dong, Ruihai; Schaal, Markus; O'Mahony, Michael P.; Smyth, Barry</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Case-based reasoning (CBR) attempts to reuse past experiences to solve new problems. CBR ideas are commonplace in recommendation systems, which rely on the similarity between <span class="hlt">product</span> queries and a case base of <span class="hlt">product</span> cases. But, the relationship between CBR and many of these recommenders can be tenuous: the idea that <span class="hlt">product</span> cases made up of static meta-data type features are experiential is a stretch; unless one views the type of case descriptions used by collaborative filtering (user ratin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27069110','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27069110"><span id="translatedtitle">Uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> in Romania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This article reviews uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> in Romania. Geological aspects of the country are discussed, and known uranium deposits are noted. Uranium mining and milling activities are also covered. Utilization of Romania's uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> industry will primarily be to supply the country's nuclear power program, and with the present adequate supplies and the operation of their recently revamped fuel <span class="hlt">production</span> facility, Romania should be self-reliant in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35026332','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35026332"><span id="translatedtitle">Electricity <span class="hlt">production</span> of Slovakia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy <span class="hlt">production</span> divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy <span class="hlt">production</span> and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy <span class="hlt">production</span> and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23047891','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23047891"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionization of food <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various <span class="hlt">products</span> are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing <span class="hlt">products</span> - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked <span class="hlt">products</span>... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2192989572','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2192989572"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting for <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) <span class="hlt">production</span> function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view that factors of <span class="hlt">production</span> are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2287151426','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2287151426"><span id="translatedtitle">Property Rights and <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the effect of land titling on agricultural <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in Vietnam and the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> effects of single versus joint titling for husband and wife. Using a plot-fixed-effects approach our results show that obtaining a land title is associated with higher yields, for both individually and jointly held titles. We conclude that there is no tradeoff between joint titling and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, and so joint titles are potentially an effective way to improve women’s bargaining power wi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::1d5c930c9b0550f882f12a9b472a2e60','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::1d5c930c9b0550f882f12a9b472a2e60"><span id="translatedtitle">Reputation in team <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Björn</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Consider team <span class="hlt">production</span> with two people. Each is characterized by a prior distribution that he will do Right or Wrong. After the outcome of the project is observed, these probabilities are updated. When output depends on the weakest link in <span class="hlt">production</span>, following project failure the posterior probability that a person did Right declines with the probability that the other worker did Right. The same holds when output depends on the best shot in <span class="hlt">production</span> and the team effort succeeded. A leade...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185786530','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185786530"><span id="translatedtitle">Intake to <span class="hlt">Production</span> Ratio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its <span class="hlt">production</span> and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-<span class="hlt">production</span> ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical <span class="hlt">production</span> results in human exposure.METHODS: The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2281975452','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2281975452"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">Product</span> Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Gani, Rafiqul</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper highlights for a class of chemical <span class="hlt">products</span>, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) community. The chemical <span class="hlt">products</span> considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical <span class="hlt">products</span>, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27023708','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27023708"><span id="translatedtitle">Beauty <span class="hlt">production</span> at DOe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We report on the measurement of the inclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> cross section of single muon, dimuon and heavy quarkonium states J/? and ? in pp collisions at ?(s) = 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We extract the inclusive b quark <span class="hlt">production</span> cross section and compare the results with next to leading order QCD predictions. For the first time the measurement of the J/? <span class="hlt">production</span> cross section is extended to the forward region. From the information on the J/? event topology, the muon impact parameter and the rate of ?c radiative decays we estimate the role of various charmonium <span class="hlt">production</span> mechanisms. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/682','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/682"><span id="translatedtitle">Students and Educational <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Benjamin Levin</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The literature on <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in education is extensive. The object of this effort is to find a <span class="hlt">production</span> function--a mathematical expression of the relationship between inputs and outputs in education. In this paper, the status of the literature on <span class="hlt">production</span> functions is reviewed. Most of these approaches have seen schooling as something that is done to students, rather than thinking about education as something that students essentially do for themselves. An argument is developed that makes students the key factors in shaping school outcomes, and therefore a central focus of our thinking about <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. The paper concludes with suggestions for research and policy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2224192','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2224192"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting for <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) <span class="hlt">production</span> function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view that...... factors of <span class="hlt">production</span> are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of tests for the validity of the CD assumption. We find that the CD specification performs reasonably...... well for the purposes of cross-country <span class="hlt">productivity</span> accounting....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1701368','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1701368"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonhomogeneous matrix <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Hartfiel, Darald J</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Infinite <span class="hlt">products</span> of matrices are used in nonhomogeneous Markov chains, Markov set-chains, demographics, probabilistic automata, <span class="hlt">production</span> and manpower systems, tomography, and fractals. More recent results have been obtained in computer design of curves and surfaces. This book puts together much of the basic work on infinite <span class="hlt">products</span> of matrices, providing a primary source for such work. This will eliminate the rediscovery of known results in the area, and thus save considerable time for researchers who work with infinite <span class="hlt">products</span> of matrices. In addition, two chapters are included to show h</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11542925','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11542925"><span id="translatedtitle">Inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this review, the current status of inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span> is summarized. Among the reasons for studying inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span>, the following matters are enumerated: Resonance decay accounts for a sizable part of the inclusive single particle <span class="hlt">production</span>. Having non-zero spin, the polarization can be studied for obtaining information about the <span class="hlt">production</span> mechanism. And there are models which make prediction for the ratio of pseudoscalar to vector meson <span class="hlt">production</span>. 21 papers were submitted to this conference on inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span>. The problems of determining cross sections are related both to statistics and to the parametrization of the background. Generally at beam momenta above 100 GeV/c, all of the inclusive meson resonance cross sections are increasing, while the baryon resonance cross sections are falling or perhaps remaining constant. The examples of the x-dependence of inclusive resonance <span class="hlt">production</span> are given, but there are much works still to be carried out. The quark-parton model makes prediction for the ratio of various inclusive resonance cross sections. The comparison between experiment and the theoretical prediction is shown. The inclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> of single particles is strongly affected by resonance <span class="hlt">production</span>. (Kako, I.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0870-63522005000200002&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.gpeari.mctes.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0870-63522005000200002&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Residues of the Cork Industry as Carriers for the <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Legume Inoculants / Résidus de l'Industrie du Liège comme Substrats pour la <span class="hlt">Production</span> des Inoculums pour les Légumineuses / Resíduos da Indústria dos Aglomerados da Cortiça como Potenciais Substractos para a Produção de Inoculantes para Sementes de Leguminosas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Eugénio Mendes, Ferreira; Isabel Videira e, Castro.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O crescimento e a sobrevivência de duas estirpes de Rhizobium, uma de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, e outra de Mesorhizobium ciceri, foram usados para avaliação de resíduos da indústria dos aglomerados da cortiça como potenciais substractos para a produção de inoculantes para sementes de leg [...] uminosas. A turfa foi usada como controlo. 41 dias após a inoculação, o n.º das bactérias viáveis era elevado e semelhante em todos os substractos, aproximadamente 10(9) bactérias g-1. A sobrevivência durante os 450 dias de armazenamento permaneceu estável, entre 10(8) e 10(9). Os resíduos da cortiça mostraram possuir boas características de manuseio, boas capacidades de retenção de água, não apresentaram toxicidade, possuíam pH perto da neutralidade, indicando poderem ser utilizados como substractos alternativos à turfa na produção de inoculantes para leguminosas. Abstract in english Growth and survival of two rhizobial strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, and Mesorhizobium ciceri, were used to evaluate residues from the cork industry as potential carriers for <span class="hlt">production</span> of rhizobial inoculants. A peat-based carrier was used as a control. 41 days after inoculation, the [...] number of viable bacteria was high, about 10(9) bacteria g-1 for all carriers. Rhizobial survival during storage (450 days) remained stable, between 10(8) and 10(9). The cork residues based carriers showed good handling properties and water holding capacities, they were <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> and had a nearly neutral pH. All these factors indicate that the use of these carriers is viable for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of rhizobial inoculants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35016854','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35016854"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation chemical technology for <span class="hlt">production</span> of polymeric hydrogels for medical purposes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Full text: Polymeric hydrogels are water-swelling cross-linked hydrophilic polymers with ability to store reversibly great amount of water (more than 1000 g of water per 1 g of dry polymer). At present they found a lot of different applications in highly developed countries in science and industry. The set of unique physicochemical and biomedical properties (regulated sorption ability in respect to water and biological liquids, biocompatibility, soft tissue state, permeability in respect to small and big molecules, <span class="hlt">non-toxicity</span>, etc.) allows their application in medicine. According to the clinical data there are no materials that can compete with hydrogels in development of endo-prostheses of soft-tissues in surgery, contact lenses for eyesight correction, hemo-compatible materials, novel for treatment of wounds and burns, targeted drug delivery systems. Polymeric hydrogels today practically substitute the traditional hydrophobic bases (Vaseline, lanolin) in technology of drug forms for development of ointments and dressings, containing natural and synthetic physiologically active substances. The advantages of hydrogels in comparison with hydrophobic analogues are obvious due to the drainage effect, homogenous distribution of drugs, better contact with wound, painless removing by water washing. The polymeric hydrogels are not produced in Kazakhstan in spite of the big source of raw materials. The aim of the present work is the development of radiation-chemical technology and development of polymeric biomedical hydrogels <span class="hlt">production</span> based on raw materials of Kazakhstan. The novel types of polymeric hydrogel materials are developed by the authors of the report based on vinyl ethers of glycols, which produced in 'Alash Ltd.' (Temirtau). The great fundamental information content has been obtained about these monomers and polymers including direct quantitative data of their structure formation mechanism and physicochemical properties. These data served as a basis for design of novel polymeric hydrogels of different type including so-called 'intelligent' materials, which are able to respond on small changes of environmental parameters (temperature, pH, electric field). According the biomedical tests the availability and competitive ability of these biomaterials is due to their unique stability to bio-destruction in aggressive infection media unlike of known hydrogels based on polyacrylamide, hydroxyalkyl acrylates, etc. This is connected with the absence of hydrolyzable bonds (ester, amide, etc.) in the structure of vinyl ethers. As the result of many years collaboration with a number of leading medical centers of Kazakhstan and Russia the possibility of wide and effective application of these hydrogel materials in different areas of medicine has bee found (contact hydrogel for ultrasonic diagnostics; hydrogel basis for medicinal and cosmetic ointments; hydrogel implant material)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20714496','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20714496"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiesel <span class="hlt">production</span> from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Demirbas, Ayhan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Campus, 42031 Konya (Turkey)</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>This paper reviews the <span class="hlt">production</span> and characterization of biodiesel (BD or B) as well as the experimental work carried out by many researchers in this field. BD fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel (PD) fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. BD fuel can be used in any mixture with PD fuel as it has very similar characteristics but it has lower exhaust emissions. BD fuel has better properties than that of PD fuel such as renewable, biodegradable, <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span>, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. There are more than 350 oil bearing crops identified, among which only sunflower, safflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed and peanut oils are considered as potential alternative fuels for diesel engines. The major problem associated with the use of pure vegetable oils as fuels, for Diesel engines are caused by high fuel viscosity in compression ignition. Dilution, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis and transesterification are the four techniques applied to solve the problems encountered with the high fuel viscosity. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, some engine performance problems still exist. The viscosity values of vegetable oils vary between 27.2 and 53.6mm{sup 2}/s whereas those of vegetable oil methyl esters between 3.59 and 4.63mm{sup 2}/s. The viscosity values of vegetable oil methyl esters highly decreases after transesterification process. Compared to no. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oil methyl esters were slightly viscous. The flash point values of vegetable oil methyl esters are highly lower than those of vegetable oils. An increase in density from 860 to 885kg/m{sup 3} for vegetable oil methyl esters or biodiesels increases the viscosity from 3.59 to 4.63mm{sup 2}/s and the increases are highly regular. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. The transesterfication of triglycerides by methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol, has proved to be the most promising process. Methanol is the commonly used alcohol in this process, due in part to its low cost. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-27382010000100003&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1665-27382010000100003&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteínas PEGiladas: producción, purificación y aplicaciones / PEGylated proteins: <span class="hlt">production</span>, purification, and applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>K. P., Mayolo-Deloisa; M., Rito-Palomares.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available La PEGilación es la conjugación de una proteína y/o péptido con una o más moléculas de poli(etilen glicol). El poli(etilen glicol) es un polímero no toxico, no inmunogénico y esto aprobado por la FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA). En los últimos años, la PEGilación ha sido utilizada para mejor [...] ar las propiedades fisicoquímicas de proteínas y drogas terapéuticas, por lo que esta tecnología ha impactado fuertemente a la industria bio-farmacéutica. La PEGilación permite prolongar el tiempo de residencia en el cuerpo, mejorar la estabilidad, aumentar la solubilidad, disminuir la proteólisis y excreción renal. Desde el surgimiento de esta tecnología, diferentes proteínas han sido PEGiladas para el tratamiento de enfermedades como: hepatitis C, leucemia, artritis reumatoide, etc. Este artículo de revisión presenta una descripción del desarrollo de la PEGilación en los últimos años, así como de los procedimientos usados para la producción de bio-conjugados. Además, se revisan las estrategias de purificación utilizadas para la recuperación de proteínas PEGiladas, siendo este uno de los grandes retos en el proceso debido a que la reacción de PEGilación puede generar bio-conjugados con diferentes grados de PEGilación. Por último, se presentan las aplicaciones de dichos bio-conjugados y los retos futuros que se identifican para su aplicación genérica. Abstract in english PEGylation is the covalent attachment of protein and/or peptide to poly(ethylene glycol). The poly(ethylene glycol) is a polymer, <span class="hlt">non</span> <span class="hlt">toxic</span>, non immunogenic, and FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA) approved. In the last years, PEGylation has been used to improve the physicochemical properties of [...] some proteins and therapeutic drugs; this technology has impacted heavily on the bio-pharmaceutical industry. PEGylation prolongs the body-residence time and stability, decreases the proteolysis and renal excretion. Since the emergence of this technology, some proteins have been PEGylated for the treatment of diseases including hepatitis C, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. This review presents a description of the PEGylation development in the last years and the chemical procedures used to obtain some bio-conjugated <span class="hlt">products</span>. Strategies of purification used to obtain PEGylated proteins are reviewed; purification is one of the major problems to establish suitable processes due to the fact that the reaction can generate bio-conjugates with different degree of PEGylation. Finally the applications of PEGylated proteins and the future challenges that are identified for generic application are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=nora_uio__no::eb61ce0591cf7948adbc0d5151343a6c','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=nora_uio__no::eb61ce0591cf7948adbc0d5151343a6c"><span id="translatedtitle">Public goods <span class="hlt">production</span> and private sector <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Norman, Eva Benedicte Danielsen</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we study how the use of resources in the public sector affects industrial structure, the size and the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in knowledge-intensive clusters in local communities. We also discuss how these considerations should be implemented in costbenefit assessments of local public goods supply. The topics are studied in a setting where there are gains from agglomeration in knowledge-intensive industries, creating clusters of firms in such industries. We find that the primary effect is ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/562168','WWS-KAUST'); return false;" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/562168"><span id="translatedtitle">Volatile <span class="hlt">products</span> controlling Titan's tholins <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa">KAUST Repository</a></p> <p>Carrasco, Nathalie</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>A quantitative agreement between nitrile relative abundances and Titan\\'s atmospheric composition was recently shown with a reactor simulating the global chemistry occurring in Titan\\'s atmosphere (Gautier et al. [2011]. Icarus, 213, 625-635). Here we present a complementary study on the same reactor using an in situ diagnostic of the gas phase composition. Various initial N 2/CH 4 gas mixtures (methane varying from 1% to 10%) are studied, with a monitoring of the methane consumption and of the stable gas neutrals by in situ mass spectrometry. Atomic hydrogen is also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. A positive correlation is found between atomic hydrogen abundance and the inhibition function for aerosol <span class="hlt">production</span>. This confirms the suspected role of hydrogen as an inhibitor of heterogeneous organic growth processes, as found in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. [2010]. Icarus, 209, 704-714). The study of the gas phase organic <span class="hlt">products</span> is focussed on its evolution with the initial methane amount [CH 4] 0 and its comparison with the aerosol <span class="hlt">production</span> efficiency. We identify a change in the stationary gas phase composition for intermediate methane amounts: below [CH 4] 0=5%, the gas phase composition is mainly dominated by nitrogen-containing species, whereas hydrocarbons are massively produced for [CH 4] 0>5%. This predominance of N-containing species at lower initial methane amount, compared with the maximum gas-to solid conversion observed in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (2010) for identical methane amounts confirms the central role played by N-containing gas-phase compounds to produce tholins. Moreover, two protonated imines (methanimine CH 2NH and ethanamine CH 3CHNH) are detected in the ion composition in agreement with Titan\\'s INMS measurements, and reinforcing the suspected role of these chemical species on aerosol <span class="hlt">production</span>. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ann.ugal.ro/eco/Doc%202006/13.%20OK%20Adi%20Micu_2.pdf','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ann.ugal.ro/eco/Doc%202006/13.%20OK%20Adi%20Micu_2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">COMPETITIVE <span class="hlt">PRODUCT</span> ADVANTAGES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Adrian MICU</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some <span class="hlt">products</span> at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or <span class="hlt">product</span> advantages later.. Even when a <span class="hlt">product</span>'s physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop <span class="hlt">product</span> advantages remain. The augmented <span class="hlt">product</span> that customers buy is more than the particular <span class="hlt">product</span> or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame <span class="hlt">product</span> from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic <span class="hlt">product</span> can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=262208','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=262208"><span id="translatedtitle">Biotechnology and derived <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived <span class="hlt">products</span> that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. <span class="hlt">Products</span> based on these technologies effectively co...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::e9aaea49a86d8fe0799a5285ba362946','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::e9aaea49a86d8fe0799a5285ba362946"><span id="translatedtitle">Baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> in ALEPH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Becker, Ursula</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Several recent results of the ALEPH Collaboration covering different aspects of baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> on the Z resonance are presented. In particular <span class="hlt">production</span> rates of hyperons, the full kinematical reconstruction of the Lambda_b, observation of Xi_b in its semileptonic decay, and the measurements of the polarization of Lambda and Lambda_b baryons are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::1bb59efc627078f55031519c88b175de','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::1bb59efc627078f55031519c88b175de"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Growth in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Dall'Olio, Andrea; Iootty, Mariana; Kanehira, Naoto; Saliola, Federica</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper tests whether structural or firm-specific characteristics contributed more to (labor) <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth in the European Union between 2003 and 2008. It combines the Amadeus firm-level data on <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and firm characteristics with country-level data describing regulatory environments from the World Bank's Doing Business surveys, foreign direct investment data from Eurostat...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185763557','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185763557"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved wound care <span class="hlt">product</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care <span class="hlt">product</span> comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care <span class="hlt">product</span>,and a methodof treating an infected wound....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108090639','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108090639"><span id="translatedtitle">Conditions for industrial <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a <span class="hlt">production</span> line is presented.......The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a <span class="hlt">production</span> line is presented....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://vbn.aau.dk/ws/files/216933076/jmtm_2015_sz_sz_et_al_production_competence_final.pdf','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://vbn.aau.dk/ws/files/216933076/jmtm_2015_sz_sz_et_al_production_competence_final.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> competence revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Szász, Levente; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to seek remedy to two major flaws of the <span class="hlt">production</span> competence literature, which concern: the way the <span class="hlt">production</span> competence construct is operationalized and the way its effects on performance are measured. Design/methodology/approach – The paper proposes to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40030411','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:40030411"><span id="translatedtitle">Central Exclusive Dijet <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The ingredients of central exclusive <span class="hlt">production</span> cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet <span class="hlt">production</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::2b2d1590d5a8598c2a562150abca6be4','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::2b2d1590d5a8598c2a562150abca6be4"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> & Decay of Quarkonium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Fleming, Sean(University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In this talk I review NRQCD predictions for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of charmonium at the Tevatron. After a quick presentation of the NRQCD factorization formalism for <span class="hlt">production</span> and decay I review some old results and discuss how they compare to recent data. Following this I discuss some recent work done with Adam Leibovich and Ira Rothstein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______2456::a0b2752165d3b3d77994b71e6221833b','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______2456::a0b2752165d3b3d77994b71e6221833b"><span id="translatedtitle">Madagascar : Promoting Livestock <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Prasad C. Mohan</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The note outlines the successful outcomes of the Livestock Adjustment and Investment Project in Madagascar, whose main objective was to promote livestock <span class="hlt">production</span> for domestic consumption, and exports. A major project impact, i.e., the Ministry of Livestock's shift out of veterinary practice, - feed mill operation, fodder <span class="hlt">production</span>, input supply, and breed improvement - was conducive to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20148101005','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20148101005"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffractive <span class="hlt">production</span> of mesons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Schicker Rainer</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The interest in the study of diffractive meson <span class="hlt">production</span> is discussed. The description of diffraction within Regge phenomenology is presented, and the QCD-based understanding of diffractive processes is given. Central <span class="hlt">production</span> is reviewed, and the corresponding main results from the COMPASS experiment and from the experiments at the ISR, RHIC, TEVATRON and LHC collider are summarised.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=200304','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=200304"><span id="translatedtitle">BIOTECHNOLOGY OF MANNITOL <span class="hlt">PRODUCTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industry. The <span class="hlt">production</span> of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its <span class="hlt">production</span> chemically. We have found that Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED103978.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED103978.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors Predicting Educational <span class="hlt">Productivity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Hanes, Carol E.; Jordan, K. Forbis</p> <p></p> <p>Since 1968 educational <span class="hlt">productivity</span> studies at the University of Florida have been analyzing data from six States and one city. Linear regression was used to identify high and low <span class="hlt">productive</span> units by measuring the relationship between statistically selected input factors and a measure of student achievement. Discriminant analysis was employed to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37108852','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37108852"><span id="translatedtitle">Antihydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> temperature dependence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cold antihydrogen atoms were produced by mixing cold samples of antiprotons and positrons. The temperature of the positron plasma was increased by controlled radio-frequency (RF) heating, and the antihydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> was measured. Formation is observed to decrease with increased temperature but a simple power law scaling is not observed. Significant <span class="hlt">production</span> is still present at room temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=188583','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=188583"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Placement in Cartoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Irena Oroz Štancl</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Product</span> placement is a marketing approach for integrating <span class="hlt">products</span> or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of <span class="hlt">product</span> placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons <span class="hlt">product</span> placement was found; most <span class="hlt">product</span> placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory <span class="hlt">product</span> placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of <span class="hlt">products</span> available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon <span class="hlt">production</span> based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28006483','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28006483"><span id="translatedtitle">Quarkonia <span class="hlt">production</span> at CDF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We present the results of J/?, ?', ?c and ?(1S), ?(2S), ?(3S) <span class="hlt">production</span> in the proton-antiproton collisions at ?s = 1800 GeV measured with the CDF Detector. Contributions of different <span class="hlt">production</span> mechanisms are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1253601','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1253601"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Productive</span> Programmer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Ford, Neal</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The <span class="hlt">Productive</span> Programmer offers critical timesaving and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/270964862','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/270964862"><span id="translatedtitle">Chlorhexidine in cosmetic <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Opstrup, Morten Schjørring; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana; Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Garvey, Lene Heise</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic <span class="hlt">products</span> in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected <span class="hlt">products</span> by high-performance liquid...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Improved+wound+care+product','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Improved+wound+care+product"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved wound care <span class="hlt">product</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Kirketerp-MØller, Klaus unknown</p> <p></p> <p>The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care <span class="hlt">product</span> comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care <span class="hlt">product</span>,and a methodof treating an infected wound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=156349&keyword=Mold+AND+growth&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=45676754&CFTOKEN=69404927','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=156349&keyword=Mold+AND+growth&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=45676754&CFTOKEN=69404927"><span id="translatedtitle">MICROBIAL RESISTANT GYPSUM <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Gypsum building materials often become wet, resulting in mold growth that leads to health and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> impacts. A major source of mold growth is gypsum wallboard since nearly 90% of the interior finished surfaces of buildings are covered with gypsum <span class="hlt">products</span>. It has been est...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Thermophilic+Biohydrogen+Production','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Thermophilic+Biohydrogen+Production"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermophilic Biohydrogen <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel <span class="hlt">production</span>. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions such as temperature and pH, fermentation modes and reactor types applied) are currently utilized at lab and pilot scale, for biohydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. Although the process has strong potential for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of energy from organic residues and wastes, the major challenge is to determine whether the economics and reliability of dark fermentative hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> are sufficiently attractive for commercial application to be installed. Furthermore, storage and utilization of the produced hydrogen still faces challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0246776','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0246776"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> line design.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526. ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : <span class="hlt">product</span> line design * <span class="hlt">product</span> differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14749990','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14749990"><span id="translatedtitle">Tailoring animal <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The continued improvement of animal <span class="hlt">production</span> relies on an ever better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the uptake and utilisation of nutrients by the key <span class="hlt">productive</span> organs of ruminants which can utilise the high fibre diets inaccessible to monogastric animals such as pigs. The research described illustrates the indispensable role played by isotopically labelled tracer compounds</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16082735','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:16082735"><span id="translatedtitle">ICF tritium <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The conceptual design of an ICF tritium <span class="hlt">production</span> reactor is described. The chamber design uses a beryllium multiplier and a liquid lithium breeder to achieve a tritium breeding ratio of 2.08. The annual net tritium <span class="hlt">production</span> of this 532 MW/sub t/ plant is 16.9 kg, and the estimated cost of tritium is $8100/g</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::530f2f3b66f505a463e10dc5c9ed232d','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::530f2f3b66f505a463e10dc5c9ed232d"><span id="translatedtitle">Crossed <span class="hlt">product</span> tensor categories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Galindo, César</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A graded tensor category over a group $G$ will be called a crossed <span class="hlt">product</span> tensor category if every homogeneous component has at least one multiplicatively invertible object. Our main result is a description of the crossed <span class="hlt">product</span> tensor categories, graded monoidal functors, monoidal natural transformations, and braiding in terms of coherent outer $G$-actions over tensor categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185938893','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185938893"><span id="translatedtitle">Globalization and <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on <span class="hlt">productivity</span> have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.microbialcellfactories.com/content/4/1/36','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.microbialcellfactories.com/content/4/1/36"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by Cyanobacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Chaudhuri Surabhi</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span>, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/6741198/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/6741198/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> identification file</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Gray, C.E. (ed.)</p> <p>1978-06-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">product</span> identification file was compiled as an aid to the industrial hygienist who may encounter the <span class="hlt">products</span> listed in surveys for and studies of occupational health hazards. It is pointed out that the chemical composition of a <span class="hlt">product</span> may vary from year to year and some components may be added or deleted without an indication on the label. Some of the data in this file may not be complete depending on the analysis requested. For example, a solvent may be the only component for which the <span class="hlt">product</span> was analyzed. The file is arranged by listing the chemical manufacturer, followed by the trade name. In cases where no manufacturer is known, the trade name appears in alphabetical order. The log number and the chemist who analyzed the <span class="hlt">product</span> are listed for reference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/9771530','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/9771530"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">Product</span> Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Gani, Rafiqul</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper highlights for a class of chemical <span class="hlt">products</span>, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical <span class="hlt">products</span> considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical <span class="hlt">products</span>, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities are...... highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical <span class="hlt">product</span> design problems and finally, a systems chemical <span class="hlt">product</span> design framework with the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37043933','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37043933"><span id="translatedtitle">Petroleum <span class="hlt">product</span> market outlook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery <span class="hlt">production</span> and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum <span class="hlt">products</span> in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery <span class="hlt">production</span>, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver <span class="hlt">products</span> to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum <span class="hlt">products</span> markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase <span class="hlt">production</span>; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum <span class="hlt">product</span> supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect <span class="hlt">product</span> distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian <span class="hlt">production</span> of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that <span class="hlt">production</span> in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher consumer prices in the 2005-2006 winter season. 2 tabs., 8 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11546580','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11546580"><span id="translatedtitle">Uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> from phosphates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of uranium from phosphates is as a by-<span class="hlt">product</span> of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid <span class="hlt">production</span>; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable <span class="hlt">production</span> to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid <span class="hlt">production</span> utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P2O5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium <span class="hlt">production</span> plant. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34065216','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34065216"><span id="translatedtitle">Manual of radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Manual of Radioisotope <span class="hlt">Production</span> has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span> for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of <span class="hlt">production</span>. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope <span class="hlt">production</span>. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope <span class="hlt">production</span> processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of <span class="hlt">production</span> are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the <span class="hlt">production</span> processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of <span class="hlt">production</span> processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical <span class="hlt">production</span> for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable the reader to select processes most suitable to his local conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22030742','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22030742"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolomics study on Fuzi and its processed <span class="hlt">products</span> using ultra-performance liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry coupled with pattern recognition analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Sun, Hui; Ni, Bei; Zhang, Aihua; Wang, Mo; Dong, Hui; Wang, Xijun</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx is named "Fuzi" which is widely distributed across Asia and North America and has been used to relieve joint pain and treat rheumatic diseases for over two thousand years. However, it has very narrow therapeutic ranges and despite the toxicological risk, its usage remains very high. A traditional Chinese processing approach (Paozhi, detoxifying measure) is necessary to remove the poisonous Aconitum alkaloids mainly deriving from the diester diterpene alkaloids (DDAs) including aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine. They can be decomposed into less or <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> derivatives through Paozhi that plays an essential role in detoxification. Processed Fuzi is mainly focused on the three main forms of Yanfuzi (YFZ), Heishunpian (HSP) and Baifupian (BFP) which are highly desirable in order to guarantee the clinical safety and their low toxicity in decoctions. The difference in metabolomic characters between Fuzi and its processed preparations is still completely unclear. Therefore, this paper was designed to investigate a comprehensive metabolome of Fuzi and its processed <span class="hlt">products</span> by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS) combined with pattern recognition methods. The difference in metabolic profiles between Fuzi and its processed preparations was well observed by the principal component analysis (PCA) of the MS spectra. Significant changes of 19 metabolite biomarkers were detected in the Fuzi samples and three preparations. The underlying regulations of Paozhi-perturbed metabolic pathways were also discussed according to the identified metabolites. The present study proves that UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS based metabolomic analysis greatly contributes to the investigation of Fuzi metabolism through Paozhi techniques, and provides useful information to further comprehensively understand the pharmacological activity and potential toxicity of processed Fuzi in a clinical environment. PMID:22030742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-19/pdf/2011-9471.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-19/pdf/2011-9471.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-19</p> <p>...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>...year 2011 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-11/pdf/2012-8675.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-11/pdf/2012-8675.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-11</p> <p>...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>...year 2012 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-30/pdf/2012-10275.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-30/pdf/2012-10275.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 25538 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-30</p> <p>...THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-01/pdf/2010-7263.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-01/pdf/2010-7263.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>...year 2010 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-03/pdf/2013-07773.pdf','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-03/pdf/2013-07773.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>, and Indian Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-03</p> <p>...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity <span class="hlt">Production</span>, Refined Coal <span class="hlt">Production</span>...availability of the credit for renewable electricity <span class="hlt">production</span>, refined coal <span class="hlt">production</span>...year 2013 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajabssp.2011.332.338','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/ajabssp.2011.332.338"><span id="translatedtitle">Wheat <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Economics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Elgilany Ahmed</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of <span class="hlt">productivity</span> and high cost of <span class="hlt">production</span> of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas <span class="hlt">production</span> function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of <span class="hlt">production</span> costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of <span class="hlt">production</span> as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat <span class="hlt">productivity</span> under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor, distance from home to field, hired labor, distance of farm to source of irrigation, number of irrigation, term of irrigation. Furthermore, the weakness of wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> normally regards as a cost issue and lack of awareness wheat grower especially about wheat technical package. Conclusion: The study concluded that wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> contribute significantly to farm sustainability and contribute to alleviation of malnutrition in the State. The actual <span class="hlt">production</span> constraints restrict the sustainability of this important crop. The cooperation between international organizations and governmental institutions should tackle the hindrances of wheat <span class="hlt">production</span> and achieve stability of wheat. There is a great potential for improvement the yield of the crop and an intervention of the State is needed to ease having the inputs of <span class="hlt">production</span> especially irrigation water inputs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39065056','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39065056"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation processed polysaccharide <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique <span class="hlt">products</span>. In this communication, typical <span class="hlt">products</span> from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above <span class="hlt">products</span> were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1999884','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1999884"><span id="translatedtitle">Infinite crossed <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Passman, Donald S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This groundbreaking monograph in advanced algebra addresses crossed <span class="hlt">products</span>. Author Donald S. Passman notes that crossed <span class="hlt">products</span> have advanced from their first occurrence in finite dimensional division algebras and central simple algebras to a closer relationship with the study of infinite group algebras, group-graded rings, and the Galois theory of noncommutative rings. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, the text examines crossed <span class="hlt">products</span> and group-graded rings, delta methods and semiprime rings, the symmetric ring of quotients, and prime ideals, bot</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/17/6/3645','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/17/6/3645"><span id="translatedtitle">Entropy <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Leonid M. Martyushev</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy <span class="hlt">production</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/226812163','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/226812163"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Platform Replacements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about <span class="hlt">product</span> platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and <span class="hlt">production</span> environments. To...... challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on <span class="hlt">product</span> platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2279968175','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2279968175"><span id="translatedtitle">Property Rights and <span class="hlt">Productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the effect of land titling on agricultural <span class="hlt">productivity</span> in Vietnam and the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> effects of single versus joint titling for husband and wife. Using a plot-fixed-effects approach our results show that obtaining a land title is associated with higher yields, for both...... individually and jointly held titles. We conclude that there is no tradeoff between joint titling and <span class="hlt">productivity</span>, and so joint titles are potentially an effective way to improve women’s bargaining power within the household with no associated efficiency losses....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:21026251','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:21026251"><span id="translatedtitle">?? <span class="hlt">production</span> in hadronic collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We identify g+g??J(canti c)+?J'(banti b) (J,J'=0,1,2), followed by radiative decays, as the lowest-order, O(?s4), QCD process leading to ?? <span class="hlt">production</span> in hadronic collisions. We have calculated the partonic cross-sections for these subprocesses and use these to present differential cross-sections for ?? <span class="hlt">production</span> in panti p collisions at CERN collider energies as an example. The yields are disappointingly small. We also comment on possible ?(canti c)?(canti c) contributions to ?? <span class="hlt">production</span>. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5667..457T','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5667..457T"><span id="translatedtitle">Versioning of printed <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Tuijn, Chris</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>During the definition of a printed <span class="hlt">product</span> in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the <span class="hlt">production</span> process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific <span class="hlt">product</span>. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the <span class="hlt">products</span> since this does not have an immediate impact on the <span class="hlt">production</span> costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed <span class="hlt">product</span>. Special care must be taken when considering versioned <span class="hlt">products</span>. With versioned <span class="hlt">products</span> we here mean distinct <span class="hlt">products</span> that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned <span class="hlt">products</span>, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real <span class="hlt">production</span> costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed <span class="hlt">product</span>. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer/content provider and point out how soft proofing can be used to eliminate errors as much as possible. In the second part of the paper, we will show how the supplied information can be used to determine an optimal process plan that shows the number of plates to be generated and the press plans indicating plate changes and press runs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29003439','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29003439"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent diffractive ? <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Coherent diffractive ? <span class="hlt">production</span> by neutrinos occurs at low four-momentum transfer and high energy transfer. These interactions are generally understood to occur via the coupling of the weak charged current to the vector meson, which scatters diffractively from the target nucleus. Since coherent events are those in which the nucleus interacts as a whole, ie without breakup, and with small recoil energy, these events have a very sharp |t|-distribution. This presentation deals mostly with the Monte Carlo simulation of the coherent diffractive <span class="hlt">production</span> of the ? <span class="hlt">production</span> and in particular with the reconstruction algorithm (description and efficiency) and the |t| distribution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::c50b9931c792cbe7a10dae06fd97953a','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::c50b9931c792cbe7a10dae06fd97953a"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> Development Risk Management in <span class="hlt">Product</span> Development Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hanpeng; Yongbo MA</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><p>It is necessary to manage <span class="hlt">product</span> development risk in new <span class="hlt">product</span> development process. This paper puts forward a risk management frame combined the traditional risk management framework and establishes a <span class="hlt">product</span> development risk system in new <span class="hlt">product</span> development, which provides new patterns for practice. It is helpful to raising the possibility of new <span class="hlt">product</span> development success.</p><p><strong>Key words: </strong><span class="hlt">Product</span> development risk management; <span class="hlt">Product</span> de...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2265030674','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2265030674"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span>-Marketing Innovation, Skills, and Firm <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation for <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is hypothesized that <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is established that <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth. Moreover, <span class="hlt">product</span> and marketing innovation have independent roles in <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth, which...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::c8548c3d864b1d9dce7f76758492cf5e','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::c8548c3d864b1d9dce7f76758492cf5e"><span id="translatedtitle">An Optimization Model for <span class="hlt">Product</span> Placement on <span class="hlt">Product</span> Listing Pages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Yan-Kwang Chen; Fei-Rung Chiu; Ciao-Jyun Yang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The design of <span class="hlt">product</span> listing pages is a key component of Website design because it has significant influence on the sales volume on a Website. This study focuses on <span class="hlt">product</span> placement in designing <span class="hlt">product</span> listing pages. <span class="hlt">Product</span> placement concerns how venders of online stores place their <span class="hlt">products</span> over the <span class="hlt">product</span> listing pages for maximization of profit. This problem is very similar to the offline shelf management problem. Since <span class="hlt">product</span> information sources on a Web page are typically communica...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45038520','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45038520"><span id="translatedtitle">Betulin and betulinic acid attenuate ethanol-induced liver stellate cell activation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokine (TNF-?, TGF-?) <span class="hlt">production</span> and by influencing intracellular signaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Background/aims: Liver fibrosis has been reported to be inhibited in vivo by oleanolic and ursolic acids. However, the mechanisms of the action of those triterpenoids are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the antifibrotic potential of other triterpenes, betulin and betulinic acid, and to characterize their influence on the signal transduction pathways involved in ethanol-activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Methods: Investigated was the influence of preincubation of rat HSCs with betulin and betulinic acid, at <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> concentrations, on ethanol-induced toxicity, migration, and several markers of HSC activation such as smooth muscle ?-actin (?-SMA) and procollagen I expression, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and tumor growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), and <span class="hlt">production</span> of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). To assess the mechanism of the action of those triterpenes, intracellular signals such as nuclear factor-?B (NF?B), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) induced by ethanol were examined. Results: In vitro, betulin, but not betulinic acid, protected HSCs against ethanol toxicity. However, both betulin and betulinic acid inhibited the <span class="hlt">production</span> of ROS by HSCs treated with ethanol and inhibited their migration as well as ethanol-induced TNF-?, and TGF-?1, <span class="hlt">production</span>. Betulin and betulinic acid down-regulated ethanol-induced <span class="hlt">production</span> of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Betulin and betulinic acid, also decreased ethanol-induced activity of MMP-2. In ethanol-induced HSCs, betulin inhibited the activation of the p38 MAPK and the JNK transduction pathways, while betulinic acid inhibited the JNK transduction pathway only. They also significantly inhibited phosphorylation of I?B and Smad 3 and attenuated the activation of TGF-?1 and NF?B/I?B transduction signaling. Conclusion: The results indicated that betulin and betulinic acid inhibited ethanol-induced activation of HSCs on different levels, acting as antioxidants, inhibitors of cytokine <span class="hlt">production</span>, and inhibitors of TGF-?, and NF?B/I?B transduction signaling. Betulin was also inhibitor of both JNK and p38 MAPK signal transduction, while betulinic acid inhibited only JNK. The remarkable inhibition of several markers of HCS activation makes triterpenes, especially betulin, promising agents for anti-fibrotic combination therapies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282346848','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282346848"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Products</span> in fusion systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Henke, Ellen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We revisit the notion of a <span class="hlt">product</span> of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8346373','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8346373"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of uranium dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A three stage fluidized bed process is described for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to a ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by first, reacting hydrogen and steam with UF6 in a first fluidized bed in a temperature range of from about 475 to 6000C to form solid intermediate <span class="hlt">products</span> UO2F2 and U3O8; second, reacting hydrogen and steam with the intermediate <span class="hlt">products</span> in a second fluidized bed at a temperature ranging from about 575 to about 6750C to produce a second group of intermediate <span class="hlt">products</span> including UO2F2, U3O8, and UO2; and, third, reacting hydrogen and steam with the second group of intermediate <span class="hlt">products</span> in a third fluidized bed as a temperature of 575 to 6750C to produce ceramic grade UO2 powder having low residual content of fluorides and other foreign materials. 9 claims, 1 figure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/580109','WWS-KAUST'); return false;" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/580109"><span id="translatedtitle">From Environment to <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://repository.kaust.edu.sa">KAUST Repository</a></p> <p>Kodzius, Rimantas</p> <p>2014-04-29</p> <p>Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass <span class="hlt">production</span> of energy, food, and fine chemicals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45107974','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45107974"><span id="translatedtitle">Fermentative biofuels <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in <span class="hlt">production</span> of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as <span class="hlt">products</span> of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for <span class="hlt">production</span> of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on <span class="hlt">production</span> limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2112699','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2112699"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> lifecycle management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Stark, John</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This third edition updates and adds to the successful second edition and gives the reader a thorough description of PLM, providing them with a full understanding of the theory and the practical skills to implement PLM within their own business environment. This new and expanded edition is fully updated to reflect the many technological and management advances made in PLM since the release of the second edition. Describing the environment in which <span class="hlt">products</span> are developed, manufactured and supported, before addressing the Five Pillars of PLM: business processes, <span class="hlt">product</span> data, PLM applications, Organisational Change Management (OCM) and Project Management, this book explains what <span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management is, and why it’s needed. The final part of the book addresses the PLM timeline, showing the typical steps and activities of a PLM project or initiative. “<span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management” will broaden the reader’s understanding of PLM, nurturing the skills needed to implement PLM successfully and to achi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5673643/','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5673643/"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioactivity in consumer <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)</p> <p>1978-08-01</p> <p>Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various <span class="hlt">products</span> containing radioactive sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________83::3b743fd22715b258fdef3ea5413dbf02','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________83::3b743fd22715b258fdef3ea5413dbf02"><span id="translatedtitle">Innovation and <span class="hlt">productivity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Pierre MOHNEN; Hall, Bronwyn</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper reviews the existing evidence regarding the effects of technological and non-technological innovations on the <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of firms and the existence of possible complementarities between these different forms of innovation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.07802.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.07802.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical Schwinger pair <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Gies, Holger</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We investigate Schwinger pair <span class="hlt">production</span> in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair <span class="hlt">production</span> can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-<span class="hlt">production</span> rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair <span class="hlt">production</span> exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential BKT-type scaling and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=work+AND+motivation+AND+employee&pg=4&id=EJ240933','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=work+AND+motivation+AND+employee&pg=4&id=EJ240933"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing Public Library <span class="hlt">Productivity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Samuelson, Howard</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Suggests ways of improving <span class="hlt">productivity</span> for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/727DC25EA72180FAC325699100412855?OpenDocument&search=1','WWWISTC-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/727DC25EA72180FAC325699100412855?OpenDocument&search=1"><span id="translatedtitle">Boron Materials <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/projectsSearchByKeywords?OpenForm&type=All&lang=Eng">International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Investigation of the <span class="hlt">Production</span> Processes of Highly Pure Boric Acid and Elemental Boron Labeled with Boron-10 or Boron-11 Isotopes and of the Gain in Efficiency of the Boron Isotope Concentrating Process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902010000100012&lang=en','SCIELO-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902010000100012&lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting new <span class="hlt">product</span> sales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>R., Siriram; D.R., Snaddon.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new <span class="hlt">product</span> rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new <span class="hlt">products</span> come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight se [...] lected <span class="hlt">products</span> are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new <span class="hlt">product</span> sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/processed-products-database-system','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/processed-products-database-system"><span id="translatedtitle">Processed <span class="hlt">Products</span> Database System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood <span class="hlt">products</span>. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0163385','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0163385"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring multifactor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana</p> <p></p> <p>-, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor <span class="hlt">productivity</span> growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011025','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011025"><span id="translatedtitle">Land <span class="hlt">Product</span> Validation (LPV)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This presentation will discuss Land <span class="hlt">Product</span> Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/236217481','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/236217481"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Products</span> in fusion systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Henke, Ellen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We revisit the notion of a <span class="hlt">product</span> of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0160593','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0160593"><span id="translatedtitle">Proprietary policy and <span class="hlt">production</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Jeong, Byeongju</p> <p></p> <p>-, ?. 287 (2006), s. 1-14. ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : proprietary regime * direct <span class="hlt">production</span> * model Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp287.pdf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24063602','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24063602"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalogue of URVJT's <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A list of <span class="hlt">products</span> of URVJT (Institute of Radioecology and Application of Nuclear Techniques) in Kosice is given. It includes RIA diagnostic kits, RIA radioindicators, ELISA kits, and OKB diagnostic kits. (Z.S)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/1955-selawik-productivity-report','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/1955-selawik-productivity-report"><span id="translatedtitle">1955 Selawik <span class="hlt">productivity</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Handwritten report on nesting and <span class="hlt">productivity</span> of various waterfowl species dabblers, seabirds, divers, geese. Provides description of early spring breeding...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/264291/files/9406269.pdf','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/264291/files/9406269.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep inelastic electropion <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Calogeracos, A; West, Geoffrey B; Norman Dombey; Geoffrey B West</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This paper is devoted to a study of possible scaling laws, and their logarithmic corrections, occurring in deep inelastic electropion <span class="hlt">production</span>. Both the exclusive and semi-exclusive processes are considered. Scaling laws, originally motivated from PCAC and current algebra considerations are examined, first in the framework of the parton model and QCD peturbation theory and then from the more formal perspective of the operator <span class="hlt">product</span> expansion and asymptotic freedom, (as expressed through the renormalization group). We emphasize that these processes allow scaling to be probed for the full amplitude rather than just its absorbtive part (as is the case in the conventional structure functions). Because of this it is not possible to give a formal derivation of scaling for deep inelastic electropion <span class="hlt">production</span> processes even if one believes that they are unambiguously sensitive to the light cone behavior of the operator <span class="hlt">product</span>. The origin of this is shown to be related to its behavior near x\\approx 0. Investiga...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/osu-chlorophyll-bloom-product','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/osu-chlorophyll-bloom-product"><span id="translatedtitle">OSU Chlorophyll Bloom <span class="hlt">Product</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This <span class="hlt">product</span> was developed for the Oregon coast based on the observed change between running 8-day composite chlorophyll-a (CHL) data obtained by the MODerate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0231764','CZAPUBDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0231764"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimum entropy <span class="hlt">production</span> principle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Maes, C.; Neto?ný, Karel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 8, ?. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677. ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_<span class="hlt">production</span>_principle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/drugs-procedures-devices/over-the-counter/herbal-products-and-supplements.printerview.all.html','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/drugs-procedures-devices/over-the-counter/herbal-products-and-supplements.printerview.all.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Herbal <span class="hlt">Products</span> and Supplements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... doctor. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and the Office of Dietary Supplements are good sources of information about herbal health <span class="hlt">products</span> and supplements. How can ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/current-amp-expired-product-list-c664d','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/current-amp-expired-product-list-c664d"><span id="translatedtitle">Current & Expired <span class="hlt">Product</span> List</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — List of pesticide <span class="hlt">products</span> licensed for distribution and sale in the state of Hawaii, including currently licensed and expired. This list is provided for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18044087','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18044087"><span id="translatedtitle">Model for Centauro <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We discuss briefly some features of the Centauro-type events reported by cosmic ray experiments and present a phenomenological model for their <span class="hlt">production</span>, based on the hypothesis of a QCD phase transition in coherently produced diffractive fireballs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/2046960/files/Poster-2015-505.pdf','WWS-CERN-MULTIMEDIA'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/2046960/files/Poster-2015-505.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Top <span class="hlt">Production</span> at LHCb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/collection/Multimedia%20%26%20Outreach?ln=en">CERN Multimedia</a></p> <p>Santana Rangel, Murilo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Single and pair top <span class="hlt">production</span> in the forward direction at the LHC allows for precision tests of the Standard Model. The observation of top quarks in 7 and 8 TeV data and prospects for precision measurements are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/peanut-product-recalls','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/peanut-product-recalls"><span id="translatedtitle">Peanut <span class="hlt">Product</span> Recalls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut <span class="hlt">products</span> distributed by Peanut Corporation of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9149E..04S','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9149E..04S"><span id="translatedtitle">JWST science data <span class="hlt">products</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Swade, Daryl; Bushouse, Howard; Greene, Gretchen; Swam, Michael</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Science data <span class="hlt">products</span> for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) ©observations will be generated by the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) within the JWST Science and Operations Center (S&OC) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Data processing pipelines within the DMS will produce uncalibrated and calibrated exposure files, as well as higher level data <span class="hlt">products</span> that result from combined exposures, such as mosaic images. Information to support the science observations, for example data from engineering telemetry, proposer inputs, and observation planning will be captured and incorporated into the science data <span class="hlt">products</span>. All files will be generated in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format. The data <span class="hlt">products</span> will be made available through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and adhere to International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) standard data protocols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2015299','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2015299"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> lifecycle management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Stark, John</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This third edition updates and adds to the successful second edition and gives the reader a thorough description of PLM, providing them with a full understanding of the theory and the practical skills to implement PLM within their own business environment. This new and expanded edition is fully updated to reflect the many technological and management advances made in PLM since the release of the second edition. Describing the environment in which <span class="hlt">products</span> are developed, manufactured and supported, before addressing the Five Pillars of PLM: business processes, <span class="hlt">product</span> data, PLM applications, Organisational Change Management (OCM) and Project Management, this book explains what <span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management is, and why it’s needed. The final part of the book addresses the PLM timeline, showing the typical steps and activities of a PLM project or initiative. “<span class="hlt">Product</span> Lifecycle Management” will broaden the reader’s understanding of PLM, nurturing the skills needed to implement PLM successfully and to achi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43058449','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:43058449"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional electricity <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>While France's final energy consumption remained stable between 2000 and 2010, this was not the case for its consumption of electricity, which increased by 13% over 10 years, and by 4.5% over five years. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of electricity is concentrated into a few areas within the national territory, essentially as a result of geographical factors. Due, notably, to the presence of hydro generating, some regions produce a large proportion of the renewable electricity. Viewed at the level of the entire territory, <span class="hlt">production</span> is not linked to local consumption. Some regions have high surpluses whereas others show important deficits, while overall <span class="hlt">production</span> covers, on average, 114% of national needs. However, at the local level, measures by local authorities to control energy consumption and the development of renewables are beginning to show results. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of renewable electricity, not including hydro, has grown greatly over a few years and still has a high potential. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/nsp-production-reports','WWS-DATAGOV'); return false;" href="http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/nsp-production-reports"><span id="translatedtitle">NSP <span class="hlt">Production</span> Reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.data.gov/">Data.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP <span class="hlt">Production</span> Reports contain cumulative data on units assisted with NSP funds. An NSP grantee reports on the accomplishment of an activity when it meets an End...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e87d32aa3f9474e12938112d19556910','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e87d32aa3f9474e12938112d19556910"><span id="translatedtitle">CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF <span class="hlt">PRODUCTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Catalin Mihail BARBU</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this paper I discussed the factors that influence the cultural adaptation ofproducts. Globalization determines the companies to operate abroad;therefore the firms sell their <span class="hlt">products</span> to markets where the consumerpatterns might differ from their national market. It is of high importance to beable to understand and to adapt to local consumer habits. The culture has astrong influence on <span class="hlt">products</span> adaptation in particular, and on internationalmarketing in general. Companies must be able to adap...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2020114','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2020114"><span id="translatedtitle">Clean hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Kumar, Sushant</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This brief covers novel techniques for clean hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> which primarily involve sodium hydroxide as an essential ingredient to the existing major hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> technologies. Interestingly, sodium hydroxide plays different roles and can act as a catalyst, reactant, promoter or even a precursor. The inclusion of sodium hydroxide makes these processes both kinetically and thermodynamically favorable.  In addition possibilities to produce cleaner hydrogen, in terms of carbon emissions, are described. Through modifications of steam methane reformation methods and coal-gasification p</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108090625','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/108090625"><span id="translatedtitle">Conditions for industrial <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing <span class="hlt">production</span> is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing <span class="hlt">production</span> is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37056912','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37056912"><span id="translatedtitle">Charm <span class="hlt">Production</span> at HERA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of charm <span class="hlt">production</span> in ep collisions at a centre of mass energy of ?s = 318 GeV performed by the ZEUS and H1 experiments at HERA are presented. Final states containing D mesons are used to identify charm <span class="hlt">production</span>. Measurements cover both the photoproduction (p), i.e. Q2 ? 0, and deep inelastic scattering (DIS), i.e. large Q2, kinematic regimes. Experimental results are compared to QCD predictions. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/pram/060/04/0841-0850','GOOGLE-IAS-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/describe/article/pram/060/04/0841-0850"><span id="translatedtitle">$J/\\psi$ <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ias.ac.in/">Indian Academy of Sciences (India)</a></p> <p>François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>For more than 25 years $J/\\Psi$ <span class="hlt">production</span> has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of $J/\\Psi$ <span class="hlt">production</span> will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and $J/\\Psi$ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::6600bfbcb01cc6614a26772e609c6d20','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::6600bfbcb01cc6614a26772e609c6d20"><span id="translatedtitle">PURSUING <span class="hlt">PRODUCTIVITY</span> IMPROVEMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>N.H.B. Faull</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><p>ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper examines the results of a concerted effort to move to a more rigorous and scientific basis for managing for improved <span class="hlt">productivity</span>. The point of departure is a question, in the mouth of the chief executive officer of an organization: "How can we improve <span class="hlt">productivity</span>?" The hypothesis is framed in terms of two contextual factors and six specific factors. The contextual factors are: create a questioning or learning culture, and develop a "cause-effect vision"...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2136119','WWSCERN-EN'); return false;" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2136119"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustainable bioenergy <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Wang, Lijun</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Section I Fundamentals of Engineering Analysis and Design of Bioenergy <span class="hlt">Production</span> SystemsGenetic Engineering of Bioenergy Crops toward High Biofuel <span class="hlt">Production</span>Guosheng Xie and Liangcai PengNovel Cropping Technologies and Management Applied to Energy CropsLorenzo BarbantiMathematical Modeling in Biomass and Bioenergy SystemsLijun Wang, Samuel Asomaning Agyemang and Abolghasem ShahbaziLife-Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy SystemsReinout Heijungs and Edi Iswanto WilosoSustainability of Bioenergy Systems<B</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14730573','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14730573"><span id="translatedtitle">Baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> in jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The quark fragmentation into hadrons is modelled, by means of a chain of semi-classical processes; great care being taken of kinematics and quantum numbers. This method reproduces very naturally such properties of jets as multiplicity and scaling and its violations. Baryon <span class="hlt">production</span> is shown to depend on the relative strength of the quark pair generation to the quark recombination into hadrons. Hyperon <span class="hlt">production</span> is evaluated. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______165::d43080a14c1a1c171351f182ffd033f6','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______165::d43080a14c1a1c171351f182ffd033f6"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of concrete <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Lê, Ngoc Dong</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Concrete producers must guarantee the quality of their <span class="hlt">products</span>, which induces a suitable control of the composition of the concrete produced. However, changes in the aggregate water content make the precise dosage of the various constituents difficult. The aim of this work is then to propose methods for the improvement of water dosage consistency, and for the on-line monitoring of workability, in the context of industrial concrete <span class="hlt">production</span>. An original procedure is first proposed to calibr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______258::be42d2afd1e7cbcac3fa37152c5f152a','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______258::be42d2afd1e7cbcac3fa37152c5f152a"><span id="translatedtitle">Kaikaku in <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Yamamoto,Yuji</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In today’s fast-changing and dynamic business environment, the pressures on manufacturing companies to compete on the global arena have been intensified. <span class="hlt">Production</span> is challenged to handle and benefit from ever increasing competitions in terms of cost, delivery capability, and flexibility. In order to gain and sustain the competitive advantage under such circumstances, strong and constant development of <span class="hlt">production</span> must be ensured not only with continuous improvements but also with radical imp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282421069','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2282421069"><span id="translatedtitle">Nordic Noir <span class="hlt">Production</span> Values</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of <span class="hlt">production</span> values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of <span class="hlt">production</span> values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target groups, sales, funding and marketing/branding are as important as aesthetic principles. The Killing and The Bridge are used to illustrate how features such as setting, climate, light and language serve...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::1bd9b5c8423ae637c73edc944e187bdd','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::1bd9b5c8423ae637c73edc944e187bdd"><span id="translatedtitle">Powder detergents <span class="hlt">production</span> plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent <span class="hlt">production</span> plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a <span class="hlt">production</span> plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185938381','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185938381"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing Joint <span class="hlt">Production</span> Motivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint <span class="hlt">production</span> motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint <span class="hlt">production</span> can be m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::918c7f1a93c3ae3977369c8292a7f578','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::918c7f1a93c3ae3977369c8292a7f578"><span id="translatedtitle">Mycotoxins in poultry <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Resanović Radmila M.; NeÅ¡ić Ksenija D.; Nesić Vladimir D.; Palić Todor D.; Jaćević Vesna M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and <span class="hlt">production</span> categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in <span class="hlt">production</span> performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::6e8ac16c6d2b414b357e2adc71442d27','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::6e8ac16c6d2b414b357e2adc71442d27"><span id="translatedtitle">“Buffalo <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Research”</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Alessandro Nardone</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the book “Buffalo <span class="hlt">Production</span> and Research”,edited by Antonio Borghese by FAO Regional Office for Europe,REU Technical Series 67,the state of art of the research,development, <span class="hlt">products</span> and market of buffalo species in the world,is presented.The 14 chapters analyse sin- gle themes of principal problems concerning the breeding,the selection,the reproduction,the feeding,the milk and meat quality,the buffalo’s pathologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::8f2ee89f92dd8dae1811dc7b8c41e97b','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::8f2ee89f92dd8dae1811dc7b8c41e97b"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial <span class="hlt">production</span> of biovanillin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Converti, A.; Aliakbarian, B.; Domínguez, J. M.; G. Bustos Vázquez; P. Perego</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This review aims at providing an overview on the microbial <span class="hlt">production</span> of vanillin, a new alternative method for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of this important flavor of the food industry, which has the potential to become economically competitive in the next future. After a brief description of the applications of vanillin in different industrial sectors and of its physicochemical properties, we described the traditional ways of providing vanillin, specifically extraction and chemical synthesis (mainly oxi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::5b60d8d52daea33003f6a72cd453bfd4','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::5b60d8d52daea33003f6a72cd453bfd4"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial <span class="hlt">Production</span> of Biovanillin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Converti, A.; Aliakbarian, B.; Domínguez, J. M.; G. Bustos Vázquez; P. Perego</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This review aims at providing an overview on the microbial <span class="hlt">production</span> of vanillin, a new alternative method for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of this important flavor of the food industry, which has the potential to become economically competitive in the next future. After a brief description of the applications of vanillin in different industrial sectors and of its physicochemical properties, we described the traditional ways of providing vanillin, specifically extraction and chemical synthesis (mainly oxi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______260::674e147909e85bde786767327a7f546d','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______260::674e147909e85bde786767327a7f546d"><span id="translatedtitle">Turbomachinery in Biofuel <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Görling, Martin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the <span class="hlt">production</span> processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel <span class="hlt">production</span> process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37065167','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37065167"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas reserves, discoveries, <span class="hlt">production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The new 2000-2004 natural gas discoveries have permitted the replacement of existing reserves up to 71%. They are particularly concentrated in the Asia-Oceania area. The Middle-East and the offshore represent an increasing share in the world gas <span class="hlt">production</span>. Non-conventional gas resources are important too but they remain poorly exploited, except in the US where they represent 30% of the domestic gas <span class="hlt">production</span>. (J.S.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Defining+product+service+systems','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Defining+product+service+systems"><span id="translatedtitle">Defining <span class="hlt">product</span> service systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>There are a number of theories that describe the necessary improvements in global environmental performance in order to maintain status quo in our ecosystem [1, 2]. These theories are far reaching in their ambitions, and it is not immediately apparent as to how we should be able to achieve, for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the <span class="hlt">product</span> as an artefact with the service that the <span class="hlt">product</span> provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the <span class="hlt">product</span>. This enables a series of potential improvements to the <span class="hlt">product´s</span> performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of <span class="hlt">product</span> service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer, company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented <span class="hlt">product</span> development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us the design degrees of freedom necessary to create radical innovation. The article draws upon existing <span class="hlt">product</span> development and PSS theory and models and experiences from projects carried out with both industrialists and students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185953898','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185953898"><span id="translatedtitle">Soy <span class="hlt">production</span> and certification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Tomei, Julia; Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Joensen, Lilian; Monti, Mario; Jelsøe, Erling</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock <span class="hlt">production</span>, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification scheme that aims to promote responsible soy <span class="hlt">production</span> through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::db3ba0a4546b1acdd1b65111c5186a6d','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::db3ba0a4546b1acdd1b65111c5186a6d"><span id="translatedtitle">Defining <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Bonjour, Eric; Harmel, Ghassen; Dulmet, Maryvonne</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Identifying <span class="hlt">product</span> architectures is recognized as a critical activity during the preliminary design phase since the selected architecture has a great impact on the <span class="hlt">product</span> quality, on the organization of the following phases of the design project and on the global performance of this project. System architects need methods to pre-determine cohesive modules and integrative elements. In this paper we present a new method to jointly design the functional and physical architectures. Starting fro...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185759478','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2185759478"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Product</span> and Process Modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This book covers the area of <span class="hlt">product</span> and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models. These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern <span class="hlt">product</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2193013807','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2193013807"><span id="translatedtitle">Goat <span class="hlt">production</span> check list</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen; Jensen, Hans Askov; Mandal, Torsen</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat <span class="hlt">production</span>.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat <span class="hlt">production</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::351e5a4b0c0de0c451bb80f1c04bd115','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::351e5a4b0c0de0c451bb80f1c04bd115"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonparametric <span class="hlt">Productivity</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Jeong, Seok-Oh</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>How can we measure and compare the relative performance of <span class="hlt">production</span> units? If input and output variables are one dimensional, then the simplest way is to compute efficiency by calculating and comparing the ratio of output and input for each <span class="hlt">production</span> unit. This idea is inappropriate though, when multiple inputs or multiple outputs are observed. Consider a bank, for example, with three branches A, B, and C. The branches take the number of staff as the input, and measures outputs such as the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/183206653','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/183206653"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing Joint <span class="hlt">Production</span> Motivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint <span class="hlt">production</span> motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint <span class="hlt">production</span> can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::f9ae7aa827649cefc26bf488ecf0f228','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od________18::f9ae7aa827649cefc26bf488ecf0f228"><span id="translatedtitle">Open Beauty <span class="hlt">Production</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Sefkow, Felix</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We review measurements of open beauty <span class="hlt">production</span> at HERA, with emphasis on recent results based on lifetime signatures. The beauty cross sections in photoproduction and deep-inelastic scattering are found to be higher than expected in QCD at next-to-leading order. The discussion includes new results on beauty <span class="hlt">production</span> in e+e-, gamma-gamma and p-bar-p interactions. An outlook on the potential for measurements with the upgraded HERA collider and experiments is also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=988467','ETDEWEB-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=988467"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by bio-ethanol reforming for small-scale fuel cell applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Huuhtanen, M.; Seelam, P. K.; Turpeinen, E., Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: mika.huuhtanen@oulu.fi; Kordas, K. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Electrical and Information Engineering (Finland))</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The depletion of fossil fuels in the future and availability of crude oil are serious concerns around the globe. Moreover, the green house gas (GHG) emissions, which have influence on the climate change and environmental problems on the earth, have to be reduced. In order to have a CO2 neutral energy <span class="hlt">production</span>, renewable energy sources will be one of the solutions to cut-off GHG emissions and to gain energy security. Various biofuels, which can be produced sustainably from renewable raw materials, can be used and they are benign renewable energy carriers. Bio-ethanol as a raw material for H{sub 2} generation is a good alternative because of its <span class="hlt">non-toxicity</span>, high energy density and easy delivery. Bio-ethanol can be produced from biomass like cellulosic materials, e.g. lignin or hemicelluloses, wood residuals, food industry side streams, etc., for example via fermentation. <span class="hlt">Production</span> of bio-ethanol from these resources is in focus in research and the most sustainable way to produce it is studied widely. Bio-ethanol produced from sugar or corn based raw materials are of less interest due to the need of plants suitable for food <span class="hlt">production</span>. The hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> via bio-ethanol reforming for fuel cell applications has attracted significant interest both in academic and industrial research. Bio-ethanol reforming process can be done by three alternative ways as follows: (1) Steam reforming using water (SR) (Endothermic) (2) Dry reforming using CO{sub 2} (DR) (Endothermic) (3) Autothermal steam reforming using partial oxidation (OSR{sub +}POX) (Exothermic). Steam reforming and autothermal reforming are reported to be effective routes for producing hydrogen from ethanol. The catalyst plays a crucial role for the <span class="hlt">production</span> of hydrogen through ethanol reforming. In the present study, several catalytic materials, mainly CNT (carbon nanotube) support based catalysts but also conventional reforming catalysts were tested and reported. In this study, the feasibility of carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalyst materials are investigated in ethanol reforming. Catalysts for the bio-ethanol reformer operating at low temperatures, i.e. below 400 degC, are needed. The research is focused on developing new and sustainable ways to produce hydrogen by ethanol reforming for e.g. small-scale fuel cell systems having electric output power below 10 kW. The technologies will cover low temperature bio-ethanol reforming, study of hydrogen selective membranes for produced gas stream purification as well as the combinations of these two; catalytic membrane reactors to produce pure hydrogen streams suitable for fuel cells. Pd based hydrogen selective catalytic membranes were studied to obtain high hydrogen gas selectivity and purity with good hydrogen permeability. Further, theoretical and experimental research works were done to find and optimise appropriate operating pressures and temperatures for a micro-reactor performance to achieve a good hydrogen gas yield in reforming. CFD will be used as one of the tools when designing an optimal micro reactor structure for reforming. This project is in cooperation with COST Action 543 'Research and Development of Bio-ethanol Processing for Fuel Cells, BIOETHANOL' (2006-2010)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.664e2028M','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.664e2028M"><span id="translatedtitle">Belle II <span class="hlt">production</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “<span class="hlt">production</span> system”. The Belle II <span class="hlt">production</span> system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The <span class="hlt">production</span> system is also utilized for simulated data <span class="hlt">production</span> and data analysis. Although development of the <span class="hlt">production</span> system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data <span class="hlt">production</span>. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33055374','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33055374"><span id="translatedtitle">Bituminized <span class="hlt">products</span> data book</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Low radioactive liquid wastes (LLW) from Tokai Reprocessing Plant were mixed and solidified with bitumen in the Bituminization Demonstration Facility (BDF). In the facility, the treatment operation was started from 1982, and it had been continued until the fire and explosion incident occurred on March 11, 1997. The LLW of 7,438 m3 were processed and the bituminized <span class="hlt">products</span> of 29,967 drums were manufactured in the BDF for about 15 years. The process information of the bituminized <span class="hlt">products</span> is important for fixing the technology indicator of bituminized <span class="hlt">products</span> in the disposal. The bituminized <span class="hlt">products</span> data, that is the inventory of the bitumen quantity, the salt quantity, the radionuclide concentration and so on in the drum, are saved in the main computer of O-arai Engineering Center and the personal computer of the Waste Condition Section. This report summarize the bituminized <span class="hlt">product</span> data in the list. In addition, if you want to know the manufacture review in the BDF, please refer to 'Manufacture Review of the Bituminized <span class="hlt">Products</span> for Research and Development Program'. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11526828','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11526828"><span id="translatedtitle">Particle <span class="hlt">production</span> by neutrinos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A review is given of particle <span class="hlt">production</span> by neutrinos in charged-current inclusive and exclusive channels. The <span class="hlt">production</span> rates for various particles in neutrino-nucleon interactions at a beam energy of 25 GeV are compared. The mesons are, of course, dominated by pion <span class="hlt">production</span>. The p0(760) rate is an order of magnitude smaller. Strange and charm pseudoscalar mesons are a further factor of two down in rate. The strange vector mesons are suppressed by more than an order of magnitude relative to K0 <span class="hlt">production</span>; however, the charmed D*+(2010) is only a factor of two smaller in rate than the D0(1860). With regards to the baryons, most of them are, of course, nucleons. The ?0 and Y*(1385) rates are down by one and two orders of magnitudes, respectively. The lower limit on the charmed ?/sub c/++ baryon rate is similar to the Y*(1385) rate. Finally, the quasielastic and one-pion <span class="hlt">production</span> exclusive channels have about the same cross section as that of the D*+; associated <span class="hlt">production</span> of strange particles in the ?n ? ?-K+? channel and the ?S = +?? process ?p ? ?-pK+ are down by factors of five and twenty, respectively, compared to the quasielastic cross section</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24027652','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24027652"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal <span class="hlt">production</span>, 1991</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Coal <span class="hlt">production</span> in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal <span class="hlt">production</span> that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal <span class="hlt">production</span> in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine <span class="hlt">production</span> occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of <span class="hlt">production</span> was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground <span class="hlt">production</span> was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12609690','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12609690"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Production</span> of uranium dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A continuous, four stage fluidized bed process for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO2) powder suitable for use in the manufacture of fuel pellets for nuclear reactors is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of first reacting UF6 with steam in a first fluidized bed to form solid intermediate reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> UO2F2, U3O8 and off-gas including hydrogen fluoride (HF). The solid intermediate reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> are conveyed to a second fluidized bed reactor in which the mol fraction of HF is controlled at low levels in order to prevent the formation of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). The first intermediate reaction <span class="hlt">products</span> are reacted in the second fluidized bed with steam and hydrogen at 6300C. The second intermediate reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> including uranium dioxide (UO2) is conveyed to a third fluidized bed reactor and reacted with additional steam and hydrogen at 6500C producing a reaction <span class="hlt">product</span> consisting essentially of uranium dioxide having an oxygen-uranium ratio of about 2 and a low residual fluoride content. This <span class="hlt">product</span> is then conveyed to a fourth fluidized bed wherein a mixture of air and preheated nitrogen is introduced in order to futher reduce the fluoride content of the UO2 and increase the oxygen-uranium ratio to about 2.25. (auth)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::1e2c0f1389d7d8654321cc11d0166a28','DRIVER-EN'); return false;" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::1e2c0f1389d7d8654321cc11d0166a28"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic polymorphism in brazilian microcystis spp. (Cyanobacteria) toxic and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> through RFLP-PCR of the cpcBA-IGS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.openaire.eu/search/advanced/publications">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira; Maristela Casé Costa Cunha; Ariadne do Nascimento Moura</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The escalating occurrence of cyanobacterial toxic blooms demands a better understanding of genetic variability as an auxiliary expedient in species identification, collaborating with the monitoring of water destined to public supply. This study aimed at the unraveling of genetic polymorphism in the toxic and nontoxic strains of Microcystis (Cyanobacteria) species, isolated from diverse Brazilian localities through the RFLP-PCR technique applied to the c-phycocyanin encoding operon and its int...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.lenus.ie/hse/handle/10147/121465','LENUS-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.lenus.ie/hse/handle/10147/121465"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> concentrations for biological use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.lenus.ie/hse/">LENUS (Irish Health Repository)</a></p> <p>Prasad, Babu R</p> <p>2010-03-25</p> <p>Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs) have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped) have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours) co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel) were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation) were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to an increased concentration range of the QDs, while the gelatine coating acts as a barrier towards enhanced toxicity at higher QD concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25068491','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25068491"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of blood Cr(III) and adverse health effects: Application of PBPK modeling to determine <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> blood concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Monnot, Andrew D; Christian, Whitney V; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Chromium (Cr) (III) is a trace metal essential to human health and exposure typically occurs via the diet on a daily basis. Some groups of individuals, such as those consuming Cr(III) supplements or patients with Cr-containing implants, may have elevated blood Cr(III) concentrations. Although blood Cr(III) levels are thought to be an accurate metric of exposure, little is known about the relationship between these concentrations and possible adverse health risks. This study evaluated the various effects reported in animal and human epidemiological studies of Cr(III) exposure in an attempt to correlate them with blood Cr(III) concentrations. The target endpoints identified in this analysis included the hematological, hepatic, and renal systems. Animal and human physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were used to estimate steady state blood Cr(III) concentrations from a variety of dosing regimens. Based on the animal studies, our results suggest that blood Cr(III) concentrations as high as 480-580 ?g/L are not associated with any responses. For each of the three health endpoints considered in this analysis (hematological, hepatic, and renal) no adverse effects were observed below 3,700 ?g/L. Some hematological responses were observed at 3,700 ?g/L, and adverse effects clearly occurred at 7,500 ?g/L. These findings can be used to assess potential health risks to individuals with elevated blood Cr(III) concentrations. PMID:25068491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jnanobiotechnology.com/content/8/1/7','DOAJ-ART-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.jnanobiotechnology.com/content/8/1/7"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> concentrations for biological use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Gérard Valérie A</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA capped have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to an increased concentration range of the QDs, while the gelatine coating acts as a barrier towards enhanced toxicity at higher QD concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25397362','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25397362"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Non-toxic</span> plant metabolites regulate Staphylococcus viability and biofilm formation: a natural therapeutic strategy useful in the treatment and prevention of skin infections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Morán, A; Gutiérrez, S; Martínez-Blanco, H; Ferrero, M A; Monteagudo-Mera, A; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, the efficacy of generally recognised as safe (GRAS) antimicrobial plant metabolites in regulating the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis was investigated. Thymol, carvacrol and eugenol showed the strongest antibacterial action against these microorganisms, at a subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of ? 50 ?g ml(-1). Genistein, hydroquinone and resveratrol showed antimicrobial effects but with a wide concentration range (SIC = 50-1,000 ?g ml(-1)), while catechin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and cranberry extract were the most biologically compatible molecules (SIC ? 1000 ?g ml(-1)). Genistein, protocatechuic acid, cranberry extract, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and resveratrol also showed anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus, but not against S. epidermidis in which, surprisingly, these metabolites stimulated biofilm formation (between 35% and 1,200%). Binary combinations of cranberry extract and resveratrol with genistein, protocatechuic or p-hydroxibenzoic acid enhanced the stimulatory effect on S. epidermidis biofilm formation and maintained or even increased S. aureus anti-biofilm activity. PMID:25397362</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26038325','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26038325"><span id="translatedtitle">Extraction and characterization of lignin from oil palm biomass via ionic liquid dissolution and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate precipitation processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Mohtar, S S; Tengku Malim Busu, T N Z; Md Noor, A M; Shaari, N; Yusoff, N A; Bustam Khalil, M A; Abdul Mutalib, M I; Mat, H B</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to extract and characterize lignin from oil palm biomass (OPB) by dissolution in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]), followed by the lignin extraction through the CO2 gas purging prior to addition of aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O). The lignin yield, Y(L) (%wt.) was found to be dependent of the types of OPB observed for all precipitation methods used. The lignin recovery, RL (%wt.) obtained from CO2-AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O precipitation was, however dependent on the types of OPB, which contradicted to that of the acidified H2SO4 and HCl solutions of pH 0.7 and 2 precipitations. Only about 54% of lignin was recovered from the OPB. The FTIR results indicate that the monodispersed lignin was successfully extracted from the OPT, OPF and OPEFB having a molecular weight (MW) of 1331, 1263 and 1473 g/mol, and degradation temperature of 215, 207.5 and 272 °C, respectively. PMID:26038325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160494','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160494"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and characterization of an antibacterial and <span class="hlt">non-toxic</span> dimeric peptide derived from the C-terminal region of Bothropstoxin-I.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Santos-Filho, Norival A; Lorenzon, Esteban N; Ramos, Matheus A S; Santos, Claudia T; Piccoli, Julia P; Bauab, Tais M; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M; Cilli, Eduardo M</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Infectious diseases are among the leading global causes of death, increasing the search for novel antibacterial agents. Among these, biologically active peptides are an excellent research tool. Using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), this work aimed to synthesize the peptide derived from the C-terminal region of Bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I) (p-BthTX-I, sequence: KKYRYHLKPFCKK), and its disulfide-linked dimeric form, obtained via air oxidation (p-BthTX-I)2. Two other peptides were synthesized to evaluate the dimerization effect on antimicrobial activity. In both sequences, the cysteine (Cys) residue was replaced by the serine (Ser) residue, differing, however, in their C-terminus position. The antimicrobial activity of the peptides against gram-negative (Escherichia (E.) coli) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus (S.) aureus) bacteria and yeast (Candida (C.) albicans) was evaluated. Interestingly, only peptides containing the Cys residue showed antimicrobial activity, suggesting the importance of Cys residue and its dimerization for the observed activity. Apparently, p-BthTX-I and (p-BthTX-I)2 did not promote lysis or form pores and were not able to interact with membranes. Furthermore, they neither showed antifungal activity against C. albicans nor toxicity against erythrocytes, epithelial cells, or macrophages, indicating a potential specificity against prokaryotic cells. PMID:26160494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4689457','SCIGOV-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4689457"><span id="translatedtitle">Immucillins ImmA and ImmH Are Effective and <span class="hlt">Non-toxic</span> in the Treatment of Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Nico, Dirlei; Alves-Silva, Marcus Vinícius; Morrot, Alexandre; Clinch, Keith; Evans, Gary B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Schramm, Vern L.; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Immucillins ImmA (IA), ImmH (IH) and SerMe-ImmH (SMIH) are synthetic deazapurine nucleoside analogues that inhibit Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis multiplication in vitro without macrophage toxicity. Immucillins are compared to the Glucantime standard drug in the chemotherapy of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in mice and hamsters. These agents are tested for toxicity and immune system response. Methodology/Principal Findings BALB/c mice were infected with 107 amastigotes, treated with IA, IH, SMIH or Glucantime (2.5mg/kg/day) and monitored for clinical variables, parasite load, antibody levels and splenocyte IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10 expression. Cytokines and CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocyte frequencies were assessed in uninfected controls and in response to immucillins. Urea, creatinine, GOT and GPT levels were monitored in sera. Anti-Leishmania-specific IgG1 antibodies (anti-NH36) increased in untreated animals. IgG2a response, high levels of IFN-?, TNF-? and lower levels of IL-10 were detected in mice treated with the immucillins and Glucantime. Immucillins permitted normal weight gain, prevented hepato-splenomegaly and cleared the parasite infection (85–89%) without renal and hepatic toxicity. Immucillins promoted 35% lower secretion of IFN-? in uninfected controls than in infected mice. IA and IH increased the CD4+ T and CD19+ B cell frequencies. SMIH increased only the proportion of CD-19 B cells. IA and IH also cured infected hamsters with lower toxicity than Glucantime. Conclusions/Significance Immucillins IA, IH and SMIH were effective in treating leishmaniasis in mice. In hamsters, IA and IH were also effective. The highest therapeutic efficacy was obtained with IA, possibly due to its induction of a TH1 immune response. Low immucillin doses were required and showed no toxicity. Our results disclose the potential use of IA and IH in the therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26701750</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2261973476','DEFFRD-EN'); return false;" href="http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2261973476"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Danish venison <span class="hlt">production</span> sustainable?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Saxe, Henrik</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>suggest that red deer <span class="hlt">production</span> is twice as sustainable as beef <span class="hlt">production</span>, while wild boar <span class="hlt">production</span> is half as sustainable as pork <span class="hlt">production</span>. One challenge in the environmental analyses of venison is that hunting typically has other purposes than food <span class="hlt">production</span>. These include the recreational value...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33066830','IAEA-INISDB-EN'); return false;" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33066830"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">production</span> by radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this work, various kinds of catalysts including a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> by gamma rays.The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A combination of EPR and spin-trapping method was also used to detect unstable radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to investigate the effect of catalysts and additives on the efficiency of H2 <span class="hlt">production</span>. A nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) catalyst that showed an excellent activity in the <span class="hlt">production</span> of H2 from water by gamma rays were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes that are main wastes of chemical cleaning wastewater. As a result, among the catalysts examined in this work, a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO2) showed the most efficient H2 <span class="hlt">production</span> and the efficiency increased upon reapplication. This catalyst was also successfully used to produce H2 with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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